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Sample records for language system concept

  1. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  2. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  3. Basic concepts of computerized student-oriented system on language teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivleva, N. V.

    2015-10-01

    This article covers the main concepts of a computerized student- oriented system on language teaching which implies more thorough lesson plan design for students who need a strong language command in their professional area. The system analyses all input characteristics and screens lesson plans tailored to individual students which can be integrated into a language course. The designed course is going to be aimed at meeting students’ needs as soon as practicable.

  4. Language, Name, and Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronowski, J.; Bellugi, Ursula

    1970-01-01

    Summarizes the results of attempts to teach a young chimpanzee to use sign language, and raises questions about the uniqueness of human language. Analyzes language development in children and suggests that humans differ from nonhuman primates in the ability to analyze the environment into parts which can be manipulated in the mind, and that it is…

  5. Language and the origin of numerical concepts.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Rochel; Gallistel, C R

    2004-10-15

    Reports of research with the Pirahã and Mundurukú Amazonian Indians of Brazil lend themselves to discussions of the role of language in the origin of numerical concepts. The research findings indicate that, whether or not humans have an extensive counting list, they share with nonverbal animals a language-independent representation of number, with limited, scale-invariant precision. What causal role, then, does knowledge of the language of counting serve? We consider the strong Whorfian proposal, that of linguistic determinism; the weak Whorfian hypothesis, that language influences how we think; and that the "language of thought" maps to spoken language or symbol systems.

  6. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  7. Concept-Based Foreign Language Pedagogy: Teaching the Chinese Temporal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the effect of a concept-based approach to teaching the Chinese temporal system to English-speaking university learners at the elementary level. The pedagogical framework, Systematic-Theoretical Instruction (STI), adopted in this study was proposed by Piotr Gal'perin and originated from Vygotsky's…

  8. Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

  9. Teaching Language Concepts to Multihandicapped Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasch, Marilyn; Boespflug, Pam

    This brief paper offers suggestions for parents and teachers working together to develop meaningful communication skills in deaf multihandicapped children. An intervention program developed by Jan VanDijk is described. This program involves the use of environmental engineering to teach language concepts with materials such as a calendar box with…

  10. Absorption of language concepts in the machine mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In our approach, the machine mind is the applicative dynamic system represented by its algorithmically evolvable internal language. By other words, the mind and the language of mind are synonyms. Coming out from Shaumyan's semiotic theory of languages, we present the representation of language concepts in the machine mind as a result of our experiment, to show non-redundancy of the language of mind. To provide useful restriction for further research, we also introduce the hypothesis of semantic saturation in Computer-Computer communication, which indicates that a set of machines is not self-evolvable. The goal of our research is to increase the abstraction of Human-Computer and Computer-Computer communication. If we want humans and machines comunicate as a parent with the child, using different symbols and media, we must find the language of mind commonly usable by both machines and humans. In our opinion, there exist a kind of calm language of thinking, which we try to propose for machines in this paper. We separate the layers of a machine mind, we present the structure of the evolved mind and we discuss the selected properties. We are concentrating on the representation of symbolized concepts in the mind, that are languages, not just grammars, since they have meaning.

  11. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  12. Avionics technology - system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Huntoon, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Avionics System Concepts to meet technology needs of advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are identified. Specific avionics system concepts which should be conducted and/or support by NASA to most effectively aid industry in advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are also identified. Candidate Missions and Mission Requirements to meet technology needs are considered.

  13. Concepts linguistiques en didactique des langues (Linguistic Concepts in Language Teaching). Publication L-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo

    Intended for second language teachers and teacher trainees, the guide to linguistic concepts used in second language instruction outlines the applications of basic linguistic concepts to classroom practice and some classroom activities. Chapters address the following topics: (1) the relationship of language and linguistics; (2) human…

  14. Alternatives in Understanding and Educating Attention-Deficit Students: A Systems-Based Whole Language Perspective. NCTE Concept Paper Series. Concept Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance

    The prevailing concept of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a medical one: those exhibiting significant problems in maintaining attention and restraining impulses are said to have a "disorder," which implies some sort of malfunction within the individual. What is needed is a "both/and" perspective: a perspective that…

  15. Mediating between Scientific and Spontaneous Concepts through Languaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon; Knouzi, Ibtissem

    2010-01-01

    In this study, framed within a sociocultural theory of mind, we explore the role of languaging in mediating between students' understanding of a grammatical concept and their written production of the forms related to that concept. The development of scientific concepts, in this case of the concept of voice in French, involves the use of language…

  16. Native Language Self-Concept and Reading Self-Concept: Same or Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    In assessing verbal academic self-concept with preadolescents, researchers have used scales for students' self-concepts in reading and in their native language interchangeably. The authors conducted 3 studies with German students to test whether reading and German (i.e., native language) self-concepts can be treated as the same or different…

  17. Concepts, Language, and Privacy: An Argument "Vaguely Viennese in Provenance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Considers two notable recent philosophical theories of concepts in relation to some challenges set by Wittgenstein in his notorious private language argument. The challenge is formulated in terms of constraints on the explanation of the relation between thought and language. Shows how these theories of concepts relate to constraints that arise…

  18. Conceptions of Teaching and the Education of Second Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Donald; Richards, Jack C.

    1993-01-01

    Using Zahorik's framework, which classifies conceptions of teaching into three categories (science/research, theory/philosophy, and art/craft), this paper reviews different conceptions of second-language instruction prevalent in the English-as-a-Second-Language teaching field. The aim is to shift the focus of discussion from behavior/activity to…

  19. Firefly system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Firefly' project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces images through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  20. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  1. The DIRAC Language: Concepts and Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallee, Jacques; Ludwig, Herbert

    The three documents contained in this report describe an interactive retrieval language implemented for the IBM 360/67 of the Campus Faculty at Stanford University, between October 1969 and May 1970. The three reports are: (1) DIRAC--An Interactive Retrieval Language with Computational Interface, (2) DIRAC--An Overview of an Interactive Retrieval…

  2. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  3. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  4. Language Curriculum. Based on Concept Formation and Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Clara A.

    The language curriculum initiated at the Rhode Island School for the Deaf consists of two stated innovations in teaching methods, which are language development through concept formation and application of transformational grammar. Description of the teaching method reveals that aurally handicapped pupils learn to analyze sentence structure by…

  5. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  6. English Language Teachers' Conceptions of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the conceptions of research held by 505 teachers of English from 13 countries around the world. Questionnaire responses supplemented by follow-up written and interview data were analyzed to understand teachers' views on what research is and how often they read and do it (and why or why not in each case). An understanding of…

  7. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  8. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cássia Veiga Marriott, Rita; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of “concept mapping”. An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an understanding of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  9. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit.

  10. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  11. Feature integration in natural language concepts.

    PubMed

    Hampton, James A; Storms, Gert; Simmons, Claire L; Heussen, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments measured the joint influence of three key sets of semantic features on the frequency with which artifacts (Experiment 1) or plants and creatures (Experiment 2) were categorized in familiar categories. For artifacts, current function outweighed both originally intended function and current appearance. For biological kinds, appearance and behavior, an inner biological function, and appearance and behavior of offspring all had similarly strong effects on categorization. The data were analyzed to determine whether an independent cue model or an interactive model best accounted for how the effects of the three feature sets combined. Feature integration was found to be additive for artifacts but interactive for biological kinds. In keeping with this, membership in contrasting artifact categories tended to be superadditive, indicating overlapping categories, whereas for biological kinds, it was subadditive, indicating conceptual gaps between categories. It is argued that the results underline a key domain difference between artifact and biological concepts.

  12. Semiotic diversity in utterance production and the concept of 'language'.

    PubMed

    Kendon, Adam

    2014-09-19

    Sign language descriptions that use an analytic model borrowed from spoken language structural linguistics have proved to be not fully appropriate. Pictorial and action-like modes of expression are integral to how signed utterances are constructed and to how they work. However, observation shows that speakers likewise use kinesic and vocal expressions that are not accommodated by spoken language structural linguistic models, including pictorial and action-like modes of expression. These, also, are integral to how speaker utterances in face-to-face interaction are constructed and to how they work. Accordingly, the object of linguistic inquiry should be revised, so that it comprises not only an account of the formal abstract systems that utterances make use of, but also an account of how the semiotically diverse resources that all languaging individuals use are organized in relation to one another. Both language as an abstract system and languaging should be the concern of linguistics.

  13. The Language Skills and Concepts of Early and Nonearly Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huba, M. E.; Ramisetty-Mikler, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study compared 56 early and nonearly readers (matched individually on sex, age, and preschool and kindergarten attended) in terms of their language concepts and skills, as well as their reading achievement, in kindergarten through second grade. The early readers were found superior to nonearly readers on preschool measures of general language…

  14. A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

    Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

  15. Astromag data system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roos, Darrell; Cheng, Chieh-San; Newsome, Penny; Nath, Nitya

    1989-01-01

    A feasible, top-level data system is defined that could accomplish and support the Astromag Data System functions and interfaces necessary to support the scientific objectives of Astromag. This data system must also be able to function in the environment of the Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) and other anticipated NASA elements.

  16. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as “freedom.” Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  17. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level

  18. The Concept of Transition System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffe, David

    2008-01-01

    The term "transition system" describes features of a country's institutional arrangements which shape young people's education-work transitions. It explains why national differences in transition processes and outcomes persist despite apparent pressures for convergence. This paper asks how the concept of transition system has been…

  19. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  20. Why First Language Learning Is Not Second Language Learning--Wittgenstein's Rejection of St. Augustine's Conception of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erneling, Christina

    1993-01-01

    Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…

  1. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A concept for a more intuitive and graphically based Computation (Comp) Builder was developed. The Graphical Comp Builder Prototype was developed, which is an X Window based graphical tool that allows the user to build Comps using graphical symbols. Investigation was conducted to determine the availability and suitability of the Ada programming language for the development of future control center type software. The Space Station Freedom Project identified Ada as the desirable programming language for the development of Space Station Control Center software systems.

  2. Alternative Terrain Following System Concepts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    inertial altitude rate command in response to errors in terrain clearance altitude. This command is limited and summed with the actual rate of change of...altitude rate command in response to errors in the clearance altitude. This command is limited and summed with the rate of change of clearance...altitude. The normal acceleration command is generated in response to errors in the rate of change of terrain clearance. System Concept B describes a

  3. A human mirror neuron system for language: Perspectives from signed languages of the deaf.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167; Arbib M.A. (2008). From grasp to language: Embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction. Journal de Physiologie Paris 102, 4-20]. Signed languages of the deaf are fully-expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. We suggest that if a unitary mirror neuron system mediates the observation and production of both language and non-linguistic action, three prediction can be made: (1) damage to the human mirror neuron system should non-selectively disrupt both sign language and non-linguistic action processing; (2) within the domain of sign language, a given mirror neuron locus should mediate both perception and production; and (3) the action-based tuning curves of individual mirror neurons should support the highly circumscribed set of motions that form the "vocabulary of action" for signed languages. In this review we evaluate data from the sign language and mirror neuron literatures and find that these predictions are only partially upheld.

  4. Advanced Languages for Systems Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    these are too numerous to list here. Edoardo Biagioni . Post-doctoral researcher. System networking and kernel design and imple- mentation. Kenneth Cline...John Backus, John H. Williams, and Edward L. Wimmers. The programming language FL. In Turner [131], pages 219-247. [12] Edoardo Biagioni , Nicholas

  5. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  6. Systems Concepts Effectively Taught Using Systems Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Claudia; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes two lessons within the authors' education module entitled, Ecological Networks, that successfully teaches introductory systems content to middle and high school students. To catch students' attention when teaching these new concepts, they decided to use a network that was familiar and fun for students--a cell-phone…

  7. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  8. First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

  9. ["Kaitai-Shinsho": a change of languages and concepts].

    PubMed

    Okada, Masanobu

    2003-07-01

    The translation of "Outleedkundige Tafelen (Dutch) [Anatomische Tabellen (German)]" to "Kaitai-Shinsho" by Gempaku Sugita and others was not the mere substitution of Dutch for Japanese. They responded to the writing according to the situation of the change to modern medicine from the medicine of ancient-medieval times based on Galen's teachings, by using the Japanese culture of those days in a form of "bricolage" (a term used by Claude Levi-Strauss), in combination with Western medicine, leading to its establishment as Japanese medicine. That is, their work was not a mere translation, but an innovation of Japanese medical language system.

  10. Using the Concept of Perspective to Integrate Cultural, Communicative, and Form-Focused Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Katra A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Modern Language Association Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages advocated for revising postsecondary second language programs to cultivate students' "translingual and transcultural competence." Since then, the meaning, merits, and difficulties of these goals have been much discussed. This article presents the concept of linguistic…

  11. Solving problems on base of concepts formalization of language image and figurative meaning of the natural-language constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisikalo, Oleg V.; Cieszczyk, Sławomir; Yussupova, Gulbahar

    2015-12-01

    Building of "clever" thesaurus by algebraic means on base of concepts formalization of language image and figurative meaning of the natural-language constructs in the article are proposed. A formal theory based on a binary operator of directional associative relation is constructed and an understanding of an associative normal form of image constructions is introduced. A model of a commutative semigroup, which provides a presentation of a sentence as three components of an interrogative language image construction, is considered.

  12. Powerful Learning Tools for ELLs: Using Native Language, Familiar Examples, and Concept Mapping to Teach English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yu Ren

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights how English language learners' (ELLs) prior knowledge can be used to help learn science vocabulary. The article explains that the concept of prior knowledge needs to encompass the ELL student's native language, previous science learning, native literacy skills, and native cultural knowledge and life experiences.…

  13. REACT - A Third Generation Language For Autonomous Robot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Maxwell J.; Owens, John; Allen, Charles R.; Ratcliff, Karl

    1990-03-01

    REACT is a language under development at Newcastle for the programming of autonomous robot systems, which uses AI constructs and sensor information to respond to failures in assumptions about the real-world by replanning a task. This paper describes the important features of a REACT programmed robotic system, and the results of some initial studies made on defining an executive language using a concept called visiblity sets. Several examples from the language are then applied to specific examples e.g. a white line follower and a railway network controller. The applicability of visibility sets to autonomous robots is evaluated.

  14. Aspects of self-concept and their relationship to language performance and verbal reasoning ability.

    PubMed

    Dermitzaki, I; Efklides, A

    2000-01-01

    It has been claimed that self-concept is multidimensional, with dimensions such as mathematical self-concept and self-concept in language. The present study investigated the relationship of academic self-concept in language with performance on school-related language tasks and verbal reasoning ability. A total of 512 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 rated four aspects of their academic self-concept in language: self-perception, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and others' perception of their abilities. Verbal reasoning ability and performance on language tasks were assessed. Path analysis showed that performance on language tasks was influenced strongly by verbal reasoning abilities. Self-esteem and others' perception of one's abilities were affected directly by language performance. No direct relationship was found between academic self-concept in language and verbal reasoning ability. The results suggest that adolescents do not construe their academic self-concept according to their abilities but according to their performance in school and others' response to it.

  15. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  16. The Concept of "Interdisciplinarity" and Implications of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William E.

    This paper discusses the relevance of language content and language instruction in an interdisciplinary educational program, and explores the interrelationship of language and the interdisciplinary thrust as the basis for a pedagogical approach. One of the effects of the intense preoccupation in the late fifties and early sixties with education in…

  17. Alphabet Blocks: Expanding Conceptions of Language with/in Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggo, Carl

    2005-01-01

    As a poet and language educator, I invite and encourage writers to take risks in their writing, to engage innovatively with a wide range of genres, to push boundaries in order to explore creatively how language and discourse are never ossified, but always organic; how language use is integrally and inextricably connected to knowledge, identity,…

  18. Using nurses' natural language entries to build a concept-oriented terminology for patients' chief complaints in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Travers, Debbie A; Haas, Stephanie W

    2003-01-01

    Information about the chief complaint (CC), also known as the patient's reason for seeking emergency care, is critical for patient prioritization for treatment and determination of patient flow through the emergency department (ED). Triage nurses document the CC at the start of the ED visit, and the data are increasingly available in electronic form. Despite the clinical and operational significance of the CC to the ED, there is no standard CC terminology. We propose the construction of concept-oriented nursing terminologies from the actual language used by experts. We use text analysis to extract CC concepts from triage nurses' natural language entries. Our methodology for building the nursing terminology utilizes natural language processing techniques and the Unified Medical Language System.

  19. A study of systems implementation languages for the POCCNET system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Franklin, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of systems implementation languages for the Payload Operations Control Center Network (POCCNET). Criteria are developed for evaluating the languages, and fifteen existing languages are evaluated on the basis of these criteria.

  20. Decentering Language in World-System Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Examines the development of and response to world-system theory in language policy studies. Suggests a project for scholars interested in language and international structural relations that involves decentering core languages and assigning them an important, but not deterministic role in the world system. (Author/VWL)

  1. The Interplay between Spoken Language and Informal Definitions of Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Various terms are used to describe mathematical concepts, in general, and statistical concepts, in particular. Regarding statistical concepts in the Hebrew language, some of these terms have the same meaning both in their everyday use and in mathematics, such as Mode; some of them have a different meaning, such as Expected value and Life…

  2. Behind the Mask: Social Studies Concepts and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Terence A.

    2008-01-01

    Social studies educators are constantly teaching concepts. From culturally universal concepts in the early grades to highly contested concepts such as "democracy" in later grades, good social studies instruction often centers on helping students form key concepts. As anyone who has spent time in twenty-first century social studies classrooms…

  3. Considering the Language of Computerized Order Entry Systems.

    PubMed

    Diemert, Simon; Weber, Jens; Price, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems have been shown to introduce new problems into clinical environments. Given the communication intensive nature of these systems considering the language(s) of communication can provide insight into their function and subsequent problems. The current (as November 2015) CPOE literature was reviewed using the language concepts of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics as a lens. In total, 202 articles were considered, of these only 46 received a full review. 145 results related to language concepts were extracted from these articles. These were categorized into five categories: syntax, semantics, system-pragmatics, syntax-pragmatics, and semantic-pragmatics. In total key themes were synthesized. The themes identified can be used to direct further research in the area of CPOE systems. It was found that current literature heavily favors pragmatics concerns of language at the expense of considering underlying factors (syntax and semantics). The results support the use of language as a means of analyzing interactions between actors in communication intensive systems.

  4. Language Study and the PLATO System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Technical aspects of the PLATO system, the language work done on PLATO thus far (specifically in foreign languages), and areas for further research in computer-based language instruction are reviewed. PLATO-IV, designed and implemented by the Computer-Based Educational Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is…

  5. On the Implications of Vygotskian Concepts for Second Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azabdaftari, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    This paper represents an attempt to search for the implications of Vygotsky's approach to "the genesis of mind" for second language acquisition (SLA). In so doing, the present author has adopted first a retrospective view--what has already gone in the field of foreign language instruction, and a prospective view--what is contingent on…

  6. Teacher Knowledge of Basic Language Concepts and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Erin K.; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S.

    2011-01-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing…

  7. Language, Culture, and the Mathematics Concept of American Indian Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Duane E.; Davison, David M.

    1985-01-01

    Recognizes two critical factors in cross-cultural mathematics teaching: the perceived utility of mathematics and the direct relationship of mathematics learning to language development. Reviews current literature and reports the results of their study of perceived utility of mathematics and technical language development in the Crow Indian…

  8. Language Management Theory as a Basis for the Dynamic Concept of EU Language Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovalil, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Language law is a tool used to manage problems of linguistic diversity in the EU. The paper analyzes the processes in which language law is found in the discursive practice of agents addressing the Court of Justice of the European Union with their language problems. The theoretical-methodological basis for the research is Language Management…

  9. Neural systems behind word and concept retrieval.

    PubMed

    Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Grabowski, T; Adolphs, R; Damasio, A

    2004-01-01

    Using both the lesion method and functional imaging (positron emission tomography) in large cohorts of subjects investigated with the same experimental tasks, we tested the following hypotheses: (A) that the retrieval of words which denote concrete entities belonging to distinct conceptual categories depends upon partially segregated regions in higher-order cortices of the left temporal lobe; and (B) that the retrieval of conceptual knowledge pertaining to the same concrete entities also depends on partially segregated regions; however, those regions will be different from those postulated in hypothesis A, and located predominantly in the right hemisphere (the second hypothesis tested only with the lesion method). The analyses provide support for hypothesis A in that several regions outside the classical Broca and Wernicke language areas are involved in name retrieval of concrete entities, and that there is a partial segregation in the temporal lobe with respect to the conceptual category to which the entities belong, and partial support for hypothesis B in that retrieval of conceptual knowledge is partially segregated from name retrieval in the lesion study. Those regions identified here are seen as parts of flexible, multi-component systems serving concept and word retrieval for concrete entities belonging to different conceptual categories. By comparing different approaches the article also addresses a number of method issues that have surfaced in recent studies in this field.

  10. Language Teachers' Conceptions of Intelligence and Their Roles in Teacher Care and Teacher Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the relationships among teachers' conceptions of intelligence, teacher care, and teacher feedback in the realm of English Language Teaching (ELT). To this aim, three scales were developed to measure the aforementioned constructs. The participants consisted of 81 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and…

  11. Teaching Mathematical Concepts to Nigerian Nursery-School Children Using English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes strategies for developing mathematical language and concepts in nursery school children in Nigeria using English as a second language, including use of sand, water, wooden blocks, and dramatic play in the classroom shop. Suggests that through these methods a verbal foundation is laid for mathematical understanding. (Author/BK)

  12. Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for Foreign Language and Speech Translation Technologies in a Coalition Military Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    concepts and architecture paths to reduce human language barriers experienced by the DOD Operational Community and the Intelligence Community...Specifically, the program is designed to; • Reduce the foreign language barriers across the full spectrum of transnational and joint coalition

  13. Concept-Based Teaching and Spanish Modality in Heritage Language Learners: A Vygotskyan Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Frazier, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed how six Heritage language learners at the university level gained conscious awareness and control of the concept of modality as revealed in student verbalizations (Vygotsky, 1998) throughout five different written communicative events. This work took place in the only course designed for Heritage language learners at a large…

  14. Verbalizing in the Second Language Classroom: The Development of the Grammatical Concept of Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Prospero N.

    2012-01-01

    Framed within a Sociocultural Theory of Mind (SCT) in the field of Second Language Acquisition (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006), this dissertation explores the role of verbalizing in the internalization of grammatical categories through the use of Concept-based Instruction (henceforth CBI) in the second language (L2) classroom. Using Vygotsky's…

  15. Effects of Sexist Language on the Status and Self-Concept of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnove, Elizabeth J.

    The effects of sexist language on the status and self-concept of women is investigated in this paper, with particular emphasis on media sexism. The paper first examines the origin and effects of some of the most common ways in which language is used to reinforce existing sex stereotypes. The paper then discusses: (1) ways to weed out of daily…

  16. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  17. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  18. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  19. Perceived Attachment Security to Father, Academic Self-Concept and School Performance in Language Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacro, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…

  20. Language Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: An Egyptian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the assessment conceptions of both pre-service and in-service English teachers within a high-stakes, test-driven context in Egypt. For this purpose, 170 Egyptian pre-service and in-service teachers completed an assessment conceptions questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis were employed to answer…

  1. Certain Basic Concepts of Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ülker

    2016-01-01

    Concept that is defined to be the intangible and general designs emerging in a mind that belongs to an object or thought, has become both subject and object of a very large field ranging from philosophy to linguistics, from social sciences to science. Regardless of which field is in question, the unity of concept is important in order to pave the…

  2. Visual Education and the Language Arts: Toward the Incorporation of Visual Concepts and Skills in the Secondary Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David Robert

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rationale for and to organize sequences of visual education concepts and skills that could function as a part of a secondary language arts program embodying the approaches of James Moffett. The literature on visual education was studied to identify those factors related specifically to professional…

  3. Co-development of manner and path concepts in language, action, and eye-gaze behavior.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Katrin S; Griffiths, Sascha S; Sciutti, Alessandra; Partmann, Tim C; Rohlfing, Katharina J

    2014-07-01

    In order for artificial intelligent systems to interact naturally with human users, they need to be able to learn from human instructions when actions should be imitated. Human tutoring will typically consist of action demonstrations accompanied by speech. In the following, the characteristics of human tutoring during action demonstration will be examined. A special focus will be put on the distinction between two kinds of motion events: path-oriented actions and manner-oriented actions. Such a distinction is inspired by the literature pertaining to cognitive linguistics, which indicates that the human conceptual system can distinguish these two distinct types of motion. These two kinds of actions are described in language by more path-oriented or more manner-oriented utterances. In path-oriented utterances, the source, trajectory, or goal is emphasized, whereas in manner-oriented utterances the medium, velocity, or means of motion are highlighted. We examined a video corpus of adult-child interactions comprised of three age groups of children-pre-lexical, early lexical, and lexical-and two different tasks, one emphasizing manner more strongly and one emphasizing path more strongly. We analyzed the language and motion of the caregiver and the gazing behavior of the child to highlight the differences between the tutoring and the acquisition of the manner and path concepts. The results suggest that age is an important factor in the development of these action categories. The analysis of this corpus has also been exploited to develop an intelligent robotic behavior-the tutoring spotter system-able to emulate children's behaviors in a tutoring situation, with the aim of evoking in human subjects a natural and effective behavior in teaching to a robot. The findings related to the development of manner and path concepts have been used to implement new effective feedback strategies in the tutoring spotter system, which should provide improvements in human

  4. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  5. Repetition priming within and between languages in verb generation: evidence for shared verb concepts.

