Science.gov

Sample records for language learning context

  1. Second Language Learning; Investigating the Classroom Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rosamond

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a number of second-language (L2) classroom-based research projects undertaken at the University of Stirling in Scotland. It is argued that a full understanding of classroom-based L2 learning requires the integration of sociolinguistic studies of the classroom context with psycholinguistic studies of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  2. Language Proficiency, Reading Development, and Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the number of students studying abroad is increasing dramatically. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest among researchers in students' language gains in the study-abroad (SA) context. To deepen our understanding of second language (L2) reading acquisition in different contexts, it is necessary to examine…

  3. Social Context and Resources for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, research in applied linguistics has tended to treat learners in relative isolation from their context, and to study primarily classroom and other educational contexts. This paper in contrast focuses on the contexts which frame learning, and in particular the resources which these contexts provide. A model is outlined which includes…

  4. Context or Key? Language in Four Adult Learning Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Context is a key factor in designing and delivering adult learning programmes, and in multilingual environments the choice of language plays a decisive role. Four programmes, two in Asia (Bhutan Myanmar) and two in Africa (Ghana and Uganda), which focus on learning for development, integrate language considerations in different ways, related both…

  5. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  6. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  7. Learning Context and Its Effects on Second Language Acquisition: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joseph; Freed, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty years ago, Dell Hymes (1972) observed that knowing what goes on outside the school setting is necessary to understanding what goes on inside. He noted further that "the key to understanding language in context is to start not with language but with context ... [and then to] systematically relate the two" (pp. xix-lvii). Recently, the…

  8. What Can We Learn from Good Foreign Language Learners? A Qualitative Study in the Japanese Foreign Language Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a qualitative study conducted in the Japanese foreign language context about good foreign language learners, in which strategy use is analyzed in 67 books reporting on "how I have learned a foreign language." Results suggest that there are strategies especially favored in the Japanese foreign language context and that the issue of some…

  9. Beliefs about Language Learning of Thai Upper Secondary School Students in Different Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apairach, Sirawit; Vibulphol, Jutarat

    2015-01-01

    Beliefs about language learning are considered key for success in language learning. These beliefs can be shaped by contextual factors (Amuzie & Winke, 2009; Dole & Sinatra, 1994; Negueruela-Azarola, 2011). This paper explores the beliefs about language learning of Thai secondary school students in two educational contexts: in the…

  10. Self-Efficacy in Second/Foreign Language Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raoofi, Saeid; Tan, Bee Hoon; Chan, Swee Heng

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the empirical literature of self-efficacy, a central component of social cognitive theory, in the area of second language learning by focusing on two research questions: first, to what extent, has self-efficacy, as a predicting variable, been explored in the field of second language learning? Second, what factors affect…

  11. Literacy through "Language Arts": Teaching and Learning in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon, Ed.; Dudley-Marling, Curt, Ed.

    This book gathers 25 essays and 80 shorter excerpts from the past 25 years of the K-8 journal "Language Arts." Essays in the book begin with (1) "Introduction" (Sharon Murphy and Curt Dudley-Marling). Under Section I--Opening Contexts for Thinking about Teaching the Language Arts--are the following essays: (2) "How…

  12. Sociocultural Context and Language Learning of Native American Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    A study examined the quantity and quality of language produced by kindergarten and early primary Native American pupils in relation to selected factors in the classroom context in which the language was produced. Observations of about 50 classrooms were conducted in schools serving predominantly Native American pupils on and off reservations in…

  13. Usability of English Note-Taking Applications in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo; Brine, John; Murasawa, Fuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The act of note-taking offloads cognitive pressure and note-taking applications could be used as an important tool for foreign language acquisition. Its use, importance, and efficacy in a foreign language learning context could be justifiably debated. However, existing computer-assisted language learning literature is almost silent on the topic.…

  14. Variable Identities in Brussels. The Relationship between Language Learning, Motivation and Identity in a Multilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceuleers, Evy

    2008-01-01

    In Belgium and Brussels, macrocontextual features such as language policy and language legislation have a profound impact on people's language use and on the way languages are learned. In order to explain this impact, the political and economic developments that have determined the current context of learners in Brussels are discussed. Secondly, a…

  15. Distance Learning Class Model for Teaching a Foreign Language in University-Level Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the distance learning class model for a foreign language in university-level education context, and to prove that this class model is effective in cultivating the motivation and interest of university students for learning a foreign language. This distance learning lesson consists of two parts: Online chatting session,…

  16. Context effects on second-language learning of tonal contrasts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charles B; Bowles, Anita R

    2015-12-01

    Studies of lexical tone  learning generally focus on monosyllabic contexts, while reports of phonetic learning benefits associated with input variability are based largely on experienced learners. This study trained inexperienced learners on Mandarin tonal contrasts to test two hypotheses regarding the influence of context and variability on tone  learning. The first hypothesis was that increased phonetic variability of tones in disyllabic contexts makes initial tone  learning more challenging in disyllabic than monosyllabic words. The second hypothesis was that the learnability of a given tone varies across contexts due to differences in tonal variability. Results of a word learning experiment supported both hypotheses: tones were acquired less successfully in disyllables than in monosyllables, and the relative difficulty of disyllables was closely related to contextual tonal variability. These results indicate limited relevance of monosyllable-based data on Mandarin learning for the disyllabic majority of the Mandarin lexicon. Furthermore, in the short term, variability can diminish learning; its effects are not necessarily beneficial but dependent on acquisition stage and other learner characteristics. These findings thus highlight the importance of considering contextual variability and the interaction between variability and type of learner in the design, interpretation, and application of research on phonetic learning.

  17. EXCELL: Experiences in Context for Early Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raack, Catherine B.

    This program focuses on therapeutic principles and methods for prelinguistic and early language learning, with the goals of increased cognitive functions and sensory awareness/interaction, expanded communicative repertoires, and increased caregiver interaction with the child through appropriate stimuli and assignment of communicative intent. The…

  18. Current Challenges in English Language Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Bayar, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current challenges in English language learning and teaching in Turkey from high and low achievers' perspective. The study was qualitative in nature and the participants of the study were twenty-two students attending at various departments of a state university in Turkey. In this study, the…

  19. Redefining Professional Identity: The Voice of a Language Teacher in a Context of Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinho, Ana Sofia; Andrade, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Following a narrative and biographic approach, in this study, we present the case of an in-service language teacher and her professional learning trajectory in the context of the project "Languages and education: constructing and sharing training". This project aimed at the construction of a collaborative teacher education context for…

  20. Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Vocabulary: Context of Learning Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Fang, Shin-Yi; Legault, Jennifer; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly multilingual world, it is important to examine methods that may lead to more efficient second language learning, as well as to analyze the mechanisms by which successful learning occurs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how different learning contexts can impact the learning of Mandarin Chinese as a second…

  1. Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

  2. Supporting English Second-Language Learners in Disadvantaged Contexts: Learning Approaches That Promote Success in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In the Australian context, children living in disadvantaged circumstances, whose second language is English, are one of the groups at risk of failing in mathematics. This paper explores the impact purposely developed learning activities (Representations, Oral Language and Engagement in Mathematics Learning activities) have on pupils' mathematics…

  3. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  4. Learning to construct pushdown automata for accepting deterministic context-free languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sandip; Janakiraman, Janani

    1992-03-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of probabilistic optimization algorithms which utilize ideas from natural genetics. In this paper, we apply the genetic algorithm to a difficult machine learning problem, viz., to learn the description of pushdown automata (PDA) to accept a context-free language (CFL), given legal and illegal sentences of the language. Previous work has involved the use of GAs in learning descriptions for finite state machines for accepting regular languages. CFLs are known to properly include regular languages, and hence, the learning problem addressed here is of a greater complexity. The ability to accept context free languages can be applied to a number of practical problems like text processing, speech recognition, etc.

  5. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  6. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazyura, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other…

  7. Personality Types and Language Learning in an EFL Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Patricia L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationships between the personality types of a group of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students in Indonesia and various measures of their academic performance in a course with EFL language measures. Students were almost evenly divided between extroverts and introverts with a distribution of types similar to those of…

  8. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Considerations in the Colombian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Bonces, Jaisson

    2012-01-01

    The present article seeks to encourage reflection on the characteristics and considerations when implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in a diverse context such as the Colombian one. Initially, the general aspects of an innovative and changing education in a globalized world are presented by stating the need to innovate.…

  9. Language Learning Strategy Use of ESL Students in an Intensive English Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong-Nam, Kyungsim; Leavell, Alexandra G.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the language learning strategy use of 55 ESL students with differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds enrolled in a college Intensive English Program (IEP). The IEP is a language learning institute for pre-admissions university ESL students, and is an important step in developing not only students' basic Interpersonal…

  10. Business Students' Beliefs about Language Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinder, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although the influence of learner beliefs on performance and satisfaction in particular instructional contexts is uncontested, empirical studies have so far concentrated on students in various geographical rather than discipline-specific settings. Starting from the premise that tertiary sector ESP students may have more in common than their choice…

  11. Computer Assisted Language Learning and the Internationalisation of the Portuguese Language in Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla-Pavón, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The internationalisation of the Portuguese language has become a priority for academic institutions of different Portuguese-speaking countries which are trying to adapt to the current context of globalisation and ubiquitous communications through digital media. In order to achieve it, several challenges should be faced, namely providing…

  12. When Technology Speaks Language: An Evaluation of Course Management Systems Used in a Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Sun, Yu-Chih; Chang, Yu-Jung

    2010-01-01

    In light of the growing popularity of the use of computer management systems (CMSs) in higher education today, this study critically evaluates CMS adoption through a content-specific lens. By employing a mixed-method approach, the study examines college teachers' and students' experiences and perceptions of CMS adoption for language learning and…

  13. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  14. A Seamless Learning Design for Mobile Assisted Language Learning: An Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foomani, Elham Mohammadi; Hedayati, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in information communication technology (ICT) have resulted in a paradigm shift in e-Learning and there is a growing interest in developing design-based research (DBR) focusing on learners and their involvement in knowledge sharing in a contextualized mode. The present study reports a mobile-assisted language learning (MALL)…

  15. Learning a Foreign Language in a Natural Acquisition Context without Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    The early stages of second language learning in everyday communication, without formal instruction, are examined. It is proposed that in such a situation, the learner draws on: (1) second language input; (2) innate human capacity for learning languages; and (3) native language knowledge. The linguist's typical approach to investigating language…

  16. Factors Influencing Language-Learning Strategy Use of English Learners in an ESL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Godwyll, Francis

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), version 7.0 (ESL/EFL) developed by Oxford (1990) to examine differences in language-learning strategy use. It focused on how learner factors such as gender, age, nationality, and proficiency level influence the choice of language-learning strategies. The participants were 75…

  17. Acquiring Foreign Language Vocabulary Through Meaningful Linguistic Context: Where is the Limit to Vocabulary Learning?

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Bernardo; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2017-04-01

    The present studies examined the effects of varying degrees of unfamiliar vocabulary within written discourse on individuals' abilities to use linguistic context for the purposes of translation and comprehension (i.e., lexical inferencing). Prose varied in the number of foreign words introduced into each sentence (e.g., 0 through 7 content words per sentence). Furthermore, Krashen's Input Hypothesis and the Evaluation component of the Involvement Load Hypothesis were tested to determine the degree at which non-comprehensible input hinders the ability of a learner to successfully use linguistic context for translation and comprehension. Results indicated that, as the number of foreign words per sentence, i.e., non-comprehensible input, increased the ability to successfully translate foreign words and create situational models for comprehension begins to decrease especially beyond five unfamiliar words per sentence. This result suggests that there is an optimal level of effectiveness in the use of a linguistic context strategy for learning foreign language vocabulary, but also that there is a limit to the strategy's effectiveness. Implications and applications to the field of foreign language learning are discussed.

  18. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Language Listening and Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, T.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported the results of a study that aimed to construct a sensor and handheld augmented reality (AR)-supported ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment called the Handheld English Language Learning Organization (HELLO), which is geared towards enhancing students' language learning. The HELLO integrates sensors, AR, ubiquitous…

  19. A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use in an EFL Context: Monolingual Korean and Bilingual Korean-Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong-Nam, Kyungsim; Leavell, Alexandra G.

    2007-01-01

    Since language is socially mediated and context dependent, it would be expected that learners' use of language learning strategies may vary with the environment. Using the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1990), this study examines the language learning behaviors and thought processes of two geographically and…

  20. "I Live in Tuuk-SON": Rethinking the Contexts of Language Learning along the Mexico-U.S. Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    In language teaching, context is everything. English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers must learn about the worlds in which the students they teach use English. The teachers often inhabit worlds that are very different from the ones students know, because of the ways in which class, race, gender, ethnicity, education, and legal…

  1. Pedagogy, Process, and Classroom Context: Integrating Teacher Voice and Experience into Research on Technology-Enhanced Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy; Huff, Leslie; McNeil, Levi; Preuss, Cara; Sellen, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) literature notes concerns with research in the field, and many of these concerns are similar to those noted for second language acquisition research in general. One fundamental problem is the general failure to address Garrett's (1991) assertion that research must consider classroom context. We believe…

  2. The Impact of Cultural Background on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies in the JFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Language learning strategies have been researched for more than 30 years yet there remain many unanswered questions. Some of these questions relate to the target language being studied, specifically Japanese, and the influence of learner variables on the choice of language learning strategies, specifically cultural background. This study seeks to…

  3. Learning a Minoritized Language in a Majority Language Context: Student Agency and the Creation of Micro-Immersion Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renée

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the self-reported experiences of students participating in a Galician language and culture course. Galician, a language historically spoken in northwestern Spain, has been losing ground with respect to Spanish, particularly in urban areas and among the younger generations. The research specifically focuses on informal…

  4. Toward interactive context-aware affective educational recommendations in computer-assisted language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Language Learning in the Context of the CCSS and the NGSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakuta, Kenji; Santos, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this column, Kenji Hakuta and Mario Santos described the challenges and opportunities the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards present for language development in the context of English language arts/literacy, mathematics, and science. They heightened educators' awareness of the critical role language plays…

  6. Spaces for Learning: Policy and Practice for Indigenous Languages in a Remote Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disbray, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual and Indigenous language and culture programmes have run in remote Australian schools with significant and continuing local support. Developments such as the new national Indigenous languages curriculum offer a further opportunity to broaden and sustain Indigenous language teaching and learning activities in these schools. However, over…

  7. Urban Explorations for Language Learning: A Gamified Approach to Teaching Italian in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charitonos, Koula; Morini, Luca; Arnab, Sylvester; Cervi-Wilson, Tiziana; Brick, Billy

