Science.gov

Sample records for language system models

  1. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack of a conventional language model, this child developed his own gestural system. In this system, features known to mark phrase and utterance boundaries in established sign languages were used to consistently mark the ends of utterances, but not to mark phrase or utterance internal boundaries. A single child can thus develop the seeds of a prosodic system, but full elaboration may require more time, more users, or even more generations to blossom. PMID:25574153

  2. Using Model Based Systems Engineering and the Systems Modeling Language to Develop Space Mission Area Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND THE SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE TO DEVELOP SPACE MISSION AREA ARCHITECTURES by Dustin B. Jepperson September 2013...AND THE SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE TO DEVELOP SPACE MISSION AREA ARCHITECTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Dustin B. Jepperson 7. PERFORMING...Application Protocol 233 (AP233), Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF), Space Mission Area System Architecture (MASA), Overhead

  3. A Dynamical Systems Model for Language Change.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    11, Georgetown Universtiy, 1982. [6] A. S. Kroch. Function and gramar in the his- tory of english : Periphrastic "do.". In Ralph Fa- sold, editor...cally, posit 3 Boolean parameters, Speci er rst/ nal; Head rst/ nal; Verb second allowed or not, leading to 8 possible gram- mars/languages ( English ...Nonverb second populations tend to gain Verb second over time (e.g., English -type languages change to a more German type) contrary to historically

  4. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  5. Examination of Modeling Languages to Allow Quantitative Analysis for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    MODELING LANGUAGES TO ALLOW QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR MODEL-BASED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING by Joseph W. Nutting June 2014 Thesis Advisor...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXAMINATION OF MODELING LANGUAGES TO ALLOW QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR MODEL...engineering (MBSE) needs a formal language , one defined with explicit rules between its elements, in order to support the use of formal modeling in

  6. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  8. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  9. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to guide the systemic description of biological processes and systems.

    PubMed

    Roux-Rouquié, Magali; Caritey, Nicolas; Gaubert, Laurent; Rosenthal-Sabroux, Camille

    2004-07-01

    One of the main issues in Systems Biology is to deal with semantic data integration. Previously, we examined the requirements for a reference conceptual model to guide semantic integration based on the systemic principles. In the present paper, we examine the usefulness of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to describe and specify biological systems and processes. This makes unambiguous representations of biological systems, which would be suitable for translation into mathematical and computational formalisms, enabling analysis, simulation and prediction of these systems behaviours.

  10. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  11. Visual unified modeling language for the composition of scenarios in modeling and simulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbert, Michael L.; Swayne, Daniel E.

    2006-05-01

    The Department of Defense uses modeling and simulation systems in many various roles, from research and training to modeling likely outcomes of command decisions. Simulation systems have been increasing in complexity with the increased capability of low-cost computer systems to support these DOD requirements. The demand for scenarios is also increasing, but the complexity of the simulation systems has caused a bottleneck in scenario development due to the limited number of individuals with knowledge of the arcane simulator languages in which these scenarios are written. This research combines the results of previous efforts from the Air Force Institute of Technology in visual modeling languages to create a language that unifies description of entities within a scenario with its behavior using a visual tool that was developed in the course of this research. The resulting language has a grammar and syntax that can be parsed from the visual representation of the scenario. The language is designed so that scenarios can be described in a generic manner, not tied to a specific simulation system, allowing the future development of modules to translate the generic scenario into simulation system specific scenarios.

  12. Using Unified Modeling Language for Conceptual Modelling of Knowledge-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Syazwan; Benest, Ian; Paige, Richard; Kimble, Chris

    This paper discusses extending the Unified Modelling Language by means of a profile for modelling knowledge-based system in the context of Model Driven Architecture (MDA) framework. The profile is implemented using the eXecutable Modelling Framework (XMF) Mosaic tool. A case study from the health care domain demonstrates the practical use of this profile; with the prototype implemented in Java Expert System Shell (Jess). The paper also discusses the possible mapping of the profile elements to the platform specific model (PSM) of Jess and provides some discussion on the Production Rule Representation (PRR) standardisation work.

  13. A Dynamic Systems Model of Cognitive and Language Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Geert, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual framework of cognitive growth is sketched and a mathematical model of cognitive growth is presented with the conclusion that the most plausible model is a model of logistic growth with delayed feedback. The model is transformed into a dynamic systems model based on the logistic-growth equation. (SLD)

  14. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the core framework used to implement a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) based systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language. It defines a set of principles built upon by the theoretical approach described in the InfoTech 2013 ISHM paper titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson. Using the SysML language, the principles in this paper describe the expansion of the SysML language as a baseline in order to: hierarchically describe a system, describe that system functionally within success space, and allocate detection mechanisms to success functions for system protection.

  15. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-12-31

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  16. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-01-01

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  17. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  18. Talking about Poetry--Using the Model of Language in Systemic Functional Linguistics to Talk about Poetic Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Poetry is the art shaped through language; to talk about a poem we need at least to talk about its language--but what can be said will depend on the particular linguistic theory, with its particular modelling of language, which we bring to the description. This paper outlines the approach of SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics), describing in…

  19. Talking about Poetry--Using the Model of Language in Systemic Functional Linguistics to Talk about Poetic Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Poetry is the art shaped through language; to talk about a poem we need at least to talk about its language--but what can be said will depend on the particular linguistic theory, with its particular modelling of language, which we bring to the description. This paper outlines the approach of SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics), describing in…

  20. Neural Systems Language: A Formal Modeling Language for the Systematic Description, Unambiguous Communication, and Automated Digital Curation of Neural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ramsay A.; Swanson, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL’s development. We explore NSyL’s potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. PMID:23787962

  1. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Generalized Computer Simulation Language for Naval Systems Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    FORTRAN-based software for statistical methodology and optimization. NAVMAP (Naval Modeling and Analysis Program) is intended to serve as the basis for a consistent simulation modeling approach among naval research laboratories. (Author)

  3. PV System 'Availability' as a Reliability Metric -- Improving Standards, Contract Language and Performance Models

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Hill, Roger; Walker, Andy; Dobos, Aron; Freeman, Janine

    2016-11-21

    The use of the term 'availability' to describe a photovoltaic (PV) system and power plant has been fraught with confusion for many years. A term that is meant to describe equipment operational status is often omitted, misapplied or inaccurately combined with PV performance metrics due to attempts to measure performance and reliability through the lens of traditional power plant language. This paper discusses three areas where current research in standards, contract language and performance modeling is improving the way availability is used with regards to photovoltaic systems and power plants.

  4. SBRML: a markup language for associating systems biology data with models.

    PubMed

    Dada, Joseph O; Spasić, Irena; Paton, Norman W; Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Research in systems biology is carried out through a combination of experiments and models. Several data standards have been adopted for representing models (Systems Biology Markup Language) and various types of relevant experimental data (such as FuGE and those of the Proteomics Standards Initiative). However, until now, there has been no standard way to associate a model and its entities to the corresponding datasets, or vice versa. Such a standard would provide a means to represent computational simulation results as well as to frame experimental data in the context of a particular model. Target applications include model-driven data analysis, parameter estimation, and sharing and archiving model simulations. We propose the Systems Biology Results Markup Language (SBRML), an XML-based language that associates a model with several datasets. Each dataset is represented as a series of values associated with model variables, and their corresponding parameter values. SBRML provides a flexible way of indexing the results to model parameter values, which supports both spreadsheet-like data and multidimensional data cubes. We present and discuss several examples of SBRML usage in applications such as enzyme kinetics, microarray gene expression and various types of simulation results. The XML Schema file for SBRML is available at http://www.comp-sys-bio.org/SBRML under the Academic Free License (AFL) v3.0.

  5. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  6. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  7. Towards a System for High-Performance, Multi-Language, Component-Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) is a recently NSF-funded project that represents an effort to bring together a diverse community of surface dynamics modelers and model users. Key goals of the CSDMS project are to (1) promote open-source code sharing and re-use, (2) to develop a review process for code contributions, (3) promote recognition of contributors, (4) develop a "library" of low- level software tools and higher-level models that can be linked as easily as possible into new applications and (5) provide resources to simplify the efforts of surface dynamics modelers. The architectural framework of CSDMS is being designed to allow code contributions to be in any of several different programming languages (language independence), to support a migration towards parallel computation and to support multiple operating systems (platform independence). After evaluating a number of different "coupling frameworks," the CSDMS project has decided to use a DOE- funded set of tools and standards called the Common Component Architecture (CCA) as the foundation for our model-linking efforts. CCA was specifically designed to meet the needs of high-performance, scientific computing. It also includes a powerful, language-interoperability tool called Babel that permits communication between components written in any of several major programming languages, including C, C++, Java, Fortran (all years) and Python. The CSDMS project has been collecting open-source components from our modeling community in all of these languages, including a variety of terrestrial, marine, coastal and hydrological models. CSDMS is now focused on the problem of how best to wrap these components with interfaces that allow them to be linked together with maximum ease and flexibility. To this end, we are adapting a Java version of the OpenMI (Open Modeling Interface) standard and an associated software development kit for use within a CCA framework. Our goal is to combine the best

  8. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  9. Vowel System Modeling: A Complement to Phonetic Modeling in Language Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    ABSTRACT less to phonetic units. Though this approach achieves the best results, it seems that increasing performances Most systems of Automatic...account will improve while, it is because they are not so easy to exploit in performances . This paper presents an unsupervised ALL. Efficient phonetic...better performances and enhanced capacity of With 5 languages from the OGI MLTS corpus and in a adaptation while requiring less and less hand-labeled

  10. [Creating language model of the forensic medicine domain for developing a autopsy recording system by automatic speech recognition].

    PubMed

    Niijima, H; Ito, N; Ogino, S; Takatori, T; Iwase, H; Kobayashi, M

    2000-11-01

    For the purpose of practical use of speech recognition technology for recording of forensic autopsy, a language model of the speech recording system, specialized for the forensic autopsy, was developed. The language model for the forensic autopsy by applying 3-gram model was created, and an acoustic model for Japanese speech recognition by Hidden Markov Model in addition to the above were utilized to customize the speech recognition engine for forensic autopsy. A forensic vocabulary set of over 10,000 words was compiled and some 300,000 sentence patterns were made to create the forensic language model, then properly mixing with a general language model to attain high exactitude. When tried by dictating autopsy findings, this speech recognition system was proved to be about 95% of recognition rate that seems to have reached to the practical usability in view of speech recognition software, though there remains rooms for improving its hardware and application-layer software.

  11. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  12. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  13. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  14. Modeling a Nursing Guideline with Standard Terminology and Unified Modeling Language for a Nursing Decision Support System: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Jansen, Kay; Coenen, Amy

    In recent years, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed and used to achieve "meaningful use". One approach to developing DSSs is to translate clinical guidelines into a computer-interpretable format. However, there is no specific guideline modeling approach to translate nursing guidelines to computer-interpretable guidelines. This results in limited use of DSSs in nursing. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language known to accurately represent the end-users' perspective, due to its expressive characteristics. Furthermore, standard terminology enabled DSSs have been shown to smoothly integrate into existing health information systems. In order to facilitate development of nursing DSSs, the UML was used to represent a guideline for medication management for older adults encode with the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®). The UML was found to be a useful and sufficient tool to model a nursing guideline for a DSS.

  15. Modeling a Nursing Guideline with Standard Terminology and Unified Modeling Language for a Nursing Decision Support System: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeeyae; Jansen, Kay; Coenen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed and used to achieve “meaningful use”. One approach to developing DSSs is to translate clinical guidelines into a computer-interpretable format. However, there is no specific guideline modeling approach to translate nursing guidelines to computer-interpretable guidelines. This results in limited use of DSSs in nursing. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language known to accurately represent the end-users’ perspective, due to its expressive characteristics. Furthermore, standard terminology enabled DSSs have been shown to smoothly integrate into existing health information systems. In order to facilitate development of nursing DSSs, the UML was used to represent a guideline for medication management for older adults encode with the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®). The UML was found to be a useful and sufficient tool to model a nursing guideline for a DSS. PMID:26958174

  16. Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J

    2016-08-19

    The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime.

  17. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org.

  18. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T.; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M.; Le Novére, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J.; Olivier, Brett G.; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C.; Smith, Lucian P.; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528569

  19. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  20. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  1. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    LeBozec, C; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Degoulet, P

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users.

  2. L-Py: An L-System Simulation Framework for Modeling Plant Architecture Development Based on a Dynamic Language

    PubMed Central

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom. PMID:22670147

  3. L-py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language.

    PubMed

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  4. Architecting the Human Space Flight Program with Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena M.; Fernandez, Michela Munoz; McVittie, Thomas I.; Sindiy, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of missions in NASA's Human Space Flight program focuses on the development and deployment of highly complex systems (e.g., Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Space Launch System, 21st Century Ground System) that will enable astronauts to venture beyond low Earth orbit and explore the moon, near-Earth asteroids, and beyond. Architecting these highly complex system-of-systems requires formal systems engineering techniques for managing the evolution of the technical features in the information exchange domain (e.g., data exchanges, communication networks, ground software) and also, formal correlation of the technical architecture to stakeholders' programmatic concerns (e.g., budget, schedule, risk) and design development (e.g., assumptions, constraints, trades, tracking of unknowns). This paper will describe how the authors have applied System Modeling Language (SysML) to implement model-based systems engineering for managing the description of the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) architecture and associated development activities and ultimately enables stakeholders to understand, reason, and answer questions about the EEIS under design for proposed lunar Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2).

  5. Architecting the Human Space Flight Program with Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena M.; Fernandez, Michela Munoz; McVittie, Thomas I.; Sindiy, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of missions in NASA's Human Space Flight program focuses on the development and deployment of highly complex systems (e.g., Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Space Launch System, 21st Century Ground System) that will enable astronauts to venture beyond low Earth orbit and explore the moon, near-Earth asteroids, and beyond. Architecting these highly complex system-of-systems requires formal systems engineering techniques for managing the evolution of the technical features in the information exchange domain (e.g., data exchanges, communication networks, ground software) and also, formal correlation of the technical architecture to stakeholders' programmatic concerns (e.g., budget, schedule, risk) and design development (e.g., assumptions, constraints, trades, tracking of unknowns). This paper will describe how the authors have applied System Modeling Language (SysML) to implement model-based systems engineering for managing the description of the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) architecture and associated development activities and ultimately enables stakeholders to understand, reason, and answer questions about the EEIS under design for proposed lunar Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2).

  6. SBML-PET-MPI: a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language based models.

    PubMed

    Zi, Zhike

    2011-04-01

    Parameter estimation is crucial for the modeling and dynamic analysis of biological systems. However, implementing parameter estimation is time consuming and computationally demanding. Here, we introduced a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)-based models (SBML-PET-MPI). SBML-PET-MPI allows the user to perform parameter estimation and parameter uncertainty analysis by collectively fitting multiple experimental datasets. The tool is developed and parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) protocol, which provides good scalability with the number of processors. SBML-PET-MPI is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.bioss.uni-freiburg.de/cms/sbml-pet-mpi.html or http://sites.google.com/site/sbmlpetmpi/.

  7. Modeling the Organization as a System of Communication Activity: A Dialogue about the Language/Action Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Every, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces, through a conversation with computer-system designers from the Netherlands, the Language/Action Perspective on modeling business workflow and communication processes. Describes their attempts to develop system models that go beyond data flow to incorporate the communicative actions or transactions that result in the creation of a…

  8. SBMLeditor: effective creation of models in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Donizelli, Marco; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2007-03-06

    The need to build a tool to facilitate the quick creation and editing of models encoded in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML) has been growing with the number of users and the increased complexity of the language. SBMLeditor tries to answer this need by providing a very simple, low level editor of SBML files. Users can create and remove all the necessary bits and pieces of SBML in a controlled way, that maintains the validity of the final SBML file. SBMLeditor is written in JAVA using JCompneur, a library providing interfaces to easily display an XML document as a tree. This decreases dramatically the development time for a new XML editor. The possibility to include custom dialogs for different tags allows a lot of freedom for the editing and validation of the document. In addition to Xerces, SBMLeditor uses libSBML to check the validity and consistency of SBML files. A graphical equation editor allows an easy manipulation of MathML. SBMLeditor can be used as a module of the Systems Biology Workbench. SBMLeditor contains many improvements compared to a generic XML editor, and allow users to create an SBML model quickly and without syntactic errors.

  9. SBMLeditor: effective creation of models in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Donizelli, Marco; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Background The need to build a tool to facilitate the quick creation and editing of models encoded in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML) has been growing with the number of users and the increased complexity of the language. SBMLeditor tries to answer this need by providing a very simple, low level editor of SBML files. Users can create and remove all the necessary bits and pieces of SBML in a controlled way, that maintains the validity of the final SBML file. Results SBMLeditor is written in JAVA using JCompneur, a library providing interfaces to easily display an XML document as a tree. This decreases dramatically the development time for a new XML editor. The possibility to include custom dialogs for different tags allows a lot of freedom for the editing and validation of the document. In addition to Xerces, SBMLeditor uses libSBML to check the validity and consistency of SBML files. A graphical equation editor allows an easy manipulation of MathML. SBMLeditor can be used as a module of the Systems Biology Workbench. Conclusion SBMLeditor contains many improvements compared to a generic XML editor, and allow users to create an SBML model quickly and without syntactic errors. PMID:17341299

  10. A basis for a visual language for describing, archiving and analyzing functional models of complex biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel L; Farley, Joel F; Tapscott, Stephen J

    2001-01-01

    Background: We propose that a computerized, internet-based graphical description language for systems biology will be essential for describing, archiving and analyzing complex problems of biological function in health and disease. Results: We outline here a conceptual basis for designing such a language and describe BioD, a prototype language that we have used to explore the utility and feasibility of this approach to functional biology. Using example models, we demonstrate that a rather limited lexicon of icons and arrows suffices to describe complex cell-biological systems as discrete models that can be posted and linked on the internet. Conclusions: Given available computer and internet technology, BioD may be implemented as an extensible, multidisciplinary language that can be used to archive functional systems knowledge and be extended to support both qualitative and quantitative functional analysis. PMID:11305940

  11. Natural language parsing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bole, L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this book is to enable scientists from different countries to present the results of their research on natural language parsing in the form of more detailed papers than would be possible in professional journals. The contents include: Robust Parsing Using Multiple Construction-Specific Strategies.- Parsing with Logical Variables.- Knowledge-Based Parsing.- Using Declarative Knowledge for Understanding Natural Language.- Weighted Parsing.- A Distributed Word-Based Approach to Parsing.- Parsing by Means of Uppsala Chart Processor.- Preliminary Analysis of a Breadth-First Parsing Algorithm: Theoretical and Experimental Results.- Syntax Directed Translation in the Natural Language Information System PLIDIS.- Subject Index.

  12. Student Modeling and Ab Initio Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of student modeling techniques that have been employed in computer-assisted language learning over the past decade. Describes two systems for learning German: "German Tutor" and "Geroline." Shows how a student model can support computerized adaptive language testing for diagnostic purposes in a Web-based language learning…

  13. Model of the Dynamic Construction Process of Texts and Scaling Laws of Words Organization in Language Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Lin, Ruokuang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-01-01

    Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language.

  14. Model of the Dynamic Construction Process of Texts and Scaling Laws of Words Organization in Language Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Lin, Ruokuang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language. PMID:28006026

  15. Language as an evolutionary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighton, Henry; Smith, Kenny; Kirby, Simon

    2005-09-01

    John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry argued that human language signified the eighth major transition in evolution: human language marked a new form of information transmission from one generation to another [Maynard Smith J, Szathmáry E. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press; 1995]. According to this view language codes cultural information and as such forms the basis for the evolution of complexity in human culture. In this article we develop the theory that language also codes information in another sense: languages code information on their own structure. As a result, languages themselves provide information that influences their own survival. To understand the consequences of this theory we discuss recent computational models of linguistic evolution. Linguistic evolution is the process by which languages themselves evolve. This article draws together this recent work on linguistic evolution and highlights the significance of this process in understanding the evolution of linguistic complexity. Our conclusions are that: (1) the process of linguistic transmission constitutes the basis for an evolutionary system, and (2), that this evolutionary system is only superficially comparable to the process of biological evolution.

  16. PyMCT: A Very High Level Language Coupling Tool For Climate System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobis, M.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Climate Systems Center of the University of Chicago, we have been examining strategies for applying agile programming techniques to complex high-performance modeling experiments. While the "agile" development methodology differs from a conventional requirements process and its associated milestones, the process remain a formal one. It is distinguished by continuous improvement in functionality, large numbers of small releases, extensive and ongoing testing strategies, and a strong reliance on very high level languages (VHLL). Here we report on PyMCT, which we intend as a core element in a model ensemble control superstructure. PyMCT is a set of Python bindings for MCT, the Fortran-90 based Model Coupling Toolkit, which forms the infrastructure for the inter-component communication in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). MCT provides a scalable model communication infrastructure. In order to take maximum advantage of agile software development methodologies, we exposed MCT functionality to Python, a prominent VHLL. We describe how the scalable architecture of MCT allows us to overcome the relatively weak runtime performance of Python, so that the performance of the combined system is not severely impacted. To demonstrate these advantages, we reimplemented the CCSM coupler in Python. While this alone offers no new functionality, it does provide a rigorous test of PyMCT functionality and performance. We reimplemented the CPL6 library, presenting an interesting case study of the comparison between conventional Fortran-90 programming and the higher abstraction level provided by a VHLL. The powerful abstractions provided by Python will allow much more complex experimental paradigms. In particular, we hope to build on the scriptability of our coupling strategy to enable systematic sensitivity tests. Our most ambitious objective is to combine our efforts with Bayesian inverse modeling techniques toward objective tuning at the highest level, across model

  17. Computational models of natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bara, B.G.; Guida, G.

    1984-01-01

    The main concern in this work is the illustration of models for natural language processing, and the discussion of their role in the development of computational studies of language. Topics covered include the following: competence and performance in the design of natural language systems; planning and understanding speech acts by interpersonal games; a framework for integrating syntax and semantics; knowledge representation and natural language: extending the expressive power of proposition nodes; viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: a connectionist approach; a propositional language for text representation; from topic and focus of a sentence to linking in a text; language generation by computer; understanding the Chinese language; semantic primitives or meaning postulates: mental models of propositional representations; narrative complexity based on summarization algorithms; using focus to constrain language generation; and towards an integral model of language competence.