    PubMed

    de la Riva López, Eva M; Francis, Wendy S; García, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Although translation equivalents for concrete nouns are known to have shared core conceptual representations in bilingual memory (Francis, 1999), the status of translation-equivalent verbs has not been systematically tested. Three repetition-priming experiments using a verb generation task were used to determine whether verbs have shared representations across languages and to identify the processes facilitated in repeated verb generation. In Experiment 1 fluent Spanish-English bilingual speakers exhibited repetition priming both within and between languages, but between-language priming was weaker. In Experiment 2 performance of non-bilingual English and Spanish speakers was equivalent to that of bilingual speakers responding in their dominant language. Experiment 3 used manipulations meant to isolate noun comprehension, verb concept selection, and verb production. The between-language priming in Experiments 1 and 3 indicates that verb concepts are shared across languages and that verb concept selection exhibits facilitation. Experiment 3 showed that the greater within-language priming was due primarily to facilitation of verb production processes.

  6. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  7. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  8. A Concept for Run-Time Support of the Chapel Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for run-time implementation of other concepts embodied in the Chapel programming language. (Now undergoing development, Chapel is intended to become a standard language for parallel computing that would surpass older such languages in both computational performance in the efficiency with which pre-existing code can be reused and new code written.) The aforementioned other concepts are those of distributions, domains, allocations, and access, as defined in a separate document called "A Semantic Framework for Domains and Distributions in Chapel" and linked to a language specification defined in another separate document called "Chapel Specification 0.3." The concept presented in the instant report is recognition that a data domain that was invented for Chapel offers a novel approach to distributing and processing data in a massively parallel environment. The concept is offered as a starting point for development of working descriptions of functions and data structures that would be necessary to implement interfaces to a compiler for transforming the aforementioned other concepts from their representations in Chapel source code to their run-time implementations.

  9. Solar rocket system concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of solar energy to heat propellant for application to Earth orbital/planetary propulsion systems is of interest because of its performance capabilities. The achievable specific impulse values are approximately double those delivered by a chemical rocket system, and the thrust is at least an order of magnitude greater than that produced by a mercury bombardment ion propulsion thruster. The primary advantage the solar heater thruster has over a mercury ion bombardment system is that its significantly higher thrust permits a marked reduction in mission trip time. The development of the space transportation system, offers the opportunity to utilize the full performance potential of the solar rocket. The requirements for transfer from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) was examined as the return trip, GEO to LEO, both with and without payload. Payload weights considered ranged from 2000 to 100,000 pounds. The performance of the solar rocket was compared with that provided by LO2-LH2, N2O4-MMH, and mercury ion bombardment systems.

  10. Language Teacher Cognitions: Complex Dynamic Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Language teacher cognition research is a growing field. In recent years several features of language teacher cognitions have been noted: they can be complex, ranging over a number of different subjects; they can be dynamic, changing over time and under different influences; and they can be systems, forming unified and cohesive personal or…

  11. A System for Natural Language Sentence Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levison, Michael; Lessard, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Describes the natural language computer program, "Vinci." Explains that using an attribute grammar formalism, Vinci can simulate components of several current linguistic theories. Considers the design of the system and its applications in linguistic modelling and second language acquisition research. Notes Vinci's uses in linguistics…

  12. Systems concepts: Lectures on contemporary approaches to systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Collection of papers dealing with the application of systems concepts to a wide range of disciplines. The topics include systems definitions and designs, models for systems engineering, the evolution of the JPL, systems concepts in lunar and planetary projects, civil systems projects, and Apollo program evaluation. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  13. Development of a Spoken Language System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    military logistical transportation planning domain. " Created a videotape to illustrate these capabilities and some potential applications of spoken...34 Participated in all evaluation tests. 5 We now give a brief description of these highlights. I During this project we modified our natural language system...processor. (For this part of our system, we have found a value of N=5 to give best understanding results.) The natural language system processes these

  14. New luminaire and system concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Energy-efficient lighting saves energy, cost, and the environment. {open_quotes}Energy-smart{close_quotes} lighting goes further by enhancing human performance, business productivity, and satisfaction. Energy-smart lighting systems involve four strategies:(1) Substituting efficient compact fluorescent and metal halide sources for incandescent. (2) Maximizing the efficiency of luminaires that use those sources. (3) Developing more effective light distribution, principally for computer-oriented working spaces. (4) Integrating controls to reduce energy consumption, not just power density.

  15. System based practice: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; HOSSEINI, FAKHROLSADAT; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Systems-Based Practice (SBP) is one of the six competencies introduced by the ACGME for physicians to provide high quality of care and also the most challenging of them in performance, training, and evaluation of medical students. This concept analysis clarifies the concept of SBP by identifying its components to make it possible to differentiate it from other similar concepts. For proper training of SBP and to ensure these competencies in physicians, it is necessary to have an operational definition, and SBP’s components must be precisely defined in order to provide valid and reliable assessment tools. Methods Walker & Avant’s approach to concept analysis was performed in eight stages: choosing a concept, determining the purpose of analysis, identifying all uses of the concept, defining attributes, identifying a model case, identifying borderline, related, and contrary cases, identifying antecedents and consequences, and defining empirical referents. Results Based on the analysis undertaken, the attributes of SBP includes knowledge of the system, balanced decision between patients’ need and system goals, effective role playing in interprofessional health care team, system level of health advocacy, and acting for system improvement. System thinking and a functional system are antecedents and system goals are consequences. A case model, as well as border, and contrary cases of SBP, has been introduced. Conclusion he identification of SBP attributes in this study contributes to the body of knowledge in SBP and reduces the ambiguity of this concept to make it possible for applying it in training of different medical specialties. Also, it would be possible to develop and use more precise tools to evaluate SBP competency by using empirical referents of the analysis. PMID:27104198

  16. Logic, truth and language in concepts of pain.

    PubMed

    Merskey, H

    1994-12-01

    Logic and language influence our ideas about the truth of pain, and can alter our understanding of it. Physicians should not tell their patients that there is nothing wrong with them if all their test results are negative, as this denies their patients' experiences of pain. Popular methods of conceptualizing pain may be erroneous. Diagrams of pain or disability are misleading and unhelpful--it is not usually possible to distinguish their components in practice. Giving patients a high or low score for pain behaviour, depression or for health locus of control can influence our views on aetiology in a seriously misleading way. Anyway, aetiological attributions are not always possible from analyses of the experience of pain. The problems of logic and language inherent in assigning pain to emotional causes, in using behavioural approaches, and in defining idiopathic pain and somatization are discussed. The IASP definition of pain is important and useful, provided that it is used appropriately. The recommended version is now 'an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.'

  17. The Concept of Body Language in the Medical Consultation.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Isabella; Woodhead, Sophie; Micallef, Claranne; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we wish to argue that the human body is an instrument of communication that can be used by the individual. This can be shown by the use of phenomenology, as described by Husserl, and that indeed empathy, as described by phenomenology, can be seen as a link enabling two human bodies/persons to communicate. We then wish to show from neuroscience that empathy can itself be seen as a bodily function. We then will describe how the doctor-patient relationship in the consultation is an extremely important type of communication between two persons, and how teaching of consultation skills has developed. We will show that, once consultation skills teaching was established, then study of body language became an essential part of this teaching, as soon as the technology was developed, and finally we will demonstrate that it is now possible to confirm by observational and controlled trials that appropriate use of body language does indeed enhance the effectiveness of the consultation, including, we would suggest, by appropriate communication of empathy and understanding.

  18. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) textbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickison, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The textbook provides a semantical explanation accompanying a complete set of GOAL syntax diagrams, system concepts, language component interaction, and general language concepts necessary for efficient language implementation/execution.

  19. AVNG system objectives and concept

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  20. Nurse-patient communication: language mastery and concept possession.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2006-03-01

    Influential holistic analyses of patient perspectives assume that the concepts that patients associate with medical terms are formed by their total social and cultural contexts. Holistic analyses presuppose conceptual role semantics in the sense that they imply that a medical term must have the same role for a nurse and a patient in order for them to associate the same concept with the term. In recent philosophy of mind, social externalism has emerged as a non-holistic alternative to conceptual role theories. According to social externalism, a nurse and a patient express the same concept by a term if they both have a minimal or better understanding of the term. Three arguments in favour of social externalism are presented in connection with nurse-patient interaction. The first concerns successful communication, the second focuses on belief reports made by patients and the third centres on the need for including medical terms in medical discourse. Finally, the practical implications of the arguments are clarified. The most important of these is that, in cases of misunderstanding, a nurse should not conform to a patient's idiosyncratic understanding, but instead correct the mistaken applications of the term in question.

  1. NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS: CURRENT CONCEPTS

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Prasanta; Jesmajian, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was first described in 2000 as a scleromyxedema-like illness in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The relationship between NSF and gadolinium contrast during magnetic resonance imaging was postulated in 2006, and subsequently, virtually all published cases of NSF have had documented prior exposure to gadolinium-containing contrast agents. NSF has been reported in patients from a variety of ethnic backgrounds from America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Skin lesions may evolve into poorly demarcated thickened plaques that range from erythematous to hyperpigmented. With time, the skin becomes markedly indurated and tethered to the underlying fascia. Extracutaneous manifestations also occur. The diagnosis of NSF is based on the presence of characteristic clinical features in the setting of chronic kidney disease, and substantiated by skin histology. Differential diagnosis is with scleroderma, scleredema, scleromyxedema, graft-versus-host disease, etc. NSF has a relentlessly progressive course. While there is no consistently successful treatment for NSF, improving renal function seems to slow or arrest the progression of this condition. Because essentially all cases of NSF have developed following exposure to a gadolinium-containing contrast agent, prevention of this devastating condition involves the careful avoidance of administering these agents to individuals at risk. PMID:21572795

  2. Teaching Embedded System Concepts for Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzker, M.; Schwandt, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic understanding of technology is recognized as important knowledge even for students not connected with engineering and computer science. This paper shows that embedded system concepts can be taught in a technological literacy course. An embedded system teaching block that has been used in an electronics module for non-engineers is…

  3. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  4. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  5. Eliciting Covert Mental Operations, Concepts and Oral Language Skills in Young Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomon, John W.; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to design and test an information-eliciting question instrument in order to determine whether the structures in the verbal responses of young Mexican-American, bilingual children entering school would reveal the covert mental operations, concepts and oral language skills elicited. The basic objective was to…

  6. Linguistic Correlates of Second Language Proficiency: Proof of Concept with "ILR 2-3" in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.; Gor, Kira; Jackson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    With Russian as the target language, a proof of concept study was undertaken to determine whether it is possible to identify linguistic features, control over which is implicated in progress on the Interagency Linguistic Roundtable (ILR) proficiency scale, thereby better to inform the instructional process. Following its development in an…

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Language Concepts: Relationships to Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Deborah; Jones, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of language concepts by pre-service teachers (PSTs) is likely influenced by university coursework and field experiences, but little research has examined how. Knowledge of phonics and phonological awareness and confidence to teach reading were surveyed among primary PSTs at one New South Wales university, most in second year following…

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TEST OF A SPECIAL PURPOSE FOREIGN LANGUAGE TRAINING CONCEPT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROCKLYN, EUGENE H.

    THIS ARTICLE TRACES THE ORIGIN AND EVALUATION OF A SPECIAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE TRAINING CONCEPT THAT EVOLVED OUT OF A SPECIFIC MILITARY NEED TO INTERROGATE NEWLY CAPTURED PRISONERS OF WAR TO ACQUIRE IMMEDIATE TACTICAL INFORMATION. THROUGH AN INITIAL FEASIBILITY STUDY, A REASONABLE SET OF VERBAL MATERIALS WAS SELECTED AS COURSE CONTENT, AND A…

  9. Changes in Concepts of Usage in English Language Textbooks from 1923 to 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Morris H.

    Changes in concepts of usage as illustrated in 111 high school English language textbooks published from 1923 to 1963 formed the subject of this study. The textbooks were placed in one of four groups according to publication date: 1923-1940, 1941-1952, 1953-1958, and 1959-1963. The purpose of the grouping was to determine whether certain usage…

  10. Launch processing system concept to reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Launch Processing System represents Kennedy Space Center's role in providing a major integrated hardware and software system for the test, checkout and launch of a new space vehicle. Past programs considered the active flight vehicle to ground interfaces as part of the flight systems and therefore the related ground system was provided by the Development Center. The major steps taken to transform the Launch Processing System from a concept to reality with the successful launches of the Shuttle Programs Space Transportation System are addressed.

  11. Concept of JINR Corporate Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filozova, I. A.; Bashashin, M. V.; Korenkov, V. V.; Kuniaev, S. V.; Musulmanbekov, G.; Semenov, R. N.; Shestakova, G. V.; Strizh, T. A.; Ustenko, P. V.; Zaikina, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the concept of JINR Corporate Information System (JINR CIS). Special attention is given to the information support of scientific researches - Current Research Information System as a part of the corporate information system. The objectives of such a system are focused on ensuring an effective implementation and research by using the modern information technology, computer technology and automation, creation, development and integration of digital resources on a common conceptual framework. The project assumes continuous system development, introduction the new information technologies to ensure the technological system relevance.

  12. Does Gender Moderate Dimensional Comparison Effects in L1 and L2 Self-Concepts of Secondary Foreign Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: With regard to the internal/external frame of reference model of academic self-concept development the present study aimed at testing its theoretical assumptions within the verbal domain--namely to analyze the relations between achievement and self-concept in the native language German (L1) and the foreign language English (L2). Due…

  13. The paradox of the universal triangle: Concepts, language, and prototypes.

    PubMed

    Lupyan, Gary

    2017-03-01

    For over 300 years, the humble triangle has served as the paradigmatic example of the problem of abstraction. How can we have the idea of a general triangle even though every experience with triangles is with specific ones? Classical cognitive science seemed to provide an answer in symbolic representation. With its easily enumerated necessary and sufficient conditions, the triangle would appear to be an ideal candidate for being represented in a symbolic form. I show that it is not. Across a variety of tasks-drawing, speeded recognition, unspeeded visual judgments, and inference-representations of triangles appear to be graded and context dependent. I show that using the category name "triangle" activates a more prototypical representation than using an arguably coextensive cue, "three-sided polygon". For example, when asked to draw "triangles" people draw more typical triangles than when asked to draw "three-sided polygons". Altogether, the results support the view that (even formal) concepts have a graded and flexible structure, which takes on a more prototypical and stable form when activated by category labels.

  14. An advanced manned launch system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Piland, W. M.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage fully reusable rocked powered concept is defined and analyzed in detail for the Advanced Manned Launch System missions. The concept elements include a Mach 3 staging unmanned glideback booster and a 149-ft long winged orbiter with an external payload canister with a 15-ft diameter and 30-ft long payload bay. The booster and orbiter main propulsion system is a lightweight derivative of the current Space Shuttle Main Engine. The primary mission is the Space Station Freedom logistics mission, 40,000-lb payload with two crew members and eight passengers. The structural design and material selection, the thermal protection system, the integral cryogenic tanks and insulation, the propulsion system, and the modular payload canister system are described. The ground and flight operations approach analysis, the manufacturing and certification plan, and the technology development requirements are also discussed.

  15. DDL:Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shival, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware description languages are valuable tools in such applications as hardware design, system documentation, and logic design training. DDL is convenient medium for inputting design details into hardware-design automation system. It is suitable for describing digital systems at gate, register transfer, and major combinational block level.

  16. One Country, Two Systems, Three Languages: A Survey of Changing Language Use in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.; Kelly-Holmes, Helen, Ed.

    The book presents the following papers and transcriptions of debates: "One Country, Two Systems, Three Languages" (Sue Wright); "The Background to Language Change in Hong Kong" (Godfrey Harrison, Lydia K. H. So); "Aspects of the Two Languages System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong"…

  17. A Robust Scalable Transportation System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew; DeLaurentis, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the 2005 Revolutionary System Concept for Aeronautics (RSCA) study entitled "A Robust, Scalable Transportation System Concept". The objective of the study was to generate, at a high-level of abstraction, characteristics of a new concept for the National Airspace System, or the new NAS, under which transportation goals such as increased throughput, delay reduction, and improved robustness could be realized. Since such an objective can be overwhelmingly complex if pursued at the lowest levels of detail, instead a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach was adopted to model alternative air transportation architectures at a high level. The SoS approach allows the consideration of not only the technical aspects of the NAS", but also incorporates policy, socio-economic, and alternative transportation system considerations into one architecture. While the representations of the individual systems are basic, the higher level approach allows for ways to optimize the SoS at the network level, determining the best topology (i.e. configuration of nodes and links). The final product (concept) is a set of rules of behavior and network structure that not only satisfies national transportation goals, but represents the high impact rules that accomplish those goals by getting the agents to "do the right thing" naturally. The novel combination of Agent Based Modeling and Network Theory provides the core analysis methodology in the System-of-Systems approach. Our method of approach is non-deterministic which means, fundamentally, it asks and answers different questions than deterministic models. The nondeterministic method is necessary primarily due to our marriage of human systems with technological ones in a partially unknown set of future worlds. Our goal is to understand and simulate how the SoS, human and technological components combined, evolve.

  18. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  19. Computer Systems for Teaching Complex Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace

    Four Programing systems--Mentor, Stringcomp, Simon, and Logo--were designed and implemented as integral parts of research into the various ways computers may be used for teaching problem-solving concepts and skills. Various instructional contexts, among them medicine, mathematics, physics, and basic problem-solving for elementary school children,…

  20. Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

  1. Interactive Language Simulation Systems: Technology for a National Language Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, A. Allen

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center to make interactive video an integral part of foreign language instruction. Interactive video is seen as a method which could profoundly alter the old classroom model of language instruction. (Author/SED)

  2. Aerobrake concepts for NTP systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Manuel I.

    1992-01-01

    Design concepts are described for landing large spacecraft masses on the Mars surface in support of manned missions with interplanetary transportation using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Included are the mission and systems analyses, trade studies and sensitivity analyses, design analyses, technology assessment, and derived requirements to support this concept. The mission phases include the Mars de-orbit, entry, terminal descent, and terminal touchdown. The study focuses primarily on Mars surface delivery from orbit after Mars orbit insertion using an NTP. The requirements associated with delivery of logistical supplies, habitats, and other equipment on minimum energy Earth to Mars transfers are also addressed in a preliminary fashion.

  3. Functional Network Dynamics of the Language System

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Lucy R.; Mattar, Marcelo G.; Blank, Idan Asher; Fedorenko, Evelina; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    During linguistic processing, a set of brain regions on the lateral surfaces of the left frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices exhibit robust responses. These areas display highly correlated activity while a subject rests or performs a naturalistic language comprehension task, suggesting that they form an integrated functional system. Evidence suggests that this system is spatially and functionally distinct from other systems that support high-level cognition in humans. Yet, how different regions within this system might be recruited dynamically during task performance is not well understood. Here we use network methods, applied to fMRI data collected from 22 human subjects performing a language comprehension task, to reveal the dynamic nature of the language system. We observe the presence of a stable core of brain regions, predominantly located in the left hemisphere, that consistently coactivate with one another. We also observe the presence of a more flexible periphery of brain regions, predominantly located in the right hemisphere, that coactivate with different regions at different times. However, the language functional ROIs in the angular gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe were notable exceptions to this trend. By highlighting the temporal dimension of language processing, these results suggest a trade-off between a region's specialization and its capacity for flexible network reconfiguration. PMID:27550868

  4. Conceptions over time: Are language and the here-and-now up to the task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewson, Peter W.

    2008-07-01

    Is it possible to explain students' conceptions of natural phenomena purely in terms of the interactions between two people and the language they use during an interview? I argue that this hypothesis cannot be accepted on several grounds. First, contextual factors prior to the interview influence the course of its events, and that these in turn influence future events. Second, people have agency over their interactions and the ability to use language creatively in ways that a strong version of language preordination inherent in this hypothesis would not permit. Third, people bring language fluency and ideas to an interview that allow them to grapple with phenomena and issues they might not have previously considered, and formulate conceptions that they can and do use in future interactions. In addition, I argue that the field of science education is able to consider curricular and instructional issues relating to students' conceptions without resorting to the extremes of cultural relativism or intellectual imperialism, and that conceptual change theory addresses both the processes and outcomes of students' interactions.

  5. Operations Concept for a Solar System Internetwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Denis, Michel; Braatz, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Space communications to date has been largely managed at the link layer, with simple point-to-point links between a spacecraft at Earth. However, future space exploration scenarios involve much richer communications scenarios, with complex network scenarios involving space assets communicating back to Earth via multiple intermediate relay service providers. To support these more complex network scenarios, the Space Internetworking Strategy Group has developed an operations concept for a Solar System Internetwork (SSI). The operations concept draws on the successes of the terrestrial Internet while addressing unique aspects of space communications. Key elements of the operations concept include a standardized network layer across the end-to-end SSI and the underlying processes for development of a contact plan that captures the link layer connectivity among SSI network nodes.

  6. Human language is a culturally evolving system.

    PubMed

    Steels, Luc

    2017-02-01

    It is well accepted that languages change rapidly in a process of cultural evolution. But some animal communication systems, in particular bird song, also exhibit cultural change. So where exactly is the difference? This article argues that the main selectionist pressure on human languages is not biological-that is, related to survival and fecundity-but instead is linked to producing enough expressive power for the needs of the community, maximizing communicative success, and reducing cognitive effort. The key question to be answered by an "evolutionary linguistics" approach to language is, What are the causal mechanisms sustaining an evolutionary dynamic based on these selection criteria? In other words, what cognitive mechanisms and social interaction patterns are needed, and how do they allow a language to emerge and remain shared, despite profound variation and never-ending change?

  7. The effect of teachers' language on students' conceptions of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Lederman, Norman G.

    Conveying an adequate conception of the nature of science to students is implicit in the border context of what has come to be known as scientific literacy. However, it has previously been demonstrated that possession of valid conceptions of the nature of science does not necessarily result in the performance of those teaching behaviors that are related to improved student conceptions. The present study examines the possibility that the language teachers use to communicate science content may provide the context (Realist or Instrumentalist orientations) in which students come to formulate a world view of science. Eighteen high school biology teachers and one randomly selected class from each of their sections (n = 409 students) were administered pre- and posttests at the beginning and end of the fall term using the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Composite scores of the student changes on the Testable, Developmental, and Creative subscales were used to compare those six classes that exhibited the greatest change with those six classes that had the least change on the NSKS. Intensive qualitative observations of each teacher were also conducted over the fall semester, resulting in complete transcripts of teacher-student interactions. Qualitative comparisons of classes with respect to six variables related to Realist and Instrumentalist conceptions of the nature of science were conducted. TEACHERS' ordinary language in the presentation of subject matter was found to have significant impact on students' conceptions of the nature of science. These variables represented different contexts (Realist-Instrumental) teachers used to express themselves, scientific information, and concepts. Determining the extent to which TEACHERS' language has an impact on changes in students' conception of the nature of science has direct bearing on all preservice and inservice science teacher education programs.

  8. The role of language in acquiring object kind concepts in infancy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei

    2002-10-01

    Four experiments investigated whether 9-month-old infants could use the presence of labels to help them establish a representation of two distinct objects in a complex object individuation task. We found that the presence of two distinct labels facilitated object individuation, but the presence of one label for both objects, two distinct tones, two distinct sounds, or two distinct emotional expressions did not. These findings suggest that language may play an important role in the acquisition of sortal/object kind concepts in infancy: words may serve as "essence placeholders". Implications for the relationship between language and conceptual development are discussed.

  9. Natural Language Processing methods and systems for biomedical ontology learning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2011-02-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of Natural Language Processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies.

  10. Natural Language Processing Methods and Systems for Biomedical Ontology Learning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of natural language processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. PMID:20647054

  11. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  12. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  13. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  14. Why is the sunny side always up? Explaining the spatial mapping of concepts by language use.

