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Sample records for lanthanide btp complexes

  1. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  2. Aromatic triamide-lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Petoud, Stephane; Xu, Jide

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  3. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  4. Salicylamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth; Xu, Jide

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one salicylamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the salicylamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  5. Salicylamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Petoud, Stephane [Berkeley, CA; Cohen, Seth [Boston, MA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA

    2008-07-29

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one salicylamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the salicylamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  6. Complexation of lanthanides and actinides by acetohydroxamic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.J.; Sinkov, S.I.; Choppin, G.R.

    2008-07-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been proposed as a suitable reagent for the complexant-based, as opposed to reductive, stripping of plutonium and neptunium ions from the tributylphosphate solvent phase in advanced PUREX or UREX processes designed for future nuclear-fuel reprocessing. Stripping is achieved by the formation of strong hydrophilic complexes with the tetravalent actinides in nitric acid solutions. To underpin such applications, knowledge of the complexation constants of AHA with all relevant actinide (5f) and lanthanide (4f) ions is therefore important. This paper reports the determination of stability constants of AHA with the heavier lanthanide ions (Dy-Yb) and also U(IV) andmore » Th(IV) ions. Comparisons with our previously published AHA stability-constant data for 4f and 5f ions are made. (authors)« less

  7. Comparative investigation of N donor ligand-lanthanide complexes from the metal and ligand point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prüßmann, T.; Denecke, M. A.; Geist, A.; Rothe, J.; Lindqvist-Reis, P.; Löble, M.; Breher, F.; Batchelor, D. R.; Apostolidis, C.; Walter, O.; Caliebe, W.; Kvashnina, K.; Jorissen, K.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Vitova, T.

    2013-04-01

    N-donor ligands such as n-Pr-BTP (2,6-bis(5,6-dipropyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine) studied here preferentially bind An(III) over Ln(III) in liquid-liquid separation of trivalent ac-tinides from spent nuclear fuel. The chemical and physical processes responsible for this selectivity are not yet well understood. We present systematic comparative near-edge X-ray absorption structure (XANES) spectroscopy investigations at the Gd L3 edge of [GdBTP3](NO3)3, [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3, Gd(NO3)3, Gd(OTf)3 and N K edge of [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3, Gd(NO3)3 complexes. The pre-edge absorption resonance in Gd L3 edge high-energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra (HR-XANES) is explained as arising from 2p3/2 → 4f/5d electronic transitions by calculations with the FEFF9.5 code. Experimental evidence is found for higher electronic density on Gd in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 and [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3 compared to Gd in Gd(NO3)3 and Gd(OTf)3, and on N in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 compared to n-Pr-BTP. The origin of the pre-edge structure in the N K edge XANES is explained by density functional theory (DFT) with the ORCA code. Results at the N K edge suggest a change in ligand orbital occupancies and mixing upon complexation but further work is necessary to interpret observed spectral variations.

  8. Orientational Order in Liquid Crystal Complexes Based on Lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrun, L. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Kalinkin, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we have for the first time determined the degree of an orientational order S for a series of liquid-crystal complexes based on lanthanides (Eu+3, Gd+3, Tb+3, Dy+3) with the same ligand composition in the temperature range of existence of the nematic phase by using experimental refractometry results. We have also found an even-odd alternative S as number of protons in the ions complexing agent has consecutively increased. The obtained values of S have been compared with the corresponding degrees of order of the calamite organic liquid crystals.

  9. Energetic lanthanide complexes: coordination chemistry and explosives applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, V. W.; Barker, B. J.; Sanders, V. E.; Laintz, K. E.; Scott, B. L.; Preston, D. N.; Sandstrom, M.; Reardon, B. L.

    2014-05-01

    Metals are generally added to organic molecular explosives in a heterogeneous composite to improve overall heat and energy release. In order to avoid creating a mixture that can vary in homogeneity, energetic organic molecules can be directly bonded to high molecular weight metals, forming a single metal complex with Angstrom-scale separation between the metal and the explosive. To probe the relationship between the structural properties of metal complexes and explosive performance, a new series of energetic lanthanide complexes has been prepared using energetic ligands such as NTO (5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-one). These are the first examples of lanthanide NTO complexes where no water is coordinated to the metal, demonstrating novel control of the coordination environment. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR and IR spectroscopies, photoluminescence, and sensitivity testing. The structural and energetic properties are discussed in the context of enhanced blast effects and detection. Cheetah calculations have been performed to fine-tune physical properties, creating a systematic method for producing explosives with 'tailor made' characteristics. These new complexes will be benchmarks for further study in the field of metalized high explosives.

  10. Energetic Lanthanide Complexes: Coordination Chemistry and Explosives Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, Virginia; Barker, Beau; Sanders, Eric; Laintz, Kenneth; Scott, Brian; Preston, Daniel; Sandstrom, Mary; Reardon, Bettina

    2013-06-01

    Metals are generally added to organic molecular explosives in a heterogeneous composite to improve overall heat and energy release. In order to avoid creating a mixture that can vary in homogeneity, energetic organic molecules can be directly bonded to high molecular weight metals, forming a single metal complex with Angstrom-scale separation between the metal and the explosive. To probe the relationship between the structural properties of metal complexes and explosive performance, a new series of energetic lanthanide complexes has been prepared using energetic ligands such as NTO (5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-one). These are the first examples of lanthanide NTO complexes where no water is coordinated to the metal, demonstrating novel control of the coordination environment. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR and IR spectroscopies, photoluminescence, and sensitivity testing. The structural and energetic properties are discussed in the context of enhanced blast effects and detection. Cheetah calculations have been performed to fine-tune physical properties, creating a systematic method for producing explosives with ``tailor made'' characteristics. These new complexes will be benchmarks for further study in the field of metalized high explosives.

  11. Lanthanide complexes of azidophenacyl-DO3A as new synthons for click chemistry and the synthesis of heterometallic lanthanide arrays.

    PubMed

    Tropiano, Manuel; Kenwright, Alan M; Faulkner, Stephen

    2015-04-07

    Lanthanide complexes of azidophenacyl DO3A are effective substrates for click reactions with ethyne derivatives, giving rise to aryl triazole appended lanthanide complexes, in which the aryl triazole acts as an effective sensitising chromophore for lanthanide luminescence. They also undergo click chemistry with propargylDO3A derivatives, giving rise to heterometallic complexes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1 Hydroxy-2-pyridinones

    SciTech Connect

    University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Eu} {approx} 21.5%) with high stability (pEu {approx} 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysicalmore » properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree with corresponding TD-DFT calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.« less

  13. Radiolysis and Ageing of C2-BTP in Cinnamaldehyde/Hexanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fermvik, Anna; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora

    2007-07-01

    The separation of actinides from lanthanides is an important step in the alternative methods for nuclear waste treatment currently under development. Polycyclic molecules containing nitrogen are synthesised and used for solvent extraction. A potential problem in the separation process is the degradation of the molecule due to irradiation or ageing. An addition of nitrobenzene has proved to have an inhibitory effect on degradation when added to a system containing C2-BTP in hexanol before irradiation. In this study, 2,6-di(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (C2-BTP) was dissolved in different mixtures of cinnamaldehyde and hexanol and the effects on extraction after ageing and irradiation were investigated. Similarmore » to nitrobenzene, cinnamaldehyde contains an aromatic ring which generally has a relatively high resistance towards radiolysis. Both C2-BTP in cinnamaldehyde and C2-BTP in hexanol seem to degrade with time. The system with C2-BTP in pure hexanol is relatively stable up to 17 days but then starts slowly to degrade. The solution with pure cinnamaldehyde as diluent started to degrade after only {approx}20 hours. The opposite is true for degradation caused by radiolysis; hexanol systems are more sensitive to radiolysis than cinnamaldehyde systems. Most of the radiolytic degradation took place during the first days of irradiation, up to a dose of 4 kGy. (authors)« less

  14. Photo-reactive charge trapping memory based on lanthanide complex.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Yan, Yan; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Roy, V A L

    2015-10-09

    Traditional utilization of photo-induced excitons is popularly but restricted in the fields of photovoltaic devices as well as photodetectors, and efforts on broadening its function have always been attempted. However, rare reports are available on organic field effect transistor (OFET) memory employing photo-induced charges. Here, we demonstrate an OFET memory containing a novel organic lanthanide complex Eu(tta)3ppta (Eu(tta)3 = Europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, ppta = 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine), in which the photo-induced charges can be successfully trapped and detrapped. The luminescent complex emits intense red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) light excitation and serves as a trapping element of holes injected from the pentacene semiconductor layer. Memory window can be significantly enlarged by light-assisted programming and erasing procedures, during which the photo-induced excitons in the semiconductor layer are separated by voltage bias. The enhancement of memory window is attributed to the increasing number of photo-induced excitons by the UV light. The charges are stored in this luminescent complex for at least 10(4) s after withdrawing voltage bias. The present study on photo-assisted novel memory may motivate the research on a new type of light tunable charge trapping photo-reactive memory devices.

  15. Photo-reactive charge trapping memory based on lanthanide complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Yan, Yan; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Traditional utilization of photo-induced excitons is popularly but restricted in the fields of photovoltaic devices as well as photodetectors, and efforts on broadening its function have always been attempted. However, rare reports are available on organic field effect transistor (OFET) memory employing photo-induced charges. Here, we demonstrate an OFET memory containing a novel organic lanthanide complex Eu(tta)3ppta (Eu(tta)3 = Europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, ppta = 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine), in which the photo-induced charges can be successfully trapped and detrapped. The luminescent complex emits intense red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) light excitation and serves as a trapping element of holes injected from the pentacene semiconductor layer. Memory window can be significantly enlarged by light-assisted programming and erasing procedures, during which the photo-induced excitons in the semiconductor layer are separated by voltage bias. The enhancement of memory window is attributed to the increasing number of photo-induced excitons by the UV light. The charges are stored in this luminescent complex for at least 104 s after withdrawing voltage bias. The present study on photo-assisted novel memory may motivate the research on a new type of light tunable charge trapping photo-reactive memory devices.

  16. The kinetics of lanthanide complexation by EDTA and DTPA in lactate media.

    PubMed

    Nash, K L; Brigham, D; Shehee, T C; Martin, A

    2012-12-28

    The interaction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations with polyaminopolycarboxylic acid complexing agents in lactic acid buffer systems is an important feature of the chemistry of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides. To improve understanding of metal ion coordination chemistry in this process, the results of an investigation of the kinetics of lanthanide complexation by ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in 0.3 M lactic acid/0.3 M ionic strength solution are reported. Progress of the reaction was monitored using the distinctive visible spectral changes attendant to lanthanide complexation by the colorimetric indicator ligand Arsenazo III, which enables the experiment but plays no mechanistic role. Under the conditions of these experiments, the reactions occur in a time regime suitable for study by stopped-flow spectrophotometric techniques. Experiments have been conducted as a function of EDTA/DTPA ligand concentration, total lactic acid concentration, and pH. The equilibrium perturbation reaction proceeds as a first order approach to equilibrium over a wide range of conditions, allowing the simultaneous determination of complex formation and dissociation rate constants. The rate of the complexation reaction has been determined for the entire lanthanide series (except Pm(3+)). The predominant pathway for lanthanide-EDTA and lanthanide-DTPA dissociation is inversely dependent on the total lactate concentration; the complex formation reaction demonstrates a direct dependence on [H(+)]. Unexpectedly, the rate of the complex formation reaction is seen in both ligand systems to be fastest for Gd(3+). Correlation of these results indicates that in 0.3 M lactate solutions the exchange of lanthanide ions between lactate complexes and the polyaminopolycarboxylate govern the process.

  17. A Bridge to Coordination Isomer Selection in Lanthanide(III) DOTA-tetraamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vipond, Jeff; Woods, Mark; Zhao, Piyu; Tircso, Gyula; Ren, Jimin; Bott, Simon G.; Ogrin, Doug; Kiefer, Garry E.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A.Dean

    2008-01-01

    Interest in macrocyclic lanthanide complexes such as DOTA is driven largely through interest in their use as contrast agents for MRI. The lanthanide tetraamide derivatives of DOTA have shown considerable promise as PARACEST agents, taking advantage of the slow water exchange kinetics of this class of complex. We postulated that water exchange in these tetraamide complexes could be slowed even further by introducing a group to sterically encumber the space above the water coordination site, thereby hindering the departure and approach of water molecules to the complex. The ligand 8O2-bridged-DOTAM was synthesized in a 34% yield from cyclen. It was found that the lanthanide complexes of this ligand did not possess a water molecule in the inner coordination sphere of the bound lanthanide. The crystal structure of the ytterbium complex revealed that distortions to the coordination sphere were induced by the steric constraints imposed on the complex by the bridging unit. The extent of the distortion was found to increase with increasing ionic radius of the lanthanide ion, eventually resulting in a complete loss of symmetry in the complex. Because this ligand system is bicyclic, the conformation of each ring in the system is constrained by that of the other, in consequence inclusion of the bridging unit in the complexes means only a twisted square antiprismatic coordination geometry is observed for complexes of 8O2-bridged-DOTAM. PMID:17295475

  18. Complications in complexation kinetics for lanthanides with DTPA using dye probe molecules in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, K.; Cullen, T. D.; Mezyk, S. P.

    The complexation kinetics for the polyaminopolycarboxylic ligand DTPA to lanthanides in acidic aqueous solution were investigated using the dye ligand displacement technique and stopped-flow spectroscopy. Significant rate differences were obtained for different dye probes used, indicating that the kinetics of the dissociation of the dye molecule significantly impacts the overall measured kinetics when using this common methodology. The conditions of the solution also influenced the dye-lanthanide-DTPA interactions, which reconciled previously disparate data in the literature.

  19. Complications in complexation kinetics for lanthanides with DTPA using dye probe molecules in aqueous solution

    DOE PAGES

    Larsson, K.; Cullen, T. D.; Mezyk, S. P.; ...

    2017-05-17

    The complexation kinetics for the polyaminopolycarboxylic ligand DTPA to lanthanides in acidic aqueous solution were investigated using the dye ligand displacement technique and stopped-flow spectroscopy. Significant rate differences were obtained for different dye probes used, indicating that the kinetics of the dissociation of the dye molecule significantly impacts the overall measured kinetics when using this common methodology. The conditions of the solution also influenced the dye-lanthanide-DTPA interactions, which reconciled previously disparate data in the literature.

  20. Lanthanide complexes with aromatic o-phosphorylated ligands: synthesis, structure elucidation and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Sergey; Utochnikova, Valentina; Marciniak, Łukasz; Freidzon, Alexandra; Sinev, Ilya; Van Deun, Rik; Freire, Ricardo O; Zubavichus, Yan; Grünert, Wolfgang; Kuzmina, Natalia

    2014-02-28

    Lanthanide complexes LnL3 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Lu) with aromatic o-phosphorylated ligands (HL(1) and HL(2)) have been synthesized and identified. Their molecular structure was proposed on the basis of a new complex approach, including DFT calculations, Sparkle/PM3 modelling, EXAFS spectroscopy and luminescent probing. The photophysical properties of all of the complexes were investigated in detail to obtain a deeper insight into the energy transfer processes.

  1. Features of proteolytic properties of tetraphenylporphyrin complex with lanthanide group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobolkina, Elena A.; Skripnikova, Tatiana A.; Starikova, Anna A.; Shumilova, Galina I.; Pendin, Andrey A.

    2018-01-01

    Demetallation of metalloporphyrin molecules is one of the essential degradation reactions in photosynthesis. The effect of metalloporphyrin nature on removal of central metals from tetraphenylporphyrin complexes based on lanthanide group metals (Dy, Er, Lu, Ho) has been studied. pH values, at which the metal ions leave the metalloporphyrin complex were established using two-phase spectrophotometric titration with potentiometric pH-control. The pH values decrease with the increase of atomic numbers of lanthanide groups, as well as with increase of 4f-electrons. The reaction of an extra ligand exchange for the hydroxide ion was studied. For Dy-, Er- and Ho-tetraphenylporphyrin complexes one particle of extra ligand coordinates with one porphyrin complex. A complex with dimeric particles can be formed for the system of Lu-tetraphenylporphyrin. Constants of the ion exchange reactions were calculated.

  2. A series of binuclear lanthanide(III) complexes: Crystallography, antimicrobial activity and thermochemistry properties studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ren, Ning; Xu, Su-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Da-Hai

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel lanthanide complexes with the general formula [Ln(3,4-DClBA)3phen]2 (Ln = Ho(1), Nd(2), Sm(3), Dy(4), Eu(5), Tb(6), Yb(7) and Er(8), 3,4-DClBA = 3,4-dichlorobenzoate, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were prepared at room temperature and characterized. The crystal structures of complexes 1-8 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These complexes are isomorphous and lanthanide ions are all eight-coordinated to oxygen atoms and nitrogen atoms with distorted square-antiprism geometry. The thermal decomposition mechanism and TG-FTIR spectra of gaseous products of thermal decomposition processes for complexes 1-8 were acquired through TG/DSC-FTIR system. The heat capacities of complexes 1-8 were measured using DSC technology and fitted to a polynomial equation by the least-squares method. Complexes 3-6 display characteristic lanthanide emission bands in the visible region. Meanwhile, these complexes exhibit in good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureu.

  3. EXAFS characterisation of metal bonding in highly luminescent, UV stable, water-soluble and biocompatible lanthanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyakina, A.; Utochnikova, V.; Trigub, A.; Zubavichus, Y.; Kuzmina, N.; Bräse, S.

    2016-05-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction with EXAFS was employed to assess the coordination environment of lanthanide complexes in solutions. This method is based on the assumption that the local structure of lanthanide complexes in solution combines elements of the crystal structure of the complex in the solid state (single- or polycrystalline) and the elements of the local structure of a lanthanide salt, completely dissociated in the solvent (usually chlorides). The success of this approach is demonstrated with the lanthanide (III) 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoate complexes, where the local structure in aqueous and methanol solutions were estimated. Moreover, the dissociation degree of the complexes in aqueous and methanol solutions was evaluated.

  4. Physical characteristics of lanthanide complexes that act as magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanrong; Sherry, A. Dean

    2003-02-01

    Rapid water exchange is normally considered a prerequisite for efficient Gd3+-based MRI contrast agents. Yet recent measures of exchange rates in some Gd3+ complexes have shown that water exchange can become limiting when such complexes are attached to larger macromolecular structures. A new class of lanthanide complexes that display unusually slow water exchange (bound water lifetimes (τM298) > 10 μs) has recently been reported. This apparent disadvantage may be taken advantage of by switching the metal ion from gadolinium(III) to a lanthanide that shifts the bound water resonance substantially away from bulk water. Given appropriate water exchange kinetics, one can then alter the intensity of the bulk water signal by selective presaturation of this highly shifted, Ln3+-bound water resonance. This provides the basis of a new method to alter MR image contrast in tissue. We have synthesized a variety of DOTA-tetra(amide) ligands to evaluate as potential magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents and found that the bound water lifetimes in these complexes are sensitive to both ligand structure (a series of Eu3+ complexes have τM298 values that range from 1 to 1300 μs) and the identity of the paramagnetic Ln3+ cation (from 3 to 800 μs for a single ligand). This demonstrates that it may be possible either to fine-tune the ligand structure or to select proper lanthanide cation to create an optimal MT agent for any clinical imaging field.

  5. Lanthanide complex coordination polyhedron geometry prediction accuracies of ab initio effective core potential calculations.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2006-03-01

    lanthanide coordination compounds efficiently and accurately is central for the design of new ligands capable of forming stable and highly luminescent complexes. Accordingly, we present in this paper a report on the capability of various ab initio effective core potential calculations in reproducing the coordination polyhedron geometries of lanthanide complexes. Starting with all combinations of HF, B3LYP and MP2(Full) with STO-3G, 3-21G, 6-31G, 6-31G* and 6-31+G basis sets for [Eu(H2O)9]3+ and closing with more manageable calculations for the larger complexes, we computed the fully predicted ab initio geometries for a total of 80 calculations on 52 complexes of Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Tm(III), the largest containing 164 atoms. Our results indicate that RHF/STO-3G/ECP appears to be the most efficient model chemistry in terms of coordination polyhedron crystallographic geometry predictions from isolated lanthanide complex ion calculations. Moreover, both augmenting the basis set and/or including electron correlation generally enlarged the deviations and aggravated the quality of the predicted coordination polyhedron crystallographic geometry. Our results further indicate that Cosentino et al.'s suggestion of using RHF/3-21G/ECP geometries appears to be indeed a more robust, but not necessarily, more accurate recommendation to be adopted for the general lanthanide complex case. [Figure: see text].

  6. Dinuclear lanthanide complexes based on amino alcoholate ligands: Structure, magnetic and fluorescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-Fang; Zhang, Cong-Ming; Guo, Jian-Ni; Yang, Meng; Li, Li-Cun

    2017-05-01

    Two binuclear lanthanide complexes [Ln2(hfac)6(HL)2] (LnIII = Dy(1), Tb(2); hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate, HL = (R)-2-amino-2-phenylethanol) have been successfully obtained by using amino alcoholate ligand. In two complexes, the Ln(III) ions are bridged by two alkoxido groups from HL ligands, resulting in binuclear complexes. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that there exists ferromagnetic interaction between two Ln(III) ions. Frequency dependent out-of-phase signals are observed for complex 1, suggesting SMM type behavior. Complexes 1 and 2 display intensely characteristic luminescent properties.

  7. Heterobimetallic dinuclear lanthanide alkoxide complexes as acid-base difunctional catalysts for transesterification.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruijie; Sheng, Hongting; Zhang, Yongcang; Feng, Yan; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Man; Zhu, Manzhou; Guo, Qingxiang

    2014-10-03

    A practical lanthanide(III)-catalyzed transesterification of carboxylic esters, weakly reactive carbonates, and much less-reactive ethyl silicate with primary and secondary alcohols was developed. Heterobimetallic dinuclear lanthanide alkoxide complexes [Ln2Na8{(OCH2CH2NMe2)}12(OH)2] (Ln = Nd (I), Sm (II), and Yb (III)) were used as highly active catalysts for this reaction. The mild reaction conditions enabled the transesterification of various substrates to proceed in good to high yield. Efficient activation of transesterification may be endowed by the above complexes as cooperative acid-base difunctional catalysts, which is proposed to be responsible for the higher reactivity in comparison with simple acid/base catalysts.

  8. First examples of ternary lanthanide 5-aminoisophthalate complexes: Hydrothermal syntheses and structures of lanthanide coordination polymers with 5-aminoisophthalate and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chong-Bo; Wen, Hui-Liang; Tan, Sheng-Shui; Yi, Xiu-Guang

    2008-05-01

    Two new lanthanide coordination polymers with mixed-carboxylates, [Ln(OX)(HAPA)(H 2O)] n[Ln = Eu ( 1), Ho ( 2); H 2APA = 5-aminoisophthalic acid; OX = oxalate] were obtained by hydrothermal reactions, and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and IR spectra. Complexes 1 and 2 are both 3-D supramolecular structure, in which lanthanide ions are bridged by oxalate and 5-aminoisophthalate ligands forming 2-D metal-organic framework, and 2-D networks are further architectured to form 3-D supramolecular structures by hydrogen bonds. The two carboxylate groups of H 2APA ligand are all deprotonated and exhibit chelating and bridging bidentate coordination modes, respectively, and the amino group in HAPA presents - NH3+ in the titled complexes. The thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to examine the thermal stability of the titled complexes. And the photoluminescence property of 1 was investigated.

  9. Lanthanide complexes with 2-(tosylamino)benzylidene-N-benzoylhydrazone, which exhibit high NIR emission.

    PubMed

    Utochnikova, V V; Kovalenko, A D; Burlov, A S; Marciniak, L; Ananyev, I V; Kalyakina, A S; Kurchavov, N A; Kuzmina, N P

    2015-07-28

    New NIR emitting materials were found among the lanthanide complexes with 2-(tosylamino)benzylidene-N-benzoylhydrazone. Complexes of Nd(3+), Er(3+) and Yb(3+), as well as Eu(3+), Gd(3+) and Lu(3+), were synthesized for the first time. Owing to the absence of vibration quenching the ytterbium complex was found to exhibit a photoluminescence quantum yield of 1.4%. Since the sensitization efficiency was calculated to be 55%, the losses in the quantum yield are probably due to Yb-Yb resonant energy transfer.

  10. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Megan K; Ung, Phuc; Leaver, Franklin M; Corbin, Teresa S; Tuck, Kellie L; Graham, Bim; Barrios, Amy M

    2015-10-08

    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brilliant Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy Chiral Lanthanide Complexes with Strong Circularly Polarized Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Petoud, Stéphane; Muller, Gilles; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Sokolnicki, Jurek; Riehl, James P.; Le, Uyen N.; Cohen, Seth M.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and luminescent behavior of trivalent Sm, Eu, Dy, and Tb complexes of two enantiomeric, octadentate, chiral, 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands are reported. These complexes are highly luminescent in solution. Functionalization of the achiral parent ligand with a chiral 1-phenylethylamine substituent on the open face of the complex in close proximity to the metal center yields complexes with strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. This appears to be the first example of a system utilizing the same ligand architecture to sensitize four different lanthanide cations and display CPL activity. The luminescence dissymmetry factor, glum, recorded for the Eu(III) complex is one of the highest values reported, and this is the first time the CPL effect has been demonstrated for a Sm(III) complex with a chiral ligand. The combination of high luminescence intensity with CPL activity should enable new bioanalytical applications of macromolecules in chiral environments. PMID:17199285

  12. Enhanced electric dipole transition in lanthanide complex with organometallic ruthenocene units.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Sato, Nao; Hirai, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji

    2015-05-21

    Enhanced luminescence of a lanthanide complex with dynamic polarization of the excited state and molecular motion is introduced. The luminescent lanthanide complex is composed of one Eu(hfa)3 (hfa, hexafluoroacetylacetonate) and two phosphine oxide ligands with ruthenocenyl units Rc, [Eu(hfa)3(RcPO)2] (RcPO = diphenylphosphorylruthenocene). The ruthenocenyl units in the phosphine oxide ligands play an important role of switching for dynamic molecular polarization and motion in liquid media. The oxidation states of the ruthenocenyl unit (Rc(1+)/Rc(1+)) are controlled by potentiostatic polarization. Eu(III) complexes attached with bidentate phosphine oxide ligands containing ruthenocenyl units, [Eu(hfa)3(RcBPO)] (RcBPO = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)ruthenocene), and with bidentate phosphine oxide ligands, [Eu(hfa)3(BIPHEPO)] (BIPHEPO =1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diylbis(diphenylphosphine oxide), were also prepared as references. The coordination structures and electrochemical properties were analyzed using single crystal X-ray analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and absorption spectroscopy measurements. The luminescence properties were estimated using an optoelectrochemical cell. Under potentiostatic polarization, a significant enhancement of luminescence was successfully observed for [Eu(hfa)3(RcPO)2], while no spectral change was observed for [Eu(hfa)3(RcBPO)]. In this study, the remarkable enhanced luminescence phenomena of Eu(III) complex based on the dynamic molecular motion under potentiostatic polarization have been performed.

  13. Brilliant Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy chiral lanthanide complexes withstrong circularly polarized luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Petoud, Stephane; Muller, Gilles; Moore, Evan G.

    The synthesis, characterization and luminescent behavior of trivalent Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb complexes of two enantiomeric, octadentate, chiral, 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands are reported. These complexes are highly luminescent in solution. Functionalization of the achiral parent ligand with a chiral 1-phenylethylamine substituent on the open face of the complex in close proximity to the metal center yields complexes with strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. This appears to be the first example of a system utilizing the same ligand architecture to sensitize four different lanthanide cations and display CPL activity. The luminescence dissymmetry factor, g{sub lum}, recorded for the Eu(III) complexmore » is one of the highest values reported, and this is the first time the CPL effect has been demonstrated for a Sm(III) complex with a chiral ligand. The combination of high luminescence intensity with CPL activity should enable new bioanalytical applications of macromolecules in chiral environments.« less

  14. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activities of two lanthanide(III) complexes with a nicotinohydrazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhou-Qin; Mao, Xian-Jie; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Cai, Hong-Xin; Bie, Hong-Yan; Chen, Ru-Hua; Ma, Tie-liang

    2015-12-01

    Two isostructural acylhydrazone based complexes, namely [Ce(penh)2(H2O)4](NO3)3·4H2O (1) and [Sm(penh)2(NO3)2](NO3)·C2H5OH (2) (penh = 2-acetylpyridine nicotinohydrazone), have been obtained and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The ten-coordinated lanthanide metal ion in each complex is surrounded by two independent tridentate neutral acylhydrazones with two ON2 donor sets. The other four coordination oxygen atoms are from four water molecules and two bidentate nitrate anions for complexes 1 and 2, respectively, thus giving distorted bicapped square antiprism geometry. Both complexes have excellent antitumor activity towards human pancreatic cancer (PATU8988), human colorectal cancer (lovo) and human gastric cancer(SGC7901) cell line. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis of complex 1 is detected by AnnexinV/PI flow cytometry.

  15. Effect of lanthanide contraction on the mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien): Syntheses and characterizations of lanthanide complexes with a tetraelenidoantimonate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jing; Liang Jingjing; Pan Yingli

    Mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) (Ln=lanthanide, en=ethylenediamine, dien=diethylenetriamine, trien=triethylenetetramine) were investigated under solvothermal conditions, and novel mixed-coordinated lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(en){sub 2}(dien)({eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce(1a), Nd(1b)), [Ln(en){sub 2}(dien)(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Sm(2a), Gd(2b), Dy(2c)), [Ln(en)(trien)({mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})]{sub {infinity}} (Ln=Ce(3a), Nd(3b)) and [Sm(en)(trien)({eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})] (4a) were prepared. Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates were obtained across the lanthanide series in both en+dien and en+trien systems. The tetrahedral anion [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} acts as a monodentate ligand mono-SbSe{sub 4}, a bidentate chelating ligand {eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} or a tridentate bridging ligand {mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} to the lanthanide(III) center depending on themore » Ln{sup 3+} ions and the mixed ethylene polyamines, indicating the effect of lanthanide contraction on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. The lanthanide selenidoantimonates exhibit semiconducting properties with E{sub g} between 2.08 and 2.51 eV. - Graphical Abstract: Two structural types of lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates are formed in both en-dien and en-trien mixed polyamines across lanthanide series, indicating the lanthanide contraction effect on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. Highlights: > Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates are prepared across the lanthanide series in both Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) systems. > The [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} anion acts as a mono-SbSe{sub 4}, a {eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} or a {mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} ligand to the Ln{sup 3+} ions. > The soft base ligand [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} can be controlled to coordinate to the Ln{sup 3+} ions with en+dien and en+trien as co-ligands.« less

  16. Lanthanide anilido complexes: synthesis, characterization, and use as highly efficient catalysts for hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes and unactivated ketones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengwei; Qian, Qinqin; Nie, Kun; Wang, Yaorong; Shen, Qi; Yuan, Dan; Yao, Yingming

    2014-06-14

    Lanthanide anilido complexes stabilized by the 2,6-diisopropylanilido ligand have been synthesized and characterized, and their catalytic activity for hydrophosphonylation reaction was explored. A reaction of anhydrous LnCl3 with 5 equivalents of LiNHPh-(I)Pr2-2,6 in THF generated the heterobimetallic lanthanide-lithium anilido complexes (2,6-(I)Pr2PhNH)5LnLi2(THF)2 [Ln = Sm(1), Nd(2), Y(3)] in good isolated yields. These complexes are well characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR (for complex ) and single-crystal structure determination. Complexes 1 - 3 are isostructural. In these complexes, the lanthanide metal ion is five-coordinated by five nitrogen atoms from five 2,6-diisopropylanilido ligands to form a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The lithium ion is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms from two 2,6-diisopropylanilido ligands, and one oxygen atom from a THF molecule. It was found that these simple lanthanide anilido complexes are highly efficient for catalyzing hydrophosphonylation reactions of various aldehydes and unactivated ketones to generate α-hydroxyphosphonates in good to excellent yields (up to 99%) within a short time (5 min for aldehydes, 20 min for ketones). Furthermore, the mechanism of hydrophosphonylation reactions has also been elucidated via(1)H NMR monitoring of reaction.

  17. Lanthanide-cyclodextrin complexes as probes for elucidating optical purity by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.J.; Bogyo, M.S.; Lebeau, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    A multidentate ligand is bonded to cyclodextrins by the reaction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride with 6-mono- and 2-mono(ethylenediamine) derivatives of cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives enhances the enantiomeric resolution in the [sup 1]H NMR spectra of carbionoxamine maleate, doxylamine succinate, pheniramine maleate, propranolol hydrochloride, and tryptophan. The enhancement is more pronounced with the secondary derivative. The Dy(III)-induced shifts can be used to elucidate the geometry of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for complexes of aspartame, tryptophan, propranolol, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate with cyclodextrins, and the relative magnitudes of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. 37more » refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  18. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  19. Prediction of trivalent actinide amino(poly)carboxylate complex stability constants using linear free energy relationships with the lanthanide series

    SciTech Connect

    Uhnak, Nic E.

    Prediction of Trivalent Actinide Amino(poly)carboxylate Complex Stability Constants Using Linear Free Energy Relationships with the Lanthanide Series Alternative title: LFER Based Prediction of An(III) APC Stability Constants There is a gap in the literature regarding the complexation of amino(poly)carboxylate (APC) ligands with trivalent actinides (An(III))). The chemistry of the An(III) is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides Lns, but the An(III) express a slight enhancement when binding APC ligands. Presented in this report is a simple method of predicting the stability constants of the An(III), Pu, Am, Cm, Bk and Cf by using linear free energy relationships (LFER)more » of the An and the lanthanide (Ln) series for 91 APCs. This method produced An stability constants within uncertainty to available literature values for most ligands.« less

  20. Sparkle model for AM1 calculation of lanthanide complexes: improved parameters for europium.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gerd B; Freire, Ricardo O; Da Costa, Nivan B; De Sá, Gilberto F; Simas, Alfredo M

    2004-04-05

    In the present work, we sought to improve our sparkle model for the calculation of lanthanide complexes, SMLC,in various ways: (i) inclusion of the europium atomic mass, (ii) reparametrization of the model within AM1 from a new response function including all distances of the coordination polyhedron for tris(acetylacetonate)(1,10-phenanthroline) europium(III), (iii) implementation of the model in the software package MOPAC93r2, and (iv) inclusion of spherical Gaussian functions in the expression which computes the core-core repulsion energy. The parametrization results indicate that SMLC II is superior to the previous version of the model because Gaussian functions proved essential if one requires a better description of the geometries of the complexes. In order to validate our parametrization, we carried out calculations on 96 europium(III) complexes, selected from Cambridge Structural Database 2003, and compared our predicted ground state geometries with the experimental ones. Our results show that this new parametrization of the SMLC model, with the inclusion of spherical Gaussian functions in the core-core repulsion energy, is better capable of predicting the Eu-ligand distances than the previous version. The unsigned mean error for all interatomic distances Eu-L, in all 96 complexes, which, for the original SMLC is 0.3564 A, is lowered to 0.1993 A when the model was parametrized with the inclusion of two Gaussian functions. Our results also indicate that this model is more applicable to europium complexes with beta-diketone ligands. As such, we conclude that this improved model can be considered a powerful tool for the study of lanthanide complexes and their applications, such as the modeling of light conversion molecular devices.

  1. Lanthanide-organic complexes based on polyoxometalates: Solvent effect on the luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Qun; Liu Shuxia, E-mail: liusx@nenu.edu.cn; Liang Dadong

    2012-06-15

    A series of lanthanide-organic complexes based on polyoxometalates (POMs) [Ln{sub 2}(DNBA){sub 4}(DMF){sub 8}][W{sub 6}O{sub 19}] (Ln=La(1), Ce(2), Sm(3), Eu(4), Gd(5); DNBA=3,5-dinitrobenzoate; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide) has been synthesized. These complexes consist of [W{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 2-} and dimeric [Ln{sub 2}(DNBA){sub 4}(DMF){sub 8}]{sup 2+} cations. The luminescence properties of 4 are measured in solid state and different solutions, respectively. Notably, the emission intensity increases gradually with the increase of solvent permittivity, and this solvent effect can be directly observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The analyses of ESI-MS show that the eight coordinated solvent DMF units of dimeric cation are active. They can movemore » away from dimeric cations and exchange with solvent molecules. Although the POM anions escape from 3D supramolecular network, the dimeric state structure of [Ln{sub 2}(DNBA){sub 4}]{sup 2+} remains unchanged in solution. The conservation of red luminescence is attributed to the maintenance of the aggregated state structures of dimeric cations. - Graphical abstract: 3D POMs-based lanthanide-organic complexes performed the solvent effect on the luminescence property. The origin of such solvent effect can be understood and explained on the basis of the existence of coordinated active sites by the studies of ESI-MS. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent effect on the luminescence property of POMs-based lanthanide-organic complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESI-MS analyses illuminate the correlation between the structure and luminescence property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dimeric cations have eight active sites of solvent coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aggregated state structure of dimer cation remains unchanged in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence associating with ESI-MS is a new method for investigating the interaction of complex and solvent.« less

  2. Intramolecular deactivation processes of electronically excited Lanthanide(III) complexes with organic acids of low molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Katja; Eidner, Sascha; Kuke, Stefanie; Kumke, Michael U.

    2018-02-01

    The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes with different model ligands was studied under direct as well as sensitized excitation conditions. The research was performed in the context of studies dealing with deep-underground storages for high-level nuclear waste. Here, Lanthanide(III) ions served as natural analogues for Actinide(III) ions and the low-molecular weight organic ligands are present in clay minerals and furthermore, they were employed as proxies for building blocks of humic substances, which are important complexing molecules in the natural environment, e.g., in the far field of a repository site. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy was applied for a detailed characterization of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) complexes in aqueous solutions. Based on the observed luminescence the ligands were tentatively divided into two groups (A, B). The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes of group A was mainly influenced by an energy transfer to OH-vibrations. Lanthanide(III) complexes of group B showed ligand-related luminescence quenching, which was further investigated. To gain more information on the underlying quenching processes of group A and B ligands, measurements at different temperatures (77 K ≤ T ≤ 353 K) were performed and activation energies were determined based on an Arrhenius analysis. Moreover, the influence of the ionic strength between 0 M ≤ I ≤ 4 M on the Lanthanide(III) luminescence was monitored for different complexes, in order to evaluate the influence of specific conditions encountered in host rocks foreseen as potential repository sites.