  18. Number without a language model.

    PubMed

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Coppola, Marie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Carey, Susan E; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-02-22

    Cross-cultural studies suggest that access to a conventional language containing words that can be used for counting is essential to develop representations of large exact numbers. However, cultures that lack a conventional counting system typically differ from cultures that have such systems, not only in language but also in many other ways. As a result, it is difficult to isolate the effects of language on the development of number representations. Here we examine the numerical abilities of individuals who lack conventional language for number (deaf individuals who do not have access to a usable model for language, spoken or signed) but who live in a numerate culture (Nicaragua) and thus have access to other aspects of culture that might foster the development of number. These deaf individuals develop their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. We show that homesigners use gestures to communicate about number. However, they do not consistently extend the correct number of fingers when communicating about sets greater than three, nor do they always correctly match the number of items in one set to a target set when that target set is greater than three. Thus, even when integrated into a numerate society, individuals who lack input from a conventional language do not spontaneously develop representations of large exact numerosities.

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  20. Plenary Speech: Researching Complex Dynamic Systems--"Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling" in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather…

  1. Plenary Speech: Researching Complex Dynamic Systems--"Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling" in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather…

  2. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  3. The OMG Modelling Language (SYSML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, M.

    2007-08-01

    On July 6th 2006, the Object Management Group (OMG) announced the adoption of the OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML). The SysML specification was in response to the joint Request for Proposal issued by the OMG and INCOSE (the International Council on Systems Engineering) for a customized version of UML 2, designed to address the specific needs of system engineers. SysML is a visual modeling language that extends UML 2 in order to support the specification, analysis, design, verification and validation of complex systems. This paper will look at the background of SysML and summarize the SysML specification including the modifications to UML 2.0, along with the new requirement and parametric diagrams. It will also show how SysML artifacts can be used to specify the requirements for other solution spaces such as software and hardware to provide handover to other disciplines.

  4. From ODES to language-based, executable models of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, A; Mura, I; Priami, C

    2009-01-01

    Modeling in biology is mainly grounded in mathematics, and specifically on ordinary differential equations (ODE). The programming language approach is a complementary and emergent tool to analyze the dynamics of biological networks. Here we focus on BlenX showing how it is possible to easily re-use ODE models within this framework. A budding yeast cell cycle example demonstrates the advantages of using a stochastic approach. Finally, some hints are provided on how the automatically translated model can take advantage of the full power of BlenX to analyze the control mechanisms of the cell cycle machinery.

  5. Representing nursing guideline with unified modeling language to facilitate development of a computer system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2014-01-01

    To provide best recommendations at the point of care, guidelines have been implemented in computer systems. As a prerequisite, guidelines are translated into a computer-interpretable guideline format. Since there are no specific tools to translate nursing guidelines, only a few nursing guidelines are translated and implemented in computer systems. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language and is known to well and accurately represent end-users' perspective, due to the expressive characteristics of the UML. In order to facilitate the development of computer systems for nurses' use, the UML was used to translate a paper-based nursing guideline, and its ease of use and the usefulness were tested through a case study of a genetic counseling guideline. The UML was found to be a useful tool to nurse informaticians and a sufficient tool to model a guideline in a computer program.

  6. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  7. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  8. On the Dual Nature of the Functional Discourse Grammar Model: Context, the Language System/Language Use Distinction, and Indexical Reference in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Francis

    2013-01-01

    The Functional Discourse Grammar model has a twofold objective: on the one hand, to provide a descriptively, psychologically and pragmatically adequate account of the forms made available by a typologically diverse range of languages; and on the other, to provide a model of language which is set up to reflect, at one remove, certain of the stages…

  9. SAINT: A combined simulation language for modeling man-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    SAINT (Systems Analysis of Integrated Networks of Tasks) is a network modeling and simulation technique for design and analysis of complex man machine systems. SAINT provides the conceptual framework for representing systems that consist of discrete task elements, continuous state variables, and interactions between them. It also provides a mechanism for combining human performance models and dynamic system behaviors in a single modeling structure. The SAINT technique is described and applications of the SAINT are discussed.

  10. A System for Natural Language Sentence Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levison, Michael; Lessard, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Describes the natural language computer program, "Vinci." Explains that using an attribute grammar formalism, Vinci can simulate components of several current linguistic theories. Considers the design of the system and its applications in linguistic modelling and second language acquisition research. Notes Vinci's uses in linguistics…

  11. Design Language for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is convenient hardware description language for developing and testing digital designs and for inputting design details into design automation system. Describes digital systems at gate, register transfer, and combinational block levels. DDL-based programs written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  12. A Natural Language Graphics System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David, C.; Kwasny, Stan C.

    This report describes an experimental system for drawing simple pictures on a computer graphics terminal using natural language input. The system is capable of drawing lines, points, and circles on command from the user, as well as answering questions about system capabilities and objects on the screen. Erasures are permitted and language input…

  13. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  14. Requirements for Medical Modeling Languages

    PubMed Central

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The development of tailor-made domain-specific modeling languages is sometimes desirable in medical informatics. Naturally, the development of such languages should be guided. The purpose of this article is to introduce a set of requirements for such languages and show their application in analyzing and comparing existing modeling languages. Design: The requirements arise from the practical experience of the authors and others in the development of modeling languages in both general informatics and medical informatics. The requirements initially emerged from the analysis of information modeling techniques. The requirements are designed to be orthogonal, i.e., one requirement can be violated without violation of the others. Results: The proposed requirements for any modeling language are that it be “formal” with regard to syntax and semantics, “conceptual,” “expressive,” “comprehensible,” “suitable,” and “executable.” The requirements are illustrated using both the medical logic modules of the Arden Syntax as a running example and selected examples from other modeling languages. Conclusion: Activity diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language, task structures for work flows, and Petri nets are discussed with regard to the list of requirements, and various tradeoffs are thus made explicit. It is concluded that this set of requirements has the potential to play a vital role in both the evaluation of existing domain-specific languages and the development of new ones. PMID:11230383

  15. Antimony: a modular model definition language.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lucian P; Bergmann, Frank T; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M

    2009-09-15

    Model exchange in systems and synthetic biology has been standardized for computers with the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and CellML, but specialized software is needed for the generation of models in these formats. Text-based model definition languages allow researchers to create models simply, and then export them to a common exchange format. Modular languages allow researchers to create and combine complex models more easily. We saw a use for a modular text-based language, together with a translation library to allow other programs to read the models as well. The Antimony language provides a way for a researcher to use simple text statements to create, import, and combine biological models, allowing complex models to be built from simpler models, and provides a special syntax for the creation of modular genetic networks. The libAntimony library allows other software packages to import these models and convert them either to SBML or their own internal format. The Antimony language specification and the libAntimony library are available under a BSD license from http://antimony.sourceforge.net/.

  16. Connectionist Models and Linguistic Theory: Investigations of Stress Systems in Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    process of language acquisition 1. Thus, for example, Dresher & Kaye take iteration to be the default or unmarked setting for parameter PI 1, because...one approach to markedness is learnability theory, which examines the logical process of language acquisition , while the distributional approach to...leftward, is surely perverse as well as unnecessary. Language acquisition takes place within the infant, not within the context of a statistical survey of

  17. A Formal Modelling Language Extending SysML for Simulation of Continuous and Discrete System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Nick Luckman2 1Block Software and 2Weapons Systems Division, DSTO Abstract MBSE tools and techniques in a broad sense provide a structured approach...aims to support the broader modelling needs of SE, hence the term MBSE . However, engineering has at its disposal another type of modelling that is...more precisely iterative algorithms. The challenge therefore for MBSE is to develop general purpose graphical modelling views that transition naturally

  18. Interactive Language Simulation Systems: Technology for a National Language Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, A. Allen

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center to make interactive video an integral part of foreign language instruction. Interactive video is seen as a method which could profoundly alter the old classroom model of language instruction. (Author/SED)

  19. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  20. Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

  1. Temporal Data, Temporal Data Models, Temporal Data Languages and Temporal Database Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    bibliographies are in chronological order dating from the 1960’s. Breutmann, B., Falkenberg , E., Mauer, R ., CSL: A language for Defining Conceptual Schemas... Falkenberg , E., and Mauer, R ., CSL: A language for Defining Conceptual Schemas, Data Base Architect, North-Holland Publishing Company, 1979. 33. Jones, S...of real-time military applications using temporal database computers. DTIC INS ECTED N~ ~AA DTIC TAF Li Av ....... C~C. -: , r I I %A TABLE OF

  2. Natural language modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  3. Second order limit language in variants of splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Azrin; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Heng, Fong Wan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2014-07-01

    The cutting and pasting processes that occur in DNA molecules have led to the formulation of splicing system. Since then, there are few models used to model the splicing system. The splicing language, which is the product of splicing system, can be categorized into two, namely the adult and limit language. In this research, limit language is extended to the second order limit language. Few problems are approached which lead to the formation of second order limit language which is then analyzed using various types of splicing system.

  4. Interconnection of the Graphics Language for Database System to the Multi-Lingual, Multi-Model, Multi-Backend Database System Over an Ethernet Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    the Attribute Based Data Language ( ABDL ) interface of MBDS which receives requests (generated by GLAD) for opening and querying databases. These...are the same for all interfaces. The attribute-based data model and language ( ABDL ) have been chosen as the KDM and 18 •~~ UDM. •ii I IM I KDL...Attribute-Based Data Model (ABDM) and Language ( ABDL ). a. Model Description Any database consists of a collection of files, each of which consists of a

  5. Model Shrinkage for Discriminative Language Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Takanobu; Hori, Takaaki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ito, Akinori

    This paper describes a technique for overcoming the model shrinkage problem in automatic speech recognition (ASR), which allows application developers and users to control the model size with less degradation of accuracy. Recently, models for ASR systems tend to be large and this can constitute a bottleneck for developers and users without special knowledge of ASR with respect to introducing the ASR function. Specifically, discriminative language models (DLMs) are usually designed in a high-dimensional parameter space, although DLMs have gained increasing attention as an approach for improving recognition accuracy. Our proposed method can be applied to linear models including DLMs, in which the score of an input sample is given by the inner product of its features and the model parameters, but our proposed method can shrink models in an easy computation by obtaining simple statistics, which are square sums of feature values appearing in a data set. Our experimental results show that our proposed method can shrink a DLM with little degradation in accuracy and perform properly whether or not the data for obtaining the statistics are the same as the data for training the model.

  6. A graphical language for reliability model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Sandra V.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    A graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) is described. The graphics-oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault tree gates, including sequence dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. With this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing.

  7. A graphical language for reliability model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Sandra V.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    A graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) is described. The graphics-oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault tree gates, including sequence dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. With this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing.

  8. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  9. Advanced Languages for Systems Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    these are too numerous to list here. Edoardo Biagioni . Post-doctoral researcher. System networking and kernel design and imple- mentation. Kenneth Cline...John Backus, John H. Williams, and Edward L. Wimmers. The programming language FL. In Turner [131], pages 219-247. [12] Edoardo Biagioni , Nicholas

  10. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  11. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  12. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  13. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  14. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    PubMed

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  15. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  16. Parents' and Speech and Language Therapists' Explanatory Models of Language Development, Language Delay and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. Aims: The aims…

  17. Meta II: Multi-Model Language Suite for Cyber Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    described on inside pages STINFO COPY AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE...Division of Sponsored Research , 110 21st Avenue S., Suite 937 Nashville, TN 37203-2416 REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING Air Force Research Laboratory Aerospace Systems Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433

  18. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  19. Diagrams and Languages for Model-Based Software Engineering of Embedded Systems: UML and AADL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    653 (ARINC 653-1). http://www.lynuxworks.com/solu- tions/milaero/arinc-653.php (2003). [ICECCS 2007] Feiler , Peter H., de Niz, Dionisio, Raistrick...Chris, & Lewis, Bruce A. “From PIMs to PSMs,” 365–370. 12th IEEE International Conference on Engineer- ing Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS 2007

  20. A study of systems implementation languages for the POCCNET system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Franklin, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of systems implementation languages for the Payload Operations Control Center Network (POCCNET). Criteria are developed for evaluating the languages, and fifteen existing languages are evaluated on the basis of these criteria.

  1. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  2. The PLATO System and Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert S., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This issue presents an overview of research in computer-based language instruction using the PLATO IV computer system. The following articles are presented: (1) "Language Study and the PLATO system," by R. Hart; (2) "Reflections on the Use of Computers in Second-Language Acquisition," by F. Marty; (3) "Computer-Based…

  3. Decentering Language in World-System Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Examines the development of and response to world-system theory in language policy studies. Suggests a project for scholars interested in language and international structural relations that involves decentering core languages and assigning them an important, but not deterministic role in the world system. (Author/VWL)

  4. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  5. A Language Variation Model for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Harold E.; Burgess, Carol

    This paper focuses on a language variation model that incorporates a number of concepts from linguistic and rhetorical studies. The model views language variation as a product of two correlating causes: one, the user and his or her personal, regional, and social dialect; and the other, the user's use of the language in terms of such discourse…

  6. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  7. A Language Variation Model for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Harold E.; Burgess, Carol

    This paper focuses on a language variation model that incorporates a number of concepts from linguistic and rhetorical studies. The model views language variation as a product of two correlating causes: one, the user and his or her personal, regional, and social dialect; and the other, the user's use of the language in terms of such discourse…

  8. Linguistics: Modelling the dynamics of language death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2003-08-01

    Thousands of the world's languages are vanishing at an alarming rate, with 90% of them being expected to disappear with the current generation. Here we develop a simple model of language competition that explains historical data on the decline of Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Quechua (the most common surviving indigenous language in the Americas) and other endangered languages. A linguistic parameter that quantifies the threat of language extinction can be derived from the model and may be useful in the design and evaluation of language-preservation programmes.

  9. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  10. Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example is presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section is analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, are developed. The presentation steps through the modeling process and shows where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

  11. Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

    1993-12-31

    Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example will be presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section will be analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, will be developed. The presentation will step through the modeling process and show where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

  12. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  13. Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Menghan

    2014-06-01

    We survey recent computer modelling research of language evolution, focusing on a rule-based model simulating the lexicon-syntax coevolution and an equation-based model quantifying the language competition dynamics. We discuss four predictions of these models: (a) correlation between domain-general abilities (e.g. sequential learning) and language-specific mechanisms (e.g. word order processing); (b) coevolution of language and relevant competences (e.g. joint attention); (c) effects of cultural transmission and social structure on linguistic understandability; and (d) commonalities between linguistic, biological, and physical phenomena. All these contribute significantly to our understanding of the evolutions of language structures, individual learning mechanisms, and relevant biological and socio-cultural factors. We conclude the survey by highlighting three future directions of modelling studies of language evolution: (a) adopting experimental approaches for model evaluation; (b) consolidating empirical foundations of models; and (c) multi-disciplinary collaboration among modelling, linguistics, and other relevant disciplines.

  14. Language system organization in a quadrilingual with a brain tumor: Implications for understanding of the language network.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Japardi, Kevin; Frew, Andrew; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2016-06-01

    In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Language Study and the PLATO System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Technical aspects of the PLATO system, the language work done on PLATO thus far (specifically in foreign languages), and areas for further research in computer-based language instruction are reviewed. PLATO-IV, designed and implemented by the Computer-Based Educational Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is…

  16. Language Study and the PLATO System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Technical aspects of the PLATO system, the language work done on PLATO thus far (specifically in foreign languages), and areas for further research in computer-based language instruction are reviewed. PLATO-IV, designed and implemented by the Computer-Based Educational Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is…

  17. An abstract specification language for Markov reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Markov models can be used to compute the reliability of virtually any fault tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in a model of complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. An approach to this problem is presented utilizing an abstract model definition language. This high level language is described in a nonformal manner and illustrated by example.

  18. An abstract language for specifying Markov reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1986-01-01

    Markov models can be used to compute the reliability of virtually any fault tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in a model of complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. An approach to this problem is presented utilizing an abstract model definition language. This high level language is described in a nonformal manner and illustrated by example.

  19. An Investigation of English as a Second Language Models (Pullout, Co-Teaching, and Inclusion) on the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamantov, Tonya Jean

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for todays instructional leaders is identifying the most effective method of educating English Language Learners (ELLs) who participate in the English as a Second Language (ESL) program. The primary purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of three programs used for ESL students in twelve elementary schools in a Urban…

  20. Design of a Competency Evaluation Model for Clinical Nursing Practicum, Based on Standardized Language Systems: Psychometric Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Parra, Maria Rosa; García-Guerrero, Alfonso; García-Mayor, Silvia; Kaknani-Uttumchandani, Shakira; León-Campos, Álvaro; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel

    2015-07-01

    To develop an evaluation system of clinical competencies for the practicum of nursing students based on the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Psychometric validation study: the first two phases addressed definition and content validation, and the third phase consisted of a cross-sectional study for analyzing reliability. The study population was undergraduate nursing students and clinical tutors. Through the Delphi technique, 26 competencies and 91 interventions were isolated. Cronbach's α was 0.96. Factor analysis yielded 18 factors that explained 68.82% of the variance. Overall inter-item correlation was 0.26, and total-item correlation ranged between 0.66 and 0.19. A competency system for the nursing practicum, structured on the NIC, is a reliable method for assessing and evaluating clinical competencies. Further evaluations in other contexts are needed. The availability of standardized language systems in the nursing discipline supposes an ideal framework to develop the nursing curricula. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. A comparison of semantic categories of the ISO reference terminology models for nursing and the MedLEE natural language processing system.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Hyun, Sookyung; Friedman, Carol; Johnson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) systems have demonstrated utility in parsing narrative texts for purposes such as surveillance and decision support. However, there has been little work related to NLP of nursing narratives. The purpose of this study was to compare the semantic categories of a NLP system (Medical Language Extraction and Encoding [MedLEE] system) with the semantic domains, categories, and attributes of the International Standards Organization(ISO) reference terminology models for nursing diagnoses and nursing actions. All but two MedLEE diagnosis and procedure-related semantic categories mapped to ISO models. In some instances, we found exact correspondence between the semantic structures of MedLEE and the ISO models. In other situations (e.g. aspects of site or location), the ISO model was not as granular as MedLEE. For clinical procedure and non-invasive examination, two ISO nursing action model components (action and target) were required to represent the MedLEE semantic category. The ISO model requires additional specification of selected semantic categories for the abstract semantic domains in order to achieve the objective of using NLP to parse and encode data from nursing narratives. Our analysis also suggests areas for extension of MedLEE.

  2. Integrating Language Models into Classifiers for BCI Communication: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Speier, W; Arnold, C; Pouratian, N

    2017-01-01

    The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing (NLP) field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication (AAC) devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the ALS population. PMID:27153565

  3. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  4. Adaptive Modeling Language and Its Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chemaly, Adel

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) is the underlying language of an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, knowledge-based engineering framework. AML offers an advanced modeling paradigm with an open architecture, enabling the automation of the entire product development cycle, integrating product configuration, design, analysis, visualization, production planning, inspection, and cost estimation.

  5. Model-based query language for analyzing clinical processes.

    PubMed

    Barzdins, Janis; Barzdins, Juris; Rencis, Edgars; Sostaks, Agris

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays large databases of clinical process data exist in hospitals. However, these data are rarely used in full scope. In order to perform queries on hospital processes, one must either choose from the predefined queries or develop queries using MS Excel-type software system, which is not always a trivial task. In this paper we propose a new query language for analyzing clinical processes that is easily perceptible also by non-IT professionals. We develop this language based on a process modeling language which is also described in this paper. Prototypes of both languages have already been verified using real examples from hospitals.

  6. Modeling the cultural evolution of language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2011-12-01

    The paper surveys recent research on language evolution, focusing in particular on models of cultural evolution and how they are being developed and tested using agent-based computational simulations and robotic experiments. The key challenges for evolutionary theories of language are outlined and some example results are discussed, highlighting models explaining how linguistic conventions get shared, how conceptual frameworks get coordinated through language, and how hierarchical structure could emerge. The main conclusion of the paper is that cultural evolution is a much more powerful process that usually assumed, implying that less innate structures or biases are required and consequently that human language evolution has to rely less on genetic evolution.

  7. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  8. MITLL 2015 Language Recognition Evaluation System Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-27

    E. Singer, D. A. Reynolds, “Beyond frame independence: parametric modelling of time duration in speaker and language recognition,” Proc...recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.. MITLL 2015 Language Recognition Evaluation...Doug Sturim, Pedro Torres-Carrasquillo Human Language Technology Group MIT Lincoln Laboratory {dar, frichard, es, sturim, ptorres, elizabeth.godoy

  9. Natural language modeling for phoneme-to-text transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Derouault, A.M.; Merialdo, B.

    1986-11-01

    This paper relates different kinds of language modeling methods that can be applied to the linguistic decoding part of a speech recognition system with a very large vocabulary. These models are studied experimentally on a pseudophonetic input arising from French stenotypy. The authors propose a model which combines the advantages of a statistical modeling with information theoretic tools, and those of a grammatical approach.