    PubMed

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; McGaw, Bethany; Kidd, Evan

    2014-10-01

    Humans appear to rely on spatial mappings to represent and describe concepts. The conceptual cuing effect describes the tendency for participants to orient attention to a spatial location following the presentation of an unrelated cue word (e.g., orienting attention upward after reading the word sky). To date, such effects have predominately been explained within the embodied cognition framework, according to which people's attention is oriented on the basis of prior experience (e.g., sky → up via perceptual simulation). However, this does not provide a compelling explanation for how abstract words have the same ability to orient attention. Why, for example, does dream also orient attention upward? We report on an experiment that investigated the role of language use (specifically, collocation between concept words and spatial words for up and down dimensions) and found that it predicted the cuing effect. The results suggest that language usage patterns may be instrumental in explaining conceptual cuing.

  15. An Alternative to Mapping a Word onto a Concept in Language Acquisition: Pragmatic Frames

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta; Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classic mapping metaphor posits that children learn a word by mapping it onto a concept of an object or event. However, we believe that a mapping metaphor cannot account for word learning, because even though children focus attention on objects, they do not necessarily remember the connection between the word and the referent unless it is framed pragmatically, that is, within a task. Our theoretical paper proposes an alternative mechanism for word learning. Our main premise is that word learning occurs as children accomplish a goal in cooperation with a partner. We follow Bruner’s (1983) idea and further specify pragmatic frames as the learning units that drive language acquisition and cognitive development. These units consist of a sequence of actions and verbal behaviors that are co-constructed with a partner to achieve a joint goal. We elaborate on this alternative, offer some initial parametrizations of the concept, and embed it in current language learning approaches. PMID:27148105

  16. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  17. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  18. Variable/Multispeed Rotorcraft Drive System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies for advanced rotorcraft have identified the need for variable, or multispeed-capable rotors. A speed change of up to 50 percent has been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve vehicle performance. Varying rotor speed during flight not only requires a rotor capable of performing effectively over the extended operation speed and load range, but also requires an advanced propulsion system to provide the required speed changes. A study has been completed, which investigated possible drive system arrangements to accommodate up to the 50 percent speed change. These concepts are presented. The most promising configurations are identified and will be developed for future validation testing.

  19. Investigation of Exoskeletal Engine Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Palac, Donald T.; Hunter, James E.; Myers, David E.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; McCurdy, David R.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An innovative approach to gas turbine design involves mounting compressor and turbine blades to an outer rotating shell. Designated the exoskeletal engine, compression (preferable to tension for high-temperature ceramic materials, generally) becomes the dominant blade force. Exoskeletal engine feasibility lies in the structural and mechanical design (as opposed to cycle or aerothermodynamic design), so this study focused on the development and assessment of a structural-mechanical exoskeletal concept using the Rolls-Royce AE3007 regional airliner all-axial turbofan as a baseline. The effort was further limited to the definition of an exoskeletal high-pressure spool concept, where the major structural and thermal challenges are represented. The mass of the high-pressure spool was calculated and compared with the mass of AE3007 engine components. It was found that the exoskeletal engine rotating components can be significantly lighter than the rotating components of a conventional engine. However, bearing technology development is required, since the mass of existing bearing systems would exceed rotating machinery mass savings. It is recommended that once bearing technology is sufficiently advanced, a "clean sheet" preliminary design of an exoskeletal system be accomplished to better quantify the potential for the exoskeletal concept to deliver benefits in mass, structural efficiency, and cycle design flexibility.

  20. EO system concepts in the littoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  1. An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreymer, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)

  2. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  3. Properties of language networks and language systems. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan

    2014-12-01

    Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.

  4. Harmonisation of the Educational Concept "Learning Outcome" in the Lithuanian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an example of translation of the English term "learning outcome" into the Lithuanian system of educational terms is used to discuss semantic peculiarities of translating professional terms. Consistency of a concept signifier and content of a concept, as well as their tune with already existing systems of educational…

  5. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  6. A language based on analogy to communicate cultural concepts in SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.

  7. Concept-based lexical-semantic unsupervised learning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    Concept learning is essential for automatic knowledge acquisition and consists in linking semantic and linguistic data together. In this work, a system of concept learning, which mimics to some extent human infant learning, is presented. This system performs visual and audial feature extraction and construction of concept database by maximizing of their mutual information. Experiments show 90% recognition rate of learnt concepts.

  8. Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems Alejandro Acero and Richard M. Stern Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...applications of spectral subtraction and spectral equaliza- tion for speech recognition systems include the work of Van Compemolle [5] and Stem and Acero [12... Acero and Stem [1] proposed an approach to environment normalization in the cepstral domain, going beyond the noise stripping problem. In this paper we

  9. An expert system for natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  10. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising.

  11. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  12. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  13. Proposed Solar Probe telecommunications system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, K.; Devereaux, A.; Vacchione, J.; Kapoor, V.; Crist, R.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed telecommunications system concept for NASA's Solar Probe mission is described. Key system requirements include 70 kbps data rate at perihelion and operation at X-band (uplink/downlink) and Ka-band (downlink). A design control table is presented to demonstrate design compliance with telecommunication needs. The Ka-band feed is to be a hexagonal array of 37 active elements, each containing 1/4W HEMT amplifiers. The array is located at the Cassegrain point of a 0.75-m reflector. When compared to the TWTA-based system, the Ka-band active array feed provides advantages of reduced mass, increased dc power efficiency, enhanced reliability, graceful degradation, and reduced volume requirements.

  14. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  15. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  16. Scope of linguistic influence: does a classifier system alter object concepts?

    PubMed

    Saalbach, Henrik; Imai, Mutsumi

    2007-08-01

    Whether and to what extent conceptual structure is universal is of great importance for understanding the nature of human concepts. Two major factors that might affect concepts are language and culture. The authors investigated whether these 2 factors affect concepts of everyday objects in any significant ways. Specifically, they tested (a) whether the system of grammatical categorization by classifiers influenced the conceptual structure of speakers of classifier languages, and (b) whether Westerners organized object concepts around taxonomic relations whereas Easterners organized them around thematic relations, as proposed by R. E. Nisbett (2003). The relative importance of 3 types of relations--taxonomic, thematic, and classifier--for Chinese and German speakers was tested using a range of tasks, including categorization, similarity judgment, property induction, and fast-speed word-picture matching. Some support for linguistic relativity as well as for the cultural-specific cognition proposal was found in some tasks, but these effects were miniscule compared with the importance of taxonomic and thematic relations for both language-culture groups. The authors conclude that the global structure of everyday object concepts is strikingly similar across different cultures and languages.

  17. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  18. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  19. "It's Easy to Learn when You Using Your Home Language but with English You Need to Start Learning Language before You Get to the Concept": Bilingual Concept Development in an English Medium University in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Moragh Isobel Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a multilingual glossary project in the economics department at the University of Cape Town which gave multilingual students learning economics through the medium of English, opportunities to discuss new economic concepts in their home languages in order to broaden and enrich understanding of these new concepts. The findings…

  20. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  1. Magnetic Launch Assist System-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This illustration is an artist's concept of a Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist System technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, landing gear and the wing size, as well as the elimination of propellant weight resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  2. Antenna concepts for interstellar search systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basler, R. P.; Johnson, G. L.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation is made of microwave receiving systems designed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Specific design concepts are analyzed parametrically to determine whether the optimum antenna system location is on earth, in space, or on the moon. Parameters considered include the hypothesized number of transmitting civilizations, the number of stars that must be searched to give any desired probability of receiving a signal, the antenna collecting area, the search time, the search range, and the cost. This analysis suggests that (1) search systems based on the moon are not cost-competitive, (2) if the search is extended only a few hundred light years from the earth, a Cyclops-type array on earth may be the most cost-effective system, (3) for a search extending to 500 light years or more, a substantial cost and search-time advantage can be achieved with a large spherical reflector in space with multiple feeds, (4) radio frequency interference shields can be provided for space systems, and (5) cost can range from a few hundred million to tens of billions of dollars, depending on the parameter values assumed.

  3. Multiple weapon system distributed sensor concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2009-05-01

    Distributed Sensor Concept-DISCO was proposed for multiplication of individual weapon capability through cooperative target engagement. DISCO creates practically distributed in space sensor network that performs sensing by exchanging of pre-track frame and GNC data. Concept of operations for DISCO is based on complete absence of any kind of host vehicle with its weight allocated for unique and costly propulsion, communication and avionics, and, in the same time DISCO preserves the original idea of multiplicity of lightweight effective weapon dispensed from an unitary payload Three major benefits of DISCO are: immediate PBO deployment; absence of any kind of carrier or "central" vehicle or bus; multiplicity of weapon. DISCO sensor network supports target handover without active ranging but by triangulating. Digital video-signal processing that supports DISCO is Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration of Limited data. Each sensor disseminates to and receives frame, calibration and GNC data from other sensors in the network. In this paper efficiency of DISCO weapon system is discussed for acquisition, accurate handover and track correlation.

  4. That Child Is a Yellow: New Immigrant Children's Conceptions of English Language, Literacy, and Learners' Identities in the NCLB Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkan, Sultan; DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we utilize the concepts of conceptual metaphors, cultural models, and master myths to discuss the ways by which three new immigrant children, native speakers of Spanish, were developing conceptions of English language, literacy, and learner's identities. Our findings point to 3 main metaphors that were often implicit in the school…

  5. Science concept learning by English as second language junior secondary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Pui-Kwong; Lucas, Keith B.; Burke, Ed V.

    1995-03-01

    Recent Chinese migrant students from Taiwan studying science in two Australian secondary schools were found to explain the meanings of selected science concept labels in English by translating from Chinese. The research strategy involved interviewing the students concerning their recognition and comprehension of the science concept labels firstly in Chinese and then in English. Mean recognition and comprehension scores were higher in Chinese than in English, with indications that Chinese language and science knowledge learnt in Chinese deteriorated with increasing time of residence in Australia. Rudimentary signs of the students being able to switch between Chinese and English knowledge bases in science were also found. Implications for teaching science to ESL students and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  6. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  7. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  8. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    roller coasters . They have also been included in preliminary EMALS / EARS launch system designs; however, ALDS launcher system accelerations and path...is based on a permanent magnet linear motor design incorporating high temperature superconducting materials in the rotor, stator windings, and...linear induction motor concept similar to the Electro- Magnetic Aircraft Launcher System (EMALS) that is currently under development for use as a

  9. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  10. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  11. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  12. Multi-kilowatt solar power system concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kirpich, A.; Chung, A.

    1984-08-01

    As part of a feasibility study for large satellite communications, the conceptual design of a multi-kilowatt solar power system has been completed. The concept is based on using two flat-pack SEP solar arrays having a beginning-of-life output of 25 KW. The bulk of this power is supplied to the communication payload at 200 VDC. Further processing to various user voltage levels is performed within the communications subsystem. A limited amount of energy storage is used to maintain the payload during eclipse periods. The system has been designed for a geosynchronous orbit. Key technical issues of this concept are the use of a high distribution voltage (200 VDC) and the effects of electro-static discharge (ESD) associated with the large solar array area. Assessments of these issues are presented together with approaches for reducing deleterious effects to acceptable levels. Housekeeping loads, estimated at 1 KW, are supported by a small segment of the solar array along with a complement of batteries for operation through eclipse periods. This power is provided at 28 VDC. A unique feature of the design is the manner in which the solar array is mounted to the spacecraft. Instead of articulating the solar array with respect to the main spacecraft body, as implemented in many geosynchronous spacecraft, the solar array is fixed to the main body. Both the solar array and main body are then sun oriented. Key advantages of this approach are: elimination of high power slip rings; simple thermal control because sun-pointing results in constant thermal conditions; straightforward structural and mechanical integration resulting largely from elimination of view factor considerations associated with articulated solar arrays.

  13. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  14. An overview of the Opus language and runtime system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Haines, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    We have recently introduced a new language, called Opus, which provides a set of Fortran language extensions that allow for integrated support of task and data parallelism. lt also provides shared data abstractions (SDA's) as a method for communication and synchronization among these tasks. In this paper, we first provide a brief description of the language features and then focus on both the language-dependent and language-independent parts of the runtime system that support the language. The language-independent portion of the runtime system supports lightweight threads across multiple address spaces, and is built upon existing lightweight thread and communication systems. The language-dependent portion of the runtime system supports conditional invocation of SDA methods and distributed SDA argument handling.

  15. A Distant Solar System (Artist's Concept Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation portrays an artist's concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins close to the star, and then moves out past a number of planets. Though 'extrasolar' planets are too small to be seen with telescopes, astronomers have detected more than 100 gas giants like Jupiter via their gravitational tug on their parent stars.

    The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is all that remains of the planet-forming disk from which the planets evolved.

    Planets are formed when dusty material in a large disk surrounding a young star clumps together. Leftover material is eventually blown out by solar wind or pushed out by gravitational interactions with planets. Billions of years later, only an outer disk of debris remains.

    These outer debris disks are too faint to be imaged directly by visible-light telescopes. They are washed out by the glare of the Sun. However, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope can detect their heat, or excess thermal emission, in infrared light. This allows astronomers to study the aftermath of planet building in distant solar systems like our own.

  16. Second order limit language in variants of splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Azrin; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Heng, Fong Wan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2014-07-01

    The cutting and pasting processes that occur in DNA molecules have led to the formulation of splicing system. Since then, there are few models used to model the splicing system. The splicing language, which is the product of splicing system, can be categorized into two, namely the adult and limit language. In this research, limit language is extended to the second order limit language. Few problems are approached which lead to the formation of second order limit language which is then analyzed using various types of splicing system.

  17. Developing embodied cognition: insights from children’s concepts and language processing

    PubMed Central

    Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition. PMID:24904513

  18. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  19. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  20. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás.; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, Peter

    2016-07-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, and high spatial resolution. The instrument SAFARI is a cryogenic grating-based point source spectrometer working in the wavelength domain 34 to 230 μm, providing spectral resolving power from 300 to at least 2000. The instrument shall provide low and high resolution spectroscopy in four spectral bands. Low Resolution mode is the native instrument mode, while the high Resolution mode is achieved by means of a Martin-Pupplet interferometer. The optical system is all-reflective and consists of three main modules; an input optics module, followed by the Band and Mode Distributing Optics and the grating Modules. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled linear arrays of very sensitive TES detectors. The work presented in this paper describes the optical design architecture and design concept compatible with the current instrument performance and volume design drivers.

  1. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  2. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack of a conventional language model, this child developed his own gestural system. In this system, features known to mark phrase and utterance boundaries in established sign languages were used to consistently mark the ends of utterances, but not to mark phrase or utterance internal boundaries. A single child can thus develop the seeds of a prosodic system, but full elaboration may require more time, more users, or even more generations to blossom. PMID:25574153

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  4. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most

  5. Examining Evaluation System of an English Language Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si-hong, Li

    2007-01-01

    In the field of EFL, effective language evaluation is receiving more and more attention. However, in many Chinese EFL situations, the evaluation of language development is still considered to be product-oriented. It is the purpose of this article to examine an evaluation system of an English language program offered by a university in Yunnan…

  6. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  7. Evaluation of the Unified Medical Language System as a Medical Knowledge Source

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Oliver; Burgun, Anita; Botti, Geneviève; Fieschi, Marius; Beux, Pierre Le; Kohler, François

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The authors evaluated the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a medical knowledge source for the representation of medical procedures in the MAOUSSC system. Design: MAOUSSC, a multiaxial coding system, was used for the representation of 1500 procedures from 15 clinical specialties, using UMLS concepts (augmented by full sources for three new vocabularies being added to the UMLS) and relationships whenever possible. Evaluation criteria for the UMLS included (1) completeness of representation of concepts and of inter-concept relationships, (2) consistency in the categorization of both concepts and inter-concept relationships, and (3) usability, including adaptability of the UMLS to a foreign language (French), its suitability to a geographic region with different medical practices than the USA, and issues relative to the annual update changes in the test vocabularies. Results: During the MAOUSSC trial, the number of missing concepts or relationships identified in the augmented UMLS sources was deemed to be inconsequential relative to overall project goals. “Missing” UMLS inter-concept relationships were identified, although they were small in number. Some inconsistencies in the UMLS were noted, especially in the area of hierarchic relationships. Conclusion: After UMLS was used for five years as a knowledge source for representing 1500 complex medical procedures in MAOUSSC, its value is considered significant. Future editions of the UMLS are expected to improve representation of inter-concept relationships and global consistency. PMID:9452987

  8. Aesthetic concepts, perceptual learning, and linguistic enculturation: considerations from Wittgenstein, language, and music.

    PubMed

    Croom, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Aesthetic non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express genuinely aesthetic beliefs and instead hold that they work primarily to express something non-cognitive, such as attitudes of approval or disapproval, or desire. Non-cognitivists deny that aesthetic statements express aesthetic beliefs because they deny that there are aesthetic features in the world for aesthetic beliefs to represent. Their assumption, shared by scientists and theorists of mind alike, was that language-users possess cognitive mechanisms with which to objectively grasp abstract rules fixed independently of human responses, and that cognizers are thereby capable of grasping rules for the correct application of aesthetic concepts without relying on evaluation or enculturation. However, in this article I use Wittgenstein's rule-following considerations to argue that psychological theories grounded upon this so-called objective model of rule-following fail to adequately account for concept acquisition and mastery. I argue that this is because linguistic enculturation, and the perceptual learning that's often involved, influences and enables the mastery of aesthetic concepts. I argue that part of what's involved in speaking aesthetically is to belong to a cultural practice of making sense of things aesthetically, and that it's within a socio-linguistic community, and that community's practices, that such aesthetic sense can be made intelligible.

  9. Effects of learning with gesture on children's understanding of a new language concept.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Elizabeth M; James, Karin H

    2015-08-01

    Asking children to gesture while being taught a concept facilitates their learning. Here, we investigated whether children benefitted equally from producing gestures that reflected speech (speech-gesture matches) versus gestures that complemented speech (speech-gesture mismatches), when learning the concept of palindromes. As in previous studies, we compared the utility of each gesture strategy to a speech alone strategy. Because our task was heavily based on language ability, we also considered children's phonological competency as a predictor of success at posttest. Across conditions, children who had low phonological competence were equally likely to perform well at posttest. However, gesture use was predictive of learning for children with high phonological competence: Those who produced either gesture strategy during training were more likely to learn than children who used a speech alone strategy. These results suggest that educators should be encouraged to use either speech-gesture match or mismatch strategies to aid learners, but that gesture may be especially beneficial to children who possess basic skills related to the new concept, in this case, phonological competency. Results also suggest that there are differences between the cognitive effects of naturally produced speech-gesture matches and mismatches, and those that are scripted and taught to children.

  10. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  11. Sequoyah Foreign Language Translation System - Business Case Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    systems like airline reservations. These systems are quite accurate with small difficulties recognizing unusual accents . • Large vocabulary, speaker...Large vocabulary, speaker independent systems. People speak with a variety of grammar rules and accents , so understandably these systems give...exercises being conducted annually with coalition partners where English is not the primary language of communication. Hence, language capability becomes

  12. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  13. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  14. CLIPS: The C language integrated production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computer programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The potential payoff from expert systems is high: valuable expertise can be captured and preserved, repetitive and/or mundane tasks requiring human expertise can be automated, and uniformity can be applied in decision making processes. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 5,000 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as the basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  15. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  16. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  17. Comparing optical systems, and the concept of the converter system.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F; van Gool, R D

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a complete and general method for comparing the first-order optical character of optical systems. The method provides a common basis for quantifying the difference between systems of all kinds including thin lenses, ophthalmic prisms, eyes before and after accommodation, eyes before and after refractive surgery, etc. Systems may be astigmatic or stigmatic, coaxial or noncoaxial. In special cases, the method reduces to being equivalent in essence to ostensibly incommensurate comparisons implicit or explicit in current optometric and ophthalmological usage (difference in power for refractions, corneas, and thin lenses, difference in prismatic power for prisms, ratio of magnifications for afocal telescopes, etc.). The method uses the concept of a converter system that when placed in front of or behind one system, converts its first-order optical character to the equivalent of a second system. Equations are presented for the ray transferences of the anterior and posterior converter systems for pair-wise comparisons in general. For any two systems, the transferences of the converter systems always exist and are unique. Numerical examples are presented; they illustrate converter systems that may be thin in special cases but thick otherwise. The transference of a converter system embodies and quantifies the optical difference between systems or characterizes the change from one state of a system (presurgical or preaccommodative, for example) to another (postsurgical or postaccommodative). The method provides a rational and uniform methodology for research and clinical applications in many areas of optometry and ophthalmology.

  18. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  19. Bootstrapping in a Language of Thought: A Formal Model of Numerical Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Goodman, Noah D.

    2012-01-01

    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful…

  20. Mining biomedical data using MetaMap Transfer (MMtx) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

    PubMed

    Osborne, John D; Lin, Simon; Zhu, Lihua; Kibbe, Warren A

    2007-01-01

    Detailed instruction is described for mapping unstructured, free text data into common biomedical concepts (drugs, diseases, anatomy, and so on) found in the Unified Medical Language System using MetaMap Transfer (MMTx). MMTx can be used in applications including mining and inferring relationship between concepts in MEDLINE publications by transforming free text into computable concepts. MMTx is in general not designed to be an end-user program; therefore, a simple analysis is described using MMTx for users without any programming knowledge. In addition, two Java template files are provided for automated processing of the output from MMTx and users can adopt this with minimum Java program experience.

  1. Language disorders in children with central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Children with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit a variety of language disorders that have been described by members of different disciplines, in different journals, using different descriptors and taxonomies. This paper is an overview of language deficits in children with CNS injury, whether congenital or acquired after a period of normal development. It first reviews the principal CNS conditions associated with language disorders in childhood. It then describes a functional taxonomy of language, with examples of the phenomenology and neurobiology of clinical deficits in children with CNS insults. Finally, it attempts to situate language in the broader realm of cognition and in current theoretical accounts of embodied cognition. PMID:20397297

  2. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  3. Technical Assessment of Maglev System Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    combinations of magnet grouping and passive -active shielding. Indeed, the U.S. concepts demonstrate the benefit of dealing with such issues early in conceptual...magnets, and the use of a passive secondary suspension pro- vide a second set of limits to the speed potential of TR07. The U.S. concepts, by comparison...evaluations. (TGV-R) and 547 (TGV-Bilevel). The trainsets do not incorporate active or passive tilting. 2.1 HIGH-SPEED RAIL-TGV* Propulsion power and

  4. Flight Phase Status Monitor Study. Phase I. Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-10

    analysis Title indepindent altitude monitor &.; --. ods j or aircraft alerting I(Report No.) monitor concept and modes study Ir s~tems data ( FAA -RD-73...168) ( FAA -RO-75-861 ( FAA RD--6-2221 Objectives 0 Identify nature of typical 0 Develop operational alert 0 Tabulate current boerting inadvertent terrain...alerting system ’ for system design(Rpr o)concepts system concept concepts (DOT/ FAA /RD-82-26) ( FAA -RD-Ba-68) evaluations ( FAA -RO-81-38 I & 11) Objectives 0

  5. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  6. If Language Is a Complex Adaptive System, What Is Language Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Yin, Chengbin

    2009-01-01

    Individuals' use of language in contexts emerges from second-to-second processes of activating and integrating traces of past experiences--an interactionist view compatible with the study of language as a complex adaptive system but quite different from the trait-based framework through which measurement specialists investigate validity, establish…

  7. Academic Language, English Language Learners, and Systemic Functional Linguistics: Connecting Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators need linguistic tools to help preservice teachers develop a deeper understanding of the academic language demands of the literacy practices required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) serves as a tool for developing teachers' knowledge of content-area language. Teachers' increased…

  8. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  9. Manned Orbital Systems Concepts Study. Book 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Requirements for and definitions of a cost effective orbital facility concept, capable of supporting extended manned operations in earth orbit beyond those visualized for the 7 to 30 day shuttle/spacelab system, were studied. Data are given on requirements derivation, concepts identification, systems analysis and definition, and programmatics.

  10. The Development of a Diagnostic Test for Determining Secondary Students' Knowledge and Understanding of Certain Basic Language Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Coleen Rawson

    Problems encountered in evaluating the effectiveness of an English elective program indicated the need for the development of a criterion-referenced diagnostic test for determining students' knowledge and understanding of certain basic language concepts in the field of English. A survey of 76 English elective programs throughout the United States…

  11. The Effect of Peer Group Performance on the Self-Concept of Reading in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Rianne; Wouters, Sofie; Huygh, Tine; Denies, Katrijn; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    According to the big-fish-little-pond (BFLP) model, the self-concept is not only influenced in a positive way by one's own achievement, but also in a negative way by one's relative achievement in comparison with one's immediate peers. This study investigates whether the BFLP effect also holds for second language acquisition. A random sample of…

  12. Language Brokering and Self-Concept: An Exploratory Study of Latino Students' Experiences in Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Kumpiene, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among individual characteristics, language brokering experiences and attitudes, and multiple dimensions of self-concept among a sample of Latino adolescents. The sample was comprised of 66 Latino students in 6th through 11th grades who were proficient in both Spanish and English. Results from…

  13. Language Management × 3: A Theory, a Sub-Concept, and a Business Strategy Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    The term "language management" has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed into the Language Management Theory (LMT).…

  14. Phase control system concepts and simulations. [solar power satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A phase control system concept for a solar power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase control consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase control center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase control consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase control system. The third level of phase control is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.