  3. The btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] binding motif: a new versatile terdentate ligand for supramolecular and coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2014-08-07

    Ligands containing the btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] motif have appeared with increasing regularity over the last decade. This class of ligands, formed in a one pot ‘click’ reaction, has been studied for various purposes, such as for generating d and f metal coordination complexes and supramolecular self-assemblies, and in the formation of dendritic and polymeric networks, etc. This review article introduces btp as a novel and highly versatile terdentate building block with huge potential in inorganic supramolecular chemistry. We will focus on the coordination chemistry of btp ligands with a wide range of metals, and how it compares with other classical pyridyl and polypyridyl based ligands, and then present a selection of applications including use in catalysis, enzyme inhibition, photochemistry, molecular logic and materials, e.g. polymers, dendrimers and gels. The photovoltaic potential of triazolium derivatives of btp and its interactions with anions will also be discussed.

  4. Thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of lanthanide complexation with Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acide: temperature effect and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Tian; Leigh R. Martin; Zhiyong Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Stability constants of two DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) complexes with lanthanides (ML2- and MHL-, where M stands for Nd and Eu and L stands for diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) at 10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 degrees C were determined by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and luminescence spectroscopy. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 degrees C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of Nd3þ and Eu3þ with DTPA is weakened at higher temperatures, a 10-fold decrease in the stability constants of ML2- and MHL- as the temperature is increased from 10 to 70 degrees C. The effect of temperature is consistentmore » with the exothermic enthalpy of complexation directly measured by microcalorimetry. Results by luminescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that DTPA is octa-dentate in both the EuL2- and EuHL- complexes and, for the first time, the coordination mode in the EuHL- complex was clarified by integration of the experimental data and DFT calculations. In the EuHL- complex, the Eu is coordinated by an octa-dentate H(DTPA) ligand and a water molecule, and the protonation occurs on the oxygen of a carboxylate group.« less

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and binding assessment with human serum albumin of three bipyridine lanthanide(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Aramesh-Boroujeni, Zahra; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Sattarinezhad, Elham; Fani, Najme; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2018-05-18

    In this work, the terbium(III), dysprosium(III), and ytterbium(III) complexes containing 2, 2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligand have been synthesized and characterized using CHN elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis and 1 H-NMR techniques and their binding behavior with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by UV-Vis, fluorescence and molecular docking examinations. The experimental data indicated that all three lanthanide complexes have high binding affinity to HSA with effective quenching of HSA fluorescence via static mechanism. The binding parameters, the type of interaction, the value of resonance energy transfer, and the binding distance between complexes and HSA were estimated from the analysis of fluorescence measurements and Förster theory. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds play an important role in the binding mechanism. While, the energy transfer from HSA molecules to all these complexes occurs with high probability, the order of binding constants (BpyTb > BpyDy > BpyYb) represents the importance of radius of Ln 3+ ion in the complex-HSA interaction. The results of molecular docking calculation and competitive experiments assessed site 3 of HSA, located in subdomain IB, as the most probable binding site for these ligands and also indicated the microenvironment residues around the bound mentioned complexes. The computational results kept in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Radical-lanthanide ferromagnetic interaction in a T bIII bis-phthalocyaninato complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijani, Dorsa; Ghirri, Alberto; Bonizzoni, Claudio; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Moreno-Pineda, Eufemio; Ruben, Mario; Soncini, Alessandro; Affronte, Marco; Hill, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of organic ligands in the field of molecular spintronics, via which delocalized electron-spin density can mediate magnetic coupling to otherwise localized 4 f moments of lanthanide ions, which show tremendous potential for single-molecule device applications. To this end, high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is employed to study a neutral terbium bis-phthalocyaninato metalorganic complex, [TbPc2 ] 0, with the aim of understanding the magnetic interaction between the Ising-like moment of the lanthanide ion and the unpaired spin density on the coordinating organic radical ligand. The measurements were performed on a previously unknown [TbPc2 ] 0 structural phase crystallizing in the Pnma space group. EPR measurements on powder samples of [TbPc2 ] 0 reveal an anisotropic spectrum, which is attributed to the spin-1/2 radical coupled weakly to the EPR-silent T bIII ion. Extensive double-axis rotation studies on a single crystal reveal two independent spin-1/2 signals with differently oriented (albeit identical) uniaxial g -tensors, in complete agreement with x-ray structural studies that indicate two molecular orientations within the unit cell. The easy-axis nature of the radical EPR spectra thus reflects the coupling to the Ising-like T bIII moment. This is corroborated by studies of the isostructural [YPc2 ] 0 analog (where Y is nonmagnetic yttrium), which gives a completely isotropic radical EPR signal. The experimental results for the terbium complex are well explained on the basis of an effective model that introduces a weak ferromagnetic Heisenberg coupling between an isotropic spin-1/2 and an anisotropic spin-orbital moment, J =6 , that mimics the known, strong easy-axis Tb ⋯P c2 crystal-field interaction.

  7. Bimetallic lanthanide amido complexes as highly active initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of lactides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Song; Nie, Kun; Tan, Yufang; Zhao, Bei; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Qi; Yao, Yingming

    2013-02-28

    A series of neutral bimetallic lanthanide amido complexes supported by rigid phenylene bridged bis(β-diketiminate) ligands were synthesized, and their catalytic behavior for the polymerization of L-lactide and rac-lactide was explored. The amine elimination reaction of Ln[N(TMS)(2)](3)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with PARA-H(2), [PARA-H(2) = 2[2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)NHC(Me)C(H)C(Me)N]-(para-phenylene)] in a 2:1 molar ratio in THF at 25 °C afforded the corresponding bimetallic lanthanide amido complexes PARA-{Ln[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)}(2) [Ln = Nd(1), Sm(2), Y(3)] in high isolated yields. Similar reaction of Nd[N(TMS)(2)](3)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with META-H(2), [META-H(2) = 2[2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)NHC(Me)C(H)C(Me)N]-(meta-phenylene)] at 90 °C in toluene for about 48 h gave META-{Nd[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)}(2) (4). Complexes 1-4 were well characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and their definitive structures were confirmed by an X-ray crystal structure analysis. The coordination environment and coordination geometry around the metal atoms are similar in these complexes. Each of the metal atoms is four-coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from the N,N-chelating β-diketiminate unit, and two nitrogen atoms from two (Me(3)Si)(2)N- groups to form a distorted tetrahedron. These complexes can serve as highly active initiators for L-lactide polymerization in toluene. In addition, they also showed high activity towards rac-lactide polymerization in THF at room temperature, giving heterotactic-enriched polymers (P(r) ≈ 0.70), and complex 4 displays obviously higher activity in comparison with complex 1.

  8. Functionalisation of lanthanide complexes via microwave-enhanced Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Szíjjártó, Csongor; Pershagen, Elias; Borbas, K Eszter

    2012-07-07

    Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions were used to functionalise lanthanide(III)-complexes (Ln; La, Eu and Tb) incorporating alkyne or azide reactive groups. Microwave irradiation significantly accelerated the reactions, enabling full conversion to the triazole products in some cases in 5 min. Alkyl and aryl azides and alkyl and aryl alkynes could all serve as coupling partners. These reaction conditions proved efficient for cyclen-tricarboxylates and previously unreactive cyclen-tris-primary amide chelates. The synthesis of heterobimetallic (Eu/Tb, EuTb17 and Eu/La, EuLa17) and heterotrimetallic (Eu/La/Eu) complexes was achieved in up to 60% isolated yield starting from coumarin 2-appended alkynyl complexes Tb16 or La16 and an azido-Eu complex Eu4, and bis-alkynyl La-complex La5 and Eu4, respectively. EuTb17 displayed dual Eu(III) and Tb(III)-emission upon antenna-centred excitation.

  9. Optimizing the Readout of Lanthanide-DOTA Complexes for the Detection of Ligand-Bound Copper(I).

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jill R; Allan, Christopher; Lawrence, Charlotte; Meyer, Odile; Wilson, Neil D; Hulme, Alison N

    2017-05-14

    The CuAAC 'click' reaction was used to couple alkyne-functionalized lanthanide-DOTA complexes to a range of fluorescent antennae. Screening of the antenna components was aided by comparison of the luminescent output of the resultant sensors using data normalized to account for reaction conversion as assessed by IR. A maximum 82-fold enhanced signal:background luminescence output was achieved using a Eu(III)-DOTA complex coupled to a coumarin-azide, in a reaction which is specific to the presence of copper(I). This optimized complex provides a new lead design for lanthanide-DOTA complexes which can act as irreversible 'turn-on' catalytic sensors for the detection of ligand-bound copper(I).

  10. Preparation, structure, and luminescence of dinuclear lanthanide complexes of a novel imine-amine phenolate macrocycle

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, K.D.; Kahwa, I.A.; Williams, D.J.

    1994-03-30

    Metal-free condensation of 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol with 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanediamine followed by reduction with sodium tetrahydroborate and addition of lanthanide(III) nitrate salts, in that order, yield (slowly) crystalline dinuclear complexes of a novel imine-amine phenolate macrocycle 2. The decacoordination geometry of the identical Pr[sup 3+] ions in a C[sub 2v] 4A,6B-extended dodecahedron made up of two bidentate NO[sub 3]-ions, two phenolate and two either oxygens, and one imine and one amine nitrogens. Dinuclear lanthanide complexes of 2 appear to be more stable than those of the totally reduced chelate 2 in alcoholic media. The Tb[sub 2]2(NO[sub 3])[sub 4][center dot]1.2CH[sub 3]-OH and (La[sub 0.97]Tb[sub 0.03])[submore » 2]2(NO[sub 3])[sub 4][center dot]1.2CH[sub 3]OH compounds exhibit strong Tb[sup 3+] ([sup 5]D[sub 4] [yields] [sup 7]F[sub J]) emission sensitized by the single state of 2 at both 77 and 295 K. No Tb[sup 3+]-Tb[sup 3+] self-quenching or N-H trapping effects are observed at 77 K (decay rate is 598 s[sup [minus]1]); the coordination cavities of 2 are therefore potentially good hosts for Tb[sup 3+] in luminescent diagnostic agents. At room temperature the complex decay kinetics of Tb[sup 3+] in Tb[sub 2]2(NO[sub 3])[sub 4][center dot]1.2CH[sub 3]OH are similar to those of Tb[sub 2]1(NO[sub 3])[sub 4][center dot]H[sub 2]O. But for the dilute complex, (La[sub 0.97]-Tb[sub 0.03])[sub 2]2(NO[sub 3])[sub 4][center dot]1.35CH[sub 3]OH, unusual thermal equilibration of the ligand triplet and Tb[sup 3+] [sup 5]D[sub 4] states occurs at room temperature; the ligand-to-Tb[sup 3+] energy-transfer rate is [approx]4.36 x 10[sup 4] s[sup [minus]1], while Tb[sup 3+]-to-ligand back-energy-transfer is [approx]7.1 x 10[sup 4] s[sup [minus]1].« less

  11. Lipophilic ternary complexes in liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Latesky, Stanley

    2012-03-01

    The formation of ternary complexes between lanthanide ions [Nd(III) or Eu(III)], octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) was probed by liquid-liquid extraction and spectroscopic techniques. Equilibrium modeling of data for the extraction of Nd(III) or Eu(III) from lactic acid media into n-dodecane solutions of CMPO and HDEHP indicates the predominant extracted species are of the type [Ln(AHA){sub 2}(A)] and [Ln(CMPO)(AHA){sub 2}(A)], where Ln = Nd or Eu and A represents the DEHP{sup -} anion. FTIR (for both Eu and Nd) and visible spectrophotometry (in the case of Nd) indicate the formation of the [Ln(CMPO)(A){sup 3}] complexes when CMPO ismore » added to n-dodecane solutions of the LnA{sub 3} compounds. Both techniques indicate a stronger propensity of CMPO to complex Nd(III) versus Eu(III).« less

  12. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  13. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T

    2017-02-03

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  14. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal–ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle. PMID:28155857

  15. Strong exchange and magnetic blocking in N₂³⁻-radical-bridged lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Fang, Ming; Evans, William J; Long, Jeffrey R

    2011-05-22

    Single-molecule magnets approach the ultimate size limit for spin-based devices. These complexes can retain spin information over long periods of time at low temperature, suggesting possible applications in high-density information storage, quantum computing and spintronics. Notably, the success of most such applications hinges upon raising the inherent molecular spin-inversion barrier. Although recent advances have shown the viability of lanthanide-containing complexes in generating large barriers, weak or non-existent magnetic exchange coupling allows fast relaxation pathways that mitigate the full potential of these species. Here, we show that the diffuse spin of an N(2)(3-) radical bridge can lead to exceptionally strong magnetic exchange in dinuclear Ln(III) (Ln = Gd, Dy) complexes. The Gd(III) congener exhibits the strongest magnetic coupling yet observed for that ion, while incorporation of the high-anisotropy Dy(III) ion gives rise to a molecule with a record magnetic blocking temperature of 8.3 K at a sweep rate of 0.08 T s(-1).

  16. Self-assembly of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinolinate-based lanthanide complexes and NIR luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meiqi; Li, Hongfeng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembly reaction of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinoline, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and LnCl3ṡ6H2O affords a series of mononuclear lanthanide complexes Ce(baho)2·Et2O (1) (H2baho = 2,8-bis(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl))-1-aza-5-hydroxymethyl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane), Dy(nhm)2Cl·0.5H2O (2) and Ln(nhm)2Cl·0.5C6H14 (Ln = Ho (3), Er (4), Yb (5) and Hnhm = N-(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl)methylene)(trishydroxymethyl)methylamine. The crystal structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the tetravalence of Ce in 1 has been proven by XPS. Interestingly, the positive charge of Ce4+ ion in 1 is neutralized by two deprotonated baho2- ligands, while two deprotonated nhm- ligands and one Cl- compensate the positive charge of Ln3+ ions in 2-5. Complex 5 exhibit essential NIR luminescence of Yb3+ ion with lifetime of 17.64 μs in solid and 9.96 μs in CH3OH solution.

  17. Lanthanide and transition metal complexes of bioactive coumarins: molecular modeling and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, I; Mihaylov, Tz; Trendafilova, N

    2014-06-01

    The present paper summarizes theoretical and spectroscopic investigations on a series of active coumarins and their lanthanide and transition metal complexes with application in medicine and pharmacy. Molecular modeling as well as IR, Raman, NMR and electronic spectral simulations at different levels of theory were performed to obtain important molecular descriptors: total energy, formation energy, binding energy, stability, conformations, structural parameters, electron density distribution, molecular electrostatic potential, Fukui functions, atomic charges, and reactive indexes. The computations are performed both in gas phase and in solution with consideration of the solvent effect on the molecular structural and energetic parameters. The investigations have shown that the advanced computational methods are reliable for prediction of the metal-coumarin binding mode, electron density distribution, thermodynamic properties as well as the strength and nature of the metal-coumarin interaction (not experimentally accessible) and correctly interpret the experimental spectroscopic data. Known results from biological tests for cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-fungal, spasmolytic and anti-HIV activities on the studied metal complexes are reported and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoparticles speckled by ready-to-conjugate lanthanide complexes for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Hamada, Morihiko; Ono, Kenji; Sugino, Sakiko; Ohnishi, Takashi; Shibu, Edakkattuparambil Sidharth; Yamamura, Shohei; Sawada, Makoto; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Shigeri, Yasushi; Wakida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    Multimodal and multifunctional contrast agents receive enormous attention in the biomedical imaging field. Such contrast agents are routinely prepared by the incorporation of organic molecules and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into host materials such as gold NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, and liposomes. Despite their non-cytotoxic nature, the large size of these NPs limits the in vivo distribution and clearance and inflames complex pharmacokinetics, which hinder the regulatory approval for clinical applications. Herein, we report a unique method that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging modalities together in nanoscale entities by the simple, direct and stable conjugation of novel biotinylated coordination complexes of gadolinium(iii) to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) and terbium(iii) to super paramagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPION) but without any host material. Subsequently, we evaluate the potentials of such lanthanide-speckled fluorescent-magnetic NPs for bioimaging at single-molecule, cell and in vivo levels. The simple preparation and small size make such fluorescent-magnetic NPs promising contrast agents for biomedical imaging.

  19. Thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness and relaxometric properties of monoamide derivatives of lanthanide(III) DOTA complexes.

    PubMed

    Tei, Lorenzo; Baranyai, Zsolt; Gaino, Luca; Forgács, Attila; Vágner, Adrienn; Botta, Mauro

    2015-03-28

    A complete thermodynamic and kinetic solution study on lanthanide(III) complexes with monoacetamide (DOTAMA, L1) and monopropionamide (DOTAMAP, L2) derivatives of DOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) was undertaken with the aim to elucidate their stability and inertness in aqueous media. The stability constants of GdL1 and GdL2 are comparable, whereas a more marked difference is found in the kinetic inertness of the two complexes. The formation of the Eu(III) and Ce(III) complexes takes place via the formation of the protonated intermediates which can deprotonate and transform into the final complex through a OH(-) assisted pathway. GdL2 shows faster rates of acid catalysed decomplexation with respect to GdL1, which has a kinetic inertness comparable to GdDOTA. Nevertheless, GdL2 is one order of magnitude more inert than GdDO3A. A novel DOTAMAP-based bifunctional chelating ligand and its deoxycholic acid derivative (L5) were also synthesized. Since the coordinated water molecule in GdL2 is characterized by an exchange rate ca. two orders of magnitude greater than in GdL1, the relaxivity of the macromolecular derivatives of L5 should not be limited by the slow water exchange process. The relaxometric properties of the supramolecular adduct of GdL5 with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated in aqueous solution by measuring the magnetic field dependence of the (1)H relaxivity which, at 20 MHz and 298 K, shows a 430% increase over that of the unbound GdL5 chelate. Thus, Gd(III) complexes with DOTAMAP macrocyclic ligands can represent good candidates for the development of stable and highly effective bioconjugate systems for molecular imaging applications.

  20. Theoretical Determination of Energy Transfer Processes and Influence of Symmetry in Lanthanide(III) Complexes: Methodological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Leiva, María J; Páez-Hernández, Dayán; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2018-05-07

    This work presents a theoretical protocol to analyze the symmetry effect on the allowed character of the transitions and to estimate the probability of energy transfer in lanthanide(III) complexes. For this purpose, a complete study was performed based on the multireference CASSCF/PT2 technique along with TDDFT, to build the energy level diagrams and determine the spectral overlap integrals, respectively. This approach was applied on a series of LnIII complexes, viz. [LnCl 3 (DMF) 2 (Dpq)]/[Ln(NO 3 ) 3 (DMF) 2 (Dpq)], where Ln = Sm III , Tb III , Er III /Eu III , Nd III and dpq = dipyridoquinoxaline, synthesized and characterized by Patra et al. ( Dalton Trans. 2015 , 44 ( 46 ), 19844 - 19855 ; CrystEngComm 2016 , 18 ( 23 ), 4313 - 4322 ; Inorg. Chim. Acta 2016 , 451 , 73 - 81 ). A fragmentation scheme was applied where both the ligand and the lanthanide fragments were treated separately but at the same level of theory. The symmetry analysis only partially reproduced the expected results, and a more detailed analysis of the crystal field became necessary. On the other hand, the most probable energy transfer pathways that take place in the complexes were elucidated from the energy gaps between the ligand-localized triplet state and the emitting levels of the lanthanide fragments. These gaps, which are related to the energy transfer rate, properly reproduced the trend reported experimentally for the best and worst yields. Finally, the spectral overlap integral was calculated from the emission spectra of the dpq ligand and the absorption spectra of the lanthanide fragment. The obtained values are in good agreement with the quantum yields calculated for the systems. The most remarkable aspect of this protocol was its ability to explain the emission and nonemission of the studied compounds.

  1. Slow magnetic relaxation and luminescence properties in lanthanide(iii)/anil complexes.

    PubMed

    Maniaki, Diamantoula; Mylonas-Margaritis, Ioannis; Mayans, Julia; Savvidou, Aikaterini; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Psycharis, Vassilis; Escuer, Albert; Perlepes, Spyros P

    2018-05-22

    The initial use of anils, i.e. bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation of anilines with salicylaldehyde or its derivatives, in 4f-metal chemistry is described. The 1 : 1 reactions between Ln(NO3)3·xH2O (Ln = lanthanide) or Y(NO3)3·6H2O and N-(5-bromosalicylidene)aniline (5BrsalanH) in MeCN has provided access to complexes [Ln(NO3)3(5BrsalanH)2(H2O)]·MeCN (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) and [Y(NO3)3(5BrsalanH)2(H2O)]·MeCN, respectively, in good yields. The structures of the isomorphous complexes with Ln = Pr(1·MeCN), Sm(3·MeCN), Gd(5·MeCN), Dy(7·MeCN) and Er(9·MeCN) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The other complexes were proven to be isostructural with the fully structurally characterized compounds based on elemental analyses, IR spectra, unit cell determinations and powder X-ray patterns. The 9-coordinate LnIII centre in the [Ln(NO3)3(5BrsalanH)2(H2O)] molecules is bound to six oxygen atoms from the three bidentate chelating nitrato groups, two oxygen atoms that belong to the organic ligands and one oxygen atom from the aquo ligand. The 5BrsalanH molecules behave as monodentate O-donors; the acidic H atom is clearly located on the imino N atom and thus the formally neutral ligands adopt an extremely rare coordination mode participating in the zwitterionic form. The coordination polyhedra defined by the nine donor atoms around the LnIII centres are best described as spherical capped square antiprisms. Various intermolecular interactions build the crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analysis was applied to evaluate the magnitude of interactions between the molecules. Solid-state IR and UV/VIS data are discussed in terms of structural features. 1H NMR data prove that the diamagnetic [Y(NO3)3(5BrsalanH)2(H2O)] complex decomposes in DMSO. Combined dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, as well as magnetization data for 7 suggest that this complex shows field-induced slow magnetic relaxation. Two

  2. Lanthanide complexes of macrocyclic polyoxovanadates by VO4 units: synthesis, characterization, and structure elucidation by X-ray crystallography and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Masaki; Inami, Shinnosuke; Katayama, Misaki; Ozutsumi, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2012-01-16

    Reactions of a tetravanadate anion, [V(4)O(12)](4-), with a series of lanthanide(III) salts yield three types of lanthanide complexes of macrocyclic polyoxovanadates: (Et(4)N)(6)[Ln(III)V(9)O(27)] [Ln = Nd (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6)], (Et(4)N)(5)[(H(2)O)Ho(III)(V(4)O(12))(2)] (7), and (Et(4)N)(7)[Ln(III)V(10)O(30)] [Ln = Er (8), Tm (9), Yb (10), Lu (11)]. Lanthanide complexes 1-11 are isolated and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Lanthanide complexes 1-6 are composed of a square-antiprism eight-coordinated Ln(III) center with a macrocyclic polyoxovanadate that is constructed from nine VO(4) tetrahedra through vertex sharing. The structure of 7 is composed of a seven-coordinated Ho(III) center, which exhibits a capped trigonal-prism coordination environment by the sandwiching of two cyclic tetravanadates with a capping H(2)O ligand. Lanthanide complexes 8-11 have a six-coordinated Ln(III) center with a 10-membered vanadate ligand. The structural trend to adopt a larger coordination number for a larger lanthanide ion among the three types of structures is accompanied by a change in the vanadate ring sizes. These lanthanide complexes are examined by EXAFS spectroscopies on lanthanide L(III) absorption edges, and the EXAFS oscillations of each of the samples in the solid state and in acetonitrile are identical. The Ln-O and Ln···V bond lengths obtained from fits of the EXAFS data are consistent with the data from the single-crystal X-ray studies, reflecting retention of the structures in acetonitrile.

  3. Mechanistic insights into the luminescent sensing of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents and simulants using trivalent lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Genevieve H; Johnston, Martin R

    2015-04-20

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OP CWAs) are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can cause incapacitation and death within minutes of exposure, and furthermore are largely undetectable by the human senses. Fast, efficient, sensitive and selective detection of these compounds is therefore critical to minimise exposure. Traditional molecular-based sensing approaches have exploited the chemical reactivity of the OP CWAs, whereas more recently supramolecular-based approaches using non-covalent interactions have gained momentum. This is due, in part, to the potential development of sensors with second-generation properties, such as reversibility and multifunction capabilities. Supramolecular sensors also offer opportunities for incorporation of metal ions allowing for the exploitation of their unique properties. In particular, trivalent lanthanide ions are being increasingly used in the OP CWA sensing event and their use in supramolecular sensors is discussed in this Minireview. We focus on the fundamental interactions of simple lanthanide systems with OP CWAs and simulants, along with the development of more elaborate and complex systems including those containing nanotubes, polymers and gold nanoparticles. Whilst literature investigations into lanthanide-based OP CWA detection systems are relatively scarce, their unique and versatile properties provide a promising platform for the development of more efficient and complex sensing systems into the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparation and Quality Control of the [153Sm]-Samarium Maltolate Complex as a Lanthanide Mobilization Product in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Zohreh; Hakimi, Amir; Jalilian, Amir R.; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Development of lanthanide detoxification agents and protocols is of great importance in management of overdoses. Due to safety of maltol as a detoxifying agent in metal overloads, it can be used as a lanthanide detoxifying agent. In order to demonstrate the biodistribution of final complex, [153Sm]-samarium maltolate was prepared using Sm-153 chloride (radiochemical purity >99.9%; ITLC and specific activity). The stability of the labeled compound was determined in the final solution up to 24h as well as the partition coefficient. Biodistribution studies of Sm-153 chloride, [153Sm]-samarium maltolate were carried out in wild-type rats comparing the critical organ uptakes. Comparative study for Sm3+ cation and the labeled compound was conducted up to 48 h, demonstrating a more rapid wash out for the labeled compound. The effective and biological half lives of 2.3 h and 2.46h were calculated for the complex. The data suggest the detoxification property of maltol formulation for lanthanide overdoses. PMID:21773065

  5. CERES: An ab initio code dedicated to the calculation of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Calvello, Simone; Piccardo, Matteo; Rao, Shashank Vittal; Soncini, Alessandro

    2018-03-05

    We have developed and implemented a new ab initio code, Ceres (Computational Emulator of Rare Earth Systems), completely written in C++11, which is dedicated to the efficient calculation of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of the crystal field states arising from the splitting of the ground state spin-orbit multiplet in lanthanide complexes. The new code gains efficiency via an optimized implementation of a direct configurational averaged Hartree-Fock (CAHF) algorithm for the determination of 4f quasi-atomic active orbitals common to all multi-electron spin manifolds contributing to the ground spin-orbit multiplet of the lanthanide ion. The new CAHF implementation is based on quasi-Newton convergence acceleration techniques coupled to an efficient library for the direct evaluation of molecular integrals, and problem-specific density matrix guess strategies. After describing the main features of the new code, we compare its efficiency with the current state-of-the-art ab initio strategy to determine crystal field levels and properties, and show that our methodology, as implemented in Ceres, represents a more time-efficient computational strategy for the evaluation of the magnetic properties of lanthanide complexes, also allowing a full representation of non-perturbative spin-orbit coupling effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of lanthanide (Ce, Pr, and Nd) complexes of cyclooctatetraene: the role of 4f electrons.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sudesh; Roudjane, Mourad; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Liu, Yang; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2013-04-28

    Cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium complexes of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) complexes were produced in a laser-vaporization metal cluster source and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The computations included the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, and the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method. The spectrum of each complex exhibits multiple band systems and is assigned to ionization of several low-energy electronic states of the neutral complex. This observation is different from previous studies of M(COT) (M = Sc, Y, La, and Gd), for which a single band system was observed. The presence of the multiple low-energy electronic states is caused by the splitting of the partially filled lanthanide 4f orbitals in the ligand field, and the number of the low-energy states increases rapidly with increasing number of the metal 4f electrons. On the other hand, the 4f electrons have a small effect on the geometries and vibrational frequencies of these lanthanide complexes.

  7. Core–shell Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of different silica shell thicknesses: Preparation and their effects on photoluminescence of lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jie; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yingnan

    Highlights: • Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of different silica shell thicknesses were prepared via the Stöber process. • Sm and Dy complexes with benzoate, 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2′-bipyridine were synthesized. • The complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} composites show stronger luminescent intensities than pure complexes. • The luminescent intensities of the composites strongly depend on the SiO{sub 2} shell thickness. - Abstract: Three kinds of almost spherical core–shell Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of different silica shell thicknesses (10, 25 and 80 nm) were prepared via the Stöber process. The Ag core nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The size, morphology andmore » structure of core–shell Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, eight kinds of lanthanide complexes with benzoate, 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2′-bipyridine were synthesized. The composition of the lanthanide complexes was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV spectra. Finally, lanthanide complexes were attached to the surface of Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to form lanthanide-complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The results show that the complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites display much stronger luminescence intensities than the lanthanide complexes. Furthermore, the luminescence intensities of the lanthanide-complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with SiO{sub 2} shell thickness of 25 nm are stronger than those of the nanocomposites with SiO{sub 2} shell thickness of 10 and 80 nm.« less

  8. Fluorescent studies on the interaction of DNA and ternary lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid-phenanthroline and antibacterial activities testing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ling; Chu, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Yong-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Twelve lanthanide complexes with cinnamate (cin(-) ) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized. Their compositions were assumed to be RE(cin)3 phen (RE(3+)  = La(3+) , Pr(3+) , Nd(3+) , Sm(3+) , Eu(3+) , Gd(3+) , Tb(3+) , Dy(3+) , Ho(3+) , Tm(3+) , Yb(3+) , Lu(3+) ). The interaction mode between the complexes and DNA was investigated by fluorescence quenching experiment. The results indicated the complexes could bind to DNA and the main binding mode is intercalative binding. The fluorescence quenching constants of the complexes increased from La(cin)3 phen to Lu(cin)3 phen. Additionally, the antibacterial activity testing showed that the complexes exhibited excellent antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli, and the changes of antibacterial ability are in agreement with that of the fluorescence quenching constants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Modeling the magnetic properties of lanthanide complexes: relationship of the REC parameters with Pauling electronegativity and coordination number.

    PubMed

    Baldoví, José J; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-07-28

    In a previous study, we introduced the Radial Effective Charge (REC) model to study the magnetic properties of lanthanide single ion magnets. Now, we perform an empirical determination of the effective charges (Zi) and radial displacements (Dr) of this model using spectroscopic data. This systematic study allows us to relate Dr and Zi with chemical factors such as the coordination number and the electronegativities of the metal and the donor atoms. This strategy is being used to drastically reduce the number of free parameters in the modeling of the magnetic and spectroscopic properties of f-element complexes.

  10. Would the solvent effect be the main cause of band shift in the theoretical absorption spectrum of large lanthanide complexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Gimenez, Iara F.; da Costa Junior, Nivan B.

    2011-06-01

    As most reactions take place in solution, the study of solvent effects on relevant molecular properties - either by experimental or theoretical methods - is crucial for the design of new processes and prediction of technological properties. In spite of this, only few works focusing the influence of the solvent nature specifically on the spectroscopic properties of lanthanide complexes can be found in the literature. The present work describes a theoretical study of the solvent effect on the prediction of the absorption spectra for lanthanide complexes, but other possible relevant factors have been also considered such as the molecular geometry and the excitation window used for interaction configuration (CI) calculations. The [Eu(ETA) 2· nH 2O] +1 complex has been chosen as an ideal candidate for this type of study due to its small number of atoms (only 49) and also because the absorption spectrum exhibits a single band. Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, the first one considering the [Eu(ETA) 2] +1 complex in 400 water molecules, evidencing that the complex presents four coordinated water molecules. The second simulation considered the [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex in 400 ethanol molecules, in order to evaluate the solvent effect on the shift of the maximum absorption in calculated spectra, compared to the experimental one. Quantum chemical studies were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of calculated ground state geometry on the prediction of absorption spectra. The influence of the excitation window used for CI calculations on the spectral shift was also evaluated. No significant solvent effect was found on the prediction of the absorption spectrum for [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex. A small but significant effect of the ground state geometry on the transition energy and oscillator strength was also observed. Finally it must be emphasized that the absorption spectra of lanthanide complexes can be predicted with great accuracy

  11. Secret lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Sturza, C M

    2014-09-15

    Lanthanides are a group of 15 chemical elements which, together with their salts, have come to be used in the last decade as homoeopathic remedies. The effective introduction of lanthanides and their salts into the clinical use, as homoeopathic remedies was based on the idea of Jan Scholten, MD to relate their physicochemical properties shown in the periodic table of elements to their homoeopathic potential. The lanthanides and their salts were prepared as homoeopathic remedies by Pharmacist Robert Münz.

  12. A series of Ln-p-chlorobenzoic acid–terpyridine complexes: lanthanide contraction effects, supramolecular interactions and luminescent behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Korey P.; Pope, Simon J. A.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    Fifteen new lanthanide p-chlorobenzoic acid complexes, [PrL3(terpy)(H2O)]2 (1), [LnL3(terpy)(H2O)]2 (Ln = Nd (2), Sm (3), and Eu (4)), and [LnL3(terpy)(H2O)] (Ln = Sm (3'), Eu (4'), Gd (5), Tb (6), Dy (7), Ho (8), Er (9), Tm (10), Yb (11), Lu (12), and Y (13); HL: p-chlorobenzoic acid; terpy: 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine), have been synthesized hydrothermally at varying temperatures and structurally characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The series is comprised of binuclear molecular units (Pr–Eu) that give way to mononuclear molecular complexes (Sm–Y) as the lanthanide contraction takes effect. All fifteen complexes feature a tridentate terpyridine ligand, p-chlorobenzoic acidmore » ligands exhibiting multiple binding modes, bidentate, bridging bidentate, and monodentate, and a bound water molecule. Binuclear complexes 1–4 are stitched together via intermolecular interactions: aromatic–aromatic interactions for 1, halogen•••halogen interactions for 2–4, to form 1D chains. Mononuclear complexes 3', 4', and 5–13 utilize supramolecular hydrogen and halogen bonding to form 2D sheets. Visible and near-IR solid state luminescence studies were performed on complexes 2, 3, 3', 4, 4', 6, 7 and 11 and the characteristic visible luminescence of Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III) was exhibited. The near-IR spectra of the Nd(III) and Yb(III) complexes exhibit weak characteristic luminescence, showing that terpy can act as a sensitizing chromophore in these systems.« less

  13. Selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides from high level liquid waste by R-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Surugaya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    Concerning the selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides (MA(III) = Am(III) and Cm(III)) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by extraction chromatography, adsorption and elution behaviours of MA(III) and fission products (FP) in a nitric acid media were studied using iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents, which is expected to show high adsorption affinity for MA(III) even in concentrated HNO3 solution, such as HLLW. In the batch experiments, Pd showed strong adsorption on iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents under any concentration of HNO3. The MA(III) and heavy Ln(III) (Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III)) were also adsorbed at the condition of high HNO3 concentration, but they showed no adsorption under low HNO3concentration. The separation factor for MA(III)/heavy Ln(III) took the maximum value (over 100) at around 1mol/dm3 HNO3. It was difficult to elute MA(III) or heavy Ln(III) selectively by HNO3 from the iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents degradated by γ-ray irradiation. The chromatographic separation of real HLLW by an iHex-BTP/SiO2-P column showed that MA(III) could be recovered selectively by adjusting the acidity of the feed solution, i.e. HLLW, to 1mol/dm3 and using H2O as eluant. The adsorption of Pd(II) can be decreased by the addition of appropriate complexing reagents, e.g. DTPA, into HLLW without any effects on the MA(III) adsorption.

  14. Photoluminescence and Coordination Behaviour of Lanthanide Complexes of Tris (Aminomethyl)Ethane-5-Oxine in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B K

    2017-01-01

    Photophysical properties of a multidentate tripodal ligand, 5,5'-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl) bis (azanediyl)bis (methylene)diquinolin-8-ol, (TAME5OX), with La 3+ and Er 3+ ions have been examined for photonics applications. The change in behavior in electronic spectra of these complexes reveals the use of TAME5OX as a sensitive optical pH based sensor to detect Ln 3+ ions whereas indication of strong green fluorescence allows simultaneous sensing within the visible region in competitive medium. The intense fluorescence intermittently gets quenched under acidic and basic conditions due to photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer from the excited 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) moiety to the metal ion. This renders these compounds the OFF-ON-OFF type of pH-dependent fluorescent sensor. The thermodynamic stability and coordination behaviour of the chelator with the said lanthanide ions have also been probed by potentiometric, UV - visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric method. TAME5OX forms protonated complex [Ln (H 4 L)] 4+ below pH ~4.0 which sequentially deprotonates through one proton process with increase of pH. The stability constants of neutral complexes have been determined to be in the range log β 110  = 32-34 and pLn in the range of 14-20, indicating TAME5OX is a good synthetic lanthanide chelator. Theoretical spectra were also calculated by ZINDO/s methodology at single excitations (CIS) level on PM7 as sparkle energy-minimized geometries.

  15. Influence of the Ligand Field on the Slow Relaxation of Magnetization of Unsymmetrical Monomeric Lanthanide Complexes: Synthesis and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Apoorva; Vignesh, Kuduva R; Das, Chinmoy; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Shanmugam, Maheswaran

    2017-11-20

    A series of monomeric lanthanide Schiff base complexes with the molecular formulas [Ce(HL) 3 (NO 3 ) 3 ] (1) and [Ln(HL) 2 (NO 3 ) 3 ], where Ln III = Tb (2), Ho (3), Er (4), and Lu (5), were isolated and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). Single-crystal XRD reveals that, except for 1, all complexes possess two crystallographically distinct molecules within the unit cell. Both of these crystallographically distinct molecules possess the same molecular formula, but the orientation of the coordinating ligand distinctly differs from those in complexes 2-5. Alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurement reveals that complexes 1-3 exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization in the presence of an optimum external magnetic field. In contrast to 1-3, complex 4 shows a blockade of magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field, a signature characteristic of a single-ion magnet (SIM). The distinct magnetic behavior observed in 4 compared to other complexes is correlated to the suitable ligand field around a prolate Er III ion. Although the ligand field stabilizes an easy axis of anisotropy, quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM) is still predominant in 4 because of the low symmetry of the complex. The combination of low symmetry and an unsuitable ligand-field environment in complexes 1-3 triggers faster magnetization relaxation; hence, these complexes exhibit field-induced SIM behavior. In order to understand the electronic structures of complexes 1-4 and the distinct magnetic behavior observed, ab initio calculations were performed. Using the crystal structure of the complexes, magnetic susceptibility data were computed for all of the complexes. The computed susceptibility and magnetization are in good agreement with the experimental magnetic data [χ M T(T) and M(H)] and this offers confidence on the reliability of the extracted parameters. A tentative mechanism of magnetization relaxation observed in these complexes is also

  16. Secret Lanthanides

    PubMed Central

    Sturza, CM

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lanthanides are a group of 15 chemical elements which, together with their salts, have come to be used in the last decade as homoeopathic remedies. The effective introduction of lanthanides and their salts into the clinical use, as homoeopathic remedies was based on the idea of Jan Scholten, MD to relate their physicochemical properties shown in the periodic table of elements to their homoeopathic potential. The lanthanides and their salts were prepared as homoeopathic remedies by Pharmacist Robert Münz. PMID:25408760

  17. Near infrared light-mediated photoactivation of cytotoxic Re(i) complexes by using lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhao, Jixian; Ai, Xiangzhao; Budanovic, Maja; Mu, Jing; Webster, Richard D; Cao, Qian; Mao, Zongwan; Xing, Bengang

    2016-09-13

    Platinum-based chemotherapy, although it has been well proven to be effective in the battle against cancer, suffers from limited specificity, severe side effects and drug resistance. The development of new alternatives with potent anticancer effects and improved specificity is therefore urgently needed. Recently, there are some new chemotherapy reagents based on photoactive Re(i) complexes which have been reported as promising alternatives to improve specificity mainly attributed to the spatial and temporal activation process by light irradiation. However, most of them respond to short-wavelength light (e.g. UV, blue or green light), which may cause unwanted photo damage to cells. Herein, we demonstrate a system for near-infrared (NIR) light controlled activation of Re(i) complex cytotoxicity by integration of photoactivatable Re(i) complexes and lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Upon NIR irradiation at 980 nm, the Re(i) complex can be locally activated by upconverted UV light emitted from UCNPs and subsequently leads to enhanced cell lethality. Cytotoxicity studies showed effective inactivation of both drug susceptible human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells and cisplatin resistant subline A2780cis cells by our UCNP based system with NIR irradiation, and there was minimum light toxicity observed in the whole process, suggesting that such a system could provide a promising strategy to control localized activation of Re(i) complexes and therefore minimize potential side effects.