  10. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  11. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  12. The Motor System Contributes to Comprehension of Abstract Language

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Meng, Wanjin; Yao, Ru; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    If language comprehension requires a sensorimotor simulation, how can abstract language be comprehended? We show that preparation to respond in an upward or downward direction affects comprehension of the abstract quantifiers “more and more” and “less and less” as indexed by an N400-like component. Conversely, the semantic content of the sentence affects the motor potential measured immediately before the upward or downward action is initiated. We propose that this bidirectional link between motor system and language arises because the motor system implements forward models that predict the sensory consequences of actions. Because the same movement (e.g., raising the arm) can have multiple forward models for different contexts, the models can make different predictions depending on whether the arm is raised, for example, to place an object or raised as a threat. Thus, different linguistic contexts invoke different forward models, and the predictions constitute different understandings of the language. PMID:24086463

  13. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    SciTech Connect

    VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  14. Language Model Applications to Spelling with Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Cortes, Anderson; Manyakov, Nikolay V.; Chumerin, Nikolay; Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) community, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have raised great hopes as they provide alternative communication means for persons with disabilities bypassing the need for speech and other motor activities. Although significant advancements have been realized in the last decade, applications of language models (e.g., word prediction, completion) have only recently started to appear in BCI systems. The main goal of this article is to review the language model applications that supplement non-invasive BCI-based communication systems by discussing their potential and limitations, and to discern future trends. First, a brief overview of the most prominent BCI spelling systems is given, followed by an in-depth discussion of the language models applied to them. These language models are classified according to their functionality in the context of BCI-based spelling: the static/dynamic nature of the user interface, the use of error correction and predictive spelling, and the potential to improve their classification performance by using language models. To conclude, the review offers an overview of the advantages and challenges when implementing language models in BCI-based communication systems when implemented in conjunction with other AAL technologies. PMID:24675760

  15. Improving Domain-specific Machine Translation by Constraining the Language Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    of greater amounts of training data in the two models, especially in the target language model (Brants et al., 2007). Och (2005) reports findings...train with the largest language models (NIST, 2006). The highest scoring Arabic-English system used a 1-trillion-word language model ( Och , 2006...References Brants, T.; Popat, A. C.; Xu, P.; Och , F. J.; Dean, J. Large Language Models in Machine Translation. Joint Meeting of the Conference on Empirical

  16. The Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Betsy L.; Lindberg, Donald A. B.; Schoolman, Harold M.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1998-01-01

    In 1986, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) assembled a large multidisciplinary, multisite team to work on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a collaborative research project aimed at reducing fundamental barriers to the application of computers to medicine. Beyond its tangible products, the UMLS Knowledge Sources, and its influence on the field of informatics, the UMLS project is an interesting case study in collaborative research and development. It illustrates the strengths and challenges of substantive collaboration among widely distributed research groups. Over the past decade, advances in computing and communications have minimized the technical difficulties associated with UMLS collaboration and also facilitated the development, dissemination, and use of the UMLS Knowledge Sources. The spread of the World Wide Web has increased the visibility of the information access problems caused by multiple vocabularies and many information sources which are the focus of UMLS work. The time is propitious for building on UMLS accomplishments and making more progress on the informatics research issues first highlighted by the UMLS project more than 10 years ago. PMID:9452981

  17. A Visual Meta-Language for Generic Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-10

    Evaluation Criteria Frank van Harmelen, Manfred Aben , Fidel Ruiz, and Joke van de Plassche studied formal modeling languages that have begun to play an...131-174, No 2, 1996. [HAR96] Harmelen, Frank van, Manfred Aben , Fidel Ruiz, Joke van de Plassche, “Evaluating a Formal KBS Specification Language...UML provides a unified modeling method for object-oriented systems, it is designed to support software engineering tasks and not suitable to meet

  18. Language Teacher Cognitions: Complex Dynamic Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Language teacher cognition research is a growing field. In recent years several features of language teacher cognitions have been noted: they can be complex, ranging over a number of different subjects; they can be dynamic, changing over time and under different influences; and they can be systems, forming unified and cohesive personal or…

  19. Language Teacher Cognitions: Complex Dynamic Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Language teacher cognition research is a growing field. In recent years several features of language teacher cognitions have been noted: they can be complex, ranging over a number of different subjects; they can be dynamic, changing over time and under different influences; and they can be systems, forming unified and cohesive personal or…

  20. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  1. Development of a Spoken Language System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    military logistical transportation planning domain. " Created a videotape to illustrate these capabilities and some potential applications of spoken...34 Participated in all evaluation tests. 5 We now give a brief description of these highlights. I During this project we modified our natural language system...processor. (For this part of our system, we have found a value of N=5 to give best understanding results.) The natural language system processes these

  2. Systems biology markup language: Level 2 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Finney, A; Hucka, M

    2003-12-01

    The SBML (systems biology markup language) is a standard exchange format for computational models of biochemical networks. We continue developing SBML collaboratively with the modelling community to meet their evolving needs. The recently introduced SBML Level 2 includes several enhancements to the original Level 1, and features under development for SBML Level 3 include model composition, multistate chemical species and diagrams.

  3. Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Menghan

    2014-06-01

    We survey recent computer modelling research of language evolution, focusing on a rule-based model simulating the lexicon-syntax coevolution and an equation-based model quantifying the language competition dynamics. We discuss four predictions of these models: (a) correlation between domain-general abilities (e.g. sequential learning) and language-specific mechanisms (e.g. word order processing); (b) coevolution of language and relevant competences (e.g. joint attention); (c) effects of cultural transmission and social structure on linguistic understandability; and (d) commonalities between linguistic, biological, and physical phenomena. All these contribute significantly to our understanding of the evolutions of language structures, individual learning mechanisms, and relevant biological and socio-cultural factors. We conclude the survey by highlighting three future directions of modelling studies of language evolution: (a) adopting experimental approaches for model evaluation; (b) consolidating empirical foundations of models; and (c) multi-disciplinary collaboration among modelling, linguistics, and other relevant disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  5. FMML: A Feature Model Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabdel, Leili; Karataş, Ahmet Serkan; Oǧuztüzün, Halit; Doǧru, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Feature modeling is a common way of representing commonality and variability in Software Product Line Engineering. Alternative notations are available to represent feature models. Compared with graphical notations, text-based notations can be more amenable to automated processing and tool interoperability. In this paper, we propose an XML-based feature modeling language to represent extended feature models with complex relationships.

  6. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  7. Case Systems for Natural Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    In many languages (e.g. Latin, Greek, Russian, Turkish, German) the relationship of a noun phrase to the rest of a sentence is indicated by altered forms of the noun. The possible relationships are called (surface) "cases." Because (1) it is difficult to specify semantic-free selection rules for the cases, and (2) related phenomena based on…

  8. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  9. Visual Recognition of American Sign Language Using Hidden Markov Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    3.3 Previous Use of Hidden Markov Models in Gesture Recognition 19 3.4 Use of HMM’s for Recognizing Sign Language 20 4 Tracking and Modeling...Instead, computer systems may be employed to annotate certain features of sequences. A human gesture recognition system adds another dimension to...focus for many gesture recognition systems. Tracking the natural hand in real time using camera imagery is dif- ficult, but successful systems have

  10. Neural network approaches for noisy language modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ouazzane, Karim; Kazemian, Hassan B; Afzal, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-11-01

    Text entry from people is not only grammatical and distinct, but also noisy. For example, a user's typing stream contains all the information about the user's interaction with computer using a QWERTY keyboard, which may include the user's typing mistakes as well as specific vocabulary, typing habit, and typing performance. In particular, these features are obvious in disabled users' typing streams. This paper proposes a new concept called noisy language modeling by further developing information theory and applies neural networks to one of its specific application-typing stream. This paper experimentally uses a neural network approach to analyze the disabled users' typing streams both in general and specific ways to identify their typing behaviors and subsequently, to make typing predictions and typing corrections. In this paper, a focused time-delay neural network (FTDNN) language model, a time gap model, a prediction model based on time gap, and a probabilistic neural network model (PNN) are developed. A 38% first hitting rate (HR) and a 53% first three HR in symbol prediction are obtained based on the analysis of a user's typing history through the FTDNN language modeling, while the modeling results using the time gap prediction model and the PNN model demonstrate that the correction rates lie predominantly in between 65% and 90% with the current testing samples, and 70% of all test scores above basic correction rates, respectively. The modeling process demonstrates that a neural network is a suitable and robust language modeling tool to analyze the noisy language stream. The research also paves the way for practical application development in areas such as informational analysis, text prediction, and error correction by providing a theoretical basis of neural network approaches for noisy language modeling.

  11. Extending the Compensatory Model of Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…

  12. DDL:Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shival, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware description languages are valuable tools in such applications as hardware design, system documentation, and logic design training. DDL is convenient medium for inputting design details into hardware-design automation system. It is suitable for describing digital systems at gate, register transfer, and major combinational block level.

  13. DDL:Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shival, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware description languages are valuable tools in such applications as hardware design, system documentation, and logic design training. DDL is convenient medium for inputting design details into hardware-design automation system. It is suitable for describing digital systems at gate, register transfer, and major combinational block level.

  14. Natural Language Access to Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Work under this contract had two components, both aimed at facilitating natural language access to intelligent systems . One aspect examined ways of...increasing the vocabularies of personnel who use intelligent systems . The other was an attempt to increase the vocabulary that computer systems can process intelligently.

  15. Natural Language Access to Intelligent Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    Work under this contract had two components, both aimed at facilitating natural language access to intelligent systems . One aspect was concerned with...increasing the vocabularies of personnel who use intelligent systems , and the other was an attempt to increase the vocabulary that systems can process intelligently.

  16. Bayesian Recurrent Neural Network for Language Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Ku, Yuan-Chu

    2016-02-01

    A language model (LM) is calculated as the probability of a word sequence that provides the solution to word prediction for a variety of information systems. A recurrent neural network (RNN) is powerful to learn the large-span dynamics of a word sequence in the continuous space. However, the training of the RNN-LM is an ill-posed problem because of too many parameters from a large dictionary size and a high-dimensional hidden layer. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to regularize the RNN-LM and apply it for continuous speech recognition. We aim to penalize the too complicated RNN-LM by compensating for the uncertainty of the estimated model parameters, which is represented by a Gaussian prior. The objective function in a Bayesian classification network is formed as the regularized cross-entropy error function. The regularized model is constructed not only by calculating the regularized parameters according to the maximum a posteriori criterion but also by estimating the Gaussian hyperparameter by maximizing the marginal likelihood. A rapid approximation to a Hessian matrix is developed to implement the Bayesian RNN-LM (BRNN-LM) by selecting a small set of salient outer-products. The proposed BRNN-LM achieves a sparser model than the RNN-LM. Experiments on different corpora show the robustness of system performance by applying the rapid BRNN-LM under different conditions.

  17. Modeling the Emergence of Contact Languages

    PubMed Central

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D.P.; Mufwene, Salikoko S.; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena. PMID:25875371

  18. Modeling the emergence of contact languages.

    PubMed

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D P; Mufwene, Salikoko S; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena.

  19. Modeling stroke rehabilitation processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    In organising and providing rehabilitation procedures for stroke patients, the usual need for many refinements makes it inappropriate to attempt rigid standardisation, but greater detail is required concerning workflow. The aim of this study was to build a model of the post-stroke rehabilitation process. The model, implemented in the Unified Modeling Language, was grounded on international guidelines and refined following the clinical pathway adopted at local level by a specialized rehabilitation centre. The model describes the organisation of the rehabilitation delivery and it facilitates the monitoring of recovery during the process. Indeed, a system software was developed and tested to support clinicians in the digital administration of clinical scales. The model flexibility assures easy updating after process evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. One Country, Two Systems, Three Languages: A Survey of Changing Language Use in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.; Kelly-Holmes, Helen, Ed.

    The book presents the following papers and transcriptions of debates: "One Country, Two Systems, Three Languages" (Sue Wright); "The Background to Language Change in Hong Kong" (Godfrey Harrison, Lydia K. H. So); "Aspects of the Two Languages System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong"…

  1. Medical Problem and Document Model for Natural Language Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Meystre, Stephane; Haug, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system t o automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application. PMID:14728214

  2. Medical problem and document model for natural language understanding.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.

  3. Functional Network Dynamics of the Language System

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Lucy R.; Mattar, Marcelo G.; Blank, Idan Asher; Fedorenko, Evelina; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    During linguistic processing, a set of brain regions on the lateral surfaces of the left frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices exhibit robust responses. These areas display highly correlated activity while a subject rests or performs a naturalistic language comprehension task, suggesting that they form an integrated functional system. Evidence suggests that this system is spatially and functionally distinct from other systems that support high-level cognition in humans. Yet, how different regions within this system might be recruited dynamically during task performance is not well understood. Here we use network methods, applied to fMRI data collected from 22 human subjects performing a language comprehension task, to reveal the dynamic nature of the language system. We observe the presence of a stable core of brain regions, predominantly located in the left hemisphere, that consistently coactivate with one another. We also observe the presence of a more flexible periphery of brain regions, predominantly located in the right hemisphere, that coactivate with different regions at different times. However, the language functional ROIs in the angular gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe were notable exceptions to this trend. By highlighting the temporal dimension of language processing, these results suggest a trade-off between a region's specialization and its capacity for flexible network reconfiguration. PMID:27550868

  4. Human language is a culturally evolving system.

    PubMed

    Steels, Luc

    2017-02-01

    It is well accepted that languages change rapidly in a process of cultural evolution. But some animal communication systems, in particular bird song, also exhibit cultural change. So where exactly is the difference? This article argues that the main selectionist pressure on human languages is not biological-that is, related to survival and fecundity-but instead is linked to producing enough expressive power for the needs of the community, maximizing communicative success, and reducing cognitive effort. The key question to be answered by an "evolutionary linguistics" approach to language is, What are the causal mechanisms sustaining an evolutionary dynamic based on these selection criteria? In other words, what cognitive mechanisms and social interaction patterns are needed, and how do they allow a language to emerge and remain shared, despite profound variation and never-ending change?

  5. Natural Language for Problem Solving Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Natural Language Interfaces for Rule-based Expert Systems. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Joint Conference on Artficial Intelligence . Milan... Intelligent tutoring using domain and explanation knowledge sources (covered under the previous contract and the renewal grant). We have completed...to the domain of interview scheduling. In our intelligent tutoring system, we have developed a semantic taxonomy for relations between plans

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Language Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, Vittorio; Baronchelli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea

    In this chapter we explore several language games of increasing complexity. We first consider the so-called Naming Game, possibly the simplest example of the complex processes leading progressively to the establishment of human-like languages. In this framework, a globally shared vocabulary emerges as a result of local adjustments of individual word-meaning association. The emergence of a common vocabulary only represents a first stage while it is interesting to investigate the emergence of higher forms of agreement, e.g., compositionality, categories, syntactic or grammatical structures. As an example in this direction we consider the so-called Category Game. Here one focuses on the process by which a population of individuals manages to categorize a single perceptually continuous channel. The problem of the emergence of a discrete shared set of categories out of a continuous perceptual channel is a notoriously difficult problem relevant for color categorization, vowels formation, etc. The central result here is the emergence of a hierarchical category structure made of two distinct levels: a basic layer, responsible for fine discrimination of the environment, and a shared linguistic layer that groups together perceptions to guarantee communicative success.

  7. The Tagmemic Model and Language Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Jacob

    This paper proposes a tentative notational or marking system which attempts to provide more information on the sociolinguistic constraints upon the use of linguistic features than has been the case in other systems. A review of other studies in language variation, particularly those of William Labov, suggests that much can be done toward…

  8. Implementing the PM Programming Language using MPI and OpenMP - a New Tool for Programming Geophysical Models on Parallel Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2015-04-01

    PM (Parallel Models) is a new parallel programming language specifically designed for writing environmental and geophysical models. The language is intended to enable implementers to concentrate on the science behind the model rather than the details of running on parallel hardware. At the same time PM leaves the programmer in control - all parallelisation is explicit and the parallel structure of any given program may be deduced directly from the code. This paper describes a PM implementation based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) standards, looking at issues involved with translating the PM parallelisation model to MPI/OpenMP protocols and considering performance in terms of the competing factors of finer-grained parallelisation and increased communication overhead. In order to maximise portability, the implementation stays within the MPI 1.3 standard as much as possible, with MPI-2 MPI-IO file handling the only significant exception. Moreover, it does not assume a thread-safe implementation of MPI. PM adopts a two-tier abstract representation of parallel hardware. A PM processor is a conceptual unit capable of efficiently executing a set of language tasks, with a complete parallel system consisting of an abstract N-dimensional array of such processors. PM processors may map to single cores executing tasks using cooperative multi-tasking, to multiple cores or even to separate processing nodes, efficiently sharing tasks using algorithms such as work stealing. While tasks may move between hardware elements within a PM processor, they may not move between processors without specific programmer intervention. Tasks are assigned to processors using a nested parallelism approach, building on ideas from Reyes et al. (2009). The main program owns all available processors. When the program enters a parallel statement then either processors are divided out among the newly generated tasks (number of new tasks < number of processors

  9. A High-Level Language for Rule-Based Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  10. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  11. Psycholinguistic research in language intervention programming: The pronoun system.

    PubMed

    Waryas, C L

    1973-09-01

    This paper presents a linguistic analysis of the pronoun system in terms of binary semantic and syntactic features. A model is presented which indicates how these features serve to differentiate among the members of this set. A hypothetical order of development of these features is proposed, supported by developmental data. Suggestions are made regarding the possible relationship of the pronoun system to other areas of language. Finally, proposals are presented for the development of pronoun training procedures within the context of language training programs.

  12. Statistical Language Modeling for Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    inference network model (Turtle & Croft, 1991). Detailed treatment of these earlier probabilistic IR theories and approaches is beyond the scope of...Baeza-Yates & 6 Ribeiro-Neto (1999) give a good discussion on these measures and their appropriateness. In order for the performance of language models...independently of one another in a document. These assumptions are the same as those underlie the binary independence model proposed in earlier

  13. On Language-Independent Model Modularisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, Florian; Henriksson, Jakob; Johannes, Jendrik; Zschaler, Steffen

    As model-driven software development covers additional parts of the development process, the complexity of software models increases as well. At the same time, however, many modelling languages do not provide adequate support for modularising models. For this reason, there has been an increasing interest in the topic of model modularisation, often under the heading of aspect-oriented modelling (AOM). The approaches range from techniques that closely mimic concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP), such as AspectJ, to very powerful composition techniques for specific types of models—for example, state machines.

  14. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  15. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  16. Network simulation using the simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Morris, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    The simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2) is a general purpose language that combines network, discrete event, and continuous modeling capabilities in a single language system. The efficacy of the system's network modeling is examined and discussed. Examples are given of the symbolism that is used, and an example problem and model are derived. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of programming, special features, and system limitations. The system offers many features which allow rapid model development and provides an informative standardized output. The system also has limitations which may cause undetected errors and misleading reports unless the user is aware of these programming characteristics.

  17. Modeling Socioeconomic Status Effects on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…

  18. Modeling Socioeconomic Status Effects on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…

  19. Leveraging Small-Lexicon Language Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-31

    from some 500 distinct ISO 639-3 codes, including over 850,000 lexemes. Data mainly came from smallish, high-quality print lexicons developed for...9 3c. Dataset identification and logical tables ...................................... 9 3d . Defective...discarded simply because we cannot classify them. Surprisingly, perhaps, we do not have digital language models, printed descriptions, or

  20. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system.

    PubMed

    Zarr, Noah; Ferguson, Ryan; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

  1. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  2. An expert system for natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  3. Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems Alejandro Acero and Richard M. Stern Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...applications of spectral subtraction and spectral equaliza- tion for speech recognition systems include the work of Van Compemolle [5] and Stem and Acero [12... Acero and Stem [1] proposed an approach to environment normalization in the cepstral domain, going beyond the noise stripping problem. In this paper we

  4. An expert system for natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  5. Properties of language networks and language systems. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan

    2014-12-01

    Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.

  6. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh Bebe; Ortiz, Chris

    1995-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) computer programs are specifically intended to model human expertise or other knowledge. CLIPS is designed to enable research on, and development and delivery of, artificial intelligence on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming: representation of knowledge as heuristics - essentially, rules of thumb that specify set of actions performed in given situation. Object-oriented programming: modeling of complex systems comprised of modular components easily reused to model other systems or create new components. Procedural-programming: representation of knowledge in ways similar to those of such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC-compatible computers requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later.

  7. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh Bebe; Ortiz, Chris

    1995-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) computer programs are specifically intended to model human expertise or other knowledge. CLIPS is designed to enable research on, and development and delivery of, artificial intelligence on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming: representation of knowledge as heuristics - essentially, rules of thumb that specify set of actions performed in given situation. Object-oriented programming: modeling of complex systems comprised of modular components easily reused to model other systems or create new components. Procedural-programming: representation of knowledge in ways similar to those of such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC-compatible computers requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later.

  8. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  9. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  10. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  11. A model of the mechanisms of language extinction and revitalization strategies to save endangered languages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Valijärvi, Riitta-Liisa; Goldstein, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Why and how have languages died out? We have devised a mathematical model to help us understand how languages go extinct. We use the model to ask whether language extinction can be prevented in the future and why it may have occurred in the past. A growing number of mathematical models of language dynamics have been developed to study the conditions for language coexistence and death, yet their phenomenological approach compromises their ability to influence language revitalization policy. In contrast, here we model the mechanisms underlying language competition and look at how these mechanisms are influenced by specific language revitalization interventions, namely, private interventions to raise the status of the language and thus promote language learning at home, public interventions to increase the use of the minority language, and explicit teaching of the minority language in schools. Our model reveals that it is possible to preserve a minority language but that continued long-term interventions will likely be necessary. We identify the parameters that determine which interventions work best under certain linguistic and societal circumstances. In this way the efficacy of interventions of various types can be identified and predicted. Although there are qualitative arguments for these parameter values (e.g., the responsiveness of children to learning a language as a function of the proportion of conversations heard in that language, the relative importance of conversations heard in the family and elsewhere, and the amplification of spoken to heard conversations of the high-status language because of the media), extensive quantitative data are lacking in this field. We propose a way to measure these parameters, allowing our model, as well as others models in the field, to be validated.

  12. HWIM: A Computer Model of Language Comprehension and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram

    A computer natural language system called HWIM (Hear What I Mean) is described in this report. Noting that the system accepts either typed or spoken inputs and produces both typed and spoken responses, the report proposes HWIM as an example of a relatively complete language system illustrating how the many components of language processing…

  13. Understanding digital-system specifications written in natural language

    SciTech Connect

    Granacki, J.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis concerns itself with the specification of digital systems. The specific focus of the work described here was on understanding system specifications written in natural language. The long-term goals of the research are to provide methods and software to assure that the specifications are consistent, correct, and complete. The research described differs from previous research in several ways. First, the natural language input is used to construct an internal design representation, rather than just to query about existing design data. Second, using natural language allows a generality of expression not found in formal models. Finally, the natural language is not overly restricted. A major part of the research involves formally modeling the information found in system specifications. An extension of the USC Design Data Structure is described, with emphasis on timing and control flow. A semantic parser, PHRAN,is used as the basis for the actual interface software. PHRAN contains a knowledge base of sentence patterns along with associated concepts. PHRAN inputs English sentences and looks for patterns in the sentences. When it finds a pattern match, the concept associated with the pattern is particularized with the information found in the sentence.