  15. Automatic Dialogue Scoring for a Second Language Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin-Xia; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic dialogue scoring approach for a Dialogue-Based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) system, which helps users learn language via interactive conversations. The system produces overall feedback according to dialogue scoring to help the learner know which parts should be more focused on. The scoring measures…

  16. Applying Language Systems to the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael P.

    1986-01-01

    Uses a single language system--technical description--to illustrate how language systems can now be used as the basis for instruction in technical writing. Provides sample exercises in progressive teaching from simple description to complex continuity devices, showing how they can be used at all stages of the writing process. (HTH)

  17. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  18. Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks.

  19. Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

  20. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  1. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  2. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  3. Childhood Aphasia--An Updated Concept Based on Recent Research. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenson, Jon; Ingram, David

    1972-01-01

    This paper examines the perceptual processes that underlie normal language acquisition with relation to perceptual dysfunctions in the aphasic child. Experiments are cited which seem to indicate that auditory dyfunctions may underlie language impairment. Experimental studies of the linguistic systems of the aphasic child seem to support the theory…

  4. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  5. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  6. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, C.

    1994-01-01

    version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  7. BIO-Plex Information System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Boulanger, Richard; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a suggested design for an integrated information system for the proposed BIO-Plex (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex) at Johnson Space Center (JSC), including distributed control systems, central control, networks, database servers, personal computers and workstations, applications software, and external communications. The system will have an open commercial computing and networking, architecture. The network will provide automatic real-time transfer of information to database server computers which perform data collection and validation. This information system will support integrated, data sharing applications for everything, from system alarms to management summaries. Most existing complex process control systems have information gaps between the different real time subsystems, between these subsystems and central controller, between the central controller and system level planning and analysis application software, and between the system level applications and management overview reporting. An integrated information system is vitally necessary as the basis for the integration of planning, scheduling, modeling, monitoring, and control, which will allow improved monitoring and control based on timely, accurate and complete data. Data describing the system configuration and the real time processes can be collected, checked and reconciled, analyzed and stored in database servers that can be accessed by all applications. The required technology is available. The only opportunity to design a distributed, nonredundant, integrated system is before it is built. Retrofit is extremely difficult and costly.

  8. Introducing Systems Concepts to All University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahne, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that systems thinking transcends disciplinary boundaries and should be part of everyone's education. Stresses future importance of systems global models and their capacity for planning and decision making on a world scale. A tentative topic outline for a systems approach course at university level is proposed. (Author/SMB)

  9. Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

  10. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  11. The Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain (CSLB) concept property norms.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Barry J; Tyler, Lorraine K; Geertzen, Jeroen; Randall, Billi

    2014-12-01

    Theories of the representation and processing of concepts have been greatly enhanced by models based on information available in semantic property norms. This information relates both to the identity of the features produced in the norms and to their statistical properties. In this article, we introduce a new and large set of property norms that are designed to be a more flexible tool to meet the demands of many different disciplines interested in conceptual knowledge representation, from cognitive psychology to computational linguistics. As well as providing all features listed by 2 or more participants, we also show the considerable linguistic variation that underlies each normalized feature label and the number of participants who generated each variant. Our norms are highly comparable with the largest extant set (McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, & McNorgan, 2005) in terms of the number and distribution of features. In addition, we show how the norms give rise to a coherent category structure. We provide these norms in the hope that the greater detail available in the Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain norms should further promote the development of models of conceptual knowledge. The norms can be downloaded at www.csl.psychol.cam.ac.uk/propertynorms.

  12. Language system organization in a quadrilingual with a brain tumor: Implications for understanding of the language network.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Japardi, Kevin; Frew, Andrew; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2016-06-01

    In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language.

  13. Language constructs and runtime systems for compositional parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.

    1995-03-01

    In task-parallel programs, diverse activities can take place concurrently, and communication and synchronization patterns are complex and not easily predictable. Previous work has identified compositionality as an important design principle for task-parallel programs. In this paper, we discuss alternative approaches to the realization of this principle. We first provide a review and critical analysis of Strand, an early compositional programming language. We examine the strengths of the Strand approach and also its weaknesses, which we attribute primarily to the use of a specialized language. Then, we present an alternative programming language framework that overcomes these weaknesses. This framework uses simple extensions to existing sequential languages (C++ and Fortran) and a common runtime system to provide a basis for the construction of large, task-parallel programs. We also discuss the runtime system techniques required to support these languages on parallel and distributed computer systems.

  14. REACTOR - a Concept for establishing a System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    well suited to establish brokers, which mediate metadata and semantic information about the resources of all involved systems. This concept has been developed within the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) on the basis of semantic registries describing all facets of events and services utilisable for crisis management systems. The implementation utilises an operative infrastructure including an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), adapters to proprietary sensor systems, a workflow engine, and a broker-based MOM. It also applies current technologies like actor-based frameworks for highly concurrent, distributed, and fault tolerant event-driven applications. Therefore REACTOR implementations are well suited to be hosted in a cloud that provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). To provide low entry barriers for legacy and future systems, REACTOR adapts the principles of Design by Contract (DbC) as well as standardised and common information models like the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) or the JavaScript Object Notation for geographic features (GeoJSON). REACTOR has been applied exemplarily within two different scenarios, Natural Crisis Management and Industrial Subsurface Development.

  15. Information theory as a general language for functional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, John

    2000-05-01

    Function refers to a broad family of concepts of varying abstractness and range of application, from a many-one mathematical relation of great generality to, for example, highly specialized roles of designed elements in complex machines such as degaussing in a television set, or contributory processes to control mechanisms in complex metabolic pathways, such as the inhibitory function of the appropriate part of the lac-operon on the production of lactase through its action on the genome in the absence of lactose. We would like a language broad enough, neutral enough, but yet powerful enough to cover all such cases, and at the same time to give a framework form explanation both of the family resemblances and differences. General logic and mathematics are too abstract, but more importantly, too broad, whereas other discourses of function, such as the biological and teleological contexts, are too narrow. Information is especially suited since it is mathematically grounded, but also has a well-known physical interpretation through the Schrodinger/Brillouin Negentropy. Principle of Information, and an engineering or design interpretation through Shannon's communication theory. My main focus will be on the functions of autonomous anticipatory systems, but I will try to demonstrate both the connections between this notion of function and the others, especially to dynamical systems with a physical interpretation on the one side and intentional systems on the other. The former are based in concepts like force, energy and work, while the latter involve notions like representation, control and purpose, traditionally, at least in Modern times, on opposite sides of the Cartesian divide. In principle, information can be reduced to energy, but it has the advantage of being more flexible, and easier to apply to higher level phenomena.

  16. The Verbal System of Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Lopez, Esperanza; Boldu-Menasanch, Rosa Maria; Alonso-Rodriguez, Jesus Amador; Gras-Ferrer, Victoria; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the predicative verbal system of Catalan Sign Language (LSC) as it is used by Deaf people in the province of Barcelona. We also present a historical perspective of the research on this topic, which provides insight into the changes that have taken place over the last few decades in sign language linguistics. The principal…

  17. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-05-01

    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting.

  18. Task Related Modulation of the Motor System during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three…

  19. What Work Do the Concepts of "Language" and "Literature" Do for Michael Rosenak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Michael Rosenak uses the twin metaphors of "language" and "literature," borrowed from Oakeshott and Peters, to argue that the goal of education is initiation into a language. This goal transcends the study of literature in that language. It includes, as well, the development of the capacity both to critique literature and to…

  20. Concepts of Resilience for Coastal Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-06

    AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Glossary_FGD.pdf “The capacity of a social- ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or...dunes, wetlands Ecological Resilience The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change Ecological Resilience... ecological systems.” Ecology and Society 9 (2): 5. , gradual for successful adaptation. 10/6/2015 5 Community Resilience Capability to

  1. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    PubMed

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  2. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  3. A Dynamical Systems Model for Language Change.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    11, Georgetown Universtiy, 1982. [6] A. S. Kroch. Function and gramar in the his- tory of english : Periphrastic "do.". In Ralph Fa- sold, editor...cally, posit 3 Boolean parameters, Speci er rst/ nal; Head rst/ nal; Verb second allowed or not, leading to 8 possible gram- mars/languages ( English ...Nonverb second populations tend to gain Verb second over time (e.g., English -type languages change to a more German type) contrary to historically

  4. PL-Detective: A System for Teaching Programming Language Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diwan, Amer; Waite, William M.; Jackson, Michele H.; Dickerson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    The educational literature recognizes that people go through a number of stages in their intellectual development. During the first stage, called "received knowledge" or "dualism", people expect knowledge to be handed to them by authority figures (thus "received") and think in terms of black and white (thus "dualism"). Our experience indicates…

  5. Using Movies to Teach Family Systems Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudock, Anthony M., Jr.; Warden, Sherry A. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    This article reflects a review of research relevant to family systems training and the use of films in the teaching of family systems theory. Advantages and disadvantages of using movies in an introductory-level graduate family therapy course are discussed. An outline of family therapy training objectives, as well as examples of a movie-based…

  6. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  7. A System of Study Materials for the Teaching of Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Ebbe

    1969-01-01

    Summarizes results of a German language teaching project in a Swedish comprehensive school aimed at producing appropriate instructional materials. General concepts of foreign language instruction outlined are supported by selective bibliographies. (DS)

  8. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  9. New Concept Firefighting Agent Delivery System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    the firing system to operate properly. The actuator cylinder was controlled by a solenoid-operated spread bore poppet valve (Ross Mod. 2773B7001). For...feet. This load and distance represented the limits of the launcher system, and major modifications were undertaken to replace the firing valve , fit...PROTOTYPE DEVELOPM ENT ........................................ 28 A. PULSED-GAS VALVE LAUNCHER................... 28 ix TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED

  10. Natural Language Processor as a Universal Front End to Expert Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    used. Experts in linguistics, philosophy, psychology, and artificial intelligence all define "natural language" from different perspectives. Concepts...as ROBOT. Systems are envisioned which will function as intellegent robots which I- 6 *.*.-.-. . . . *-.. . , ’,- -. , .. * * *,.’ - -,.- -- perform...difference is: The population of Peru is larger by a factor of 7.8. End SCHOLAR [Handbook of Artificial Intelligence] A-l J’ * Ř

  11. Korean Language Generation in an Interlingua-Based Speech Translation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-21

    Air Force Contract F19628-95-C-0002. Approved for puhlic release; distribution is unlimited. 19960410 053 This report is based on studies performed...using the ILT approach [1]. 1.2 CCLINC Common Coalition language at LINColn Laboratory (CCLINC) is a system architecture and concept demonstration ...who are accepted are up to and including you When the attachment happens, the preceding words do not alter their endings, unless they are pronouns

  12. Autonomous-Control Concept For Instrument Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Milman, Mark H.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated payload articulation and identification system (IPAIDS) is conceptual system to control aiming of instruments aboard spacecraft of proposed Earth Observation System (EOS). Principal features of concept include advanced control strategies intended to assure robustness of performance over wide range of uncertainties in characteristics of spacecraft and instrument system. Intended originally for application to spacecraft system, has potential utility on Earth for automatic control of autonomous (robotic) vehicles or of remote sensing systems.

  13. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D

    2012-05-01

    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning.

  14. Artist's concept of Antimatter propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an artist's rendition of an antimatter propulsion system. Matter - antimatter arnihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical engergy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is on-going and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  15. A systems concept of the vestibular organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayne, R.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive model of vestibular organ function is presented. The model is based on an analogy with the inertial guidance systems used in navigation. Three distinct operations are investigated: angular motion sensing, linear motion sensing, and computation. These operations correspond to the semicircular canals, the otoliths, and central processing respectively. It is especially important for both an inertial guidance system and the vestibular organs to distinguish between attitude with respect to the vertical on the one hand, and linear velocity and displacement on the other. The model is applied to various experimental situations and found to be corroborated by them.

  16. The concept of self-organizing systems. Why bother?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elverfeldt, Kirsten v.; Embleton-Hamann, Christine; Slaymaker, Olav

    2016-04-01

    Complexity theory and the concept of self-organizing systems provide a rather challenging conceptual framework for explaining earth systems change. Self-organization - understood as the aggregate processes internal to an environmental system that lead to a distinctive spatial or temporal organization - reduces the possibility of implicating a specific process as being causal, and it poses some restrictions on the idea that external drivers cause a system to change. The concept of self-organizing systems suggests that many phenomena result from an orchestration of different mechanisms, so that no causal role can be assigned to an individual factor or process. The idea that system change can be due to system-internal processes of self-organization thus proves a huge challenge to earth system research, especially in the context of global environmental change. In order to understand the concept's implications for the Earth Sciences, we need to know the characteristics of self-organizing systems and how to discern self-organizing systems. Within the talk, we aim firstly at characterizing self-organizing systems, and secondly at highlighting the advantages and difficulties of the concept within earth system sciences. The presentation concludes that: - The concept of self-organizing systems proves especially fruitful for small-scale earth surface systems. Beach cusps and patterned ground are only two of several other prime examples of self-organizing earth surface systems. They display characteristics of self-organization like (i) system-wide order from local interactions, (ii) symmetry breaking, (iii) distributed control, (iv) robustness and resilience, (v) nonlinearity and feedbacks, (vi) organizational closure, (vii) adaptation, and (viii) variation and selection. - It is comparatively easy to discern self-organization in small-scale systems, but to adapt the concept to larger scale systems relevant to global environmental change research is more difficult: Self

  17. A proposed remote manipulator system: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodie, S.; Flatau, C.; Greeb, F.

    1972-01-01

    System is described with variable ratio, mixed mode, bilateral, master-slave control. Manipulator arms consist of shoulder and elbow with two degrees of freedom, a wrist with three degrees of freedom, and terminal grasping device. Feedback is provided by TV cameras attached near shoulder, grasping device, and at end of shuttle opposite arm.

  18. Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sojung; Park, Seongbin

    2014-01-01

    There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference…

  19. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  20. Multiphase railgun systems - A new concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. K.; Weldon, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates multiphase railguns powered by multiphase compulsators. The polyphase system offers several advantages over the single phase system. The multiphase compulsator relaxes the strong dependence between the current pulse width necessary for the railgun and the design parameters of the generator (number or poles, rotor diameter, and tip speed) thus allowing the compulsator to be designed for optimum power density and electromechanical energy conversion. The paper examines in particular the two, three and six phase systems. The authors also explore different methods of achieving high acceleration ratios in multiphase railgun systems. Some of the methods analyzed are ramping up the field current of the compulsator to counter the back electromotive force of the gun, utilizing a railgun with varying inductance per unit length (L'), and using an external variable inductor in series with the compulsator. The different features of each method are highlighted using simulation results. Special attention is devoted to the external series inductor method which uses a rotary flux compressor. Simulation results indicate an encouraging acceleration ratio of 0.7 for a muzzle energy of 9 MJ. A disk configuration is envisioned for the flux compressor.

  1. A novel informatics concept for high-throughput shotgun lipidomics based on the molecular fragmentation query language.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Ronny; Schwudke, Dominik; Schuhmann, Kai; Sampaio, Julio L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schroeder, Michael; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    Shotgun lipidome profiling relies on direct mass spectrometric analysis of total lipid extracts from cells, tissues or organisms and is a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular composition of lipidomes. We present a novel informatics concept of the molecular fragmentation query language implemented within the LipidXplorer open source software kit that supports accurate quantification of individual species of any ionizable lipid class in shotgun spectra acquired on any mass spectrometry platform.

  2. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  3. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, many different types of tests, vehicles, and data acquisition systems will be discussed. The types of tests used by parachute designers are only limited by the designers' imaginations. Since the paper is of finite length, some designers' favorite methods of accomplishing a certain objective will not be discussed. Any omissions are unintentional and are left to future discussions either formally or informally.

  4. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    PubMed

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  5. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  6. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-19

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR`s fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system`s vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm{sup 2} density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner.

  7. MODIS information, data and control system (MIDACS) operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Salomonson, V.; Ormsby, J.; Ardanuy, P.; Mckay, A.; Hoyt, D.; Jaffin, S.; Vallette, B.; Sharts, B.; Folta, D.

    1988-01-01

    The MODIS Information, Data, and Control System (MIDACS) Operations Concepts Document provides a basis for the mutual understanding between the users and the designers of the MIDACS, including the requirements, operating environment, external interfaces, and development plan. In defining the concepts and scope of the system, how the MIDACS will operate as an element of the Earth Observing System (EOS) within the EosDIS environment is described. This version follows an earlier release of a preliminary draft version. The individual operations concepts for planning and scheduling, control and monitoring, data acquisition and processing, calibration and validation, data archive and distribution, and user access do not yet fully represent the requirements of the data system needed to achieve the scientific objectives of the MODIS instruments and science teams. The teams are not yet formed; however, it is possible to develop the operations concepts based on the present concept of EosDIS, the level 1 and level 2 Functional Requirements Documents, and through interviews and meetings with key members of the scientific community. The operations concepts were exercised through the application of representative scenarios.

  8. Concepts Within Reach: Action Performance Predicts Action Language Processing in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rutvik H.; Herter, Troy; Riccardi, Nicholas; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the brain’s conceptual or semantic and sensory-motor systems remains controversial. Here, we tested manual and conceptual abilities of 41 chronic stroke patients in order to examine their relationship. Manual abilities were assed through a reaching task using an exoskeleton robot. Semantic abilities were assessed with implicit as well as explicit semantic tasks, for both verbs and nouns. The results show that that the degree of selective impairment for action word processing was predicted by the degree of impairment in reaching performance. Moreover, the implicit semantic measures showed a correlation with a global reaching parameter, while the explicit semantic similarity judgment task predicted performance in action initiation. These results indicate that action concepts are dynamically grounded through motoric simulations, and that more details are simulated for more explicit semantic tasks. This is evidence for a close and causal relationship between sensory-motor and conceptual systems of the brain. PMID:25858602

  9. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  10. Telescience system concept study, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-11-01

    A demonstration test for Columbus interactive user operations is defined. The data management system (DMS) test bed and the crew work station (CWS) test bed represent the on-board facilities. A pilot experiment (PE), using the fluid physics module, is physically integrated into DMS/CWS test beds. The data management laboratory (DML), providing the necessary test environment, represents the ground segment and the space/ground links. A scientific user, interfaces the telescience test bed (TB) through a console of the DML. A payload on-board operator, interfaces the telescience test bed through CWS-TB facilities and has direct physical and visual contact with the PE. Hardware and basic software configurations necessary to run the telescience demonstration tests are defined.

  11. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  12. Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT): System Concept Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of the Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT) is shown. The contents include: 1) Need and Goals; 2) Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed; 3) PMHT Concept; 4) Development Objectives; 5) Possible Research Payloads; 6) Possible Research Program Participants; 7) PMHT Configuration; 8) AIM-54 Internal Hardware Schematic; 9) PMHT Configuration; 10) New Guidance and Armament Section Profiles; 11) Nomenclature; 12) PMHT Stack; 13) Systems Concept; 14) PMHT Preflight Activities; 15) Notional Ground Path; and 16) Sample Theoretical Trajectories.

  13. Supercritical Brayton Cycle Nuclear Power System Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Both the NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, and for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. The gas Brayton cycle offers many practical solutions for space nuclear power systems and was selected as the nuclear power system of choice for the NASA Prometheus project. An alternative Brayton cycle that offers high efficiency at a lower reactor coolant outlet temperature is the supercritical Brayton cycle (SCBC). The supercritical cycle is a true Brayton cycle because it uses a single phase fluid with a compressor inlet temperature that is just above the critical point of the fluid. This paper describes the use of a supercritical Brayton cycle that achieves a cycle efficiency of 26.6% with a peak coolant temperature of 750 K and for a compressor inlet temperature of 390 K. The working fluid uses a clear odorless, nontoxic refrigerant C318 perflurocarbon (C4F8) that always operates in the gas phase. This coolant was selected because it has a critical temperature and pressure of 388.38 K and 2.777 MPa. The relatively high critical temperature allows for efficient thermal radiation that keeps the radiator mass small. The SCBC achieves high efficiency because the loop design takes advantage of the non-ideal nature of the coolant equation of state just above the critical point. The lower coolant temperature means that metal fuels, uranium oxide fuels, and uranium zirconium hydride fuels with stainless steel, ferretic steel, or superalloy cladding can be used with little mass penalty or reduction in cycle efficiency. The reactor can use liquid-metal coolants and no high temperature heat exchangers need to be developed. Indirect gas cooling or perhaps even direct gas cooling can be used if the C4F8 coolant is found to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. Other fluids can also be used in the supercritical Brayton cycle including Propane (C3H8, Tcritical = 369 K) and Hexane (C6

  14. Supercritical Brayton Cycle Nuclear Power System Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2007-01-30

    Both the NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, and for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. The gas Brayton cycle offers many practical solutions for space nuclear power systems and was selected as the nuclear power system of choice for the NASA Prometheus project. An alternative Brayton cycle that offers high efficiency at a lower reactor coolant outlet temperature is the supercritical Brayton cycle (SCBC). The supercritical cycle is a true Brayton cycle because it uses a single phase fluid with a compressor inlet temperature that is just above the critical point of the fluid. This paper describes the use of a supercritical Brayton cycle that achieves a cycle efficiency of 26.6% with a peak coolant temperature of 750 K and for a compressor inlet temperature of 390 K. The working fluid uses a clear odorless, nontoxic refrigerant C318 perflurocarbon (C4F8) that always operates in the gas phase. This coolant was selected because it has a critical temperature and pressure of 388.38 K and 2.777 MPa. The relatively high critical temperature allows for efficient thermal radiation that keeps the radiator mass small. The SCBC achieves high efficiency because the loop design takes advantage of the non-ideal nature of the coolant equation of state just above the critical point. The lower coolant temperature means that metal fuels, uranium oxide fuels, and uranium zirconium hydride fuels with stainless steel, ferretic steel, or superalloy cladding can be used with little mass penalty or reduction in cycle efficiency. The reactor can use liquid-metal coolants and no high temperature heat exchangers need to be developed. Indirect gas cooling or perhaps even direct gas cooling can be used if the C4F8 coolant is found to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. Other fluids can also be used in the supercritical Brayton cycle including Propane (C3H8, Tcritical = 369 K) and Hexane (C6

  15. Scope of Linguistic Influence: Does a Classifier System Alter Object Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalbach, Henrik; Imai, Mutsumi

    2007-01-01

    Whether and to what extent conceptual structure is universal is of great importance for understanding the nature of human concepts. Two major factors that might affect concepts are language and culture. The authors investigated whether these 2 factors affect concepts of everyday objects in any significant ways. Specifically, they tested (a)…

  16. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    PubMed

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain.

  17. Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

  18. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  19. Lunar fission surface power system design and implementation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  20. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-20

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  1. The "Language Barrier" in Private Online Tutoring: From an Innocuous Concept to a Neoliberal Marketing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The "language barrier" is a common buzzword in Russian-English teaching discourse that has not yet been critically investigated. This study contemplates a recently emerging phenomenon of private online language tutoring in Russia through investigation of this popular phrase. The paper draws on Critical Discourse Analysis to explore…

  2. From Concepts to Design in Developing Languages in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Developing curricula for languages in the context of the Australian Curriculum is a complex undertaking that needs to address a number of demands. These include: the nature of language-and-culture learning for contemporary times within an increasingly diverse linguistic and cultural world; the goals of mainstream education and the…

  3. Textual Concept Critical Analysis: Toward a Research Approach for Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Terry A.; Reagan, Timothy G.; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    When the International Society for Language Studies (ISLS) was founded in 2002 and the journal that is now "Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (CILS)" was in the planning stages, we recognized a need for an interdisciplinary, or perhaps even transdisciplinary (see Kaufman, Moss, & Osborn, 2003), venue for the publication of research on language…

  4. Concept of Best Practices in English Language Teaching to Pakistani ELT Fraternity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Muhammad Arif; Memon, Natasha; Memon, Shumaila Aijaz

    2016-01-01

    Teaching industry of English as a second or foreign language has grown massively in recent times in Pakistan. There are many public sectors universities and English academies established all over Pakistan offering English language proficiency courses. Therefore, this wave led to conduct this research. The purpose of conducting this study was to…

  5. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings.