  18. Complexation studies with lanthanides and humic acid analyzed by ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Beck, Horst Philipp

    2007-08-03

    For the long-term storage of radioactive waste, detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is necessary. Humic acid (HA) can play an important role in the immobilisation or mobilisation of metal ions due to complexation and colloid formation. Therefore, we investigate the complexation behavior of HA and its influence on the migration or retardation of selected lanthanides (europium and gadolinium as homologues of the actinides americium and curium). Two independent speciation techniques, ultrafiltration and capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) have been compared for the study of Eu and Gd interaction with (purified Aldrich) HA. The degree of complexation of Eu and Gd in 25 mg l(-1) Aldrich HA solutions was determined with a broad range of metal loading (Eu and Gd total concentration between 10(-6) and 10(-4) mol l(-1)), ionic strength of 10 mM (NaClO4) and different pH-values. From the CE-ICP-MS electropherograms, additional information on the charge of the Eu species was obtained by the use of 1-bromopropane as neutral marker. To detect HA in the ICP-MS and separate between HA complexed and non complexed metal ions in the CE-ICP-MS, we have halogenated the HA with iodine as ICP-MS marker.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and study of magnetocaloric effect and single molecular magnetic behaviour in discrete lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Amit; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Biswas, Soumava; Konar, Sanjit

    2014-06-28

    The synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of four polynuclear lanthanide coordination complexes having molecular formulae, [Gd3(2)(1)L(H2O)8(Cl)](Cl)4·10H2O (1), [Dy3L(2)(1)(H2O)9](Cl)5·6H2O (2) [Gd6L(2)(2)(HCO2)4(μ3-OH)4(DMF)6(H2O)2](Cl)2·4H2O (3) and [Dy6L(2)(2)(HCO2)4(μ3-OH)4(DMF)6(H2O)2](Cl)2·4H2O (4) (where H2L(1) = bis[(2-pyridyl)methylene]pyridine-2,6-dicarbohydrazide and H4L(2) = bis[2-hydroxy-benzylidene]pyridine-2,6-dicarbohydrazide) are reported. Structural investigation by X-ray crystallography reveals similar structural features for complexes 1 and 2 and they exhibit butterfly like shapes of the molecules. Non-covalent interactions between the molecules create double helical arrangements for both molecules. Complexes 3 and 4 are isostructural and the core structures feature four distorted hemi-cubanes connected by vertex sharing. Magnetic studies unveil significant magnetic entropy changes for complexes 1, 3 and slow relaxation of magnetization for both dysprosium analogues 2 and 4.

  20. Development of a ratiometric time-resolved luminescence sensor for pH based on lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingjing; Ye, Zhiqiang; Xin, Chenglong; Yuan, Jingli

    2013-01-25

    Time-resolved luminescence bioassay technique using lanthanide complexes as luminescent probes/sensors has shown great utilities in clinical diagnostics and biotechnology discoveries. In this work, a novel terpyridine polyacid derivative that can form highly stable complexes with lanthanide ions in aqueous media, (4'-hydroxy-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-6,6''-diyl) bis(methylenenitrilo) tetrakis(acetic acid) (HTTA), was designed and synthesized for developing time-resolved luminescence pH sensors based on its Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) complexes. The luminescence characterization results reveal that the luminescence intensity of HTTA-Eu(3+) is strongly dependent on the pH values in weakly acidic to neutral media (pK(a) = 5.8, pH 4.8-7.5), while that of HTTA-Tb(3+) is pH-independent. This unique luminescence response allows the mixture of HTTA-Eu(3+) and HTTA-Tb(3+) (the HTTA-Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) mixture) to be used as a ratiometric luminescence sensor for the time-resolved luminescence detection of pH with the intensity ratio of its Tb(3+) emission at 540 nm to its Eu(3+) emission at 610 nm, I(540 nm)/I(610 nm), as a signal. Moreover, the UV absorption spectrum changes of the HTTA-Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) mixture at different pHs (pH 4.0-7.0) also display a ratiometric response to the pH changes with the ratio of absorbance at 290 nm to that at 325 nm, A(290 nm)/A(325 nm), as a signal. This feature enables the HTTA-Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) mixture to have an additional function for the pH detection with the absorption spectrometry technique. For loading the complexes into the living cells, the acetoxymethyl ester of HTTA was synthesized and used for loading HTTA-Eu(3+) and HTTA-Tb(3+) into the cultured HeLa cells. The luminescence imaging results demonstrated the practical utility of the new sensor for the time-resolved luminescence cell imaging application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photofragmentation of Gas-Phase Lanthanide Cyclopentadienyl Complexes: Experimental and Time-Dependent Excited-State Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Unimolecular gas-phase laser-photodissociation reaction mechanisms of open-shell lanthanide cyclopentadienyl complexes, Ln(Cp)3 and Ln(TMCp)3, are analyzed from experimental and computational perspectives. The most probable pathways for the photoreactions are inferred from photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS), which provides the sequence of reaction intermediates and the distribution of final products. Time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) calculations provide insight into the electronic mechanisms for the individual steps of the laser-driven photoreactions for Ln(Cp)3. Computational analysis correctly predicts several key reaction products as well as the observed branching between two reaction pathways: (1) ligand ejection and (2) ligand cracking. Simulations support our previous assertion that both reaction pathways are initiated via a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) process. For the more complex chemistry of the tetramethylcyclopentadienyl complexes Ln(TMCp)3, TMESMD is less tractable, but computational geometry optimization reveals the structures of intermediates deduced from PI-TOF-MS, including several classic “tuck-in” structures and products of Cp ring expansion. The results have important implications for metal–organic catalysis and laser-assisted metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of insulators with high dielectric constants. PMID:24910492

  2. A Coordination Chemistry Approach to Fine-Tune the Physicochemical Parameters of Lanthanide Complexes Relevant to Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Le Fur, Mariane; Molnár, Enikő; Beyler, Maryline; Kálmán, Ferenc K; Fougère, Olivier; Esteban-Gómez, David; Rousseaux, Olivier; Tripier, Raphaël; Tircsó, Gyula; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2018-03-02

    The geometric features of two pyclen-based ligands possessing identical donor atoms but different site organization have a profound impact in their complexation properties toward lanthanide ions. The ligand containing two acetate groups and a picolinate arm arranged in a symmetrical fashion (L1) forms a Gd 3+ complex being two orders of magnitude less stable than its dissymmetric analogue GdL2. Besides, GdL1 experiences a much faster dissociation following the acid-catalyzed mechanism than GdL2. On the contrary, GdL1 exhibits a lower exchange rate of the coordinated water molecule compared to GdL2. These very different properties are related to different strengths of the Gd-ligand bonds associated to steric effects, which hinder the coordination of a water molecule in GdL2 and the binding of acetate groups in GdL1. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lanthanide Complexes with Multidentate Oxime Ligands as Single-Molecule Magnets and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems.

    PubMed

    Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Clérac, Rodolphe; Rouzières, Mathieu

    2015-09-14

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of five lanthanide complexes with multidentate oxime ligands are described. Complexes 1 and 2 (1: [La2 (pop)2 (acac)4 (CH3 OH)], 2: [Dy2 (pop)(acac)5 ]) are synthesized from the 2-hydroxyimino-N-[1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]propanohydrazone (Hpop) ligand, while 3, 4, and 5 (3: [Dy2 (naphthsaoH)2 (acac)4 H(OH)]⋅0.85 CH3 CN⋅1.58 H2 O; 4: [Tb2 (naphthsaoH)2 (acac)4 H(OH)]⋅0.52 CH3 CN⋅1.71 H2 O; 5: [La6 (CO3 )2 (naphthsao)5 (naphthsaoH)0.5 (acac)8 (CO3 )0.5 (CH3 OH)2.76 H5.5 (H2 O)1.24 ]⋅2.39 CH3 CN⋅0.12 H2 O) contain 1-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)-ethanone oxime (naphthsaoH2 ). In 1-4, dinuclear [Ln2 ] complexes crystallize, whereas hexanuclear La(III) complex 5 is formed after fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Dy(III) -based complexes 2 and 3 display single-molecule-magnet properties with energy barriers of 27 and 98 K, respectively. The presence of a broad and unsymmetrical relaxation mode observed in the ac susceptibility data for 3 suggest two different dynamics of the magnetization which might be a consequence of independent relaxation processes of the two different Dy(3+) ions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and luminescent properties of the novel poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) films based on surface modification with lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuewen; Chu, Yang; Yu, Zhenjiang; Hao, Haixia; Wu, Qingyao; Xie, Hongde

    2017-10-01

    Two kinds of novel fluorescent films have been successfully synthesized by surface modification on the poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) films using the lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+) complexes. The process consists of three steps: conversion of carboxylic acid groups on the surface of the poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) films to acid chloride groups, synthesis of the lanthanide complexes bearing amino groups, and amidation to form the modified films. To characterize the modified films, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, static water contact angle measurements and photoluminescence tests have been employed. Fourier transform infrared verifies the successful preparation of the lanthanide complexes and the modified poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) films. These films can emit strong characteristic red and green light under UV light excitation. In addition, the films both have short lifetime (1.14 ms and 1.21 ms), high thermal stability (Td = 408 °C and 411 °C) and, compared with unmodified ones, increased hydrophilicity. All these results suggest that the modified films have potential application as luminescent materials under high temperature.

  5. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol.

  6. Influence of a Heterocyclic Nitrogen-Donor Group on the Coordination of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides by Aminopolycarboxylate Complexants

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Heathman, Colt R.; Jansone-Popova, Santa

    Here, the novel metal chelator N-2-(pyridylmethyl)diethylenetriamine- N,N',N",N"-tetraacetic acid (DTTA-PyM) was designed to replace a single oxygen-donor acetate group of the well-known aminopolycarboxylate complexant diethylenetriamine- N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) with a nitrogen-donor 2-pyridylmethyl. Potentiometric, spectroscopic, computational, and radioisotope distribution methods show distinct differences for the 4f and 5f coordination environments and enhanced actinide binding due to the nitrogen-bearing heterocyclic moiety. The Am 3+, Cm 3+, and Ln 3+ complexation studies for DTTA-PyM reveal an enhanced preference, relative to DTPA, for trivalent actinide binding. Fluorescence studies indicate no changes to the octadentate coordination of trivalent curium, while evidence of heptadentate complexation of trivalentmore » europium is found in mixtures containing EuHL (aq) complexes at the same aqueous acidity. The denticity change observed for Eu 3+ suggests that complex protonation occurs on the pyridyl nitrogen. Formation of the CmHL (aq) complex is likely due to the protonation of an available carboxylate group because the carbonyl oxygen can maintain octadentate coordination through a rotation. The observed suppressed protonation of the pyridyl nitrogen in the curium complexes may be attributed to stronger trivalent actinide binding by DTTA-PyM. Density functional theory calculations indicate that added stabilization of the actinide complexes with DTTA-PyM may originate from π-back-bonding interactions between singly occupied 5f orbitals of Am 3+ and the pyridyl nitrogen. The differences between the stabilities of trivalent actinide chelates (Am 3+, Cm 3+) and trivalent lanthanide chelates (La 3+–Lu 3+) are observed in liquid–liquid extraction systems, yielding unprecedented 4f/5f differentiation when using DTTA-PyM as an aqueous holdback reagent. In addition, the enhanced nitrogen-donor softness of the new DTTA-PyM chelator was perturbed

  7. Calix[4]arenes as selective extracting agents. An NMR dynamic and conformational investigation of the lanthanide(III) and thorium(IV) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, B.; Jacques, V.; Shivanyuk, A.

    The lanthanide and Th{sup 4+} complexes with calix[4]arene ligands substituted either on the narrow or at the wide rim by four coordinating groups behave totally differently as shown by an NMR investigation of the dia- and paramagnetic complexes. Solutions of complexes were prepared by reacting anhydrous metal perchlorate salts with the ligands in dry acetonitrile (CAUTION). Relaxation time T{sub 1} titrations of acetonitrile solutions of Gd{sup 3+} by calixarenes indicate that ligands substituted on the narrow rim form stable 1:1 complexes whether they feature four amide groups (1) or four phosphine oxide functions. In contrast, a ligand substituted by fourmore » (carbamoylmethyl)-diphenylphosphine oxide moieties on the wide rim (3) and its derivatives form polymeric species even at a 1:1 ligand/metal concentration ratio. Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) curves (relaxation rates 1/T{sub 1} vs magnetic field strength) of Gd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}{center_dot}1 and Gd{sup 3+}{center_dot}3 perchlorates in acetonitrile are analyzed by an extended version of the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan equations. A comparison of the calculated rotational correlation times {tau}{sub r} shows that ligand 3 forms oligomeric Gd{sup 3+} species. The chelates of ligand 1 are axially symmetric (C{sub 4} symmetry), and the paramagnetic shifts induced by the Yb{sup 3+} ion are accounted for quantitatively. The addition of water or of nitrate ions does not modify the geometry of the complex. The metal chelates of 3 and its derivatives adopt a C{sub 2} symmetry, and the paramagnetic shifts are interpreted on a semiquantitative basis only. Water and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions completely labilize the complexes of the heavy lanthanides. The very high selectivity of ligand 3 through the lanthanide series stems from a complex interplay of factors.« less

  8. A series of novel lanthanide complexes with 2-bromine-5-methoxybenzoic acid and 2,2‧-bipyridine: Syntheses, crystal structures, and luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Min-Min; Ren, Ning; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Six new lanthanide complexes [Ln(2-Br-5-MOBA)3(2,2‧-DIPY)]2 (Ln = Nd(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Tb(4), Ho(5), Er(6); 2-Br-5-MOBA = 2-bromine-5-methoxybenzoate; 2,2‧-DIPY = 2,2‧-bipyridine) have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The complexes 1-5 are isostructural and nine-coordinated by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, while the complex 6 is eight-coordinated. The difference of crystal structure may be the result of the lanthanide contraction effect. The binuclear units were further assembled into 1D, 2D, 3D supramolecular structures by the π-π stacking and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions. The thermal decomposition mechanism of complexes 1-6 was studied by TG analysis and further authenticated by TG/DSC-FTIR techniques. The solid-state luminescence properties of complexes 2 and 4 were investigated at room temperature. The results indicate that complexes 2 and 4 show characteristic emission of Eu3+ ion and Tb3+ ion, respectively. What's more, the title complexes have good antibacterial activities against Candida albicans.

  9. Sparkle model for the calculation of lanthanide complexes: AM1 parameters for Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III).

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2005-05-02

    Our previously defined Sparkle model (Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 2346) has been reparameterized for Eu(III) as well as newly parameterized for Gd(III) and Tb(III). The parameterizations have been carried out in a much more extensive manner, aimed at producing a new, more accurate model called Sparkle/AM1, mainly for the vast majority of all Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III) complexes, which possess oxygen or nitrogen as coordinating atoms. All such complexes, which comprise 80% of all geometries present in the Cambridge Structural Database for each of the three ions, were classified into seven groups. These were regarded as a "basis" of chemical ambiance around a lanthanide, which could span the various types of ligand environments the lanthanide ion could be subjected to in any arbitrary complex where the lanthanide ion is coordinated to nitrogen or oxygen atoms. From these seven groups, 15 complexes were selected, which were defined as the parameterization set and then were used with a numerical multidimensional nonlinear optimization to find the best parameter set for reproducing chemical properties. The new parameterizations yielded an unsigned mean error for all interatomic distances between the Eu(III) ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination (for the 96 complexes considered in the present paper) of 0.09 A, an improvement over the value of 0.28 A for the previous model and the value of 0.68 A for the first model (Chem. Phys. Lett. 1994, 227, 349). Similar accuracies have been achieved for Gd(III) (0.07 A, 70 complexes) and Tb(III) (0.07 A, 42 complexes). Qualitative improvements have been obtained as well; nitrates now coordinate correctly as bidentate ligands. The results, therefore, indicate that Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III) Sparkle/AM1 calculations possess geometry prediction accuracies for lanthanide complexes with oxygen or nitrogen atoms in the coordination polyhedron that are competitive with present day ab initio/effective core potential

  10. Potentiometric study of binary complexes of 3-[(1 R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenol hydrochloride with some lanthanide ions in aqueous and mixed solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Kadia, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The complexation of lanthanide ions (Y3+, La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, and Dy3+) with 3-[(1 R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenol hydrochloride was studied at different temperatures and different ionic strengths in aqueous solutions by Irving-Rossotti pH titration technique. Stepwise calculation, PKAS and BEST Fortran IV computer programs were used for determination of proton-ligand and metal-ligand stability constants. The formation of species like MA, MA2, and MA(OH) is considered in SPEPLOT. Thermodynamic parameters of complex formation (Δ G, Δ H, and Δ S) are also evaluated. Negative Δ G and Δ H values indicate that complex formation is favourable in these experimental conditions. The stability of complexes is also studied at in different solvent-aqueous (vol/vol). The stability series of lanthanide complexes has shown to have the "gadolinium break." Stability of complexes decreases with increase in ionic strength and temperature. Effect of systematic errors like effect of dissolved carbon dioxide, concentration of alkali, concentration of acid, concentration of ligand and concentration of metal have also been explained.

  11. Construction of Polynuclear Lanthanide (Ln = Dy(III), Tb(III), and Nd(III)) Cage Complexes Using Pyridine-Pyrazole-Based Ligands: Versatile Molecular Topologies and SMM Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bala, Sukhen; Sen Bishwas, Mousumi; Pramanik, Bhaskar; Khanra, Sumit; Fromm, Katharina M; Poddar, Pankaj; Mondal, Raju

    2015-09-08

    Employment of two different pyridyl-pyrazolyl-based ligands afforded three octanuclear lanthanide(III) (Ln = Dy, Tb) cage compounds and one hexanuclear neodymium(III) coordination cage, exhibiting versatile molecular architectures including a butterfly core. Relatively less common semirigid pyridyl-pyrazolyl-based asymmetric ligand systems show an interesting trend of forming polynuclear lanthanide cage complexes with different coordination environments around the metal centers. It is noteworthy here that construction of lanthanide complex itself is a challenging task in a ligand system as soft N-donor rich as pyridyl-pyrazol. We report herein some lanthanide complexes using ligand containing only one or two O-donors compare to five N-coordinating sites. The resultant multinuclear lanthanide complexes show interesting magnetic and spectroscopic features originating from different spatial arrangements of the metal ions. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements of the two dysprosium complexes display frequency- and temperature-dependent out-of-phase signals in zero and 0.5 T direct current field, a typical characteristic feature of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, indicating different energy reversal barriers due to different molecular topologies. Another aspect of this work is the occurrence of the not-so-common SMM behavior of the terbium complex, further confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement.

  12. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-05

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L=cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF=N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu(3+) in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu(3+) ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of (5)D0 and triplet state contracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectra, energy levels, and energy transition of lanthanide complexes with cinnamic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaining; Feng, Zhongshan; Shen, Jun; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaobing; Jiang, Sha; Li, Li; Zhou, Xianju

    2016-04-01

    High resolution spectra and luminescent lifetimes of 6 europium(III)-cinnamic acid complex {[Eu2L6(DMF)(H2O)]·nDMF·H2O}m (L = cinnamic acid I, 4-methyl-cinnamic acid II, 4-chloro-cinnamic acid III, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid IV, 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid V, 4-nitro-cinnamic acid VI; DMF = N, N-dimethylformamide, C3H7NO) were recorded from 8 K to room temperature. The energy levels of Eu3 + in these 6 complexes are obtained from the spectra analysis. It is found that the energy levels of the central Eu3 + ions are influenced by the nephelauxetic effect, while the triplet state of ligand is lowered by the p-π conjugation effect of the para-substituted functional groups. The best energy matching between the ligand triplet state and the central ion excited state is found in complex I. While the other complexes show poorer matching because the gap of 5D0 and triplet state contracts.

  14. Coordination Structure and Fragmentation Chemistry of the Tripositive Lanthanide-Thio-Diglycolamide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuting; Li, Qingnuan; Gong, Yu

    2017-12-14

    Tripositive Ln(TMTDA) 3 3+ complexes (Ln = La-Lu except Pm, TMTDA = tetramethyl 3-thio-diglycolamide) were observed in the gas phase by electrospray ionization of LnCl 3 and TMTDA mixtures. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was employed to investigate their fragmentation chemistry, which revealed the influence of metal center as well as ligand on the ligated complexes. Ln(TMTDA) 2 (TMTDA-45) 3+ resulting from C carbonyl -N bond cleavage of TMTDA and hydrogen transfer was the major CID product for all Ln(TMTDA) 3 3+ except Eu(TMTDA) 3 3+ , which predominantly formed charge-reducing product Eu II (TMTDA) 2 2+ via electron transfer from TMTDA to Eu 3+ . Density functional theory calculations on the structure of La(TMTDA) 3 3+ and Lu(TMTDA) 3 3+ revealed that Ln 3+ was coordinated by six O carbonyl atoms from three neutral TMTDA ligands, and both complexes possessed C 3h symmetry. The S ether atom deviating from the ligand plane was not coordinated to the metal center. On the basis of the CID results of Ln(TMTDA) 3 3+ , Ln(TMGA) 3 3+ , and Ln(TMOGA) 3 3+ , the fragmentation chemistry associated with the ligand depends on the coordination mode, while the redox chemistry of these tripositive ions is related to the nature of both metal centers and diamide ligands.

  15. Covalent lanthanide(III) macrocyclic complexes: the bonding nature and optical properties of a promising single antenna molecule.

    PubMed

    Rabanal-León, Walter A; Páez-Hernández, Dayán; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2014-12-21

    The present work is focused on the elucidation of the electronic structure, bonding nature and optical properties of a series of low symmetry (C2) coordination compounds of type [Ln(III)HAM](3+), where "Ln(III)" are the trivalent lanthanide ions: La(3+), Ce(3+), Eu(3+) and Lu(3+), while "HAM" is the neutral six-nitrogen donor macrocyclic ligand [C22N6H26]. This systematic study has been performed in the framework of the Relativistic Density Functional Theory (R-DFT) and also using a multi-reference approach via the Complete Active Space (CAS) wavefunction treatment with the aim of analyzing their ground state and excited state electronic structures as well as electronic correlation. Furthermore, the use of the energy decomposition scheme proposed by Morokuma-Ziegler and the electron localization function (ELF) allows us to characterize the bonding between the lanthanide ions and the macrocyclic ligand, obtaining as a result a dative-covalent interaction. Due to a great deal of lanthanide optical properties and their technological applications, the absorption spectra of this set of coordination compounds were calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), where the presence of the intense Ligand to Metal Charge Transfer (LMCT) bands in the ultraviolet and visible region and the inherent f-f electronic transitions in the Near-Infra Red (NIR) region for some lanthanide ions allow us to propose these systems as "single antenna molecules" with potential applications in NIR technologies.

  16. Slow magnetic relaxation in carbonato-bridged dinuclear lanthanide(III) complexes with 2,3-quinoxalinediolate ligands.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Castro, Isabel; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Fabelo, Oscar; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pardo, Emilio

    2012-08-11

    The coordination chemistry of the 2,3-quinoxalinediolate ligand with different lanthanide(III) ions in basic media in air affords a new family of carbonato-bridged M(2)(III) compounds (M = Pr, Gd and Dy), the Dy(2)(III) analogue exhibiting slow magnetic relaxation behaviour typical of single-molecule magnets.

  17. Complexation of Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} with lanthanide(III) centers influenced by ethylene polyamines: Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and optical properties of lanthanide selenidostannates

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chunying; Wang, Fang; Chen, Ruihong

    Lanthanide selenidostannates (H{sub 3}O){sub n}[Ce(tepa)(μ-1κ{sup 2}:2κ{sup 2}-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6})]{sub n} (1), [(Yb(tepa)(μ-OH)){sub 2}(μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6})]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Htrien]{sub 2}[(Ln(trien)(tren)){sub 2}(μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6})][Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6}] (Ln=Ce(3), Nd(4)) and [(Yb(dien){sub 2}){sub 2}(μ-OH){sub 2}]Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} (5) were solvothermally prepared in different ethylene polyamines. The Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} unit connects [Ce(tepa)]{sup 3+} and [(Yb(tepa)(μ-OH)){sub 2}]{sup 4+} fragments with tetradentate μ-1κ{sup 2}Se{sup 1},Se{sup 2}:2κ{sup 2}Se{sup 5},Se{sup 6} and bidentate μ-1κSe{sup 1}:2κSe{sup 5} bridging coordination modes in tepa, to form polymers 1 and 2, respectively. It joins two [Ln(trien)(tren)]{sup 3+} fragments as a μ-1κSe{sup 1}:2κSe{sup 5} ligand to form binuclear complexes 3 and 4more » in trien. Unlike the Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} units in 1–4 that bind with Ln(III) centers as Se-donor ligands, the Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} unit in 5 exists as a discrete ion. The syntheses of 1–5 show that the ethylene polyamines play an important role in the complexation of Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} ligand with Ln(III) centers. Compounds 1–5 exhibit optical band gaps in the range of 2.09–2.42 eV, which are influenced by the complexation of Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} with Ln(III) centers. - Graphical abstract: New lanthanide complexes concerning the Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} ligand were solvothermally prepared, and the effect of ethylene polyamines on the complexation of Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} with Ln(III) centers are observed. Highlights: • Lanthanide complexes concerning the selenidostannates have been solvothermally prepared in different ethylene polyamines. • A tetradentate μ-1κ{sup 2}Se{sup 1},Se{sup 2}:2κ{sup 2}Se{sup 5},Se{sup 6} and a bidentate μ-1κSe{sup 1}:2κSe{sup 5} bridging coordination modes for the Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} ligand is obtained. • The complexation of the Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} ligand with Ln

  18. Features of the complexation of octadecane-2,4-dione and lanthanide ions in Langmuir monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M. E.; Repina, I. N.; Raitman, O. A.; Kolokolov, F. A.; Panyushkin, V. T.

    2016-05-01

    Monolayers of octadecane-2,4-dione on the surfaces of EuCl3 and TbCl3 solutions in the concentration range of 1 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-3 M at pH 5.8 are studied. It is found that the limiting area of octadecane-2,4-dione molecule in a monolayer dependence on Eu3+ and Tb3+ concentration is of extreme nature. The formation of complex compounds in the ligand monolayer is postulated, and structures are proposed for these compounds at different concentrations of metal ions.

  19. Rational Design of a Lanthanide-Based Complex Featuring Different Single-Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, F; Guizouarn, T; Lefeuvre, B; Golhen, S; Cador, O; Ouahab, L

    2015-11-16

    The rational synthesis of the 2-{1-methylpyridine-N-oxide-4,5-[4,5-bis(propylthio)tetrathiafulvalenyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl}pyridine ligand (L) is described. It led to the tetranuclear complex [Dy4(tta)12(L)2] (Dy-Dy2-Dy) after coordination reaction with the precursor Dy(tta)3⋅2 H2O (tta(-) = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate). The X-ray structure of Dy-Dy2-Dy can be described as two terminal mononuclear units bridged by a central antiferromagnetically coupled dinuclear complex. The terminal N2O6 and central O8 environments are described as distorted square antiprisms. The ac magnetism measurements revealed a strong out-of-phase signal of the magnetic susceptibility with two distinct sets of data. The high- and low-frequency components were attributed to the two terminal mononuclear single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and the central dinuclear SMM, respectively. A magnetic hysteresis loop was detected at very low temperature. From both structural and magnetic points of view, the tetranuclear SMM Dy-Dy2-Dy is a self-assembly of two known mononuclear SMMs bridged by a known dinuclear SMM. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Lokman; Uzek, Recep; Senel, Serap; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-08-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An improved thermodynamic model for the complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanide with oxalic acid valid to high ionic strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Thakur, Punam; Borkowski, Marian

    The dissociation constants of oxalic acid (Ox), and the stability constants of Am 3+, Cm 3+ and Eu 3+ with Ox 2– have been determined at 25 °C, over a range of concentration varying from 0.1 to 6.60 m NaClO4 using potentiometric titration and extraction techniques, respectively. The experimental data support the formation of complexes, M(Ox) n 3 – 2n, where (M = Am 3+, Cm 3+ and Eu 3+ and n = 1 and 2). The dissociation constant and the stability constant values measured as a function of NaClO 4 concentration were used to estimate the Pitzer parameters formore » the respective interactions of Am 3+, Cm 3+ and Eu 3+ with Ox. Furthermore, the stability constants data of Am 3+ –Ox measured in NaClO 4 and in NaCl solutions from the literature were simultaneously fitted in order to refine the existing actinide–oxalate complexation model that can be used universally in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The thermodynamic stability constant: log β 0 101 = 6.30 ± 0.06 and log β 0 102 = 10.84 ± 0.06 for Am 3+ was obtained by simultaneously fitting data in NaCl and NaClO 4 media. Additionally, log β 0 101 = 6.72 ± 0.08 and log β 0 102 = 11.05 ± 0.09 for the Cm 3+ and log β 0 101 = 6.67 ± 0.08 and log β 0 102 = 11.15 ± 0.09 for the Eu 3+ were calculated by extrapolation of data to zero ionic strength in NaClO 4 medium only. For all stability constants, the Pitzer model gives an excellent representation of the data using interaction parameters β (0), β (1), and CΦ determined in this work. The thermodynamic model developed in this work will be useful in accurately modeling the potential solubility of trivalent actinides and early lanthanides to ionic strength of 6.60 m in low temperature environments in the presence of Ox. Furthermore, the work is also applicable to the accurate modeling transport of rare earth elements in various environments under the surface conditions.« less

  2. An improved thermodynamic model for the complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanide with oxalic acid valid to high ionic strength.

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Yongliang; Thakur, Punam; Borkowski, Marian

    2015-07-30

    The dissociation constants of oxalic acid (Ox), and the stability constants of Am 3+, Cm 3+ and Eu 3+ with Ox 2– have been determined at 25 °C, over a range of concentration varying from 0.1 to 6.60 m NaClO4 using potentiometric titration and extraction techniques, respectively. The experimental data support the formation of complexes, M(Ox) n 3 – 2n, where (M = Am 3+, Cm 3+ and Eu 3+ and n = 1 and 2). The dissociation constant and the stability constant values measured as a function of NaClO 4 concentration were used to estimate the Pitzer parameters formore » the respective interactions of Am 3+, Cm 3+ and Eu 3+ with Ox. Furthermore, the stability constants data of Am 3+ –Ox measured in NaClO 4 and in NaCl solutions from the literature were simultaneously fitted in order to refine the existing actinide–oxalate complexation model that can be used universally in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The thermodynamic stability constant: log β 0 101 = 6.30 ± 0.06 and log β 0 102 = 10.84 ± 0.06 for Am 3+ was obtained by simultaneously fitting data in NaCl and NaClO 4 media. Additionally, log β 0 101 = 6.72 ± 0.08 and log β 0 102 = 11.05 ± 0.09 for the Cm 3+ and log β 0 101 = 6.67 ± 0.08 and log β 0 102 = 11.15 ± 0.09 for the Eu 3+ were calculated by extrapolation of data to zero ionic strength in NaClO 4 medium only. For all stability constants, the Pitzer model gives an excellent representation of the data using interaction parameters β (0), β (1), and CΦ determined in this work. The thermodynamic model developed in this work will be useful in accurately modeling the potential solubility of trivalent actinides and early lanthanides to ionic strength of 6.60 m in low temperature environments in the presence of Ox. Furthermore, the work is also applicable to the accurate modeling transport of rare earth elements in various environments under the surface conditions.« less

  3. Failure of ESI Spectra to Represent Metal-Complex Solution Composition: A Study of Lanthanide-Carboxylate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Luther W.; Campbell, James A.; Clark, Sue B.

    2014-01-21

    Electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for the characterization of uranyl complexed to tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (DBP). The stoichiometry of uranyl with TBP and DBP was determined, and the gas phase speciation was found to be dependent on the cone voltage applied to induce fragmentation on the gas phase complexes. To quantitatively compare the gas phase distribution of species to solution, apparent stability constants were calculated. With a cone voltage of 80V, the apparent stability constants for the complexes UO2(NO3)2•2TBP, UO2(NO3)2(H2O)•2TBP, and UO2(DBP)+ were determined. With a lower cone voltage applied, larger complexes were observedmore » and stability constants for the complexes UO2(NO3)2•3TBP and UO2(DBP)42- were determined.« less

  4. Gold nanoparticle assemblies stabilized by bis(phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) complexes through van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Yuki; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle assemblies possess diverse application potential, ranging from industrial nanotechnology to medical biotechnology. Because the structures and properties of assemblies are directly affected by the stabilization mechanism between the organic molecules serving as protecting ligands and the gold nanoparticle surface, it is crucial to find and investigate new stabilization mechanisms. Here, we report that π-conjugated phthalocyanine rings can serve as stabilizing ligands for gold nanoparticles. Bis(phthalocyaninato)lutetium(III) (LuPc2) or bis(phthalocyaninato)terbium(III) (TbPc2), even though complex, do not have specific binding units and stabilize gold nanoparticles through van der Waals interaction between parallel adsorbed phthalocyanine ligands and the gold nanoparticle surface. AC magnetic measurements and the electron-transport properties of the assemblies give direct evidence that the phthalocyanines are isolated from each other. Each nanoparticle shows weak electronic coupling despite the short internanoparticle distance (~1 nm), suggesting Efros-Shklovskii-type variable-range hopping and collective single-electron tunnelling behaviours.

  5. NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(iii) and An(iii) C5-BPP complexes.

    PubMed

    Adam, Christian; Beele, Björn B; Geist, Andreas; Müllich, Udo; Kaden, Peter; Panak, Petra J

    2015-02-01

    C5-BPP is a highly efficient N-donor ligand for the separation of trivalent actinides, An(iii), from trivalent lanthanides, Ln(iii). The molecular origin of the selectivity of C5-BPP and many other N-donor ligands of the BTP-type is still not entirely understood. We present here the first NMR studies on C5-BPP Ln(iii) and An(iii) complexes. C5-BPP is synthesized with 10% 15 N labeling and characterized by NMR and LIFDI-MS methods. 15 N NMR spectroscopy gives a detailed insight into the bonding of C5-BPP with lanthanides and Am(iii) as a representative for trivalent actinide cations, revealing significant differences in 15 N chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms compared to Ln(iii) complexes. The temperature dependence of NMR chemical shifts observed for the Am(iii) complex indicates a weak paramagnetism. This as well as the observed large chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms show that metal-ligand bonding in Am(C5-BPP) 3 has a larger share of covalence than in lanthanide complexes, confirming earlier studies. The Am(C5-BPP) 3 NMR sample is furthermore spiked with Cm(iii) and characterized by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), yielding important information on the speciation of trace amounts of minor complex species.

  6. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuza, J.; Godlewska, P.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Kadłubański, P.; Lorenc, J.; Łukowiak, A.; Macalik, L.; Gerasymchuk, Yu.; Legendziewicz, J.

    2018-05-01

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln = Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass.

  7. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Hanuza, J; Godlewska, P; Lisiecki, R; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Kadłubański, P; Lorenc, J; Łukowiak, A; Macalik, L; Gerasymchuk, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2018-05-05

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln=Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Method bacterial endospore quantification using lanthanide dipicolinate luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor); Kirby, James Patrick (Inventor); Ponce, Adrian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A lanthanide is combined with a medium to be tested for endospores. The dipicolinic acid released from the endospores binds the lanthanides, which have distinctive emission (i.e., luminescence) spectra, and are detected using photoluminescence. The concentration of spores is determined by preparing a calibration curve generated from photoluminescence spectra of lanthanide complex mixed with spores of a known concentration. A lanthanide complex is used as the analysis reagent, and is comprised of lanthanide ions bound to multidentate ligands that increase the dipicolinic acid binding constant through a cooperative binding effect with respect to lanthanide chloride. The resulting combined effect of increasing the binding constant and eliminating coordinated water and multiple equilibria increase the sensitivity of the endospore assay by an estimated three to four orders of magnitude over prior art of endospore detection based on lanthanide luminescence.

  9. Yb3+ can be much better than Dy3+: SMM properties and controllable self-assembly of novel lanthanide 3,5-dinitrobenzoate-acetylacetonate complexes.

    PubMed

    Gavrikov, Andrey V; Efimov, Nikolay N; Ilyukhin, Andrey B; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna V; Novotortsev, Vladimir M

    2018-05-01

    The first representatives of the binuclear lanthanide 3,5-dinitrobenzoate-acetylacetonate complexes, namely isostructural compounds [Ln(dnbz)(acac)2(H2O)(EtOH)]2 (Ln = Eu (1), Gd (2), Tb (3), Dy (4), Ho (5), Er (6), Tm (7), and Yb (8); dnbz - 3,5-dinitrobenzoate anion; acac - acetylacetonate (pentane-2,4-dionate) anion) were prepared and characterized. The SMM behavior of the Yb compound 8 was shown to be surprisingly less sensitive to the composition of the Yb3+ coordination environment in comparison with that of the Dy derivative. For Yb compound 8, the anisotropy barrier is Δeff/kB = 26 K under the dc field of 2000 Oe. This value is the highest one currently known for binuclear Yb complexes.