  14. A pattern-based analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages.

    PubMed

    Mulyar, Nataliya; van der Aalst, Wil M P; Peleg, Mor

    2007-01-01

    Languages used to specify computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) differ in their approaches to addressing particular modeling challenges. The main goals of this article are: (1) to examine the expressive power of CIG modeling languages, and (2) to define the differences, from the control-flow perspective, between process languages in workflow management systems and modeling languages used to design clinical guidelines. The pattern-based analysis was applied to guideline modeling languages Asbru, EON, GLIF, and PROforma. We focused on control-flow and left other perspectives out of consideration. We evaluated the selected CIG modeling languages and identified their degree of support of 43 control-flow patterns. We used a set of explicitly defined evaluation criteria to determine whether each pattern is supported directly, indirectly, or not at all. PROforma offers direct support for 22 of 43 patterns, Asbru 20, GLIF 17, and EON 11. All four directly support basic control-flow patterns, cancellation patterns, and some advance branching and synchronization patterns. None support multiple instances patterns. They offer varying levels of support for synchronizing merge patterns and state-based patterns. Some support a few scenarios not covered by the 43 control-flow patterns. CIG modeling languages are remarkably close to traditional workflow languages from the control-flow perspective, but cover many fewer workflow patterns. CIG languages offer some flexibility that supports modeling of complex decisions and provide ways for modeling some decisions not covered by workflow management systems. Workflow management systems may be suitable for clinical guideline applications.

  15. The SAE Avionics Architecture Description Language (AADL) Standard: A Basis for Model-Based Architecture-Driven Embedded Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    H. Feiler (Software Engineering Institute) SAE AS-2C AADL Standard Co-author phf@sei.cmu.edu Bruce Lewis (US Army AMCOM) SAE AS-2C AADL Chair...pages 201-227. 2. Peter H. Feiler , Bruce Lewis, Steve Vestal, “Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-time Systems,” Carnegie Mellon Software...Engineering Institute, CMU/SEI-2000-SR-011, October 2000. 3. David J. McConnell, Bruce Lewis and Lisa Gray, “Reengineering a Single Threaded

  16. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  17. Spoken Language Processing Model: Bridging Auditory and Language Processing to Guide Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwetsky, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the author's conceptualization of the key mechanisms that are engaged in the processing of spoken language, referred to as the spoken language processing model. The act of processing what is heard is very complex and involves the successful intertwining of auditory, cognitive, and language mechanisms. Spoken language…

  18. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender, eligibility…

  19. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender, eligibility…

  20. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  1. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  2. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  3. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  4. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  5. A Model for Promoting Native American Language Preservation and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Richard E.; Martinez, Alicia, Ed.

    The Interface Alaska Multifunctional Resource Center developed a model for training Native American language teachers to effectively teach Native languages. The model provides Native American paraprofessional language teachers with basic knowledge of classroom techniques and effective teaching strategies. The training introduces the Total Physical…

  6. A model of language inflection graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukś, Henryk; Farzad, Babak; Cao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Inflection graphs are highly complex networks representing relationships between inflectional forms of words in human languages. For so-called synthetic languages, such as Latin or Polish, they have particularly interesting structure due to the abundance of inflectional forms. We construct the simplest form of inflection graphs, namely a bipartite graph in which one group of vertices corresponds to dictionary headwords and the other group to inflected forms encountered in a given text. We, then, study projection of this graph on the set of headwords. The projection decomposes into a large number of connected components, to be called word groups. Distribution of sizes of word group exhibits some remarkable properties, resembling cluster distribution in a lattice percolation near the critical point. We propose a simple model which produces graphs of this type, reproducing the desired component distribution and other topological features.

  7. An overview of the Opus language and runtime system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Haines, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    We have recently introduced a new language, called Opus, which provides a set of Fortran language extensions that allow for integrated support of task and data parallelism. lt also provides shared data abstractions (SDA's) as a method for communication and synchronization among these tasks. In this paper, we first provide a brief description of the language features and then focus on both the language-dependent and language-independent parts of the runtime system that support the language. The language-independent portion of the runtime system supports lightweight threads across multiple address spaces, and is built upon existing lightweight thread and communication systems. The language-dependent portion of the runtime system supports conditional invocation of SDA methods and distributed SDA argument handling.

  8. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  9. Upper Modeling: organizing knowledge for natural language processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. [ Steiner et al., 1987] Erich H... Steiner , 1990] Erich H. Steiner . A model off goal- directed-action as a structuring principle for the con- text of situation in systemic linguistics...aL, 1987]; the Semantic Relations of ~UROTa^-D: [ Steiner et al., 1987]; JANUS: [Weischedel, 1989]. Space naturally precludes detailed comparisons

  10. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  11. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  12. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  13. Hierarchical functional connectivity between the core language system and the working memory system.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-10-01

    Language processing inevitably involves working memory (WM) operations, especially for sentences with complex syntactic structures. Evidence has been provided for a neuroanatomical segregation between core syntactic processes and WM, but the dynamic relation between these systems still has to be explored. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the network dynamics of regions involved in WM operations which support sentence processing during reading, comparing a set of dynamic causal models (DCM) with different assumptions about the underlying connectional architecture. The DCMs incorporated the core language processing regions (pars opercularis and middle temporal gyrus), WM related regions (inferior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus), and visual word form area (fusiform gyrus). The results indicate a processing hierarchy from the visual to WM to core language systems, and moreover, a clear increase of connectivity between WM regions and language regions as the processing load increases for syntactically complex sentences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P R

    1985-01-01

    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  15. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  16. The Catalan Language in the Educational System of Catalonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siguan, Miquel

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the history of Catalonia, its language policy, and strategies/methods by which the Catalan language was introduced into the educational system (e.g., by educating the teaching staff, using Catalan in instruction and educational administration, developing Catalan-language teaching materials, and developing immersion programs in Catalan for…

  17. Examining Evaluation System of an English Language Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si-hong, Li

    2007-01-01

    In the field of EFL, effective language evaluation is receiving more and more attention. However, in many Chinese EFL situations, the evaluation of language development is still considered to be product-oriented. It is the purpose of this article to examine an evaluation system of an English language program offered by a university in Yunnan…

  18. Bilingual Parents' Modeling of Pragmatic Language Use in Multiparty Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the…

  19. Teacher to Teacher: Model Lessons for K-8 Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn, Ed.; Lorenz, Eileen, Ed.

    This book provides resources for foreign language teachers, supervisors, and others involved in developing and implementing a curriculum. It is the outcome of a 1997 institute, "National Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Curriculum Reform for K-8 Foreign Language Education." The model shows how the national standards can be used…

  20. Bilingual Parents' Modeling of Pragmatic Language Use in Multiparty Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the…

  1. Teacher to Teacher: Model Lessons for K-8 Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn, Ed.; Lorenz, Eileen, Ed.

    This book provides resources for foreign language teachers, supervisors, and others involved in developing and implementing a curriculum. It is the outcome of a 1997 institute, "National Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Curriculum Reform for K-8 Foreign Language Education." The model shows how the national standards can be used…

  2. CLIPS: The C language integrated production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computer programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The potential payoff from expert systems is high: valuable expertise can be captured and preserved, repetitive and/or mundane tasks requiring human expertise can be automated, and uniformity can be applied in decision making processes. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 5,000 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as the basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  3. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  5. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T.; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M.; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C.; Smith, Lucian P.; Wilkinson, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528564

  6. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  7. A human mirror neuron system for language: Perspectives from signed languages of the deaf.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167; Arbib M.A. (2008). From grasp to language: Embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction. Journal de Physiologie Paris 102, 4-20]. Signed languages of the deaf are fully-expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. We suggest that if a unitary mirror neuron system mediates the observation and production of both language and non-linguistic action, three prediction can be made: (1) damage to the human mirror neuron system should non-selectively disrupt both sign language and non-linguistic action processing; (2) within the domain of sign language, a given mirror neuron locus should mediate both perception and production; and (3) the action-based tuning curves of individual mirror neurons should support the highly circumscribed set of motions that form the "vocabulary of action" for signed languages. In this review we evaluate data from the sign language and mirror neuron literatures and find that these predictions are only partially upheld. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  9. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  10. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  11. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  12. Modeling Web-Based Educational Systems: Process Design Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokou, Franca Pantano; Rokou, Elena; Rokos, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Using modeling languages is essential to the construction of educational systems based on software engineering principles and methods. Furthermore, the instructional design is undoubtedly the cornerstone of the design and development of educational systems. Although several methodologies and languages have been proposed for the specification of…

  13. Modeling Web-Based Educational Systems: Process Design Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokou, Franca Pantano; Rokou, Elena; Rokos, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Using modeling languages is essential to the construction of educational systems based on software engineering principles and methods. Furthermore, the instructional design is undoubtedly the cornerstone of the design and development of educational systems. Although several methodologies and languages have been proposed for the specification of…

  14. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh VU; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.; Mccoy, Daniel J.; Giarratano, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS 5.1 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming provides representation of knowledge by use of heuristics. Object-oriented programming enables modeling of complex systems as modular components. Procedural programming enables CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Working with CLIPS 5.1, one can develop expert-system software by use of rule-based programming only, object-oriented programming only, procedural programming only, or combinations of the three.

  15. Multicriteria framework for selecting a process modelling language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanavachi Moreira Campos, Ana Carolina; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2016-01-01

    The choice of process modelling language can affect business process management (BPM) since each modelling language shows different features of a given process and may limit the ways in which a process can be described and analysed. However, choosing the appropriate modelling language for process modelling has become a difficult task because of the availability of a large number modelling languages and also due to the lack of guidelines on evaluating, and comparing languages so as to assist in selecting the most appropriate one. This paper proposes a framework for selecting a modelling language in accordance with the purposes of modelling. This framework is based on the semiotic quality framework (SEQUAL) for evaluating process modelling languages and a multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach in order to select the most appropriate language for BPM. This study does not attempt to set out new forms of assessment and evaluation criteria, but does attempt to demonstrate how two existing approaches can be combined so as to solve the problem of selection of modelling language. The framework is described in this paper and then demonstrated by means of an example. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using SEQUAL and MCDA in an integrated manner are discussed.

  16. Probabilistic language models in cognitive neuroscience: Promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Armeni, Kristijan; Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L

    2017-09-05

    Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals. Measures obtained from these models emphasize the probabilistic, information-processing view of language understanding and provide a set of tools that can be used for testing neural hypotheses about language comprehension. Here, we provide a cursory review of the theoretical foundations and example neuroimaging studies employing probabilistic language models. We highlight the advantages and potential pitfalls of this approach and indicate avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  18. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  19. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  20. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  1. How a Language Gender System Creeps into Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of language gender systems on perception. Spanish-speaking (with a gender system) and English-speaking (with a limited gender system) participants from three age groups assigned typical male or female names and attributes to objects. Language gender tags influenced Spanish adults' and early adolescents' choice of gender…

  2. Language of Learning and Language of Computing: The Perceptual-Language Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Richard; deBernard, Ann

    1987-01-01

    The first study investigates the validity of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument as a diagnostic tool for differenciating the ability of language impaired preschoolers to use language to communicate complex ideas. The second study evaluates the relative effectiveness of two software environments that were expected to enhance children's…

  3. Aspen: A Domain Specific Language for Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Kyle L; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to analytical performance modeling using Aspen, a domain specific language. Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) fills an important gap in existing performance modeling techniques and is designed to enable rapid exploration of new algorithms and architectures. It includes a formal specification of an application's performance behavior and an abstract machine model. We provide an overview of Aspen's features and demonstrate how it can be used to express a performance model for a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. We then demonstrate the composability and modularity of Aspen by importing and reusing the FFT model in a molecular dynamics model. We have also created a number of tools that allow scientists to balance application and system factors quickly and accurately.

  4. Bilingual parents’ modeling of pragmatic language use in multiparty interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the presence of monolingual bystanders (children’s mean ages: 3;2 and 4;6). Their language use was analyzed during three sessions: parent and child alone, parent and child with the English speaker, and parent and child with the Marathi speaker. Parents demonstrated pragmatic differentiation by using relatively more of the bystander’s language; however, children did not show this sensitivity. Further, parents used a variety of strategies to discuss language differences, such as providing and requesting translations; children translated most often in response to explicit requests. The results indicate that parents model pragmatic language differentiation as well as metalinguistic talk that may contribute to children’s metalinguistic awareness. PMID:24086092

  5. Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Language disorders in children with central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Children with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit a variety of language disorders that have been described by members of different disciplines, in different journals, using different descriptors and taxonomies. This paper is an overview of language deficits in children with CNS injury, whether congenital or acquired after a period of normal development. It first reviews the principal CNS conditions associated with language disorders in childhood. It then describes a functional taxonomy of language, with examples of the phenomenology and neurobiology of clinical deficits in children with CNS insults. Finally, it attempts to situate language in the broader realm of cognition and in current theoretical accounts of embodied cognition. PMID:20397297

  7. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  8. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  9. Modeling limit languages via limit adjacency matrix and Yusof-Goode approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li, Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    Limit language was introduced by Goode and Pixton in 2004 under the framework of formal language theory. It is a subset of splicing languages which is restricted to the molecules that will be presented in the splicing system after the reaction of biochemical has run to its completion. In this paper, limit adjacency matrix will be introduced to model the existence of limit languages from splicing languages. Besides, it can be used to characterize the splicing language in terms of active persistent, adult/inert and transient properties based on Yusof-Goode splicing system. In this paper, some examples and theorems that have been formulated via limit adjacency matrix approach will be presented too.

  10. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  11. Academic Language, English Language Learners, and Systemic Functional Linguistics: Connecting Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators need linguistic tools to help preservice teachers develop a deeper understanding of the academic language demands of the literacy practices required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) serves as a tool for developing teachers' knowledge of content-area language. Teachers' increased…

  12. If Language Is a Complex Adaptive System, What Is Language Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Yin, Chengbin

    2009-01-01

    Individuals' use of language in contexts emerges from second-to-second processes of activating and integrating traces of past experiences--an interactionist view compatible with the study of language as a complex adaptive system but quite different from the trait-based framework through which measurement specialists investigate validity, establish…

  13. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  14. Integrating Content and Language in English Language Teaching in Secondary Education: Models, Benefits, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a major interest in content-based instruction (CBI) and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). These are similar approaches which integrate content and foreign/second language learning through various methodologies and models as a result of different implementations around the world. In this paper, I…

  15. Automatic Dialogue Scoring for a Second Language Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin-Xia; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic dialogue scoring approach for a Dialogue-Based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) system, which helps users learn language via interactive conversations. The system produces overall feedback according to dialogue scoring to help the learner know which parts should be more focused on. The scoring measures…

  16. Applying Language Systems to the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael P.

    1986-01-01

    Uses a single language system--technical description--to illustrate how language systems can now be used as the basis for instruction in technical writing. Provides sample exercises in progressive teaching from simple description to complex continuity devices, showing how they can be used at all stages of the writing process. (HTH)

  17. Null Objects in Second Language Acquisition: Grammatical vs. Performance Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Null direct objects provide a favourable testing ground for grammatical and performance models of argument omission. This article examines both types of models in order to determine which gives a more plausible account of the second language data. The data were collected from second language (L2) learners of Spanish by means of four oral…

  18. Teacher Instructional Practices and Language Minority Students: A Longitudinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the long-term effects of teacher instructional grouping practices on the early mathematical achievement of language minority students from various ethnic groups. The study used 3 longitudinal models. In the 1st model, English language learners (ELLs) displayed lower math performance than did English-only students in the…

  19. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka–Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data. PMID:23716678

  20. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-06-11

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data.

  1. Syllable language models for Mandarin speech recognition: exploiting character language models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xunying; Hieronymus, James L; Gales, Mark J F; Woodland, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese is based on characters which are syllabic in nature and morphological in meaning. All spoken languages have syllabiotactic rules which govern the construction of syllables and their allowed sequences. These constraints are not as restrictive as those learned from word sequences, but they can provide additional useful linguistic information. Hence, it is possible to improve speech recognition performance by appropriately combining these two types of constraints. For the Chinese language considered in this paper, character level language models (LMs) can be used as a first level approximation to allowed syllable sequences. To test this idea, word and character level n-gram LMs were trained on 2.8 billion words (equivalent to 4.3 billion characters) of texts from a wide collection of text sources. Both hypothesis and model based combination techniques were investigated to combine word and character level LMs. Significant character error rate reductions up to 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art Mandarin Chinese broadcast audio recognition task using an adapted history dependent multi-level LM that performs a log-linearly combination of character and word level LMs. This supports the hypothesis that character or syllable sequence models are useful for improving Mandarin speech recognition performance.

  2. Embedding the Guideline Elements Model in Web Ontology Language

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nam; Michel, George; Krauthammer, Michael; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) uses XML to represent the heterogeneous knowledge contained in clinical practice guidelines. GEM has important applications in computer aided guideline authoring and clinical decision support systems. However, its XML representation format could limit its potential impact, as semantic web ontology languages, such as OWL, are becoming major knowledge representation frameworks in medical informatics. In this work, we present a faithful translation of GEM from XML into OWL. This translation is intended to keep the knowledge model of GEM intact, as this knowledge model has been carefully designed and has become a recognized standard. An OWL representation would make GEM more applicable in medical informatics systems that rely on semantic web. This work will also be the initial step in making GEM a guideline recommendation ontology. PMID:20351934

  3. Embedding the guideline elements model in web ontology language.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nam; Michel, George; Krauthammer, Michael; Shiffman, Richard N

    2009-11-14

    The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) uses XML to represent the heterogeneous knowledge contained in clinical practice guidelines. GEM has important applications in computer aided guideline authoring and clinical decision support systems. However, its XML representation format could limit its potential impact, as semantic web ontology languages, such as OWL, are becoming major knowledge representation frameworks in medical informatics. In this work, we present a faithful translation of GEM from XML into OWL. This translation is intended to keep the knowledge model of GEM intact, as this knowledge model has been carefully designed and has become a recognized standard. An OWL representation would make GEM more applicable in medical informatics systems that rely on semantic web. This work will also be the initial step in making GEM a guideline recommendation ontology.

  4. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  5. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-11-19

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories.

  6. The Iterated Classification Game: A New Model of the Cultural Transmission of Language

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Samarth; Gasser, Les

    2010-01-01

    The Iterated Classification Game (ICG) combines the Classification Game with the Iterated Learning Model (ILM) to create a more realistic model of the cultural transmission of language through generations. It includes both learning from parents and learning from peers. Further, it eliminates some of the chief criticisms of the ILM: that it does not study grounded languages, that it does not include peer learning, and that it builds in a bias for compositional languages. We show that, over the span of a few generations, a stable linguistic system emerges that can be acquired very quickly by each generation, is compositional, and helps the agents to solve the classification problem with which they are faced. The ICG also leads to a different interpretation of the language acquisition process. It suggests that the role of parents is to initialize the linguistic system of the child in such a way that subsequent interaction with peers results in rapid convergence to the correct language. PMID:20190877

  7. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  8. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  9. The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition: A Model for Research in Listening Comprehension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    role of learning strategies in second language acquisition . While strategies used in acquiring productive language skills are discussed briefly, the...comprehensions. Keywords: Learning strategies, English as a second language, Second language acquisition , Basic skills, Research model.

  10. A Pattern-based Analysis of Clinical Computer-interpretable Guideline Modeling Languages

    PubMed Central

    Mulyar, Nataliya; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.; Peleg, Mor

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Languages used to specify computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) differ in their approaches to addressing particular modeling challenges. The main goals of this article are: (1) to examine the expressive power of CIG modeling languages, and (2) to define the differences, from the control-flow perspective, between process languages in workflow management systems and modeling languages used to design clinical guidelines. Design The pattern-based analysis was applied to guideline modeling languages Asbru, EON, GLIF, and PROforma. We focused on control-flow and left other perspectives out of consideration. Measurements We evaluated the selected CIG modeling languages and identified their degree of support of 43 control-flow patterns. We used a set of explicitly defined evaluation criteria to determine whether each pattern is supported directly, indirectly, or not at all. Results PROforma offers direct support for 22 of 43 patterns, Asbru 20, GLIF 17, and EON 11. All four directly support basic control-flow patterns, cancellation patterns, and some advance branching and synchronization patterns. None support multiple instances patterns. They offer varying levels of support for synchronizing merge patterns and state-based patterns. Some support a few scenarios not covered by the 43 control-flow patterns. Conclusion CIG modeling languages are remarkably close to traditional workflow languages from the control-flow perspective, but cover many fewer workflow patterns. CIG languages offer some flexibility that supports modeling of complex decisions and provide ways for modeling some decisions not covered by workflow management systems. Workflow management systems may be suitable for clinical guideline applications. PMID:17712087

  11. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H2 (15)O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of

  12. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language

  13. Using a Dialogue System Based on Dialogue Maps for Computer Assisted Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sung-Kwon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    In order to use dialogue systems for computer assisted second-language learning systems, one of the difficult issues in such systems is how to construct large-scale dialogue knowledge that matches the dialogue modelling of a dialogue system. This paper describes how we have accomplished the short-term construction of large-scale and…

  14. The MITLL NIST LRE 2015 Language Recognition system

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-05

    First, the evaluation included fixed training and open training tracks for the first time ; second, language classification performance was measured...experiments showed that adding data, one language at a time , improved performance for only the cases where data was added for Brazilian Portuguese, British...The MITLL NIST LRE 2015 Language Recognition System Pedro Torres-Carrasquillo, Najim Dehak*, Elizabeth Godoy, Douglas Reynolds, Fred Richardson

  15. Towards Measurable Types for Dynamical Process Modeling Languages

    PubMed Central

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as “Dynamical Grammars” are highly expressive in the processes they model using stochastic and deterministic dynamical systems, and can be given formal semantics in terms of an operator algebra. However such process languages may be more limited in the types of objects whose dynamics is easily expressible. For many applications in biology, the dynamics of spatial objects in particular (including combinations of discrete and continuous spatial structures) should be formalizable at a high level of abstraction. We suggest that this may be achieved by formalizing such objects within a type system endowed with type constructors suitable for complex dynamical objects. To this end we review and illustrate the operator algebraic formulation of heterogeneous process modeling and semantics, extending it to encompass partial differential equations and intrinsic graph grammar dynamics. We show that in the operator approach to heterogeneous dynamics, types require integration measures. From this starting point, “measurable” object types can be enriched with generalized metrics under which approximation can be defined. The resulting measurable and “metricated” types can be built up systematically by type constructors such as vectors, products, and labelled graphs. We find conditions under which functions and quotients can be added as constructors of measurable and metricated types. PMID:21572536

  16. Recent advances in modeling languages for pathway maps and computable biological networks.

    PubMed

    Slater, Ted

    2014-02-01

    As our theories of systems biology grow more sophisticated, the models we use to represent them become larger and more complex. Languages necessarily have the expressivity and flexibility required to represent these models in ways that support high-resolution annotation, and provide for simulation and analysis that are sophisticated enough to allow researchers to master their data in the proper context. These languages also need to facilitate model sharing and collaboration, which is currently best done by using uniform data structures (such as graphs) and language standards. In this brief review, we discuss three of the most recent systems biology modeling languages to appear: BEL, PySB and BCML, and examine how they meet these needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  18. Idiosyncratic sound systems of the South African Bantu languages: Research and clinical implications for speech-language pathologists and audiologists.