    2016-01-01

    The recent technological developments and widespread use of mobile technologies challenge traditional knowledge and skills, with language learning increasingly taking place beyond the language classroom in learners' own environments. The paper presents the ImparApp study that focuses on a pervasive and gamified approach to language teaching and…

  8. Can Negotiation Provide a Context for Learning Syntax in a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Julian

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates if negotiation can affect syntacticization in the learning of second language (L2) syntax. Evidence from a number of studies has suggested that linguistic modification occurs during negotiation, but no research has examined if such modifications assist the learning of syntax in a second language. This study examined to what…

  9. Learning to Teach Languages: An 18-Month Longitudinal Study of Two New Language Teachers in a New Zealand Primary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers (East, 2007, 2008; Villers, Tolosa & East, 2010) have identified a shortage of language teachers in New Zealand as a main limitation in the enactment of a learning area devoted to the learning of additional languages in the New Zealand curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007). Thus it is important to consider the range of…

  10. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  11. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    PubMed

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  12. Language Learning in Conflictual Contexts: A Study of Turkish Cypriot Adolescents Learning Greek in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tum, Danyal Oztas; Kunt, Naciye; Kunt, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities in Cyprus have been divided for the last five decades. This study investigated whether the recent introduction of Greek language studies in Turkish Cypriot secondary schools affects students' attitudes towards the language, its speakers and culture, and motivation to study the language. Findings…

  13. What Students Think and What They Actually Do in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning Context: New Insights for Self-Directed Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Botero, Gustavo; Questier, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to understand whether Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) could foster students' self-directed learning, this paper analyzes a self-directed learning experience by means of a language app: Duolingo. In this study, higher education language students were encouraged to use Duolingo outside of the classroom. The data collected via…

  14. A View of the Neural Representation of Second Language Syntax through Artificial Language Learning under Implicit Contexts of Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Deng, ZhiZhou; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Faretta- Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wong, Francis C. K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2…

  15. Modern Foreign Language Learning and European Citizenship in the Irish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some of the findings of a study investigating young people's attitudes towards Europe and the European Union and their self-reported learning about European citizenship in Ireland. The paper considers adolescents' attitudes and motivations for language learning in light of recent literature arguing for the role of modern…

  16. Integrating Socio-Cultural Contexts and Location-based Systems for Ubiquitous Language Learning in Museums: A State of the Art Review of 2009-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong-You; Liu, Gi-Zen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Context-dependent learning systems are now becoming more common in museums, as most students are equipped with mobile devices. As there has been little research into context-aware mobile applications in museums, the present study aims to investigate ubiquitous language learning in socio-cultural contexts, as well as recent trends in using…

  17. Defining Opportunity to Learn for English Language Learners: Linguistic and Cultural Dimensions of ELLs' Instructional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Amabisca, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    Past research demonstrates the critical role of the context of learning in the achievement of students. This body of work justifies research and development of more contextualized opportunity to learn (OTL) models. We expound on an OTL framework that represents contextual features that can enrich or constrain opportunities for English language…

  18. Willingness to Communicate and Language Learning Orientations in Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Abdi, Razieh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) inside and outside the classroom and their language learning orientations. Sixty seven intermediate students (36 males and 31 females) who were majoring in English Literature and Translation at University of Isfahan during…

  19. Multimedia Integration for Language e-Learning: Content, Context and the e-Dossier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Villalon, Pedro Pablo; Ortega, Manuel; Sanchez-Villalon, Asuncion

    2010-01-01

    In the education world, it is widely accepted that language learning is one of the pioneering disciplines in the application and use of the information and communication technologies, initially preceded by the widespread use of audiovisual resources which, finally integrated in the digital space, bring about the use of multimedia. Additionally,…

  20. Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manabe-Kim, Rie

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help missionaries…

  1. Sustainability and Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Factors for Success in a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Claire; Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    A team of university Italian teachers at an Australian university has been able to obtain enduring benefits from computer-assisted language learning (CALL), through projects that last, and indeed grow and develop over time. The projects have focused on supporting students in effective use of out-of-class time once they reach an intermediate level…

  2. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  3. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C.; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  4. Implementing Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in an EFL Context: Iranian EFL Teachers' Perspectives on Challenges and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has provided tremendous opportunities for language teachers to promote their computer literacy and adopt a learner-centered approach to teaching. Accordingly, with the rising advent of language learning technologies, language teachers would occupy a fundamental role in preparing and…

  5. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass…

  6. Website Analysis as a Tool for Task-Based Language Learning and Higher Order Thinking in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo

    2014-01-01

    Besides focusing on grammar, writing skills, and web-based language learning, researchers in "CALL" and second language acquisition have also argued for the importance of promoting higher-order thinking skills in ESL (English as Second Language) and EFL (English as Foreign Language) classrooms. There is solid evidence supporting the…

  7. Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

  8. An Investigation into the Impact of Facebook Group Usage on Students' Affect in Language Learning in a Thai Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tananuraksakul, Noparat

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the way in which Facebook Group used as a learning management system can enhance Thai students' effective language learning (positive attitude and motivation) in a private university in the vicinity of Bangkok. These two variables are seen to influence learners' achievement in language learning, and they also interdependently…

  9. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  10. Language Teaching and Its Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The title of this new journal provides opportunity to review the many contexts which need to be taken into account in reflecting upon foreign language teaching. These contexts include the educational, the fact that much language teaching takes place within general educational and often compulsory educational settings and institutions. Learners…

  11. Practice Theory in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

  12. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  13. Learning Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  14. Boosting Vocabulary Learning through Self-Assessment in an English Language Teaching Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duque Micán, Adriana; Cuesta Medina, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of self-assessment of vocabulary competence on a group of students' oral fluency. Twenty-four young adult learners participated in a learning process that promoted their oral skills and vocabulary development. Self-assessment was mainly examined through the analysis of students' learning logs, field notes and…

  15. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  16. From Multilingualism to Plurilingualism: University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning in a Monolingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeoffrion, Christine; Marcouyeux, Aurore; Starkey-Perret, Rebecca; Narcy-Combes, Marie-Françoise; Birkan, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to highlight the representations that university students have about plurilingualism, in order to research how they can develop plurilingual competences in an essentially monolingual French academic setting. It is based on a survey of 684 students enrolled in two foreign language programmes across two year levels (first and fourth…

  17. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  18. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of Extensive Speaking Practice via Voice Blogs in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Educational blogs have drawn the growing interest of researchers and language teachers due to the user-friendly interfaces as well as the powerful archiving features. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of extensive speaking practice on speaking performance in voice blogs, and (2) to examine learners'…

  20. Globalization, Children's Study Abroad, and Transnationalism as an Emerging Context for Language Learning: A New Task for Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Juyoung

    2011-01-01

    Amidst emerging trends in transnational migration via globalization, an increasing number of families have gone abroad to help their school-aged children and youth gain international education credentials and provide them an opportunity to acquire English as a global language as early as possible. This early study abroad before college (ESA) has…

  1. Effect of Academic Major on Students' Use of Language Learning Strategies: A Diary Study in a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui; Liu, Fulan

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here explored how students' use of language learning strategies (LLS) was affected by their academic major. The data were collected by asking students to keep a four-week diary, and then the findings were examined within the model of learning developed by Biggs. An analysis of diary entries showed that, although there were…

  2. Effect of Phonetic Association on Lexis Learning in Natural Language Context: A Comparative Study of English, French and Turkish Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebubekir, Bozavli

    2017-01-01

    Mother tongue acquisition starts with words and grammar acquired spontaneously by means of communication, while at school foreign language learning takes place based on grammar. Vocabulary learning is very often neglected or rather it turns into an individual activity. The present study, which is considered to be unique on its own, is to reveal…

  3. Context, Learning, and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

    2010-01-01

    A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

  4. Practice Makes Best: Contrasting Learning Contexts, Comparing Learner Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Vidal, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Undoubtedly, different learning contexts offer different opportunities for foreign language practice. This article focuses on context effects, and reports on the findings of the "Study Abroad and Language Acquisition" (SALA) project, which has examined in depth the impact of two learning contexts, SA within the European Community Action…

  5. Learning a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Shirley A.

    This paper presents an overview of research literature on second language learning in children. Theories regarding these aspects of second language acquisition are summarized: (1) developmental stages of language acquisition; (2) the role of imitation and practice; (3) differences between oral and written language skills; (4) the ways in which…

  6. Context-Free Languages of Countable Words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ésik, Zoltán; Iván, Szabolcs

    We define context-free grammars with Büchi acceptance condition generating languages of countable words. We establish several closure properties and decidability results for the class of Büchi context-free languages generated by these grammars. We also define context-free grammars with Müller acceptance condition and show that there is a language generated by a grammar with Müller acceptance condition which is not a Büchi context-free language.

  7. LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

  8. A Critical Appraisal of Foreign Language Research in Content and Language Integrated Learning, Young Language Learners, and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Published in Spain (2003-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…

  9. Language Learning Strategies and Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajski, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    Language learning strategies (LLS), here defined as specific actions or mental procedures that assist in fulfilling language learning goals, have attracted increasing attention as one of the factors that impact second language acquisition. A key reason for their appeal is that language learning strategies can be manipulated to an extent that most…

  10. The Learning of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carroll E., Ed.

    Current thinking of specialists in the study of language learning provides the basis of this book. The 12 chapters of the book and their authors are as follows: 1. Introduction--Charles A. Ferguson; 2. The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child--Martin D. S. Braine; 3. Development of Native Language Skills beyond the Early Years--John B.…

  11. Philosophy and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  12. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  13. Contextual Dynamics in Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozaki, Yoko; Ross, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning context has increasingly been postulated to exert an influence on the dynamics of individual differences in language learning. In a longitudinal design that tested the proficiency gains of 1,682 learners over a 2-year foreign language program, a multilevel modeling approach was deployed in this study to account for variation in second…

  14. Ecological View of the Learner-Context Interface for Online Language Learning: A Phenomenological Case Study of Informal Learners of Macedonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belamaric Wilsey, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of informal language learning and self-instruction with online materials have recently come into prominence. However, those studies are predominantly focused on more commonly taught languages and there is a gap in the literature on less commonly taught languages (LCTL), precisely the languages that are often studied outside of formal…

  15. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  16. Grounding statistical learning in context: The effects of learning and retrieval contexts on cross-situational word learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Hsin; Yu, Chen

    2016-09-12

    Natural language environments usually provide structured contexts for learning. This study examined the effects of semantically themed contexts-in both learning and retrieval phases-on statistical word learning. Results from 2 experiments consistently showed that participants had higher performance in semantically themed learning contexts. In contrast, themed retrieval contexts did not affect performance. Our work suggests that word learners are sensitive to statistical regularities not just at the level of individual word-object co-occurrences but also at another level containing a whole network of associations among objects and their properties.

  17. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  18. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment.

  19. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  20. Analysing Language in Context: A Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Theresa; McKinney, Carolyn

    This workbook for students provides an accessible introduction to a range of ways of analyzing language in context. The workbook can be used in a number of ways, for example, as a student reference text to briefly review a particular kind of language analysis or as a course textbook to introduce students to a variety of approaches to language data…

  1. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  2. Promoting ESP language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    The article focuses on the current problem of teaching English for Specific Purposes(ESP) language vocabulary taking into consideration the ways how learners store and recall words and the influence of their mother tongue. Through incidental learning and explicit vocabulary instructions the elaborated vocabulary learning occurs involving the creation of an affective semantic network.

  3. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  4. Autonomy in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Ian, Ed.

    Ten papers from a January 1990 conference in Britain on the meaning and implications of autonomy for school learners of second languages address theoretical and practical issues in independent study, learner-controlled instruction, cooperative learning, teacher-student relationship, learner responsibility, students with learning difficulties, and…

  5. CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY. Foreign Language Program Research Center.

    THE REPORT OF A MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION-SPONSORED CONFERENCE ON CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING (MAY 5-6, 1956) SUMMARIZES THE DISCUSSIONS. THE TOPICS INCLUDE (1) HOW CHILDREN NORMALLY LEARN THEIR MOTHER TONGUE, (2) IMITATION AND ANALYSIS IN THE LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS, (3) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LEARNING OF A FIRST AND A SECOND…

  6. Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

  7. The Use of Technology for Second Language Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes distance learning (DL) for languages within the context of recent advances and research findings in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In addition to reviewing the different DL modalities, theoretical underpinnings, and the most appropriate technological applications to second language learning, the issues of…

  8. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  9. Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

    The selection of papers from the 6th Annual International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning (Urbana, Illinois, April 1992) include: "Discourse Markers Across Language" (Bruce Fraser); "Conjunction and Causality: Pragmatics and the Lexicon" (Yael Ziv); "Situated Discourse: The Sociocultural Context of…

  10. Literacy Education for Low-Educated Second Language Learning Adults in Multilingual Contexts: The Case of Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jinyoung; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of literacy skills in the language(s) of the host country is considered a key element for the successful integration of immigrants. The current paper focuses on possibly one of the most challenging aspects of the issues of linguistic integration of immigrants, i.e., literacy acquisition by "low-literate" adult immigrants in a…

  11. Speaking of Belonging: Learning to Be "Good Citizens" in the Context of Voluntary Language Coaching Projects in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Rhiannon

    2015-01-01

    This article explores citizenship education for adult immigrants through informal language education in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on data collected over thirteen months of ethnographic research among volunteer Dutch language coaches in Amsterdam, the primary methods used in this study were in-depth semi-structured interviews and…

  12. Willingness To Communicate in a Second Language: The Japanese EFL Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yashima, Tomoko

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations among second language learning (L2) and L2 communication variables in the Japanese English as a foreign language context using the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) model and the socioeducational model as a framework. (Author/VWL)

  13. Second Language Learning in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Denny, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews second-language learning literature concerning factors which may affect adult students. Focuses on cognitive mechanisms, cerebral dominance theories, formal operations, motivation, and second-language teaching and learning. Offers suggestions for community college teaching and programs. (DMM)

  14. Intercultural Learning across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasbø, Kristin Beate

    2013-01-01

    International youth work in Europe (i.e. non-formal learning) demands a renewal of the prominent intercultural theory and framework in the youth field in order to cope with contemporary questions concerning pluralism and global challenges. This article provides a new theoretical framework for intercultural learning that departs from a complex,…

  15. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  16. Language Learning Podcasts and Learners' Belief Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaran, Süleyman; Cabaroglu, Nese

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of Internet-based mobile devices in educational contexts means that mobile learning has become a plausible alternative to or a good complement for conventional classroom-based teaching. However, there is a lack of research that explores and defines the characteristics and effects of mobile language learning (LL) through language…

  17. Second Language Teaching & Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The purpose of this volume is to provide a contemporary portrait of second language learning and teaching, to identify major trends and issues, to show where these trends and issues have come from, and to illustrate ways teachers can incorporate these ideas in their own teaching practice. The book is a personal account, tracing the author's…

  18. Learning Languages through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use…

  19. Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience;…

  20. Thinking and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

  1. Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.