  6. Translations of the "Evidence-Based Medicine" concept in different languages: is it time for international standardisation?

    PubMed

    Watine, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Although the concept of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is quite popular among English speaking physicians, it still needs to be adopted by an overwhelming majority of health care professionals in countries where English is not familiar. Thus, this concept can be translated in many different, and potentially misleading, ways. This is regrettable because the concept is, at least potentially, a very useful one. As an illustration, I have compiled some of the French translations of EBM that are currently in use in French speaking countries, and indicated briefly how most of these translations (except for one) are bound to be misleading. Many of these misleading translations currently in use strongly suggest that it is time for an international standardisation of the translations of EBM in different languages.

  7. Assessing System Thinking through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstadter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Grossschedl, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular…

  8. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  9. A development environment for operational concepts and systems engineering analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    The work reported in this document involves a development effort to provide combat commanders and systems engineers with a capability to explore and optimize system concepts that include operational concepts as part of the design effort. An infrastructure and analytic framework has been designed and partially developed that meets a gap in systems engineering design for combat related complex systems. The system consists of three major components: The first component consists of a design environment that permits the combat commander to perform 'what-if' types of analyses in which parts of a course of action (COA) can be automated by generic system constructs. The second component consists of suites of optimization tools designed to integrate into the analytical architecture to explore the massive design space of an integrated design and operational space. These optimization tools have been selected for their utility in requirements development and operational concept development. The third component involves the design of a modeling paradigm for the complex system that takes advantage of functional definitions and the coupled state space representations, generic measures of effectiveness and performance, and a number of modeling constructs to maximize the efficiency of computer simulations. The system architecture has been developed to allow for a future extension in which the operational concept development aspects can be performed in a co-evolutionary process to ensure the most robust designs may be gleaned from the design space(s).

  10. Systemic Family Assessment: Concepts and Strategies for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Kathleen D.

    1987-01-01

    This article explores concepts and strategies pertaining to systemic family assessment, enumerates the essential principles of systems theory, and discusses the purposes of family assessment in the context of children's school-related problems. An overview of assessment strategies is provided. (Author/LMO)

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 2: Systems/subsystems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Modifications to the reference concept were studied and the best approaches defined. The impact of the high efficiency multibandgap solar array on the reference concept design is considered. System trade studies for several solid state concepts, including the sandwich concept and a separate antenna/solar concept, are described. Two solid state concepts were selected and a design definition is presented for each. Magnetrons as an alternative to the reference klystrons for dc/RF conversion are evaluated. System definitions are presented for the preferred klystron and solid state concepts. Supporting systems are analyzed, with major analysis in the microwave, structures, and power distribution areas. Results of studies for thermal control, attitude control, stationkeeping, and details of a multibandgap solar cell study are included. Advanced laser concepts and the meteorological effects of a laser beam power transmission concept are considered.

  12. A CLASSIFICATION AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR RECORDED FOREIGN LANGUAGE TAPES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAY, J.B.; JAMESON, A.

    A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE RECORDINGS, DEVISED FOR USE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX, IS DESCRIBED IN THIS ARTICLE. CODING AND CROSS-REFERENCE SYSTEMS FOR THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF TAPES ARE OUTLINED, AND SPECIFIC EXAMPLES ARE INCLUDED. APPENDED IS A LIST OF TAPE REFERENCE CODES. THE SYSTEM OUTLINED IS NOT CONSIDERED IDEAL, BUT IT…

  13. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  14. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  15. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  16. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  17. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  18. Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), Concept Simulations using Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don

    2006-01-01

    Project Objectives include: a) CNS Model Development; b Design/Integration of baseline set of CNS Models into ACES; c) Implement Enhanced Simulation Capabilities in ACES; d) Design and Integration of Enhanced (2nd set) CNS Models; and e) Continue with CNS Model Integration/Concept evaluations.

  19. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  20. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  1. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    PubMed Central

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  2. The Conception of the Control System of Radial Cam Grinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásko, P.; Crhák, V.; Bureš, P.

    VÚTS, a.s., has developed a single-purpose machine for grinding radial cams. The control system is built on Yaskawa's components with MP2310 controller. The paper deals with an entirely new concept of the control system of this single-purpose machine built in variants on the program area of controlled continuous movements and on the PLC program. Furthermore, the specific features of the system and the options of its other variants and industrial applications are declared.

  3. An Integrated Nursing Management Information System: From Concept to Reality

    PubMed Central

    Pinkley, Connie L.; Sommer, Patricia K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the transition from the conceptualization of a Nursing Management Information System (NMIS) integrated and interdependent with the Hospital Information System (HIS) to its realization. Concepts of input, throughout, and output are presented to illustrate developmental strategies used to achieve nursing information products. Essential processing capabilities include: 1) ability to interact with multiple data sources; 2) database management, statistical, and graphics software packages; 3) online, batch and reporting; and 4) interactive data analysis. Challenges encountered in system construction are examined.

  4. One language, two number-word systems and many problems: numerical cognition in the Czech language.

    PubMed

    Pixner, S; Zuber, J; Heřmanová, V; Kaufmann, L; Nuerk, H-C; Moeller, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within the same language: for instance, "25" can be either coded in non-inverted order "dvadsetpät" [twenty-five] or in inverted order "pätadvadset" [five-and-twenty]. To investigate the influence of the number-word system on basic numerical processing within one culture, 7-year-old Czech-speaking children had to perform a transcoding task (i.e., writing Arabic numbers to dictation) in both number-word systems. The observed error pattern clearly indicated that the structure of the number-word system determined transcoding performance reliably: In the inverted number-word system about half of all errors were inversion-related. In contrast, hardly any inversion-related errors occurred in the non-inverted number-word system. We conclude that the development of numerical cognition does not only depend on cultural or educational differences, but is indeed related to the structure and transparency of a given number-word system.

  5. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  6. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  7. When Technology Speaks Language: An Evaluation of Course Management Systems Used in a Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Sun, Yu-Chih; Chang, Yu-Jung

    2010-01-01

    In light of the growing popularity of the use of computer management systems (CMSs) in higher education today, this study critically evaluates CMS adoption through a content-specific lens. By employing a mixed-method approach, the study examines college teachers' and students' experiences and perceptions of CMS adoption for language learning and…

  8. A SYSTEM FOR TEACHING MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING. TEACHER'S NOTEBOOK IN MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHERER, GEORGE A.C.

    A SYSTEM OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION UTILIZING THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH CAN ENABLE THE STUDENT TO ACHIEVE REAL READING ABILITY IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE, AS OPPOSED TO LIMITED TRANSLATION ABILITY. SUCH A CAREFULLY STRUCTURED PROGRAM, WITH CLEARLY SPECIFIED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, STEP-BY-STEP ORGANIZATION, AND THE FACILITY FOR SELF-TESTING, ALLOWS THE…

  9. Operability driven space system concept with high leverage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Henry H.

    1997-01-01

    One of the common objectives of future launch and space transfer systems is to achieve low-cost and effective operational capability by automating processes from pre-launch to the end of mission. Hierarchical and integrated mission management, system management, autonomous GN&C, and integrated micro-nano avionics technologies are critical to extend or revitalize the exploitation of space. Essential to space transfer, orbital systems, Earth-To-Orbit (ETO), commercial and military aviation, and planetary systems are these high leverage hardware and software technologies. This paper covers the driving issues, goals, and requirements definition supported with typical concepts and utilization of multi-use technologies. The approach and method results in a practical system architecture and lower level design concepts.

  10. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  11. System-Oriented Runway Management Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a concept for runway management that maximizes the overall efficiency of arrival and departure operations at an airport or group of airports. Specifically, by planning airport runway configurations/usage, it focuses on the efficiency with which arrival flights reach their parking gates from their arrival fixes and departure flights exit the terminal airspace from their parking gates. In the future, the concept could be expanded to include the management of other limited airport resources. While most easily described in the context of a single airport, the concept applies equally well to a group of airports that comprise a metroplex (i.e., airports in close proximity that share resources such that operations at the airports are at least partially dependent) by including the coordination of runway usage decisions between the airports. In fact, the potential benefit of the concept is expected to be larger in future metroplex environments due to the increasing need to coordinate the operations at proximate airports to more efficiently share limited airspace resources. This concept, called System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM), is further broken down into a set of airport traffic management functions that share the principle that operational performance must be measured over the complete surface and airborne trajectories of the airport's arrivals and departures. The "system-oriented" term derives from the belief that the traffic management objective must consider the efficiency of operations over a wide range of aircraft movements and National Airspace System (NAS) dynamics. The SORM concept is comprised of three primary elements: strategic airport capacity planning, airport configuration management, and combined arrival/departure runway planning. Some aspects of the SORM concept, such as using airport configuration management1 as a mechanism for improving aircraft efficiency, are novel. Other elements (e.g., runway scheduling, which is a part

  12. Comet/Asteroid Protection System: Concept Study Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the major issues have been identified for a futuristic capability to protect against impacting comets and asteroids, and a preliminary space-based concept has been envisioned. Some of the basic concept elements, approaches, methodologies, and features have been identified. When contemplating the ability to monitor comets and asteroids continuously, there are many trade-offs between orbiting observatories and detection systems on planetary bodies without an atmosphere. Future orbit modification techniques have the potential for rapid and controlled alteration of NEO orbits, provided that high-power, compatible thermal management systems are developed. Much additional work and analysis are required to identify a final system concept, and many trade studies need to be performed to select the best mix of system capability, reliability, maintainability, and cost. Finally, it is fully appreciated that at the present time space systems are much more costly than terrestrial-based systems. Hopefully, this will change in the future. Regardless, understanding what it would take to defend against a much wider range of the impact threat will foster ideas, innovations, and technologies that could one day enable the development of such a system. This understanding is vital to provide ways of reducing the costs and quantifying the benefits that are achievable with a system like CAPS.

  13. Next Generation Phenotyping Using the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyama, Naoki; Shimoyama, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Structured information within patient medical records represents a largely untapped treasure trove of research data. In the United States, privacy issues notwithstanding, this has recently become more accessible thanks to the increasing adoption of electronic health records (EHR) and health care data standards fueled by the Meaningful Use legislation. The other side of the coin is that it is now becoming increasingly more difficult to navigate the profusion of many disparate clinical terminology standards, which often span millions of concepts. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for integrating large amounts of structured clinical information that is both terminology agnostic and able to capture heterogeneous clinical phenotypes including problems, procedures, medications, and clinical results (such as laboratory tests and clinical observations). In this context, we define phenotyping as the extraction of all clinically relevant features contained in the EHR. Methods The scope of the project was framed by the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Dataset terminology standards; the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), RxNorm, the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), the Health care Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was used as a mapping layer among the MU ontologies. An extract, load, and transform approach separated original annotations in the EHR from the mapping process and allowed for continuous updates as the terminologies were updated. Additionally, we integrated all terminologies into a single UMLS derived ontology and further optimized it to make the relatively large concept graph manageable. Results

  14. Design Languages, Notation Systems, and Instructional Technology: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Sandie H.; Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Notational systems, used in mature fields of study, are closely related to design languages. The future of a technological field depends on the ability to communicate ideas and changes with others in the field. Instructional technology is one field that can benefit from a notation system enabling designers to duplicate, execute, and communicate…

  15. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign…

  16. Adaptive multibeam concepts for traffic management satellite systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisaga, J. J.; Blank, H. A.; Klein, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of the performance of the various implementations of the simultaneous system in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans has demonstrated that the use of adaptive system concepts in satellite traffic management systems can greatly improve the performance capabilities of these systems as compared to the corresponding performance capabilities of conventional nonadaptive satellite communications systems. It is considered that the techniques developed and analyzed represent a significant technological advance, and that the performance improvement achieved will generally outweigh the increased cost and implementation factors.

  17. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  18. The Laocoon: Systemic Concepts in a Work of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Notes that one of most important ways of examining artistic works, and of explicating psychotherapeutic theories, has been the application of psychotherapy's ideas to works of art. Explores the Roman sculpture, the Laocoon, from systems point of view, discussing ways in which this work embodies family therapy concepts and how in turn those…

  19. NASA's Use of Commercial Satellite Systems: Concepts and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Lewis Research Center's Space Communications Program has a responsibility to investigate, plan for, and demonstrate how NASA Enterprises can use advanced commercial communications services and technologies to satisfy their missions' space communications needs. This presentation looks at the features and challenges of alternative hardware system architecture concepts for providing specific categories of communications services.

  20. Concept synthesis of an equipment manipulation and transportation system EMATS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depeuter, W.; Waffenschmidt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The European Columbus Scenario is established. One of the Columbus Elements, the Man Tended Free Flyer will be designed for fully autonomous operation in order to provide the environment for micro gravity facilities. The Concept of an autonomous automation system which perform servicing of facilities and deals with related logistic tasks is discussed.

  1. What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

  2. The Effect of Naming Systems on the Acquisition of and Reasoning about Time Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Nian

    2012-01-01

    Languages encode time-related concepts, like days of the week (DOW) and months of the year (MOY), in different ways. Some use numerical labels (e.g., in Chinese, Monday is "weekday one"; January is "month one") while others use arbitrary names (e.g., English). This project investigates whether languages that use numerical terms…

  3. Deaf-And-Mute Sign Language Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hideo; Tamura, Shinichi

    1984-08-01

    We have developed a system which can recognize speech and generate the corresponding animation-like sign language sequence. The system is implemented in a popular personal computer. This has three video-RAM's and a voice recognition board which can recognize only registered voice of a specific speaker. Presently, fourty sign language patterns and fifty finger spellings are stored in two floppy disks. Each sign pattern is composed of one to four sub-patterns. That is, if the pattern is composed of one sub-pattern, it is displayed as a still pattern. If not, it is displayed as a motion pattern. This system will help communications between deaf-and-mute persons and healthy persons. In order to display in high speed, almost programs are written in a machine language.

  4. Telesign: a videophone system for sign language distant communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozelle, Gerard; Preteux, Francoise J.; Viallet, Jean-Emmanuel

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a low bit rate videophone system for deaf people communicating by means of sign language. Classic video conferencing systems have focused on head and shoulders sequences which are not well-suited for sign language video transmission since hearing impaired people also use their hands and arms to communicate. To address the above-mentioned functionality, we have developed a two-step content-based video coding system based on: (1) A segmentation step. Four or five video objects (VO) are extracted using a cooperative approach between color-based and morphological segmentation. (2) VO coding are achieved by using a standardized MPEG-4 video toolbox. Results of encoded sign language video sequences, presented for three target bit rates (32 kbits/s, 48 kbits/s and 64 kbits/s), demonstrate the efficiency of the approach presented in this paper.

  5. "New Literacies or New Challenges?": The Development of the Concept of Literacy in the Context of Information and Communication Technologies and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of the concept of literacy in the context of IC technologies and English language teaching stressing the idea that literacy is no longer a stable concept which was always connected with the basic skills of reading and writing. The rapid developments of today have been changing, affecting and modifying this…

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Head Start Experience in the Area of Self-Concept, Social Skills, and Language Skills. Pre-Publication Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, J. Regis; And Others

    About 180 Negro Head Start children in Dade County, Florida, were tested (1) to discover if the county's program contributed significantly to language skills, social skills, and self-concept development and (2) to determine if an efficient instrument could be developed to measure self-concept in the disadvantaged child. Pretests and posttests used…

  7. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.

  8. HL-20 personnel launch system - A concept definition case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    For several years, the NASA Langley Research Center has been involved in defining options for future space transportation systems. As part of this effort, for the past 2 years, an analysis of a candidate Personnel Launch System to deliver and return people and small payloads to and from Space Station Freedom has been conducted. This effort has involved a government/industry/university team in conducting an indepth analysis of the HL-20 lifting body concept to provide a technically viable, affordable Personnel Launch System. This paper will use the HL-20 PLS definition activity to illustrate the process that is used by Langley to mature vehicle concepts to identify technical/development risks and costs for future transportation systems.

  9. HL-20 personnel launch system - A concept definition case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, the NASA Langley Research Center has been involved in defining options for future space transportation systems. As part of this effort, for the past 2 years, an analysis of a candidate Personnel Launch System to deliver and return people and small payloads to and from Space Station Freedom has been conducted. This effort has involved a government/industry/university team in conducting an indepth analysis of the HL-20 lifting body concept to provide a technically viable, affordable Personnel Launch System. This paper will use the HL-20 PLS definition activity to illustrate the process that is used by Langley to mature vehicle concepts to identify technical/development risks and costs for future transportation systems.

  10. Concept selection and analysis of large wind generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing need to develop alternative energy sources has renewed interest in the use of wind energy for the generation of utility quality electricity. This paper discusses a program to evolve a preliminary design of a cost competitive large wind generator system. An examination of a number of technically feasible alternative wind energy configurations is reported, and the rationale used in selecting the preferred system concept is presented. In addition, preliminary results of an optimization study conducted on the preferred concept are summarized. These show that considerable latitude in the selection of the system design parameters is possible. This permits design decisions to be based on other important factors such as development risk and the suitability of common component designs for systems with different power ratings.

  11. The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeneman, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) has been designed to address the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items. Conceived to utilize the proposed Global Verification and Location System (GVLS) satellite link, ATMS could use the existing International Maritime Satellite commercial communication system until GVLS is operational. The ATMS concept uses sensor packs to monitor items and environmental conditions, collects a variety of events data through a sensor processing unit, and transmits the data to a satellite, which then sends data to ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms will be used to secure the data. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the safety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. This paper also discusses a possible proof-of-concept system demonstration.

  12. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  13. Effects of Learning with Gesture on Children's Understanding of a New Language Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Elizabeth M.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Asking children to gesture while being taught a concept facilitates their learning. Here, we investigated whether children benefitted equally from producing gestures that reflected speech (speech-gesture matches) versus gestures that complemented speech (speech-gesture mismatches), when learning the concept of palindromes. As in previous studies,…

  14. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A coplanar satellite conceptual approach was defined. This effort included several trade studies related to satellite design and also construction approaches for this satellite. A transportation system, consistent with this concept, was also studied, including an electric orbit transfer vehicle and a parallel-burn heavy lift launch vehicle. Work on a solid state microwave concept continued and several alternative approaches were evaluated. Computer determination of an optimized transistor and circuit design was also continued. Experiment/verification planning resulted in the development of a total solar array and microwave technology development plan, as well as definition of near-term research to evaluate key technology issues.

  15. Study of new systems concepts for a Titan atmospheric probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Doug; Citron, Todd; Drean, Robert; Lewis, Scott; Lo, Martin; Mccarthy, John; Soderblom, Robert; Steffy, Dave; Vargas, Tina; Wolff, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Results of a systems concepts study for a Titan Probe were examined. The key tradeoffs performed are described in detail. Mass breakdown of each Probe subsystem or major element were given. The mission analysis performed to determine compliance with the high altitude sampling and descent time requirements are described. The baseline Descent Module design was derived. The element of the Probe System left on the Carrier after separation were described.

  16. Selecting a response form for nonverbal persons: Facilitated communication, pointing systems, or sign language?

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    The three major types of augmentative communication for nonverbal persons consist of writing (or typing), pointing, and signing. These alternative response forms are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for establishing effective verbal behavior. In addition, these systems are examined using the concepts from Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal, and autoclitic). The results of this analysis show that sign language has the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, and more closely parallels speech in terms of the verbal operants. Although, the current trend is to favor facilitated communication (typing) and pointing systems, both of these response forms have several disadvantages that impede the development of the verbal operants. It is suggested that for many nonverbal individuals sign language is a better alternative response form, and has a better chance of improving speech. PMID:22477084

  17. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  18. Proof of Concept for a Novel Curriculum: Learning a Second Language during Anesthesiology Residency.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kate Mitchell; Macias, Alvaro Andres; Lekowski, Robert; Concepcion, Mercedes; Zeballos, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a novel curriculum for anesthesiology residents matriculating through Brigham and Women's Department of Anesthesiology. It is offered electively and provides physician residents with time to acquire language skills through a medically-focused immersion program abroad. It is designed for them to learn or improve a second language and then to speak it while practicing perioperative medicine. Ultimately, the elective curriculum will equip future anesthesiologists with the communication tools to deliver professional and compassionate patient care both within the United States and internationally.

  19. Development of space manufacturing systems concepts utilizing lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a NASA sponsored study to evaluate the merits of constructing solar power satellites using lunar and terrestrial resources are reviewed. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts were developed and compared with a previously designed earth baseline concept, and major system hardware elements as well as personnel requirements were defined. LRU for space construction was shown to be competitive with earth baseline approach for a program requiring 10 to the 5th metric tons per year of completed satellites. Results also indicated that LRU can reduce earth launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials, with a significant percentage of the reduction due to the use of liquid oxygen derived from lunar soil. A concept using the mass driver to catapult lunar material into space was found to be superior to the other LRU logistics techniques investigated.

  20. Solar power satellite concepts and potential related space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent parametric studies of alternate SPS design concepts have shown that the concept appears technically feasible. The parametric studies were based on the use of advanced technology silicon solar cells for solar energy conversion. Solar array blanket unit masses of 0.31 to 0.46 kg/sq m were investigated. Conversion efficiencies of 15 to 17 percent air mass zero (AMO at 247 K) with a concentration ratio of two were considered. The systems were sized for a ground power output of 10 GW. To the level of detail studied, no design or operational problems were encountered that did not appear amenable to solution; however, the economic viability of the SPS concepts studied is obviously dependent upon a combination of technology advancement and/or the costs of competitive sources.

  1. Concept Mapping: Linking Spheres in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, K. P.; Hedley, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) distance learning courses focus teachers on linking spheres of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. The University of Toledo has offered the ESSEA middle school grade course using jigsaw pedagogy nine times since 2002. Traditionally, the ESSEA course has teachers link spheres in linear causal chains. This past year we used concept mapping as a way for the teachers and pre-service students in the class to organize their study of the events: melting of ice sheets, Mt. Pinatubo eruption, Hurricane Katrina and draining of the Great Black Swamp. Concept mapping is a good way to visualize linkages between events and spheres. The outcome was that teachers and pre-service students enjoyed concept mapping, it fostered teamwork and helped with grading the material.

  2. Comparing middleware concepts for advanced healthcare system architectures.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1997-09-01

    Different approaches to middleware, supporting systems integration in healthcare, are described and evaluated, regarding concepts, architectural framework, and relevance for healthcare enterprises. This evaluation includes CORBA, DHE, and HL7. CORBA, promoted in the healthcare area through the efforts of CORBAmed, is a strictly object-oriented approach, whereas DHE is based on process-related concepts. The earlier HL7 approach, without any modelling and with proprietary communication management, is changing to a harmonised information interchange concept in healthcare, taking into account also other protocols and medical domains with orientation to an electronic patient record. The opening also includes the separation of message definition and message exchange format, enabling the migration of different EDI standards. HL7 will also support the integration of standardised platforms as 'networking mediator applications'. Finally, some recommendations for future developments are given.

  3. Concept of Integrated Information Systems of Rail Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław; Gago, Stanisław

    This paper will present a need to create integrated information systems of the rail transport and their links with other means of public transportation. IT standards will be discussed that are expected to create the integrated information systems of the rail transport. Also the main tasks will be presented of centralized information systems, the concept of their architecture, business processes and their implementation as well as the proposed measures to secure data. A method shall be proposed to implement a system to inform participants of rail transport in Polish conditions.

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2: SPS system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Collected data reflected the level of definition resulting from the evaluation of a broad spectrum of SPS (satellite power systems) concepts. As the various concepts matured, these requirements were updated to reflect the requirements identified for the projected satellite system/subsystem point design(s). The study established several candidate concepts which were presented to provide a basis for the selection of one or two approaches that would be given a more comprehensive examination. The two selected concepts were expanded and constitute the selected system point designs. The identified system/subsystem requirements was emphasized and information on the selected point design was provided.

  5. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 2: OTV concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, Glen J.; Keeley, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    This portion of the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Concept Definition and System Analysis Study, Volume 2, Book 2, summarizes the flight vehicle concept selection process and results. It presents an overview of OTV mission and system design requirements and describes the family of OTV recommended, the reasons for this recommendation, and the associated Phase C/D Program.

  6. Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Concept and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The AVOSS goal is to: (1) Support TAP goal of improving instrument operations capacity 12-15% while maintaining safety; (2) Provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to ATC systems at capacity limited facilities with required lead time and stability for use in establishing aircraft arrival scheduling; and (3) System development and concept demonstration. The AVOSS system concept is to separate aircraft from encounters with wake vortices of an operationally unacceptable strength. In doing so, define protected corridor from outer marker to runway and predict time for vortex to clear ("Transport Time"), define operationally unacceptable wake strength and predict time to decay ("Decay Time"), combine and provide to ATC automation ("Residence Time"), and monitor safety and provide predictor feedback with wake vortex detection subsystem.