    PubMed

    Van der Merwe, Anita; le Roux, Mia

    2014-12-03

    The objective of this article is to create awareness amongst speech-language pathologists and audiologists in South Africa regarding the difference between the sound systems of Germanic languages and the sound systems of South African Bantu languages. A brief overview of the sound systems of two Bantu languages, namely isiZulu and Setswana, is provided. These two languages are representative of the Nguni language group and the Sotho group respectively.Consideration is given to the notion of language-specific symptoms of speech, language and hearing disorders in addition to universal symptoms. The possible impact of speech production, language and hearing disorders on the ability to produce and perceive speech in these languages, and the challenges that this holds for research and clinical practice, are pointed out.

  19. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  20. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  1. Systematic reconstruction of TRANSPATH data into Cell System Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Ayumu; Li, Chen; Jeong, Euna; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Background Many biological repositories store information based on experimental study of the biological processes within a cell, such as protein-protein interactions, metabolic pathways, signal transduction pathways, or regulations of transcription factors and miRNA. Unfortunately, it is difficult to directly use such information when generating simulation-based models. Thus, modeling rules for encoding biological knowledge into system-dynamics-oriented standardized formats would be very useful for fully understanding cellular dynamics at the system level. Results We selected the TRANSPATH database, a manually curated high-quality pathway database, which provides a plentiful source of cellular events in humans, mice, and rats, collected from over 31,500 publications. In this work, we have developed 16 modeling rules based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe), which is suitable for graphical representing and simulating biological processes. In the modeling rules, each Petri net element is incorporated with Cell System Ontology to enable semantic interoperability of models. As a formal ontology for biological pathway modeling with dynamics, CSO also defines biological terminology and corresponding icons. By combining HFPNe with the CSO features, it is possible to make TRANSPATH data to simulation-based and semantically valid models. The results are encoded into a biological pathway format, Cell System Markup Language (CSML), which eases the exchange and integration of biological data and models. Conclusion By using the 16 modeling rules, 97% of the reactions in TRANSPATH are converted into simulation-based models represented in CSML. This reconstruction demonstrates that it is possible to use our rules to generate quantitative models from static pathway descriptions. PMID:18570683

  2. Systematic reconstruction of TRANSPATH data into cell system markup language.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Ayumu; Li, Chen; Jeong, Euna; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-06-23

    Many biological repositories store information based on experimental study of the biological processes within a cell, such as protein-protein interactions, metabolic pathways, signal transduction pathways, or regulations of transcription factors and miRNA. Unfortunately, it is difficult to directly use such information when generating simulation-based models. Thus, modeling rules for encoding biological knowledge into system-dynamics-oriented standardized formats would be very useful for fully understanding cellular dynamics at the system level. We selected the TRANSPATH database, a manually curated high-quality pathway database, which provides a plentiful source of cellular events in humans, mice, and rats, collected from over 31,500 publications. In this work, we have developed 16 modeling rules based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe), which is suitable for graphical representing and simulating biological processes. In the modeling rules, each Petri net element is incorporated with Cell System Ontology to enable semantic interoperability of models. As a formal ontology for biological pathway modeling with dynamics, CSO also defines biological terminology and corresponding icons. By combining HFPNe with the CSO features, it is possible to make TRANSPATH data to simulation-based and semantically valid models. The results are encoded into a biological pathway format, Cell System Markup Language (CSML), which eases the exchange and integration of biological data and models. By using the 16 modeling rules, 97% of the reactions in TRANSPATH are converted into simulation-based models represented in CSML. This reconstruction demonstrates that it is possible to use our rules to generate quantitative models from static pathway descriptions.

  3. Language constructs and runtime systems for compositional parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.

    1995-03-01

    In task-parallel programs, diverse activities can take place concurrently, and communication and synchronization patterns are complex and not easily predictable. Previous work has identified compositionality as an important design principle for task-parallel programs. In this paper, we discuss alternative approaches to the realization of this principle. We first provide a review and critical analysis of Strand, an early compositional programming language. We examine the strengths of the Strand approach and also its weaknesses, which we attribute primarily to the use of a specialized language. Then, we present an alternative programming language framework that overcomes these weaknesses. This framework uses simple extensions to existing sequential languages (C++ and Fortran) and a common runtime system to provide a basis for the construction of large, task-parallel programs. We also discuss the runtime system techniques required to support these languages on parallel and distributed computer systems.

  4. Graphical Modeling Meets Systems Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Rosario; Priami, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    A main source of failures in systems projects (including systems pharmacology) is poor communication level and different expectations among the stakeholders. A common and not ambiguous language that is naturally comprehensible by all the involved players is a boost to success. We present bStyle, a modeling tool that adopts a graphical language close enough to cartoons to be a common media to exchange ideas and data and that it is at the same time formal enough to enable modeling, analysis, and dynamic simulations of a system. Data analysis and simulation integrated in the same application are fundamental to understand the mechanisms of actions of drugs: a core aspect of systems pharmacology. PMID:28469411

  5. Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems: Lessons Learned and Steps to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Reese, Jon Damon

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we defined a blackbox formal system modeling language called RSML (Requirements State Machine Language). The language was developed over several years while specifying the system requirements for a collision avoidance system for commercial passenger aircraft. During the language development, we received continual feedback and evaluation by FAA employees and industry representatives, which helped us to produce a specification language that is easily learned and used by application experts. Since the completion of the PSML project, we have continued our research on specification languages. This research is part of a larger effort to investigate the more general problem of providing tools to assist in developing embedded systems. Our latest experimental toolset is called SpecTRM (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology), and the formal specification language is SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language). This paper describes what we have learned from our use of RSML and how those lessons were applied to the design of SpecTRM-RL. We discuss our goals for SpecTRM-RL and the design features that support each of these goals.

  6. Evaluation of English Language Development Programs in the Santa Ana Unified School District. A Report on Data System Reliability and Statistical Modeling of Program Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Destino, Tom; Karam, Rita

    In response to concern about the effectiveness of programs for English-as-a-Second-Language students in California's schools, the Santa Ana Unified School District, in which over 80 percent of students are limited-English-proficient (LEP) conducted a study of both the operations and effectiveness of the district's language development program,…

  7. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-05-01

    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. The Verbal System of Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Lopez, Esperanza; Boldu-Menasanch, Rosa Maria; Alonso-Rodriguez, Jesus Amador; Gras-Ferrer, Victoria; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the predicative verbal system of Catalan Sign Language (LSC) as it is used by Deaf people in the province of Barcelona. We also present a historical perspective of the research on this topic, which provides insight into the changes that have taken place over the last few decades in sign language linguistics. The principal…

  9. Task Related Modulation of the Motor System during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three…

  10. The Verbal System of Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Lopez, Esperanza; Boldu-Menasanch, Rosa Maria; Alonso-Rodriguez, Jesus Amador; Gras-Ferrer, Victoria; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the predicative verbal system of Catalan Sign Language (LSC) as it is used by Deaf people in the province of Barcelona. We also present a historical perspective of the research on this topic, which provides insight into the changes that have taken place over the last few decades in sign language linguistics. The principal…

  11. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  12. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  13. Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carl A., Ed.; Moran, Clarice M., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom method, particularly when used with digital video, has recently attracted many supporters within the education field. Now more than ever, language arts educators can benefit tremendously from incorporating flipped classroom techniques into their curriculum. "Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts…

  14. A Model of Instruction for Integrating Culture and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony

    An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…

  15. Applying the Language of Behavioral Models to Teaching Acts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, F. J.

    This paper illustrates how behavioral models which embody a critical language can be used to describe and predict some categories of classroom events. It defines teaching-learning as a set of events which are mediated primarily by a person, the consequence of which is change in behavior of a second person. A language for describing this phenomenon…

  16. Language Arts Curriculum Framework: Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Based on the 1998 Arkansas English Language Arts Curriculum Frameworks, this sample curriculum model for grade eight language arts is divided into sections focusing on writing; reading; and listening, speaking, and viewing. The writing section's stated goals are to help students employ a wide range of strategies as they write; use different…

  17. Language Arts Curriculum Framework: Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Based on the 1998 Arkansas English Language Arts Curriculum Frameworks, this sample curriculum model for grade five language arts is divided into sections focusing on writing; reading; and listening, speaking, and viewing. The writing section's stated goals are to help students employ a wide range of strategies as they write; use different writing…

  18. Language Arts Curriculum Framework: Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Based on the 1998 Arkansas English Language Arts Curriculum Frameworks, this sample curriculum model for grade seven language arts is divided into sections focusing on writing; reading; and listening, speaking, and viewing. The writing section's stated goals are to help students employ a wide range of strategies as they write; use different…

  19. Language Arts Curriculum Framework: Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Based on the 1998 Arkansas English Language Arts Curriculum Frameworks, this sample curriculum model for grade six language arts is divided into sections focusing on writing; reading; and listening, speaking, and viewing. The writing section's stated goals are to help students employ a wide range of strategies as they write; use different writing…

  20. Marketing and Languages: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ian

    1988-01-01

    A framework is proposed for an integrated course in which knowledge of a language is consciously related to the processes of interpersonal communication and the cultural aspects of marketing and negotiation. (Editor)

  1. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  2. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  3. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.

  4. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  5. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  6. Automated reconstruction of ancient languages using probabilistic models of sound change

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre; Hall, David; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Klein, Dan

    2013-01-01

    One of the oldest problems in linguistics is reconstructing the words that appeared in the protolanguages from which modern languages evolved. Identifying the forms of these ancient languages makes it possible to evaluate proposals about the nature of language change and to draw inferences about human history. Protolanguages are typically reconstructed using a painstaking manual process known as the comparative method. We present a family of probabilistic models of sound change as well as algorithms for performing inference in these models. The resulting system automatically and accurately reconstructs protolanguages from modern languages. We apply this system to 637 Austronesian languages, providing an accurate, large-scale automatic reconstruction of a set of protolanguages. Over 85% of the system’s reconstructions are within one character of the manual reconstruction provided by a linguist specializing in Austronesian languages. Being able to automatically reconstruct large numbers of languages provides a useful way to quantitatively explore hypotheses about the factors determining which sounds in a language are likely to change over time. We demonstrate this by showing that the reconstructed Austronesian protolanguages provide compelling support for a hypothesis about the relationship between the function of a sound and its probability of changing that was first proposed in 1955. PMID:23401532

  7. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    PubMed

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  8. Generating structure from experience: A retrieval-based model of language processing.

    PubMed

    Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N

    2015-09-01

    Standard theories of language generally assume that some abstraction of linguistic input is necessary to create higher level representations of linguistic structures (e.g., a grammar). However, the importance of individual experiences with language has recently been emphasized by both usage-based theories (Tomasello, 2003) and grounded and situated theories (e.g., Zwaan & Madden, 2005). Following the usage-based approach, we present a formal exemplar model that stores instances of sentences across a natural language corpus, applying recent advances from models of semantic memory. In this model, an exemplar memory is used to generate expectations about the future structure of sentences, using a mechanism for prediction in language processing (Altmann & Mirković, 2009). The model successfully captures a broad range of behavioral effects-reduced relative clause processing (Reali & Christiansen, 2007), the role of contextual constraint (Rayner & Well, 1996), and event knowledge activation (Ferretti, Kutas, & McRae, 2007), among others. We further demonstrate how perceptual knowledge could be integrated into this exemplar-based framework, with the goal of grounding language processing in perception. Finally, we illustrate how an exemplar memory system could have been used in the cultural evolution of language. The model provides evidence that an impressive amount of language processing may be bottom-up in nature, built on the storage and retrieval of individual linguistic experiences.

  9. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  10. The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Rijntjes, Michel; Weiller, Cornelius; Bormann, Tobias; Musso, Mariacristina

    2012-01-01

    The current neurobiological consensus of a general dual loop system scaffolding human and primate brains gives evidence that the dorsal and ventral connections subserve similar functions, independent of the modality and species. However, most current commentators agree that although bees dance and chimpanzees grunt, these systems of communication differ qualitatively from human language. So why is language unique to humans? We discuss anatomical differences between humans and other animals, the meaning of lesion studies in patients, the role of inner speech, and compare functional imaging studies in language with other modalities in respect to the dual loop model. These aspects might be helpful for understanding what kind of biological system the language faculty is, and how it relates to other systems in our own species and others. PMID:22783188

  11. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  12. REACT - A Third Generation Language For Autonomous Robot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Maxwell J.; Owens, John; Allen, Charles R.; Ratcliff, Karl

    1990-03-01

    REACT is a language under development at Newcastle for the programming of autonomous robot systems, which uses AI constructs and sensor information to respond to failures in assumptions about the real-world by replanning a task. This paper describes the important features of a REACT programmed robotic system, and the results of some initial studies made on defining an executive language using a concept called visiblity sets. Several examples from the language are then applied to specific examples e.g. a white line follower and a railway network controller. The applicability of visibility sets to autonomous robots is evaluated.

  13. UML as a cell and biochemistry modeling language.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ken; White, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The systems biology community is building increasingly complex models and simulations of cells and other biological entities, and are beginning to look at alternatives to traditional representations such as those provided by ordinary differential equations (ODE). The lessons learned over the years by the software development community in designing and building increasingly complex telecommunication and other commercial real-time reactive systems, can be advantageously applied to the problems of modeling in the biology domain. Making use of the object-oriented (OO) paradigm, the unified modeling language (UML) and Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) visual formalisms, and the Rational Rose RealTime (RRT) visual modeling tool, we describe a multi-step process we have used to construct top-down models of cells and cell aggregates. The simple example model described in this paper includes membranes with lipid bilayers, multiple compartments including a variable number of mitochondria, substrate molecules, enzymes with reaction rules, and metabolic pathways. We demonstrate the relevance of abstraction, reuse, objects, classes, component and inheritance hierarchies, multiplicity, visual modeling, and other current software development best practices. We show how it is possible to start with a direct diagrammatic representation of a biological structure such as a cell, using terminology familiar to biologists, and by following a process of gradually adding more and more detail, arrive at a system with structure and behavior of arbitrary complexity that can run and be observed on a computer. We discuss our CellAK (Cell Assembly Kit) approach in terms of features found in SBML, CellML, E-CELL, Gepasi, Jarnac, StochSim, Virtual Cell, and membrane computing systems.

  14. Using natural-language systems on personal computers

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J.; Hill, J.

    1984-01-01

    The little-understood field of artificial intelligence (ai) may be the key to the eventual scaling of the human-computer communication hurdle. Ai researchers avow that natural-language query systems are an economically approachable reality in the near future. This article discusses some of the ways in which natural-language query systems will change the way that people and personal computers interact. 5 references.

  15. A Communication/Language Objectives-Based System (C/LOBS) for Foreign Language Training. Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    This report of recommendations describes in detail the system for determining communication/language objectives (C/LOBS) within an instructional systems development (ISD) framework. C/LOBS was developed to support the front-end analysis efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center and functions as a subsystem of the ISD…

  16. The Syntax and Semantics of the PROforma Guideline Modeling Language

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, David R.; Fox, John

    2003-01-01

    PROforma is an executable process modeling language that has been used successfully to build and deploy a range of decision support systems, guidelines, and other clinical applications. It is one of a number of recent proposals for representing clinical protocols and guidelines in a machine-executable format (see ). In this report, the authors outline the task model for the language and provide an operational semantics for process enactment together with a semantics for expressions, which may be used to query the state of a task during enactment. The operational semantics includes a number of public operations that may be performed on an application by an external agent, including operations that change the values of data items, recommend or make decisions, manage tasks that have been performed, and perform any task state changes that are implied by the current state of the application. Disclosure: PROforma has been used as the basis of a commercial decision support and guideline technology Arezzo (Infermed, London, UK; details in text). PMID:12807812

  17. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  18. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  19. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  20. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of "local" theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled.

  1. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    PubMed

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  2. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  3. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  4. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  5. Modelling of internal architecture of kinesin nanomotor as a machine language.

    PubMed

    Khataee, H R; Ibrahim, M Y

    2012-09-01

    Kinesin is a protein-based natural nanomotor that transports molecular cargoes within cells by walking along microtubules. Kinesin nanomotor is considered as a bio-nanoagent which is able to sense the cell through its sensors (i.e. its heads and tail), make the decision internally and perform actions on the cell through its actuator (i.e. its motor domain). The study maps the agent-based architectural model of internal decision-making process of kinesin nanomotor to a machine language using an automata algorithm. The applied automata algorithm receives the internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor as a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) model and generates a regular machine language. The generated regular machine language was acceptable by the architectural DFA model of the nanomotor and also in good agreement with its natural behaviour. The internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor indicates the degree of autonomy and intelligence of the nanomotor interactions with its cell. Thus, our developed regular machine language can model the degree of autonomy and intelligence of kinesin nanomotor interactions with its cell as a language. Modelling of internal architectures of autonomous and intelligent bio-nanosystems as machine languages can lay the foundation towards the concept of bio-nanoswarms and next phases of the bio-nanorobotic systems development.

  6. Lexical prediction via forward models: N400 evidence from German Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Hosemann, Jana; Herrmann, Annika; Steinbach, Markus; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Models of language processing in the human brain often emphasize the prediction of upcoming input-for example in order to explain the rapidity of language understanding. However, the precise mechanisms of prediction are still poorly understood. Forward models, which draw upon the language production system to set up expectations during comprehension, provide a promising approach in this regard. Here, we present an event-related potential (ERP) study on German Sign Language (DGS) which tested the hypotheses of a forward model perspective on prediction. Sign languages involve relatively long transition phases between one sign and the next, which should be anticipated as part of a forward model-based prediction even though they are semantically empty. Native speakers of DGS watched videos of naturally signed DGS sentences which either ended with an expected or a (semantically) unexpected sign. Unexpected signs engendered a biphasic N400-late positivity pattern. Crucially, N400 onset preceded critical sign onset and was thus clearly elicited by properties of the transition phase. The comprehension system thereby clearly anticipated modality-specific information about the realization of the predicted semantic item. These results provide strong converging support for the application of forward models in language comprehension.

  7. Methods & Strategies: A Model of Shared Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Kate; Coy, Stephanie; Pocock, Aija

    2015-01-01

    The authors' rural community experienced an explosion of young learners moving into their schools who did not have English as their primary language. To help their teachers meet these challenges, they began to partner with a program that provides grant-funded support for migrant learners (see Internet Resources) to find ways to address these…

  8. Formulating "Principles of Procedure" for the Foreign Language Classroom: A Framework for Process Model Language Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villacañas de Castro, Luis S.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to apply Stenhouse's process model of curriculum to foreign language (FL) education, a model which is characterized by enacting "principles of procedure" which are specific to the discipline which the school subject belongs to. Rather than to replace or dissolve current approaches to FL teaching and curriculum…

  9. Formulating "Principles of Procedure" for the Foreign Language Classroom: A Framework for Process Model Language Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villacañas de Castro, Luis S.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to apply Stenhouse's process model of curriculum to foreign language (FL) education, a model which is characterized by enacting "principles of procedure" which are specific to the discipline which the school subject belongs to. Rather than to replace or dissolve current approaches to FL teaching and curriculum…

  10. Considering the Language of Computerized Order Entry Systems.

    PubMed

    Diemert, Simon; Weber, Jens; Price, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems have been shown to introduce new problems into clinical environments. Given the communication intensive nature of these systems considering the language(s) of communication can provide insight into their function and subsequent problems. The current (as November 2015) CPOE literature was reviewed using the language concepts of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics as a lens. In total, 202 articles were considered, of these only 46 received a full review. 145 results related to language concepts were extracted from these articles. These were categorized into five categories: syntax, semantics, system-pragmatics, syntax-pragmatics, and semantic-pragmatics. In total key themes were synthesized. The themes identified can be used to direct further research in the area of CPOE systems. It was found that current literature heavily favors pragmatics concerns of language at the expense of considering underlying factors (syntax and semantics). The results support the use of language as a means of analyzing interactions between actors in communication intensive systems.

  11. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    PubMed

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain.

  12. Development of Clinical Contents Model Markup Language for Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Methods Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. Results CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. Conclusions CCML has the following strengths: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems. PMID:23115739

  13. Development of clinical contents model markup language for electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yoon

    2012-09-01

    To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. CCML HAS THE FOLLOWING STRENGTHS: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

  14. Brain-computer interface with language model-EEG fusion for locked-in syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Barry S.; Orhan, Umut; Roark, Brian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Fowler, Andrew; Mooney, Aimee; Peters, Betts; Miller, Meghan; Fried-Oken, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Some non-invasive brain computer interface (BCI) systems are currently available for locked-in syndrome (LIS) but none have incorporated a statistical language model during text generation. Objective To begin to address the communication needs of individuals with LIS using a non-invasive BCI that involves Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) of symbols and a unique classifier with EEG and language model fusion. Methods The RSVP Keyboard™ was developed with several unique features. Individual letters are presented at 2.5 per sec. Computer classification of letters as targets or non-targets based on EEG is performed using machine learning that incorporates a language model for letter prediction via Bayesian fusion enabling targets to be presented only 1–4 times. Nine participants with LIS and nine healthy controls were enrolled. After screening, subjects first calibrated the system, and then completed a series of balanced word generation mastery tasks that were designed with five incremental levels of difficulty, that increased by selecting phrases for which the utility of the language model decreased naturally. Results Six participants with LIS and nine controls completed the experiment. All LIS participants successfully mastered spelling at level one and one subject achieved level five. Six of nine control participants achieved level five. Conclusions Individuals who have incomplete LIS may benefit from an EEG-based BCI system, which relies on EEG classification and a statistical language model. Steps to further improve the system are discussed. PMID:24370570

  15. Brain-computer interface with language model-electroencephalography fusion for locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oken, Barry S; Orhan, Umut; Roark, Brian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Fowler, Andrew; Mooney, Aimee; Peters, Betts; Miller, Meghan; Fried-Oken, Melanie B

    2014-05-01

    Some noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are currently available for locked-in syndrome (LIS) but none have incorporated a statistical language model during text generation. To begin to address the communication needs of individuals with LIS using a noninvasive BCI that involves rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of symbols and a unique classifier with electroencephalography (EEG) and language model fusion. The RSVP Keyboard was developed with several unique features. Individual letters are presented at 2.5 per second. Computer classification of letters as targets or nontargets based on EEG is performed using machine learning that incorporates a language model for letter prediction via Bayesian fusion enabling targets to be presented only 1 to 4 times. Nine participants with LIS and 9 healthy controls were enrolled. After screening, subjects first calibrated the system, and then completed a series of balanced word generation mastery tasks that were designed with 5 incremental levels of difficulty, which increased by selecting phrases for which the utility of the language model decreased naturally. Six participants with LIS and 9 controls completed the experiment. All LIS participants successfully mastered spelling at level 1 and one subject achieved level 5. Six of 9 control participants achieved level 5. Individuals who have incomplete LIS may benefit from an EEG-based BCI system, which relies on EEG classification and a statistical language model. Steps to further improve the system are discussed.