    The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…

  2. How Successful Learners Employ Learning Strategies in an EFL Setting in the Indonesian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang; Sukirlan, Muhammad; Mahpul

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted to correlate the use of language learning strategies and language performance and the studies have contributed to different perspectives of teaching and learning a foreign language. Some studies have also revealed that the students learning a foreign language in Asian contexts have been proved to use different…

  3. The Socio-Cultural Context of Operations: Culture and Foreign Language Learning for Company-Grade Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    culture. 3.86 1.08 30. Avoid local taboos and American idioms /gestures. 3.68 1.14 31. Use active listening when interacting with local population or...greetings, phrases in the local language. Use gestures common to local culture. Avoid local taboos and American idioms /gestures. Use active listening

  4. Teachers' Views on Digital Educational Tools in English Language Learning: Benefits and Challenges in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Servet; Aytin, Kübra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear benefits provided by digital educational tools, Turkish teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) are often seen as failing to take advantage of computing technologies in the classroom. Deficiencies in terms of teachers' digital literacies are often faulted for this omission. The majority of studies concerning Turkish EFL…

  5. Learning in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Scott; Moore, Tom

    2009-01-01

    When geometry and career and technical education (CTE) are cotaught in the process of building a house, learning is enhanced, test scores improve, and there's a waiting list of students wanting in. Geometry in Construction is a class instructed by the authors--a CTE teacher (Scott Burke) and a mathematics teacher (Tom Moore). While Moore instructs…

  6. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  7. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): A European Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darn, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This study is designed to provide an insight into current developments in content and language integrated learning in Europe. Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) has become an umbrella term covering a wide variety of approaches to cross-curricular language/content teaching currently taking place in diverse educational contexts.…

  8. Critically Evaluating Prensky in a Language Learning Context: The "Digital Natives/Immigrants Debate" and Its Implications for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benini, Silvia; Murray, Liam

    2013-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since the first introduction of the term "digital natives" in Prensky's (2001a, 2001b) two seminal articles. Prensky argues that students today, having grown up in the Digital Age, learn differently from their predecessors, or "digital immigrants". As such, the pedagogical tools and methods used…

  9. Learning Language through Content: Learning Content through Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    1991-01-01

    A definition and description of elementary school content-based foreign language instruction notes how it promotes natural language learning and higher-order thinking skills, and also addresses curriculum development, language objective definition, and specific applications in mathematics, science, reading and language arts, social studies, and…

  10. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  11. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  12. Technology and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Current technology provides new opportunities to increase the effectiveness of language learning and teaching. Incorporating well-organized and effective technology into second language learning and teaching for improving students' language proficiency has been refined by researchers and educators for many decades. Based on the rapidly changing…

  13. The Complexity of Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

  14. Learner Development in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita L.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

  15. Malaysian Gifted Students' Use of English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…

  16. Skype Me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live…

  17. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  18. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  19. Should Bilingual Children Learn Reading in Two Languages at the Same Time or in Sequence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed second- and third-grade children in two-way "dual-language learning contexts": (a) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (b) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other).…

  20. Critical Language Awareness in Pedagogic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Shamim

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the significance of developing students' critical language awareness through explicit teaching methodology of some procedures of critical discourse analysis. The researcher integrated critical activities into her teaching and students' learning process. The study was planned prudently to discover the…

  1. Social Factors, Interlanguage and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    This paper considers a number of diverse contexts in which English is learned as a second language and in which nonstandard dialects arise because of social and linguistic factors. The varieties considered here are immigrant English, indigenous-minority varieties of English, pidginization and creolization, local varieties of non-native English,…

  2. A Socio-Political View of English Language Teaching in the Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yaying

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the urgent need for research into the socio-political contexts of the teaching and learning of English as a second/foreign language, the predominant paradigm of inquiry into EFL in the Chinese context still focuses on the functional aspects of second language education. In order to provide a critical understanding of the larger context…

  3. An Experiment on Supporting Children's English Vocabulary Learning in Multimedia Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yanqing; Dong, Qi

    2004-01-01

    Learning in context is an important component of second language (L2) vocabulary teaching and learning. However, young children may encounter some difficulties in dealing with the context. Hence learning support should be included to facilitate learning. The present study examined the effects of two types of learning support on Chinese children's…

  4. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2015-01-01

    The mobility of both the device and the learner will determine how mobile learning takes place. Mobile learning offers new educational opportunities that allow for autonomous, personalized and context aware learning. This paper focuses on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. Context-awareness is seen as a particularly…

  5. Authoring of Learning Objects in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Marcus; Kravcik, Milos

    2006-01-01

    Learning objects and content interchange standards provide new possibilities for e-learning. Nevertheless the content often lacks context data to find appropriate use for adaptive learning on demand and personalized learning experiences. In the Remotely Accessible Field Trips (RAFT) project mobile authoring of learning content in context has shown…

  6. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  7. The Nature of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UWM Magazine, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Four behavioral scientists in a colloquium at the University of Wisconsin discussed various aspects of language learning. Concerned primarily with pre-high-school pupils and addressing their remarks to language teachers, the scientists offered these proposals: (1) language teaching is more effective if taught in a natural setting, (2)…

  8. Drama Techniques in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Alan; Duff, Alan

    The drama activities in this teaching guide are designed to develop second language learning skills by constructing situations that require the student to concentrate on the meaning and emotional content of language rather than on its structure. In an attempt to involve the whole personality of the learner in the acquisition of language, the…

  9. Creative Play in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSelms, Carolann

    Creativity is the formulation and expression of an idea which is novel and useful to the creator. It is inherent in the foreign language classroom. Interpretation of experience, or creative play, is a normal part of first language use; with guidance it can be part of the second language learning experience. The effective teacher will consciously…

  10. Pragmatics and Language Learning. Monograph Series Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

    This volume on pragmatics and language learning includes the following: "'Cultural Scripts': A Semantic Approach to Cultural Analysis and Cross-Cultural Communication" (Anna Wierzbicka); "Issues in Second Language Learning in a Multilingual Context" (Ayo Bamgbose); "Cross-Cultural Speech Act Research and the…

  11. Contract Learning as an Approach to Individualizing EFL Education in the Context of Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…

  12. The Role of Students' Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning in Online Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushida, Eiko

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of students' motivation and attitudes in second language (L2) study within an online language course context (LOL). Students' attitudes and motivation were examined within a socioeducational framework (Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993) while learning contexts were examined based on Dorneyi's (1994) components of foreign…

  13. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  14. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  15. A Cross-Curricular Approach to "Learning to Learn" Languages: Government Policy and School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Vee

    2008-01-01

    This article connects two fields of research: "learning to learn" and school-based teacher development. The context is a cross-curricular project between English and modern languages teachers. Carried out in two London schools, the study aimed to encourage students to transfer common language learning strategies across the two subjects. Findings…

  16. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  17. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts…

  18. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  19. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  20. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  1. Second Language Education Context and Home Language Effect: Language Dissimilarities and Variation in Immigrant Students' Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Martins, Margarida Alves; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Heritage language speakers struggle in European classrooms with insufficient material provided for second language (SL) learning and assessment. Considering the amount of instruments and pertinent studies in English SL, immigrant students are better prepared than their peers in Romance language settings. This study investigates how factors such as…

  2. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algee, Lisa M.

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings

  3. Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Karin; Kantelinen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) is often seen as a part of English for Specific Purposes/Language for Specific Purposes (ESP/LSP), which it is not in every case. The diverging characteristics and lines of development that these two branches of ELT have undergone are outlined and contrasted. Then, a discussion of the added value of a…

  4. Bots as Language Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Luke; Carpenter, Rollo

    2006-01-01

    Foreign Language Learning (FLL) students commonly have few opportunities to use their target language. Teachers in FLL situations do their best to create opportunities during classes through pair or group work, but a variety of factors ranging from a lack of time to shyness or limited opportunity for quality feedback hamper this. This paper…

  5. Journal of Celtic Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Laoire, Muiris, Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal is an international review for researchers and teachers of modern Celtic languages. This volume contains seven articles. There are three research articles: "Issues in the Design of Irish Credited Courses" (Thomas W. Ihde); "Learning Irish for Participation in the Irish Language Speech Community outside the…

  6. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning.

  7. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  8. Reconceptualising Learning Programs for Intercultural Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the need to reconceptualise teaching and learning programs for intercultural language learning. The shift is from concepts such as "content" and its "coverage" (intended to address "learner needs and interests") to developing programs focused on meaning making in interaction and on learners as…

  9. Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Obdulia; Peck, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify what other elements besides linguistic deficits could be playing a role in foreign language learning difficulties, the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory was administered to students enrolled in regular and modified Spanish classes at a major U.S. university. Preliminary results gathered as part of a longitudinal study on learning…

  10. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  11. (Re)Conceptualizing Design Approaches for Mobile Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, Debra; Palalas, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study conducted at George Brown College in Toronto, Canada between 2007 and 2009 investigated language learning with mobile devices as an approach to augmenting ESP learning by taking learning outside the classroom into the real-world context. In common with findings at other community colleges, this study identified inadequate…

  12. The Effects of Learning Contexts on Morphosyntactic and Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Context of learning, such as whether a learner studies a second language (L2) in a formal classroom--"at home" or abroad--may be a key factor in developing grammatical and lexical abilities. Yet, little empirical data is available comparing the effects of study abroad (SA) and formal instruction "at home" (AH) experiences on…

  13. Predictors of Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

  14. Language Experience Changes Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual…

  15. Learners' Beliefs about Corrective Feedback in the Language Classroom: Perspectives from Two International Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartchava, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the beliefs college-level students hold about corrective feedback in different learning contexts: English as a second language (Canada, n = 197) and English as a foreign language (Russia, n = 224). The participants completed a 40-item questionnaire that dealt with various aspects of feedback found in the literature. While the…

  16. Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper, "Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica." examines how the narratives of students can offer useful understanding and insights into their attitudes and achievements in second language acquisition. These situations are specific to Creole-speaking learning environments in…

  17. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  18. "Homo Loquens": Language in the Context of Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Margaret E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses language in the context of human development and civilization, examining a limitless field of studies and observations including the absorbent mind, the acquisition of language and grammatical structure, the linguistic capacity for abstract thought, the power of language and world community, the role of language and human uniqueness, and…

  19. Language Learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss language learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson. Starting from a remark by Bakhurst, I hold that both Wittgenstein and Davidson's philosophies of language contain responses to the problem of language learning, albeit of a different form. Following Williams, I hold that the concept of language learning can explain…

  20. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  1. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL) Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Lidya Ayuni

    2013-01-01

    Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the…

  2. Learning a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiste, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Reports on three investigations concerning the acquisition of a third language in bilingual immigrant students in Germany and Sweden. The results suggest that immigrant students who always use Swedish at home but have passive knowledge of their first language clearly perform better in English than do Swedish monolingual students. (SL)

  3. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language…

  4. Reflections on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

    The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

  5. Transfer and Generalizability of Foreign Language Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    learn an artificial language, multilinguals used a wider variety of strategies than monolinguals and appeared better able to switch among strategies...children learn a third language more readily than monolingual children learn a second, and this advantage has been demonstrated on a variety of language...did monolinguals learning English as a second language (Modirkhamene, 2006). Similar findings have been obtained for other aspects of language

  6. Look Who's Talking: Speech Style and Social Context in Language Input to Infants Are Linked to Concurrent and Future Speech Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2014-01-01

    Language input is necessary for language learning, yet little is known about whether, in natural environments, the speech style and social context of language input to children impacts language development. In the present study we investigated the relationship between language input and language development, examining both the style of parental…

  7. Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

  8. Language in the Context of Total Body Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1976-01-01

    This article stresses the need for examining the total context of language, including the biological characteristics of the speaker, and anthropological, psychological, geographic, and socioeconomic factors. (CLK)

  9. Competence Visualisation: Making Sense of Data from 21st-Century Technologies in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Susan; Wasson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an open learner model approach to learning analytics to combine the variety of data available from the range of applications and technologies in language learning, for visualisation of language learning competences to learners and teachers in the European language context. Specific examples are provided as illustrations…

  10. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences.

  11. Materials for Language Learning and Teaching. Anthology Series 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bikram K., Ed.

    Papers from a seminar on instructional materials for second language teaching include the following: "Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?" (Ted Rodgers); "Principles of Communicative Task Design" (David Nunan); "Teaching Spoken English in the Non-Native Context: Considerations for the Materials Writer" (Mary…

  12. Evaluating DLAB as a Predictor of Foreign Language Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    context. Other early indicators might include general cognitive ability (e.g., Wonderlic Personnel Test™), educational attainment, age, prior...might include general cognitive ability (e.g., Wonderlic Personnel Test™), educational attainment, age, prior language learning experience, motivation...Raleigh, NC: Surface, Ward & Associates. SWA Consulting Inc. (2008, November). Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT™) as a Predictor of Language Proficiency

  13. Is the EFL Environment a Language Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Maria del Pilar Garcia; Pica, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether the English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom is an environment that promotes input, feedback, and the production of output that is necessary for successful second language learning is addressed. Such questions have arisen within the context of a growing emphasis on communicative activities and student-to-student…

  14. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  15. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  16. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  17. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  18. Research in Practice: Group Membership and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning--Department of Education and Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance, Concordia University, Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Turuševa, Larisa; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Language learning is inextricably linked to a social context, and this implies that context-related social variables, such as ethnicity or attitudes, can influence how language learning unfolds. Among the many group-engendered social factors, ethnic identity appears to have interesting consequences for language teaching and learning (Pavlenko…

  19. The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading.

    PubMed

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.

  20. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Charles A.