  7. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

  8. Candidate advanced energy storage concepts for multimegawatt burst power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, John E.; Sollo, Charles

    Three candidate advanced energy storage systems are reviewed and compared with the Thermionic Operating Reactor (THOR) concept. The three systems considered are the flywheel generator, the lithium-metal sulfide battery and the alkaline fuel cell. From a minimum mass viewpoint, only the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) can result in a lighter system than THOR. Because of its lower operating temperature, as compared to THOR, a considerable reduction in materials problems is to be expected when compared to the extremely high operating temperatures of the THOR system. Frozen heat pipes and their impact on response time as well as the complexity of the required retraction/extension mechanism of the THOR system would tend to place the RFC system in a much lower category of development risk. Finally, if spot shielding of sensitive electronic and power conditioning equipment becomes necessary for the reactor radiation environment of the THOR system, the weight advantage of the RFC system may become even greater.

  9. Workplace Concepts in Sign and Text. A Computerized Sign Language Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

    This document is a dictionary of essential vocabulary, signs, and illustrations of workplace activities to be used to train deaf or hearing-impaired adults. It contains more than 500 entries with workplace-relevant vocabulary, each including an illustration of the signed word or phrase in American Sign Language, a description of how to make the…

  10. A Historical Overview on the Concept of Validity in Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamavandy, Mehraban; Kiany, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview on language test validation theories, especially the Messickian view on construct validity and the way it's been translated into practice. First, a brief historical synopsis will be set forth, followed by recent views on test validity as advanced by Messick and Kane. The review goes on to lay out the similarities…

  11. A Constructive Teaching Model in Learning Research Concept for English Language Teaching Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2015-01-01

    This is a study to focus on analyzing the use of constructive teaching method toward the students' motivation in learning content subject of Introduction to Research of English Language Teaching. By using a mix-method of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the data are collected by using questionnaire and classroom observation. The…

  12. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  13. Inquiry Experiences and the Development of Science Vocabulary and Concepts with English Language Learners (ELLs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current…

  14. Policy Writers' Conceptions of Language and Communication within one Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Carey

    2013-01-01

    Ball argues that "policy authors do make concerted efforts to assert control [of readings] by the means at their disposal … [and that] we need to understand those efforts" (Ball, 1994, p. 16). Efforts by policy authors to control readings are influenced by their own assumptions about the nature of language, texts and communication. This…

  15. Chemistry as a Second Language: Helping Students Master Core Concepts and Succeed in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Cara

    2004-01-01

    Chemistry is a unique language in and of itself that can be difficult for students to understand. For instance, a white powder can be translated down to the atomic level in a chemical equation, thus creating a chemical word that needs to be decoded. In this article, the author shares an approach to a basic curriculum that makes chemistry…

  16. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  17. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  18. Natural language understanding and speech recognition for industrial vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-11-01

    The accepted method of programming machine vision systems for a new application is to incorporate sub-routines from a standard library into code, written specially for the given task. Typical programming languages that might be used here are Pascal, C, and assembly code, although other `conventional' (i.e., imperative) languages are often used instead. The representation of an algorithm to recognize a certain object, in the form of, say, a C language program is clumsy and unnatural, compared to the alternative process of describing the object itself and leaving the software to search for it. The latter method, known as declarative programming, is used extensively both when programming in Prolog and when people talk to one another in English, or other natural languages. Programs to understand a limited sub-set of a natural language can also be written conveniently in Prolog. The article considers the prospects for talking to an image processing system, using only slightly constrained English. Moderately priced speech recognition devices, which interface to a standard desk-top computer and provide a limited repertoire (200 words) as well as the ability to identify isolated words, are already available commercially. At the moment, the goal of talking in English to a computer is incompletely fulfilled. Yet, sufficient progress has been made to encourage greater effort in this direction.

  19. Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) System Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltsee, Christopher B.; Brooks, Walter F.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the system concept for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), as developed by in-house (Ames Research Center) Phase A level studies of the Telescope System and Ground Support/Operations System, and by contracted studies of the Aircraft System performed by the Boeing Military Airplane Company. The SOFIA facility will be a 3-meter class optical/infrared/submillimeter telescope mounted in an open cavity in the forebody of a Boeing 747 aircraft, to be operational in 1992. It represents the next generation of Ames' existing airborne IR facilities, including the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which is a 0.91 meter telescope flown on a Lockheed C-141 aircraft. The SOFIA telescope will be about 10 times more sensitive than the KAO, will have 3 times better angular resolution, and will be able to detect all of the far-infrared point sources discovered by the IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) survey in 1983. We first present an overview of the SOFIA Phase A Telescope System concept, including its major requirements and design attributes. The Telescope System consists of the Telescope Assembly (optical train and support structures) and the Consoles and Electronics Subsystem, which provides the system's command, control, displays and communications. The major requirements and concept for the Aircraft System are next described, including the cavity modification and its supporting subsystems such as the cavity doors and shear layer control devices. Finally, a brief description of the Ground Support/Operations System is provided, including the ground-based facilities and equipment needed to support the airborne observatory, in addition to an overview of the operational scenarios and organization.

  20. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  1. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  2. Lymphosome concept: Anatomical study of the lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Suami, Hiroo

    2017-01-01

    The gross anatomical study of the lymphatic system in humans and animals has been suspended for almost 100 years. This article introduces the author's technique for investigating the lymphatic system using the concept of the lymphosome. In revisiting the anatomical study of the lymphatic system, our updated knowledge can potentially be utilized either to reassure surgeons about their current procedures in the surgical management of cancers and lymphedema or assist them to refine them. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:13-17. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Healthcare information system approaches based on middleware concepts.

    PubMed

    Holena, M; Blobel, B

    1997-01-01

    To meet the challenges for efficient and high-level quality, health care systems must implement the "Shared Care" paradigm of distributed co-operating systems. To this end, both the newly developed and legacy applications must be fully integrated into the care process. These requirements can be fulfilled by information systems based on middleware concepts. In the paper, the middleware approaches HL7, DHE, and CORBA are described. The relevance of those approaches to the healthcare domain is documented. The description presented here is complemented through two other papers in this volume, concentrating on the evaluation of the approaches, and on their security threats and solutions.

  4. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  5. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  6. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  7. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  8. Systems biology markup language: Level 2 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Finney, A; Hucka, M

    2003-12-01

    The SBML (systems biology markup language) is a standard exchange format for computational models of biochemical networks. We continue developing SBML collaboratively with the modelling community to meet their evolving needs. The recently introduced SBML Level 2 includes several enhancements to the original Level 1, and features under development for SBML Level 3 include model composition, multistate chemical species and diagrams.

  9. Let's Chat: A Conversational Dialogue System for Second Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Iain A. D.; File, Portia

    2007-01-01

    Early and intermediate second language (L2) learners often encounter difficulties when engaging in introductory social conversations, typically having had little opportunity to practise such interactions. This article describes a project to design and prototype a computer dialogue system, Let's Chat, which would allow learners to rehearse social…

  10. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  11. A Concept for a Mobile Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulus, M. M., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.; Jensen, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design for a Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) is presented. This concept does not require continuous rails for mobility (only guide pins at truss hardpoints) and is very compact, being only one bay square. The MRMS proposed is highly maneuverable and is able to move in any direction along the orthogonal guide pin array under complete control at all times. The proposed concept would greatly enhance the safety and operational capabilities of astronauts performing EVA functions such as structural assembly, payload transport and attachment, space station maintenance, repair or modification, and future spacecraft construction or servicing. The MRMS drive system conceptual design presented is a reasonably simple mechanical device which can be designed to exhibit high reliability. Developmentally, all components of the proposed MRMS either exist or are considered to be completely state of the art designs requiring minimal development, features which should enhance reliability and minimize costs.

  12. A concept of a space hazard counteraction system: Astronomical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B. M.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Kuleshov, Yu. P.; Dubov, Yu. N.; Elkin, K. S.; Veniaminov, S. S.; Borovin, G. K.; Molotov, I. E.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Barabanov, S. I.; Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Devyatkin, A. V.; Medvedev, Yu. D.; Shor, V. A.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The basic science of astronomy and, primarily, its branch responsible for studying the Solar System, face the most important practical task posed by nature and the development of human civilization—to study space hazards and to seek methods of counteracting them. In pursuance of the joint Resolution of the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and the RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) Space Council of June 23, 2010, the RAS Institute of Astronomy in collaboration with other scientific and industrial organizations prepared a draft concept of the federal-level program targeted at creating a system of space hazard detection and counteraction. The main ideas and astronomical content of the concept are considered in this article.

  13. Wallpaper concept solution fabrication experiences in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.C.; Flasche, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the last few years, a concentrated research effort has led to a better understanding of the corrosion problems in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems of coal fired power plants. At first look, operation of a typical limestone FGD system appears very simple, hence the first generation scrubbers of early to mid 70's were designers inspiration. However, the designers inspiration soon turned into a utility's nightmare due to failures of metals and non-metals, both failing in a an embarrassingly short time. A solution was needed which had to be reliable, simple, and cost effective. This objective was met via the application of wallpaper concept, which now has been very well accepted in the industry and is becoming increasingly more popular due to the many successful case histories. This paper describes the wallpaper concept solution, the fabrication techniques, the experiences at certain utilities, the precautions which need to be followed, the associated economics, and some case histories.

  14. Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Lohr, Gary; Hamilton, David; Powers, Robert; McKissick, Burnell; Adams, Catherine; Norris, Edward

    2003-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of aircraft wake vortex research, with the most recent accomplishment of demonstrating the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS) at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport in July 2000. The AVOSS was a concept for an integration of technologies applied to providing dynamic wake-safe reduced spacing for single runway arrivals, as compared to current separation standards applied during instrument approaches. AVOSS included state-of-the-art weather sensors, wake sensors, and a wake behavior prediction algorithm. Using real-time data AVOSS averaged a 6% potential throughput increase over current standards. This report describes a Concept of Operations for applying the technologies demonstrated in the AVOSS to a variety of terminal operations to mitigate wake vortex capacity constraints. A discussion of the technological issues and open research questions that must be addressed to design a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) is included.

  15. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  16. Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

  17. Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    A sound basis to guide the community in the conception and implementation of ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) capability in operational systems was provided. The concept of "ISHM Model of a System" and a related architecture defined as a unique Data, Information, and Knowledge (DIaK) architecture were described. The ISHM architecture is independent of the typical system architecture, which is based on grouping physical elements that are assembled to make up a subsystem, and subsystems combine to form systems, etc. It was emphasized that ISHM capability needs to be implemented first at a low functional capability level (FCL), or limited ability to detect anomalies, diagnose, determine consequences, etc. As algorithms and tools to augment or improve the FCL are identified, they should be incorporated into the system. This means that the architecture, DIaK management, and software, must be modular and standards-based, in order to enable systematic augmentation of FCL (no ad-hoc modifications). A set of technologies (and tools) needed to implement ISHM were described. One essential tool is a software environment to create the ISHM Model. The software environment encapsulates DIaK, and an infrastructure to focus DIaK on determining health (detect anomalies, determine causes, determine effects, and provide integrated awareness of the system to the operator). The environment includes gateways to communicate in accordance to standards, specially the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators.

  18. Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.

    PubMed

    Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

    2015-01-01

    Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%.

  19. The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots.

  20. Concept of positioning system for future space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Okuda, Kazumi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kumagai, Susumu; Moriya, Hiromi; Kakinuma, Masahiro; Nakajima, Takashi

    A positioning system incorporating communications and data-relay functions is described for applications to the Space Station Freedom, orbital transfer vehicles, and other spacecraft. The requirements of a space-positioning system are set forth with specific references to operational constraints, and communication methods are reviewed including time-division and code-division multiple-access methods. Code-division multiple access is proposed as the most effective method for space positioning, whereas time-division is more suitable for low-cost ground use. A positioning-system constellation is discussed with attention given to simulated results for GDOP and coverage/visibility required for the effective use of a space positioning system. A total of 15 space segments is proposed for a system with good visibility, GDOP, and switching frequency, although smaller systems are possible.

  1. Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

  2. Probabilistic Language Framework for Stochastic Discrete Event Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Kumar, S.I. Marcus T.R. 96-18 Probabilistic Language Formalism for Stochastic Discrete Event Systems 1 2 Vijay K . Garg Department of Electrical and...Probability Theory and Its Applications, Vol. 1. Wiley, New York, NY, 2nd edition, 1966. [6] V. K . Garg . An algebraic approach to modeling probabilistic...discrete event systems. In Proceedings of 1992 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pages 2348{2353, Tucson, AZ, December 1992. [7] V. K . Garg

  3. Dump system concepts for the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Atanasov, M.; Barnes, M. J.; Borburgh, J.; Burkart, F.; Goddard, B.; Kramer, T.; Lechner, A.; Ull, A. Sanz; Schmidt, R.; Stoel, L. S.; Ostojic, R.; Rodziewicz, J.; van Trappen, P.; Barna, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) beam dump system must provide a safe and reliable extraction and dilution of the stored beam onto a dump absorber. Energy deposition studies show that damage limits of presently used absorber materials will already be reached for single bunches at 50 TeV. A fast field rise of the extraction kicker is required in order to sufficiently separate swept single bunches on the extraction protection absorbers in case of an asynchronous beam dump. In line with this demand is the proposal of a highly segmented extraction kicker system which allows for accepting a single kicker switch erratic and thus, significantly reduces the probability of an asynchronous beam dump. Superconducting septa are foreseen to limit the overall system length and power consumption. Two extraction system concepts are presented and evaluated regarding overall system length, energy deposition on absorbers, hardware requirements, radiation issues, and layout flexibility.

  4. Satellite mirror systems for providing terrestrial power - System concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.; Gilbreath, W. P.; Bowen, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting reflectors, SOLARES, has been studied as a possible means of providing terrestrial power with a space system of minimum mass and complexity. The key impact that such a system, providing continuous and slightly concentrated insolation, makes on the economic viability of solar farming is demonstrated. New developments in solar sailing are incorporated to reduce mirror mass and transportation cost. The system is compatible with incremental implementation and continual expansion to produce the world's power needs. Key technology, environmental, and economic issues and payoffs are identified. SOLARES appears to be economically superior to other advanced, and even conventional, energy systems and could be scaled to completely abate our fossil fuel usage for power generation.

  5. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  6. Intercultural Competence: Concepts, Challenges, Evaluations. Intercultural Studies and Foreign Language Learning. Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Arnd, Ed.; Harden, Theo, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the idea of "intercultural competence", which, despite its current popularity across various discourses, has remained a vague and oscillating concept. Interculture lacks a universal definition and "competence" is not only a cognitive construct but also includes psychological traits such as attitudes,…

  7. Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement: Modeling the Relationship under the Language Pressure in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2004-01-01

    Located at a meeting place between the West and the East, Hong Kong has been chosen in this comparative investigation to reconfirm a theoretical model of "reciprocal relationship" between mathematics achievement and self-concept using the 8th grade databases from TIMSS and TIMSS-R. During the time between these two projects, Hong Kong…

  8. Conceptions of Teaching Held by the Instructors in English Language Teaching Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canbay, Orkun; Beceren, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the university instructors' conceptions of teaching in ELT departments at two universities in Turkey. The data was collected through qualitative research techniques. The participants were four instructors working in two different institutions in Turkey with doctorate degree on the same major from the same…

  9. In-vehicle signing functions and systems concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Tufano, D.R.; Spelt, P.F.; Knee, H.E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes functional requirements and system concepts for an In-Vehicle Signing (IVS) system, which will bring information from roadway signs, signals, and pavement markings into the vehicle for presentation to the driver. Information filter functions will assure that the only messages displayed are those which are important to the driver and which apply. Display functions will optimize the presentation of the message to ambient conditions, driver preferences, the number of simultaneous messages, and the urgency of the message. Timing functions will display a sign as soon as it is needed, for the entire time that it applies, and only while it applies. IVS is one of the core components of an integrated In-Vehicle Information System, which will manage and fuse all driving-related information. Two different IVS system concepts have been investigated: one based on a map database, the other on beacon technology. This work is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Federal Highway Administration as part of the Intelligent Transportation System Program.

  10. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, System Engineering Needs. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    support, executable specification, quality assessment), management support, and communications (especially for organizationally or geographically ...34* Technical Management Plan (equivalent to SEMP) "* New Program Startup Guide "* System Specification "* Segement Specifications "* Design Analysis

  11. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  12. Natural optical design concepts for highly miniaturized camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    1999-08-01

    Microcameras for computers, mobile phones, watches, security system and credit cards is a very promising future market. Semiconductor industry is now able to integrate light reception, signal amplification and processing in a low- power-consuming microchip of a few mm2 size. Active pixel sensors supply each pixel in an image sensor with an individually programmable functionality. Beside the electronic receptor chip, a highly miniaturized lens system is required. Compared to the progress in microelectronics, optics has not yet made a significant step. Today's microcamera lenses are usually a downscaled version of a classical lens system and rarely smaller than 3 mm X 3 mm X 3 mm. This lagging of optics is quite surprising. Biologists have systematically studied all types of natural eye sensors since the 18th Century. Mother Nature provides a variety of highly effective examples for miniaturized imaging system. Single-aperture systems are the appropriate solution if the size is a free design parameter. If the budget is tight and optics limited to size, nature prefers multiple-aperture systems, the so-called compound eyes. As compound eyes are limited in resolution and night view, a cluster of single-aperture eyes, as jumping spiders use, is probably a better solution. The recent development in micro- optics offers the chance to imitate such natural design concepts. We have investigated miniaturized imaging systems based on microlens array and natural optical design concepts. Practical limitations for system design, packaging and assembling are given. Examples for micro-optical components and imaging systems are presented.

  13. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh Bebe; Ortiz, Chris

    1995-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) computer programs are specifically intended to model human expertise or other knowledge. CLIPS is designed to enable research on, and development and delivery of, artificial intelligence on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming: representation of knowledge as heuristics - essentially, rules of thumb that specify set of actions performed in given situation. Object-oriented programming: modeling of complex systems comprised of modular components easily reused to model other systems or create new components. Procedural-programming: representation of knowledge in ways similar to those of such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC-compatible computers requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later.

  14. Natural Language Dialogue for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-02

    home heating and circuitry (one application was an ITS to diagnose malfunctions in a radar). DIAG uses very simple templates to as- semble the text to...between a student using the DIAG tutor on home heating and one of two human tutors. This amounts to 272 tutor turns. We developed a coding scheme [Glass...domain (diagnosing a home heating system), went through one trial problem, then continued through the curriculum on his/her own. The curriculum

  15. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 2: System definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The system level results of the system definition studies performed by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/NASA satellite power system concept development and evaluation program are summarized. System requirements and guidelines are discussed as well as the major elements that comprise the reference system and its design options. Alternative system approaches including different system sizes, solid state amplifier (microwave) concepts, and laser power transmission system cost summaries are reviewed. An overview of the system analysis and planning efforts is included. The overall study led to the conclusion that the reference satellite power system concept is a feasible baseload source of electrical power and, within the assumed guidelines, the minimum cost per kilowatt is achieved at the maximum output of 5 gigawatts to the utility grid. Major unresolved technical issues include maximum allowable microwave power density in the ionosphere and performance/mass characteristics of laser power transmission systems.

  16. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 2: System defintion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The system level results of the system definition studies performed by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/NASA satellite power system concept development and evaluation program are summarized. System requirements and guidelines are discussed as well as the major elements that comprise the reference system and its design options. Alternative system approaches including different system sizes, solid state amplifier (microwave) concepts, and laser power transmission system cost summaries are reviewed. An overview of the system analysis and planning efforts is included. The overall study led to the conclusion that the reference satellite power system concept is a feasible baseload source of electrical power and, within the assumed guidelines, the minimum cost per kilowatt is achieved at the maximum output of 5 gigawatts to the utility grid. Major unresolved technical issues include maximum allowable microwave power density in the ionosphere and performance/mass characteristics of laser power transmission systems.

  17. Epigenomics and the concept of degeneracy in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul H.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of epigenomics are developing more nuanced understandings of biological complexity, and exploring the multiple pathways that lead to phenotypic expression. The concept of degeneracy—referring to the multiple pathways that a system recruits to achieve functional plasticity—is an important conceptual accompaniment to the growing body of knowledge in epigenomics. Distinct from degradation, redundancy and dilapidation; degeneracy refers to the plasticity of traits whose function overlaps in some environments, but diverges in others. While a redundant system is composed of repeated identical elements performing the same function, a degenerate system is composed of different elements performing similar or overlapping functions. Here, we describe the degenerate structure of gene regulatory systems from the basic genetic code to flexible epigenomic modifications, and discuss how these structural features have contributed to organism complexity, robustness, plasticity and evolvability. PMID:24335757

  18. Epigenomics and the concept of degeneracy in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Ryszard; Mason, Paul H; Barron, Andrew B

    2014-05-01

    Researchers in the field of epigenomics are developing more nuanced understandings of biological complexity, and exploring the multiple pathways that lead to phenotypic expression. The concept of degeneracy-referring to the multiple pathways that a system recruits to achieve functional plasticity-is an important conceptual accompaniment to the growing body of knowledge in epigenomics. Distinct from degradation, redundancy and dilapidation; degeneracy refers to the plasticity of traits whose function overlaps in some environments, but diverges in others. While a redundant system is composed of repeated identical elements performing the same function, a degenerate system is composed of different elements performing similar or overlapping functions. Here, we describe the degenerate structure of gene regulatory systems from the basic genetic code to flexible epigenomic modifications, and discuss how these structural features have contributed to organism complexity, robustness, plasticity and evolvability.

  19. Concept of a programmable maintenance processor applicable to multiprocessing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    A programmable maintenance processor concept applicable to multiprocessing systems has been developed at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This stand-alone-processor is intended to provide support for system and application software testing as well as hardware diagnostics. An initial machanization has been incorporated into the extended aircraft interrogation and display system (XAIDS) which is multiprocessing general-purpose ground support equipment. The XAIDS maintenance processor has independent terminal and printer interfaces and a dedicated magnetic bubble memory that stores system test sequences entered from the terminal. This report describes the hardware and software embodied in this processor and shows a typical application in the check-out of a new XAIDS.

  20. Concept for A Mission to Titan, Saturn System and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Elliott, J.

    2008-09-01

    A mission to Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by the 2007 NASA Science Plan, the 2006 Solar System Exploration Roadmap, and the 2003 National Research Council of the National Academies Solar System report on New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (aka Decadal Survey). As anticipated by the 2003 Decadal Survey, recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries have further revolutionized our understanding of the Titan system and its potential for harbouring the "ingredients" necessary for life. These discoveries reveal that Titan is rich in organics, possibly contains a vast subsurface ocean and has energy sources to drive chemical evolution. With these recent discoveries, the interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer Solar System is strongly reinforced. Cassini's discovery of active geysers on Enceladus adds a second target in the Saturn system for such a mission, one that is synergistic with Titan in understanding planetary evolution and in adding a potential abode in the Saturn system for life as we know it. The baseline mission concept shown in Figures 1 and 2 would consist of a chemically propelled orbiter, with accommodations for ESA contributed in situ elements, and would launch on an Atlas 551 in 2016-2018 timeframe, traveling to Saturn on a Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist (VEEGA) trajectory, and reaching Saturn approximately 10 years later. Prior to Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) the orbiter would target and release ESA provided in situ elements; possibly a low-latitude Montgolfiere balloon system and capable polar and/or mid-latitude lander. The main engine would then place the flight system into orbit around Saturn for a tour phase lasting 18 months. This tour phase would accomplish Saturn system and Enceladus science (4 Enceladus flybys with instrumentation for plume sampling well beyond Cassini capability) while executing leveraging Titan pump down manoeuvres to minimize the required amount of

  1. Cronus, A Distributed Operating System: Functional Definition and System Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer running the VMS operating system) which are enhanced and or modified to integrate the host in’o the DOS Thus...Interprocessor communicatio f data. - Multi-level data security With the exception of multi-level the scope of this project, our sy areas. The first two

  2. Space Telecommunications Radio System Software Architecture Concepts and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.; Briones, Janette C.; Blaser, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project investigated various Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures for Space. An STRS architecture has been selected that separates the STRS operating environment from its various waveforms and also abstracts any specialized hardware to limit its effect on the operating environment. The design supports software evolution where new functionality is incorporated into the radio. Radio hardware functionality has been moving from hardware based ASICs into firmware and software based processors such as FPGAs, DSPs and General Purpose Processors (GPPs). Use cases capture the requirements of a system by describing how the system should interact with the users or other systems (the actors) to achieve a specific goal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to illustrate the Use Cases in a variety of ways. The Top Level Use Case diagram shows groupings of the use cases and how the actors are involved. The state diagrams depict the various states that a system or object may be in and the transitions between those states. The sequence diagrams show the main flow of activity as described in the use cases.