  10. Two Series of Homodinuclear Lanthanide Complexes: Greatly Enhancing Energy Barriers through Tuning Terminal Solvent Ligands in Dy2 Single-Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yaru; Zhang, Haifeng; Sun, Hao; Pan, Yangdan; Ge, Yu; Li, Yahong; Zhang, Yi-Quan

    2017-11-02

    The utilization of 2-ethoxy-6-{[(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)imino]methyl}phenol (H 2 L) as a chelating ligand, in combination with the employment of alcohols (EtOH and MeOH) as auxiliary ligands, in 4 f-metal chemistry afforded two series of dinuclear lanthanide complexes of compositions [Ln 2 L 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (EtOH) 2 ] (Ln=Sm (1), Eu (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5), Ho (6), Er (7)) and [Ln 2 L 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (MeOH) 2 ] (Ln=Sm (8), Eu (9), Gd (10), Tb (11), Dy (12), Ho (13), Er (14)). The structures of 1-14 were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Complexes 1-7 are isomorphous. The two lanthanide(III) ions in 1-7 are doubly bridged by two deprotonated aminophenoxide oxygen atoms of two μ 2 :η 0 :η 1 :η 2 :η 1 :η 1 :η 0 -L 2- ligands. One nitrogen atom, two oxygen atoms of the NO 3 - anion, two methoxide oxygen atoms of two ligand sets, and one oxygen atom of the terminally coordinated EtOH molecule complete the distorted dodecahedron geometry of each lanthanide(III) ion. Compounds 8-14 are isomorphous and their structures are similar to those of 1-7. The slight difference between 1-7 and 8-14 stems from purposefully replacing the EtOH ligands in 1-7 with MeOH in 8-14. Direct-current magnetic susceptibility studies in the 2-300 K range reveal weak antiferromagnetic interactions for 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, and 14, and ferromagnetic interactions at low temperature for 5, 6, 12, and 13. Complexes 5 and 12 exhibit single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with energy barriers of 131.3 K for 5 and 198.8 K for 12. The energy barrier is significantly enhanced by dexterously regulating the terminal ligands. To rationalize the observed difference in the magnetic behavior, complete-active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations were performed on two Dy 2 complexes. Subtle variation in the angle between the magnetic axes and the vector connecting two dysprosium(III) ions results in a weaker influence on the tunneling gap of individual dysprosium(III) ions

  11. Biological and Clinical Aspects of Lanthanide Coordination Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sudhindra N.; M., Indira Devi; Shukla, Ram S.

    2004-01-01

    The coordinating chemistry of lanthanides, relevant to the biological, biochemical and medical aspects, makes a significant contribution to understanding the basis of application of lanthanides, particularly in biological and medical systems. The importance of the applications of lanthanides, as an excellent diagnostic and prognostic probe in clinical diagnostics, and an anticancer material, is remarkably increasing. Lanthanide complexes based X-ray contrast imaging and lanthanide chelates based contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being excessively used in radiological analysis in our body systems. The most important property of the chelating agents, in lanthanide chelate complex, is its ability to alter the behaviour of lanthanide ion with which it binds in biological systems, and the chelation markedly modifies the biodistribution and excretion profile of the lanthanide ions. The chelating agents, especially aminopoly carboxylic acids, being hydrophilic, increase the proportion of their complex excreted from complexed lanthanide ion form biological systems. Lanthanide polyamino carboxylate-chelate complexes are used as contrast enhancing agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Conjugation of antibodies and other tissue specific molecules to lanthanide chelates has led to a new type of specific MRI contrast agents and their conjugated MRI contrast agents with improved relaxivity, functioning in the body similar to drugs. Many specific features of contrast agent assisted MRI make it particularly effective for musculoskeletal and cerebrospinal imaging. Lanthanide-chelate contrast agents are effectively used in clinical diagnostic investigations involving cerebrospinal diseases and in evaluation of central nervous system. Chelated lanthanide complexes shift reagent aided 23Na NMR spectroscopic analysis is used in cellular, tissue and whole organ systems. PMID:18365075

  12. Five novel lanthanide complexes with 2-chloroquinoline-4-carboxylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline: Crystal structures, molecular spectra, thermal properties and bacteriostatic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Jin, Cheng-Wei; He, Shu-Mei; Ren, Ning; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Five novel lanthanide complexes [Ln2(2-ClQL)6(phen)2(H2O)2]·2H2O (Ln = Pr(1), Sm(2), Eu(3), Ho(4), Er(5)); 2-ClQL: 2-chloroquinoline-4-carboxylate; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline; were synthesized by conventional solution method at room temperature and characterized via elemental analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectrometry. The results indicate that complexes 1-5 are isostructural, and each Ln3+ ion is eight-coordinated adopting a distorted square antiprismatic molecular geometry. Binuclear complex 1 are stitched together via hydrogen bonding interactions to form 1D chains, and further to form 2D sheets by the π-π interactions. Luminescence investigation reveals that complex 3 displays strong red emission. TG/DTG-FTIR, reveal the thermal decomposition processes and products of title complexes. The bacteriostatic activities of the complexes were evaluated against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Deciphering three beneficial effects of 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide on the luminescence sensitization of lanthanide(III) hexafluoroacetylacetonate ternary complexes.

    PubMed

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Pleshkov, Dmitry N; Lyssenko, Konstantin A; Lepnev, Leonid S; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G; Kuzmina, Natalia P

    2011-06-06

    Lanthanide hexafluoroacetylacetonate ternary complexes with 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide, [Ln(hfa)(3)(bpyO2)], were synthesized for Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, and Lu and fully characterized by elemental, thermal, and mass-spectrometric analyses. The X-ray crystal structure of [Eu(hfa)(3)(bpyO2)]·0.5C(6)H(6) reveals an octa-coordinate metal ion lying in a severely distorted trigonal dodecahedron geometry; the Eu-O distances lie in the range 2.36-2.44 Å with no significant difference between hfa(-) and bpyO2. A detailed comparative photophysical investigation has been carried out to determine the exact influence of the introduction of bpyO2 in the inner coordination sphere of the metal ion in replacement of the two water molecules in [Ln(hfa)(3)(H(2)O)(2)]. While this replacement is detrimental for Tb, it leads to a 15-fold increase in the overall quantum yield for Eu. This large improvement originates from (i) a better sensitization efficiency, the ancillary ligand being responsible for 3/4 of the energy transfer, (ii) elimination of nonradiative deactivation pathways through harmonics of O-H vibrations, and (iii) reduction in the radiative lifetime. The latter influence is rarely documented, but it accounts here for a ≈25% increase in the intrinsic quantum yield, so that more attention should be given to this parameter when designing highly luminescent lanthanide complexes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Preparation and luminescent properties of lanthanide (Eu3+ and Tb3+) complexes grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by covalent bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-12-01

    A novel precursor PMA-Si was synthesized by modifying 1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylic acid (PMA) with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then the hybrids were prepared by PMA-Si coordinating to lanthanide ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+) in sol-gel process. In order to improve luminescent efficiency, 1,10-Phenanthroline (Phen) was introduced to the system as the second ligand. As-prepared compounds in sol condition were coated on quartz plates to form a layer of thin film, which was different from other similar hybrids. The properties of the hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, TG and SEM. The results showed that the obtained materials enhanced thermal stability, mechanical resistances, waterproofness as well as machining properties.

  15. Luminescent lanthanide chelates and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Selvin, Paul R.; Hearst, John

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides lanthanide chelates capable of intense luminescence. The celates comprise a lanthanide chelator covalently joined to a coumarin-like or quinolone-like sensitizer. Exemplary sensitzers include 2- or 4-quinolones, 2- or 4-coumarins, or derivatives thereof e.g. carbostyril 124 (7-amino-4-methyl-2-quinolone), coumarin 120 (7-amino-4-methyl-2-coumarin), coumarin 124 (7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-coumarin), aminomethyltrimethylpsoralen, etc. The chelates form high affinity complexes with lanthanides, such as terbium or europium, through chelator groups, such as DTPA. The chelates may be coupled to a wide variety of compounds to create specific labels, probes, diagnostic and/or therapeutic reagents, etc. The chelates find particular use in resonance energy transfer between chelate-lanthanide complexes and another luminescent agent, often a fluorescent non-metal based resonance energy acceptor. The methods provide useful information about the structure, conformation, relative location and/or interactions of macromolecules.

  16. Luminescence properties and molecular mechanics calculation of bis-β-diketonate Eu3+ complex/polymer hybrid fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jinyuan; Gu, Huiquan; Hou, Yanjun; Wang, Shuhong

    2018-05-01

    Two series of bis-β-diketonate Eu3+ complex/polymer hybrid fibers, namely, Eu2(BTP)3(H2O)4/PMMA (Eu/PMMA) and Eu2(BTP)3(H2O)4/PVP (Eu/PVP) have been prepared by electrospinning technology (BTP = 1,3-bis(4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-dioxobutyl)phenyl, PVP = poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) and PMMA = poly (methyl methacrylate)). The effect of complex Eu2(BTP)3(H2O)4 on the luminescence, thermal stability and morphology of composite fibers were studied by characterization techniques. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to this study for explaining the effect of the distribution of Eu2(BTP)3(H2O)4 and the mutual effect of the Eu2(BTP)3(H2O)4 coordination compound and neighboring chain segments of PMMA and PVP polymer matrix.

  17. The excitation mechanism of btp2 Ir(acac) in CBP host.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Bo, Zhang; Fu-Xiang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Whether bis(2-(2'-benzo[4,5-α]thienyl)pyridinato-N,C3')iridium(acetylacetonate) (btp 2 Ir(acac)) emission comes from carrier trapping and/or energy transfer, when doped in the 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP) host in organic light-emitting devices, is not clear; therefore, the btp 2 Ir(acac) emission in CBP hosts was studied. In the red-doped device, both N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1.1'-bipheny1-4-4'-diamine (NPB) and (1,1'-biphenyl-4'-oxy)bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinolinato)-aluminum (BAlq) emission appeared, which illustrated that CBP excitons cannot be formed at two emissive layer (EML) interfaces in the device. In the co-doped devices, NPB and BAlq emissions disappear and 1,4-bis[2-(3-N-ethylcarbazoryl)vinyl]benzene (BCzVB) emission appears, illustrating the formation of CBP excitons at two EML interfaces in these devices. The reason for this difference was analyzed and it was found that holes in the NPB layer could be made directly into the CBP host in the EML interface of the red-doped device. In contrast, holes were injected into CBP host via the btp 2 Ir(acac)/BCzVB dopants in the co-doped devices, which facilitated hole injection from the NPB layer to the EML, leading to the formation of CBP excitons at two EML interfaces in the co-doped devices. Therefore, btp 2 Ir(acac) emission was caused by carrier trapping in the red-doped device, while, in the co-doped devices, it resulted from both carrier trapping and energy transfer from the CBP. Furthermore, it was revealed that the carrier trapping mechanism is less efficient than the energy transfer mechanism for btp 2 Ir(acac) excitation in co-doped devices. In summary, our results clarified the excitation mechanism of btp 2 Ir(acac) in the CBP host. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Me-3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Efficient Sensitization of Yb(III) and Nd(III) in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Dodani, Sheel

    2009-11-10

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, solution stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes of Yb(III) and Nd(III) using both tetradentate and octadentate ligand design strategies and incorporating the 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (Me-3,2-HOPO) chelate group are reported. Both the Yb(III) and Nd(III) complexes have emission bands in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region, and this luminescence is retained in aqueous solution ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Yb} {approx} 0.09-0.22%). Furthermore, the complexes demonstrate very high stability (pYb {approx} 18.8-21.9) in aqueous solution, making them good candidates for further development as probes for NIR imaging. Analysis of the low temperature (77 K) photophysical measurements for a modelmore » Gd(III) complex were used to gain an insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree well with corresponding TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G{sup ++}(d,p) level of theory for a simplified model monovalent sodium complex.« less

  19. Extraction of lanthanides using 1-hydroxy-6- N-octylcarboxamido-2(1 H)-pyridinone as an extractant via competitive ligand complexations between aqueous and organic phases

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Neil J.; Do-Thanh, Chi -Linh; Stankovich, Joseph J.; ...

    2015-12-10

    Here, the ability to selectively extract lanthanides is crucial in hydrometallurgy and the nuclear fuel cycle. The capabilities of 1-hydroxy-6- N-octylcarboxamido-2(1 H)-pyridinone (octyl-HOPO) as an extractant for the separation of lanthanides and actinides were studied for the first time. Octyl-HOPO greatly outperformed the traditional ligand di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA).

  20. Open-Shell Lanthanide(II+) or -(III+) Complexes Bearing σ-Silyl and Silylene Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Complexes featuring lanthanide (Ln)–Si bonds represent a highly neglected research area. Herein, we report a series of open-shell LnII+ and LnIII+ complexes bearing σ-bonded silyl and base-stabilized N-heterocyclic silylene (NHSi) ligands. The reactions of the LnIII+ complexes Cp3Ln (Ln = Tm, Ho, Tb, Gd; Cp = cyclopentadienide) with the 18-crown-6 (18-cr-6)-stabilized 1,4-oligosilanyl dianion [(18-cr-6)KSi(SiMe3)2SiMe2SiMe2Si(SiMe3)2K(18-cr-6)] (1) selectively afford the corresponding metallacyclopentasilane salts [Cp2Ln({Si(SiMe3)2SiMe2}2)]−[K2(18-cr-6)2Cp]+ [Ln = Tm (2a), Ho (2b), Tb (2c), Gd (2d)]. Complexes 2a–2d represent the first examples of structurally characterized Tm, Ho, Tb, and Gd complexes featuring Ln–Si bonds. Strikingly, the analogous reaction of 1 with the lighter element analogue Cp3Ce affords the acyclic product [Cp3CeSi(SiMe3)2SiMe2SiMe2Si(SiMe3)2-Cp3Ce]2–2[K(18-cr-6)]+ (3) as the first example of a complex featuring a Ce–Si bond. In an alternative synthetic approach, the aryloxy-functionalized benzamidinato NHSi ligand Si(OC6H4-2-tBu){(NtBu)2CPh} (4a) and the alkoxy analogue Si(OtBu){(NtBu)2CPh} (4b) were reacted with Cp*2Sm(OEt2), affording, by OEt2 elimination, the corresponding silylene complexes, both featuring SmII+ centers: Cp*2Sm ← :Si(O–C6H4-2-tBu){(NtBu)2CPh} (6) and Cp*2Sm ← :Si(OtBu){(NtBu)2CPh} (5). Complexes 5 and 6 are the first four-coordinate silylene complexes of any f-block element to date. All complexes were fully characterized by spectroscopic means and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the series 2a–2d, a linear correlation was observed between the Ln–Si bond lengths and the covalent radii of the corresponding Ln metals. Moreover, in complexes 5 and 6, notably long Sm–Si bonds are observed, in accordance with a donor–acceptor interaction between Si and Sm [5, 3.4396(15) Å; 6, 3.3142(18) Å]. Density functional theory calculations were carried out for complexes 2a–2d, 5, and 6 to

  1. The addition of a second lanthanide ion to increase the luminescence of europium(III) macrocyclic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bromm, A.J. Jr.; Vallarino, L.M.; Leif, R.C.

    At present, the microscopic visualization of luminescent labels containing lanthanide(III) ions, primarily europium(III), as light-emitting centers is best performed with time-gated instrumentation, which by virtually eliminating the background fluorescence results in an improved signal to noise ratio. However, the use of the europium(III) macrocycle, Quantum Dye{trademark}, in conjunction with the strong luminescence enhancing effect (cofluorescence) of yttrium(III) or gadolinium(III), can eliminate the need for such specialized instrumentation. In the presence of Gd(III), the luminescence of the Eu(III)-macrocycles can be conveniently observed with conventional fluorescence instrumentation at previously unattainable low levels. The Eu(III) {sup 5}D{sub 0} {r_arrow} {sup 7}F{sub 2} emissionmore » of the Eu(III)-macrocycles was observed as an extremely sharp band with a maximum at 619 nm and a clearly resolved characteristic pattern. At very low Eu(III)-macrocycle concentrations, another sharp emission was detected at 614 nm, arising from traces of Eu(III) present in even the purest commercially available gadolinium products. Discrimination of the resolved emissions of the Eu(III)-macrocycle and Eu(III) contaminant should provide a means to further lower the limit of detection of the Eu(III)-macrocycle.« less

  2. Lanthanide/Actinide Opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungerford, Aimee; Fontes, Christopher J.

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational wave observations benefit from accompanying electromagnetic signals in order to accurately determine the sky positions of the sources. The ejecta of neutron star mergers are expected to produce such electromagnetic transients, called macronovae (e.g. the recent and unprecedented observation of GW170817). Characteristics of the ejecta include large velocity gradients and the presence of heavy r-process elements, which pose significant challenges to the accurate calculation of radiative opacities and radiation transport. Opacities include a dense forest of bound-bound features arising from near-neutral lanthanide and actinide elements. Here we present an overview of current theoretical opacity determinations that are used by neutron star merger light curve modelers. We will touch on atomic physics and plasma modeling codes that are used to generate these opacities, as well as the limited body of laboratory experiments that may serve as points of validation for these complex atomic physics calculations.

  3. Assessing the exchange coupling in binuclear lanthanide(iii) complexes and the slow relaxation of the magnetization in the antiferromagnetically coupled Dy2 derivative.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chun Y; Bolvin, Hélène; Campbell, Victoria E; Guillot, Régis; Kampf, Jeff W; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Mallah, Talal

    2015-07-01

    We report here the synthesis and the investigation of the magnetic properties of a series of binuclear lanthanide complexes belonging to the metallacrown family. The isostructural complexes have a core structure with the general formula [Ga 4 Ln 2 (shi 3- ) 4 (Hshi 2- ) 2 (H 2 shi - ) 2 (C 5 H 5 N) 4 (CH 3 OH) x (H 2 O) x ]· x C 5 H 5 N· x CH 3 OH· x H 2 O (where H 3 shi = salicylhydroxamic acid and Ln = Gd III 1 ; Tb III 2 ; Dy III 3 ; Er III 4 ; Y III 5 ; Y III 0.9 Dy III 0.1 6 ). Apart from the Er-containing complex, all complexes exhibit an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling leading to a diamagnetic ground state. Magnetic studies, below 2 K, on a single crystal of 3 using a micro-squid array reveal an opening of the magnetic hysteresis cycle at zero field. The dynamic susceptibility studies of 3 and of the diluted DyY 6 complexes reveal the presence of two relaxation processes for 3 that are due to the excited ferromagnetic state and to the uncoupled Dy III ions. The antiferromagnetic coupling in 3 was shown to be mainly due to an exchange mechanism, which accounts for about 2/3 of the energy gap between the antiferro- and the ferromagnetic states. The overlap integrals between the Natural Spin Orbitals (NSOs) of the mononuclear fragments, which are related to the magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange, are one order of magnitude larger for the Dy 2 than for the Er 2 complex.

  4. Effect of lanthanides on the aromatic system of benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Włlodzimierz

    1983-08-01

    The stucture of lanthanide complexes with benzoic acid was investigated by IR and UV absorption spectra. To determine the effect of metal coordination on the aromatic system of benzoic acid, IR spectra of Ln(OBz) 3 (Ln is a lanthanide except promethium; BzO is benzoic acid radical) were compared with ligand and sodium benzoate spectra. Also, changes in frequency and relative intensity of the ? bands in the 1600-1400 cm -1 region, were analyzed in terms of the atomic number of lanthanides. It is shown that lanthanides disturb the aromatic system of the benzoate ligand less than sodium. This effect is discussed in terms of the bonds formed.

  5. Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M Marques; Scheinost, A C; Baeyens, B

    2016-08-01

    The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/An(III)) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto weak sites. The fitting of sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/An(III)-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/An(III) carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/An(III) form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/An(III) binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/An(III) complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one

  6. Ionization Energies of Lanthanides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how data are used to analyze the pattern of ionization energies of the lanthanide elements. Different observed pathways of ionization between different ground states are discussed, and the effects of pairing, exchange, and orbital interactions on ionization energies of the lanthanides are evaluated. When all the above…

  7. Design principles and theory of paramagnetic fluorine-labelled lanthanide complexes as probes for (19)F magnetic resonance: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Kirsten H; De Luca, Elena; Hogg, Naomi H M; Kenwright, Alan M; Kuprov, Ilya; Parker, David; Botta, Mauro; Wilson, J Ian; Blamire, Andrew M

    2010-01-04

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of a series of CF(3)-labelled lanthanide(III) complexes (Ln=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) with amide-substituted ligands based on 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane are described. The theoretical contributions of the (19)F magnetic relaxation processes in these systems are critically assessed and selected volumetric plots are presented. These plots allow an accurate estimation of the increase in the rates of longitudinal and transverse relaxation as a function of the distance between the Ln(III) ion and the fluorine nucleus, the applied magnetic field, and the re-rotational correlation time of the complex, for a given Ln(III) ion. Selected complexes exhibit pH-dependent chemical shift behaviour, and a pK(a) of 7.0 was determined in one example based on the holmium complex of an ortho-cyano DO3A-monoamide ligand, which allowed the pH to be assessed by measuring the difference in chemical shift (varying by over 14 ppm) between two (19)F resonances. Relaxation analyses of variable-temperature and variable-field (19)F, (17)O and (1)H NMR spectroscopy experiments are reported, aided by identification of salient low-energy conformers by using density functional theory. The study of fluorine relaxation rates, over a field range of 4.7 to 16.5 T allowed precise computation of the distance between the Ln(III) ion and the CF(3) reporter group by using global fitting methods. The sensitivity benefits of using such paramagnetic fluorinated probes in (19)F NMR spectroscopic studies are quantified in preliminary spectroscopic and imaging experiments with respect to a diamagnetic yttrium(III) analogue.

  8. Understanding the complexation of Eu3+ with potential ligands used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle: A luminescence investigation.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arijit; Kadam, R M

    2017-02-15

    A systematic photoluminescence based investigation was carried out to understand the complexation of Eu 3+ with different ligands (TBP: tri-n-butyl phosphate, DHOA: di-n-hexyl octanamide, Cyanex 923: tri-n-alkyl phosphine oxide and Cyanex 272: Bis (2,4,4 trimethyl) pentyl phosphinic acid) used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. In case of TBP and DHOA complexes, 3 ligand molecules coordinated in monodentate fashion and 3 nitrate ion in bidentate fashion to Eu 3+ to satisfy the 9 coordination of Eu. In case of Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 complexes, 3 ligand molecules, 3 nitrate ion and 3 water molecules coordinated to Eu 3+ in monodentate fashion. The Eu complexes of TBP and DHOA were found to have D 3h local symmetry while that for Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 were C 3h . Judd-Ofelt analysis of these systems revealed that the covalency of EuO bond followed the trend DHOA>TBP>Cyanex 272>Cyanex 923. Different photophysical properties like radiative and non-radiative life time, branching ratio for different transitions, magnetic and electric dipole moment transition probabilities and quantum efficiency were also evaluated and compared for these systems. The magnetic dipole transition probability was found to be almost independent of ligand field perturbation while electric dipole transition probability for 5 D 0 - 7 F 2 transition was found to be hypersensitive with ligand field with a trend DHOA>TBP>Cyanex 272>Cyanex 923. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the complexation of Eu3 + with potential ligands used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle: A luminescence investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Kadam, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    A systematic photoluminescence based investigation was carried out to understand the complexation of Eu3 + with different ligands (TBP: tri-n-butyl phosphate, DHOA: di-n-hexyl octanamide, Cyanex 923: tri-n-alkyl phosphine oxide and Cyanex 272: Bis (2,4,4 trimethyl) pentyl phosphinic acid) used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. In case of TBP and DHOA complexes, 3 ligand molecules coordinated in monodentate fashion and 3 nitrate ion in bidentate fashion to Eu3 + to satisfy the 9 coordination of Eu. In case of Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 complexes, 3 ligand molecules, 3 nitrate ion and 3 water molecules coordinated to Eu3 + in monodentate fashion. The Eu complexes of TBP and DHOA were found to have D3h local symmetry while that for Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 were C3h. Judd-Ofelt analysis of these systems revealed that the covalency of Eusbnd O bond followed the trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Different photophysical properties like radiative and non-radiative life time, branching ratio for different transitions, magnetic and electric dipole moment transition probabilities and quantum efficiency were also evaluated and compared for these systems. The magnetic dipole transition probability was found to be almost independent of ligand field perturbation while electric dipole transition probability for 5D0-7F2 transition was found to be hypersensitive with ligand field with a trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Supplementary Table 2: Determination of inner sphere water molecules from the different empirical formulae reported in the literature.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Electroresponsive Materials with Applications In: Part I. Second Harmonic Generation. Part II. Organic-Lanthanide Ion Complexes for Electroluminescence and Optical Amplifiers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Materials for optical waveguides were developed from two different approaches, inorganic-organic composites and soft gel polymers. Inorganic-organic composites were developed from alkoxysilane and organically modified silanes based on nonlinear optical chromophores. Organically modified silanes based on N-((3^' -trialkoxysilyl)propyl)-4-nitroaniline were synthesized and sol-gelled with trimethoxysilane. After a densification process at 190^circC with a corona discharge, the second harmonic of the film was measured with a Nd:YAG laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, d_{33} = 13pm/V. The decay of the second harmonic was expressed by a stretched bi-exponential equation. The decay time (tau _2) was equal to 3374 hours, and was comparable to nonlinear optical systems based on epoxy/Disperse Orange 1. The processing temperature of the organically modified silane was limited to 200^circC due to the decomposition of the organic chromophore. Soft gel polymers were synthesized and characterized for the development of optical waveguides with dc-electrical field assisted phase-matching. Polymers based on 4-nitroaniline terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) were shown to exhibit second harmonic generation that were optically phase-matched in an electrical field. The optical signals were stable and reproducible. Siloxane polymers modified with 1-mercapto-4-nitrobenzene and 1-mercapto-4-methylsulfonylstilbene nonlinear optical chromophores were synthesized. The physical and the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the polymers were characterized. Waveguides were developed from the polymers which were optically phase -matched and had an efficiency of 8.1%. The siloxane polymers exhibited optical phase-matching in an applied electrical field and can be used with a semiconductor laser. Organic lanthanide ion complexes for electroluminescence and optical amplifiers were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized for their thermal and

  11. Upconverting rare-earth nanoparticles with a paramagnetic lanthanide complex shell for upconversion fluorescent and magnetic resonance dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Ji, Lei; Zhang, Bingbo; Yin, Peihao; Qiu, Yanyan; Song, Daqian; Zhou, Juying; Li, Qi

    2013-05-01

    Multi-modal imaging based on multifunctional nanoparticles is a promising alternative approach to improve the sensitivity of early cancer diagnosis. In this study, highly upconverting fluorescence and strong relaxivity rare-earth nanoparticles coated with paramagnetic lanthanide complex shells and polyethylene glycol (PEGylated UCNPs@DTPA-Gd3+) are synthesized as dual-modality imaging contrast agents (CAs) for upconverting fluorescent and magnetic resonance dual-modality imaging. PEGylated UCNPs@DTPA-Gd3+ with sizes in the range of 32-86 nm are colloidally stable. They exhibit higher longitudinal relaxivity and transverse relaxivity in water (r1 and r2 values are 7.4 and 27.8 s-1 per mM Gd3+, respectively) than does commercial Gd-DTPA (r1 and r2 values of 3.7 and 4.6 s-1 per mM Gd3+, respectively). They are found to be biocompatible. In vitro cancer cell imaging shows good imaging contrast of PEGylated UCNPs@DTPA-Gd3+. In vivo upconversion fluorescent imaging and T1-weighted MRI show excellent enhancement of both fluorescent and MR signals in the livers of mice administered PEGylated UCNPs@DTPA-Gd3+. All the experimental results indicate that the synthesized PEGylated UCNPs@DTPA-Gd3+ present great potential for biomedical upconversion of fluorescent and magnetic resonance dual-modality imaging applications.

  12. Multifunctional nanocomposites of lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+) complexes functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanospheres covalently bonded with polymer modified ZnO.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Shao, Yan-Fei

    2013-07-14

    Methacrylic-group-modified ZnO nanoparticles (designated ZnO-MAA) prepared through the sol-gel process are copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to form ZnO-MAA-PHEMA hybrid system. ZnO-MAA-PHEMA unit is functionalized with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TEPIC) to form ZnO-MAA-PHEMA-Si hybrids, and then is incorporated with oleic acid-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ZnO-MAA-PHEMA-Si. Subsequently, ZnO-polymer covalently bonded mesoporous silica nanospheres are assembled using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template. Furthermore, lanthanide (Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) complexes with nicotinic acid (NTA), isonicotinic acid (INTA) and 2-chloronicotinic (CNTA) are introduced by coordination bonds, resulting in the final multifunctional nanocomposites. The detailed physical characterization of these hybrids is discussed in detail. It reveals that they possess both magnetic and luminescent properties. Especially Eu(ZnO-MMS)(CNTA)3 and Tb(ZnO-MMS)(NTA)3 present high quantum yield values of 32.2% and 68.5%, respectively. The results will lay the foundation for further application in biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields.

  13. A lanthanide complex with dual biosensing properties: CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer) and BIRDS (biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts) with europium DOTA-tetraglycinate.

    PubMed

    Coman, Daniel; Kiefer, Garry E; Rothman, Douglas L; Sherry, A Dean; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2011-12-01

    Responsive contrast agents (RCAs) composed of lanthanide(III) ion (Ln3R) complexes with a variety of1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTA4S) derivatives have shown great potential as molecular imaging agents for MR. A variety of LnDOTA–tetraamide complexes have been demonstrated as RCAs for molecular imaging using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). The CEST method detects proton exchange between bulk water and any exchangeable sites on the ligand itself or an inner sphere of bound water that is shifted by a paramagnetic Ln3R ion bound in the core of the macrocycle. It has also been shown that molecular imaging is possible when the RCA itself is observed (i.e. not its effect on bulk water) using a method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS). The BIRDS method utilizes redundant information stored in the nonexchangeable proton resonances emanating from the paramagnetic RCA for ambient factors such as temperature and/or pH.Thus, CEST and BIRDS rely on exchangeable and nonexchangeable protons, respectively, for biosensing. We posited that it would be feasible to combine these two biosensing features into the same RCA (i.e. dual CEST and BIRDS properties). A complex between europium(III) ion (Eu3R) and DOTA–tetraglycinate [DOTA–(gly)S4] was used to demonstrate that its CEST characteristics are preserved, while its BIRDS properties are also detectable. The in vitro temperature sensitivity of EuDOTA–(gly)S4 was used to show that qualitative MR contrast with CEST can be calibrated using quantitative MR mapping with BIRDS, thereby enabling quantitative molecular imaging at high spatial resolution.

  14. Titanium, aluminum and zinc complexes containing diamine-bis(benzotriazole phenolate) ligands: Synthesis, structural characterization and catalytic studies for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Tang; Li, Chen-Yu; Chen, Jhy-Der; Liu, Wan-Ling; Tsai, Chen-Yen; Ko, Bao-Tsan

    2017-04-01

    Structurally diverse metal complexes bearing diamine-bis(benzotriazole phenolate) (DiBTP) ligands have been synthesized and fully characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The reaction of Ti(OiPr)4 with C8MEADiBTP-H2 or C8BEADiBTP-H2 (1.0 mol equiv.) generated the monomeric titanium alkoxy complexes [(C8MEADiBTP)Ti(OiPr)2] (1) and [(C8BEADiBTP)Ti(OiPr)2] (2), respectively. Moreover, C8BEADiBTP-H2 reacted with 2.0 molar equiv. of AlMe3 to give the tetra-coordinated di-aluminum complex [(C8BEADiBTP)Al2Me4] (3). Zinc complex [(C8BEADiBTP)Zn2Et2] (4) could be obtained by the alkane elimination of ZnEt2 (2.0 equiv.) with C8BEADiBTP-H2 as the pro-ligand under similar synthetic methods in good yield. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that 3 is a bimetallic aluminum dimethyl complex with a tetradentate C8BEADiBTP moiety chelating two metal atoms, whereas complex 4 displays the dinuclear feature containing both tetra- and penta-coordinated zinc atoms bonded by one ONNON-pentadentate C8BEADiBTP ligand. Catalytic studies for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone of complex 1-4 were systematic explored; the comparative studies of such polymerization were also discussed.

  15. Dual lanthanide-doped complexes: the development of a time-resolved ratiometric fluorescent probe for anthrax biomarker and a paper-based visual sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Xian; Xue, Shi-Fan; Chen, Zi-Han; Ma, Shi-Hui; Zhang, Shengqiang; Shi, Guoyue; Zhang, Min

    2017-08-15

    In this work, a novel time-resolved ratiometric fluorescent probe based on dual lanthanide (Tb: terbium, and Eu: europium)-doped complexes (Tb/DPA@SiO 2 -Eu/GMP) has been designed for detecting anthrax biomarker (dipicolinic acid, DPA), a unique and major component of anthrax spores. In such complexes-based probe, Tb/DPA@SiO 2 can serve as a stable reference signal with green fluorescence and Eu/GMP act as a sensitive response signal with red fluorescence for ratiometric fluorescent sensing DPA. Additionally, the probe exhibits long fluorescence lifetime, which can significantly reduce the autofluorescence interferences from biological samples by using time-resolved fluorescence measurement. More significantly, a paper-based visual sensor for DPA has been devised by using filter paper embedded with Tb/DPA@SiO 2 -Eu/GMP, and we have proved its utility for fluorescent detection of DPA, in which only a handheld UV lamp is used. In the presence of DPA, the paper-based visual sensor, illuminated by a handheld UV lamp, would result in an obvious fluorescence color change from green to red, which can be easily observed with naked eyes. The paper-based visual sensor is stable, portable, disposable, cost-effective and easy-to-use. The feasibility of using a smartphone with easy-to-access color-scanning APP as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays has been also demonstrated by coupled with our proposed paper-based visual sensor. This work unveils an effective method for accurate, sensitive and selective monitoring anthrax biomarker with backgroud-free and self-calibrating properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry Model for the Lanthanides: RM1 (Recife Model 1) Parameters for Dysprosium, Holmium and Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.; Freire, Ricardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of dysprosium, holmium, and erbium find many applications as single-molecule magnets, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, as anti-cancer agents, in optical telecommunications, etc. Therefore, the development of tools that can be proven helpful to complex design is presently an active area of research. In this article, we advance a major improvement to the semiempirical description of lanthanide complexes: the Recife Model 1, RM1, model for the lanthanides, parameterized for the trications of Dy, Ho, and Er. By representing such lanthanide in the RM1 calculation as a three-electron atom with a set of 5 d, 6 s, and 6 p semiempirical orbitals, the accuracy of the previous sparkle models, mainly concentrated on lanthanide-oxygen and lanthanide-nitrogen distances, is extended to other types of bonds in the trication complexes’ coordination polyhedra, such as lanthanide-carbon, lanthanide-chlorine, etc. This is even more important as, for example, lanthanide-carbon atom distances in the coordination polyhedra of the complexes comprise about 30% of all distances for all complexes of Dy, Ho, and Er considered. Our results indicate that the average unsigned mean error for the lanthanide-carbon distances dropped from an average of 0.30 Å, for the sparkle models, to 0.04 Å for the RM1 model for the lanthanides; for a total of 509 such distances for the set of all Dy, Ho, and Er complexes considered. A similar behavior took place for the other distances as well, such as lanthanide-chlorine, lanthanide-bromine, lanthanide, phosphorus and lanthanide-sulfur. Thus, the RM1 model for the lanthanides, being advanced in this article, broadens the range of application of semiempirical models to lanthanide complexes by including comprehensively many other types of bonds not adequately described by the previous models. PMID:24497945

  17. Relaxometry, luminescence measurements, electrophoresis, and animal biodistribution of lanthanide(III) complexes of some polyaza macrocyclic acetates containing pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.D.; Sherry, A.D.; Kiefer, G.E.

    Four Gd{sup 3+} complexes [Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] with polyazamacrocyclic ligands that contain a pyridine moiety were prepared and examined for possible use as MRI contrast enhancement agents. The authors estimated the number of inner sphere water molecules (q{sub Gd}) for the Gd{sup 3+} complexes from the values of q found for the Tb{sup 3+} and/or Eu{sup 3+} complexes by luminescence lifetime measurements. It was estimated that q{sub Gd} = 3.5, 3.3, 2.4, and 0.2 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}, respectively. The inner sphere relaxivities (r{sub 1,inner}) of these tetraazamore » macrocyclic complexes were higher than that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} [i.e. 6.79 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, 6.21 for Gd(PC2A){sup +}, and 4.60 for Gd(PCTA){sup 0} mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} at 40 MHz and 25{degrees}C], but the normalized relaxivities per q{sub Gd} (1.94, 1.88, and 1.92 mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively) were comparable to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}. A quantitative treatment of the NMRD profiles based on Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan theory, using the NMRD profile of Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}} to correct for an outer sphere contribution, showed that the complexes exhibit characteristics similar to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} but with shorter electronic relaxation times. Tissue biodistribution results using radioactive {sup 153}Sm and {sup 159}Gd complexes in rats indicate that the cationic [{sup 153}Sm-(BP2A){sup +} and {sup 153}Sm(PC2A){sup +}] complexes accumulate preferably in the bone tissue while the neutral [{sup 153}Sm-(PCTA){sup 0}] and anionic [{sup 153}Sm(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] complexes appear to have renal clearances similar to those of other low molecular weight contrast agents [i.e. Gd(DTPA){sup 2{minus}} and Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}].« less

  18. Influence of metal loading and humic acid functional groups on the complexation behavior of trivalent lanthanides analyzed by CE-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas M; Beck, Horst P

    2014-03-13

    The complexation behavior of Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and a modified humic acid (AHA-PB) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl groups for trivalent lanthanides (Ln) is compared, and their influence on the mobility of Ln(III) in an aquifer is analyzed. As speciation technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For metal loading experiments 25 mg L(-1) of AHA and different concentrations (cLn(Eu+Gd)=100-6000 μg L(-1)) of Eu(III) and Gd(III) in 10mM NaClO4 at pH 5 were applied. By CE-ICP-MS, three Ln-fractions, assumed to be uncomplexed, weakly and strongly AHA-complexed metal can be detected. For the used Ln/AHA-ratios conservative complex stability constants log βLnAHA decrease from 6.33 (100 μg L(-1) Ln(3+)) to 4.31 (6000 μg L(-1) Ln(3+)) with growing Ln-content. In order to verify the postulated weaker and stronger humic acid binding sites for trivalent Eu and Gd, a modified AHA with blocked functional groups was used. For these experiments 500 μg L(-1) Eu and 25 mg L(-1) AHA and AHA-PB in 10mM NaClO4 at pH-values ranging from 3 to 10 have been applied. With AHA-PB, where 84% of the phenolic OH-groups and 40% of the COOH-groups were blocked, Eu complexation was significantly lower, especially at the strong binding sites. The log β-values decrease from 6.11 (pH 10) to 5.61 at pH 3 (AHA) and for AHA-PB from 6.01 (pH 7) to 3.94 at pH 3. As a potential consequence, particularly humic acids with a high amount of strong binding sites (e.g. phenolic OH- and COOH-groups) can be responsible for a higher metal mobility in the aquifer due to the formation of dissolved negatively charged metal-humate species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective concentration as a tool for quantitatively addressing preorganization in multicomponent assemblies: application to the selective complexation of lanthanide cations.