    This is a description of an instructional method called Counseling-Learning or Counselearning, which combines principles of learning theory with counseling attitudes and techniques. This method can be applied to any learning situation, and when applied to second language learning it is called Community Language Learning. The method is predicated…

  1. Micro Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Agency in Local Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    This paper overviews some of the domains of application of micro-level language planning approaches to foster multilingual education. It examines the language planning of local agents and the contexts in which their work contributes to multilingual education, either to expand or limit educational possibilities. It identifies four broad contexts of…

  2. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  3. Language Learning Experiences of Australian French Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Courcy, Michele

    Drawing on a 1993 study of four students in a late French immersion program in Australia and findings from a 1991 study, the report looks at three areas: students' response to the learning context, including its more and less helpful characteristics; the experiences students consider most important for learning the language, including those…

  4. Second Language Learning vs. Pidginization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, William C.; Gilbert, Glenn G.

    This paper examines the differences between second language learning and pidginization to better understand the mechanisms involved in each process. Current research suggests similarities between the two. Both are characterized by reduction and simplification. Grammatical transformations tend to be eliminated, along with inflectional markers of…

  5. Elderly Refugees and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene Guss

    For elderly refugees, coming from a variety of cultural situations and with varied educational backgrounds, transplantation to a new culture is an especially difficult process. There is no research evidence to suggest that older adults can not succeed in learning another language, although more deliberate efforts must be made to achieve this. In…

  6. Effective Motivation in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

    2008-01-01

    This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…

  7. Technological Developments for Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimura, Osamu

    Recent progress in special purpose tape-recording devices for language learning are discussed, and two preliminary experiments in English teaching for Japanese students are reported on. Both programs use an untrained native speaker as an evaluator. One is an oral repetition test-training program of sentences. Problems concerning optimization of…

  8. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  9. Metacognition and Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raoofi, Saeid; Chan, Swee Heng; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Rashid, Sabariah Md

    2014-01-01

    Metacognition appears to be a significant contributor to success in second language (SL) and foreign language (FL) learning. This study seeks to investigate empirical research on the role metacognition plays in language learning by focusing on the following research questions: first, to what extent does metacognition affect SL/FL learning? Second,…

  10. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children.

  11. The role of language in learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, David T.

    Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics

  12. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  13. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    PubMed Central

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  14. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    PubMed Central

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  15. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'.

  16. Implementing the European Language Portfolio in a Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Sinem; Akcan, Sumru

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the way in which the European Language Portfolio (ELP) is used for teaching English as a foreign language to young learners with the aim of enhancing their involvement in the language learning process. The data for the study were collected through observations in a fourth-grade and a fifth-grade classroom (students' ages varied…

  17. Foreign Language Learning Strategy Choice: Naturalistic versus Instructed Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    2007-01-01

    This study explores whether there are differences in the choice of language learning strategy and in the frequency of its use in the concurrent acquisition of two foreign languages, one being learned in a tutored and the other in a non-tutored manner. Specifically, it investigates the tutored learning of English in a formal setting and the…

  18. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  19. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  20. Physicality and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jaeuk; Seedhouse, Paul; Seedhouse, Rob; Kiaer, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    The study draws on the digital technology which allows users to be able to learn both linguistic and non-linguistic skills at the same time. Activity recognition as well as wireless sensor technology, similar to a Nintendo Wii, is embedded or attached to the equipment and ingredients, allowing users to detect and evaluate progress as they carry…

  1. Physics Learning through a Telecommunications Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Physics Phones Home unit which is context-led and developed by the Supported Learning in Physics Projects. Teaches introductory magnetism; electric, magnetic and gravitational fields; and electricity and circular motion. (YDS)

  2. "Professional Contexts for Modern Languages": Work Experience and Academic Reflection in a Multilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Cash, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In the second year module "Professional Contexts for Modern Languages" at Lancaster University, students take 20-25 hour placements, and using a multimodal forum, they articulate their challenges, development and understanding of the varying contexts in which they are working. In summative assessment, students across languages and types…

  3. Fast Modulation of Executive Function by Language Context in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan Jing

    2013-01-01

    Mastering two languages has been associated with enhancement in human executive control, but previous studies of this phenomenon have exclusively relied on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual individuals. In the present study, we tested a single group of Welsh–English bilinguals engaged in a nonverbal conflict resolution task and manipulated language context by intermittently presenting words in Welsh, English, or both languages. Surprisingly, participants showed enhanced executive capacity to resolve interference when exposed to a mixed compared with a single language context, even though they ignored the irrelevant contextual words. This result was supported by greater response accuracy and reduced amplitude of the P300, an electrophysiological correlate of cognitive interference. Our findings introduce a new level of plasticity in bilingual executive control dependent on fast changing language context rather than long-term language experience. PMID:23946411

  4. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  5. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  6. Classroom Tandem--Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Rusk, Fredrik; Björkskog, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues…

  7. VILLAGE--Virtual Immersive Language Learning and Gaming Environment: Immersion and Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi Fei; Petrina, Stephen; Feng, Francis

    2017-01-01

    3D virtual worlds are promising for immersive learning in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Unlike English as a Second Language (ESL), EFL typically takes place in the learners' home countries, and the potential of the language is limited by geography. Although learning contexts where English is spoken is important, in most EFL courses at the…

  8. Social Relations as Contexts for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the importance of understanding the way relations between teachers and children affect the development of learning environments and how classroom interaction may promote or retard learning. Describes how teaching styles depend on cultural contexts and examines successful and unsuccessful classrooms with examples from a variety of school…

  9. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  10. American Indian Languages: Cultural and Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Shirley; Miller, Wick R.

    This book introduces the general reader to the mosaic of American Indian languages and cultures as they exist in time and space, and supplies limited technical linguistic orientation to encourage further exploration of language interrelationships, cultures, and other ways of knowing. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status, diversity, and…

  11. Language, Shyness and Social Contexts: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Language is a gift of special significance to the human species. Whether the source of the generosity is nature or nurture, or some combination, is controversial, but few scientists or laypeople would dispute the evolutionary and practical value of the key mode of communication. From infancy, language is integral to just about everything one does,…

  12. "To Improve Language, You Have to Mix": Teachers' Perceptions of Language Learning in an Overseas Immersion Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon; Corder, Deborah; Stacey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The overseas immersion environment has long been considered a superior context for language learning, supposedly providing unlimited exposure to target language (TL) input and countless opportunities for authentic interaction with expert users. This article focuses on immersion programmes (IPs) for in-service language teachers--a relatively…

  13. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  14. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  15. LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PROCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIANA-PURDUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES AND INTRODUCED BY DIEKHOFF'S SPEECH ADVOCATING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE REVISION OF PROGRAM POLICY TO MEET CONTINUOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. IN THE FIRST SECTION, THE INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, ARE…

  16. Video and Second Language Learning. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Junetta B., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which video has come of age with respect to language learning is the focus of this special issue, which provides information on sources of materials and offers practical ideas for the effective and creative use of those materials in second language instruction. Articles include: "Video and Language Learning: A Medium Comes of Age"…

  17. Web-Based English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarica, Gulcin Nagehan; Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of another language is an advantage and it gives people to look at the world and in particular to the world's cultures with a broader perspective. Learning English as a second language is the process by which students learn it in addition to their native language. Today, internet is an important part of our lives as English. For this…

  18. Beliefs and Emotions in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragao, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    From the argument that in languaging worlds are created (Aragao, 2005; Kalaja, 1995, 2003; Maturana and Varela, 2001; Nunez, 1997), this article aims at reflecting about the relationship between emotions and beliefs in foreign language learning. It is argued that beliefs and emotions in language learning/teaching are inter-related and can be…

  19. Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore

    2001-01-01

    Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…

  20. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  1. Student Modeling and Ab Initio Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of student modeling techniques that have been employed in computer-assisted language learning over the past decade. Describes two systems for learning German: "German Tutor" and "Geroline." Shows how a student model can support computerized adaptive language testing for diagnostic purposes in a Web-based language learning…

  2. New Frontiers in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H., Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    This volume on second language learning contains the following eleven articles: "The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis," by Ronald Wardhaugh, "Students' Errors and the Learning of French as a Second Language," by Magdelhayne F. Buteau, "Error Analysis and Second Language Strategies," by Jack C. Richards, "Induced Errors," by Nancy Stenson, "Global…

  3. Context and Deep Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Tom; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual clarification is essential if we are to establish a stable and deep discipline of technology enhanced learning. The technology is alluring; this can distract from deep design in a surface rush to exploit the affordances of the new technology. We need a basis for design, and a conceptual unit of organization, that are applicable across…

  4. Resurrecting "Old" Language Learning Methods To Reduce Anxiety for New Language Learners: Community Language Learning to the Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    2002-01-01

    Anxiety can impede language learning. By using the Community Language Learning method, a teacher helped young Spanish-language learners in Puerto Rico break through almost impenetrable social and psycholinguistic barriers that threatened their capability of learning a new language. This method focuses on strategies that reduce anxiety as the…

  5. Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence?

    PubMed

    Berens, Melody S; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2013-04-01

    Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed 2(nd) and 3(rd) grade children in two-way dual-language learning contexts: (i) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (ii) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other). They were compared to matched monolingual English-only children in single-language English schools. Bilinguals (home language was Spanish only, English-only, or Spanish and English in dual-language schools), were tested in both languages, and monolingual children were tested in English using standardized reading and language tasks. Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses. By contrast, bilinguals in 90:10 programs performed better than bilinguals in the 50:50 programs on English Phonological Awareness and Reading Decoding tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for surface phonological regularity analysis. Notably, children from English-only homes in dual-language learning contexts performed equally well, or better than, children from monolingual English-only homes in single-language learning contexts. Overall, the findings provide tantalizing evidence that dual-language learning during the same developmental period may provide bilingual reading advantages.

  6. Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence?

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed 2nd and 3rd grade children in two-way dual-language learning contexts: (i) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (ii) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other). They were compared to matched monolingual English-only children in single-language English schools. Bilinguals (home language was Spanish only, English-only, or Spanish and English in dual-language schools), were tested in both languages, and monolingual children were tested in English using standardized reading and language tasks. Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses. By contrast, bilinguals in 90:10 programs performed better than bilinguals in the 50:50 programs on English Phonological Awareness and Reading Decoding tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for surface phonological regularity analysis. Notably, children from English-only homes in dual-language learning contexts performed equally well, or better than, children from monolingual English-only homes in single-language learning contexts. Overall, the findings provide tantalizing evidence that dual-language learning during the same developmental period may provide bilingual reading advantages. PMID:23794952

  7. Flipped Approach to Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Junko

    2013-01-01

    There are abundant possibilities for using smart phones and tablet computers for foreign language learning. However, if there is an emphasis on memorization or on technology, language learners may not develop proficiency in their target language. Therefore, language teachers should be familiar with strategies for facilitating creative…

  8. New Ways to Learn a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Robert A., Jr.

    This text focuses on the nature of language learning in the light of modern linguistic analysis. Common linguistic problems encountered by students of eight major languages are examined--Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, and Russian. The text discusses the nature of language, building new language habits, overcoming…

  9. Gauge of Readiness for Internet-Based Language Learning: An 800 Pound GORILLa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Tylor; Stepanczuk, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on the premise that little attention has been paid to learner preparedness for online language learning. We synthesized research on the broader topic of learner readiness for online learning, and attempt to apply those insights to the language learning context. Based on previous work, the demographic variables gender, student…

  10. Language experience and consonantal context effects on perceptual assimilation of French vowels by American-English learners of French.

    PubMed

    Levy, Erika S

    2009-02-01

    Recent research has called for an examination of perceptual assimilation patterns in second-language speech learning. This study examined the effects of language learning and consonantal context on perceptual assimilation of Parisian French (PF) front rounded vowels /y/ and /oe/ by American English (AE) learners of French. AE listeners differing in their French language experience (no experience, formal instruction, formal-plus-immersion experience) performed an assimilation task involving PF /y, oe, u, o, i, epsilon, a/ in bilabial /rabVp/ and alveolar /radVt/ contexts, presented in phrases. PF front rounded vowels were assimilated overwhelmingly to back AE vowels. For PF /oe/, assimilation patterns differed as a function of language experience and consonantal context. However, PF /y/ revealed no experience effect in alveolar context. In bilabial context, listeners with extensive experience assimilated PF /y/ to (j)u less often than listeners with no or only formal experience, a pattern predicting the poorest /u-y/ discrimination for the most experienced group. An "internal consistency" analysis indicated that responses were most consistent with extensive language experience and in bilabial context. Acoustical analysis revealed that acoustical similarities among PF vowels alone cannot explain context-specific assimilation patterns. Instead it is suggested that native-language allophonic variation influences context-specific perceptual patterns in second-language learning.

  11. Language Teachers: Research and Studies in Language(s) Education, Teaching, and Learning in "Teaching and Teacher Education," 1985-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews twelve of 79 articles focusing on language teachers, language(s) teacher education, teaching, and learning published in "Teaching and Teacher Education" since 1985. The twelve articles, divided into three sections, include narrative inquiry and identity, teacher education topics, and contexts. The articles provide local and…

  12. Semantics of Context-Free Fragments of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The objective of this paper is to combine the viewpoint of model-theoretic semantics and generative grammar, to define semantics for context-free languages, and to apply the results to some fragments of natural language. Following the introduction in the first section, Section 2 describes a simple artificial example to illustrate how a semantic…

  13. The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2011-01-01

    This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

  14. Content-Based Language Teaching: Convergent Concerns across Divergent Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Ballinger, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article serves as the introduction to this special issue of "Language Teaching Research" on content-based language teaching (CBLT). The article first provides an illustrative overview of the myriad contexts in which CBLT has been implemented and then homes in on the five studies comprising the special issue, each conducted in a…

  15. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  16. Weblogs for English Language Learning: Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Juida; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in…

  17. Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Ted

    This discussion of cooperative second language learning describes the approach in terms of response to three questions: WHO? WHAT? and WHY? The first section "WHO: Major Directors and Actors," chronicles the evolution of cooperative learning in general and cooperative language learning in particular, citing some specific methods and the…

  18. Questioning the Stability of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Motivation across Different Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Yeon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether foreign language learner anxiety and motivational goal orientations remained stable across two different classroom contexts: a reading course and a conversation course. The researcher measured anxiety and four types of motivational goal orientations by surveying 59 Korean college students learning English in both…

  19. Issues in Contemporary Spain: A Multimedia Approach to Teaching Language and Culture in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Rosa Alicia

    A method of combining second language learning and cultural education at the advanced level is described. In a third-year college Spanish course, the subject of post-Franco Spain is used as the context for developing reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills and also serves as content area in itself. In addition to instructional texts,…

  20. Communicative Language Teaching: A Practical Scenario in the Context of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser

    2016-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching, popularly known as CLT, has become a newly adopted methodology in the teaching and learning context of Bangladesh. This methodology, since the initiation, has encountered and is still encountering a number of hurdles that need to be dealt with best care and feasible strategy. Of all methods, most of the educational…

  1. Transnationalism and Literacy: Investigating the Mobility of People, Languages, Texts, and Practices in Contexts of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Warriner, Doris S.