  16. Why the Language of Work Is Not Our Best Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    As Danny G. Langdon wrote in September 2010, for human performance technology to be a science, it needs commonly understood and applied models. He proposed his language of work (LOW) model. This article presents arguments for a very different model, one that cuts the cord to our profession's beginnings in the design of programmed instruction,…

  17. Equation-based languages – A new paradigm for building energy modeling, simulation and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael; Bonvini, Marco; Nouidui, Thierry S.

    2016-04-01

    Most of the state-of-the-art building simulation programs implement models in imperative programming languages. This complicates modeling and excludes the use of certain efficient methods for simulation and optimization. In contrast, equation-based modeling languages declare relations among variables, thereby allowing the use of computer algebra to enable much simpler schematic modeling and to generate efficient code for simulation and optimization. We contrast the two approaches in this paper. We explain how such manipulations support new use cases. In the first of two examples, we couple models of the electrical grid, multiple buildings, HVAC systems and controllers to test a controller that adjusts building room temperatures and PV inverter reactive power to maintain power quality. In the second example, we contrast the computing time for solving an optimal control problem for a room-level model predictive controller with and without symbolic manipulations. As a result, exploiting the equation-based language led to 2, 200 times faster solution

  18. A CLASSIFICATION AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR RECORDED FOREIGN LANGUAGE TAPES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAY, J.B.; JAMESON, A.

    A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE RECORDINGS, DEVISED FOR USE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX, IS DESCRIBED IN THIS ARTICLE. CODING AND CROSS-REFERENCE SYSTEMS FOR THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF TAPES ARE OUTLINED, AND SPECIFIC EXAMPLES ARE INCLUDED. APPENDED IS A LIST OF TAPE REFERENCE CODES. THE SYSTEM OUTLINED IS NOT CONSIDERED IDEAL, BUT IT…

  19. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  20. A Model and Questionnaire of Language Identity in Iran: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study consisted of three main phases including the development of a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran, developing and validating a questionnaire based on this model and finally testing the model based on the questionnaire data. In the first phase of this research, a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran was developed…

  1. A Model and Questionnaire of Language Identity in Iran: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study consisted of three main phases including the development of a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran, developing and validating a questionnaire based on this model and finally testing the model based on the questionnaire data. In the first phase of this research, a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran was developed…

  2. Teaching Mathematics with Intelligent Support in Natural Language. Tertiary Education Students Working with Parametrized Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojano, Teresa; García-Campos, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a study that seeks to investigate the role of feedback, by way of an intelligent support system in natural language, in parametrized modelling activities carried out by a group of tertiary education students. With such a system, it is possible to simultaneously display on a computer screen a dialogue window and…

  3. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  4. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  5. Stochastic language model for analyzing document physical layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Tapas; Mao, Song

    2001-12-01

    Image segmentation is an important component of any document image analysis system. While many segmentation algorithms exist in the literature, very few i) allow users to specify the physical style, and ii) incorporate user-specified style information into the algorithm's objective function that is to be minimized. We describe a segmentation algorithm that models a document's physical structure as a hierarchical structure where each node describes a region of the document using a stochastic regular grammar. The exact form of the hierarchy and the stochastic language is specified by the user, while the probabilities associated with the transitions are estimated from groundtruth data. We demonstrate the segmentation algorithm on images of bilingual dictionaries.

  6. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  7. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  8. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  9. Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

    2013-09-07

    The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards a computational model of actor-based language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Alday, Phillip M; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiological data from a range of typologically diverse languages provide evidence for a cross-linguistically valid, actor-based strategy of understanding sentence-level meaning. This strategy seeks to identify the participant primarily responsible for the state of affairs (the actor) as quickly and unambiguously as possible, thus resulting in competition for the actor role when there are multiple candidates. Due to its applicability across languages with vastly different characteristics, we have proposed that the actor strategy may derive from more basic cognitive or neurobiological organizational principles, though it is also shaped by distributional properties of the linguistic input (e.g. the morphosyntactic coding strategies for actors in a given language). Here, we describe an initial computational model of the actor strategy and how it interacts with language-specific properties. Specifically, we contrast two distance metrics derived from the output of the computational model (one weighted and one unweighted) as potential measures of the degree of competition for actorhood by testing how well they predict modulations of electrophysiological activity engendered by language processing. To this end, we present an EEG study on word order processing in German and use linear mixed-effects models to assess the effect of the various distance metrics. Our results show that a weighted metric, which takes into account the weighting of an actor-identifying feature in the language under consideration outperforms an unweighted distance measure. We conclude that actor competition effects cannot be reduced to feature overlap between multiple sentence participants and thereby to the notion of similarity-based interference, which is prominent in current memory-based models of language processing. Finally, we argue that, in addition to illuminating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of actor competition, the present model can form the basis for a more comprehensive

  11. The Use of Self-Modeling To Train Expressive Language Skills with Preschool Children with Language Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom

    In this investigation, a case study approach was used with two preschool children with language delays to determine whether videotaped self-modeling (VSM) intervention would influence their expressive language development. Language samples of both children were videotaped and then edited to leave only the best examples of the target language…

  12. Modelling the Perceived Value of Compulsory English Language Education in Undergraduate Non-Language Majors of Japanese Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopting mixed methods of data collection and analysis, the current study models the "perceived value of compulsory English language education" in a sample of 138 undergraduate non-language majors of Japanese nationality at a national university in Japan. During the orientation period of a compulsory 15-week English language programme,…

  13. Modelling the Perceived Value of Compulsory English Language Education in Undergraduate Non-Language Majors of Japanese Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopting mixed methods of data collection and analysis, the current study models the "perceived value of compulsory English language education" in a sample of 138 undergraduate non-language majors of Japanese nationality at a national university in Japan. During the orientation period of a compulsory 15-week English language programme,…

  14. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying…

  15. A language learning model for finite parameter spaces.

    PubMed

    Niyogi, P; Berwick, R C

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows how to formally characterize language learning in a finite parameter space, for instance, in the principles-and-parameters approach to language, as a Markov structure. New language learning results follow directly; we can explicitly calculate how many positive examples on average ("sample complexity") it will take for a learner to correctly identify a target language with high probability. We show how sample complexity varies with input distributions and learning regimes. In particular we find that the average time to converge under reasonable language input distributions for a simple three-parameter system first described by Gibson and Wexler (1994) is psychologically plausible, in the range of 100-150 positive examples. We further find that a simple random step algorithm-that is, simply jumping from one language hypothesis to another rather than changing one parameter at a time-works faster and always converges to the right target language, in contrast to the single-step, local parameter setting method advocated in some recent work.

  16. One language, two number-word systems and many problems: numerical cognition in the Czech language.

    PubMed

    Pixner, S; Zuber, J; Heřmanová, V; Kaufmann, L; Nuerk, H-C; Moeller, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within the same language: for instance, "25" can be either coded in non-inverted order "dvadsetpät" [twenty-five] or in inverted order "pätadvadset" [five-and-twenty]. To investigate the influence of the number-word system on basic numerical processing within one culture, 7-year-old Czech-speaking children had to perform a transcoding task (i.e., writing Arabic numbers to dictation) in both number-word systems. The observed error pattern clearly indicated that the structure of the number-word system determined transcoding performance reliably: In the inverted number-word system about half of all errors were inversion-related. In contrast, hardly any inversion-related errors occurred in the non-inverted number-word system. We conclude that the development of numerical cognition does not only depend on cultural or educational differences, but is indeed related to the structure and transparency of a given number-word system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: a model for language competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system size scaling analysis shows, on the one hand, that the probability of language extinction vanishes exponentially for increasing system sizes and, on the other hand, that the time scale of survival of the non-trivial dynamical metastable states increases linearly with the size of the system. Thus, non-trivial dynamical coexistence is the only possible outcome for large enough systems. Finally, we show how this coexistence is characterized by one of the languages becoming clearly predominant while the other one becomes increasingly confined to ‘ghetto-like’ structures: small groups of bilingual speakers arranged in triangles, with a strong preference for the minority language, and using it for their intra-group interactions while they switch to the predominant language for communications with the rest of the population.

  18. Task related modulation of the motor system during language processing.

    PubMed

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-05-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three behavioral experiments, using a go-no go paradigm. Italian verbs expressing hand actions, foot actions or an abstract content served as stimuli. Participants used their right hands to respond. In Experiment 1, in which a semantics decision task with an early delivery of the go signal (during processing language material) was used, slower responses were found for hand action-related verbs than for foot action-related verbs. In Experiment 2, using the same task with either an early or a delayed delivery of the go signal (when language material had been already processed), no difference was found between responses to the two verb categories in the delayed delivery condition. In Experiment 3, in which a lexical decision task with an early delivery of the go signal was used, again no difference between the two verb categories was found. The present findings demonstrate that during language processing the modulation of the motor system crucially occurs while performing a semantics decision task, thus supporting the notion that this involvement is a necessary step to understand language rather than a side effect of upstream cognitive processes.

  19. When Technology Speaks Language: An Evaluation of Course Management Systems Used in a Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Sun, Yu-Chih; Chang, Yu-Jung

    2010-01-01

    In light of the growing popularity of the use of computer management systems (CMSs) in higher education today, this study critically evaluates CMS adoption through a content-specific lens. By employing a mixed-method approach, the study examines college teachers' and students' experiences and perceptions of CMS adoption for language learning and…

  20. The Languages of the Valencian Educational System: The Results of Two Decades of Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Jose Luis Blas

    2002-01-01

    The compulsory education system in the autonomous Spanish region known as the Comunidad Valenciano has offered a varied program of bilingual education. Spanish and Valenciano, an autochthonous variety of Catalan, alternate according to various curricular programs as the main teaching languages. Examines the objectives of each of these programs, as…

  1. A SYSTEM FOR TEACHING MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING. TEACHER'S NOTEBOOK IN MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHERER, GEORGE A.C.

    A SYSTEM OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION UTILIZING THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH CAN ENABLE THE STUDENT TO ACHIEVE REAL READING ABILITY IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE, AS OPPOSED TO LIMITED TRANSLATION ABILITY. SUCH A CAREFULLY STRUCTURED PROGRAM, WITH CLEARLY SPECIFIED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, STEP-BY-STEP ORGANIZATION, AND THE FACILITY FOR SELF-TESTING, ALLOWS THE…

  2. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign…

  3. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign…

  4. Design Languages, Notation Systems, and Instructional Technology: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Sandie H.; Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Notational systems, used in mature fields of study, are closely related to design languages. The future of a technological field depends on the ability to communicate ideas and changes with others in the field. Instructional technology is one field that can benefit from a notation system enabling designers to duplicate, execute, and communicate…

  5. The Dartmouth-Rassias Model of Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles; Hornor, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Describes the Dartmouth-Rassias language instruction model emphasizing its reliance on audiolingual techniques and on the intensive approach. Discusses classroom techniques, unique teacher selection methods, and importance of teacher attitudes. Reviews the results achieved by this model and expresses the hope that it will receive more attention…

  6. The Dartmouth/Rassias Model of Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles; Hornor, Jeanne

    An historical, philosophical, and methodological overview of the Dartmouth/Rassias model of foreign language instruction is presented. The model, first developed by John Rassias at Dartmouth College, is an intensive adaptation of the traditional audiolingual approach. Great use is made of dramatic techniques to motivate students and help them…

  7. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that…

  8. Modeling Mechanisms of Persisting and Resolving Delay in Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Knowland, V. C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. Method: The authors used a population modeling approach to study…

  9. Integrating Articulatory Constraints into Models of Second Language Phonological Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colantoni, Laura; Steele, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Models such as Eckman's markedness differential hypothesis, Flege's speech learning model, and Brown's feature-based theory of perception seek to explain and predict the relative difficulty second language (L2) learners face when acquiring new or similar sounds. In this paper, we test their predictive adequacy as concerns native English speakers'…

  10. Research on the Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of second language acquisition based on the social-psychology of acculturation, including factors in social, affective, personality, cognitive, biological, aptitude, personal, input, and instructional areas. Studies which test this model are reviewed and evaluated. (Author/CB)

  11. Improving the Capacity of Language Recognition Systems to Handle Rare Languages Using Radio Broadcast Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    matrix Γ of size C × N , where columns are zeros except for the event index, which is 1. If we sum the columns of Γ (N-gram counts), we can write log...Technology. [20] Niko Brummer and David van Leeuwen , “On calibration of language recognition scores,” in Speaker and Language Recognition Workshop, San Juan...Burget, P. Schwarz, O. Glembek, M. Karafiat, F. Grezl, J. Cernocky, D. van Leeuwen , N. Brummer, and A. Strasheim, “Stbu system for the nist 2006 speaker

  12. Telesign: a videophone system for sign language distant communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozelle, Gerard; Preteux, Francoise J.; Viallet, Jean-Emmanuel

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a low bit rate videophone system for deaf people communicating by means of sign language. Classic video conferencing systems have focused on head and shoulders sequences which are not well-suited for sign language video transmission since hearing impaired people also use their hands and arms to communicate. To address the above-mentioned functionality, we have developed a two-step content-based video coding system based on: (1) A segmentation step. Four or five video objects (VO) are extracted using a cooperative approach between color-based and morphological segmentation. (2) VO coding are achieved by using a standardized MPEG-4 video toolbox. Results of encoded sign language video sequences, presented for three target bit rates (32 kbits/s, 48 kbits/s and 64 kbits/s), demonstrate the efficiency of the approach presented in this paper.

  13. Deaf-And-Mute Sign Language Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hideo; Tamura, Shinichi

    1984-08-01

    We have developed a system which can recognize speech and generate the corresponding animation-like sign language sequence. The system is implemented in a popular personal computer. This has three video-RAM's and a voice recognition board which can recognize only registered voice of a specific speaker. Presently, fourty sign language patterns and fifty finger spellings are stored in two floppy disks. Each sign pattern is composed of one to four sub-patterns. That is, if the pattern is composed of one sub-pattern, it is displayed as a still pattern. If not, it is displayed as a motion pattern. This system will help communications between deaf-and-mute persons and healthy persons. In order to display in high speed, almost programs are written in a machine language.

  14. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  15. Modeling and Implementation of Visibility in Programming Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Modeling and Implementation of Visibility in Programming Languages Phillip Edward Garrison Computer Science Division University of California...REPORT DATE DEC 1987 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1987 to 00-00-1987 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling and Implementation of Visibility in...declarations of the same name. Existing approaches to modeling visibility rules are not powerful enough to model the wide variety of visibility features

  16. Simulating Language-specific and Language-general Effects in a Statistical Learning Model of Chinese Reading

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianfeng; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Many theoretical models of reading assume that different writing systems require different processing assumptions. For example, it is often claimed that print-to-sound mappings in Chinese are not represented or processed sub-lexically. We present a connectionist model that learns the print to sound mappings of Chinese characters using the same functional architecture and learning rules that have been applied to English. The model predicts an interaction between item frequency and print-to-sound consistency analogous to what has been found for English, as well as a language-specific regularity effect particular to Chinese. Behavioral naming experiments using the same test items as the model confirmed these predictions. Corpus properties and the analyses of internal representations that evolved over training revealed that the model was able to capitalize on information in “phonetic components” – sub-lexical structures of variable size that convey probabilistic information about pronunciation. The results suggest that adult reading performance across very different writing systems may be explained as the result of applying the same learning mechanisms to the particular input statistics of writing systems shaped by both culture and the exigencies of communicating spoken language in a visual medium. PMID:20161189

  17. Natural Language Control of Resources for Experimental Data Acquisition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.; Franklin, David; Spencer, James H.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation outlines the results of research into providing a “friendly interface” between a medical scientist and a medical data acquisition system for doing clinical research. The intended user of the system is presumed to have no knowledge of programming languages. The research has emphasized outlining the needs of such a user in terms of hardware configuration, developing specifications for meeting these needs dynamically, and creating a natural language control structure for setting up experiments without the help of a programmer or electronics technician.

  18. Language and modeling word problems in mathematics among bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2005-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the language of math word problems would affect how Filipino-English bilingual problem solvers would model the structure of these word problems. Modeling the problem structure was studied using the problem-completion paradigm, which involves presenting problems without the question. The paradigm assumes that problem solvers can infer the appropriate question of a word problem if they correctly grasp its problem structure. Arithmetic word problems in Filipino and English were given to bilingual students, some of whom had Filipino as a first language and others who had English as a first language. The problem-completion data and solution data showed similar results. The language of the problem had no effect on problem-structure modeling. The results were discussed in relation to a more circumscribed view about the role of language in word problem solving among bilinguals. In particular, the results of the present study showed that linguistic factors do not affect the more mathematically abstract components of word problem solving, although they may affect the other components such as those related to reading comprehension and understanding.

  19. ESA Simulation Language (ESL) battery model upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J. L.; Owen, J. R.

    1988-03-01

    An ESL nickel-cadmium battery model was extended to match the battery manufacturer's steady state cycling characteristics, and to increase the temperature range over which the model is valid. The model was validated by comparisons with test results in the ambient temperature range 0 to 20 C. Less confidence must be attached to results produced by the model outside the 0 to 20 C range, there being no battery cycling data outside this range with which to judge model performance.

  20. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.

  1. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-01-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  2. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Naomi K.; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition. PMID:24860539

  3. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Naomi K; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORIES HAVE PREDOMINANTLY BEEN BUILT UPON DATA FROM SPOKEN LANGUAGE, WHICH LEAVES OPEN THE QUESTION: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  4. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and ‘ratchet’ it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution. PMID:22977146

  5. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-11-22

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and 'ratchet' it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution.

  6. Modeling languages for biochemical network simulation: reaction vs equation based approaches.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, Wolfgang; Noack, Stephan; Elsheikh, Atya

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical network modeling and simulation is an essential task in any systems biology project. The systems biology markup language (SBML) was established as a standardized model exchange language for mechanistic models. A specific strength of SBML is that numerous tools for formulating, processing, simulation and analysis of models are freely available. Interestingly, in the field of multidisciplinary simulation, the problem of model exchange between different simulation tools occurred much earlier. Several general modeling languages like Modelica have been developed in the 1990s. Modelica enables an equation based modular specification of arbitrary hierarchical differential algebraic equation models. Moreover, libraries for special application domains can be rapidly developed. This contribution compares the reaction based approach of SBML with the equation based approach of Modelica and explains the specific strengths of both tools. Several biological examples illustrating essential SBML and Modelica concepts are given. The chosen criteria for tool comparison are flexibility for constraint specification, different modeling flavors, hierarchical, modular and multidisciplinary modeling. Additionally, support for spatially distributed systems, event handling and network analysis features is discussed. As a major result it is shown that the choice of the modeling tool has a strong impact on the expressivity of the specified models but also strongly depends on the requirements of the application context.

  7. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  8. FMS: A Format Manipulation System for Automatic Production of Natural Language Documents, Second Edition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Steven S.

    FMS/3 is a system for producing hard copy documentation at high speed from free format text and command input. The system was originally written in assembler language for a 12K IBM 360 model 20 using a high speed 1403 printer with the UCS-TN chain option (upper and lower case). Input was from an IBM 2560 Multi-function Card Machine. The model 20…

  9. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  10. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Richard R.; Kretschmer, Laura W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses language in use, focusing on English, including definitions of language as well as how it has been and how it should be taught inside and outside the classroom. Impact of this information on the process of evaluation of hearing-impaired students' language is also considered. (Author/PB)

  11. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  12. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

  13. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

  14. Language extinction and linguistic fronts

    PubMed Central

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction–diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data. PMID:24598207

  15. Language extinction and linguistic fronts.

    PubMed

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-05-06

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction-diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data.

  16. An Extensible Aspect-Oriented Modeling Environment for Constructing Domain-Specific Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Kamei, Yasutaka

    AspectM, an aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) language, provides not only basic modeling constructs but also an extension mechanism called metamodel access protocol (MMAP) that allows a modeler to modify the metamodel. MMAP consists of metamodel extension points, extension operations, and primitive predicates for navigating the metamodel. Although the notion of MMAP is useful, it needs tool support. This paper proposes a method for implementing a MMAP-based AspectM support tool. It consists of model editor, model weaver, and model verifier. We introduce the notion of edit-time structural reflection and extensible model weaving. Using these mechanisms, a modeler can easily construct domain-specific languages (DSLs). We show a case study using the AspectM support tool and discuss the effectiveness of the extension mechanism provided by MMAP. As a case study, we show a UML-based DSL for describing the external contexts of embedded systems.

  17. Natural language understanding and speech recognition for industrial vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-11-01

    The accepted method of programming machine vision systems for a new application is to incorporate sub-routines from a standard library into code, written specially for the given task. Typical programming languages that might be used here are Pascal, C, and assembly code, although other `conventional' (i.e., imperative) languages are often used instead. The representation of an algorithm to recognize a certain object, in the form of, say, a C language program is clumsy and unnatural, compared to the alternative process of describing the object itself and leaving the software to search for it. The latter method, known as declarative programming, is used extensively both when programming in Prolog and when people talk to one another in English, or other natural languages. Programs to understand a limited sub-set of a natural language can also be written conveniently in Prolog. The article considers the prospects for talking to an image processing system, using only slightly constrained English. Moderately priced speech recognition devices, which interface to a standard desk-top computer and provide a limited repertoire (200 words) as well as the ability to identify isolated words, are already available commercially. At the moment, the goal of talking in English to a computer is incompletely fulfilled. Yet, sufficient progress has been made to encourage greater effort in this direction.