    PubMed

    Canard, Gabriel; Koeller, Sylvain; Bernardinelli, Gérald; Piguet, Claude

    2008-01-23

    The beneficial entropic effect, which may be expected from the connection of three tridentate binding units to a strain-free covalent tripod for complexing nine-coordinate cations (Mz+ = Ca2+, La3+, Eu3+, Lu3+), is quantitatively analyzed by using a simple thermodynamic additive model. The switch from pure intermolecular binding processes, characterizing the formation of the triple-helical complexes [M(L2)3]z+, to a combination of inter- and intramolecular complexation events in [M(L8)]z+ shows that the ideal structural fit observed in [M(L8)]z+ indeed masks large energetic constraints. This limitation is evidenced by the faint effective concentrations, ceff, which control the intramolecular ring-closing reactions operating in [M(L8)]z+. This predominence of the thermodynamic approach over the usual structural analysis agrees with the hierarchical relationships linking energetics and structures. Its simple estimation by using a single microscopic parameter, ceff, opens novel perspectives for the molecular tuning of specific receptors for the recognition of large cations, a crucial point for the programming of heterometallic f-f complexes under thermodynamic control.

  20. Trivalent scandium, yttrium and lanthanide complexes with thia-oxa and selena-oxa macrocycles and crown ether coordination.

    PubMed

    Champion, Martin J D; Farina, Paolo; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian

    2013-09-28

    Complexes of the oxa-thia macrocycles [18]aneO4S2, [15]aneO3S2 and the oxa-selena macrocycle [18]aneO4Se2 (L) of types [MCl2(L)]FeCl4 (M = Sc or Y) were prepared from [ScCl3(thf)3] or [YCl2(THF)5][YCl4(THF)2] and the ligand in anhydrous MeCN, using FeCl3 as a chloride abstractor. The [MI2(L)]I, [LaI3(L)] and [LuI2(L)]I have been prepared from the ligands and the appropriate anhydrous metal triiodide in MeCN. Complexes of type [LaI3(crown)] and [LuI2(crown)]I (crown = 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5) were made for comparison. Use of the metal iodide results in complexes with high solubility compared to the corresponding chlorides, although also with increased sensitivity to moisture. All complexes were characterised by microanalysis, IR, (1)H, (45)Sc and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy as appropriate. X-ray crystal structures are reported for [ScCl2([18]aneO4S2)][FeCl4], [ScI2([18]aneO4S2)]I, [YCl2(18-crown-6)]3[Y2Cl9], [YCl2([18]aneO4S2)][FeCl4], [LaI3(15-crown-5)], [LaI2(18-crown-6)(MeCN)]I, [LuI(18-crown-6)(MeCN)2]I2, [Lu(15-crown-5)(MeCN)2(OH2)]I3, [LaI3([18]aneO4S2)], [LaI([18]aneO4S2)(OH2)]I2, [LaI3([18]aneO4Se2)] and [LuI2([18]aneO4Se2)]I. In each complex all the neutral donor atoms of the macrocycles are coordinated to the metal centre, showing very rare examples of these oxophilic metal centres coordinated to thioether groups, and the first examples of coordinated selenoether donors. In some cases MeCN or adventitious water displaces halide ligands, but not the S/Se donors from La or Lu complexes. A complex of the oxa-tellura macrocycle [18]aneO4Te2, [ScCl2([18]aneO4Te2)][FeCl4] was isolated, but is unstable in MeCN solution, depositing elemental Te. YCl3 and 18-crown-6 produced [YCl2(18-crown-6)]3[Y2Cl9], the asymmetric unit of which contains two cations with a trans-YCl2 arrangement and a third with a cis-YCl2 group.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shift Reagents: Abnormal 13C Shifts Produced by Complexation of Lanthanide Chelates with Saturated Amines and n-Butyl Isocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Claude; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Roberts, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Lanthanide-induced shfits of 13C nuclear magnetic resonances are reported for several amines and n-butyl isocyanide. Contact contributions to such shifts, especially of β carbons, are clearly important for the chelates of Eu+3 and Pr+3. The importance of contact terms is shown to change in a rather predictable manner with the structure of the amine. PMID:16592062

  2. Preparation of Lanthanide-Polymer Composite Material via Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wen, Guian; Wu, Jiajie; Feng, Jiachun

    2015-10-01

    Covalently attaching lanthanide complexes to the polymer backbone can effectively reduce the clustering of lanthanides and thus become an important strategy to fully unleash their potential. In this Communication, a metal-free click reaction is used for the first time to link a lanthanide complex to the polymer matrix. A diene-bearing copolymer with anthracenylmethyl methacrylate as a monomer and a dienophile-bearing lanthanide complex with 5-maleimido-1,10-phenanthroline as the second ligand are synthesized and coupled together through a Diels-Alder cycloaddition (DA). A comparative investigation demonstrates that the composite material prepared by DA click reaction shows the highest quantum yields in the same lanthanide concentration as compared to materials prepared by widely used "directly doping" and "in situ coordinating lanthanide ions with macromolecular ligand" approaches. This work suggests that the "metal-free" DA click reaction can be a promising tool in the synthesis of high efficient lanthanide functionalized polymeric materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Method to synthesize lanthanide fluoride materials from lanthanide fluorinated alkoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    Lanthanide fluorinated alkoxide derivatives can be synthesized from the alcoholysis reaction of the lanthanide bis-trimethylsilyl amide and an excess amount of hexafluoro iso-propanol. Nanoparticles can be formed from the lanthanide fluorinated alkoxide derivatives by a solvothermal or solution precipitation process.

  4. Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xue-Qin, E-mail: songxq@mail.lzjtu.cn; Lei, Yao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Run

    2014-10-15

    The new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand incorporating furfurysalicylamide terminal groups, namely, 1,4-bis([(2′-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl)-2,5-bismethylbenzene (L) was synthesized and used as building blocks for constructing lanthanide coordination polymers with luminescent properties. The series of lanthanide nitrate complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The semirigid ligand L, as a bridging ligand, reacts with lanthanide nitrates forming three distinct structure types: chiral noninterpenetrated two-dimensional (2D) honeycomblike (6,3) (hcb, Schläfli symbol 6{sup 3}, vertex symbol 6 6 6) topological network as type I, 1D zigzag chain as type II and 1D trapezoid ladder-like chain as type III. The structural diversitiesmore » indicate that lanthanide contraction effect played significant roles in the structural self-assembled process. The luminescent properties of Eu{sup III}, Tb{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes are discussed in detail. Due to the good match between the lowest triplet state of the ligand and the resonant energy level of the lanthanide ion, the lanthanide ions in Eu{sup III}, Tb{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes can be efficiently sensitized by the ligand. - Graphical abstract: We present herein six lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand which not only display diverse structures but also possess strong luminescence properties. - Highlights: • We present lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand. • The lanthanide coordination polymers exhibit diverse structures. • The luminescent properties of Tb{sup III}, Eu{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes are discussed in detail.« less

  5. Complex magnetism of lanthanide intermetallics and the role of their valence electrons: Ab Initio theory and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Petit, L.; Paudyal, D.; Mudryk, Y.; ...

    2015-11-09

    We explain a profound complexity of magnetic interactions of some technologically relevant gadolinium intermetallics using an ab initio electronic structure theory which includes disordered local moments and strong f-electron correlations. The theory correctly finds GdZn and GdCd to be simple ferromagnets and predicts a remarkably large increase of Curie temperature with a pressure of +1.5 K kbar –1 for GdCd confirmed by our experimental measurements of +1.6 K kbar –1. Moreover, we find the origin of a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic competition in GdMg manifested by noncollinear, canted magnetic order at low temperatures. As a result, replacing 35% of the Mg atoms withmore » Zn removes this transition, in excellent agreement with long-standing experimental data.« less

  6. Ligand-Sensitized Lanthanide Nanocrystals: Merging Solid-State Photophysics and Molecular Solution Chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Agbo, Peter; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2016-06-30

    To date, the breadth of scientific research that has been devoted to investigating the photochemical and photophysical behavior of the lanthanide elements has generally fallen into one of two camps: solution studies of luminescent lanthanide metal-ligand complexes or investigations of solid-state nanoparticles, composed primarily of, or doped with, lanthan ide lumiphores. In the latter case, most research of lanthanide nanocolloids has precluded any investigations regarding the use of organic ligands to overcome the difficulties associated with f-f excitation of lanthanides. Instead, most work on condensed-phase lanthanide luminescence has centered on strategies such as d-f charge separation in divalent lanthanides andmore » the sensitization of lanthanide excited states using quantum dots. Current work now aims at bridging the camps of condensed-phase lanthanide photophysics and the solution chemistry of ligand-lanthanide molecular complexes. Some recent efforts have partly focused on the fundamental characterization of NaGd 1-x Ln x F 4 nanoparticles featuring surface display of the sensitizer ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), showing these structures to be capable of converting absorbed UV light into luminescence from Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions. Our results suggest such a use of the ligand sensitization as a tool of choice to overcome the constraints of UV solar spectrum/semiconductor band-gap mismatch and low absorption cross sections in solid-state lanthanide systems.« less

  7. Lanthanide ion (III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate for dual biosensing of pH with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Ali, Meser M; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Relaxivity-based magnetic resonance of phosphonated ligands chelated with gadolinium (Gd(3+)) shows promise for pH imaging. However instead of monitoring the paramagnetic effect of lanthanide complexes on the relaxivity of water protons, biosensor (or molecular) imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting either the nonexchangeable or the exchangeable protons on the lanthanide complexes themselves. The nonexchangeable protons (e.g. -CHx, where 3 ≥ x ≥ 1) are detected using a three-dimensional chemical shift imaging method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS), whereas the exchangeable protons (e.g. -OH or -NHy , where 2 ≥ y ≥ 1) are measured with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast. Here we tested the feasibility of BIRDS and CEST for pH imaging of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP(8-)) chelated with thulium (Tm(3+) ) and ytterbium (Yb(3+)). BIRDS and CEST experiments show that both complexes are responsive to pH and temperature changes. Higher pH and temperature sensitivities are obtained with BIRDS for either complex when using the chemical shift difference between two proton resonances vs using the chemical shift of a single proton resonance, thereby eliminating the need to use water resonance as reference. While CEST contrast for both agents is linearly dependent on pH within a relatively large range (i.e. 6.3-7.9), much stronger CEST contrast is obtained with YbDOTA-4AmP(5-) than with TmDOTA-4AmP(5-). In addition, we demonstrate the prospect of using BIRDS to calibrate CEST as new platform for quantitative pH imaging. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides

    PubMed Central

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-01-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction. PMID:27087470

  9. Luminescent 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone chelates of lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jide; Moore, Evan G.; Werner, Eric J.

    2013-10-15

    The present invention provides luminescent complexes between a lanthanide ion and an organic ligand which contains 1,2-hydroxypyridinone units. The complexes of the invention are stable in aqueous solutions and are useful as molecular probes, for example in medical diagnostics and bioanalytical assay systems. The invention also provides methods of using the complexes of the invention.

  10. Luminescent 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone chelates of lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jide; Moore, Evan G.; Werner, Eric J.

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides luminescent complexes between a lanthanide ion and an organic ligand which contains 1,2-hydroxypyridinone units. The complexes of the invention are stable in aqueous solutions and are useful as molecular probes, for example in medical diagnostics and bioanalytical assay systems. The invention also provides methods of using the complexes of the invention.

  11. Improving the SMM and luminescence properties of lanthanide complexes with LnO9 cores in the presence of ZnII: an emissive Zn2Dy single ion magnet.

    PubMed

    Fondo, Matilde; Corredoira-Vázquez, Julio; Herrera-Lanzós, Antía; García-Deibe, Ana M; Sanmartín-Matalobos, Jesús; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Colacio, Enrique; Nuñez, Cristina

    2017-12-12

    Mononuclear complexes of stoichiometry [Ln(H 3 L)(H 2 O)(NO 3 )](NO 3 ) 2 (Ln = Tb, 1; Dy, 2, Er, 3), which crystallise with different solvates, and the heterotrinuclear compound [Zn 2 Dy(L)(NO 3 ) 3 (OH)] (4) can be obtained with the same H 3 L compartmental ligand. The single X-ray crystal structure of the mononuclear complexes shows a LnO 9 core with a muffin-like disposition while the geometry of the DyO 9 core in 4 seems to be closer to spherical capped square antiprism. The analysis of the magnetic properties of all the complexes demonstrates that the mononuclear lanthanide compounds do not show slow relaxation of the magnetization, even when the samples are diluted with a diamagnetic matrix and subjected to a dc applied field of 1000 Oe. Nevertheless, the heterotrinuclear dysprosium complex 4·3H 2 O is a field-induced single ion magnet, with an estimated U eff barrier of 59 K. The luminescence characterisation of all the metal complexes in methanol solution at 298 K also shows a notable increase in the fluorescence emission of the heterotrinuclear complex with respect to the mononuclear ones, in such a way that 4 can be defined as a fluorescent single ion magnet.

  12. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    DOEpatents

    Beitz, James V [Hinsdale, IL; Williams, Clayton W [Chicago, IL

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  13. Protonation at the aromatic ring vs at the carbonyl group of lanthanide-diaryl ketone dianion species by aryl alcohols. Formation, structural characterization, and reactivity of lanthanide aryloxide, mixed aryloxide/alkoxide, and aryloxide/enolate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Hou, Z.; Wakatsuki, Yasua

    1995-11-01

    Reaction of the ytterbium-benzophenone dianion complex (1), which was formed by reaction of Yb metal with benzophenone in THF/HMPA, with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, yielded the ytterbium(II) aryloxide complex Yb(OAr){sub 2}(HMPA){sub 2} (2, Ar= C{sub 6}H{sub 2} -{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-2,6-Me-4) as a major product (80%) and the ytterbium(III) enolate complex (3) as a minor one (ca. 5% yield). The mechanisms of these reactions are discussed. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that 3, 4a, and 7b are isostructural, and so are 5a and 6. The central metal ions in these complexes are all five-coordinated in a trigonal bipyramid form (highly distorted in the case ofmore » 5a and 6) with two HMPA ligands at the apical and three anionic oxygen ligands at the equatorial positions. 25 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  14. Luminescent properties and structure of new CAPh-based lanthanide complexes [LnL3Q], containing additional bis-heterocyclic aromatic ligand-antenna 2-(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl) pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Oleksii O.; Kariaka, Nataliia S.; Trush, Victor A.; Smola, Sergii S.; Siczek, Milosz; Amirkhanov, Vladimir M.

    2018-01-01

    The new lanthanide coordination compounds of general formula [LnL3Q], where Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb; L = dimethyl-N-trichloroacetylamidophosphate and Q = 2-(1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine, have been synthesized and isolated in crystalline state with the purpose of finding new interesting optical materials. X-ray data reveal that complexes have molecular structure with numerous Van-der-Vaals contacts between molecules. All the ligands are coordinated in bidentate chelate manner, coordination polyhedron was interpreted as distored square antiprism (CN 8). The obtained complexes were investigated by means of IR, absorption and luminescence spectroscopy as well and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that complex [TbL3Q] is resistant to temperature of 200 °C. The Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes exhibit bright metal-centered emission with decay time 1.65 and 1.74 ms respectively. Intrinsic quantum yield for [EuL3Q] equals 85% that is one of the highest values, known to date for CAPh based europium complexes.

  15. DFTB+ and lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourahine, B.; Aradi, B.; Frauenheim, T.

    2010-07-01

    DFTB+ is a recent general purpose implementation of density-functional based tight binding. One of the early motivators to develop this code was to investigate lanthanide impurities in nitride semiconductors, leading to a series of successful studies into structure and electrical properties of these systems. Here we describe our general framework to treat the physical effects needed for these problematic impurities within a tight-binding formalism, additionally discussing forces and stresses in DFTB. We also present an approach to evaluate the general case of Slater-Koster transforms and all of their derivatives in Cartesian coordinates. These developments are illustrated by simulating isolated Gd impurities in GaN.

  16. Lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) as useful probes for chirality determination of biological amino alcohols in vibrational circular dichroism: ligand to ligand chirality transfer in lanthanide coordination sphere.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiroyuki; Terada, Keiko; Tsukube, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    A series of lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) functioned as useful chirality probes in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) characterization of biological amino alcohols. Various chiral amino alcohols induced intense VCD signals upon ternary complexation with racemic lanthanide tris(β-diketonates). The VCD signals observed around 1500 cm(-1) (β-diketonate IR absorption region) correlated well with the stereochemistry and enantiomeric purity of the targeted amino alcohol, while the corresponding monoalcohol, monoamine, and diol substrates induced very weak VCD signals. The high-coordination number and dynamic property of the lanthanide complex offer an effective chirality VCD probing of biological substrates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the case of pathogen induced systemic acquired resistance. Results We analyzed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and oxylipin pathways respectively, in tomato treated or not with P. putida BTP1. The bacterial treatment did not stimulate PAL activity and linoleate-consuming LOX activities. Linolenate-consuming LOX activity, on the contrary, was significantly stimulated in P. putida BTP1-inoculated plants before and two days after infection by B. cinerea. This stimulation is due to the increase of transcription level of two isoforms of LOX: TomLoxD and TomLoxF, a newly identified LOX gene. We showed that recombinant TomLOXF preferentially consumes linolenic acid and produces 13-derivative of fatty acids. After challenging with B. cinerea, the increase of transcription of these two LOX genes and higher linolenic acid-consuming LOX activity were associated with a more rapid accumulation of free 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids, two antifungal oxylipins, in bacterized plants. Conclusion In addition to the discovery of a new LOX gene in tomato, this work is the first to show differential induction of LOX isozymes and a more rapid accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids in rhizobacteria mediated-induced systemic resistance. PMID:21294872

  18. Luminescent hybrid lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 1,10-phenanthroline involving in-situ oxidation of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Jie-Cen; Wan, Fang; State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002

    A series of lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates, [Ln{sub 2}(phen){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (I:Ln=Nd(1a), Sm(1b), Eu(1c), phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Ln(phen)(2-SBA)(BZA)]{sub n} (II: Ln=Sm(2a), Eu(2b), Dy(2c), 2-SBA=2-sulfobenzoate, BZA=benzoate) have been hydrothermally synthesized from lanthanide oxide, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra, TG analyses and luminescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in I came from the in situ deep oxidation of thiol groups of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid while 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands in II from the middle oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. Compounds I are organic–inorganic hybridmore » lanthanide sulfates, which have rare one-dimensional column-like structures. Complexes II are binuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate as bridges and 1,10-phenanthroline as terminal. Photoluminescence studies reveal that complexes I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates have been hydrothermally synthesized. Interestingly, sulfate anions, 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands came from the in situ oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. - Highlights: • In situ oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. • The organic–inorganic hybrid lanthanide sulfates with one-dimensional column-like structure. • The dinuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates. • The emission spectra exhibit the characteristic transition of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0–4) of the Eu(III)« less

  19. Characterization and thermogravimetric analysis of lanthanide hexafluoroacetylacetone chelates

    DOE PAGES

    Shahbazi, Shayan; Stratz, S. Adam; Auxier, John D.; ...

    2016-08-30

    This work reports the thermodynamic characterizations of organometallic species as a vehicle for the rapid separation of volatile nuclear fission products via gas chromatography due to differences in adsorption enthalpy. Because adsorption and sublimation thermodynamics are linearly correlated, there is considerable motivation to determine sublimation enthalpies. A method of isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, TGA-MS and melting point analysis are employed on thirteen lanthanide 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetone complexes to determine sublimation enthalpies. An empirical correlation is used to estimate adsorption enthalpies of lanthanide complexes on a quartz column from the sublimation data. Additionally, four chelates are characterized by SC-XRD, elemental analysis, FTIR and NMR.

  20. Determination of the absolute configuration of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and 5-oxoproline in urine samples by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in the presence of chiral lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Bal, Dominika; Gradowska, Wanda; Gryff-Keller, Adam

    2002-06-15

    Determination of the absolute configuration of some metabolites in body fluids is important for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism. Presently available methods of such determinations are tedious and usually require highly specialized instrumentation. In this work, an alternative method, based on high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of the chiral lanthanide shift reagent as an auxiliary additive, has been proposed (NMR/LSR). The method involves the lineshape analysis of a chosen multiplet of the one-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum or application of the two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy (HSQC). In order to confirm the resonance assignments and to boost the signal-noise ratio, the addition of an amount of racemic analyte to the urine sample is recommended. The entire procedure is simple in application and demands minimal or no preprocessing of urine samples. The effectiveness of the method has been confirmed by finding the expected forms of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and 5-oxoproline in the urine samples of an independently diagnosed patient with 2-D-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and 5-L-oxoprolinuria, respectively.

  1. Tri- and tetra-substituted cyclen based lanthanide(III) ion complexes as ribonuclease mimics: a study into the effect of log Ka, hydration and hydrophobicity on phosphodiester hydrolysis of the RNA-model 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNP).

    PubMed

    Fanning, Ann-Marie; Plush, Sally E; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2015-05-28

    A series of tetra-substituted 'pseudo' dipeptide ligands of cyclen (1,4,7,10,-tetraazacyclododecane) and a tri-substituted 3'-pyridine ligand of cyclen, and the corresponding lanthanide(III) complexes were synthesised and characterised as metallo-ribonuclease mimics. All complexes were shown to promote hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNP, τ1/2 = 5.87 × 10(3) h), a well known RNA mimic. The La(III) and Eu(III) tri-substituted 3'-pyridine lanthanide(III) complexes being the most efficient in promoting such hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and at 37 °C; with τ1/2 = 1.67 h for La(III) and 1.74 h for Eu(III). The series was developed to provide the opportunity to investigate the consequences of altering the lanthanide(III) ion, coordination ability and hydrophobicity of a metallo-cavity on the rate of hydrolysis using the model phosphodiester, HPNP, at 37 °C. To further provide information on the role that the log Ka of the metal bound water plays in phosphodiester hydrolysis the protonation constants and the metal ion stability constants of both a tri and tetra-substituted 3'pyridine complex were determined. Our results highlighted several key features for the design of lanthanide(III) ribonucelase mimics; the presence of two metal bound water molecules are vital for pH dependent rate constants for Eu(III) complexes, optimal pH activity approximating physiological pH (∼7.4) may be achieved if the log Ka values for both MLOH and ML(OH)2 species occur in this region, small changes to hydrophobicity within the metallo cavity influence the rate of hydrolysis greatly and an amide adjacent to the metal ion capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the substrate is required for achieving fast hydrolysis.

  2. Robust lanthanide emitters in polyelectrolyte thin films for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, Andrew S.; Marceaux, Brandt L.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2018-02-01

    Trivalent lanthanides provide stable emission sources at wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet through the near infrared with uses in telecommunications, lighting, and biological sensing and imaging. We describe a method for incorporating an organometallic lanthanide complex within polyelectrolyte multilayers, producing uniform, optically active thin films on a variety of substrates. These films demonstrate excellent emission with narrow linewidths, stable over a period of months, even when bound to metal substrates. Utilizing different lanthanides such as europium and terbium, we are able to easily tune the resulting wavelength of emission of the thin film. These results demonstrate the suitability of this platform as a thin film emitter source for a variety of photonic applications such as waveguides, optical cavities, and sensors.

  3. A computational approach to predicting ligand selectivity for the size-based separation of trivalent lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    An accurate description of solvation effects for trivalent lanthanide ions is a main stumbling block to the qualitative prediction of selectivity trends along the lanthanide series. In this work, we propose a simple model to describe the differential effect of solvation in the competitive binding of a ligand by lanthanide ions by including weakly co-ordinated counterions in the complexes of more than a +1 charge. The success of the approach to quantitatively reproduce selectivities obtained from aqueous phase complexation studies demonstrates its potential for the design and screening of new ligands for efficient size-based separation.

  4. A computational approach to predicting ligand selectivity for the size-based separation of trivalent lanthanides

    DOE PAGES

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2016-06-20

    An accurate description of solvation effects for trivalent lanthanide ions is a main stumbling block to the qualitative prediction of selectivity trends along the lanthanide series. In this work, we propose a simple model to describe the differential effect of solvation in the competitive binding of a ligand by lanthanide ions by including weakly co-ordinated counterions in the complexes of more than a +1 charge. The success of the approach to quantitatively reproduce selectivities obtained from aqueous phase complexation studies demonstrates its potential for the design and screening of new ligands for efficient size-based separation.

  5. Gas chemical adsorption characterization of lanthanide hexafluoroacetylacetonates

    DOE PAGES

    Stratz, S. Adam; Jones, Steven J.; Mullen, Austin D.; ...

    2017-03-21

    Newly-established adsorption enthalpy and entropy values of 12 lanthanide hexafluoroacetylacetonates, denoted Ln[hfac] 4, along with the experimental and theoretical methodology used to obtain these values, are presented for the first time. The results of this work can be used in conjunction with theoretical modeling techniques to optimize a large-scale gas-phase separation experiment using isothermal chromatography. The results to date indicate average adsorption enthalpy and entropy values of the 12 Ln[hfac] 4 complexes ranging from -33 to -139 kJ/mol K and -299 to -557 J/mol, respectively.

  6. Ab Initio Crystal Field for Lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2017-03-13

    An ab initio methodology for the first-principle derivation of crystal-field (CF) parameters for lanthanides is described. The methodology is applied to the analysis of CF parameters in [Tb(Pc) 2 ] - (Pc=phthalocyanine) and Dy 4 K 2 ([Dy 4 K 2 O(OtBu) 12 ]) complexes, and compared with often used approximate and model descriptions. It is found that the application of geometry symmetrization, and the use of electrostatic point-charge and phenomenological CF models, lead to unacceptably large deviations from predictions based on ab initio calculations for experimental geometry. It is shown how the predictions of standard CASSCF (Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field) calculations (with 4f orbitals in the active space) can be systematically improved by including effects of dynamical electronic correlation (CASPT2 step) and by admixing electronic configurations of the 5d shell. This is exemplified for the well-studied Er-trensal complex (H 3 trensal=2,2',2"-tris(salicylideneimido)trimethylamine). The electrostatic contributions to CF parameters in this complex, calculated with true charge distributions in the ligands, yield less than half of the total CF splitting, thus pointing to the dominant role of covalent effects. This analysis allows the conclusion that ab initio crystal field is an essential tool for the decent description of lanthanides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fixation of carbon dioxide by macrocyclic lanthanide(III) complexes under neutral conditions producing self-assembled trimeric carbonato-bridged compounds with μ3-η2:η2:η2 bonding.

    PubMed

    Bag, Pradip; Dutta, Supriya; Biswas, Papu; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Flörke, Ulrich; Nag, Kamalaksha

    2012-03-28

    A series of mononuclear lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(LH(2))(H(2)O)(3)Cl](ClO(4))(2) (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Lu) of the tetraiminodiphenolate macrocyclic ligand (LH(2)) in 95 : 5 (v/v) methanol-water solution fix atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce the carbonato-bridged trinuclear complexes [{Ln(LH(2))(H(2)O)Cl}(3)(μ(3)-CO(3))](ClO(4))(4)·nH(2)O. Under similar conditions, the mononuclear Y(III) complex forms the dimeric compound [{Y(LH(2))(H(2)O)Cl}(μ(2)-CO(3)){Y(LH(2))(H(2)O)(2)}](ClO(4))(3)·4H(2)O. These complexes have been characterized by their IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectra. The X-ray crystal structures have been determined for the trinuclear carbonato-bridged compounds of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Tb(III) and the dinuclear compound of Y(III). In all cases, each of the metal centers are 8-coordinate involving two imine nitrogens and two phenolate oxygens of the macrocyclic ligand (LH(2)) whose two other imines are protonated and intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded with the phenolate oxygens. The oxygen atoms of the carbonate anion in the trinuclear complexes are bonded to the metal ions in tris-bidentate μ(3)-η(2):η(2):η(2) fashion, while they are in bis-bidentate μ(2)-η(2):η(2) mode in the Y(III) complex. The magnetic properties of the Gd(III) complex have been studied over the temperature range 2 to 300 K and the magnetic susceptibility data indicate a very weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction (J = -0.042 cm(-1)) between the Gd(III) centers (S = 7/2) in the metal triangle through the carbonate bridge. The luminescence spectral behaviors of the complexes of Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) have been studied. The ligand LH(2) acts as a sensitizer for the metal ions in an acetonitrile-toluene glassy matrix (at 77 K) and luminescence intensities of the complexes decrease in the order Eu(3+) > Sm(3+) > Tb(3+).

  8. The separation of lanthanides and actinides in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Wai, Chien M.; Fox, Robert V.; ...

    2015-10-28

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide presents an attractive alternative to conventional solvents for recovery of the actinides and lanthanides. Carbon dioxide is a good solvent for fluorine and phosphate-containing ligands, including the traditional tributylphosphate ligand used in process-scale uranium separations. Actinide and lanthanide oxides may even be directly dissolved in carbon dioxide containing the complexes formed between these ligands and mineral acids, obviating the need for large volumes of acids for leaching and dissolution, and the corresponding organic liquid–liquid solvent extraction solutions. As a result, examples of the application of this novel technology for actinide and lanthanide separations are presented.

  9. Features of the reaction of heterocyclic analogs of chalcone with lanthanide shift reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Turov, A.V.; Khilya, V.P.

    1994-10-01

    The PMR spectra of heterocyclic analogs of 2-hydroxychalcone containing thiazole, benzofuran, triazole, imidazole, benzodioxane, or pyridine rings in the presence of lanthanide shift reagents are studied. It is found that the most effective reagent for modifying the spectra of these compounds is Yb(fod)3. The broadening of the spectra of 2-hydroxy chalcones in the presence of lanthanide shift reagents is explained by the dynamic effects of complex formation. An example is given of the determination of the conformation of molecules of 2-hydroxychalcone by the simultaneous use of lanthanide shift reagents and the homonuclear Overhauser effect. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. The lanthanide contraction beyond coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferru, Geoffroy; Reinhart, Benjamin; Bera, Mrinal K.

    Lanthanide chemistry is dominated by the ‘lanthanide contraction’, which is conceptualized traditionally through coordination chemistry. Here we break this mold, presenting evidence that the lanthanide contraction manifests outside of the coordination sphere, influencing weak interactions between groups of molecules that drive mesoscale-assembly and emergent behavior in an amphiphile solution. Furthermore, changes in these weak interactions correlate with differences in lanthanide ion transport properties, suggesting new forces to leverage rare earth separation and refining. Our results show that the lanthanide contraction paradigm extends beyond the coordination sphere, influencing structure and properties usually associated with soft matter science.

  11. The lanthanide contraction beyond coordination chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Ferru, Geoffroy; Reinhart, Benjamin; Bera, Mrinal K.; ...

    2016-04-06

    Lanthanide chemistry is dominated by the ‘lanthanide contraction’, which is conceptualized traditionally through coordination chemistry. Here we break this mold, presenting evidence that the lanthanide contraction manifests outside of the coordination sphere, influencing weak interactions between groups of molecules that drive mesoscale-assembly and emergent behavior in an amphiphile solution. Furthermore, changes in these weak interactions correlate with differences in lanthanide ion transport properties, suggesting new forces to leverage rare earth separation and refining. Our results show that the lanthanide contraction paradigm extends beyond the coordination sphere, influencing structure and properties usually associated with soft matter science.

  12. Shining light on the antenna chromophore in lanthanide based dyes.

    PubMed

    Junker, Anne Kathrine R; Hill, Leila R; Thompson, Amber L; Faulkner, Stephen; Sørensen, Thomas Just

    2018-04-03

    Lanthanide based dyes and assays exploit the antenna effect, where a sensitiser-chromophore is used as a light harvesting antenna and subsequent excited state energy transfer populates the emitting lanthanide centred excited state. A rudimentary understanding of the design criteria for designing efficient dyes and assays based on the antenna effect is in place. By preparing kinetically inert lanthanide complexes based on the DO3A scaffold, we are able to study the excited state energy transfer from a 7-methoxy-coumarin antenna chromophore to europium(iii) and terbium(iii) centred excited states. By contrasting the photophysical properties of complexes of metal centres with and without accessible excited states, we are able to separate the contributions from the heavy atom effect, photoinduced electron transfer quenching, excited state energy transfer and molecular conformations. Furthermore, by studying the photophysical properties of the antenna chromophore, we can directly monitor the solution structure and are able to conclude that excited state energy transfer from the chromophore singlet state to the lanthanide centre does occur.

  13. Luminescent hybrid lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 1,10-phenanthroline involving in-situ oxidation of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jie-Cen; Wan, Fang; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A series of lanthanide sulfates and lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates, [Ln2(phen)2(SO4)3(H2O)2]n (I:Ln=Nd(1a), Sm(1b), Eu(1c), phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Ln(phen)(2-SBA)(BZA)]n (II: Ln=Sm(2a), Eu(2b), Dy(2c), 2-SBA=2-sulfobenzoate, BZA=benzoate) have been hydrothermally synthesized from lanthanide oxide, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra, TG analyses and luminescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, SO4 2 - anions in I came from the in situ deep oxidation of thiol groups of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid while 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate ligands in II from the middle oxidation and desulfuration reactions of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid. Compounds I are organic-inorganic hybrid lanthanide sulfates, which have rare one-dimensional column-like structures. Complexes II are binuclear lanthanide sulfonate-carboxylates with 2-sulfobenzoate and benzoate as bridges and 1,10-phenanthroline as terminal. Photoluminescence studies reveal that complexes I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands in the solid state at room temperature.

  14. The interactions between the sterically demanding trimesitylphosphine oxide and trimesityphosphine with scandium and selected lanthanide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Andrew W. G.; Singh, Kuldip

    2016-05-01

    The reactions between lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO3)3 and scandium and lanthanide trifluoromethane sulfonates, Ln(Tf)3 with trimesitylphosphine oxide, Mes3PO show that coordination to the metal ions does not lead to crystalline complexes. Investigation of the reactions by 31-P NMR spectroscopy shows that weak complexes are formed in solution. The crystal structures of Mes3PO·0.5CH3CN (1) and [Mes3PO]3H3O·2CH3CN·Tf (2), formed in the reaction between ScTf3 and Mes3PO, are reported. Trimesitylphosphine, Mes3P, is protonated by scandium and lanthanide trifluoromethane sulfonates and lanthanide nitrates in CD3CN and the structure of [Mes3PH]Cl·HCl·2H2O (3) is reported.

  15. Lanthanide-Based T2ex and CEST Complexes Provide Insights into the Design of pH Sensitive MRI Agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Martins, André F; Zhao, Piyu; Wu, Yunkou; Tircsó, Gyula; Sherry, A Dean

    2017-12-22

    The CEST and T 1 /T 2 relaxation properties of a series of Eu 3+ and Dy 3+ DOTA-tetraamide complexes with four appended primary amine groups are measured as a function of pH. The CEST signals in the Eu 3+ complexes show a strong CEST signal after the pH was reduced from 8 to 5. The opposite trend was observed for the Dy 3+ complexes where the r 2ex of bulk water protons increased dramatically from ca. 1.5 mm -1  s -1 to 13 mm -1  s -1 between pH 5 and 9 while r 1 remained unchanged. A fit of the CEST data (Eu 3+ complexes) to Bloch theory and the T 2ex data (Dy 3+ complexes) to Swift-Connick theory provided the proton-exchange rates as a function of pH. These data showed that the four amine groups contribute significantly to proton-catalyzed exchange of the Ln 3+ -bound water protons even though their pK a 's are much higher than the observed CEST or T 2ex effects. This demonstrated the utility of using appended acidic/basic groups to catalyze prototropic exchange for imaging tissue pH by MRI. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Magnetic relaxation pathways in lanthanide single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Blagg, Robin J; Ungur, Liviu; Tuna, Floriana; Speak, James; Comar, Priyanka; Collison, David; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; McInnes, Eric J L; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2013-08-01

    Single-molecule magnets are compounds that exhibit magnetic bistability caused by an energy barrier for the reversal of magnetization (relaxation). Lanthanide compounds are proving promising as single-molecule magnets: recent studies show that terbium phthalocyanine complexes possess large energy barriers, and dysprosium and terbium complexes bridged by an N2(3-) radical ligand exhibit magnetic hysteresis up to 13 K. Magnetic relaxation is typically controlled by single-ion factors rather than magnetic exchange (whether one or more 4f ions are present) and proceeds through thermal relaxation of the lowest excited states. Here we report polylanthanide alkoxide cage complexes, and their doped diamagnetic yttrium analogues, in which competing relaxation pathways are observed and relaxation through the first excited state can be quenched. This leads to energy barriers for relaxation of magnetization that exceed 800 K. We investigated the factors at the lanthanide sites that govern this behaviour.

  17. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bifunctional Zn(II)Ln(III) dinuclear complexes combining field induced SMM behavior and luminescence: enhanced NIR lanthanide emission by 9-anthracene carboxylate bridging ligands.