    2012-01-01

    This review of research offers a synthesis and analysis of research studies that address issues of language and literacy practices and learning in transnational contexts of migration. We consider how theoretical concepts from transnational migration studies, including particular Boudieusian-inspired concepts such as transnational social field,…

  2. Measuring intention in language learning: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mei-Hsia; Tseng, Wen-Ta

    2011-06-01

    Intention in language learning has not been studied effectively in research on second language (L2) learning. The goal is to fill this gap by designing and testing a measure of L2 learning intention. The scale was differentiated into two distinct but correlated components, goal intention and implementation intention, within the L2 context. The two intention scales were examined for reliability and validity using a series of standard psychometric procedures. A confirmatory factor model was then constructed and tested with a sample of 333 senior high school and college students. The results showed that a modified model had good psychometric characteristics and reasonable fit to the data.

  3. Language Learning Styles and Learning Strategies of Tertiary-Level English Learners in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jie, Li; Xiaoqing, Qin

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between learning styles and language learning strategies in the EFL context in China. The study presents two kinds of data: quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative study, the subjects consisted of 187 second-year undergraduates. Two self-reported inventories, the Chinese version of MBTI-G and a…

  4. Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

  5. Language Alternation and Language Norm in Vocational Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…

  6. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  7. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  8. Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

  9. Language Policy in Multilingual Contexts: Revisiting Ruiz's "Language-as-Resource" Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester J.; Li, Zhuo; Zafar, Aliya M.; Wu, Chiu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we apply Ruiz's language-as-resource orientation to three international settings: Taiwan, Pakistan, and mainland China. Our guiding question was how different languages (indigenous languages, Chinese, and English) were positioned differently as resources in these contexts. For our analysis, we used Lo Bianco's (2001) elaboration…

  10. Supporting Authentic Learning Contexts Beyond Classroom Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Brickell, Gwyn; Harper, Barry

    At the classroom level, contexts for learning are often limited in the experiential component. Teachers and trainers feel overwhelmed by the difficulty of inventing authentic learning contexts, and creating tasks that truly reflect the way knowledge would be used in the real world (Herrington et al. 2004). However, there are growing numbers of examples of how such authentic learning environments are being used in schools, higher education, and professional development in a variety of contexts and discipline areas, such as in literacy education (Ferry et al. 2006), in physical activity fitness and health (Rice et al. 1999), in Indigenous education (Marshall et al. 2001), in evaluation (Agostinho 2006), in multimedia and ICT (Bennett et al. 2001), in literature (Fitzsimmons 2006), and in business writing (Pennell et al. 1997). Teachers and trainers who subscribe to this approach to learning can be very inventive in developing learner perceptions of authentic contexts, but often financial, situational and time constraints limit the experiential elements of authentic learning settings.

  11. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document, comprising volume 5, issues 1-3 of Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), includes the following articles: "Poverty, Race, and Foreign Language Immersion: Predictors of Math and English Language Arts Performance" (Stephen J. Caldas, Nicole Boudreaux); "Meet a…

  12. Does Gender Have an Impact on the Potential Benefits Learners May Achieve in Two Contexts Compared: Formal Instruction and Formal Instruction + Content and Language Integrated Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roquet, Helena; Llopis, Jaume; Pérez-Vidal, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the degree of influence of one individual factor, namely gender, on the level of English competence attained in two different groups of intermediate-level Catalan Spanish adolescent learners of English as a foreign language: the first group (Group A) is 1 year younger and follows formal instruction (FI) and in parallel…

  13. Using Drama for Learning to Foster Positive Attitudes and Increase Motivation: Global Simulation in French Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Joseph E.; Le Blanc, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Drama has been effectively used in many learning contexts including English as a second language classes. However, it has received less attention in foreign/second contexts. This article explores how drama for learning can impact upon the relationships among attitudes, motivation and learning in French second language (FSL) classrooms. The authors…

  14. The Changing Face of Language Learning: Learning beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two important dimensions to successful second language learning: what goes on inside the classroom and what goes on outside of the classroom. While language teaching has always been seen as a preparation for out-of-class uses of language, much of the focus in language teaching in the past has typically been on classroom-based language…

  15. Writing Learning Outcomes for English Language Lessons in Multilingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogic innovation in teacher education by articulating a method for writing learning outcomes for English language lessons in multilingual school contexts. The argument for this approach is founded on curriculum studies; however, the practice also draws specifically on applied psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic…

  16. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  17. Literacy and Language Education: The Quantification of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes international policy contexts of adult literacy and language assessment and the shift toward standardization through measurement tools. It considers the implications the quantification of learning outcomes has for pedagogy and practice and for the social inclusion of transnational migrants.

  18. Addressing Pedagogical Dilemmas in a Constructivist Language Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Educational constructivism has long been associated with advanced pedagogy on the basis that, it champions a learner-centered approach to teaching, advocates learning in meaningful contexts and promotes problem-based activities where learners construct their knowledge through interaction with their peers. Involving language learners in video…

  19. Exploring Content Teachers' Knowledge of Language Pedagogy: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project in a Dutch CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…

  20. Rote Learning and Rule Learning in Foreign-Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, L. K.

    1975-01-01

    The article outlines the need to eliminate rote-learning and pure imitative strategies in second language learning, particularly in the areas of syntax and semantics. Theoretical foundations for this need are discussed, with reference to the coding hypothesis for memory functions in language learning. Results of experimental investigations are…

  1. The Influence of Learning Context and Age on the Use of L2 Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Lidia; Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of foreign language learning context (three-month study-abroad; versus "at-home" instruction) and age (10-11-year-old children versus university students) on the development of effective foreign language communication strategies (CS) in monologue production. Participants (N = 95) were all Spanish/Catalan…

  2. Learning English as an L2 in the Global Context: Changing English, Changing Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew

    2013-01-01

    As the English language has become a global lingua franca today, it is not surprising that changes in attitudes and perceptions towards learning English in the international context have taken place at the same time. In this paper, I critically examine the notion of "integrative motivation" in the literature of second language (L2)…

  3. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  4. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  5. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  6. Visualisation in Applied Learning Contexts: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twissell, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This literature review explores visualisation within the context of learning in design, engineering and technology education. The investigation first defines visualisation, providing examples of activities that utilise visualisation skills within an applied field. Then exploration of the mental mechanisms of visualisation used to engage with those…

  7. Empowering the Language Learner: Language Learning Strategy Training and Self-Regulation in an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how an understanding of the Good Language Learner models described in the SLA literature can be used to tailor and implement a program of learning strategy training and self-regulatory practices in the classroom to empower L2 learners in an EFL context. The paper begins by reviewing the various…

  8. Learner Differences among Children Learning a Foreign Language: Language Anxiety, Strategy Use, and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Ting-Han

    2014-01-01

    This study mainly investigates language anxiety and its relationship to the use of learning strategies and multiple intelligences among young learners in an EFL educational context. The participants were composed of 212 fifth- and sixth-graders from elementary schools in central Taiwan. Findings indicated that most participants generally…

  9. A Closer Look at Blended Learning--Parameters for Designing a Blended Learning Environment for Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeier, Petra

    2005-01-01

    In the course of designing, writing and implementing CALL-supported material, it has become evident to me that a systematic investigation into the factors that shape the Blended Learning (BL) experience in the context of language learning and teaching is missing and urgently needed. The core question when designing a BL environment is: Which…

  10. Language Learners' Characteristics, Target Language Use, and Linguistic Development in a Domestic Immersion Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelli-García, Christina; Lacorte, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Second language acquisition research on the immersion context has focused primarily on study abroad, revealing the extent to which that context promotes learners' developing linguistic and intercultural competence. However, little research has examined linguistic development in intensive, domestic immersion contexts. This study investigated the…

  11. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions.

  12. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ∼ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement ‘I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional’. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  13. An Investigation into the Relationship of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Sign Language Use among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Hungarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontra, Edit H.; Csizer, Kata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to point out the relationship between foreign language learning motivation and sign language use among hearing impaired Hungarians. In the article we concentrate on two main issues: first, to what extent hearing impaired people are motivated to learn foreign languages in a European context; second, to what extent sign…

  14. Application of Criteria-Referenced Assessment and Qualitative Feedback to Develop Foreign Language Speaking Skills in the Context of E-Teaching/Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiene, Nijole; Miciuliene, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Responsive information is one of the factors that determine the quality of higher education. The factor is especially important for eLearning where a direct communication between a lecturer and a student is replaced with a virtual one. How may a qualitative responsive information, in other words feedback (see the definitions of key words), help…

  15. Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…

  16. Speech Analysis and Visual Image: Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Alfred; Chung, C. W.; Lam, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Students will speak a second language with an accent if they learn the language after the age of six. It does not matter how motivated and clever they are, the accent will not go away. Only a few gifted students can speak a second language flawlessly. The exact reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Although a large number of hypotheses have…

  17. Identifying Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…

  18. Language Planning at the Cultural Learning Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Joan

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses language planning activities at the East-West Culture Learning Institute in Hawaii. Activities have been planned to facilitate and orient the use of the language planning approach by practitioners who have increasingly focused on the relation of development and modernization to language, and need to understand how language…

  19. Language Learning Strategies: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca

    This digest discusses second language learning strategies--specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques students used to improve their progress in apprehending, internalizing, and using the second language. The first section discusses characteristics of good language learners. The second section highlights research findings that suggest…

  20. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  1. Assessment of Student Learning in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Catherine B.; And Others

    As part of a series of documents on assessment of student learning in various school curriculum areas, this report describes assessment of student learning in the foreign language classroom in South Carolina. The report begins with an overview of current curriculum goals in foreign language education and the status of assessment practices in this…

  2. Helping Language Learners Think about Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita

    1986-01-01

    Describes the beliefs about how to learn a second language held by 34 adults studying English as a second language and how these beliefs may influence what they do to learn. Describes eight modules designed to help these learners discover their own beliefs and consider alternative views. (SED)

  3. Transform Modern Language Learning through Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2013-01-01

    College professors can transform their modern language classes through mobile devices. Their students' learning becomes more active, more personalized, more contextual, and more culturally authentic as illustrated through the author's modern language mobile learning classroom examples. In addition, their students engage in many diverse types of…

  4. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  5. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  6. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  7. Narrative Research in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Narrative research in language teaching and learning (LTL) is concerned with the stories teachers and learners tell about their lived and imagined experiences. Teachers typically tell about their professional development and their practices, and learners about their experiences of learning and using languages. What stories are, and indeed what…

  8. Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

  9. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  10. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy. PMID:21892359

  11. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-09-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children's language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children's early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy.

  12. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  13. Learning Vocabulary in a Foreign Language: A Computer Software Based Model Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelbay Yilmaz, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at devising a vocabulary learning software that would help learners learn and retain vocabulary items effectively. Foundation linguistics and learning theories have been adapted to the foreign language vocabulary learning context using a computer software named Parole that was designed exclusively for this study. Experimental…

  14. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  15. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations.

  16. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  17. Appropriate Language Assessment in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a small-scale research project in two schools using content and language integrated learning (CLIL), one English and one Austrian, where in both cases there had been considerable misgivings about appropriate forms of assessment to match the different kinds of language skill developed in the CLIL process. Teachers were…

  18. "Facebook" for Informal Language Learning: Perspectives from Tertiary Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Antonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of "Facebook" for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish) completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1) their perceptions of "Facebook" as a multilingual environment, (2) their online writing…

  19. Incidental Language Learning in Foreign Language Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Daryl M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which 40 students enrolled in upper level foreign language literary/cultural studies content courses showed evidence of incidental language learning over the course of a semester. Students completed a cloze passage and provided both writing and speaking samples at the beginning and end of the semester. In…

  20. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  1. Language-Learning Strategies: A Case for Cross-Curricular Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Vee; Grenfell, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the case for collaboration between English and modern languages teachers and researchers in teaching and learning languages. The British context is set out against a background of government initiatives to raise secondary pupils' literacy skills. Salient trends in the teaching approach of English (L1) and modern language (ML)…

  2. Design Principles for Authentic Learning of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozverir, Ildeniz; Herrington, Jan; Osam, Ulker Vanci

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge obtained in higher education through de-contextualised tasks and activities often remains "inert" and learners cannot readily transfer understanding to novel contexts. Nowhere is this more evident than in learning a foreign language. Typical language interaction exercises in class do not mirror real-life language use and such…

  3. Learning Modern Greek: A Comparison of Development and Identification Patterns among Heritage and Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillidou, Lida; Hedgcock, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Although second language (L2) research has explored connections between sociopsychological variables and L2 socialization processes, relatively few investigations have compared heritage language (HL) learners to traditional foreign language (FL) learners in the North American context. This descriptive study compares the learning and acculturation…

  4. How Bilingual Is Bilingual? Mother-Tongue Proficiency and Learning through a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Zeliha; Ilter, Binnur Genc; Glover, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a bilingual context, the mother tongue plays a key role in a child's social and personal development, in education and in second-language learning. There is a complex relationship between these three areas. Support for children receiving education through a second language is often in the form of additional learning opportunities in the second…

  5. Social Positioning, Participation, and Second Language Learning: Talkative Students in an Academic ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye

    2014-01-01

    Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…

  6. The Use of Blogs in Learning English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of English as a foreign language (EFL), using blogs has emerged as a language learning tool. However, how teachers effectively incorporate blogs within the confines of an instructional framework and what the current research shows about using blogs as a learning tool remain unsolved issues. Thus, the current paper presents a…

  7. Language Learning Strategies, Course Grades, and Age in EFL Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Victori, Mia

    2012-01-01

    In studies dealing with language learning strategies in the school context, the variables of proficiency and age are often difficult to isolate since students accumulate more hours of foreign language instruction as they move up from grade to grade. This study aimed to deal with these two variables independently by analysing learning strategy use…

  8. Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Language aptitude has been hypothesized as a factor that can compensate for postcritical period effects in language learning capacity. However, previous research has primarily focused on instructed contexts and rarely on acquisition-rich learning environments where there is a potential for massive amounts of input. In addition, the studies…

  9. "I Am Italian in the World": A Mobile Student's Story of Language Learning and "Ideological Becoming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lou

    2016-01-01

    This article theorises the relationship between language and intercultural learning from a Bakhtinian dialogic perspective, based on the language learning story of Federica, a mobile student in UK higher education (HE). I first outline the context of UK HE and its internationalisation agenda, discussing how research in this field has…

  10. Why Are You Learning a Second Language? Motivational Orientations and Self-Determination Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Clement, Richard; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined self-determination theory (SDT) in the language learning context. Involved the development of a valid and reliable instrument to assess different subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and explored the link between these motivational sub-types and various orientations to language learning. Showed instrumental orientation and the…

  11. Learning in Authentic Earth and Planetary Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergusson, J. A.; Oliver, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    A Virtual Field Trip project has been developed in collaboration with NASA Learning Technologies to allow students, internationally, to accompany scientists on a field trip to the Pilbara region of Western Australia to debate the relevance of ancient structures called stromatolites, to the origins of life on Earth and the search for life on Mars. The project was planned with the aim of exposing high school students to `science in the making', including exposure to the ongoing debate and uncertainties involved in scientific research. The development of the project stemmed from both research-based and anecdotal evidence that current science education programs are not providing secondary students with a good understanding of the processes of science. This study seeks to examine the effectiveness of student use of the tools to increase awareness of the processes of science and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tools in terms of student learning. The literature reports that there is a need for learning activities to be conducted within meaningful contexts. The virtual field trip tools create an environment that simulates key elements in the scientific process. Such an approach allows students to learn by doing, to work like scientists and apply their learning in an authentic context.