  18. A Customizable Language Learning Support System Using Ontology-Driven Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingyun; Mendori, Takahiko; Xiong, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for web-based language learning support systems designed to provide customizable pedagogical procedures based on the analysis of characteristics of both learner and course. This framework employs a course-centered ontology and a teaching method ontology as the foundation for the student model, which includes learner…

  19. A Customizable Language Learning Support System Using Ontology-Driven Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingyun; Mendori, Takahiko; Xiong, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for web-based language learning support systems designed to provide customizable pedagogical procedures based on the analysis of characteristics of both learner and course. This framework employs a course-centered ontology and a teaching method ontology as the foundation for the student model, which includes learner…

  20. Phase Transition in a Sexual Age-Structured Model of Learning Foreign Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwämmle, V.

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition of the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages with the mutation rate as control parameter.

  1. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.

  2. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    PubMed Central

    Speier, W; Arnold, CW; Deshpande, A; Knall, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The P300 speller is a common brain–computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main Result This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance. PMID:26061188

  3. Continuous system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  4. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  5. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  6. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kemmerer, David; MacWhinney, Brian; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Oztop, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding – separately or together – neurocomputational models and empirical data that serve systems and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24234916

  7. What's left in language? Beyond the classical model.

    PubMed

    Corballis, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Until recently it was widely held that language, and its left-hemispheric representation in the brain, were uniquely human, emerging abruptly after the emergence of Homo sapiens. Changing views of language suggest that it was not a recent and sudden development in human evolution, but was adapted from dual-stream circuity long predating hominins, including a system in nonhuman primates specialized for intentional grasping. This system was gradually tailored for skilled manual operations (praxis) and communication. As processing requirements grew more demanding, the neural circuits were increasingly lateralized, with the left hemisphere assuming dominance, at least in the majority of individuals. The trend toward complexity and lateralization was probably accelerated in hominins when bipedalism freed the hands for more complex manufacture and tool use, and more expressive communication. The incorporation of facial and vocal gestures led to the emergence of speech as the dominant mode of language, although gestural communication may have led to generative language before speech became dominant. This scenario provides a more Darwinian perspective on language and its lateralization than has been commonly assumed. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. A model for Social Communication And Language Evolution and Development (SCALED).

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Bambini, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    In humans, brain connectivity implements a system for language and communication that spans from basic pre-linguistic social abilities shared with non-human primates to syntactic and pragmatic functions particular to our species. The arcuate fasciculus is a central connection in this architecture, linking regions devoted to formal aspects of language with regions involved in intentional and social communication. Here, we outline a new anatomical model of communication that incorporates previous neurofunctional accounts of language with recent advances in tractography and neuropragmatics. The model consists of five levels, from the representation of informative actions and communicative intentions, to lexical/semantic processing, syntactic analysis, and pragmatic integration. The structure of the model is hierarchical in relation to developmental and evolutionary trajectories and it may help interpreting clinico-anatomical correlation in communication disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formal United System Engineering Development (FUSED) Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    something we haven’t been doing for our demos). The users see what they expect from their chosen flavor of project, but with a few extensions...to nuts and bolts, we use Silver to generate tools that can extract model elements of the various types from files written in supported modeling

  10. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  11. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  12. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  13. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  14. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  15. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  16. Let's Chat: A Conversational Dialogue System for Second Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Iain A. D.; File, Portia

    2007-01-01

    Early and intermediate second language (L2) learners often encounter difficulties when engaging in introductory social conversations, typically having had little opportunity to practise such interactions. This article describes a project to design and prototype a computer dialogue system, Let's Chat, which would allow learners to rehearse social…

  17. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  18. Knowledge Innovation System: The Common Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Debra M. Amidon

    1993-01-01

    The Knowledge Innovation System is a management technique in which a networked enterprise uses knowledge flow as a collaborative advantage. Enterprise Management System-Architecture, which can be applied to collaborative activities, has five domains: economic, sociological, psychological, managerial, and technological. (SK)

  19. A modular approach to language production: models and facts.

    PubMed

    Valle-Lisboa, Juan C; Pomi, Andrés; Cabana, Álvaro; Elvevåg, Brita; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    Numerous cortical disorders affect language. We explore the connection between the observed language behavior and the underlying substrates by adopting a neurocomputational approach. To represent the observed trajectories of the discourse in patients with disorganized speech and in healthy participants, we design a graphical representation for the discourse as a trajectory that allows us to visualize and measure the degree of order in the discourse as a function of the disorder of the trajectories. Our work assumes that many of the properties of language production and comprehension can be understood in terms of the dynamics of modular networks of neural associative memories. Based upon this assumption, we connect three theoretical and empirical domains: (1) neural models of language processing and production, (2) statistical methods used in the construction of functional brain images, and (3) corpus linguistic tools, such as Latent Semantic Analysis (henceforth LSA), that are used to discover the topic organization of language. We show how the neurocomputational models intertwine with LSA and the mathematical basis of functional neuroimaging. Within this framework we describe the properties of a context-dependent neural model, based on matrix associative memories, that performs goal-oriented linguistic behavior. We link these matrix associative memory models with the mathematics that underlie functional neuroimaging techniques and present the "functional brain images" emerging from the model. This provides us with a completely "transparent box" with which to analyze the implication of some statistical images. Finally, we use these models to explore the possibility that functional synaptic disconnection can lead to an increase in connectivity between the representations of concepts that could explain some of the alterations in discourse displayed by patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model.

    PubMed

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  1. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  2. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  3. Relevance Data for Language Models Using Maximum Likelihood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodoff, David; Wu, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents a preliminary empirical test of a maximum likelihood approach to using relevance data for training information retrieval parameters. Discusses similarities to language models; the unification of document-oriented and query-oriented views; tests on data sets; algorithms and scalability; and the effectiveness of maximum likelihood…

  4. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  5. Computational Models in the Debate over Language Learnability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Frederic; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Bergen, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Computational models have played a central role in the debate over language learnability. This article discusses how they have been used in different "stances", from generative views to more recently introduced explanatory frameworks based on embodiment, cognitive development and cultural evolution. By digging into the details of certain specific…

  6. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  7. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  8. Using Different Models of Second-Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    The teaching profession is encouraged to retreat from the search for one method of instruction and to recognize that there are many factors which lead to success in modern language learning. Several models offering different approaches for organizing classroom instruction are suggested. (Author/PMP)

  9. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  10. Gaining system design knowledge by systematic design space exploration with graph based design languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    The conceptual design phase in the design of complex systems such as satellite propulsion systems heavily relies on an exploration of the feasible design space. This exploration requires both: topological changes in the potential system architecture and consistent parametrical changes in the dimensioning of the existing system components. Since advanced engineering design techniques nowadays advocate a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach, graph-based design languages which embed a superset of MBSE-features are consequently used in this work to systematically explore the feasible design space. Design languages allow the design knowledge to be represented, modeled and executed using model-based transformations and combine this among other features with constraint processing techniques. The execution of the design language shown for the satellite propulsion systems in this work yields topologically varied designs (i.e. the selection of a monergol, a diergol or a coldgas system) with consistent parameters. Based on an a posteriori performance analysis of the automatically generated system designs, novel system knowledge (most notably in form of so-called "topology change points") can be gained and extracted from the original point cloud of numerical results.

  11. Modeling the Development of Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Foorman, Barbara; Foster, Elizabeth; Wilson, Laura Gehron; Tschinkel, Erika; Kantor, Patricia Thatcher

    2011-01-01

    Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of written composition and handwriting fluency were tested using confirmatory factor analysis of writing samples provided by first- and fourth-grade students. For both groups, a five-factor model provided the best fit to the data. Four of the factors represented…

  12. Word-level language modeling for P300 spellers based on discriminative graphical models.

    PubMed

    Saa, Jaime F Delgado; Pesters, Adriana de; McFarland, Dennis; Çetin, Müjdat

    2015-04-01

    In this work we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework that uses language priors at the level of words as a mechanism to increase the performance of P300-based spellers. This paper is concerned with brain-computer interfaces based on P300 spellers. Motivated by P300 spelling scenarios involving communication based on a limited vocabulary, we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework and an associated classification algorithm that uses learned statistical models of language at the level of words. Exploiting such high-level contextual information helps reduce the error rate of the speller. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach offers several advantages over existing methods. Most importantly, it increases the classification accuracy while reducing the number of times the letters need to be flashed, increasing the communication rate of the system. The proposed approach models all the variables in the P300 speller in a unified framework and has the capability to correct errors in previous letters in a word, given the data for the current one. The structure of the model we propose allows the use of efficient inference algorithms, which in turn makes it possible to use this approach in real-time applications.

  13. Word-level language modeling for P300 spellers based on discriminative graphical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; McFarland, Dennis; Çetin, Müjdat

    2015-04-01

    Objective. In this work we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework that uses language priors at the level of words as a mechanism to increase the performance of P300-based spellers. Approach. This paper is concerned with brain-computer interfaces based on P300 spellers. Motivated by P300 spelling scenarios involving communication based on a limited vocabulary, we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework and an associated classification algorithm that uses learned statistical models of language at the level of words. Exploiting such high-level contextual information helps reduce the error rate of the speller. Main results. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach offers several advantages over existing methods. Most importantly, it increases the classification accuracy while reducing the number of times the letters need to be flashed, increasing the communication rate of the system. Significance. The proposed approach models all the variables in the P300 speller in a unified framework and has the capability to correct errors in previous letters in a word, given the data for the current one. The structure of the model we propose allows the use of efficient inference algorithms, which in turn makes it possible to use this approach in real-time applications.

  14. Modeling Actions of PubMed Users with N-Gram Language Models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jimmy; Wilbur, W John

    2008-09-12

    Transaction logs from online search engines are valuable for two reasons: First, they provide insight into human information-seeking behavior. Second, log data can be used to train user models, which can then be applied to improve retrieval systems. This article presents a study of logs from PubMed((R)), the public gateway to the MEDLINE((R)) database of bibliographic records from the medical and biomedical primary literature. Unlike most previous studies on general Web search, our work examines user activities with a highly-specialized search engine. We encode user actions as string sequences and model these sequences using n-gram language models. The models are evaluated in terms of perplexity and in a sequence prediction task. They help us better understand how PubMed users search for information and provide an enabler for improving users' search experience.

  15. A temporal model for Clinical Data Analytics language.

    PubMed

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    The proposal of a special purpose language for Clinical Data Analytics (CliniDAL) is presented along with a general model for expressing temporal events in the language. The temporal dimension of clinical data needs to be addressed from at least five different points of view. Firstly, how to attach the knowledge of time based constraints to queries; secondly, how to mine temporal data in different CISs with various data models; thirdly, how to deal with both relative time and absolute time in the query language; fourthly, how to tackle internal time-event dependencies in queries, and finally, how to manage historical time events preserved in the patient's narrative. The temporal elements of the language are defined in Bachus Naur Form (BNF) along with a UML schema. Its use in a designed taxonomy of a five class hierarchy of data analytics tasks shows the solution to problems of time event dependencies in a highly complex cascade of queries needed to evaluate scientific experiments. The issues in using the model in a practical way are discussed as well.

  16. Natural Language Interfaces to Database Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Techniques," Byte, June 1985, pp. 27)-2’). ,11 Marin David Condic, Modular Systems Research, MI, "Documentation: The Need for Review," Journal of Pascal ...Elliot Soloway, Yale University, "PROUST," BYTE, April 1985, pp. 179-190. 463 Alfred L. Schumer, "Set Extensions with Apple Pascal ," BYTE, May 1985...Larry Kerschberg (ed.), The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. 1987, pp. 413-422. 669 Antonio L. Furtado, Marco A. Casanova , Luiz Tucherman, "A

  17. Knowledge Structure Measures of Reader's Situation Models across Languages: Translation Engenders Richer Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung; Clariana, Roy B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further validate and extend the application of recent knowledge structure (KS) measures to second language settings, this investigation explores how second language (L2, English) situation models are influenced by first language (L1, Korean) translation tasks. Fifty Korean low proficient English language learners were asked to read an…

  18. HF-Explain: a natural language generation system for explaining a medical expert system.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Causal models have been used, with considerable success, to reason in the medical domain. While these systems typically have a robust reasoning mechanism and knowledge base about their specific area of expertise, their ability to satisfactorily explain their results in a meaningful, coherent and concise manner has been less impressive then their diagnostic capabilities. This paper describes a program, HF-Explain, that generates natural language explanations of one such system--the Heart Failure Program. HF-Explain, is loosely based on work done by McKeown in the Text system, using augmented transition networks (ATN) as a formalism to guide the explanation process. The result is a coherent, concise, accurate and rich explanation of Heart Failure Programs' diagnostic hypotheses. PMID:1807682

  19. An empirical generative framework for computational modeling of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Heidi R; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of generative grammars from raw CHILDES data and give an account of the generative performance of the acquired grammars. Next, we summarize findings from recent longitudinal and experimental work that suggests how certain statistically prominent structural properties of child-directed speech may facilitate language acquisition. We then present a series of new analyses of CHILDES data indicating that the desired properties are indeed present in realistic child-directed speech corpora. Finally, we suggest how our computational results, behavioral findings, and corpus-based insights can be integrated into a next-generation model aimed at meeting the four requirements of our modeling framework.

  20. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  2. Modeling the development of written language

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Foorman, Barbara; Foster, Elizabeth; Wilson, Laura Gehron; Tschinkel, Erika; Kantor, Patricia Thatcher

    2011-01-01

    Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of written composition and handwriting fluency were tested using confirmatory factor analysis of writing samples provided by first- and fourth-grade students. For both groups, a five-factor model provided the best fit to the data. Four of the factors represented aspects of written composition: macro-organization (use of top sentence and number and ordering of ideas), productivity (number and diversity of words used), complexity (mean length of T-unit and syntactic density), and spelling and punctuation. The fifth factor represented handwriting fluency. Handwriting fluency was correlated with written composition factors at both grades. The magnitude of developmental differences between first grade and fourth grade expressed as effect sizes varied for variables representing the five constructs: large effect sizes were found for productivity and handwriting fluency variables; moderate effect sizes were found for complexity and macro-organization variables; and minimal effect sizes were found for spelling and punctuation variables. PMID:22228924

  3. How aging and bilingualism influence language processing: theoretical and neural models

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Eleonora; Diaz, Michele T.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy non-pathological aging is characterized by cognitive and neural decline, and although language is one of the more stable areas of cognition, older adults often show deficits in language production, showing word finding failures, increased slips of the tongue, and increased pauses in speech. Overall, research on language comprehension in older healthy adults show that it is more preserved than language production. Bilingualism has been shown to confer a great deal of neuroplasticity across the life span, including a number of cognitive benefits especially in executive functions such as cognitive control. Many models of bilingual language processing have been proposed to explain bilingual language processing. However, the question remains open of how such models might be modulated by age-related changes in language. Here, we discuss how current models of language processing in non-pathological aging, and models of bilingual language processing can be integrated to provide new research directions. PMID:28919933

  4. An ontology model for nursing narratives with natural language generation technology.

    PubMed

    Min, Yul Ha; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jeon, Eunjoo; Lee, Joo Yun; Jo, Soo Jung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ontology model to generate nursing narratives as natural as human language from the entity-attribute-value triplets of a detailed clinical model using natural language generation technology. The model was based on the types of information and documentation time of the information along the nursing process. The typesof information are data characterizing the patient status, inferences made by the nurse from the patient data, and nursing actions selected by the nurse to change the patient status. This information was linked to the nursing process based on the time of documentation. We describe a case study illustrating the application of this model in an acute-care setting. The proposed model provides a strategy for designing an electronic nursing record system.

  5. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  6. Not lost in translation: generalization of the primary systems hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the Primary Systems Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.

  7. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising.

  8. Ontology development for unified traditional Chinese medical language system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yin, Aining; Wu, Lancheng; Fan, Weiyu; Zhang, Ruen

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a complete knowledge system researches into human health conditions via a different approach compared to orthodox medicine. We are developing a unified traditional Chinese medical language system (UTCMLS) through an ontology approach that will support TCM language knowledge storage, concept-based information retrieval and information integration. UTCMLS is a huge knowledge project, which is a broad collaboration of 16 distributed groups, most of them with no prior experience of formal ontology development. Therefore, the cooperative and comprehensive ontology engineering is crucial. We use Protégé 2000 for ontology development of concepts and relationships that represent the domain and that will permit storage of TCM knowledge. This paper focuses on the methodology, design and development of ontology for UTCMLS.

  9. A multilingual programming model for coupled systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Chicago; The Australian National Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems share a common software requirement-infrastructure to implement data exchanges between their constituent parts-often called the coupling problem. On distributed-memory parallel platforms, the coupling problem is complicated by the need to describe, transfer, and transform distributed data, known as the parallel coupling problem. Parallel coupling is emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science as scientists attempt to build multiscale and multiphysics systems on parallel platforms. An additional coupling problem in these systems is language interoperability between their constituent codes. We have created a multilingual parallel coupling programming model based on a successful open-source parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). This programming model's capabilities reach beyond MCT's native Fortran implementation to include bindings for the C++ and Python programming languages. We describe the method used to generate the interlanguage bindings. This approach enables an object-based programming model for implementing parallel couplings in non-Fortran coupled systems and in systems with language heterogeneity. We describe the C++ and Python versions of the MCT programming model and provide short examples. We report preliminary performance results for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We describe a major Python application that uses the MCT Python bindings, a Python implementation of the control and coupling infrastructure for the community climate system model. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to productivity computing in multidisciplinary computational science.

  10. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  11. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  12. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  13. The MITLL NIST LRE 2015 Language Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-06

    paradigms. First, the evaluation included fixed training and open training tracks for the first time ; second, language classification performance was...and segments generated from these files (effectively letting the systems use the same data file twice) to modifying the speech signal via warping and...was calculated as the difference between the log(F0) value 3 frames forward and 3 frames back in time . The values of log(F0) and delta-log(F0) were

  14. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    significant reductions in both perplexity and recognition errors. We also compare our cross-lingual adaptation scheme to monolingual language model adaptation...as an intermedi- ate step. In a monolingual setting, the mutual infor- mation between lexical pairs co-occurring anywhere within a long “window” of...inspiration to propose the follow- ing notion of cross-lingual lexical triggers. In a monolingual setting, a pair of words xyQz is considered a trigger

  15. Language Proficiency Tests in the Iranian Context: Do They Represent Communicative Language Testing Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2011-01-01

    The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize…

  16. When learners surpass their models: the acquisition of American Sign Language from inconsistent input.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Jenny L; Newport, Elissa L

    2004-12-01

    The present study examines the impact of highly inconsistent input on language acquisition. The American deaf community provides a unique opportunity to observe children exposed to nonnative language models as their only linguistic input. This research is a detailed case study of one child acquiring his native language in such circumstances. It asks whether this child is capable of organizing a natural language out of input data that are not representative of certain natural language principles. Simon is a deaf child whose deaf parents both learned American Sign Language (ASL) after age 15. Simon's only ASL input is provided by his late-learner parents. The study examines Simon's performance at age 7 on an ASL morphology task, compared with eight children who have native signing parents, and also compared with Simon's own parents. The results show that Simon's production of ASL substantially surpasses that of his parents. Simon's parents, like other late learners of ASL, perform below adult native signing criteria, with many inconsistencies and errors in their use of ASL morphology. In contrast, Simon's performance is much more regular, and in fact on most ASL morphemes is equal to that of children exposed to a native signing model. The results thus indicate that Simon is capable of acquiring a regular and orderly morphological rule system for which his input provides only highly inconsistent and noisy data. In addition, the results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which such learning may occur. Although the ASL situation is rare, it reveals clues that may contribute to our understanding of the human capacity for language learning.

  17. A simulation engine: Combining an expert system with a simulation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, James R.; Lavallee, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems were applied in a number of ways to the field of simulation. One of these is the application of an expert system to drive a simulation, by making run-time decisions which effect the simulation. This approach was successful for a number of specific simulation models. The simulation engine extends this capability by supporting this type of interaction in a general purpose setting. A general purpose simulation language is provided for building models, and an inference engine is provided for knowledge processing. This combination results in a mechanism which allows general purpose models to be simulated in concert with interactive knowledge bases.

  18. The language of worry: examining linguistic elements of worry models.

    PubMed

    Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong evidence that worry is a verbal process, studies examining linguistic features in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are lacking. The aim of the present study is to investigate language use in individuals with GAD and controls based on GAD and worry theoretical models. More specifically, the degree to which linguistic elements of the avoidance and intolerance of uncertainty worry models can predict diagnostic status was analysed. Participants were 19 women diagnosed with GAD and 22 control women and their children. After participating in a diagnostic semi-structured interview, dyads engaged in a free-play interaction where mothers' language sample was collected. Overall, the findings provided evidence for distinctive linguistic features of individuals with GAD. That is, after controlling for the effect of demographic variables, present tense, future tense, prepositions and number of questions correctly classified those with GAD and controls such that a considerable amount of the variance in diagnostic status was explained uniquely by language use. Linguistic confirmation of worry models is discussed.

  19. Neural Basis of Language: An Overview of An Evolving Model

    PubMed Central

    FUJII, Masazumi; MAESAWA, Satoshi; ISHIAI, Sumio; IWAMI, Kenichiro; FUTAMURA, Miyako; SAITO, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of language had been considered as a simple model consisting of the Broca’s area, the Wernicke’s area, and the arcuate fasciculus (AF) connecting the above two cortical areas. However, it has grown to a larger and more complex model based upon recent advancements in neuroscience such as precise imaging studies of aphasic patients, diffusion tensor imaging studies, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and electrophysiological studies with cortical and subcortical stimulation during awake surgery. In the present model, language is considered to be processed through two distinct pathways, the dorsal stream and the ventral stream. The core of the dorsal stream is the superior longitudinal fasciculus/AF, which is mainly associated with phonological processing. On the other hand, semantic processing is done mainly with the ventral stream consisting of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the intratemporal networks. The frontal aslant tract has recently been named the deep frontal tract connecting the supplementary motor area and the Broca’s area and it plays an important role in driving and initiating speech. It is necessary for every neurosurgeon to have basic knowledge of the neural basis of language. This knowledge is essential to plan safer surgery and preserve the above neural structures during surgery. PMID:27087195

  20. Spanish language generation engine to enhance the syntactic quality of AAC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narváez A., Cristian; Sastoque H., Sebastián.; Iregui G., Marcela

    2015-12-01

    People with Complex Communication Needs (CCN) face difficulties to communicate their ideas, feelings and needs. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) approaches aim to provide support to enhance socialization of these individuals. However, there are many limitations in current applications related with systems operation, target scenarios and language consistency. This work presents an AAC approach to enhance produced messages by applying elements of Natural Language Generation. Specifically, a Spanish language engine, composed of a grammar ontology and a set of linguistic rules, is proposed to improve the naturalness in the communication process, when persons with CCN tell stories about their daily activities to non-disabled receivers. The assessment of the proposed method confirms the validity of the model to improve messages quality.