    PubMed

    Palacios, María A; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Ruiz, José; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pope, Simon J A; Brechin, Euan K; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-02-03

    There were new dinuclear Zn(II)-Ln(III) complexes of general formulas [Zn(μ-L)(μ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2] (Ln(III) = Tb (1), Dy (2), Er (3), and Yb (4)), [Zn(μ-L)(μ-NO3)Er(NO3)2] (5), [Zn(H2O)(μ-L)Nd(NO3)3]·2CH3OH (6), [Zn(μ-L)(μ-9-An)Ln(NO3)2]·2CH3CN (Ln(III) = Tb (7), Dy (8), Er (9), Yb(10)), [Zn(μ-L)(μ-9-An)Yb(9-An)(NO3)3]·3CH3CN (11), [Zn(μ-L)(μ-9-An)Nd(9-An)(NO3)3]·2CH3CN·3H2O (12), and [Zn(μ-L)(μ-9-An)Nd(CH3OH)2(NO3)]ClO4·2CH3OH (13) prepared from the reaction of the compartmental ligand N,N',N″-trimethyl-N,N″-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H2L), with ZnX2·nH2O (X = NO3(-) or OAc(-)) salts, Ln(NO3)3·nH2O, and, in some instances, 9-anthracenecarboxylate anion (9-An). In all these complexes, the Zn(II) ions invariably occupy the internal N3O2 site whereas the Ln(III) ions show preference for the O4 external site, giving rise to a Zn(μ-diphenoxo)Ln bridging fragment. Depending on the Zn(II) salt and solvent used in the reaction, a third bridge can connect the Zn(II) and Ln(III) metal ions, giving rise to triple-bridged diphenoxoacetate in complexes 1-4, diphenoxonitrate in complex 5, and diphenoxo(9-anthracenecarboxylate) in complexes 8-13. Dy(III) and Er(III) complexes 2, 8 and 3, 5, respectively, exhibit field induced single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, with Ueff values ranging from 11.7 (3) to 41(2) K. Additionally, the solid-state photophysical properties of these complexes are presented showing that ligand L(2-) is able to sensitize Tb(III)- and Dy(III)-based luminescence in the visible region through an energy transfer process (antenna effect). The efficiency of this process is much lower when NIR emitters such as Er(III), Nd(III), and Yb(III) are considered. When the luminophore 9-anthracene carboxylate is incorporated into these complexes, the NIR luminescence is enhanced which proves the efficiency of this bridging ligand to act as antenna group. Complexes 2, 3, 5, and 8 can be considered as dual materials

  19. Pentavalent Lanthanide Compounds: Formation and Characterization of Praseodymium(V) Oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Hu, Shu-Xian; Qu, Hui; Su, Jing; Wang, Guanjun; Lu, Jun-Bo; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei; Li, Jun

    2016-06-06

    The chemistry of lanthanides (Ln=La-Lu) is dominated by the low-valent +3 or +2 oxidation state because of the chemical inertness of the valence 4f electrons. The highest known oxidation state of the whole lanthanide series is +4 for Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, and Dy. We report the formation of the lanthanide oxide species PrO4 and PrO2 (+) complexes in the gas phase and in a solid noble-gas matrix. Combined infrared spectroscopic and advanced quantum chemistry studies show that these species have the unprecedented Pr(V) oxidation state, thus demonstrating that the pentavalent state is viable for lanthanide elements in a suitable coordination environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enhancement of lanthanide evaporation by complexation: dysprosium tri-iodide mixed with indium iodide and thulium tri-iodide mixed with thallium iodide.

    PubMed

    Curry, J J; Estupiñán, E G; Henins, A; Lapatovich, W P; Shastri, S D; Hardis, J E

    2013-09-28

    The vapors in equilibrium with condensates of DyI3, DyI3/InI, TmI3, and TmI3/TlI were observed over the temperature range from 900 K to 1400 K using x-ray induced fluorescence. The total densities of each element (Dy, Tm, In, Tl, and I) in the vapor, summed over all atomic and molecular species, were determined. Dramatic enhancements in the total vapor densities of Dy and Tm were observed in the vapors over DyI3/InI and TmI3/TlI as compared to the vapors over pure DyI3 and pure TmI3, respectively. An enhancement factor exceeding 10 was observed for Dy at T ≈ 1020 K, decreasing to 0 at T ≈ 1250 K. An enhancement factor exceeding 20 was observed for Tm at T ≈ 1040 K, decreasing to 0 at T ≈ 1300 K. Such enhancements are expected from the formation of the vapor-phase hetero-complexes DyInI4 and TmTlI4. Numerical simulations of the thermo-chemical equilibrium suggest the importance of additional complexes in liquid phases. A description of the measurement technique is given. Improvements in the absolute calibration lead to an approximately 40% correction to previously reported preliminary results [J. J. Curry et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 507, 52 (2011); Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083505 (2012)].

  1. Nonequivalent lanthanide defects: Energy level modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Jonas J.; Poelman, Dirk; Smet, Philippe F.

    2016-11-01

    Empirical charge-state transition level schemes are popular tools to model the properties of lanthanide-doped materials and their construction has become standard practice. Typically, it is implicitly assumed that all lanthanide ions form isostructural defects. However, in practice, multiple nonequivalent defects related to the same lanthanide can occur or different lanthanides can even incorporate in different ways. The consequences of these complications on the impurity energy levels are discussed in this article. It seems that small structural differences around the lanthanide dopant can give rise to important spectral differences in its emission. These are not always clearly reproduced by the charge-state transition level schemes. Improvements to the existing procedure are suggested and applied to the lanthanide ions in the well-studied host crystals SrAl2O4, Sr2Si5N8 and SrGa2S4.

  2. Ratiometric Time-Gated Luminescence Probe for Nitric Oxide Based on an Apoferritin-Assembled Lanthanide Complex-Rhodamine Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer System.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lu; Dai, Zhichao; Liu, Xiangli; Song, Bo; Ye, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-11-03

    Using apoferritin (AFt) as a carrier, a novel ratiometric luminescence probe based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between a Tb(3+) complex (PTTA-Tb(3+)) and a rhodamine derivative (Rh-NO), PTTA-Tb(3+)@AFt-Rh-NO, has been designed and prepared for the specific recognition and time-gated luminescence detection of nitric oxide (NO) in living samples. In this LRET probe, PTTA-Tb(3+) encapsulated in the core of AFt is the energy donor, and Rh-NO, a NO-responsive rhodamine derivative, bound on the surface of AFt is the energy acceptor. The probe only emits strong Tb(3+) luminescence because the emission of rhodamine is switched off in the absence of NO. Upon reaction with NO, accompanied by the turn-on of rhodamine emission, the LRET from Tb(3+) complex to rhodamine occurs, which results in the remarkable increase and decrease of the long-lived emissions of rhodamine and PTTA-Tb(3+), respectively. After the reaction, the intensity ratio of rhodamine emission to Tb(3+) emission, I565/I539, is ∼24.5-fold increased, and the dose-dependent enhancement of I565/I539 shows a good linearity in a wide concentration range of NO. This unique luminescence response allowed PTTA-Tb(3+)@AFt-Rh-NO to be conveniently used as a ratiometric probe for the time-gated luminescence detection of NO with I565/I539 as a signal. Taking advantages of high specificity and sensitivity of the probe as well as its good water-solubility, biocompatibility, and cell membrane permeability, PTTA-Tb(3+)@AFt-Rh-NO was successfully used for the luminescent imaging of NO in living cells and Daphnia magna. The results demonstrated the efficacy of the probe and highlighted it's advantages for the ratiometric time-gated luminescence bioimaging application.

  3. Fracture-resistant lanthanide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Doty, F Patrick [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-04

    Lanthanide halide alloys have recently enabled scintillating gamma ray spectrometers comparable to room temperature semiconductors (<3% FWHM energy resolutions at 662 keV). However brittle fracture of these materials upon cooling hinders the growth of large volume crystals. Efforts to improve the strength through non-lanthanide alloy substitution, while preserving scintillation, have been demonstrated. Isovalent alloys having nominal compositions of comprising Al, Ga, Sc, Y, and In dopants as well as aliovalent alloys comprising Ca, Sr, Zr, Hf, Zn, and Pb dopants were prepared. All of these alloys exhibit bright fluorescence under UV excitation, with varying shifts in the spectral peaks and intensities relative to pure CeBr.sub.3. Further, these alloys scintillate when coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and exposed to .sup.137Cs gamma rays.

  4. Electronic structure of lanthanide scandates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzi, Christopher A.; Koirala, Pratik; Marks, Laurence D.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations were used to study the electronic structure of three lanthanide scandates: GdSc O3,TbSc O3 , and DySc O3 . X-ray photoelectron spectra simulated from first-principles calculations using a combination of on-site hybrid and GGA +U methods were found to be in good agreement with experimental x-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid method was used to model the ground state electronic structure and the GGA +U method accounted for the shift of valence state energies due to photoelectron emission via a Slater-Janak transition state approach. From these results, the lanthanide scandate valence bands were determined to be composed of Ln 4 f ,O 2 p , and Sc 3 d states, in agreement with previous work. However, contrary to previous work the minority Ln 4 f states were found to be located closer to, and in some cases at, the valence band maximum. This suggests that minority Ln 4 f electrons may play a larger role in lanthanide scandate properties than previously thought.

  5. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the acidic phosphoric extractant system containing lanthanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.-H.; Yao, S.-K.; Wang, D.-J.; Zhou, Weijin; Li, Ying Xue; Peng, Q.; Wu, JinGuang; Xu, Guang-Xian

    1994-01-01

    The aggregation states and FTIR spectra of the extractive organic phases of saponified HDEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid] (1). DMHPA [di(1-methylheptyl) phosphoric acid] (2) and (HDEHP + DMHPA) (3) containing lanthanides were studied, respectively. Transparent solution formed in system (1) while transparent gel formed in system (2) when the loading of lanthanides was more than 50%. The aggregation state of system (3) depends on the molar ratio of HDEHP:DMHPA and the loading percentage of lanthanide. From their FTIR spectra, it can be seen that the P equals O band of gel split into 1164, 1199, and 1232 cm-1, and the P-O-C band split into 1015, 1076, and 1083 cm-1 as well. The results suggested that the aggregation state of lanthanide complex changes considerably in the three systems, and multiple coordination states of p equals o with lanthanide result in the band split. Multiple interactions between P equals O, P-O-C and lanthanide ions form 3-D network in the gel.

  6. Physiological Effect of XoxG(4) on Lanthanide-Dependent Methanotrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yue; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Feng

    ABSTRACT A recent surprising discovery of the activity of rare earth metals (lanthanides) as enzyme cofactors as well as transcriptional regulators has overturned the traditional assumption of biological inertia of these metals. However, so far, examples of such activities have been limited to alcohol dehydrogenases. Here we describe the physiological effects of a mutation in xoxG , a gene encoding a novel cytochrome, XoxG(4), and compare these to the effects of mutation in XoxF, a lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenase, at the enzyme activity level and also at the community function level, using Methylomonas sp. strain LW13 as a model organism. Throughmore » comparative phenotypic characterization, we establish XoxG as the second protein directly involved in lanthanide-dependent metabolism, likely as a dedicated electron acceptor from XoxF. However, mutation in XoxG caused a phenotype that was dramatically different from the phenotype of the mutant in XoxF, suggesting a secondary function for this cytochrome, in metabolism of methane. We also purify XoxG(4) and demonstrate that this protein is a true cytochrome c , based on the typical absorption spectra, and we demonstrate that XoxG can be directly reduced by a purified XoxF, supporting one of its proposed physiological functions. Overall, our data continue to suggest the complex nature of the interplay between the calcium-dependent and lanthanide-dependent alcohol oxidation systems, while they also suggest that addressing the roles of these alternative systems is essential at the enzyme and community function level, in addition to the gene transcription level. IMPORTANCE The lanthanide-dependent biochemistry of living organisms remains a barely tapped area of knowledge. So far, only a handful of lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases have been described, and their regulation by lanthanides has been demonstrated at the transcription level. Little information is available regarding the concentrations

  7. Physiological Effect of XoxG(4) on Lanthanide-Dependent Methanotrophy

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Yue; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Feng; ...

    2018-03-27

    ABSTRACT A recent surprising discovery of the activity of rare earth metals (lanthanides) as enzyme cofactors as well as transcriptional regulators has overturned the traditional assumption of biological inertia of these metals. However, so far, examples of such activities have been limited to alcohol dehydrogenases. Here we describe the physiological effects of a mutation in xoxG , a gene encoding a novel cytochrome, XoxG(4), and compare these to the effects of mutation in XoxF, a lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenase, at the enzyme activity level and also at the community function level, using Methylomonas sp. strain LW13 as a model organism. Throughmore » comparative phenotypic characterization, we establish XoxG as the second protein directly involved in lanthanide-dependent metabolism, likely as a dedicated electron acceptor from XoxF. However, mutation in XoxG caused a phenotype that was dramatically different from the phenotype of the mutant in XoxF, suggesting a secondary function for this cytochrome, in metabolism of methane. We also purify XoxG(4) and demonstrate that this protein is a true cytochrome c , based on the typical absorption spectra, and we demonstrate that XoxG can be directly reduced by a purified XoxF, supporting one of its proposed physiological functions. Overall, our data continue to suggest the complex nature of the interplay between the calcium-dependent and lanthanide-dependent alcohol oxidation systems, while they also suggest that addressing the roles of these alternative systems is essential at the enzyme and community function level, in addition to the gene transcription level. IMPORTANCE The lanthanide-dependent biochemistry of living organisms remains a barely tapped area of knowledge. So far, only a handful of lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases have been described, and their regulation by lanthanides has been demonstrated at the transcription level. Little information is available regarding the concentrations

  8. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in theirmore » bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)« less

  9. Understanding overpressure in the FAA aerosol can test by C3H2F3Br (2-BTP)✩

    PubMed Central

    Linteris, Gregory Thomas; Babushok, Valeri Ivan; Pagliaro, John Leonard; Burgess, Donald Raymond; Manion, Jeffrey Alan; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath Reddy; Baker, Patrick Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, as well as perfectly-stirred reactor (PSR) simulations with detailed reaction kinetics, are performed for a potential halon replacement, C3H2F3Br (2-BTP, C3H2F3Br, 2-Bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene), to understand the reasons for the unexpected enhanced combustion rather than suppression in a mandated FAA test. The high pressure rise with added agent is shown to depend on the amount of agent, and is well-predicted by an equilibrium model corresponding to stoichiometric reaction of fuel, oxygen, and agent. A kinetic model for the reaction of C3H2F3Br in hydrocarbon-air flames has been applied to understand differences in the chemical suppression behavior of C3H2F3Br vs. CF3Br in the FAA test. Stirred-reactor simulations predict that in the conditions of the FAA test, the inhibition effectiveness of C3H2F3Br at high agent loadings is relatively insensitive to the overall stoichiometry (for fuel-lean conditions), and the marginal inhibitory effect of the agent is greatly reduced, so that the mixture remains flammable over a wide range of conditions. Most important, the flammability of the agent-air mixtures themselves (when compressively preheated), can support low-strain flames which are much more difficult to extinguish than the easy-to extinguish, high-strain primary fireball from the impulsively released fuel mixture. Hence, the exothermic reaction of halogenated hydrocarbons in air should be considered in other situations with strong ignition sources and low strain flows, especially at preheated conditions. PMID:29628525

  10. Standard Materials for Microbeam Analysis of Lanthanides and Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, I.; Gorton, M.; Rucklidge, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Traces of Th and U in naturally-occuring minerals monazite, xenotime and zircon are used for dating host rocks. Natural variations of actinide concentrations in some rock formations are well documented. Microbeam techniques perform dating in-situ where grains of indicator minerals are left intact in thin sections. Separated individual grains of these minerals are also routinely dated by Pb-isotope mass spectrometry. Ideal calibration materials will be compatible with multiple techniques. Quantitative analysis of low levels of lanthanides (REE), U, Th and Pb found in natural minerals requires standards containing similar concentrations of these elements. The ideal low-level standard suite will have materials with each REE cation present below 5%, similar to natural rare-earth phosphate minerals. In contrast, REE orthophosphates LnPO4 have cation concentrations from 59 to 64%, and ultraphosphates LnP5O14 from 27% to 32%. The concentrations of U and Pb must also be in the 1% range in the host REE phosphate. There are two competing limits to the synthesis of crystals with multiple cations in the REE sites. The crystal structure limits potential cation mixtures to selections within groups (La,Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu), (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho), and (Er, Tm,Yb, Lu, Y). Complex L X-ray spectra limit the use of contiguous REE in a single material. There are two general synthetic routes for the preparation of lanthanide/actinide standard materials for beam analysis and dating. Lanthanide orthophosphates (LnPO4) are crystallized from lead-free heterogeneous fluxes; oligomers (metaphosphates LnP3O9 and ultraphosphates LnP5O14) are formed by condensation of phosphoric acid in the presence of cations. All of these trivalent lanthanide phosphate crystal structures are hosts for Th+4 and U+4, and in synthetic materals, Ca+2 is used for charge compensation. Our work focuses on the preparation of mixed-cation lanthanide metaphosphates and ultraphosphates. The solvent (essentially P2O5) provides

  11. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1988-03-31

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form is described. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4- dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  12. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  13. Detection of phosphorylation states by intermolecular sensitization of lanthanide-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Elena; Goličnik, Marko; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2012-10-04

    The luminescence of a designed peptide equipped with a coordinatively-unsaturated lanthanide complex is modulated by the phosphorylation state of a serine residue in the sequence. While the phosphorylated state is weakly emissive, even in the presence of an external antenna, removal of the phosphate allows coordination of the sensitizer to the metal, yielding a highly emissive supramolecular complex.

  14. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W [Oak Ridge, TN; Huei-Ho, Chuen [Oak Ridge, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hurlbut, Charles [Sweetwater, TX

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  15. “Straining” to Separate the Rare Earths: How the Lanthanide Contraction Impacts Chelation by Diglycolamide Ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Ellis, Ross J.; Brigham, Derek M.; Delmau, Laetitia; ...

    2016-11-23

    The subtle energetic differences underpinning adjacent lanthanide discrimination are explored with diglycolamide ligands. Our approach converges liquid–liquid extraction experiments with solution-phase X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations, spanning the lanthanide series. The homoleptic [(DGA)3Ln]3+ complex was confirmed in the organic extractive solution by XAS, and this was modeled using DFT. An interplay between steric strain and coordination energies apparently gives rise to a nonlinear trend in discriminatory lanthanide ion complexation across the series. Our results highlight the importance of optimizing chelate molecular geometry to account for both coordination interactions and strain energies when designing new ligandsmore » for efficient adjacent lanthanide separation for rare-earth refining.« less

  16. “Straining” to Separate the Rare Earths: How the Lanthanide Contraction Impacts Chelation by Diglycolamide Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ross J.; Brigham, Derek M.; Delmau, Laetitia

    The subtle energetic differences underpinning adjacent lanthanide discrimination are explored with diglycolamide ligands. Our approach converges liquid–liquid extraction experiments with solution-phase X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations, spanning the lanthanide series. The homoleptic [(DGA)3Ln]3+ complex was confirmed in the organic extractive solution by XAS, and this was modeled using DFT. An interplay between steric strain and coordination energies apparently gives rise to a nonlinear trend in discriminatory lanthanide ion complexation across the series. Our results highlight the importance of optimizing chelate molecular geometry to account for both coordination interactions and strain energies when designing new ligandsmore » for efficient adjacent lanthanide separation for rare-earth refining.« less

  17. Heterobimetallic lanthanide/sodium phenoxides: efficient catalysts for amidation of aldehydes with amines.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmei; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Qi

    2009-03-20

    Heterobimetallic lanthanide/sodium phenoxides were found to be efficient catalysts for amidation of aldehydes with amines under mild conditions. The reactivity follows the order Nd < Y < Sm for metals and 2,6-(Me)2C6H3O < 2,6-(iPr)2C6H3O < 2,6-(tBu)2C6H3O for phenoxide groups. In comparison with the corresponding monometallic complexes, heterobimetallic complexes show higher activity and a wider range of scope of amines. A cooperation of lanthanide and sodium in this process is proposed to contribute to the high activity of the present catalyst.

  18. Two New Families of Lanthanide Mixed-Ligand Complexes, Oxalate-Carbonate and Oxalate-Formate: Synthesis and Structure of [Ce(H 2O)] 2(C 2O 4) 2(CO 3)·2.5 H 2O and Ce(C 2O 4)(HCO 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, S.; Mosset, A.; Trombe, J. C.

    1996-12-01

    Two new families of lanthanide complexes associating the ligands oxalate and carbonate or oxalate and formate have been prepared under autogenous pressure at 200°C using a pseudo-hydrothermal method. The two families have been extended to some lanthanides ( Ln): oxalate-carbonate Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu; oxalate-formate Ln= La, Ce, and Sm. The starting suspension contains either oxalate or a mixture of oxalate and oxalic acid. The structures have been solved for the element cerium. In both cases, the structure is built up from cerium atoms sharing all their oxygen atoms with oxalate and carbonate or oxalate and formate ligands, thus forming a three-dimensional network. The cerium polyhedra share either faces or edges or corners. The coordination scheme of the oxalate ligands is variable: bischelating, bischelating and monodentate, or bischelating and bismonodentate. The carbonate group acts as a bischelating and bismonodentate ligand while the formate group is chelating and monodentate. The characterization of these two original families by infrared spectra and thermal behavior is presented for some pure phases. A tentative explanation of the synthesis of these two phases will be emphasized.

  19. Lanthanide ion (III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP8−) for dual biosensing of pH with CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer) and BIRDS (biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Ali, Meser M.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Relaxivity based magnetic resonance of phosphonated ligands chelated with gadolinium (Gd3+) shows promise for pH imaging. However instead of monitoring the paramagnetic effect of lanthanide complexes on the relaxivity of water protons, biosensor (or molecular) imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting either the non-exchangeable or the exchangeable protons on the lanthanide complexes themselves. The non-exchangeable protons (e.g., –CHx, where 3≥x≥1) are detected using a three-dimensional chemical shift imaging method called Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS), whereas the exchangeable protons (e.g., –OH or –NHy, where 2≥y≥1) are measured with Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) contrast. Here we tested the feasibility of BIRDS and CEST for pH imaging of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP8−) chelated with thulium (Tm3+) and ytterbium (Yb3+). BIRDS and CEST experiments show that both complexes are responsive to pH and temperature changes. Higher pH and temperature sensitivities are obtained with BIRDS for either complex when using the chemical shift difference between two proton resonances vs. using the chemical shift of a single proton resonance, thereby eliminating the need to use water resonance as reference. While CEST contrast for both agents is linearly dependent on pH within a relatively large range (i.e., 6.3-7.9), much stronger CEST contrast is obtained with YbDOTA-4AmP5− than with TmDOTA-4AmP5−. In addition, we demonstrate the prospect of using BIRDS to calibrate CEST as new platform for quantitative pH imaging. PMID:24801742

  20. Computing UV/vis spectra using a combined molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry approach: bis-triazin-pyridine (BTP) ligands studied in solution.

    PubMed

    Höfener, Sebastian; Trumm, Michael; Koke, Carsten; Heuser, Johannes; Ekström, Ulf; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Panak, Petra J

    2016-03-21

    We report a combined computational and experimental study to investigate the UV/vis spectra of 2,6-bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) ligands in solution. In order to study molecules in solution using theoretical methods, force-field parameters for the ligand-water interaction are adjusted to ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Based on these parameters, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out from which snapshots are extracted as input to quantum chemical excitation-energy calculations to obtain UV/vis spectra of BTP ligands in solution using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The range-separated CAM-B3LYP functional is used to avoid large errors for charge-transfer states occurring in the electronic spectra. In order to study environment effects with theoretical methods, the frozen-density embedding scheme is applied. This computational procedure allows to obtain electronic spectra calculated at the (range-separated) DFT level of theory in solution, revealing solvatochromic shifts upon solvation of up to about 0.6 eV. Comparison to experimental data shows a significantly improved agreement compared to vacuum calculations and enables the analysis of relevant excitations for the line shape in solution.

  1. Studies of Lanthanide Transport in Metallic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Taylor, Christopher

    Metallic nuclear fuels were tested in fast reactor programs and performed well. However, metallic fuels have shown the phenomenon of FCCI that are due to deleterious reactions between lanthanide fission products and cladding material. As the burnup is increased, lanthanide fission products that contact with the cladding could react with cladding constituents such as iron and chrome. These reactions produce higher-melting intermetallic compounds and low-melting alloys, and weaken the mechanical integrity.

  2. Highly Luminescent, Water-Soluble Lanthanide Fluorobenzoates: Syntheses, Structures and Photophysics, Part I: Lanthanide Pentafluorobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Kalyakina, Alena S; Utochnikova, Valentina V; Bushmarinov, Ivan S; Ananyev, Ivan V; Eremenko, Igor L; Volz, Daniel; Rönicke, Franziska; Schepers, Ute; Van Deun, Rik; Trigub, Alexander L; Zubavichus, Yan V; Kuzmina, Natalia P; Bräse, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Highly luminescent, photostable, and soluble lanthanide pentafluorobenzoates have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized, with a focus on Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes as visible emitters and Nd(III) , Er(III) , and Yb(III) complexes as infrared emitters. Investigation of the crystal structures of the complexes in powder form and as single crystals by using X-ray diffraction revealed five different structural types, including monomeric, dimeric, and polymeric. The local structure in different solutions was studied by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of terbium and europium complexes were 39 and 15 %, respectively; the latter value was increased almost twice by using the heterometallic complex [Tb0.5 Eu0.5 (pfb)3 (H2 O)] (Hpfb=pentafluorobenzoic acid). Due to the effectively utilized sensitization strategy (pfb)(-) →Tb→Eu, a pure europium luminescence with a PLQY of 29 % was achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Increasing lanthanide luminescence by use of the RETEL effect.

    PubMed

    Leif, Robert C; Vallarino, Lidia M; Becker, Margie C; Yang, Sean

    2006-08-01

    Luminescent lanthanide complexes produce emissions with the narrowest-known width at half maximum; however, their significant use in cytometry required an increase in luminescence intensity. The companion review, Leif et al., Cytometry 2006;69A:767-778, described a new technique for the enhancement of lanthanide luminescence, the Resonance Energy Transfer Enhanced Luminescence (RETEL) effect, which increases luminescence and is compatible with standard slide microscopy. The luminescence of the europium ion macrocyclic complex, EuMac, was increased by employing the RETEL effect. After adding the nonluminescent gadolinium ion complex of the thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (TTFA) ligand or the sodium salt of TTFA in ethanol solution, the EuMac-labeled sample was allowed to dry. Both a conventional arc lamp and a time-gated UV LED served as light sources for microscopic imaging. The emission intensity was measured with a CCD camera. Multiple time-gated images were summed with special software to permit analysis and effective presentation of the final image. With the RETEL effect, the luminescence of the EuMac-streptavidin conjugate increased at least six-fold upon drying. Nuclei of apoptotic cells were stained with DAPI and tailed with 5BrdUrd to which a EuMac-anti-5BrdU conjugate was subsequently attached. Time-gated images showed the long-lived EuMac luminescence but did not show the short-lived DAPI fluorescence. Imaging of DNA-synthesizing cells with an arc lamp showed that both S phase and apoptotic cells were labeled, and that their labeling patterns were different. The images of the luminescent EuMac and fluorescent DAPI were combined to produce a color image on a white background. This combination of simple chemistry, instrumentation, and presentation should make possible the inexpensive use of the lanthanide macrocycles, Quantum Dyes, as molecular diagnostics for cytological and histopathological microscopic imaging. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical

  4. LANTHANIDE ENHANCE LUMINESCENCE (LEL) WITH ONE AND TWO PHOTON EXCITATION OF QUANTUM DYES LANTHANIDE (III) - MACROCYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Lanthanide Enhance Luminescence (LEL) with one and two photon excitation of Quantum Dyes? Lanthanide(III)-Macrocycles
    Principal Author:
    Robert C. Leif, Newport Instruments
    Secondary Authors:
    Margie C. Becker, Phoenix Flow Systems
    Al Bromm, Virginia Commonw...

  5. Separation of thorium from lanthanides by solvent extraction with ionizable crown ethers.

    PubMed

    Du, H S; Wood, D J; Elshani, S; Wai, C M

    1993-02-01

    Thorium and the lanthanides are extracted by alpha-(sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxy)acetic acid and its analogues in different pH ranges. At pH 4.5, Th is quantitatively extracted by the crown ether carboxylic acids into chloroform whereas the extraction of the lanthanides is negligible. Separation of Th from the lanthanides can be achieved by solvent extraction under this condition. The extraction does not require specific counteranions and is reversible with respect to pH. Trace amounts of Th in water can be quantitatively recovered using this extraction system for neutron activation analysis. The nature of the extracted Th complex and the mechanism of extraction are discussed.

  6. Modelos estereoquimicos na quimica de coordenacao e organometalica de lantanideos e actinideos: aplicacoes a complexos de torio (iv) com boratos de polipirazolilo (Stereochemical models in lanthanide and actinide coordination and organometallic chemistry: Applications to thorium (IV) complexes with polypyrazolylborates). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, J.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed analysis is made of two stereochemical models commonly used in lanthanide and actinide coordination and organometallic chemistry. Li Xing-fu's Cone Packing Model and K. N. Raymond's Ionic Model. Corrections are introduced in the first model as a basis to discuss the stability and structure of known complexes. A Steric Coordination Number is defined for the second model, based on the solid angle to correlate metal-ligand distances in complexes with the ionic radii of the elements and to assign effective radii to the ligands, related to the donating power of the coordinating atoms. As an application of the models,more » the syntheses and characterizations of thorium(IV) complexes with polypyrazolylborates. (HBPz3) {sup -1} and (HB(3.5-Me2Pz)3) {sup -1}, and alkoxides, aryloxides, carboxylates, amides, thiolates, alkyls and cyclopentadienyl are described and their stabilities discussed. The geometries of the complexes in the solid and in solution are discussed and a mechanism is proposed to explain the fluxionality in solution of the complexes with (HBPz3) {sup -1}.« less

  7. Lanthanide Oleates: Chelation, Self-assembly, and Exemplification of Ordered Nanostructured Colloidal Contrast Agents for Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guozhen; Conn, Charlotte E.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-01-12

    Eight lanthanide(III) oleates have been prepared and characterized. The chelation and self-assembly structures of these rare-earth oleates have been studied by elemental analysis, Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Elemental analysis and FTIR results indicate that three oleate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation and, with the exception of anhydrous cerium(III) oleate, form either a mono- or a hemihydrate. The X-ray analysis showed that the neat lanthanide soaps have a lamellar bilayer structure at room temperature. The thermal behavior has been investigated by cross-polarized optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysismore » (TGA). POM scans showed that all the lanthanide oleates form a lamellar phase in the presence of excess water. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and XRD were used to investigate the internal structure of the bulk lanthanide oleates in excess water, and these X-ray results confirmed that the lanthanide oleates do not swell in water. Select lanthanide oleates were dispersed in water to form nonswelling lamellar submicrometer particles, confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and synchrotron SAXS measurements. NMR results indicated that colloidal dispersions of lanthanide oleates containing paramagnetic ions, such as gadolinium(III), terbium(III), and dysprosium(III), have a significant effect on the longitudinal (T{sub 1}) and transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation times of protons in water. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements have demonstrated that colloidal dispersions of europium(III) oleate exhibit strong luminescence. The rare earth metal soaps exemplify the potential of self-assembled chelating amphiphiles as contrast agents in medical imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging.« less

  8. Near-infrared emissive lanthanide hybridized nanofibrillated cellulose nanopaper as ultraviolet filter.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bailiang; Zhang, Zhao; Sun, Yongchang; Wang, Junjie; Jiang, Huie; Du, Min; Chi, Congcong; Li, Xinping

    2018-04-15

    The lanthanide complexes [Yb(fac) 3 (H 2 O) 2 , Yb(tta) 3 (H 2 O) 2 , Nd(tta) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ] functionalized nanofibrillated cellulose (Ln-NFC) nanopapers with near-infrared (NIR) luminescence and high transparency are rapidly fabricated after solvent exchange using a simple suction filtration film-making method. The effects of NFC and lanthanide complexes content on their photophysical properties of Ln-NFC nanopapers and their mechanism of UV filters are fully investigated. With increasing lanthanide complexes content in the Ln-NFC nanopaper, their transmittances are gradually decreased while their NIR luminescences are obviously increased. Yb-fac NFC nanopaper has high UVB block rate at 298 nm, whereas the high UVA block ratio of Ln-tta NFC nanopaper is observed at 345 nm. Ln-NFC nanopapers show a much higher photostability without decomposition under UV irradiation at 365 nm over 5 h. The emission spectra of the Ln-NFC nanopaper process the NIR luminescence of the corresponding lanthanide ions through the efficient triplet-triplet energy transfer process. Ln-NFC nanopapers can bring a brilliant future for UV filters, labeling fields and marking soft materials application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Separations of actinides, lanthanides and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ensor, Dale D.

    1995-01-01

    An organic extracting solution comprised of a bis(acylpyrazolone or a substituted bis(acylpyrazolone) and an extraction method useful for separating certain elements of the actinide series of the periodic table having a valence of four from one other, and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also useful for separating hexavalent actinides from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals.

  10. Electronic Structure of Small Lanthanide Containing Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Topolski, Josey E.; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanide-based materials have unusual electronic properties because of the high number of electronic degrees of freedom arising from partial occupation of 4f orbitals, which make these materials optimal for their utilization in many applications including electronics and catalysis. Electronic spectroscopy of small lanthanide molecules helps us understand the role of these 4f electrons, which are generally considered core-like because of orbital contraction, but are energetically similar to valence electrons. The spectroscopy of small lanthanide-containing molecules is relatively unexplored and to broaden this understanding we have completed the characterization of small cerium, praseodymium, and europium molecules using photoelectron spectroscopy coupled with DFT calculations. The characterization of PrO, EuH, EuO/EuOH, and CexOy molecules have allowed for the determination of their electron affinity, the assignment of numerous anion to neutral state transitions, modeling of anion/neutral structures and electron orbital occupation.

  11. Toward lanthanide containing coordination polymers and nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Natalie E.

    The focus of this thesis is to develop lanthanide (Ln) luminescent materials through the exploration of coordination polymers and nanomaterials. Herein, dimethyl-3,4-furanedicarboxylate acid undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions to form coordination polymers with lanthanide ions. The resulting coordination polymers exhibited luminescent properties, with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu- and Tb-CP of 1.14±0.31% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.33±0.82% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. While the incorporation of lanthanides was not achieved in this work, progress toward the production of pure phase InP in the nanoregime has been made, using a low-cost, hydrothermal method. Though SEM and PXRD conflict, it is believed that pure InP particles with a size range of 58-81 nm were successfully synthesized.

  12. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  13. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.; Prajapati, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  14. Lanthanide-based laser-induced phosphorescence for spray diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Voort, D. D. van der, E-mail: d.d.v.d.voort@tue.nl; Water, W. van de; Kunnen, R. P. J.

    2016-03-15

    Laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) is a relatively recent and versatile development for studying flow dynamics. This work investigates certain lanthanide-based molecular complexes for their use in LIP for high-speed sprays. Lanthanide complexes in solutions have been shown to possess long phosphorescence lifetimes (∼1-2 ms) and to emit light in the visible wavelength range. In particular, europium and terbium complexes are investigated using fluorescence/phosphorescence spectrometry, showing that europium-thenoyltrifluoracetone-trioctylphosphineoxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) can be easily and efficiently excited using a standard frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser. The emitted spectrum, with maximum intensity at a wavelength of 614 nm, is shown not to vary strongly with temperature (293-383more » K). The decay constant of the phosphorescence, while independent of ambient pressure, decreases by approximately 12 μs/K between 323 and 373 K, with the base level of the decay constant dependent on the used solvent. The complex does not luminesce in the gas or solid state, meaning only the liquid phase is visualized, even in an evaporating spray. By using an internally excited spray containing the phosphorescent complex, the effect of vaporization is shown through the decrease in measured intensity over the length of the spray, together with droplet size measurements using interferometric particle imaging. This study shows that LIP, using the Eu-TTA-TOPO complex, can be used with different solvents, including diesel surrogates. Furthermore, it can be easily handled and used in sprays to investigate spray breakup and evaporation.« less

  15. Four unexpected lanthanide coordination polymers involving in situ reaction of solvent N, N-Dimethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng; Tong, Wen-Quan; Fu, Ai-Yun; Xie, Cheng-Gen; Chang, Wen-Gui; Wu, Ju; Xu, Guang-Nian; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Jun; Li, Yong; Yang, Peng-Qi

    2015-05-01

    Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized through in situ reactions of DMF solvent under solvothermal conditions. The isostructural complexes 1-3 contain four types of 21 helical chains. While the Nd(III) ions are bridged through μ2-HIDC2- and oxalate to form a 2D sheet along the bc plane without helical character in 4. Therefore, complex 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature.

  16. Assessing the exchange coupling in binuclear lanthanide(iii) complexes and the slow relaxation of the magnetization in the antiferromagnetically coupled Dy2 derivative† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional magnetic data, additional figures and computational details. CCDC 1020818–1020822. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01029b

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Chun Y.; Bolvin, Hélène; Campbell, Victoria E.; Guillot, Régis; Kampf, Jeff W.; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and the investigation of the magnetic properties of a series of binuclear lanthanide complexes belonging to the metallacrown family. The isostructural complexes have a core structure with the general formula [Ga4Ln2(shi3–)4(Hshi2–)2(H2shi–)2(C5H5N)4(CH3OH)x(H2O)x]·xC5H5N·xCH3OH·xH2O (where H3shi = salicylhydroxamic acid and Ln = GdIII1; TbIII2; DyIII3; ErIII4; YIII5; YIII0.9DyIII0.16). Apart from the Er-containing complex, all complexes exhibit an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling leading to a diamagnetic ground state. Magnetic studies, below 2 K, on a single crystal of 3 using a micro-squid array reveal an opening of the magnetic hysteresis cycle at zero field. The dynamic susceptibility studies of 3 and of the diluted DyY 6 complexes reveal the presence of two relaxation processes for 3 that are due to the excited ferromagnetic state and to the uncoupled DyIII ions. The antiferromagnetic coupling in 3 was shown to be mainly due to an exchange mechanism, which accounts for about 2/3 of the energy gap between the antiferro- and the ferromagnetic states. The overlap integrals between the Natural Spin Orbitals (NSOs) of the mononuclear fragments, which are related to the magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange, are one order of magnitude larger for the Dy2 than for the Er2 complex. PMID:29218180

  17. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    PubMed

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Solvent Extraction Separation of Trivalent Americium from Curium and the Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mark P.; Chiarizia, Renato; Ulicki, Joseph S.