  12. Comparing Linear Conjunctive Languages to Subfamilies of the Context-Free Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhotin, Alexander

    Linear conjunctive grammars define the same family of languages as one-way real-time cellular automata (Okhotin, "On the equivalence of linear conjunctive grammars to trellis automata", RAIRO ITA, 2004), and this family is known to be incomparable to the context-free languages (Terrier, "On real-time one-way cellular array", Theoret. Comput. Sci., 1995). This paper investigates subclasses of the context-free languages for possible containment in this class. It is shown that every visibly pushdown automaton (Alur, Madhusudan, "Visibly pushdown languages", STOC 2004) can be simulated by a one-way real-time cellular automaton, but already for LL(1) context-free languages and for one-counter DPDAs no simulation is possible.

  13. Language comprehension dependent on emotional context: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Matani, Ayumu; Fujimaki, Norio; Yagura, Haruko; Nogai, Takeshi; Umehara, Hiroaki; Murata, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    In communication, language can be interpreted differently depending upon the emotional context. To clarify the effect of emotional context on language processing, we performed experiments using a cross-modal priming paradigm with an auditorily presented prime and a visually presented target. The primes were the names of people that were spoken with a happy, sad, or neutral intonation; the targets were interrogative one-word sentences with emotionally neutral content. Using magnetoencephalography, we measured neural activities during silent reading of the targets presented in a happy, sad, or neutral context. We identified two conditional differences: the happy and sad conditions produced less activity than the neutral condition in the right posterior inferior and middle frontal cortices in the latency window from 300 to 400 ms; the happy and neutral conditions produced greater activity than the sad condition in the left posterior inferior frontal cortex in the latency window from 400 to 500 ms. These results suggest that the use of emotional context stored in the right frontal cortex starts at ∼300 ms, that integration of linguistic information with emotional context starts at ∼400 ms in the left frontal cortex, and that language comprehension dependent on emotional context is achieved by ∼500 ms.

  14. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  15. Perceptions of Turkish EFL Students on Online Language Learning Platforms and Blended Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istifci, Ilknur

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of EFL students studying English at the School of Foreign Languages, Anadolu University (AUSFL) on blended language learning and online learning platforms. The participants of the study consisted of 167 students whose English language proficiency level was B2 according to the Common European…

  16. The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

  17. Identifying Affirmative Beliefs about English Language Learning: Self-Perceptions of Thai Learners with Different Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…

  18. Plurilingualism, Language Learning Strategy Use and Learning Style Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki; Kantaridou, Zoe

    2009-01-01

    The present paper investigates the language learning strategy use and learning style preferences of Greek university students in order to find out the possible relations that hold between degrees of plurilingualism, strategy use and learning styles. The subjects were 1555 Greek undergraduates from a number of disciplines, learning foreign…

  19. Mobile Learning: A Powerful Tool for Ubiquitous Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Nelson; Lopes, Sérgio; Araújo, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, e-readers, etc.) have come to be used as tools for mobile learning. Several studies support the integration of such technological devices with learning, particularly with language learning. In this paper, we wish to present an Android app designed for the teaching and learning of Portuguese as a foreign…

  20. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  1. The functions of contexts in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-05-01

    Although contexts play many roles during training and also during testing, over the last four decades theories of learning have predominantly focused on one or the other of the two families of functions served by contexts. In this selective review, we summarize recent data concerning these two functions and their interrelationship. The first function is similar to that of discrete cues, and allows contexts to elicit conditioned responses and compete with discrete events for behavioral control. The second function is modulatory, and similar to that of discrete occasion setters in that in this role contexts do not elicit conditioned responses by themselves, but rather modulate instrumental responding or responding to Pavlovian cues. We first present evidence for these two functions, and then suggest that the spacing of trials, amount of training, and contiguity are three determinants of the degree to which the context will play each function. We also conclude that these two functions are not mutually exclusive, and that future research would benefit from identifying the conditions under which their functions dominate behavioral control. We close by discussing some misconceptions concerning contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con.

  2. The functions of contexts in associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2014-01-01

    Although contexts play many roles during training and also during testing, over the last four decades theories of learning have predominantly focused on one or the other of two families of functions served by contexts. In this selective review, we summarize recent data concerning these two functions and their interrelationship. The first function is similar to that of discrete cues, and allows contexts to elicit conditioned responses and compete with discrete events for behavioral control. The second function is modulatory, and similar to that of discrete occasion setters in that in this role contexts do not elicit conditioned responses by themselves, but rather modulate instrumental responding or responding to Pavlovian cues. We first present evidence for these two functions, and then suggest that the spacing of trials, amount of training, and contiguity are three determinants of the degree to which the context will play each function. We also conclude that these two functions are not mutually exclusive, and that future research would benefit from identifying the conditions under which their functions dominate behavioral control. We close by discussing some misconceptions concerning contexts. PMID:24614400

  3. Word learning in linguistic context: Processing and memory effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Arnold, Alison R

    2016-11-01

    During language acquisition, children exploit syntactic cues within sentences to learn the meanings of words. Yet, it remains unknown how this strategy develops alongside an ability to access cues during real-time language comprehension. This study investigates how on-line sensitivity to syntactic cues impacts off-line interpretation and recall of word meanings. Adults and 5-year-olds heard novel words embedded in sentences that were (1) consistent with an agent-first bias (e.g., "The blicket will be eating the seal"→"the blicket" is an agent), (2) required revision of this bias (e.g., "The blicket will be eaten by the seal"→"the blicket" is a theme), or (3) weakened this bias through a familiar NP1 (e.g., "The seal will be eating/eaten by the blicket"→"the seal" is an agent or theme). Across both ages, eye-movements during sentences revealed decreased sensitivity to syntactic cues in contexts that required syntactic revision. In children, the magnitude of on-line sensitivity was positively associated with the accuracy of learning after the sentence. Parsing challenges during the word-learning task also negatively impacted children's later memory for word meanings during a recall task. Altogether, these results suggest that real-time demands impact word learning, through interpretive failures and memory interference.

  4. Effect of Language Context on Ratings of Shy and Unsociable Behaviors in English Language Learner Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Andrea C.; Rice, Mabel L.; Redmond, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this study was to explore the effect of language context on the socially withdrawn behaviors of school-age-children who are English language learners (ELLs) from middle- to high-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. This is one of the 1st studies to address the frequently confused concepts of shyness and…

  5. Language Attrition and Reactivation in the Context of Bilingual First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of a child raised in the context of bilingual first-language acquisition in English and Bulgarian, where the latter represents a minority (heritage) language. Using diary data and spontaneous speech recordings, the study identifies a period of loss of production in Bulgarian (1;7-2;3) and a subsequent…

  6. Language Acquisition in Foreign Language Contexts and the Differential Benefits of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Jenefer; Tognini, Rita

    2009-01-01

    This paper specifically focuses on the findings of research on interaction in foreign language contexts in which time and L2 input are both limited. Although theoretical work on the relationship between interaction and second language development has placed great emphasis on the benefits of input, feedback and modified output when they arise from…

  7. How Social Contexts Support and Shape Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The human potential for language is based in human biology but makes requirements of the social environment to be realized. This paper reports evidence regarding (1) the nature of those environmental requirements, (2) the ways in which the varied social contexts in which children live meet those requirements, and (3) the effects of environmental…

  8. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  9. Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and practical issues connected with implicit and explicit learning of languages. Explicit learning is knowledge expressed in the form of rules or definitions; implicit knowledge can be inferred to exist because of observed performance but cannot be clearly described. Hypothesizes why explicit learning can lead to implicit…

  10. Exploring Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores young learners' awareness of foreign language learning and of their learning conditions. The participants were 76 Catalan-Spanish children who were learning English at primary school. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected by means of two different interviews that contained questions related to pupils'…

  11. Critical Success Factors in Online Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberth

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of online courses nowadays, it is necessary to ask what defines the success of teaching and learning in these new learning environments exactly. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of factors for successful implementation of online delivery, particularly as far as online language learning is concerned.…

  12. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  13. Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-07-01

    Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Perceiving and Traversing In-Class and Out-of-Class Learning: Accounts from Foreign Language Learners in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Learning takes place across different social contexts, and understanding how learners perceive and traverse different learning contexts enables educators to gain a more comprehensive view of their learning processes and to support their learning better. This study examined how undergraduate foreign language learners perceived their learning…

  15. Learning Grasp Context Distinctions that Generalize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Grupen, Roderic A.; Fagg, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Control-based approaches to grasp synthesis create grasping behavior by sequencing and combining control primitives. In the absence of any other structure, these approaches must evaluate a large number of feasible control sequences as a function of object shape, object pose, and task. This work explores a new approach to grasp synthesis that limits consideration to variations on a generalized localize-reach-grasp control policy. A new learning algorithm, known as schema structured learning, is used to learn which instantiations of the generalized policy are most likely to lead to a successful grasp in different problem contexts. Two experiments are described where Dexter, a bimanual upper torso, learns to select an appropriate grasp strategy as a function of object eccentricity and orientation. In addition, it is shown that grasp skills learned in this way can generalize to new objects. Results are presented showing that after learning how to grasp a small, representative set of objects, the robot's performance quantitatively improves for similar objects that it has not experienced before.

  16. Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

  17. Language Learning: A Worldwide Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Donna; Pufahl, Ingrid U.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous reports and articles have decried the mediocrity of U.S. students' foreign language skills and have called for improved language education. One study that looked at foreign language education in 19 countries suggests several characteristics of successful foreign language programs: starting early, providing an articulated framework,…

  18. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  19. Learner Experiences in Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…

  20. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  1. Research Currents: Children's Language for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas; Genishi, Celia

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent research highlighting both the child's growth as a reflective language user and the school's capacity to enhance or hamper that growth. The research is concerned with the need for children eventually to use language in decontextualized ways, without the supporting context of visible or manipulable objects or actions. (HTH)

  2. The Roles of "Second Life" in a College Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Course in Taiwan, ROC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Various language learning projects using "Second Life" (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning…

  3. Optimal Psycholinguistic Environments for Distance Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Catherine J.; Long, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Defines 10 methodological principles for task-based language learning and illustrates their implementation in the case of foreign language distance learning for less commonly taught languages. (Author/VWL)

  4. Opportunities for Practice and Development: Newly Qualified Teachers and the Use of Information and Communications Technologies in Teaching Foreign Languages in English Secondary School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaouti, Diane; Barton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of newly qualified teachers of foreign languages in English secondary school contexts as they both seek opportunities and develop their abilities to use information and communications technologies (ICT) as a tool to support foreign language learning. A cohort of newly qualified foreign language teachers from the…

  5. Vocabulary Development and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Ruth G.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, through raising their eyes from textbooks and looking at living language as it influences the lives of individual people and the course of human events, can help children preserve their early zest for language. (Author)

  6. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... special educators, psychologist). The SLP will evaluate spoken (speaking and listening) and written (reading and writing) language ... his or her classroom(s). Intervention with spoken language (speaking and listening) can also be designed to support ...

  7. Light in the Tunnel: Language Learning Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Discusses why there has been a decline in the political and educational pressure to learn languages other than English in Australia. Recent political, economic, and educational changes are outlined that encourage the study of European and Asian languages. (Author/CB)

  8. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Michael, Ed.

    This encyclopedia of language teaching and learning is an authoritative handbook dealing with all aspects of this field of study. It has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals, but can also be used as a general reference work for academic studies at a postgraduate level. A comprehensive range of articles on contemporary…

  9. Language-Learning Disorders and Youth Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares-Orama, N.

    2005-01-01

    Many speech-language pathologists are serving delinquent boys with language-learning disorders who are both current and former residents of correctional institutions. These youngsters demonstrate personal maladjustments that have a negative impact on school performance and socialization. Those boys within chaotic families are at risk of poverty,…

  10. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  11. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  12. Language Production Deficits in Learning Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Semel, Eleanor M.

    Evaluated were language production deficits in 32 learning disabled (LD) adolescents. Ss were administered a battery of subtests containing tasks sensitive to language production difficulties in cognition, convergent and divergent production of semantic units, word retrieval, and retrieval of syntactic structures. Results indicated that speech…

  13. Implementing Cooperative Learning for Language Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Myrna D.; Tellez, Kip

    1994-01-01

    Analyzed the relationships between variables affecting the degree to which cooperative learning (CL) was implemented by English-as-a-Second-Language and bilingual teachers. Three sets of variables were investigated: teacher beliefs about acquisition of knowledge, teacher role, and second language instruction; teacher attitudes about cooperative…

  14. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Fox, Roy F.; Almarza, Dario J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have…

  15. Gesture in Modern Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2007-01-01

    For decades there have been linguists who proclaimed the significant role of kinesic expression in carrying the meaning of spoken language (e.g. Efron, 1941; Birdwhistell, 1952; Kendon, 1972). Drawing on such studies, there have also been pioneer studies of gesture in second language learning and use (McNeill, 1992; Gullberg, 1998, 2006), and…

  16. Telecollaboration and Student Mobility for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinginger, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews major findings from qualitative and quantitative research on language learning in student mobility in order to consider how telecollaboration might contribute to the success of student sojourns abroad. Evidence is available to demonstrate the effectiveness of student mobility in every domain of language development. As may be…

  17. Mobile Sign Language Learning Outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad

    2012-01-01

    The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)

  18. Elements of a Theory of Second Language Learning. Foreign Language Studies, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Richard

    This theoretical study of second language learning is divided into eight sections: (1) "Elements of a Theory of Second Language Learning," (2) "Second Language Learning in the Light of Neurophysiological Findings," (3) "Cognitive Strategies in the Second Language Learning Process," (4) "On Accounting for the Role Played by Affective Factors in…

  19. Social Interaction Affects Neural Outcomes of Sign Language Learning As a Foreign Language in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.