  1. Mathematical circulatory system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method of modeling a circulatory system including a regulatory mechanism parameter. In one embodiment, a regulatory mechanism parameter in a lumped parameter model is represented as a logistic function. In another embodiment, the circulatory system model includes a compliant vessel, the model having a parameter representing a change in pressure due to contraction of smooth muscles of a wall of the vessel.

  2. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    PubMed

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Root System Markup Language: Toward a Unified Root Architecture Description Language1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Michael P.; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Pridmore, Tony P.; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. PMID:25614065

  4. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    PubMed

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Robust model selection and the statistical classification of languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.; Viola, M. L. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we address the problem of model selection for the set of finite memory stochastic processes with finite alphabet, when the data is contaminated. We consider m independent samples, with more than half of them being realizations of the same stochastic process with law Q, which is the one we want to retrieve. We devise a model selection procedure such that for a sample size large enough, the selected process is the one with law Q. Our model selection strategy is based on estimating relative entropies to select a subset of samples that are realizations of the same law. Although the procedure is valid for any family of finite order Markov models, we will focus on the family of variable length Markov chain models, which include the fixed order Markov chain model family. We define the asymptotic breakdown point (ABDP) for a model selection procedure, and we show the ABDP for our procedure. This means that if the proportion of contaminated samples is smaller than the ABDP, then, as the sample size grows our procedure selects a model for the process with law Q. We also use our procedure in a setting where we have one sample conformed by the concatenation of sub-samples of two or more stochastic processes, with most of the subsamples having law Q. We conducted a simulation study. In the application section we address the question of the statistical classification of languages according to their rhythmic features using speech samples. This is an important open problem in phonology. A persistent difficulty on this problem is that the speech samples correspond to several sentences produced by diverse speakers, corresponding to a mixture of distributions. The usual procedure to deal with this problem has been to choose a subset of the original sample which seems to best represent each language. The selection is made by listening to the samples. In our application we use the full dataset without any preselection of samples. We apply our robust methodology estimating

  6. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  7. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  8. Investigation of the ADA Language Implementation of the Hellenic Command Control and Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    a large language, but this is due to its wide scope rather than a redundancy of ideas. It is the first language which includes all these features...will be the first language system to provide constructs for the complete programming of embedded computer systems, together with full programming v

  9. A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    An editorial and articles are presented on a European unit/credit system for modern language learning by adults. The contents are as follows: "A European Unit Credit System" by J. L. M. Trim; "The Analysis of Language Needs: Illusion--Pretext--Necessity" by Rene Richterich; "Learning a Language Is Learning to Communicate" by D. A. Wilkins; "The…

  10. A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    An editorial and articles are presented on a European unit/credit system for modern language learning by adults. The contents are as follows: "A European Unit Credit System" by J. L. M. Trim; "The Analysis of Language Needs: Illusion--Pretext--Necessity" by Rene Richterich; "Learning a Language Is Learning to Communicate" by D. A. Wilkins; "The…

  11. Computational cognitive modeling for the diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Jesus; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI), as many other cognitive deficits, is difficult to diagnose given its heterogeneous profile and its overlap with other impairments. Existing techniques are based on different criteria using behavioral variables on different tasks. In this paper we propose a methodology for the diagnosis of SLI that uses computational cognitive modeling in order to capture the internal mechanisms of the normal and impaired brain. We show that machine learning techniques that use the information of these models perform better than those that only use behavioral variables.

  12. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  13. Evaluating a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Language Disorders Screening in a Nursery School

    PubMed Central

    Valero Duboy, Miguel Ángel; Torcal Loriente, Carmen; Pau de la Cruz, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Early and effective identification of developmental disorders during childhood remains a critical task for the international community. The second highest prevalence of common developmental disorders in children are language delays, which are frequently the first symptoms of a possible disorder. Objective This paper evaluates a Web-based Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) whose aim is to enhance the screening of language disorders at a nursery school. The common lack of early diagnosis of language disorders led us to deploy an easy-to-use CDSS in order to evaluate its accuracy in early detection of language pathologies. This CDSS can be used by pediatricians to support the screening of language disorders in primary care. Methods This paper details the evaluation results of the “Gades” CDSS at a nursery school with 146 children, 12 educators, and 1 language therapist. The methodology embraces two consecutive phases. The first stage involves the observation of each child’s language abilities, carried out by the educators, to facilitate the evaluation of language acquisition level performed by a language therapist. Next, the same language therapist evaluates the reliability of the observed results. Results The Gades CDSS was integrated to provide the language therapist with the required clinical information. The validation process showed a global 83.6% (122/146) success rate in language evaluation and a 7% (7/94) rate of non-accepted system decisions within the range of children from 0 to 3 years old. The system helped language therapists to identify new children with potential disorders who required further evaluation. This process will revalidate the CDSS output and allow the enhancement of early detection of language disorders in children. The system does need minor refinement, since the therapists disagreed with some questions from the CDSS knowledge base (KB) and suggested adding a few questions about speech production and pragmatic

  14. Evaluating a web-based clinical decision support system for language disorders screening in a nursery school.

    PubMed

    Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Valero Duboy, Miguel Ángel; Torcal Loriente, Carmen; Pau de la Cruz, Iván

    2014-05-28

    Early and effective identification of developmental disorders during childhood remains a critical task for the international community. The second highest prevalence of common developmental disorders in children are language delays, which are frequently the first symptoms of a possible disorder. This paper evaluates a Web-based Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) whose aim is to enhance the screening of language disorders at a nursery school. The common lack of early diagnosis of language disorders led us to deploy an easy-to-use CDSS in order to evaluate its accuracy in early detection of language pathologies. This CDSS can be used by pediatricians to support the screening of language disorders in primary care. This paper details the evaluation results of the "Gades" CDSS at a nursery school with 146 children, 12 educators, and 1 language therapist. The methodology embraces two consecutive phases. The first stage involves the observation of each child's language abilities, carried out by the educators, to facilitate the evaluation of language acquisition level performed by a language therapist. Next, the same language therapist evaluates the reliability of the observed results. The Gades CDSS was integrated to provide the language therapist with the required clinical information. The validation process showed a global 83.6% (122/146) success rate in language evaluation and a 7% (7/94) rate of non-accepted system decisions within the range of children from 0 to 3 years old. The system helped language therapists to identify new children with potential disorders who required further evaluation. This process will revalidate the CDSS output and allow the enhancement of early detection of language disorders in children. The system does need minor refinement, since the therapists disagreed with some questions from the CDSS knowledge base (KB) and suggested adding a few questions about speech production and pragmatic abilities. The refinement of the KB will address

  15. Role of the motor system in language knowledge.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Zhao, Xu; Seligson, Erica; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Stern, Emily; Galaburda, Albert M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-02-17

    All spoken languages express words by sound patterns, and certain patterns (e.g., blog) are systematically preferred to others (e.g., lbog). What principles account for such preferences: does the language system encode abstract rules banning syllables like lbog, or does their dislike reflect the increased motor demands associated with speech production? More generally, we ask whether linguistic knowledge is fully embodied or whether some linguistic principles could potentially be abstract. To address this question, here we gauge the sensitivity of English speakers to the putative universal syllable hierarchy (e.g., blif ≻ bnif ≻ bdif ≻ lbif) while undergoing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cortical motor representation of the left orbicularis oris muscle. If syllable preferences reflect motor simulation, then worse-formed syllables (e.g., lbif) should (i) elicit more errors; (ii) engage more strongly motor brain areas; and (iii) elicit stronger effects of TMS on these motor regions. In line with the motor account, we found that repetitive TMS pulses impaired participants' global sensitivity to the number of syllables, and functional MRI confirmed that the cortical stimulation site was sensitive to the syllable hierarchy. Contrary to the motor account, however, ill-formed syllables were least likely to engage the lip sensorimotor area and they were least impaired by TMS. Results suggest that speech perception automatically triggers motor action, but this effect is not causally linked to the computation of linguistic structure. We conclude that the language and motor systems are intimately linked, yet distinct. Language is designed to optimize motor action, but its knowledge includes principles that are disembodied and potentially abstract.

  16. Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique

    PubMed Central

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S.; Timmis, Jon; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show how the framework can be used to produce models that capture and communicate the biological system, detailing how biological entities, interactions and behaviours lead to higher-level emergent properties observed in the real world. We demonstrate how the UML can be successfully applied within our framework, and provide a critique of UML's ability to capture concepts fundamental to immunology and biology more generally. We show how specialized, well-explained diagrams with less formal semantics can be used where no suitable UML formalism exists. We highlight UML's lack of expressive ability concerning cyclic feedbacks in cellular networks, and the compounding concurrency arising from huge numbers of stochastic, interacting agents. To compensate for this, we propose several additional relationships for expressing these concepts in UML's activity diagram. We also demonstrate the ambiguous nature of class diagrams when applied to complex biology, and question their utility in modelling such dynamic systems. Models created through our framework are non-executable, and expressly free of simulation implementation concerns. They are a valuable complement and precursor to simulation specifications and implementations, focusing purely on thoroughly exploring the biology, recording hypotheses and assumptions, and serve as a communication medium detailing exactly how a simulation relates to the real biology. PMID:25142524

  17. Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique.

    PubMed

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S; Timmis, Jon; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-10-06

    We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show how the framework can be used to produce models that capture and communicate the biological system, detailing how biological entities, interactions and behaviours lead to higher-level emergent properties observed in the real world. We demonstrate how the UML can be successfully applied within our framework, and provide a critique of UML's ability to capture concepts fundamental to immunology and biology more generally. We show how specialized, well-explained diagrams with less formal semantics can be used where no suitable UML formalism exists. We highlight UML's lack of expressive ability concerning cyclic feedbacks in cellular networks, and the compounding concurrency arising from huge numbers of stochastic, interacting agents. To compensate for this, we propose several additional relationships for expressing these concepts in UML's activity diagram. We also demonstrate the ambiguous nature of class diagrams when applied to complex biology, and question their utility in modelling such dynamic systems. Models created through our framework are non-executable, and expressly free of simulation implementation concerns. They are a valuable complement and precursor to simulation specifications and implementations, focusing purely on thoroughly exploring the biology, recording hypotheses and assumptions, and serve as a communication medium detailing exactly how a simulation relates to the real biology.

  18. Natural language dialogue in an integrated computational model

    SciTech Connect

    Frederking, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The computational system presented here, Psli3, uses the uniform framework of a production-system architecture to carry out natural language understanding and generation in a well-integrated way. This is demonstrated primarily using intersentential ellipsis resolution, in addition to examples of definite reference resolution, in addition to examples of definite reference resolution and interactive error correction. The system's conversational context arises naturally as the result of the persistence of the internal representations of previous utterances in working memory. Natural language input is interpreted within this framework using a modification of the syntactic technique of chart parsing, extended to include semantics, and adapted to the production-system architecture. It provides a graceful way of handling ambiguity within this architecture, and allows separate knowledge sources to interact smoothly across different utterances in a highly integrated fashion. The design of this system demonstrates how flexible and natural-user interactions can be carried out using a system with a naturally flexible control structure. A processing-based taxonomy for ellipsis resolution developed is used to analyze the coverage of intersentential ellipsis.

  19. Text generation from Taiwanese Sign Language using a PST-based language model for augmentative communication.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Guo, Chi-Shiang

    2004-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to the generation of Chinese sentences from ill-formed Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) for people with hearing impairments. First, a sign icon-based virtual keyboard is constructed to provide a visualized interface to retrieve sign icons from a sign database. A proposed language model (LM), based on a predictive sentence template (PST) tree, integrates a statistical variable n-gram LM and linguistic constraints to deal with the translation problem from ill-formed sign sequences to grammatical written sentences. The PST tree trained by a corpus collected from the deaf schools was used to model the correspondence between signed and written Chinese. In addition, a set of phrase formation rules, based on trigger pair category, was derived for sentence pattern expansion. These approaches improved the efficiency of text generation and the accuracy of word prediction and, therefore, improved the input rate. For the assessment of practical communication aids, a reading-comprehension training program with ten profoundly deaf students was undertaken in a deaf school in Tainan, Taiwan. Evaluation results show that the literacy aptitude test and subjective satisfactory level are significantly improved.

  20. Terminology model discovery using natural language processing and visualization techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Tao, Ying; Cimino, James J; Chen, Elizabeth S; Liu, Hongfang; Lussier, Yves A; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2006-12-01

    Medical terminologies are important for unambiguous encoding and exchange of clinical information. The traditional manual method of developing terminology models is time-consuming and limited in the number of phrases that a human developer can examine. In this paper, we present an automated method for developing medical terminology models based on natural language processing (NLP) and information visualization techniques. Surgical pathology reports were selected as the testing corpus for developing a pathology procedure terminology model. The use of a general NLP processor for the medical domain, MedLEE, provides an automated method for acquiring semantic structures from a free text corpus and sheds light on a new high-throughput method of medical terminology model development. The use of an information visualization technique supports the summarization and visualization of the large quantity of semantic structures generated from medical documents. We believe that a general method based on NLP and information visualization will facilitate the modeling of medical terminologies.

  1. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  3. Theodor Bücher Lecture. Metabolomics, modelling and machine learning in systems biology - towards an understanding of the languages of cells. Delivered on 3 July 2005 at the 30th FEBS Congress and the 9th IUBMB conference in Budapest.

    PubMed

    Kell, Douglas B

    2006-03-01

    that lies at the heart of understanding the languages of cells. The resolution of many of the modern and postgenomic problems of biochemistry requires the development of a myriad of new technologies (and maybe a new culture), and thus regular input from the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer science. One solution, that we are adopting in the Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre (http://www.mib.ac.uk/) and the Manchester Centre for Integrative Systems Biology (http://www.mcisb.org/), is thus to colocate individuals with the necessary combinations of skills. Novel disciplines that require such an integrative approach continue to emerge. These include fields such as chemical genomics, synthetic biology, distributed computational environments for biological data and modelling, single cell diagnostics/bionanotechnology, and computational linguistics/text mining.

  4. Deployment and Validation of a Smart System for Screening of Language Disorders in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2013-01-01

    Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases. PMID:23752564

  5. Deployment and validation of a smart system for screening of language disorders in primary care.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2013-06-10

    Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases.

  6. Coastal Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-04

    and Hydrology - Coastal Community of Practice (CoP) as a Preferred model for Coastal Engineering and Coastal Navigation studies. The work unit...Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Modeling System The work unit develops the Coastal Modeling System (CMS) and conducts basic research to... models for simulations of waves, hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport, and morphology change. The CMS was identified by the USACE Hydraulics

  7. The emergent neural modeling system.

    PubMed

    Aisa, Brad; Mingus, Brian; O'Reilly, Randy

    2008-10-01

    Emergent (http://grey.colorado.edu/emergent) is a powerful tool for the simulation of biologically plausible, complex neural systems that was released in August 2007. Inheriting decades of research and experience in network algorithms and modeling principles from its predecessors, PDP++ and PDP, Emergent has been redesigned as an efficient workspace for academic research and an engaging, easy-to-navigate environment for students. The system provides a modern and intuitive interface for programming and visualization centered around hierarchical, tree-based navigation and drag-and-drop reorganization. Emergent contains familiar, high-level simulation constructs such as Layers and Projections, a wide variety of algorithms, general-purpose data handling and analysis facilities and an integrated virtual environment for developing closed-loop cognitive agents. For students, the traditional role of a textbook has been enhanced by wikis embedded in every project that serve to explain, document, and help newcomers engage the interface and step through models using familiar hyperlinks. For advanced users, the software is easily extensible in all respects via runtime plugins, has a powerful shell with an integrated debugger, and a scripting language that is fully symmetric with the interface. Emergent strikes a balance between detailed, computationally expensive spiking neuron models and abstract, Bayesian or symbolic systems. This middle level of detail allows for the rapid development and successful execution of complex cognitive models while maintaining biological plausibility.

  8. Phonological memory in sign language relies on the visuomotor neural system outside the left hemisphere language network.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Yuji; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Ishii, Toru; Aso, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated neural activation while bilinguals of spoken and signed language were engaged in a sequence memory span task. On each trial, participants viewed a nonsense syllable sequence presented either as written letters or as fingerspelling (4-7 syllables in length) and then held the syllable sequence for 12 s. Behavioral analysis revealed that participants relied on phonological memory while holding verbal information regardless of the type of input modality. At the neural level, this maintenance stage broadly activated the left-hemisphere language network, including the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, for both letter and fingerspelling conditions. Interestingly, while most participants reported that they relied on phonological memory during maintenance, direct comparisons between letters and fingers revealed strikingly different patterns of neural activation during the same period. Namely, the effortful maintenance of fingerspelling inputs relative to letter inputs activated the left superior parietal lobule and dorsal premotor area, i.e., brain regions known to play a role in visuomotor analysis of hand/arm movements. These findings suggest that the dorsal visuomotor neural system subserves verbal learning via sign language by relaying gestural inputs to

  9. Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Stephen C.; Torreira, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The core niche for language use is in verbal interaction, involving the rapid exchange of turns at talking. This paper reviews the extensive literature about this system, adding new statistical analyses of behavioral data where they have been missing, demonstrating that turn-taking has the systematic properties originally noted by Sacks et al. (1974; hereafter SSJ). This system poses some significant puzzles for current theories of language processing: the gaps between turns are short (of the order of 200 ms), but the latencies involved in language production are much longer (over 600 ms). This seems to imply that participants in conversation must predict (or ‘project’ as SSJ have it) the end of the current speaker’s turn in order to prepare their response in advance. This in turn implies some overlap between production and comprehension despite their use of common processing resources. Collecting together what is known behaviorally and experimentally about the system, the space for systematic explanations of language processing for conversation can be significantly narrowed, and we sketch some first model of the mental processes involved for the participant preparing to speak next. PMID:26124727

  10. Syntactic Complexity and Frequency in the Neurocognitive Language System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Hsuan; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Bozic, Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raise the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas. In this fMRI study, we varied the frequency of words and of short and long phrases in English. If frequent phrases are indeed stored, then only less frequent items should generate selective left frontotemporal activation, because memory traces for such items would be weaker or not available in temporal cortex. Complementary univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that, overall, simple words (verbs) and long phrases engaged LIFG and temporal areas, whereas short phrases engaged bilateral temporal areas, suggesting that syntactic complexity is a key factor for LIFG activation. Although we found a robust frequency effect for words in temporal areas, no frequency effects were found for the two phrasal conditions. These findings support the conclusion that long and short phrases are analyzed, respectively, in the left frontal network and in a bilateral temporal network but are not retrieved from memory in the same way as simple words during spoken language comprehension.

  11. A New Bigram-PLSA Language Model for Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Mohammad; Sameti, Hossein

    2010-12-01

    A novel method for combining bigram model and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) is introduced for language modeling. The motivation behind this idea is the relaxation of the "bag of words" assumption fundamentally present in latent topic models including the PLSA model. An EM-based parameter estimation technique for the proposed model is presented in this paper. Previous attempts to incorporate word order in the PLSA model are surveyed and compared with our new proposed model both in theory and by experimental evaluation. Perplexity measure is employed to compare the effectiveness of recently introduced models with the new proposed model. Furthermore, experiments are designed and carried out on continuous speech recognition (CSR) tasks using word error rate (WER) as the evaluation criterion. The superiority of the new bigram-PLSA model over Nie et al.'s bigram-PLSA and simple PLSA models is demonstrated in the results of our experiments. Experiments on BLLIP WSJ corpus show about 12% reduction in perplexity and 2.8% WER improvement compared to Nie et al.'s bigram-PLSA model.

  12. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F.; Borghi, Anna M.; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system. PMID:28265247

  13. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding.

    PubMed

    Marino, Barbara F; Borghi, Anna M; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system.

  14. Considerations in the Evaluation of Language for Inclusion in a Programmed Language System for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spidal, David A.

    The paper examines aspects of language (morphology, syntax, and semology) as they relate to effective instruction in the area of language with deaf students. Pointed out are language factors to keep in mind when preparing instructional materials for the deaf, such as words with more than one meaning and other problems affecting comprehension of a…

  15. Playing with the Language: Investigating the Role of Communicative Games in an Arab Language Teaching System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bulushi, Ali H.; Al-Issa, Ali S.

    2017-01-01

    Language learning games combine a number of linguistic, psychological and social elements that have been found to have considerable advantages and powerfully impact language learning and teaching. They are incorporated into language curricula to promote interactive engaging learning. This study investigates the role of games in the Omani ELT…

  16. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  17. Notation Systems for Reading and Writing Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for…

  18. "SIRIUS" Input Language for an Automatic Programming System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akselrod, I. R.; Belous, L. F.

    The SIRIUS language is intended for solving both numerical and analytical problems. The new language is realized by means of a two-phase translator. The first phase is a translation into an intermediate (Polish-nonparenthetic) language; the second phase is an interpretation from this language. Two modes of program execution are envisaged in the…

  19. Real-world natural language interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cullingford, R.E.; Selfridge, M.

    1983-01-01

    ACE (academic counseling experiment) is a natural-language text processing system currently under development at the University of Connecticut as a testbed for work in real-world conversational interaction with rule-based expert systems. ACE is designed to perform the tasks of a faculty advisor of undergraduate engineering students who intend to be computer science majors at the university. The key problem for a conversational system of this sort is robust understanding, the ability to cope with ungrammatical, ellipsed, and otherwise variant, but responsive, input. The paper outlines ACE's current status and the progress toward testing it with real users. The authors believe it represents a technology which can be applied to a wide variety of rule-based expert systems. 22 references.

  20. End-to-end observatory software modeling using domain specific languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, José M.; Bec, Matthieu; Liu, Ning; Peng, Chien; Soto, José

    2014-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. Its software and control system is being developed using a set of Domain Specific Languages (DSL) that supports a model driven development methodology integrated with an Agile management process. This approach promotes the use of standardized models that capture the component architecture of the system, that facilitate the construction of technical specifications in a uniform way, that facilitate communication between developers and domain experts and that provide a framework to ensure the successful integration of the software subsystems developed by the GMT partner institutions.