    2015-02-27

    The sterically constrained, macrocyclic, aqueous soluble ligand N,N'-bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridyl)methyl]-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 (H2BP18C6) was investigated for separating americium from curium and all the lanthanides by solvent extraction. Pairing H2BP18C6, which favors complexation of larger f-element cations, with acidic organophosphorus extractants that favor extraction of smaller f-element cations, such as bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or (2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (HEH[EHP]), created solvent extraction systems with good Cm/Am selectivity, excellent trans-lanthanide selectivity (Kex,Lu/Kex,La = 108), but poor selectivity for Am against the lightest lanthanides. However, using an organic phase containing both a neutral extractant, N,N,N’,N’-tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA), and HEH[EHP] enabled rejection of the lightest lanthanides during loading ofmore » the organic phase from aqueous nitric acid, eliminating their interference in the americium stripping stages. In addition, although it is a macrocyclic ligand, H2BP18C6 does not significantly impede the mass transfer kinetics of the HDEHP solvent extraction system« less

  19. Coherent manipulation of mononuclear lanthanide-based single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Saiti; Ghosh, Sanhita; Krzystek, Jurek; Hill, Stephen; Del Barco, Enrique; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Coronado, Eugenio

    2010-03-01

    Using electron spin echo (ESE) spectroscopy, we report measurements of the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of diluted single-crystals containing recently discovered mononuclear lanthanide-based single-molecule magnets (SMMs) encapsulated in polyoxometallate cages [AlDamen et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 8874 -- 8875 (2008)]. This encapsulation offers the potential for preserving bulk SMM properties outside of a crystal, e.g. in molecular spintronic devices. The magnetic anisotropy in these complexes arises from the spin-orbit splitting of the ground state J multiplet of the lanthanide ion in the presence of a ligand field. At low frequencies only hyperfine-split transitions within the lowest ground state ±mJ doublet are observed. Spin relaxation times were measured for a holmium complex, and the results were compared for different hyperfine transitions and crystal dilutions. Clear Rabi oscillations were also observed, indicating that one can manipulate the spin coherently in these complexes.

  20. Lanthanide-binding peptides with two pendant aminodiacetate arms: impact of the sequence on chelation.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Cisnetti, Federico; Lebrun, Colette; Gateau, Christelle; Delangle, Pascale

    2012-03-21

    Lanthanide complexes with a series of hexapeptides-incorporating two unnatural chelating amino acids with aminodiacetate groups, Ada(1) and Ada(2)-have been examined in terms of their speciation, structure, stability and luminescence properties. Whereas Ada(2) acts as a tridentate donor in all cases, Ada(1) may act as a tetradentate donor thanks to the coordination of the amide carbonyl function assisted by the formation of a six-membered chelate ring. The position of the Ada(1) residue in the sequence is demonstrated to be critical for the lanthanide complex speciation and structure. Ada(1) promotes the coordination of the backbone amide function to afford a highly dehydrated Ln complex and an S-shape structure of the peptide backbone, only when found in position 2.

  1. Perturbing Tandem Energy Transfer in Luminescent Heterobinuclear Lanthanide Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles Enables Real-Time Monitoring of Release of the Anthrax Biomarker from Bacterial Spores.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Zhang, Yunfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Xiang, Zhehao; Wu, Fang-Ying; Mao, Lanqun

    2018-06-05

    Lanthanide-based luminescent sensors have been widely used for the detection of the anthrax biomarker dipicolinic acid (DPA). However, mainly based on DPA sensitization to the lanthanide core, most of them failed to realize robust detection of DPA in bacterial spores. We proposed a new strategy for reliable detection of DPA by perturbing a tandem energy transfer in heterobinuclear lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticles simply constructed by two kinds of lanthanide ions, Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ , and guanosine 5'-monophosphate. This smart luminescent probe was demonstrated to exhibit highly sensitive and selective visual luminescence color change upon exposure to DPA, enabling accurate detection of DPA in complex biosystems such as bacterial spores. DPA release from bacterial spores on physiological germination was also successfully monitored in real time by confocal imaging. This probe is thus expected to be a powerful tool for efficient detection of bacterial spores in responding to anthrax threats.

  2. The Effects of Trivalent Lanthanide Cationization on the Electron Transfer Dissociation of Acidic Fibrinopeptide B and its Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commodore, Juliette J.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) on mixtures of acidic fibrinopeptide B and two peptide analogs with trivalent lanthanide salts generates [M + Met + H]4+, [M + Met]3+, and [M + Met -H]2+, where M = peptide and Met = metal (except radioactive promethium). These ions undergo extensive and highly efficient electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to form metallated and non-metallated c- and z-ions. All metal adducted product ions contain at least two acidic sites, which suggest attachment of the lanthanide cation at the side chains of one or more acidic residues. The three peptides undergo similar fragmentation. ETD on [M + Met + H]4+ leads to cleavage at every residue; the presence of both a metal ion and an extra proton is very effective in promoting sequence-informative fragmentation. Backbone dissociation of [M + Met]3+ is also extensive, although cleavage does not always occur between adjacent glutamic acid residues. For [M + Met - H ]2+, a more limited range of product ions form. All lanthanide metal peptide complexes display similar fragmentation except for europium (Eu). ETD on [M + Eu - H]2+ and [M + Eu]3+ yields a limited amount of peptide backbone cleavage; however, [M + Eu + H]4+ dissociates extensively with cleavage at every residue. With the exception of the results for Eu(III), metallated peptide ion formation by ESI, ETD fragmentation efficiencies, and product ion formation are unaffected by the identity of the lanthanide cation. Adduction with trivalent lanthanide metal ions is a promising tool for sequence analysis of acidic peptides by ETD.

  3. Cloud point extraction: an alternative to traditional liquid-liquid extraction for lanthanides(III) separation.

    PubMed

    Favre-Réguillon, Alain; Draye, Micheline; Lebuzit, Gérard; Thomas, Sylvie; Foos, Jacques; Cote, Gérard; Guy, Alain

    2004-06-17

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) was used to extract and separate lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) nitrate from an aqueous solution. The methodology used is based on the formation of lanthanide(III)-8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complexes soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant. The lanthanide(III) complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at a temperature above the cloud point temperature (CPT). The structure of the non-ionic surfactant, and the chelating agent-metal molar ratio are identified as factors determining the extraction efficiency and selectivity. In an aqueous solution containing equimolar concentrations of La(III) and Gd(III), extraction efficiency for Gd(III) can reach 96% with a Gd(III)/La(III) selectivity higher than 30 using Triton X-114. Under those conditions, a Gd(III) decontamination factor of 50 is obtained.

  4. A multifunctional chemical sensor based on a three-dimensional lanthanide metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pei-Yao; Liao, Sheng-Yun; Gu, Wen, E-mail: guwen68@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    A 3D lanthanide MOF with formula [Sm{sub 2}(abtc){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(DMA)]·H{sub 2}O·DMA (1) has been successfully synthesized via solvothermal method. Luminescence studies reveal that 1 exhibits dual functional detection benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde among different aromatic molecules. In addition, 1 displays a turn-on luminescence sensing with respect to ethanol among different alcohol molecules, which suggests that 1 is also a promising luminescent probe for high selective sensing of ethanol. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional lanthanide metal-organic framework has been synthesized. • Complex 1 exhibits dual functional detection benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde among different aromatic molecules. • Complex 1 displays amore » turn-on luminescence sensing with respect to ethanol among different alcohol molecules.« less

  5. The solution structure of Ln (DOTP) 5- complexxes. A comparison of lanthanide-induced paramagnetic shifts with the MMX energy-minimized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kiefer, Garry E.

    Complexes between the trivalent lanthanide ions and the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N,N',N″,N‴-tetra(methylene phosphonate) (DOTP) have been examined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The proton spectra of the diamagnetic La(DOTP) 5- and Lu(DOTP) 5- complexes provide evidence for very rigid chelate structures with the ethylenediamine-containing chelate rings essentially locked into a single conformation at room temperature. The activation energy for ethylenediamine chelate ring interconversions in these complexes is approximately 100 kJ mol -1, considerably higher than that reported previously for the corresponding Ln(DOTA) - complexes (DOTA is the tetraacetate analog of DOTP). Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for all 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclei in 11 Ln(DOTP) 5- complexes. The proton spectra of these complexes display unusually large lanthanide-induced shifts, one showing a spectrum in which the 1H resonances span 900 ppm. The contact and pseudocontact contributions to these shifts were separated using Reilley's temperature-independent method and the resulting pseudocontact lanthanide-induced NMR shifts were in excellent agreement with those calculated for a structure derived using MMX molecular modeling methods. The pseudocontact shifts provide evidence for Ln (DOTP) 5- chelates which have virtually identical structures along the lanthanide series, with the possible exception of Tm(DOTP) 5-.

  6. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  7. Lanthanides in molecular magnetism: old tools in a new field.

    PubMed

    Sorace, Lorenzo; Benelli, Cristiano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2011-06-01

    In this tutorial review we discuss some basic aspects concerning the magnetic properties of rare-earth ions, which are currently the subject of a renovated interest in the field of molecular magnetism, after the discovery that slow relaxation of the magnetization at liquid nitrogen temperature can occur in mononuclear complexes of these ions. Focusing on Dy(III) derivatives a tutorial discussion is given of the relation of the crystal field parameters, which determine the anisotropy of these systems and consequently their interesting magnetic properties, with the geometry of the coordination sphere around the lanthanide centre and with the pattern of f orbitals. The problem of systems of low point symmetry is also addressed by showing how detailed single crystal investigation, coupled to more sophisticated calculation procedures, is an absolute necessity to obtain meaningful structure-property relationships in these systems.

  8. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acidic 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides with luminescent and catalytic ester hydrolysis properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mao-Long; Shi, Yan-Ru; Yang, Yu-Chen

    2014-11-15

    In acidic solution, a serials of water-soluble coordination polymers (CPs) were isolated as zonal 1D-CPs 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides [Ln(1,3-H{sub 3}pdta)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub n}·2Cl{sub n}·3nH{sub 2}O [Ln=La, 1; Ce, 2; Pr, 3; Nd, 4; Sm, 5] (1,3-H{sub 4}pdta=1,3-propanediaminetetraacetic acid, C{sub 11}H{sub 18}N{sub 2}O{sub 8}) in high yields. When 1 eq. mol potassium hydroxide was added to the solutions of 1D-CPs, respectively, two 1D-CPs [Ln(1,3-H{sub 2}pdta)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}·Cl{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O [Ln=Sm, 6; Gd, 7] were isolated at room temperature and seven 2D-CPs [Ln(1,3-H{sub 2}pdta)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·Cl{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O [Ln=La, 8; Ce, 9; Pr, 10; Nd, 11; Sm, 12; Eu, 13; Gd,more » 14] were isolated at 70 °C. When the crystals of 1–4 were hydrothermally heated at 180 °C with 1–2 eq. mol potassium hydroxide, four 3D-CPs [Ln(1,3-Hpdta)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O [Ln=La, 15; Ce, 16; Pr, 17; Nd, 18] were obtained. The two 2D-CPs [Ln(1,3-Hpdta)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·4nH{sub 2}O (Sm, 19; Eu, 20) were isolated in similar reaction conditions. With the increments of pH value in the solution and reaction temperature, the structure becomes more complicated. 1–5 are soluble in water and 1 was traced by solution {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) NMR technique, the water-soluble lanthanides 1 and 5 show catalytic activity to ester hydrolysis reaction respectively, which indicate their important roles in the hydrolytic reaction. The europium complexes 13 and 20 show visible fluorescence at an excitation of 394 nm. The structure diversity is mainly caused by the variation of coordinated ligand in different pH values and lanthanide contraction effect. Acidic conditions are favorable for the isolations of lanthanide complexes in different structures and this may helpful to separate different lanthanides. The thermal stability investigations reveal that acidic condition is favorable to obtain the oxides at a lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: A

  10. Nanometrization of Lanthanide-Based Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Neaime, Chrystelle; Daiguebonne, Carole; Calvez, Guillaume; Freslon, Stéphane; Bernot, Kevin; Grasset, Fabien; Cordier, Stéphane; Guillou, Olivier

    2015-11-23

    Heteronuclear lanthanide-based coordination polymers are microcrystalline powders, the luminescence properties of which can be precisely tuned by judicious choice of the rare-earth ions. In this study, we demonstrate that such materials can also be obtained as stable solutions of nanoparticles in non-toxic polyols. Bulk powders of the formula [Ln2-2x Ln'2x (bdc)3 ⋅4 H2 O]∞ (where H2 bdc denotes 1,4-benzene-dicarboxylic acid, 0≤x≤1, and Ln and Ln' denote lanthanide ions of the series La to Tm plus Y) afford nanoparticles that have been characterized by dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Their luminescence properties are similar to those of the bulk materials. Stabilities versus time and versus dilution with another solvent have been studied. This study has revealed that it is possible to tune the size of the nanoparticles. This process offers a reliable means of synthesizing suspensions of nanoparticles with tunable luminescence properties and tunable size distributions in a green solvent (glycerol). The process is also extendable to other coordination polymers and other solvents (ethylene glycol, for example). It constitutes a new route for the facile solubilization of lanthanide-based coordination polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    DOEpatents

    Guelis, Artem V.

    2013-01-15

    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  12. Relaxation-based distance measurements between a nitroxide and a lanthanide spin label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, H.; Koch, A.; Maus, V.; Spiess, H. W.; Jeschke, G.

    2008-10-01

    Distance measurements by electron paramagnetic resonance techniques between labels attached to biomacromolecules provide structural information on systems that cannot be crystallized or are too large to be characterized by NMR methods. However, existing techniques are limited in their distance range and sensitivity. It is anticipated by theoretical considerations that these limits could be extended by measuring the enhancement of longitudinal relaxation of a nitroxide label due to a lanthanide complex label at cryogenic temperatures. The relaxivity of the dysprosium complex with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA can be determined without direct measurements of longitudinal relaxation rates of the lanthanide and without recourse to model compounds with well defined distance by analyzing the dependence of relaxation enhancement on either temperature or concentration in homogeneous glassy frozen solutions. Relaxivities determined by the two calibration techniques are in satisfying agreement with each other. Error sources for both techniques are examined. A distance of about 2.7 nm is measured in a model compound of the type nitroxide-spacer-lanthanide complex and is found in good agreement with the distance in a modeled structure. Theoretical considerations suggest that an increase of the upper distance limit requires measurements at lower fields and temperatures.

  13. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  14. The Lanthanides: The Forgotten Elements but an Excellent Teaching Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to introduce the lanthanides (also known as the lanthanoids) to teachers and their students. The lanthanides are not mere "footnotes" at the bottom of the periodic table but make up a group of interesting and unique metallic elements. They and their compounds have widespread technological applications that have become…

  15. Lanthanides in soils of the Cherepovets steel mill impact zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladonin, D. V.

    2017-06-01

    Contents of different lanthanide forms in soddy-calcareous soils at different distances from the Cherepovets steel mill (Vologda oblast) have been studied. Increased contents of Pr and Tb are found in soils near the pollution source. Less manifested increases in the contents of other lanthanides (from La to Gd) are also observed. Along with the increase in total content, technogenic pollution increases the content of acid-soluble lanthanides and affects their degree of extraction. The residual fraction strongly bound to aluminosilicates contains 80 to 95% of lanthanides. Soil processes result in the partial binding of lanthanides with organic matter (5-18% of their total content) and Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides (0.1-5% of the total content). The individual properties of lanthanides are clearly manifested in their interaction with these soil components. The highest share of the fraction bound to organic matter contains medium lanthanides, and the highest share of the fraction bound to Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides contains heavy lanthanides.

  16. Bright Photon Upconversion on Composite Organic Lanthanide Molecules through Localized Thermal Radiation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huanqing; Bogdanov, Viktor; Liu, Sheng; Vajandar, Saumitra; Osipowicz, Thomas; Hernández, Ignacio; Xiong, Qihua

    2017-12-07

    Converting low-energy photons via thermal radiation can be a potential approach for utilizing infrared (IR) photons to improve photovoltaic efficiency. Lanthanide-containing materials have achieved great progress in IR-to-visible photon upconversion (UC). Herein, we first report bright photon, tunable wavelength UC through localized thermal radiation at the molecular scale with low excitation power density (<10 W/cm 2 ) realized on lanthanide complexes of perfluorinated organic ligands. This is enabled by engineering the pathways of nonradiative de-excitation and energy transfer in a composite of ytterbium and terbium perfluoroimidodiphosphinates. The IR-excited thermal UC and wavelength control is realized through the terbium activators sensitized by the ytterbium sensitizers having high luminescence efficiency. The metallic molecular composite thus can be a potential energy material in the use of the IR solar spectrum for thermal photovoltaic applications.

  17. Advances in lanthanide-based luminescent peptide probes for monitoring the activity of kinase and phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Elena; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2014-02-01

    Signaling pathways based on protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play critical roles in the orchestration of complex biochemical events and form the core of most signaling pathways in cells (i.e. cell cycle regulation, cell motility, apoptosis, etc.). The understanding of these complex signaling networks is based largely on the biochemical study of their components, i.e. kinases and phosphatases. The development of luminescent sensors for monitoring kinase and phosphatase activity is therefore an active field of research. Examples in the literature usually rely on the modulation of the fluorescence emission of organic fluorophores. However, given the exceptional photophysical properties of lanthanide ions, there is an increased interest in their application as emissive species for monitoring kinase and phosphatase activity. This review summarizes the advances in the development of lanthanide-based luminescent peptide sensors as tools for the study of kinases and phosphatases and provides a critical description of current examples and synthetic approaches to understand these lanthanide-based luminescent peptide sensors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Separation Using Aqueous-Modified TALSPEAK Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Travis S. Grimes; Richard D. Tillotson; Leigh R. Martin

    TALSPEAK is a liquid/liquid extraction process designed to separate trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+) from minor actinides (MAs) Am3+ and Cm3+. Traditional TALSPEAK organic phase is comprised of a monoacidic dialkyl bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractant (HDEHP) in diisopropyl benzene (DIPB). The aqueous phase contains a soluble aminopolycarboxylate diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in a concentrated (1.0-2.0 M) lactic acid (HL) buffer with the aqueous acidity typically adjusted to pH 3.0. TALSPEAK balances the selective complexation of the actinides by DTPA against the electrostatic attraction of the lanthanides by the HDEHP extractant to achieve the desired trivalent lanthanide/actinide group separation. Although TALSPEAK is considered a successfulmore » separations scheme, recent fundamental studies have highlighted complex chemical interactions occurring in the aqueous and organic phases during the extraction process. Previous attempts to model the system have shown thermodynamic models do not accurately predict the observed extraction trends in the p[H+] range 2.5-4.8. In this study, the aqueous phase is modified by replacing the lactic acid buffer with a variety of simple and longer-chain amino acid buffers. The results show successful trivalent lanthanide/actinide group separation with the aqueous-modified TALSPEAK process at pH 2. The amino acid buffer concentrations were reduced to 0.5 M (at pH 2) and separations were performed without any effect on phase transfer kinetics. Successful modeling of the aqueous-modified TALSPEAK process (p[H+] 1.6-3.1) using a simplified thermodynamic model and an internally consistent set of thermodynamic data is presented.« less

  19. Lanthanide contraction effect on crystal structures of lanthanide coordination polymers with cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Li-Mei; Liu, Jing-Xin, E-mail: jxliu411@ahut.edu.cn

    A series of compounds based on the macrocyclic ligand cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril (Cy6Q[6]) with formulas (Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}Cy6Q[6])·2(CdCl{sub 4})·H{sub 3}O·xH{sub 2}O [isomorphous with Ln=La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3) and Nd (4), x=11 (1), 11 (2), 10 (3) and 11 (4)], (Sm(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Cy6Q[6])·2(CdCl{sub 4})·H{sub 3}O·10H{sub 2}O (5) and (Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}(NO{sub 3})@Cy6Q[6])·2(CdCl{sub 4})·2H{sub 3}O·xH{sub 2}O [isomorphous with Ln=Gd (6), Tb (7) and Dy (8), x=8 (6), 6 (7) and 6 (8)], have been successfully synthesized by the self-assembly of Cy6Q[6] with the corresponding lanthanide nitrate under hydrochloric acid aqueous solution in the presence of CdCl{sub 2}. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealedmore » that compounds 1–8 all crystallize in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, and display 1D coordination polymer structures. The lanthanide contraction effect on the structures of 1–8 has also been investigated and discussed in detail. In contrast, the reaction of Cy6Q[6] with the Ho(NO){sub 3}, Tm(NO){sub 3}, Yb(NO){sub 3} under the same conditions resulted in the compounds 9–11 with formulas Cy6Q[6]·2(CdCl{sub 4})·2H{sub 3}O·xH{sub 2}O [isomorphous with x=10 (9), 10 (10), and 9 (11)], in which no lanthanide cations are observed. The structural difference of these compounds indicates that the Cy6Q[6] may be used in the separation of lanthanide cations. - Graphical abstract: The reaction of cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril with lanthanide ions (La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}) under hydrochloric acid in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} resulted in eleven compounds, which demonstrate interesting lanthanide contraction effect and provide a means of separating lanthanide ions. - Highlights: • Eleven compounds of the Ln{sup 3+} with the Cy6Q[6] were synthesized and described. • Compounds 1-8 demonstrate interesting lanthanide contraction

  20. Lanthanide Triangles Supported by Radical Bridging Ligands.

    PubMed

    Dolinar, Brian S; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris I; Vignesh, Kuduva R; James, Tia'Asia; Dunbar, Kim R

    2018-01-24

    The first examples of metallacycles containing rare earth ions bridged by radicals are reported. The molecular triangles [Ln 3 (hfac) 6 (bptz •- ) 3 ] (Ln = Dy III , Y III ; hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionate; bptz = 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) consist of lanthanide ions bridged by bptz radical anion (bptz •- ) ligands. Magnetic susceptibility measurements and CASSCF calculations performed on [Dy 3 (hfac) 6 (bptz •- ) 3 ] reveal the presence of antiferromagnetic coupling between the Dy III centers and the bptz •- ligands, with J = -6.62 cm -1 .

  1. Coumarin Derivative Directly Coordinated to Lanthanides Acts as an Excellent Antenna for UV-Vis and Near-IR Emission.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Méndez, Óscar; González, Federico; Bernès, Sylvain; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Ordóñez-Hernández, Javier; García-Ortega, Héctor; Guerrero, Joselin; Qian, Wenjie; Aliaga-Alcalde, Nuria; Gasque, Laura

    2018-02-05

    A chelating coumarin-derived ligand sensitizes all emitting lanthanide ions in the solid state and gives high absolute quantum yields for ethanol solutions of complexes of Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, above 20% for the last two. Crystal structures of these four complexes are [Ln(Cum) 3 (H 2 O)(X)]·X where X = MeOH or EtOH.

  2. Cooperative loading of multisite receptors with lanthanide containers: an approach for organized luminescent metallopolymers.

    PubMed

    Babel, Lucille; Guénée, Laure; Besnard, Céline; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2018-01-14

    Metal-containing (bio)organic polymers are materials of continuously increasing importance for applications in energy storage and conversion, drug delivery, shape-memory items, supported catalysts, organic conductors and smart photonic devices. The embodiment of luminescent components provides a revolution in lighting and signaling with the ever-increasing development of polymeric light-emitting devices. Despite the unique properties expected from the introduction of optically and magnetically active lanthanides into organic polymers, the deficient control of the metal loading currently limits their design to empirical and poorly reproducible materials. We show here that the synthetic efforts required for producing soluble multi-site host systems L k are largely overcome by the virtue of reversible thermodynamics for mastering the metal loading with the help of only two parameters: (1) the affinity of the luminescent lanthanide container for a single binding site and (2) the cooperative effect which modulates the successive fixation of metallic units to adjacent sites. When unsymmetrical perfluorobenzene-trifluoroacetylacetonate co-ligands (pbta - ) are selected for balancing the charge of the trivalent lanthanide cations, Ln 3+ , in six-coordinate [Ln(pbta) 3 ] containers, the explored anti-cooperative complexation processes induce nearest-neighbor intermetallic interactions twice as large as thermal energy at room temperature ( RT = 2.5 kJ mol -1 ). These values have no precedent when using standard symmetrical containers and they pave the way for programming metal alternation in luminescent lanthanidopolymers.

  3. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  4. Picosecond dynamics from lanthanide chloride melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalampounias, Angelos G.

    2012-12-01

    The picosecond dynamics of molten lanthanide chlorides is studied by means of vibrational spectroscopy. Polarized Raman spectra of molten LaCl3, NdCl3, GdCl3, DyCl3, HoCl3 and YCl3 are fitted to a model enabling to obtain the times of vibrational dephasing, tν and vibrational frequency modulation tω. Our aim is to find possible sensitive indicators of short-time dynamics. It has been found that all lanthanide chlorides exhibit qualitative similarities in the vibrational relaxation and frequency modulation times in the molten state. It appears that the vibrational correlation functions of all melts comply with the Rothschild approach assuming that the environmental modulation is described by a stretched exponential decay. The evolution of the dispersion parameter α indicates the deviation of the melts from the model simple liquid and the similar local environment in which the oscillator is placed and with which it is coupled. The "packing" of the anions around central La3+ cation seems to be the key factor for the structure and the dynamics of the melts. The results are discussed in the framework of the current phenomenological status of the field.

  5. Solvothermal syntheses, and characterization of [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce, Pr) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb): The effect of lanthanide contraction on the crystal structures of lanthanide selenidoantimonates(V)

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Dingxian; Zhu Aimei; Jin Qinyan

    Two types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce(1a), Pr(1b)) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu(2a), Gd(2b), Er(2c), Tm(2d), Yb(2e); en=ethylenediamine) were solvothermally synthesized by reactions of LnCl{sub 3}, Sb and Se with the stoichiometric ratio in en solvent at 140 deg. C. The four-en coordinated lanthanide complex cation [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+} formed in situ balances the charge of SbSe{sub 4}{sup 3-} anion. In compounds 1a and 1b, the SbSe{sub 4}{sup 3-} anion act as a monodentate ligand to coordinate complex [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+} and the neutral compound [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] is formed. The Ln{sup 3+} ion has a nine-coordinated environmentmore » involving eight N atoms and one Se atom forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. In 2a-2e the lanthanide(III) ion exists as isolated complex [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+}, in which the Ln{sup 3+} ion is in a bicapped trigonal prism geometry. A systematic investigation of the crystal structures reveals that two types of structural features of these lanthanide selenidoantimonates are related with lanthanides contraction across the lanthanide series. TG curves show that compounds 1a-1b and 2a-2e remove their organic components in one and two steps, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce, Pr) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb; en=ethylenediamine) have been synthesized under the mild solvothermal conditions, and a systematic investigation of the crystal structures reveals that two types of structural features of these lanthanide selenidoantimonates are related with lanthanides contraction across the lanthanide series.« less

  6. Solution thermodynamic stability of complexes formed with the octadentate hydroxypyridinonate ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO): A critical feature for efficient chelation of lanthanide(IV) and actinide(IV) ions

    PubMed Central

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    The solution thermodynamics of water soluble complexes formed between Ce(III), Ce(IV), Th(IV) and the octadentate chelating agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) were investigated. Several techniques including spectrofluorimetric and automated spectrophotometric titrations were used to overcome the slow spontaneous oxidation of Ce(III) complexes yielding to stability constants of log β110 = 17.4 ± 0.5, log β11-1 = 8.3 ± 0.4 and log β111 = 21.2 ± 0.4 for [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]−, [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)(OH)]2− and [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)H], respectively. Using the spectral properties of the hydroxypyridinonate chelator in ligand competition titrations against nitrilotriacetic acid, the stability constant log β110 = 41.5 ± 0.5 was determined for [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Finally, the extraordinarily stable complex [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] was used in Th(IV) competition titrations, resulting in a stability constant of log β110 = 40.1 ± 0.5 for [Th(IV)3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates, they are discussed with respect to the ionic radius and oxidation state of each cationic metal and allow predictions on the stability of other actinide complexes including [U(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], [Np(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Comparisons with the standard ligand diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) provide a thermodynamic basis for the observed significantly higher efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as an in vivo actinide decorporation agent. PMID:23855806

  7. Lanthanide-doped upconverting phosphors for bioassay and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huichen; Sun, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Lanthanide-doped fluorescent materials have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their unique luminescence properties which have led to their use in wide-ranging fields including those of biological applications. Aside from being used as agents for in vivo imaging, lanthanide-doped fluorescent materials also present many advantages for use in bioassays and therapy. In this review, we summarize the applications of lanthanide-doped up-converting phosphors (UCPs) in protein and gene detection, as well as in photodynamic and gene therapy in recent years, and outline their future potential in biological applications. The current report could serve as a reference for researchers in relevant fields.

  8. Conversion of lanthanide glutarate chlorides with interstitial THF into lanthanide glutarates with unprecedented topologies

    DOE PAGES

    Zehnder, Ralph A.; Jenkins, James; Zeller, Matthias; ...

    2017-11-26

    Here, using slow diffusion methods at room temperature (RT), we obtained four isomorphous lanthanide glutarate chlorides, accommodating interstitial THF and water molecules, [Ln 2(Glut) 2Cl 2(H 2O) 8]·2H 2O·THF, with Ln = La , Ce, Pr, Nd. They assemble as 3-dimensional (3D) lanthanide (Ln) coordination polymers with LnO 10 coordination polyhedra. Their topology was elucidated to be a 4-coordinated sql net. slowly dissolve in water liberating the entrapped THF molecules and reassemble as regular Ln-glutarate hydrates when the solution is deprived of THF and water by slow evaporation. The new products crystallize as [Ln 2(Glut) 3(H 2O) 3]·5H 2O, withmore » Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and [Nd 2(Glut) 3(H 2O) 2]·3.5H 2O.« less

  9. Conversion of lanthanide glutarate chlorides with interstitial THF into lanthanide glutarates with unprecedented topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, Ralph A.; Jenkins, James; Zeller, Matthias

    Here, using slow diffusion methods at room temperature (RT), we obtained four isomorphous lanthanide glutarate chlorides, accommodating interstitial THF and water molecules, [Ln 2(Glut) 2Cl 2(H 2O) 8]·2H 2O·THF, with Ln = La , Ce, Pr, Nd. They assemble as 3-dimensional (3D) lanthanide (Ln) coordination polymers with LnO 10 coordination polyhedra. Their topology was elucidated to be a 4-coordinated sql net. slowly dissolve in water liberating the entrapped THF molecules and reassemble as regular Ln-glutarate hydrates when the solution is deprived of THF and water by slow evaporation. The new products crystallize as [Ln 2(Glut) 3(H 2O) 3]·5H 2O, withmore » Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and [Nd 2(Glut) 3(H 2O) 2]·3.5H 2O.« less

  10. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separationmore » ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.« less

  11. Tough photoluminescent hydrogels doped with lanthanide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei Xiang; Yang, Can Hui; Liu, Zhen Qi; Zhou, Jinxiong; Xu, Feng; Suo, Zhigang; Yang, Jian Hai; Chen, Yong Mei

    2015-03-01

    Photoluminescent hydrogels have emerged as novel soft materials with potential applications in many fields. Although many photoluminescent hydrogels have been fabricated, their scope of usage has been severely limited by their poor mechanical performance. Here, a facile strategy is reported for preparing lanthanide (Ln)-alginate/polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels with both high toughness and photoluminescence, which has been achieved by doping Ln(3+) ions (Ln = Eu, Tb, Eu/Tb) into alginate/PAAm hydrogel networks, where Ln(3+) ions serve as both photoluminescent emitters and physical cross-linkers. The resulting hydrogels exhibit versatile advantages including excellent mechanical properties (∼ MPa strength, ≈ 20 tensile strains, ≈ 10(4) kJ m(-3) energy dissipation), good photoluminescent performance, tunable emission color, excellent processability, and cytocompatibility. The developed tough photoluminescent hydrogels hold great promises for expanding the usage scope of hydrogels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Energetic Ionic Liquids Based on Lanthanide Nitrate Complex Anions (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    calculated nitrogen content for CO-balanced aluminum -con- taining ionic liquids is 28%,[3] while the nitrogen content of CO-balanced salts 11 and 12 is...1 mg of 11 was heated to 200 8C in a micro melting point apparatus, gases rapidly evolved to leave white lanthanum oxide powder . The decomposition...Iyen- gar , J. Tomasi, V. Barone, B. Mennucci, M. Cossi, G. Scalmani, N. Rega, G. A. Petersson, H. Nakatsuji, M. Hada, M. Ehara, K. Toyota, R. Fukuda, J

  13. Electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy properties of light lanthanides

    DOE PAGES

    Hackett, Timothy A.; Baldwin, D. J.; Paudyal, Durga

    2017-05-17

    Theoretical understanding of interactions between localized and mobile electrons and the crystal environment in light lanthanides is important because of their key role in much needed magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnet materials that have a great impact in automobile and wind turbine applications. We report electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline properties of these basic light lanthanide elements studied from advanced density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the inclusion of onsite 4f electron correlation and spin orbit coupling within the full-potential band structure is needed to understand the unique magnetocrystalline properties of these light lanthanides. The onsite electron correlation, spinmore » orbit coupling, and full potential for the asphericity of charge densities must be taken into account for the proper treatment of 4f states. We find the variation of total energy as a function of lattice constants that indicate multiple structural phases in Ce contrasting to a single stable structure obtained in other light lanthanides. The 4f orbital magnetic moments are partially quenched as a result of crystalline electric field splitting that leads to magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The charge density plots have similar asphericity and environment in Pr and Nd indicating similar magnetic anisotropy. However, Ce and Sm show completely different asphericity and environment as both orbital moments are significantly quenched. In addition, the Fermi surface structures exemplified in Nd indicate structural stability and unravel a cause of anisotropy. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) reveals competing c-axis and in-plane anisotropies, and also predicts possibilities of unusual structural deformations in light lanthanides. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is obtained in the double hexagonal closed pack structures of the most of the light lanthanides, however, the anisotropy is reduced or turned to planar in the low

  14. Electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy properties of light lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Timothy A.; Baldwin, D. J.; Paudyal, D.

    2017-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of interactions between localized and mobile electrons and the crystal environment in light lanthanides is important because of their key role in much needed magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnet materials that have a great impact in automobile and wind turbine applications. We report electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline properties of these basic light lanthanide elements studied from advanced density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the inclusion of onsite 4f electron correlation and spin orbit coupling within the full-potential band structure is needed to understand the unique magnetocrystalline properties of these light lanthanides. The onsite electron correlation, spin orbit coupling, and full potential for the asphericity of charge densities must be taken into account for the proper treatment of 4f states. We find the variation of total energy as a function of lattice constants that indicate multiple structural phases in Ce contrasting to a single stable structure obtained in other light lanthanides. The 4f orbital magnetic moments are partially quenched as a result of crystalline electric field splitting that leads to magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The charge density plots have similar asphericity and environment in Pr and Nd indicating similar magnetic anisotropy. However, Ce and Sm show completely different asphericity and environment as both orbital moments are significantly quenched. In addition, the Fermi surface structures exemplified in Nd indicate structural stability and unravel a cause of anisotropy. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) reveals competing c-axis and in-plane anisotropies, and also predicts possibilities of unusual structural deformations in light lanthanides. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is obtained in the double hexagonal closed pack structures of the most of the light lanthanides, however, the anisotropy is reduced or turned to planar in the low symmetry

  15. Electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy properties of light lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, Timothy A.; Baldwin, D. J.; Paudyal, Durga

    Theoretical understanding of interactions between localized and mobile electrons and the crystal environment in light lanthanides is important because of their key role in much needed magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnet materials that have a great impact in automobile and wind turbine applications. We report electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline properties of these basic light lanthanide elements studied from advanced density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the inclusion of onsite 4f electron correlation and spin orbit coupling within the full-potential band structure is needed to understand the unique magnetocrystalline properties of these light lanthanides. The onsite electron correlation, spinmore » orbit coupling, and full potential for the asphericity of charge densities must be taken into account for the proper treatment of 4f states. We find the variation of total energy as a function of lattice constants that indicate multiple structural phases in Ce contrasting to a single stable structure obtained in other light lanthanides. The 4f orbital magnetic moments are partially quenched as a result of crystalline electric field splitting that leads to magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The charge density plots have similar asphericity and environment in Pr and Nd indicating similar magnetic anisotropy. However, Ce and Sm show completely different asphericity and environment as both orbital moments are significantly quenched. In addition, the Fermi surface structures exemplified in Nd indicate structural stability and unravel a cause of anisotropy. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) reveals competing c-axis and in-plane anisotropies, and also predicts possibilities of unusual structural deformations in light lanthanides. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is obtained in the double hexagonal closed pack structures of the most of the light lanthanides, however, the anisotropy is reduced or turned to planar in the low

  16. Computer-Aided Molecular Design of Bis-phosphine Oxide Lanthanide Extractants

    DOE PAGES

    McCann, Billy W.; Silva, Nuwan De; Windus, Theresa L.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Computer-aided molecular design and high-throughput screening of viable host architectures can significantly reduce the efforts in the design of novel ligands for efficient extraction of rare earth elements. This paper presents a computational approach to the deliberate design of bis-phosphine oxide host architectures that are structurally organized for complexation of trivalent lanthanides. Molecule building software, HostDesigner, was interfaced with molecular mechanics software, PCModel, providing a tool for generating and screening millions of potential R 2(O)P-link-P(O)R 2 ligand geometries. The molecular mechanics ranking of ligand structures is consistent with both the solution-phase free energies of complexation obtained with density functional theorymore » and the performance of known bis-phosphine oxide extractants. For the case where link is -CH 2-, evaluation of the ligand geometry provides the first characterization of a steric origin for the ‘anomalous aryl strengthening’ effect. The design approach has identified a number of novel bis-phosphine oxide ligands that are better organized for lanthanide complexation than previously studied examples.« less

  17. Lanthanide coordination polymers based on multi-donor ligand containing pyridine and phthalate moieties: Structures, luminescence and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xun; Liu, Lang; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022

    2013-10-15

    A new family of five lanthanide-organic coordination polymers incorporating multi-functional N-hetrocyclic dicarboxylate ligand, namely, [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}(dpp){sub 2}]{sub n}Ln=Pr(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Dy(4), Er(5) (H{sub 2}dpp=1-(3, 4-dicarboxyphenyl) pyridin-4-ol) have been fabricated successfully through solvothermal reaction of 1-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-4-hydroxypyridin-1-ium chloride with trivalent lanthanide salts, and have been characterized systematically. The complexes 1–5 are isomorphous and isostructural. They all feature three dimensional (3D) frameworks based on the interconnection of 1D double chains composed of the binuclear moiety [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}]{sup 4+} basic carboxylate as secondary building unit (SBU). The results of magnetic analysis shows the same bridging fashion of carboxylic group in this casemore » results in the different magnetic properties occurring within lanthanide polymers. Moreover, the Eu(III) and Dy(III) complexes display characteristic luminescence emission in the visible regions. - Graphical abstract: A new family of lanthanide-organic frameworks incorporating multi-donor twisted ligand has been fabricated successfully, and has been characterized systematically. The complexes 1–5 are isostructural, and all feather three dimensional (3D) frameworks based on the interconnection of 1D double stride chains composed of the binuclear moiety [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}]{sup 2+} basic carboxylate as secondary building unit (SBU). Display Omitted - Highlights: • New family of lanthanide–organic coordination polymers incorporating multifunctional N-hetrocyclic dicarboxylate ligand has been fabricated. • They have been characterized systematically. • They all feather three dimensional frameworks based on the binuclear moiety of [Ln{sub 2}(Hdpp){sub 2}]{sup 2+}. • The Eu(III) and Dy(III) analogues exhibit intense photoluminescence.« less

  18. Silver baits for the "miraculous draught" of amphiphilic lanthanide helicates.

    PubMed

    Terazzi, Emmanuel; Guénée, Laure; Varin, Johan; Bocquet, Bernard; Lemonnier, Jean-François; Emery, Daniel; Mareda, Jiri; Piguet, Claude

    2011-01-03

    The axial connection of flexible thioalkyls chains of variable length (n=1-12) within the segmental bis-tridentate 2-benzimidazole-8-hydroxyquinoline ligands [L12(Cn) -2 H](2-) provides amphiphilic receptors designed for the synthesis of neutral dinuclear lanthanides helicates. However, the stoichiometric mixing of metals and ligands in basic media only yields intricate mixtures of poorly soluble aggregates. The addition of Ag(I) in solution restores classical helicate architectures for n=3, with the quantitative formation of the discrete D(3) -symmetrical [Ln(2) Ag2(L12(C3) -2 H)(3) ](2+) complexes at millimolar concentration (Ln=La, Eu, Lu). The X-ray crystal structure supports the formation of [La(2) Ag(2) (L12(C3) -2 H)(3) ][OTf](2) , which exists in the solid state as infinite linear polymers bridged by S-Ag-S bonds. In contrast, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the gas phase and in solution confirm the experimental diffusion measurements, which imply the formation of discrete molecular entities in these media, in which the sulfur atoms of each lipophilic ligand are rapidly exchanged within the Ag(I) coordination sphere. Turned as a predictive tool, MD suggests that this Ag(I) templating effect is efficient only for n=1-3, while for n>3 very loose interactions occur between Ag(I) and the thioalkyl residues. The subsequent experimental demonstration that only 25 % of the total ligand speciation contributes to the formation of [Ln(2) Ag(2) (L12(C12) -2 H)(3) ](2+) in solution puts the bases for a rational approach for the design of amphiphilic helical complexes with predetermined molecular interfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin; Dai, Qilin; Liu, Yaohua; Ren, Shenqiang; Brennan, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanide (Ln3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO3, Ln2O3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. The delay in phase transition (θ → α), and alteration of powder morphology, particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. This study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications. PMID:28059121

  20. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO 3, Ln 2O 3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. In addition, the delay in phase transition (θ → α),more » and alteration of powder morphology, particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. Lastly, this study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications.« less

  1. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO3, Ln2O3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. The delay in phase transition (θ → α), and alteration of powder morphology,more » particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. This study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications.« less

  2. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    DOE PAGES

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin; ...