  3. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  4. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  5. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages.

  6. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 7: System/subsystems requirements databook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    This volume summarizes the basic requirements used as a guide to systems analysis, and is a basis for the selection of candidate Satellite Power Systems (SPS) point designs. Initially, these collected data reflected the level of definition resulting from the evaluation of a broad spectrum of SPS concepts. As the various concepts matured, these requirements were updated to reflect the requirements identified for the projected satellite system/subsystem point designs. Included is an updated version of earlier Rockwell concepts using klystrons as the specific microwave power amplification approach, as well as a more in-depth definition, analysis and preliminary point design on two concepts based on the use of advanced solid state technology to accomplish the task of high power amplification of the 2.45 GHz transmitted power beam to the Earth receiver. Finally, a preliminary definition of a concept using magnetrons as the microwave power amplifiers is presented.

  7. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    2001-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space, and would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray-bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray-bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger, and a spray-bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses.

  8. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

  9. Water's Early Journey in a Solar System (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed a fledgling solar system like the one depicted in this artist's concept, and discovered deep within it enough water vapor to fill the oceans on Earth five times. This water vapor starts out in the form of ice in a cloudy cocoon (not pictured) that surrounds the embryonic star, called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B (buried in center of image). Material from the cocoon, including ice, falls toward the center of the cloud. The ice then smacks down onto a dusty pre-planetary disk circling the stellar embryo (doughnut-shaped cloud) and vaporizes. Eventually, this water might make its way into developing planets.

  10. Micromachined therapeutic delivery systems: from concept to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Tejal A.

    2001-05-01

    Microfabrication techniques which permit the creation of therapeutic delivery systems that possess a combination of structural, mechanical, and perhaps electronic features may surmount challenges associated with conventional delivery of therapy. In this review, delivery concepts are presented which capitalize on the strengths of microfabrication. Possible applications include micromachined silicon membranes to create implantable biocapsules for the immunoisolation of pancreatic islet cells--as a possible treatment for diabetes--and sustained release of injectable drugs needed over long time periods. Asymmetrical, drug- loaded microfabricated particles with specific ligands linked to the surface are proposed for improving oral bioavailability of peptide (and perhaps protein) drugs.

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) concept definition study (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The major outputs of the study are the constructability studies which resulted in the definition of the concepts for satellite, rectenna, and satellite construction base construction. Transportation analyses resulted in definition of heavy-lift launch vehicle, electric orbit transfer vehicle, personnel orbit transfer vehicle, and intra-orbit transfer vehicle as well as overall operations related to transportation systems. The experiment/verification program definition resulted in the definition of elements for the Ground-Based Experimental Research and Key Technology plans. These studies also resulted in conceptual approaches for early space technology verification. The cost analysis defined the overall program and cost data for all program elements and phases.

  12. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  13. The Federated Satellite Systems paradigm: Concept and business case evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Alessandro; Lluch i Cruz, Ignasi

    2015-06-01

    This paper defines the paradigm of Federated Satellite Systems (FSS) as a novel distributed space systems architecture. FSS are networks of spacecraft trading previously inefficiently allocated and unused resources such as downlink bandwidth, storage, processing power, and instrument time. FSS holds the promise to enhance cost-effectiveness, performance and reliability of existing and future space missions, by networking different missions and effectively creating a pool of resources to exchange between participants in the federation. This paper introduces and describes the FSS paradigm, and develops an approach integrating mission analysis and economic assessments to evaluate the feasibility of the business case of FSS. The approach is demonstrated on a case study on opportunities enabled by FSS to enhance space exploration programs, with particular reference to the International Space Station. The application of the proposed methodology shows that the FSS concept is potentially able to create large commercial markets of in-space resources, by providing the technical platform to offer the opportunity for spacecraft to share or make use of unused resources within their orbital neighborhood. It is shown how the concept is beneficial to satellite operators, space agencies, and other stakeholders of the space industry to more flexibly interoperate space systems as a portfolio of assets, allowing unprecedented collaboration among heterogeneous types of missions.

  14. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  15. System concept for an advanced stand-off weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzan, Riccardo

    1992-11-01

    A typical conceptual design process is described as applicable to an advanced Stand Off Weapon (SOW). Different design requirement sets, which include system performance parameters, are established to satisfy different mission requirements. In order to cope with these sets and to reach the flexibility needed, some specific design criteria are suggested. The trade between modularity and commonality makes the difference among different SOW's and affects them in affordability and effectiveness. The Skyshark weapon system is given as example of an SOW system concept. The description allows the understanding of links between design requirements, design criteria, and technical characteristics. Extensive modularity is adopted for all components that enhance flexibility (Armament, Avionics, Propulsion), while a favorable configuration layout choice allows maximizing commonality. This paper presents an industrial point of view and is related to almost 10 years of Alenia activities on Stand Off Weapons.

  16. Transformational Systems Concepts and Technologies for Our Future in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. T.; George,P.; Mankins, J. C. (Editor); Christensen, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is constantly searching for new ideas and approaches yielding opportunities for assuring maximum returns on space infrastructure investments. Perhaps the idea of transformational innovation in developing space systems is long overdue. However, the concept of utilizing modular space system designs combined with stepping-stone development processes has merit and promises to return several times the original investment since each new space system or component is not treated as a unique and/or discrete design and development challenge. New space systems can be planned and designed so that each builds on the technology of previous systems and provides capabilities to support future advanced systems. Subsystems can be designed to use common modular components and achieve economies of scale, production, and operation. Standards, interoperability, and "plug and play" capabilities, when implemented vigorously and consistently, will result in systems that can be upgraded effectively with new technologies. This workshop explored many building-block approaches via way of example across a broad spectrum of technology discipline areas for potentially transforming space systems and inspiring future innovation. Details describing the workshop structure, process, and results are contained in this Conference Publication.

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

  18. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  19. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  20. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    PubMed

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  1. Concepts for the third generation of laboratory systems.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G E

    1998-12-01

    This paper briefly describes the history of laboratory systems and discusses some of the recent concepts. The third generation of laboratory systems, which appeared around 1990, encompasses most of the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical procedural steps of the laboratory workflow, thus eliminating much of the so-called "3 D tasks" (dull, dirty, dangerous). These automation systems enable humans to focus on work of higher value such as result validation or development of tests in emerging areas. The new development started in Japan in 1981 and reached the Western hemisphere around 1995. Currently there are between 800 and 900 installations world-wide that meet the above criteria. The majority of them automate hematology, whereas systems that automate more complex areas such as clinical chemistry, immunochemistry, coagulation and urinalysis, represent only about one third. More than 60% of the world-wide system base has been installed in Japan. Future growth in the West and high market saturation in Japan are likely to decrease this percentage during the next few years. The two key concepts of third generation systems are "consolidation" and "integration". The following definitions are suggested: * Consolidation: Combining different analytical technologies or strategies on one instrument or on one group of connected instruments. * Integration: Linking analytical instruments or groups of instruments with pre- and post-analytical devices. Examples for the technical realization of both concepts and practical aspects of how to apply them in an individual laboratory are given. Components, which are specifically new in the context of laboratory automation, are conveyor belts, stationary and floor-running robots, and software for process control. The most attractive options to be considered when automating a laboratory are primary tube sorting and the use of secondary samples to increase speed and to avoid sample carryover. Other applications include automatic

  2. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  3. Concept and implementation of the Globalstar mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindall, Joel

    1995-01-01

    Globalstar is a satellite-based mobile communications system which provides quality wireless communications (voice and/or data) anywhere in the world except the polar regions. The Globalstar system concept is based upon technological advancements in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite technology and in cellular telephone technology, including the commercial application of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technologies. The Globalstar system uses elements of CDMA and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), combined with satellite Multiple Beam Antenna (MBA) technology and advanced variable-rate vocoder technology to arrive at one of the most efficient modulation and multiple access systems ever proposed for a satellite communications system. The technology used in Globalstar includes the following techniques in obtaining high spectral efficiency and affordable cost per channel: (1) CDMA modulation with efficient power control; (2) high efficiency vocoder with voice activity factor; (3) spot beam antenna for increased gain and frequency reuse; (4) weighted satellite antenna gain for broad geographic coverage; (5) multisatellite user links (diversity) to enhance communications reliability; and (6) soft hand-off between beams and satellites. Initial launch is scheduled in 1997 and the system is scheduled to be operational in 1998. The Globalstar system utilizes frequencies in L-, S- and C-bands which have the potential to offer worldwide availability with authorization by the appropriate regulatory agencies.

  4. System design in an evolving system-of-systems architecture and concept of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovekamp, Roger N., Jr.

    Proposals for space exploration architectures have increased in complexity and scope. Constituent systems (e.g., rovers, habitats, in-situ resource utilization facilities, transfer vehicles, etc) must meet the needs of these architectures by performing in multiple operational environments and across multiple phases of the architecture's evolution. This thesis proposes an approach for using system-of-systems engineering principles in conjunction with system design methods (e.g., Multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms, etc) to create system design options that perform effectively at both the system and system-of-systems levels, across multiple concepts of operations, and over multiple architectural phases. The framework is presented by way of an application problem that investigates the design of power systems within a power sharing architecture for use in a human Lunar Surface Exploration Campaign. A computer model has been developed that uses candidate power grid distribution solutions for a notional lunar base. The agent-based model utilizes virtual control agents to manage the interactions of various exploration and infrastructure agents. The philosophy behind the model is based both on lunar power supply strategies proposed in literature, as well as on the author's own approaches for power distribution strategies of future lunar bases. In addition to proposing a framework for system design, further implications of system-of-systems engineering principles are briefly explored, specifically as they relate to producing more robust cross-cultural system-of-systems architecture solutions.

  5. Cryogenic Testing of Different Seam Concepts for Multilayer Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent testing in a cylindrical, comparative cryostat at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory has focused on various seam concepts for multilayer insulation systems. Three main types of seams were investigated: straight overlap, fold-over, and roll wrapped. Each blanket was comprised of 40 layer pairs of reflector and spacer materials. The total thickness was approximately 12.5-mm, giving an average layer density of 32 layers per centimeter. The blankets were tested at high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum using liquid nitrogen to maintain the cold boundary temperature at 77 K. Test results show that all three seam concepts are all close in thermal performance; however the fold-over method provides the lowest heat flux. For the first series of tests, seams were located 120 degrees around the circumference of the cryostat from the previous seam. This technique appears to have lessened the degradation of the blanket due to the seams. In a follow-on test, a 20 layer blanket was tested in a roll wrapped configuration and then cut down the side of the cylinder, taped together, and re-tested. This test result shows the thermal performance impact of having the seams all in one location versus having the seams clocked around the vessel. This experimental investigation indicates that the method of joining the seams in multilayer insulation systems is not as critical as the quality of the installation process.

  6. Laboratory Information Management Systems--part I. Concepts.

    PubMed

    McDowall, R D; Pearce, J C; Murkitt, G S

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical survey is to give a summary of some of the main design features that can be incorporated into a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS), in the context of the total automation of the laboratory. Additionally it will give potential purchasers of such systems some essential background knowledge and a summary of our experiences. The survey is presented in two parts: the first covers the features and the possible concepts that could be used in a LIMS system. This is followed in the second part by an outline of the stages of acquisition, validation and benefits of such a system. Together the two articles provide the information required to aid the design and installation of a LIMS. This first section deals with the possible features that a laboratory could include when contemplating the installation of such a system: the basic tools that are required for a LIMS, the database and the computer equipment are discussed. This is followed by the interfacing of analytical instruments and central versus distributed processor philosophy. The various screen formats available and the use of bar codes as a means of identifying samples and for rapid data entry into the computer system are discussed.

  7. The Wettzell System Monitoring Concept and First Realizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettl, Martin; Neidhardt, Alexander; Muehlbauer, Matthias; Ploetz, Christian; Beaudoin, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Automated monitoring of operational system parameters for the geodetic space techniques is becoming more important in order to improve the geodetic data and to ensure the safety and stability of automatic and remote-controlled observations. Therefore, the Wettzell group has developed the system monitoring software, SysMon, which is based on a reliable, remotely-controllable hardware/software realization. A multi-layered data logging system based on a fanless, robust industrial PC with an internal database system is used to collect data from several external, serial, bus, or PCI-based sensors. The internal communication is realized with Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) and uses generative programming with the interface software generator idl2rpc.pl developed at Wettzell. Each data monitoring stream can be configured individually via configuration files to define the logging rates or analog-digital-conversion parameters. First realizations are currently installed at the new laser ranging system at Wettzell to address safety issues and at the VLBI station O Higgins as a meteorological data logger. The system monitoring concept should be realized for the Wettzell radio telescope in the near future.

  8. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltsee, Christopher B.; Brooks, Walter F.

    1989-01-01

    The system concept for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), as developed by NASA Ames Research Center is described. The SOFIA facility is a 3-meter class optical/infrared/submillimeter telescope mounted in an open cavity in the forebody of a Boeing 747 aircraft, to be operational in 1992. It represents the next generation of Ames' existing airborne IR facilities, and is about ten times more sensitive than the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) with 3 times better angular resolution, and able to detect all the far-infrared point sources discovered by IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) survey in 1983. Major requirements and design attributes of the SOFIA telescope are presented, along with a brief description of the Ground Support/Operations System.

  9. Concepts for Variable/Multi-Speed Rotorcraft Drive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2008-01-01

    In several recent studies and on-going developments for advanced rotorcraft, the need for variable or multi-speed capable rotors has been raised. A speed change of up to 50 percent has been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve overall vehicle performance. Accomplishing rotor speed changes during operation requires both a rotor that can perform effectively over the operation speed/load range, and a propulsion system that can enable these speed changes. A study has been completed to investigate possible drive system arrangements that can accommodate up to the 50 percent speed change. Several concepts will be presented and evaluated. The most promising configurations will be identified and developed for future testing in a sub-scaled test facility to validate operational capability.

  10. Replication Based on Role Concept for Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Sebnem; Dikenelli, Oguz

    Replication is widely used to improve fault tolerance in distributed and multi-agent systems. In this paper, we present a different point of view on replication in multi-agent systems. The approach we propose is based on role concept. We define a specific "fault tolerant role" which encapsulates all behaviors related to replication-based fault tolerance in this work. Our strategy is mainly focused on replicating instances of critical roles in the agent organization. However, while doing this, we simply transfer the critical role and the fault tolerant role to appropriate agents. Here, the fault tolerant role is responsible for coordination between replicated role instances (replicas). Moreover, our approach is flexible in terms of fault tolerance since it is possible to easily modify existing behaviors of the "fault tolerant" role, remove some of its behaviors, or include new behaviors to it due to its characteristic architecture.

  11. A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    An editorial and articles are presented on a European unit/credit system for modern language learning by adults. The contents are as follows: "A European Unit Credit System" by J. L. M. Trim; "The Analysis of Language Needs: Illusion--Pretext--Necessity" by Rene Richterich; "Learning a Language Is Learning to Communicate" by D. A. Wilkins; "The…

  12. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  13. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  14. Concept for a next-generation drop tower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Gierse, Andreas; Greif, Andreas; Lutz, Torsten; Mawn, Simon; Siemer, Jan; Eigenbrod, Christian; von Kampen, Peter; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-03-01

    The concept for a next-generation drop tower system is presented that is motivated by the scientific demand for much higher experiment repetition. This demand resulted in repetition rates of over 100 experiments per day which exceed the current capabilities of operating drop towers by far. High experiment repetition rates can for instance be realized through the novel application of a guided electro-magnetic linear drive system in a fully automatic drop tower operation. Such a new kind of drop tower system combines beneficial technologies of different free fall systems like freely falling drop capsules, capsule-in-capsule systems, and the vertical parabola method as already utilized in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system. This proposed next-generation drop tower system named GraviTower Bremen does not only enable experiments with an outstanding microgravity quality (10-6 g, where g is the Earth's gravitational acceleration) and a duration of 6 s but also novel experiments under partial gravity conditions (0.1 g to 0.4 g) matching those of Moon or Mars with durations of up to 8.5 s. Due to its linear drive system the GraviTower allows the same very low initial acceleration and following deceleration loads onto the experiment. These can be selected according to the experiment's needs with only 1.5 g or 4 g. The engine power of the linear drive system allows also large payload dimensions and masses. The features and capabilities of the proposed GraviTower Bremen combine all advantages of current drop towers and represent the next technological step forward in ground-based research under space conditions.

  15. Role of the motor system in language knowledge.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Zhao, Xu; Seligson, Erica; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Stern, Emily; Galaburda, Albert M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-02-17

    All spoken languages express words by sound patterns, and certain patterns (e.g., blog) are systematically preferred to others (e.g., lbog). What principles account for such preferences: does the language system encode abstract rules banning syllables like lbog, or does their dislike reflect the increased motor demands associated with speech production? More generally, we ask whether linguistic knowledge is fully embodied or whether some linguistic principles could potentially be abstract. To address this question, here we gauge the sensitivity of English speakers to the putative universal syllable hierarchy (e.g., blif ≻ bnif ≻ bdif ≻ lbif) while undergoing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cortical motor representation of the left orbicularis oris muscle. If syllable preferences reflect motor simulation, then worse-formed syllables (e.g., lbif) should (i) elicit more errors; (ii) engage more strongly motor brain areas; and (iii) elicit stronger effects of TMS on these motor regions. In line with the motor account, we found that repetitive TMS pulses impaired participants' global sensitivity to the number of syllables, and functional MRI confirmed that the cortical stimulation site was sensitive to the syllable hierarchy. Contrary to the motor account, however, ill-formed syllables were least likely to engage the lip sensorimotor area and they were least impaired by TMS. Results suggest that speech perception automatically triggers motor action, but this effect is not causally linked to the computation of linguistic structure. We conclude that the language and motor systems are intimately linked, yet distinct. Language is designed to optimize motor action, but its knowledge includes principles that are disembodied and potentially abstract.

  16. Heat Rejection Concepts for Brayton Power Conversion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee; Beach, Duane; Yuko, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. The Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a sandwich construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. Heat transfer from the NaK fluid to the heat pipes is accomplished by inserting the evaporator sections into the NaK duct channel. The paper evaluates various design parameters including heat pipe diameter, heat pipe spacing, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of NaK pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  17. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.

    PubMed

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  18. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  19. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of a geostationary platform concept analysis are summarized. Mission and payloads definition, concept selection, the requirements of an experimental platform, supporting research and technology, and the Space Transportation System interface requirements are addressed. It is concluded that platforms represent a logical extension of current trends toward larger, more complex, multifrequency satellites. Geostationary platforms offer significant cost savings compared to individual satellites, with the majority of these economies being realized with single Shuttle launched platforms. Further cost savings can be realized, however, by having larger platforms. Platforms accommodating communications equipment that operates at multiple frequencies and which provide larger scale frequency reuse through the use of large aperture multibeam antennas and onboard switching maximize the useful capacity of the orbital arc and frequency spectrum. Projections of market demand indicate that such conservation measures are clearly essential if orderly growth is to be provided for. In addition, it is pointed out that a NASA experimental platform is required to demonstrate the technologies necessary for operational geostationary platforms of the 1990's.

  20. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  1. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  2. A chemical specialty semantic network for the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Terms representing chemical concepts found the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) are used to derive an expanded semantic network with mutually exclusive semantic types. The UMLS Semantic Network (SN) is composed of a collection of broad categories called semantic types (STs) that are assigned to concepts. Within the UMLS’s coverage of the chemical domain, we find a great deal of concepts being assigned more than one ST. This leads to the situation where the extent of a given ST may contain concepts elaborating variegated semantics. A methodology for expanding the chemical subhierarchy of the SN into a finer-grained categorization of mutually exclusive types with semantically uniform extents is presented. We call this network a Chemical Specialty Semantic Network (CSSN). A CSSN is derived automatically from the existing chemical STs and their assignments. The methodology incorporates a threshold value governing the minimum size of a type’s extent needed for inclusion in the CSSN. Thus, different CSSNs can be created by choosing different threshold values based on varying requirements. Results A complete CSSN is derived using a threshold value of 300 and having 68 STs. It is used effectively to provide high-level categorizations for a random sample of compounds from the “Chemical Entities of Biological Interest” (ChEBI) ontology. The effect on the size of the CSSN using various threshold parameter values between one and 500 is shown. Conclusions The methodology has several potential applications, including its use to derive a pre-coordinated guide for ST assignments to new UMLS chemical concepts, as a tool for auditing existing concepts, inter-terminology mapping, and to serve as an upper-level network for ChEBI. PMID:22577759

  3. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  4. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  5. Considerations in the Evaluation of Language for Inclusion in a Programmed Language System for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spidal, David A.

    The paper examines aspects of language (morphology, syntax, and semology) as they relate to effective instruction in the area of language with deaf students. Pointed out are language factors to keep in mind when preparing instructional materials for the deaf, such as words with more than one meaning and other problems affecting comprehension of a…

  6. Resonant AC power system proof-of-concept test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wappes, Loran J.

    1986-01-01

    Proof-of-concept testing was performed on a 20-kHz, resonant power system breadboard from 1981 through 1985. The testing began with the evaluation of a single, 1.0-kW resonant inverter and progressed to the testing of breadboard systems with higher power levels and more capability. The final breadboard configuration tested was a 25.0-kW breadboard with six inverters providing power to three user-interface modules over a 50-meter, 20-kHz bus. The breadboard demonstrated the ability to synchronize multiple resonant inverters to power a common bus. Single-phase and three-phase 20-kHz power distribution was demonstrated. Simple conversion of 20-kHz to dc and variable-frequency ac was demonstrated as was bidirectional power flow between 20-kHz and dc. Steady state measurements of efficiency, power-factor tolerance, and conducted emissions and conducted susceptibility were made. In addition, transient responses were recorded for such conditions as start up, shut down, load changes. The results showed the 20-kHz resonant system to be a desirable technology for a spacecraft power management and distribution system with multiple users and a utility-type bus.

  7. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  8. Validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation System for Different Weather Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Meyn, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the process for validating the Airspace Concept Evaluation System using real-world historical flight operational data. System inputs such as flight plans and airport en-route capacities, are generated and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day's operations within the National Airspace System. System outputs such as airport throughput, delays, and en-route sector loads are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. The process is repeated for 4 historical days with high and low traffic volume and delay attributed to weather. These 4 days are simulated using default en-route capacities and variable en-route capacities used to emulate weather. The validation results show that default enroute capacity simulations are closer to real-world data for low weather days than high weather days. The use of reduced variable enroute capacities adds a large delay bias to ACES but delay trends between weather days are better represented.

  9. Transformational System Concepts and Technologies for Our Future in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Continued constrained budgets and growing national and international interests in the commercialization and development of space requires NASA to be constantly vigilant, to be creative, and to seize every opportunity for assuring the maximum return on space infrastructure investments. Accordingly, efforts are underway to forge new and innovative approaches to transform our space systems in the future to ultimately achieve two or three or five times as much with the same resources. This bold undertaking can be achieved only through extensive cooperative efforts throughout the aerospace community and truly effective planning to pursue advanced space system design concepts and high-risk/high-leverage research and technology. Definitive implementation strategies and roadmaps containing new methodologies and revolutionary approaches must be developed to economically accommodate the continued exploration and development of space. Transformation can be realized through modular design and stepping stone development. This approach involves sustainable budget levels and multi-purpose systems development of supporting capabilities that lead to a diverse amy of sustainable future space activities. Transformational design and development requires revolutionary advances by using modular designs and a planned, stepping stone development process. A modular approach to space systems potentially offers many improvements over traditional one-of-a-kind space systems comprised of different subsystem element with little standardization in interfaces or functionality. Modular systems must be more flexible, scaleable, reconfigurable, and evolvable. Costs can be reduced through learning curve effects and economies of scale, and by enabling servicing and repair that would not otherwise be feasible. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to transforming space systems planning and evolution into a meaningful stepping stone design, development, and implementation process

  10. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F.; Borghi, Anna M.; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system. PMID:28265247

  11. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding.

    PubMed

    Marino, Barbara F; Borghi, Anna M; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system.

  12. A static investigation of several STOVL exhaust system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, B. M., Jr.; Meyer, B. E.; Re, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    A static cold flow scale model test was performed in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of various STOVL exhaust systems. All of the concepts considered included a vectorable cruise nozzle and a separate vectorable vertical thrust ventral nozzle mounted on the tailpipe. The two ventral nozzle configurations tested featured vectorable constant thickness cascade vanes for area control and improved performance during transition and vertical lift flight. The best transition performance was achieved using a butterfly door type ventral nozzle and a pitch vectoring 2DCD or axisymmetric cruise nozzle. The clamshell blocker type of ventral nozzle had reduced transition performance due to the choking of the tailpipe flow upstream of the cruise nozzle.