  20. FAQs: Learning Languages through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Sarah L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a format of frequently asked questions about teaching foreign languages using drama, this article explores the evolution of this approach, its benefits and drawbacks, and the various theatrical activities that can be used to teach languages. After describing how drama fits into the communicative approach to language teaching, the article…

  1. Language-Learning and Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    The differences between the use speakers make of a language in different areas of a country, or in one social class as opposed to another, are nowadays recognized as essential parts of a description of a language. Progress beyond the elementary stage of language acquisition requires the development of sensitivity to the appropriateness of language…

  2. Language: The Heart of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Barbara, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the OMLTA Journal includes the following papers: "Helping Teacher Teach: A Foreign Language Collaborative in Southeast Ohio" (Barry G. Thomas); "Bilingual and Group Poetry in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Evelyn F. Brod); "So You Want To Be in Pictures: Videotaping in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Connie L. Bowman); "Theatre as…

  3. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  4. Myths about Foreign Language Learning and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…

  5. Technically Speaking: Transforming Language Learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…

  6. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln,…

  7. Language Evolution by Iterated Learning with Bayesian Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Kalish, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Languages are transmitted from person to person and generation to generation via a process of iterated learning: people learn a language from other people who once learned that language themselves. We analyze the consequences of iterated learning for learning algorithms based on the principles of Bayesian inference, assuming that learners compute…

  8. The Language of Language: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Jesse Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The study of language in general and the study of foreign languages in particular have attracted new interest in academic circles during the past decade. The concepts of the "global village" and "cultural diversity" have become commonplace in the jargon of the 1990s. The development of two new courses at Westminster College…

  9. Learner Agency in Language Learning: The Story of a Distance Learner of EFL in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Learner agency plays a key role in self-regulated learning. Yet, there is a paucity of research into its role in the distance learning context. Using reflective narratives written by a distance learner of English in China, this longitudinal case study aims to investigate the ways in which learner agency mediates the language learning in the…

  10. The Relationship between Anxiety, Shyness, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Soleimani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Research has indicated that there is an association between the use and choice of learning strategies and different variables like learning contexts, learner characteristics, learning experiences, language proficiency, and cultural and educational backgrounds. To add to the thriving body of knowledge in this area, the present study, therefore, was…

  11. The Principles of Language-Study. Language and Language Learning [Series], Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Harold E.

    As a reissue of a popular book written in the 1920's on the principles of language study, this work is included in a series of publications devoted to language and language learning. The methodology prescribed centers upon nine fundamental principles: (1) initial preparation, (2) habit forming, (3) accuracy, (4) gradation, (5) proportion, (6)…

  12. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2014-01-01

    Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language.

  13. Language Learning Strategy Use and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…

  14. Crosslinguistic Differences in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.

    2014-01-01

    We report three experiments that explore the effect of prior linguistic knowledge on implicit language learning. Native speakers of English from the United Kingdom and native speakers of Cantonese from Hong Kong participated in experiments that involved different learning materials. In Experiment 1, both participant groups showed evidence of…

  15. Motivation: Its Crucial Role in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finocchiaro, Mary

    The role of motivation in second language learning is explored. Motivation involves positive learner and teacher attitudes which must be sustained through every stage of the learning process. Factors that influence motivation are described, including: teaching methodology, understanding meanings of words, mastery, objectives, classroom techniques,…

  16. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  17. Student Documentaries: A Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamak, Linda Adra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the reasons for project-based learning and how it better motivates students in an EFL classroom. It illustrates this topic by presenting a documentary film project that was carried out in a high-intermediate EFL class in Saudi Arabia. The article summarizes the theoretical support for communicative language learning and…

  18. The Whole World Guide to Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Terry

    An in situ or "on location" approach to language learning is presented for people going abroad for an extended period of time. The approach features two components: (1) the use of a mentor (native speaker who lives in the community and serves as a guide); and (2) the "daily learning cycle" of planning, practicing, communicating face-to-face, and…

  19. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

  20. Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Monographs on pragmatics and language learning include: "Do We All Apologize the Same?--An Empirical Study on the Act of Apologizing by Spanish Speakers Learning English" (Montserrat Mir); "Conversational Openings in Kiswahili: The Pragmatic Performance of Native and Non-Native Speakers" (Alwiya S. Omar); "Experimental and…

  1. ELT Documents: 103-Individualisation in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    Articles on individualization in English language learning, a bibliography and list of selected additions to the English Teaching Information Centre archives (October 1977 - April 1978), and a list of recent publications are presented. An introduction by Elizabeth Smyth and the following articles are included: "Autonomy, Self-Directed Learning and…

  2. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…

  3. Iterated learning and the evolution of language.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Simon; Griffiths, Tom; Smith, Kenny

    2014-10-01

    Iterated learning describes the process whereby an individual learns their behaviour by exposure to another individual's behaviour, who themselves learnt it in the same way. It can be seen as a key mechanism of cultural evolution. We review various methods for understanding how behaviour is shaped by the iterated learning process: computational agent-based simulations; mathematical modelling; and laboratory experiments in humans and non-human animals. We show how this framework has been used to explain the origins of structure in language, and argue that cultural evolution must be considered alongside biological evolution in explanations of language origins.

  4. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, General Language Learning Outcome, and Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the probable relationship between Iranian students' socioeconomic status, general language learning outcome, and their beliefs about language learning. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English for specific courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were…

  5. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  6. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch);…

  7. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 3. These issues contain the following major articles: "A National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL): A Brief History, 1987-1997;""Juguetes Fantasticos" (Mari Haas); "A Perspective on the Cultural…

  8. Mobile Assisted Language Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Daesang; Ruecker, Daniel; Kim, Dong-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of learning with mobile technology for TESOL students and to explore their perceptions of learning with this type of technology. The study provided valuable insights on how students perceive and adapt to learning with mobile technology for effective learning experiences for both students…

  9. Context, Content and Commodities: e-Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about one of the central dilemmas of e-Learning: can we separate content and context, and how should we manage the relationship between the two? Or to put it another way, are Learning Objects just commoditised learning? With the growth of e-Learning over the past few years, learning objects have come into their own. They are the…

  10. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  11. Global Contexts for Learning: Exploring the Relationship between Low-Context Online Learning and High-Context Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Timothy Paul

    2014-01-01

    Current research on culture and distance education suggests that cultural variables influence student success online. When online courses are writing-based, they may provide easy information dissemination; however, the low-context medium may restrict the learning experience and class dynamic due to the lack of nonverbal communication. Students who…

  12. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  13. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  14. Overview of Theories of Language Learning and Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    The field of second language acquisition (SLA) developed from the study of second language teaching, and includes the study of the learning setting, learner variables, the nature of the target language and the learner native language, and the reasons for language learning. Much SLA research to date focuses on one or another of these dimensions…

  15. From Context to Curriculum: A Case Study of Communicative Language Teaching in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Guangyong; Cheng, Liying

    This paper discusses the implementation of communicative language teaching (CLT) methodology within the English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) context in the Peoples' Republic of China. It suggests investigating the context of an English language teaching program first, and then adapting the program to the Chinese context in order to more effectively…

  16. Learning Strategies in Reading and Writing: EAP Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William; Boonkit, Kamonpan

    2004-01-01

    Presently, the importance of culture and context is becoming a significant feature of research in the field of learning strategies. To date, there has been little research into learning strategies utilized for reading and writing in Asian EAP (English for Academic Purposes) contexts, and in particular in the Thai context. With this in mind, this…

  17. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  18. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  19. Language context modulates reading route: an electrical neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Buetler, Karin A.; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The orthographic depth hypothesis (Katz and Feldman, 1983) posits that different reading routes are engaged depending on the type of grapheme/phoneme correspondence of the language being read. Shallow orthographies with consistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor encoding via non-lexical pathways, where each grapheme is sequentially mapped to its corresponding phoneme. In contrast, deep orthographies with inconsistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor lexical pathways, where phonemes are retrieved from specialized memory structures. This hypothesis, however, lacks compelling empirical support. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of orthographic depth on reading route selection using a within-subject design. Method: We presented the same pseudowords (PWs) to highly proficient bilinguals and manipulated the orthographic depth of PW reading by embedding them among two separated German or French language contexts, implicating respectively, shallow or deep orthography. High density electroencephalography was recorded during the task. Results: The topography of the ERPs to identical PWs differed 300–360 ms post-stimulus onset when the PWs were read in different orthographic depth context, indicating distinct brain networks engaged in reading during this time window. The brain sources underlying these topographic effects were located within left inferior frontal (German > French), parietal (French > German) and cingular areas (German > French). Conclusion: Reading in a shallow context favors non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of frontal phonological areas in the shallow versus the deep orthographic context. In contrast, reading PW in a deep orthographic context recruits less routine non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of visuo-attentional parietal areas in the deep versus shallow orthographic context. These collective results support a modulation of reading route by orthographic

  20. The Context-Dependent Meaning of Learning. No. 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    Although both the general public and research scientists intuitively understand the word learning, the meanings they assign to it vary. Nevertheless, there is too much concern about generalizing the meaning, and too little concern about learning context. Learning context is the internal, changing relation between individual and situation; it is…

  1. Recall Improves in Short-Term Memory The More Recall Context Resembles Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Philippe R.

    1972-01-01

    Eight experiments are reported: the first four demonstrate the context effects in short-term-memory (that retrieval from STM improves as the context for learning is made more similar to the context for retrieval), and four more experiments examine the mechanism by which the context effect might operate. (Author/MB)

  2. Language Views on Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar

    2016-01-01

    Social networking has compelled the area of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to expand its research palette and account for new virtual ecologies that afford language learning and socialization. This study focuses on Busuu, a social networking site for language learning (SNSLL), and analyzes the views of language that are enacted through…

  3. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  4. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  5. Using Language Learning Conditions in Mathematics. PEN 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoessiger, Rex

    This pamphlet reports on a project in Tasmania exploring whether the "natural learning conditions" approach to language learning could be adapted for mathematics. The connections between language and mathematics, as well as the natural learning processes of language learning are described in the pamphlet. The project itself is…

  6. Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…

  7. Beyond the Four Walls: Community-Based Learning and Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    At a time when languages in universities are under pressure, community-based learning language courses can have many positive benefits: they can increase interest in language learning, they can foster greater engagement with learning, and they can encourage active learning, creativity and teamwork. These courses, which link the classroom and the…

  8. ICT Use and Perceived Effectiveness in an Adult EFL Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen P.; Tulimirovic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are firmly established in language learning contexts, yet there are still many questions in relation to how widely they are employed and, indeed, how useful they are in developing all aspects of communicative competence. With a cohort of four teachers and one hundred students, this study examines…

  9. Context as Mediator: Teaching Residents' Opportunity and Learning in High-Need Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolman, Joni S.; Roegman, Rachel; Goodwin, A. Lin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory empirical study of teaching residents' opportunities and learning within the overlapping contexts of English as a Second Language (ESL)/special education classrooms and high-need urban schools. Utilizing documentation from the first year of a teacher residency program, our findings illustrate the…

  10. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  11. Flexibility in embodied language processing: context effects in lexical access.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Wessel O; Brazil, Inti A; Bekkering, Harold; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2014-07-01

    According to embodied theories of language (ETLs), word meaning relies on sensorimotor brain areas, generally dedicated to acting and perceiving in the real world. More specifically, words denoting actions are postulated to make use of neural motor areas, while words denoting visual properties draw on the resources of visual brain areas. Therefore, there is a direct correspondence between word meaning and the experience a listener has had with a word's referent on the brain level. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have provided evidence in favor of ETLs; however, recent studies have also shown that sensorimotor information is recruited in a flexible manner during language comprehension (e.g., Raposo et al.; Van Dam et al.,), leaving open the question as to what level of language processing sensorimotor activations contribute. In this study, we investigated the time course of modality-specific contributions (i.e., the contribution of action information) as to word processing by manipulating both (a) the linguistic and (b) the action context in which target words were presented. Our results demonstrate that processes reflecting sensorimotor information play a role early in word processing (i.e., within 200 ms of word presentation), but that they are sensitive to the linguistic context in which a word is presented. In other words, when sensorimotor information is activated, it is activated quickly; however, specific words do not reliably activate a consistent sensorimotor pattern.

  12. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  13. Don Quixote Meets "Ser" and "Estar": Multiple Perspectives on Language Learning in Spanish Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polio, Charlene; Zyzik, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This multiple case study examines language-focused instruction in 3 university Spanish literature classes to examine the students' and instructors' perspectives on language learning in this context. The classes were studied for a semester through observations, instructor interviews and stimulated recalls, and student questionnaires. Among the…

  14. Teacher Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research: Impact on Foreign English-Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…

  15. Why and How Do Distance Learners Use Mobile Devices for Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demouy, Valérie; Jones, Ann; Kan, Qian; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Eardley, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Most of the literature on mobile language learning is located in classroom contexts, and often concerns the use of resources developed by teachers or researchers. However, we also need to understand learner initiated practices, in informal as well as formal settings, where mobile language learners are increasingly using digital resources. In this…

  16. Opinions and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers for the Use of Mobile Phones in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the current use of mobile phones in a foreign language teaching context where English is used as the medium of instruction by prospective teachers. To this end, it presents the views of prospective English teachers on utilizing the mobile phone as an instructional tool for foreign language learning purposes in…

  17. "It Depends on the Students Themselves": Independent Language Learning at an Indonesian State School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There is continuing interest in the notion of learner autonomy, both as an effective means and valid goal of a language learning curriculum. However, the concept is recognised as emanating from Western tertiary educational contexts and as open to question in different sociocultural settings. This paper reports on a study of language learning…

  18. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  19. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  20. Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

  1. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  2. Anxiety About Foreign Language Learning among High School Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganschow, Leonore; Sparks, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anxiety and native-language skill and foreign-language aptitude measures among high school foreign-language learners using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Findings suggest that skill in one's native language may affect aptitude for learning a foreign language and that the FLCAS may provide an…

  3. Towards an Understanding of the Virtual Context in Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Marston, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Much of the literature theorising mobile learning emphasises the importance of context with physical and social contexts identified to date. Our work to design and implement authentic mobile simulation activities using SMS text messaging suggests that a third context may also be important. This is a virtual context, the learner-created cognitive…

  4. Towards New Cultures of Learning: Personal Learning Environments as a Developmental Perspective for Improving Higher Education Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laakkonen, Ilona; Taalas, Peppi

    2015-01-01

    This article provides readers with an understanding of the concept of the personal learning environment (PLE). It suggests that PLEs can be used in two complementary ways: as a developmental lens for integrating ICT and creating new pedagogical practices and digital literacies for academic language learning, and as a context in which learners can…

  5. Context effects on orthographic learning of regular and irregular words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate

    2011-05-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of context on orthographic learning and examined whether there were different effects for novel words given regular and irregular pronunciations. Two experiments were conducted using regular and irregular novel words, respectively. Second-grade children were asked to learn eight novel words either in stories or in a list of words. The results revealed no significant effect of context for the regular items. However, in an orthographic decision task, there was a facilitatory effect of context on irregular novel word learning. The findings support the view that contextual information is important to orthographic learning, but only when the words to be learned contain irregular spelling-sound correspondences.

  6. A Dynamic Ubiquitous Learning Resource Model with Context and Its Effects on Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng Quan; Chiang, Feng Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Most ubiquitous learning researchers use resource recommendation and retrieving based on context to provide contextualized learning resources, but it is the kind of one-way context matching. Learners always obtain fixed digital learning resources, which present all learning contents in any context. This study proposed a dynamic ubiquitous learning…

  7. Language Form, Task-Based Language Teaching, and the Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Rob

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine some of the ideas about task-based language teaching (TBLT) which have emerged over the 17 years of the current editorship of ELTJ, focusing in particular on grammar and vocabulary, and enquiring to what degree these ideas take adequate account of classroom context. Over this period, TBLT scholars have built up a…

  8. On My Mind: Thoughts about Salience, Context and Figurative Language from a Second Language Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kecskes, Istvan

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses three claims of the Graded Salience Hypothesis presented in Rachel Giora's book "On our mind". It is argued that these claims may give second language researchers the chance to revise the way they think about word meaning, the literal meaning-figurative meaning dichotomy and the role of context in language…

  9. Can Blended Learning Aid Foreign Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genís Pedra, Marta; Martín de Lama, Mª Teresa

    2013-01-01

    There has always been a debate around the issue of what it is that improves learning: the instruction itself or the media used for it (Clark 1983; Kozma 1994). It has also been said (Kulik and Kulik 1991; Andrewartha & Wilmot 2001) that computer mediated learning, as opposed to traditional instruction, positively influences the students'…

  10. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning.

    PubMed

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z

    2015-06-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader.

  11. Emotional Mood as a Context for Learning and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Gordon H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In experiments where hypnotized subjects learned one word list while happy or sad, retention proved to be surprisingly independent of the congruence of learning and testing moods. Learning mood provided a helpful retrieval cue and differentiating context only where subjects learned two word lists, one while happy, one while sad. (EJS)

  12. Dyslexia and learning a foreign language: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Simon, C S

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia can expect to have difficulties learning a second language since second language learning builds on native language learning. The factors that have a negative impact on learning one's native language have a similar impact on learning a foreign language (e.g., difficulties with phonemic awareness, retrieving and processing linguistic information, working memory, metalinguistic explanations, stabilizing sound-symbol relationships). This participant observer report provides (1) a brief review of research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language; (2) a description of how dyslexia has affected my educational experiences; (3) a description of personal experiences learning a foreign language between 1992-1998; and (4) recommendations for individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and for their foreign language instructors.

  13. The Exploring Nature of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and Their Relationship with Various Variables with Focus on Personality Traits in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Since Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) have the potential to be "an extremely powerful learning tool" (O'Malley, Chamot, Stewner-Manzanares, Russo & Kupper, 1985a, p.43), the use of LLSs helps the learners retrieve and store material, and facilitate their learning (Grander & Maclntyre, 1992), they are sensitive to the learning context and to…

  14. Learning What to Want: Context-Sensitive Preference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nisheeth; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method for learning relative preferences from histories of choices made, without requiring an intermediate utility computation. Our method infers preferences that are rational in a psychological sense, where agent choices result from Bayesian inference of what to do from observable inputs. We further characterize conditions on choice histories wherein it is appropriate for modelers to describe relative preferences using ordinal utilities, and illustrate the importance of the influence of choice history by explaining all major categories of context effects using them. Our proposal clarifies the relationship between economic and psychological definitions of rationality and rationalizes several behaviors heretofore judged irrational by behavioral economists. PMID:26496645

  15. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  16. Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

  17. A Research on the Generative Learning Model Supported by Context-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Fatma Merve; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on the generative learning model which involves context-based learning. Using the generative learning model, we taught the topic of Halogens. This topic is covered in the grade 10 chemistry curriculum using activities which are designed in accordance with the generative learning model supported by context-based learning. The…

  18. Multimedia for Language Learning: Some Course Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Denise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the design and production of multimedia Danish language materials for classroom or self-access use by learners of Danish as a Second Language and examines issues applicable to other uses of multimedia in language learning. (23 references) (MDM)

  19. Nonverbal learning disability: a tutorial for speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Volden, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a diagnostic category that is unfamiliar to most speech-language pathologists. This brief tutorial describes NLD's characteristics, a theoretical model proposed to explain its source, and areas of overlap between NLD and similar diagnostic categories. The communicative profile, made up of difficulties in pragmatic and semantic language in the presence of relatively preserved syntactic skill, is also discussed. Empirical evidence relevant to NLD is also evaluated. Many questions remain unresolved, but until systematic research provides definitive answers, speech-language pathologists are encouraged to rely on careful description of the individual child's communicative strengths and weaknesses to identify appropriate targets and to focus intervention on improving the child's ability to communicate effectively in everyday contexts.

  20. Investigating Language Learning Strategies of EFL Children for the Development of a Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürsoy, Esim

    2010-01-01

    As a still growing area, Language Learning Strategies (LLS) research needs to expand so that it covers different contexts and age groups. Previous research shows that most of LLS research is conducted in ESL contexts and the majority looked into strategies of adolescents and adults. Consequently, strategy taxonomies as well as the inventories…

  1. Sequential expectations: the role of prediction-based learning in language.

    PubMed

    Misyak, Jennifer B; Christiansen, Morten H; Bruce Tomblin, J

    2010-01-01

    Prediction-based processes appear to play an important role in language. Few studies, however, have sought to test the relationship within individuals between prediction learning and natural language processing. This paper builds upon existing statistical learning work using a novel paradigm for studying the on-line learning of predictive dependencies. Within this paradigm, a new "prediction task" is introduced that provides a sensitive index of individual differences for developing probabilistic sequential expectations. Across three interrelated experiments, the prediction task and results thereof are used to bridge knowledge of the empirical relation between statistical learning and language within the context of nonadjacency processing. We first chart the trajectory for learning nonadjacencies, documenting individual differences in prediction learning. Subsequent simple recurrent network simulations then closely capture human performance patterns in the new paradigm. Finally, individual differences in prediction performances are shown to strongly correlate with participants' sentence processing of complex, long-distance dependencies in natural language.

  2. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  3. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  4. Native language change during early stages of second language learning

    PubMed Central

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The co-activation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as the second language (L2). The present study asked whether L1 change can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how it is modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared to noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. Additionally, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that the L2 affects the L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact the L1 early in the development of L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  5. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  6. Biculturalism through Experiential Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Pamela; Donoghue, Anna Acitelli

    This paper describes the English as a Second Language Program developed for educationally disadvantaged Mexican-American adults as part of the educational offerings of Project Step-Up, an OEO-funded demonstration program in San Diego. Project Step-Up features a multifold methodological approach incorporating techniques from (1) life skills…

  7. Autonomous Language Learning with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) wants English language education to be more communicative. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) need to adapt their instructional practices to meet this goal; however, they may not feel confident enough to teach speaking themselves. Using technology, JTEs have the ability…

  8. Myths about English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    As the ethnic and racial diversity in U.S. classrooms continues to grow, myths about the education of English Language Learners (ELLs) persist, while many teachers feel ill-prepared to meet these students' academic needs. This article focuses on myths shared by in-service science teachers enrolled in a master's program at the University of Texas…

  9. Blending Language Learning with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 10% of American students are identified as "Limited English Proficient" (NCELA 2011). To serve this diverse population of English Language Learners (ELLs), teachers need proven instructional strategies. One prevalent approach is sheltered instruction, defined as "teaching content to English learners in strategic ways that…

  10. Beyond Babel: Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi

    The book and accompanying CD-ROM is designed to assist teachers who want to develop their own materials on the World Wide Web, are interested in integrating interesting Web sites and ideas into their curriculum, or are interested in students' perspectives of the Web. It is also for anyone who wishes to refresh a language or get a feel for a new…

  11. The Relationship between Artificial and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we…

  12. It takes two to talk: a second-person neuroscience approach to language learning.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Anderson, Adam K

    2013-08-01

    Language is a social act. We have previously argued that language remains embedded in sociality because the motivation to communicate exists only within a social context. Schilbach et al. underscore the importance of studying linguistic behavior from within the motivated, socially interactive frame in which it is learnt and used, as well as provide testable hypotheses for a participatory, second-person neuroscience approach to language learning.

  13. Second Life as a Foreign Language Learning Environment: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next…

  14. Content and Language Integrated Learning through an Online Game in Primary School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dourda, Kyriaki; Bratitsis, Tharrenos; Griva, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an educational design proposal is presented which combines two well established teaching approaches, that of Game-based Learning (GBL) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The context of the proposal was the design of an educational geography computer game, utilizing QR Codes and Google Earth for teaching English…

  15. The Use of Help Options in Multimedia Listening Environments to Aid Language Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review on the use of help options (HOs) in the multimedia listening context to aid listening comprehension (LC) and improve incidental vocabulary learning. The paper also aims to synthesize the research findings obtained from the use of HOs in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) literature and reveals the…

  16. Adaptation of the Students' Motivation towards Science Learning (SMTSL) Questionnaire in the Greek Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Vavougios, Denis; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at adapting in the Greek language the Students' Motivation Towards Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire developed by Tuan, Chin, and Shieh ("INT J SCI EDUC" 27(6): 639-654, 2005a) into a different cultural context, a different age group, that is, in university students and with a focus on physics learning. Three…

  17. Creating Contexts for Studying History with Students Learning English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues for using oral history studies to develop language skills and teach social science concepts to limited-English-speaking students. Interviewing family and community members provides students with a familiar context, while translating and transcribing sharpens their language skills. Includes an oral history case study. (MJP)

  18. Language Learning: Its Moral and Civic Remit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The metaphor of education as a conversation that is currently popular is attractive in many respects and it continues to be explored and applied in philosophy of education. This article seeks to consider that aspect of education that involves the literal conversation required to learn other languages. The burden of the argument is that language…

  19. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  20. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  1. Language Learning Strategy Use In Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmais, Wafa Abu

    2003-01-01

    Reports on current English language learning strategies used by Arabic-speaking English-majors enrolled at a University in Palestine. Results showed that gender and proficiency had no significant differences on the use of strategies. Recommends that more training should be given in using cognitive, memory and compensation strategies by embedding…

  2. Games in Language Learning: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…

  3. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  4. Learner Autonomy and Telecollaborative Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2016-01-01

    When I was invited to give one of the keynote talks at the Second International Conference on Telecollaboration in Higher Education, my first thought was that I should decline. It is true that for thirty years I was responsible for Trinity College Dublin's self-access language learning facilities and resources; true also that around the turn of…

  5. Tutorial Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    "Sometimes maligned for its allegedly behaviorist connotations but critical for success in many fields from music to sport to mathematics and language learning, 'practice' is undergoing something of a revival in the applied linguistics literature" (Long & Richards 2007, p. xi). This research timeline provides a systematic overview of…

  6. Foreign Language Learning and the Stutterer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for the alleviation of problems of the stutterer in foreign language learning include: involvement of the stutterer in the lesson; openness about the problem; good listening habits on the part of the teacher and the other students; and the use of techniques like choral speaking, dramatization, and singing. (SW)

  7. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Learning Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wire, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    The number of young people with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) coming into mainstream foreign languages classes is increasing, and this is causing some concern to teachers. Based on her extensive professional experience, Vivienne Wire here considers the implications for teaching and learning of the "triad of impairments" found in…

  8. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  9. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  10. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  11. A WORKBOOK FOR LEARNING PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARQUEZ, ELY J.

    THIS WORKBOOK WAS WRITTEN TO ENABLE PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS LIVING IN THE PHILIPPINES TO ANALYZE AND LEARN THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN IN THEIR REGION. IT WAS ASSUMED THAT THE VOLUNTEER WOULD HAVE SOME TRAINING IN TAGALOG BUT NOT NECESSARILY A KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTIC TERMS OR METHODS. THE AUTHOR ALSO ASSUMES THAT THE VOLUNTEER WILL WORK WITH A NATIVE…

  12. Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

  13. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  14. Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

  15. PROGRAMMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, HARLAN

    THE PROCESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARE EXAMINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, WHICH IS THE BASIS OF PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. DISCUSSION OF FORMAL REPERTOIRES COVERS THE USE OF SUCH CONDITIONING METHODS AS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER, STIMULUS GENERALIZATION, RESPONSE GENERALIZATION, AND…

  16. Language Learning Strategies and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…

  17. Autonomous Language Learning against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualizing learners' individuality as dynamic and contextually situated, this paper reports on an inquiry that examined the genesis of a disabled learner's success in learning foreign languages on the Chinese mainland. Using source texts such as the learner's published diaries, letters and her autobiography, the inquiry revealed that language…

  18. Computers as a Language Learning Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschoff, Bernd

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted language learning project at the University of Wuppertal (West Germany). It's hoped that teachers can overcome the two handicaps of the past--lack of teacher awareness of current audio-visual technical aids, as well as unsophisticated computer hardware--both problems by getting the opportunity to familiarize…

  19. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altan, Mustafa Zulkuf

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs are central constructs in every discipline which deals with human behaviour and learning. In addition to learner beliefs about language learning, language teachers themselves may hold certain beliefs about language learning that will have an impact on their instructional practices and that are likely to influence their students' beliefs…

  20. Teachers' and Students' Beliefs regarding Aspects of Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and dissimilarities between teachers' and students' conceptions of language learning were addressed through a questionnaire survey concerning the nature and methods of language learning. The results indicate points of congruence between teachers' and students' beliefs about language learning in respect of eight main areas.…