  13. Concepts and mechanisms of generalized central nervous system arousal.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Donald; Ribeiro, Ana; Matthews, James; Kow, Lee-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A concept of generalized arousal of the CNS is presented and given an operational definition that leads to quantitative physical measures. Because this primitive arousal function underlies all motivated behavioral responses, cognitive functions, and emotional expression, disorders of generalized arousal can be associated with a large number of problems in medicine and public health, including vegetative states, attentional disorders, depression, occupational hazards, and problems with sleep and anesthesia. Some of its known mechanisms are briefly reviewed, at the levels of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and functional genomics. Generalized arousal contributes to the excitement and the activation of behaviors during specific arousal states. Data are summarized for four genomic/neurochemical systems through which changes in generalized arousal could affect sexual arousal, two of which heighten, and the other two of which reduce arousal.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the Skylab orbital workshop ventilation system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Ralston, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive testing was conducted to evaluate the Orbital Workshop ventilation concept. Component tests were utilized to determine the relationship between operating characteristics at 1 and 0.34 atm. System tests were conducted at 1 atm within the Orbital Workshop full-scale mockup to assess delivered volumetric flow rate and compartment air velocities. Component tests with the Anemostat circular diffusers (plenum- and duct-mounted) demonstrated that the diffuser produced essentially equivalent airflow patterns and velocities in 1- and 0.34-atm environments. The tests also showed that the pressure drop across the diffuser could be scaled from 1 to 0.34 atm using the atmosphere pressure ratio. Fan tests indicated that the performance of a multiple, parallel-mounted fan cluster could be predicted by summing the single-fan flow rates at a given delta P.

  15. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  16. Orbital Transfer Vehicle: Concept definition and system analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Findings and recommendations from the second extension of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept definition and system analysis study are outlined. The extension study opens the scope of potential recommendations by introducing a variety of ambitious programs, and by making the large cargo vehicle recommended by the Space Transportation Architecture Studies available at no acquisition cost to the OTV program. It is a further objective of the extension study to evaluate the sensitivity of OTV program recommendations to scenario variations such as different mission models, different launch vehicle availability, and different space station availability. Program/mission issues are addressed including safety considerations for the Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) OTV. Design issues related to the development of a near-term expendable OTV, engine configuration tradeoffs, lunar missions, and program evolution are discussed. Finally, aeroassist considerations for a manned Mars mission and high speed entries are presented.

  17. Notation Systems for Reading and Writing Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for…

  18. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  19. Progress on Concepts for Next-Generation Drop Tower Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM about 100 scientists, engineers, and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important research center for space sciences and technologies in Europe. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM's ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10-6 g (microgravity), which is one of the best achievable for ground-based flight opportunities. Scientists may choose up to three times a day between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and an experiment in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system with 9.3 s in weightlessness. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 7500 drops or catapult launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like fundamental physics, combustion, fluid dynamics, planetary formation / astrophysics, biology and materials sciences have been accomplished so far. In addition, more and more technology tests have been conducted under microgravity conditions at the Bremen Drop Tower in order to effectively prepare appropriate space missions in advance. In this paper we report on the progress on concepts for next-generation drop tower systems based on the GraviTower idea utilizing a guided electro-magnetic linear drive. Alternative concepts motivated by the scientific demand for higher

  20. An analysis of TA-Student Interaction and the Development of Concepts in 3-d Space Through Language, Objects, and Gesture in a College-level Geoscience Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to describe how a teaching assistant (TA) in an undergraduate geology laboratory employs a multimodal system in order to mediate the students' understanding of scientific knowledge and develop a contextualization of a concept in three-dimensional space and 2) to describe how a linguistic awareness of gestural patterns can be used to inform TA training assessment of students' conceptual understanding in situ. During the study the TA aided students in developing the conceptual understanding and reconstruction of a meteoric impact, which produces shatter cone formations. The concurrent use of speech, gesture, and physical manipulation of objects is employed by the TA in order to aid the conceptual understanding of this particular phenomenon. Using the methods of gestural analysis in works by Goldin-Meadow, 2000 and McNeill, 1992, this study describes the gestures of the TA and the students as well as the purpose and motivation of the meditational strategies employed by TA in order to build the geological concept in the constructed 3-dimensional space. Through a series of increasingly complex gestures, the TA assists the students to construct the forensic concept of the imagined 3-D space, which can then be applied to a larger context. As the TA becomes more familiar with the students' meditational needs, the TA adapts teaching and gestural styles to meet their respective ZPDs (Vygotsky 1978). This study shows that in the laboratory setting language, gesture, and physical manipulation of the experimental object are all integral to the learning and demonstration of scientific concepts. Recognition of the gestural patterns of the students allows the TA the ability to dynamically assess the students understanding of a concept. Using the information from this example of student-TA interaction, a brief short course has been created to assist TAs in recognizing the mediational power as well as the assessment potential of gestural

  1. Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Walker, Mark; Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Smith, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following

  2. VLBI2010 PROOF-OF-CONCEPT GEODETIC VLBI SYSTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, C.; Niell, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) plays an important role in establishing the Terrestrial Reference Frame, measuring the Earth-orientation parameters (EOP), and understanding the properties of the Inner Core, among other geophysical phenomena. To enhance the science obtained from geodetic VLBI, NASA is funding the development of a new broadband geodetic VLBI microwave (2-12 GHz) system by the MIT Haystack Observatory, in cooperation with personnel from HTSI, NVI, and GSFC. This broadband system is intended to replace the operational S/X-band system currently deployed in the global geodetic VLBI network. The broadband capability of the new feed and receiver and the sustained data recording rate (up to 4 Gbps per band) supported by the digital back-end and Mark5C recorder will a) allow the use of relatively small (~12m) but fast slewing antennas to reduce the error due to atmosphere delay fluctuations and b) provide flexibility in frequency coverage to reduce sensitivity to external radio frequency interference, an increasing problem. A demonstration system has been implemented by installing the proof-of-concept feed, receiver, and data acquisition system on the single baseline composed of the 18m antenna in Westford MA and the 5m MV3 antenna at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt MD. In our contribution we will describe the new geodetic VLBI system and discuss recent results. Future challenges and advances that will be needed in both hardware and software to achieve the required precision of the geodetic observables will also be presented.

  3. Assessing System Thinking Through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstädter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Großschedl, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular features of CM practices affect the valid assessment of students' system thinking. The particular features analysed were the medium (computer versus paper-pencil) and the directedness (highly directed versus nondirected) of CM practices. These features were evaluated with respect to their influence on (a) students' performance in CM and (b) the validity of different CM practices for system thinking. One hundred fifty-four German fourth graders (mean age: 9.95 years) and 93 eighth graders (mean age: 14.07 years) participated in the study following an experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three variations of CM practices were applied: (a) highly directed computer mapping, (b) highly directed paper-pencil mapping, and (c) nondirected paper-pencil mapping. In addition to the CM task, a paper-pencil questionnaire was employed to investigate the validity of the CM practices. Results showed that the computer positively influenced student performance in CM when compared with paper-pencil. By contrast, there was no difference between highly directed and nondirected mapping. Whereas the medium rarely influenced the validity of CM for system thinking, high directedness showed a positive influence. Considering the limitations and benefits of particular CM practices, we suggest highly directed and computer-based CM as an appropriate assessment tool-in particular, with regard to large-scale assessments of system thinking.

  4. Seal Investigations of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Taylor, Shawn; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to improve upon current thermal active clearance control methods, a first generation, fast-acting mechanically actuated, active clearance control system has been designed and installed into a non-rotating test rig. In order to harvest the benefit of tighter blade tip clearances, low-leakage seals are required for the actuated carrier segments of the seal shroud to prevent excessive leakage of compressor discharge (P3) cooling air. The test rig was designed and fabricated to facilitate the evaluation of these types of seals, identify seal leakage sources, and test other active clearance control system concepts. The objective of this paper is to present both experimental and analytical investigations into the nature of the face-seal to seal-carrier interface. Finite element analyses were used to examine face seal contact pressures and edge-loading under multiple loading conditions, varied E-seal positions and two new face seal heights. The analyses indicated that moving the E-seal inward radially and reducing face seal height would lead to more uniform contact conditions between the face seal and the carriers. Lab testing confirmed that moving the balance diameter inward radially caused a decrease in overall system leakage.

  5. Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Allen, Theresa M; Cullis, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The first closed bilayer phospholipid systems, called liposomes, were described in 1965 and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. The pioneering work of countless liposome researchers over almost 5 decades led to the development of important technical advances such as remote drug loading, extrusion for homogeneous size, long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes, triggered release liposomes, liposomes containing nucleic acid polymers, ligand-targeted liposomes and liposomes containing combinations of drugs. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas as the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs, the delivery of gene medicines, and the delivery of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of liposomes (lipidic nanoparticles) are on the market, and many more are in the pipeline. Lipidic nanoparticles are the first nanomedicine delivery system to make the transition from concept to clinical application, and they are now an established technology platform with considerable clinical acceptance. We can look forward to many more clinical products in the future.

  6. GPS - A PostScript-Like Language for System Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Configuration Windows The mods stack class generally has a config function which when called will generate a configuration file and thca pop open a NeWS window...AD-A234 253 AL-TR-90-085 AD: Final Report GPS - A PostScript-like Language for the period for System Simulation-March 1990 to October 1990 January...1991 Author: Argonne National Laboratory H.K. Geyer 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60437-4841 A PP, 0 ’iiAP. O 199A1 ,.. : Approved for Public

  7. Test bed control center design concept for Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the design concept for the control center for the Single Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System test bed and the design process behind the concept. The design concept supports all phases of the test bed mission, including technology demonstration, comprehensive system testing, and comparative evaluation for further development and refinement of the TWRMS for field operations.

  8. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  9. The catalan language in the educational system of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siguan, Miquel

    1991-03-01

    Since the establishment of a democratic regime in Spain, not only does the Constitution recognize the multilingualism of the Spanish State but also, in certain autonomous regions, Catalan, Galician and Basque have been given joint official status with Castillian or Spanish. This article describes the introduction of Catalan into the education system of Catalonia. Previously the system had only taken Spanish into consideration, but the Statute of Autonomy of 1979 ensured the teaching of Catalan to all pupils, and Catalan is gradually becoming the medium of instruction. In a situation in which around half of the six million or so inhabitants of Catalonia have Catalan as their mother tongue which they use at home, and the other half — immigrants — are Castillian-speaking, the educational system lays down that all pupils should, at the end of compulsory schooling, be able to use both languages. It has thus faced complex problems which appear up to the present to have been satisfactorily resolved. The Catalan experience may therefore act as a reference point and a stimulus for other regions with minority languages.

  10. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, Dave

    2012-01-01

    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  11. Evaluating Language Environment Analysis System Performance for Chinese: A Pilot Study in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Jill; Zhang, Yiwen; Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Fan; Harnsberger, James; Topping, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) automated language-analysis system for the Chinese Shanghai dialect and Mandarin (SDM) languages. Method: Volunteer parents of 22 children aged 3-23 months were recruited in Shanghai. Families provided daylong in-home audio recordings using…

  12. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System in Preschool Classrooms with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Jessica R.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Sam L.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data…

  13. Which Sign Language System Should Be Used with Young Deaf Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood-Logsdon, Marsha

    This paper examines the evolution of sign language's role in education, beginning with the debate over sign language versus oral communication, followed by the debate over American Sign Language (ASL) versus other sign systems. The paper points out that this debate process is hindering the educational experience for thousands of deaf children and…

  14. A comparison of hardware description languages. [describing digital systems structure and behavior to a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    Several high level languages which evolved over the past few years for describing and simulating the structure and behavior of digital systems, on digital computers are assessed. The characteristics of the four prominent languages (CDL, DDL, AHPL, ISP) are summarized. A criterion for selecting a suitable hardware description language for use in an automatic integrated circuit design environment is provided.

  15. Integrating Epistemological Perspectives on Chemistry in Chemical Education: The Cases of Concept Duality, Chemical Language, and Structural Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we trace the work of some philosophers of chemistry to draw some implications for the improvement of chemical education. We examine some key features of chemical knowledge, and how these features are relevant for school chemistry teaching and learning. In particular, we examine Laszlo's ( Foundations of Chemistry 1:225-238, 1999) notion of concept duality, Jacob's ( HYLE-International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 7:31-50, 2001) descriptions of chemical language and Goodwin's ( Foundations of Chemistry 10:117-127, 2008) explication of structural explanations in organic chemistry to highlight the particular ways in which chemical knowledge is structured. We use examples of textbooks and curricula to illustrate that even though the mentioned aspects of are relevant to and are covered in educational contexts, the philosophical dimensions of this coverage is absent in textbooks and curricula. The emphasis in the use of these features of chemical knowledge seems to be more on the conceptual definitions rather than on their "epistemological nature". We argue that chemical education will be improved through the inclusion of the philosophical perspectives in chemistry teaching and learning by highlighting the specific ways in which chemical knowledge functions.

  16. Information learned from generic language becomes central to children's biological concepts: evidence from their open-ended explanations.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Markman, Ellen M

    2009-10-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., "Snakes have holes in their teeth") convey that a property (e.g., having holes in one's teeth) is true of a category (e.g., snakes). We test the hypothesis that, in addition to this basic aspect of their meaning, generic sentences also imply that the information they express is more conceptually central than the information conveyed in similar non-generic sentences (e.g., "This snake has holes in his teeth"). To test this hypothesis, we elicited 4- and 5-year-old children's open-ended explanations for generic and non-generic versions of the same novel properties. Based on arguments in the categorization literature, we assumed that, relative to more peripheral properties, properties that are understood as conceptually central would be explained more often as causes and less often as effects of other features, behaviors, or processes. Two experiments confirmed the prediction that preschool-age children construe novel information learned from generics as more conceptually central than the same information learned from non-generics. Additionally, Experiment 2 suggested that the conceptual status of novel properties learned from generic sentences becomes similar to that of familiar properties that are already at the category core. These findings illustrate the power of generic language to shape children's concepts.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 1, of a seven volume report is presented. Part 1 encompasses Satellite Power Systems (SPS) systems engineering aspects and is divided into three sections. The first section presents descriptions of the various candidate concepts considered and conclusions and recommendations for a preferred concept. The second section presents a summary of results of the various trade studies and analysis conducted during the course of the study. The third section describes the Photovoltaic Satellite Based Satellite Power System (SPS) Point Design as it was defined through studies performed during the period January 1977 through March 1979.

  18. Language Disorders due to Posterior System Strokes - An Ignored Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, Şerefnur; EGE, Fahrettin; EKMEKÇİ, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The anterior system is primarily responsible for the clinical picture in a patient that presents with clinical aphasia. However, recent reports have shown that injuries to posterior structures, the cerebellum in particular, may have a role in language processing. Herein, we will look first at the linguistic role of the cerebellum in light of the literature, then of the thalamus and some described clinical syndromes, and finally, specific syndromes resulting from occipital lobe lesions, all of which are supported by the posterior vascular system. The human brain is such a complex organization that in addition to the thalamus and occipital cortex, we can see the involvement of the cerebellum in high cognitive functions. Posterior system strokes may lead to clinical findings of cognitive deficits, including neurolinguistic components. Determining these defects in stroke patients may precipitate changes in current management strategies. PMID:28360648

  19. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to guide the systemic description of biological processes and systems.

    PubMed

    Roux-Rouquié, Magali; Caritey, Nicolas; Gaubert, Laurent; Rosenthal-Sabroux, Camille

    2004-07-01

    One of the main issues in Systems Biology is to deal with semantic data integration. Previously, we examined the requirements for a reference conceptual model to guide semantic integration based on the systemic principles. In the present paper, we examine the usefulness of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to describe and specify biological systems and processes. This makes unambiguous representations of biological systems, which would be suitable for translation into mathematical and computational formalisms, enabling analysis, simulation and prediction of these systems behaviours.

  20. SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    1985-04-15

    The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.

  1. A Concept for Zero-Alignment Micro Optical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    DESCOUR, MICHAEL R.; KOLOLUOMA,TERHO; LEVEY,RAVIV; RANTALA,JUHA T.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WARREN,MIAL E.; WILLISON,CHRISTI LEE

    1999-09-16

    We are developing a method of constructing compact, three-dimensional photonics systems consisting of optical elements, e.g., lenses and mirrors, photo-detectors, and light sources, e.g., VCSELS or circular-grating lasers. These optical components, both active and passive, are mounted on a lithographically prepared silicon substrate. We refer to the substrate as a micro-optical table (MOT) in analogy with the macroscopic version routinely used in optics laboratories. The MOT is a zero-alignment, microscopic optical-system concept. The position of each optical element relative to other optical elements on the MOT is determined in the layout of the MOT photomask. Each optical element fits into a slot etched in the silicon MOT. The slots are etched using a high-aspect-ratio silicon etching (HARSE) process. Additional positioning features in each slot's cross-section and complementary features on each optical element permit accurate placement of that element's aperture relative to the MOT substrate. In this paper we present the results of the first fabrication and micro-assembly experiments of a silicon-wafer based MOT. Based on these experiments, estimates of position accuracy are reported. We also report on progress in fabrication of lens elements in a hybrid sol-gel material (HSGM). Diffractive optical elements have been patterned in a 13-micron thick HSGM layer on a 150-micron thick soda-lime glass substrate. The measured ms surface roughness was 20 nm. Finally, we describe modeling of MOT systems using non-sequential ray tracing (NSRT).

  2. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  3. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  4. Small Autonomous Air/Sea System Concepts for Coast Guard Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of small autonomous air/sea system concepts are outlined in this paper that support and enhance U.S. Coast Guard missions. These concepts draw significantly upon technology investments made by NASA in the area of uninhabited aerial vehicles and robotic/intelligent systems. Such concepts should be considered notional elements of a greater as-yet-not-defined robotic system-of-systems designed to enable unparalleled maritime safety and security.

  5. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language

  6. Ram accelerator direct space launch system - New concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The ram accelerator, a chemically driven ramjet-in-tube device is a new option for direct launch of acceleration-insensitive payloads into earth orbit. The projectile is the centerbody of a ramjet and travels through a tube filled with a premixed fuel-oxidizer mixture. The tube acts as the cowl of the ramjet. A number of new concepts for a ram accelerator space launch system are presented. The velocity and acceleration capabilities of a number of ram accelerator drive modes, including several new modes, are given. Passive (fin) stabilization during atmospheric transit is investigated and found to be promising. Gasdynamic heating in-tube and during atmospheric transit is studied; the former is found to be severe, but may be alleviated by the selection of the most suitable drive modes, transpiration cooling, or a hydrogen gas core in the launch tube. To place the payload in earth orbit, scenarios using one impulse and three impulses (with an aeropass) and a new scenario involving an auxiliary vehicle are studied. The auxiliary vehicle scenario is found to be competitive regarding payload, and requires a much simpler projectile, but has the disadvantage of requiring the auxiliary vehicle.

  7. Comparison of Two Conceptions of the Vibration Isolation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šklíba, Jan; Sivčák, M.; Čižmár, J.

    The sprung stretcher of a ground ambulance litter as the space conducting mechanism with three degrees of freedom. The first degree is determined to compensate the vertical translations of a carriage, the second and third to compensate both horizontal rotations (so called pitching and rolling). The first degree is realized with scissor or with parallelogram, on the upper base on which the double Cardane suspension is placed (as the second and third degree). The second Cardane frame is connected with an own stretcher. The vibration isolation is realized with controlled pneumatic springs. Their control has two sensing units: sensor of the relative position of the upper and lower base and sensor of the absolute angle deflection of the second Cardane frame from an horizontal plane (double electrolytic level). This level is modeled as a spherical pendulum (on the base of its identified characteristics). There was analyzed this dynamic system with five degrees of freedom. The analyze of two conceptions demonstrates that the scissor mechanism is for the complete space mechanism more useful than the parallelogram.

  8. Gravity, the hydrostatic indifference concept and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2011-02-01

    Gravity, like any acceleration, causes a hydrostatic pressure gradient in fluid-filled bodily compartments. At a force of 1G, this pressure gradient amounts to 10 kPa/m. Postural changes alter the distribution of hydrostatic pressure patterns according to the body's alignment to the acceleration field. At a certain location--referred to as hydrostatically indifferent--within any given fluid compartment, pressure remains constant during a given change of position relative to the acceleration force acting upon the body. At this specific location, there is probably little change in vessel volume, wall tension, and the balance of Starling forces after a positional manoeuvre. In terms of cardiac function, this is important because arterial and venous hydrostatic indifference locations determine postural cardiac preload and afterload changes. Baroreceptors pick up pressure signals that depend on their respective distance to hydrostatic indifference locations with any change of body position. Vascular shape, filling volume, and compliance, as well as temperature, nervous and endocrine factors, drugs, and time all influence hydrostatic indifference locations. This paper reviews the physiology of pressure gradients in the cardiovascular system that are operational in a gravitational/acceleration field, offers a broadened hydrostatic indifference concept, and discusses implications that are relevant in physiological and clinical terms.

  9. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program, reference system report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) Reference System is discussed and the technical and operational information required in support of environmental, socioeconomic, and comparative assessment studies are emphasized. The reference System concept features a gallium-aluminum-arsenide, and silicon solar cell options. Other aspects of an SPS are the construction of bases in space, launch and mission control bases on earth, and fleets of various transportation vehicles to support the construction and maintenance operations of the satellites.

  10. Language Is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Clay; Blythe, Richard; Bybee, Joan; Christiansen, Morten H.; Croft, William; Ellis, Nick C.; Holland, John; Ke, Jinyun; Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Schoenemann, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Language has a fundamentally social function. Processes of human interaction along with domain-general cognitive processes shape the structure and knowledge of language. Recent research in the cognitive sciences has demonstrated that patterns of use strongly affect how language is acquired, is used, and changes. These processes are not independent…

  11. Natural Language Processing: Toward Large-Scale, Robust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.

    1996-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is concerned with getting computers to do useful things with natural language. Major applications include machine translation, text generation, information retrieval, and natural language interfaces. Reviews important developments since 1987 that have led to advances in NLP; current NLP applications; and problems…

  12. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  13. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications

  14. The Naturalistic Flight Deck System: An Integrated System Concept for Improved Single-Pilot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Cox, David E.; Jackson, Bruce; Palmer, Michael T.; Pope, Alan T.; Schlecht, Robin W.; Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Williams, Ralph A.; Kinney, J. Bryan; Barry, John S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews current and emerging operational experiences, technologies, and human-machine interaction theories to develop an integrated flight system concept designed to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of single-pilot operations in an increasingly accommodating but stringent national airspace system. This concept, know as the Naturalistic Flight Deck (NFD), uses a form of human-centered automation known as complementary-automation (or complemation) to structure the relationship between the human operator and the aircraft as independent, collaborative agents having complimentary capabilities. The human provides commonsense knowledge, general intelligence, and creative thinking, while the machine contributes specialized intelligence and control, extreme vigilance, resistance to fatigue, and encyclopedic memory. To support the development of the NFD, an initial Concept of Operations has been created and selected normal and non-normal scenarios are presented in this document.

  15. Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog System for Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…

  16. Transfer of a Natural Language System for Problem-Solving in Physics to Other Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberem, Graham E.

    The limited language capability of CAI systems has made it difficult to personalize problem-solving instruction. The intelligent tutoring system, ALBERT, is a problem-solving monitor and coach that has been used with high school and college level physics students for several years; it uses a natural language system to understand kinematics…

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Thai Learning System on the Web Using Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansuwan, Suyada; Nishina, Kikuko; Akahori, Kanji; Shimizu, Yasutaka

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Thai Learning System, which is designed to help learners acquire the Thai word order system. The system facilitates the lessons on the Web using HyperText Markup Language and Perl programming, which interfaces with natural language processing by means of Prolog. (Author/VWL)

  18. Illustrating Chemical Concepts through Food Systems: Introductory Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, E., IV; Setser, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations involving foods that illustrate chemical concepts are described, including vaporization of liquids and Graham's law of diffusion, chemical reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration. (CS)

  19. Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

  20. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Space construction experiments concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.; Wiley, L. F.; Gimlich, G. W.; Greenberg, H. S.; Hart, R. J.; Lefever, A. E.; Lillenas, A. N.; Totah, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Technology areas in the orbital assembly of large space structures are addressed. The areas included structures, remotely operated assembly techniques, and control and stabilization. Various large space structure design concepts are reviewed and their construction procedures and requirements are identified.