    2017-01-06

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO 3, Ln 2O 3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. In addition, the delay in phase transition (θ → α),more » and alteration of powder morphology, particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. Lastly, this study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications.« less

  3. Multi-component lanthanide hybrids based on zeolite A/L and zeolite A/L-polymers for tunable luminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Bing

    2015-02-01

    Some multi-component hybrids based on zeolite L/A are prepared. Firstly, zeolite A/L is loaded with lanthanide complexes (Eu-DBM or Tb-AA (acetylacetone = AA, dibenzoylmethane = DBM)) into its channels. Secondly, 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) is used to covalently graft onto the surface of functionalized zeolite A/L (Si-[ZA/L⊃Eu-DBM(Tb-AA)]). Thirdly, lanthanide ions (Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)) are coordinated to the functionalized zeolite A/L and ligands (phen(1,10-phenanthroline) or bipy (2,2'-bipyridyl)) are introduced by a ship-in-bottle method. The inside-outside double modifications of ZA/L with lanthanide complexes afford the final hybrids and these are characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, SEM and luminescence spectroscopy, some of which display white or near-white light emission. Furthermore, selected above-mentioned hybrids are incorporated into PEMA/PMMA (poly ethyl methylacryate/poly methyl methacrylate) hosts to prepare luminescent polymer films. These results provide abundant data that these hybrid materials can be expected to have potential application in various practical fields.

  4. Probing the Crystal Structure and Formation Mechanism of Lanthanide-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Hudry, Damien; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Dooryhee, E.; ...

    2016-11-23

    Lanthanide (Ln)-doped upconverting nanocrystals (UCNCs), such as NaLnF 4 (with Ln = lanthanide), constitute an important class of nanoscale materials due to their capacity to convert near-infrared photons into near-ultraviolet or visible light. Although under intense investigation for more than a decade, UCNCs have been relatively underexplored especially regarding their crystal structure and mechanisms of formation in organic media. The former is needed to explain the relationship between atomic scale structure and upconversion (UC) properties of UCNCs (i.e., local symmetry for 4f–4f transition probability, Ln 3+ distances for energy migration), while the latter is essential to finely tune the size, morphology, chemical composition, and architecture of well-defined upconverting nanostructures, which constitute the experimental levers to modify the optical properties. In this contribution, we use synchrotron-based diffraction experiments coupled to Rietveld and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses to understand the formation of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs in organic media and to investigate their crystal structure. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of the formation of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs based on chemical reactions involving molecular clusters and in situ-generated, crystalline sodium fluoride at high temperature. Additionally, a detailed crystallographic investigation of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs is presented. Our Rietveld and PDF analyses show that the space group Pmore » $$\\bar{6}$$ is the one that best describes the crystal structure of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs contrary to what has been recently proposed. Further, our Rietveld and PDF data reveal the formation of bulk-like crystal structure down to 10 nm with limited distortions. Finally, the results presented in this paper constitute an important step toward the comprehensive understanding of the underlying picture that governs UC properties of lanthanide-doped nanostructures.« less

  5. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  6. Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides

    DOEpatents

    Kay, D. Alan R.; Wilson, William G.

    1989-12-05

    A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

  7. Lattice dynamics of the lanthanides: Samarium at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, H.; Jephcoat, A. P.

    2005-02-01

    Sm was studied by Raman spectroscopy at pressures up to 20 GPa. The Raman-active phonon modes, both of the Sm-type phase and the dhcp phase, show a frequency decrease as pressure increases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence hcp → Sm-type → dhcp → fcc under pressure for the individual regular lanthanides is associated with softening of certain acoustic and optical-phonon modes as well as elastic anomalies. Comparison is made to corresponding transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals and possible relations to the lanthanide's electronic structure are addressed.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  9. Thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides-A variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-06-01

    Thermodynamical properties like Entropy (S), Internal energy (E) and Helmholtz free energy (F) of liquid lanthanides using a variation principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubuv (GB) inequality with Percus Yevick hard sphere reference system have been reported in the present investigation. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our newly constructed parameter free model potential along with Sarkar et al. local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides.

  10. Thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides-A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P.; Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakor@rediffmail.com

    2015-06-24

    Thermodynamical properties like Entropy (S), Internal energy (E) and Helmholtz free energy (F) of liquid lanthanides using a variation principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubuv (GB) inequality with Percus Yevick hard sphere reference system have been reported in the present investigation. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our newly constructed parameter free model potential along with Sarkar et al. local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on the lanthanide sensitized luminescence and chemiluminescence properties of fluoroquinolone with different structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunyan; Ping, Hong; Zhang, Minwei; Li, Hongkun; Guan, Fengrui

    2011-11-01

    Lanthanide sensitized luminescence and chemiluminescence (CL) are of great importance because of the unique spectral properties, such as long lifetime, large Stokes shifts, and narrow emission bands characteristic to lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)). With the fluoroquinolone (FQ) compounds including enoxacin (ENX), norfloxacin (NFLX), lomefloxacin (LMFX), fleroxacin (FLRX), ofloxacin (OFLX), rufloxacin (RFX), gatifloxacin (GFLX) and sparfloxacin (SPFX), the luminescence and CL properties of Tb(3+)-FQ and Eu(3+)-FQ complexes have been investigated in this contribution. Ce(4+)-SO(3)(2-) in acidic conditions was taken as the CL system and sensitized CL intensities of Tb(3+)-FQ and Eu(3+)-FQ complexes were determined by flow-injection analysis. The luminescence and CL spectra of Tb(3+)-FQ complexes show characteristic peaks of Tb(3+) at 490 nm, 545 nm, 585 nm and 620 nm. Complexes of Tb(3+)-ENX, Tb(3+)-NFLX, Tb(3+)-LMFX and Tb(3+)-FLRX display relatively strong emission intensity compared with Tb(3+)-OFLX, Tb(3+)-RFX, Tb(3+)-GFLX and Tb(3+)-SPFX. Quite weak peaks with unique characters of Eu(3+) at 590 nm and 617 nm appear in the luminescence and CL spectra of Eu(3+)-ENX, but no notable sensitized luminescence and CL of Eu(3+) could be observed when Eu(3+) is added into other FQ. The distinct differences on emission intensity of Tb(3+)-FQ and Eu(3+)-FQ might originate from the different energy gap between the triplet levels of FQ and the excited levels of the Ln(3+). The different sensitized luminescence and CL signals among Tb(3+)-FQ complexes could be attributed to different optical properties and substituents of these FQ compounds. The detailed mechanism involved in the luminescence and CL properties of Tb(3+)-FQ and Eu(3+)-FQ complexes has been investigated by analyzing the luminescence and CL spectra, quantum yields, and theoretical calculation results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Property enchancement of polyimide films by way of the incorporation of lanthanide metal ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Lanthanide metal ions were incorporated into the polyimide derived from 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and 1,3-bis(aminophenoxy) benzene (APB) in an attempt to produce molecular level metal-polymer composites. The lanthanide series of metal ions (including aluminum, scandium, and yttrium) provide discrete and stable metal ions in the 3+ oxidation state. Throughout the series there is a uniform variation in ionic size ranging from 50 pm for aluminum to a maximum of 103.4 pm for cerium and gradually decreasing again to 84.8 pm for lutetium. The high charge-to-size ratio for these ions as well as the ability to obtain large coordination numbers makes them excellent candidates for interacting with the polymer substructure. The distinct lack of solubility of simple lanthanide salts such as the acetates and halides has made it difficult to obtain metal ions distributed in the polymer framework as discrete ions or metal complexes rather than microcomposites of metal clusters. (Lanthanum nitrates are quite soluble, but the presence of the strongly oxidizing nitrate ion leads to serious degradation of the polymer upon thermal curing. This work was successful at extending the range of soluble metals salts by using chelating agents derived from the beta-diketones dipivaloylmethane, dibenzoylmethane, trifluoroacetylacetone, and hexafluoroacetylacetone. Metal acetates which are insoluble in dimethylacetamide dissolve readily in the presence of the diketones. Addition of the polyimide yields a homogeneous resin which is then cast into a clear film. Upon curing clear films were obtained with the dibenzoylmethane and trifluoroacetylacetone ligands. The dipavaloylmethane precipitates the metal during the film casting process, and hexafluoroacetylacetone gives cured films which are deformed and brittle. These clear films are being evaluated for the effect of the metal ions on the coefficient of thermal expansion, resistance to atomic oxygen, and on

  13. Porphyrin framework solids. Synthesis and structure of hybrid coordination polymers of tetra(carboxyphenyl)porphyrins and lanthanide-bridging ions.

    PubMed

    Muniappan, Sankar; Lipstman, Sophia; George, Sumod; Goldberg, Israel

    2007-07-09

    New types of porphyrin-based framework solids were constructed by reacting meso-tetra(3-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin and meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)metalloporphyrins with common salts of lanthanide metal ions. The large size, high coordination numbers and strong affinity for oxo ligands of the latter, combined with favorable hydrothermal reaction conditions, allowed the formation of open three-dimensional single-framework architectures by coordination polymerization, in which the tetradentate porphyrin units are intercoordinated by multinuclear assemblies of the bridging metal ions. The latter serve as construction pillars of the supramolecular arrays, affording stable structures. Several modes of coordination polymerization were revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They differ by the spatial functionality of the porphyrin building blocks, the coordination patterns of the lanthanide-carboxylate assemblies, and the topology of the resulting frameworks. The seven new reported structures exhibit periodically spaced 0.4-0.6 nm wide channel voids that perforate the respective crystalline polymeric architectures and are accessible to solvent components. Materials based on the m-carboxyphenyl derivative reveal smaller channels than those based on the p-carboxyphenyl analogues. An additional complex of the former with a smaller third-row transition metal (Co) is characterized by coordination connectivity in two dimensions only. Thermal and powder-diffraction analyses confirm the stability of the lanthanide-TmCPP (TmCPP=tetra(m-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) frameworks.

  14. A review on solid phase extraction of actinides and lanthanides with amide based extractants.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K

    2017-05-26

    Solid phase extraction is gaining attention from separation scientists due to its high chromatographic utility. Though both grafted and impregnated forms of solid phase extraction resins are popular, the later is easy to make by impregnating a given organic extractant on to an inert solid support. Solid phase extraction on an impregnated support, also known as extraction chromatography, combines the advantages of liquid-liquid extraction and the ion exchange chromatography methods. On the flip side, the impregnated extraction chromatographic resins are less stable against leaching out of the organic extractant from the pores of the support material. Grafted resins, on the other hand, have a higher stability, which allows their prolong use. The goal of this article is a brief literature review on reported actinide and lanthanide separation methods based on solid phase extractants of both the types, i.e., (i) ligand impregnation on the solid support or (ii) ligand functionalized polymers (chemically bonded resins). Though the literature survey reveals an enormous volume of studies on the extraction chromatographic separation of actinides and lanthanides using several extractants, the focus of the present article is limited to the work carried out with amide based ligands, viz. monoamides, diamides and diglycolamides. The emphasis will be on reported applied experimental results rather than on data pertaining fundamental metal complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) Complexes: An Advanced Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swavey, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories rarely involve lanthanide coordination chemistry. This is unfortunate in light of the ease with which many of these complexes are made and the interesting and instructive photophysical properties they entail. The forbidden nature of the 4f transitions associated with the lanthanides is overcome by incorporation of…

  16. On the Suitability of Lanthanides as Actinide Analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, Geza; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-04-11

    With the current level of actinide materials used in civilian power generation and the need for safe and efficient methods for the chemical separation of these species from their daughter products and for long-term storage requirements, a detailed understanding of actinide chemistry is of great importance. Due to the unique bonding properties of the f-elements, the lanthanides are commonly used as structural and chemical models for the actinides, but differences in the bonding between these 4f and 5f elements has become a question of immediate applicability to separations technology. This brief overview of actinide coordination chemistry in the Raymond groupmore » at UC Berkeley/LBNL examines the validity of using lanthanide analogs as structural models for the actinides, with particular attention paid to single crystal X-ray diffraction structures. Although lanthanides are commonly accepted as reasonable analogs for the actinides, these comparisons suggest the careful study of actinide materials independent of their lanthanide analogs to be of utmost importance to present and future efforts in nuclear industries.« less

  17. On the suitability of lanthanides as actinide analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza

    2008-07-01

    With the current level of actinide materials used in civilian power generation and the need for safe and efficient methods for the chemical separation of these species from their daughter products and for long-term storage requirements, a detailed understanding of actinide chemistry is of great importance. Due to the unique bonding properties of the f-elements, the lanthanides are commonly used as structural and chemical models for the actinides, but differences in the bonding between these 4f and 5f elements has become a question of immediate applicability to separations technology. This brief overview of actinide coordination chemistry in the Raymond groupmore » at UC Berkeley/LBNL examines the validity of using lanthanide analogs as structural models for the actinides, with particular attention paid to single crystal X-ray diffraction structures. Although lanthanides are commonly accepted as reasonable analogs for the actinides, these comparisons suggest the careful study of actinide materials independent of their lanthanide analogs to be of utmost importance to present and future efforts in nuclear industries. (authors)« less

  18. Lanthanide Fluorobenzoates as Bio-Probes: a Quest for the Optimal Ligand Fluorination Degree.

    PubMed

    Kalyakina, Alena S; Utochnikova, Valentina V; Bushmarinov, Ivan S; Le-Deygen, Irina M; Volz, Daniel; Weis, Patrick; Schepers, Ute; Kuzmina, Natalia P; Bräse, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    The thorough study of fluorinated benzoates of lanthanides (Eu, Tb, Nd, Er, Yb, Gd, La, Lu) is reported. Their composition in single crystal and powder state revealed two predominant structural motifs. An in-depth luminescence study has been performed on the reported fluorobenzoates, showing, that terbium and europium complexes in solid state possess high luminescence intensity with the quantum yield of up to 69 %. High solubility in most organic solvents, as well as in water, combined with the high luminescence intensity in water solution and non-toxicity allowed the testing of europium complexes as bioprobes in cellulo. Among all tested fluorobenzoates, europium 2-fluorobenzoate dihydrate combined the best luminescent properties, thermodynamic stability, aqueous solubility, and non-toxicity, and was shown to be a viable bio-marker. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lanthanide co-ordination frameworks: Opportunities and diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robert J.; Long, De-Liang; Hubberstey, Peter

    2005-08-15

    Significant successes have been made over recent years in preparing co-ordination framework polymers that show macroscopic material properties, but in the vast majority of cases this has been achieved with d-block metal-based systems. Lanthanide co-ordination frameworks also offer attractive properties in terms of their potential applications as luminescent, non-linear optical and porous materials. However, lanthanide-based systems have been far less studied to date than their d-block counterparts. One possible reason for this is that the co-ordination spheres of lanthanide cations are more difficult to control and, in the absence of design strategies for lanthanide co-ordination frameworks, it is significantly moremore » difficult to target materials with specific properties. However, this article highlights some of the exciting possibilities that have emerged from the earliest investigations in this field with new topological families of compounds being discovered from relatively simple framework components, including unusual eight, seven and five-connected framework systems. Our own research, as well as others, is leading to a much greater appreciation of the factors that control framework formation and the resultant observed topologies of these polymers. As this understanding develops targeting particular framework types will become more straightforward and the development of designed polyfunctional materials more accessible. Thus, it can be seen that lanthanide co-ordination frameworks have the potential to open up previously unexplored directions for materials chemistry. This article focuses on the underlying concepts for the construction of these enticing and potentially highly important materials.« less

  20. Gas-phase reactivity of lanthanide cations with fluorocarbons: C-F versus C-H and C-C bond activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cornehl, H.H.; Hornung, G.; Schwarz, H.

    1996-10-16

    The gas-phase reactivity of the fluorinated hydrocarbons CF{sub 4}, CHF{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}F, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, 1,1-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}F{sub 2}, and C{sub 6}F{sub 6} with the lanthanide cations Ce{sup +}, Pr{sup +}, Sm{sup +}, Ho{sup +}, Tm{sup +}, and Yb{sup +} and the reactivity of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}F with all lanthanide cations Ln{sup +} (Ln = La-Lu, with the exception of Pm{sup +}) have been examined by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The perfluorinated compounds tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane as well as trifluoromethane do not react with any lanthanide cation. Selective activation of the strong C-F bonds in fluoromethane, 1,1-difluoroethane,more » hexafluorobenzene, and fluorobenzene appears as a general reaction scheme along the 4f row. Experimental evidence is given for a `harpoon`-like mechanism for the F atom abstraction process which operates via an initial electron transfer from the lanthanide cation to the fluorinated substrate in the encounter complex Ln{sup +}RF. The most reactive lanthanides La{sup +}, Ce{sup +}, Gd{sup +}, and Tb{sup +} and also the formal closed-shell species Lu{sup +} exhibit additional C-H and C-C bond activation pathways in the reaction with fluorobenzene, namely dehydrohalogenation as well as loss of a neutral acetylene molecule. In the case of Tm{sup +} and Yb{sup +} the formation of neutral LnF{sub 3} is observed in a multistep process via C-C coupling and charge transfer. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  1. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanide based nanomaterials for radiation detection and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingzhen

    2011-12-01

    luminescence. Nanocompounds formed with CdTe quantum dots and LaF3:Ce nanoparticles optimize both stopping power and scintillation efficiency based on energy transfer from LaF3:Ce to CdTe. Hybrid matrix materials such as ORMOSIL have superior mechanical properties and a better processability than pure molecular material which could be used as carrier of radiation material. Moreover, embedding a lanthanide complex in a hybrid matrix enhances its thermal stability and luminescence output. LaF3:Ce doped ORMOSIL was synthesized by using two different LaF3:Ce, the nanoparticle doping concentration can reach up to 15.66% while its transparency and luminescent properties were maintained. These materials are very promising for radiation detection.

  2. The effect of lanthanides on photosynthesis, growth, and chlorophyll profile of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Kaineder, Katrin; Mezricky, Dana; Řezanka, Michal; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada

    2016-12-01

    Lanthanides (La, Gd, Nd, Ce) accumulated in the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda but their intracellular localizations were distinctly different: lanthanum and gadolinium were localized in cytoplasm, while neodymium and cerium were in the chloroplast. The effect of lanthanum and neodymium, as representatives of these two groups, on growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate at different light intensities was studied. At the lowest light intensity used (50 µmol photons m -2  s -1 ), in the presence of lanthanides (Nd), growth was enhanced by as much as 36 % over lanthanide free control, and the photosynthetic rate increased by up to 300 %. At high light intensities (238, 460, and 750 µmol photons m -2 s -1 ), photosynthetic rate increased markedly, but there was no significant difference between rates in the presence or absence of lanthanides. However, growth, measured as a percentage of dry weight, if compared with lanthanide free control, increased at all light intensities (31, 39, and 20 %, respectively). The total amount of chlorophyll after lanthanide treatment increased by up to 21 % relative to the control culture, mainly due to an increase in the level of chlorophyll b. Addition of lanthanides caused a change in the chlorophyll a/b ratio from 4.583 in control cultivation, to 1.05. Possible mechanisms of lanthanide-induced photosynthetic change, alterations in photosynthetic structures, and increases in growth are discussed and compared with findings in higher plants. The hypothesis that the lanthanide effect could be due to formation of lanthanide-pheophytins was not confirmed as lanthanide pheophytins were not found in D. quadricauda. Furthermore, we have shown that the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of magnesium, namely 25 Mg and 26 Mg, into chlorophyll during photosynthesis that occurred in controls was diminished in the presence of lanthanides.

  3. Series of mixed uranyl-lanthanide (Ce, Nd) organic coordination polymers with aromatic polycarboxylates linkers.

    PubMed

    Mihalcea, Ionut; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry

    2012-09-17

    Three series of mixed uranyl-lanthanide (Ce or Nd) carboxylate coordination polymers have been successfully synthesized by means of a hydrothermal route using either conventional or microwave heating methods. These compounds have been prepared from mixtures of uranyl nitrate, lanthanide nitrate together with phthalic acid (1,2), pyromellitic acid (3,4), or mellitic acid (5,6) in aqueous solution. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) single-crystal revealed that the phthalate complex (UO(2))(4)O(2)Ln(H(2)O)(7)(1,2-bdc)(4)·NH(4)·xH(2)O (Ln = Ce(1), Nd(2); x = 1 for 1, x = 0 for 2), is based on the connection of tetranuclear uranyl-centered building blocks linked to discrete monomeric units LnO(2)(H(2)O)(7) via the organic species to generate infinite chains, intercalated by free ammonium cations. The pyromellitate phase (UO(2))(3)Ln(2)(H(2)O)(12)(btec)(3)·5H(2)O (Ce(3), Nd(4)) contains layers of monomeric uranyl-centered hexagonal and pentagonal bipyramids linked via the carboxylate arms of the organic molecules. The three-dimensionality of the structure is ensured by the connection of remaining free carboxylate groups with isolated monomeric units LnO(2)(H(2)O)(7). The network of the third series (UO(2))(2)(OH)Ln(H(2)O)(7)(mel)·5H(2)O (Ce(5), Nd(6)) is built up from dinuclear uranyl units forming layers through connection with the mellitate ligands, which are further linked to each other through discrete monomers LnO(3)(H(2)O)(6). The thermal decomposition of the various coordination complexes led to the formation of mixed uranium-lanthanide oxide, with the fluorite-type structure at 1500 °C (for 1, 2) or 1400 °C for 3-6. Expected U/Ln ratio from the crystal structures were observed for compounds 1-6.

  4. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth L. Nash

    2009-09-22

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am andmore » Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, 2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  5. Rydberg series in the lanthanides and actinides observed by stepwise laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, E.F.; Solarz, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.

    1977-05-18

    The techniques of stepwise laser excitation were applied to obtain Ryberg series in the lanthanides and in uranium. The methods employed circumvent many of the experimental difficulties inherent in conventional absorption spectrosopy of these heavy atoms with very complex spectra. The Rydberg series observed have allowed the determination of accurate ionization limits. The values in eV are: Ce, 5.5387(4);Nd, 5.5250(6); Sm, 5.6437(10); Eu, 5.6704(3); Gd, 6.1502(6); Tb, 5.8639(6); Dy, 5.9390(6); Ho, 6.0216(6); Er 6.1077(6); U, 6.1941(5). A comparison of the f/sup n/s/sup 2/-f/sup n/s ionization limits as a function of n with theoretical calculations is made.

  6. Magnetic hysteresis in a lanthanide molecular magnet dimer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, James; Cebulka, Rebecca; Del Barco, Enrique; Roubeau, Olivier; Velasco, Veronica; Barrios, Leo; Aromi, Guillem

    Molecular magnets present a wonderful means for studying the dynamics of spin. Often synthesized as a crystal lattice of identical systems, ensemble measurements enable thorough detailing of the internal degrees of freedom. Here we present the results of characterization performed on a dimer system, CeTm(HL)2(H2L)NO3pyH2O (L = ligand, C45H31O15N3), consisting of two lanthanide spins (Cerium and Thulium) with expected local axial anisotropies tilted with respect to each other. Microwave EPR spectroscopy at low temperature reveals hysteresis in observed absorption features, with angle dependence studies indicating the presence of several ``easy axis'' orientations. We attempt to understand this system through modelling via a spin Hamiltonian, and to determine the strength and nature of the coupling between the lanthanide centers. This research was funded through NSF Grant # 24086159.

  7. Superabsorbing gel for actinide, lanthanide, and fission product decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    The present invention provides an aqueous gel composition for removing actinide ions, lanthanide ions, fission product ions, or a combination thereof from a porous surface contaminated therewith. The composition comprises a polymer mixture comprising a gel forming cross-linked polymer and a linear polymer. The linear polymer is present at a concentration that is less than the concentration of the cross-linked polymer. The polymer mixture is at least about 95% hydrated with an aqueous solution comprising about 0.1 to about 3 percent by weight (wt %) of a multi-dentate organic acid chelating agent, and about 0.02 to about 0.6 molar (M)more » carbonate salt, to form a gel. When applied to a porous surface contaminated with actinide ions, lanthanide ions, and/or other fission product ions, the aqueous gel absorbs contaminating ions from the surface.« less

  8. Chemical purification of lanthanides for low-background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    There are many potentially active isotopes among the lanthanide elements which are possible to use for low-background experiments to search for double β decay, dark matter, to investigate rare α and β decays. These kind of experiments require very low level of radioactive contamination, but commercially available compounds of lanthanides are always contamined by uranium, thorium, radium, potassium, etc. A simple chemical method based on liquid-liquid extraction has been applied for the purification of CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd˙2O˙3 from radioactive traces. Detailed schemes of purification procedure are described. Measurements by using HPGe spectrometry demonstrate high efficiency in K, Ra, Th, U contaminations reduction on at least one order of magnitude.

  9. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-01

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  10. Deep-UV biological imaging by lanthanide ion molecular protection

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Fujita, Katsumasa; Smith, Nicholas Isaac; Kawata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) light is a sensitive probe for biological molecules such as nucleobases and aromatic amino acids due to specific absorption. However, the use of DUV light for imaging is limited because DUV can destroy or denature target molecules in a sample. Here we show that trivalent ions in the lanthanide group can suppress molecular photodegradation under DUV exposure, enabling a high signal-to-noise ratio and repetitive DUV imaging of nucleobases in cells. Underlying mechanisms of the photodegradation suppression can be excitation relaxation of the DUV-absorptive molecules due to energy transfer to the lanthanide ions, and/or avoiding ionization and reactions with surrounding molecules, including generation of reactive oxygen species, which can modify molecules that are otherwise transparent to DUV light. This approach, directly removing excited energy at the fundamental origin of cellular photodegradation, indicates an important first step towards the practical use of DUV imaging in a variety of biological applications. PMID:26819825

  11. A self-assembling lanthanide molecular nanoparticle for optical imaging†

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine A.; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W.; DePue, Lauren J.; Gnanam, Annie J.; Arambula, Jonathan F.; Jones, Jessica N.; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Ehrlich, Lauren I. R.; Jones, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromophores that incorporate f-block elements have considerable potential for use in bioimaging applications because of their advantageous photophysical properties compared to organic dye, which are currently widely used. We are developing new classes of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as reporters for imaging and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors for use with biological samples. One class of these materials, which we call lanthanide “nano-drums”, are homogeneous 4d–4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter. These are capable of emitting from the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. Here, we present the synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical properties and comparative cytotoxicity data for a 32 metal Eu-Cd nano-drum [Eu8Cd24L12(OAc)48] (1). We also explored the imaging capabilities of this nano-drum using epifluorescence, TIRF, and two-photon microscopy platforms. PMID:25512085

  12. Synthesis, structure, and luminescent properties of microporous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks with inorganic rod-shaped building units.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaodan; Zhu, Guangshan; Sun, Fuxing; Li, Zhongyue; Zhao, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaotian; Wang, Hanchang; Qiu, Shilun

    2006-03-20

    A series of microporous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks, Tb3(BDC)(4.5)(DMF)2(H2O)3.(DMF)(H2O) (1) and Ln3(BDC)(4.5)(DMF)2(H2O)3.(DMF)(C2H5OH)(0.5)(H2O)(0.5) [Ln = Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4)], have been synthesized by the reaction of the lanthanide metal ion (Ln3+) with 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid and triethylenetetramine in a mixed solution of N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, and C(2)H(5)OH. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that they are extremely similar in structure and crystallized in triclinic space group P. An edge-sharing metallic dimer and 4 metallic monomers assemble with 18 carboxylate groups to form discrete inorganic rod-shaped building units [Ln6(CO2)18], which link to each other through phenyl groups to lead to three-dimensional open frameworks with approximately 4 x 6 A rhombic channels along the [0,-1,1] direction. A water sorption isotherm proves that guest molecules in the framework of complex 1 can be removed to create permanent microporosity and about four water molecules per formula unit can be adsorbed into the micropores. These complexes exhibit blue fluorescence, and complex 1 shows a Tb3+ characteristic emission in the range of 450-650 nm.

  13. Lanthanide binding and IgG affinity construct: Potential applications in solution NMR, MRI, and luminescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Barb, Adam W; Ho, Tienhuei Grace; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Prestegard, James H

    2012-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide ions when bound to proteins offer great potential for structural investigations that utilize solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, or optical microscopy. However, many proteins do not have native metal ion binding sites and engineering a chimeric protein to bind an ion while retaining affinity for a protein of interest represents a significant challenge. Here we report the characterization of an immunoglobulin G-binding protein redesigned to include a lanthanide binding motif in place of a loop between two helices (Z-L2LBT). It was shown to bind Tb3+ with 130 nM affinity. Ions such as Dy3+, Yb3+, and Ce3+ produce paramagnetic effects on NMR spectra and the utility of these effects is illustrated by their use in determining a structural model of the metal-complexed Z-L2LBT protein and a preliminary characterization of the dynamic distribution of IgG Fc glycan positions. Furthermore, this designed protein is demonstrated to be a novel IgG-binding reagent for magnetic resonance imaging (Z-L2LBT:Gd3+ complex) and luminescence microscopy (Z-L2LBT: Tb3+ complex). PMID:22851279

  14. Selective Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic Streams and Dialysate

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2009-09-15

    The increased demand for the lanthanides in commercial products result in increased production of lanthanide containing ores, increasing public exposure to the lanthanides, both from various commercial products and from production wastes/effluents. This work investigates lanthanide (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Lu) binding properties of self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silica supports (SAMMS®) that were functionalized with diphosphonic acid (DiPhos), acetamide phosphonic acid (AcPhos), propionamide phosphonic acid (ProPhos), and 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) from natural waters (river, ground, and sea waters), acid solutions (to mimic certain industrial process streams), and dialysate and compares their performance to a high surface area activated carbon.more » The properties include sorption affinity, capacity, and sorption kinetics. Stability and regenerability of SAMMS materials were also investigated. Going from the acid side over to the alkaline side, the AcPhos- and DiPhos-SAMMS maintain their outstanding affinity for lanthanides, which enable the use of the materials in the systems where the pH may fluctuate. While the activated carbon is as effective as 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS for capturing lanthanides in natural (alkaline) waters, it has no affinity in acid solutions (pH 2.4) and low affinity in carbonate-rich dialysate. Over 99% of 100 ug/L of Gd in dialysate was removed by the ProPhos-SAMMS after ten minutes. SAMMS can be regenerated with an acid wash (0.5 M HCl) without losing the binding properties, for a number of regeneration cycles. In acid solutions, PhoPhos- and 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS have differing affinity along the lanthanide series, suggesting their potential for chromatographic lanthanide separations. Thus, SAMMS materials have a great potential to be used as sorbents in large scale treatment of lanthanides, lanthanide separation prior to analytical instruments, and sorbent dialyzers for lanthanide clearances.« less

  15. Early-lanthanide(III) acetonitrile–solvento adducts with iodide and noncoordinating anions

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Jessie L.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Scott, Brian L.; ...

    2015-12-25

    Dissolution of LnI 3 (Ln = La, Ce) in acetonitrile (MeCN) results in the highly soluble solvates LnI 3(MeCN) 5 [Ln = La (1), Ce (2)] in good yield. The ionic complex [La(MeCN) 9][LaI 6] (4), containing a rare homoleptic La 3+ cation and anion, was also isolated as a minor product. Extending this chemistry to NdI 3 results in the consistent formation of the complex ionic structure [Nd(MeCN) 9] 2[NdI 5(MeCN)][NdI 6][I] (3), which contains an unprecedented pentaiodide lanthanoid anion. Also described is the synthesis, isolation, and structural characterization of several homoleptic early-lanthanide MeCN solvates with noncoordinating anions, namely,more » [Ln(MeCN) 9][AlCl 4] 3 [Ln = La (5), Ce (6), Nd (7)]. Notably, complex 6 is the first homoleptic cerium MeCN solvate reported to date. All reported complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, as well as by IR spectroscopy and CHN elemental analysis. Furthermore, complexes 1–3 were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry to further elucidate their bulk composition in the solid-state.« less

  16. Lanthanide heterometallic terephthalates: Concentration quenching and the principles of the "multiphotonic emission"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochnikova, V. V.; Grishko, A. Yu.; Koshelev, D. S.; Averin, A. A.; Lepnev, L. S.; Kuzmina, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The principles of the "multiphotonic emission", i.e. multiple emission from one lanthanide ion, in heterometallic lanthanide terephthalates were determined. Thanks to it, another system with the same effect, namely EuxY1-x(dbm)3(Phen) (Hdbm - dibenzoylmethanate, Phen - o-phenanthroline (mistape)) was found. The criteria for concentration quenching appearance were formulated and demonstrated.

  17. A novel strategy for phosphopeptide enrichment using lanthanide phosphate co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Munazza Raza; Rainer, Matthias; Güzel, Yüksel; Choudhary, Iqbal M; Bonn, Günther K

    2012-08-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a common theme in the regulation of important cellular functions such as growth, metabolism, and differentiation. The comprehensive understanding of biological processes requires the characterization of protein phosphorylation at the molecular level. Although, the number of cellular phosphoproteins is relatively high, the phosphorylated residues themselves are generally of low abundance due to the sub-stoichiometric nature. However, low abundance of phosphopeptides and low degree of phosphorylation typically necessitates isolation and concentration of phosphopeptides prior to mass spectrometric analysis. In this study, we used trivalent lanthanide ions (LaCl(3), CeCl(3), EuCl(3), TbCl(3), HoCl(3), ErCl(3), and TmCl(3)) for phosphopeptide enrichment and cleaning-up. Due to their low solubility product, lanthanide ions form stable complexes with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides and precipitate out of solution. In a further step, non-phosphorylated compounds can easily be removed by simple centrifugation and washing before mass spectrometric analysis using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight. The precipitation method was applied for the isolation of phosphopeptides from standard proteins such as ovalbumin, α-casein, and β-casein. High enrichment of phosphopeptides could also be achieved for real samples such as fresh milk and egg white. The technology presented here represents an excellent and highly selective tool for phosphopeptide recovery; it is easily applicable and shows several advantages as compared with standard approaches such as TiO(2) or IMAC.

  18. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O'Hare, E.

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (~50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys wasmore » performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.« less

  19. Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals: Synthesis and optical properties study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang

    Upconversion phosphor materials have attracted considerable attention in recent years for their potential applications in a wide range of fields, including three-dimensional displays technologies, bio-imaging and photovoltaics. This dissertation aims to develop novel lanthanide-doped upconversion luminescent nanomaterials by using wet chemistry methods. Considerable efforts have been devoted to manipulating the optical properties of the synthesized lanthanide-doped nanoparticles under excitation of different wavelengths, for example, 808, 980 and 1532 nm. In the first research work, a novel core-shell-shell design has been developed for finely tuning of energy migration upconversion of activators without long-lived mediated states, such as Eu3+ and Tb3+ upon excitation at 808 nm by using Nd3+ as sensitizer. Exquisite control the composition of each layer gives rise to maximized upconversion emissions of the activators. For example, with the use of core layer for energy harvesting (NaGdF4:Yb/Nd, active core), the optimal doping concentrations of Eu3+ and Tb3+ is fixed to 15 and 15 mol%, respectively. In contrast, active shell can also provide access to strong upconversion of Eu3+ and Tb3+ by doping Nd (40 mol%) into the outmost layer. Note that the effect of active shell is much stronger than active core in generating upconversion emissions of Eu3+ and Tb3+. Next, upconversion emission tuning of Er/Tm/Yb-doped NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles has been conducted under excitation at 1532 nm. The output color of the nanoparticles is tunable by changing the doping levels of the lanthanides. With the use of core-shell design, the optical properties of the doped nanoparticles can be further optimized, for example, strongest upconversion emission was observed for NaYF4:Er(10 mol%) NaYF4:Er(0.5 mol%) with a relative emission of green-to-red of 1.2. This work provides a new dimension to control the color output of upconversion nanoparticles. It should be noted that the

  20. Radiation-induced disorder in compressed lanthanide zirconates.

    PubMed

    Park, Sulgiye; Tracy, Cameron L; Zhang, Fuxiang; Park, Changyong; Trautmann, Christina; Tkachev, Sergey N; Lang, Maik; Mao, Wendy L; Ewing, Rodney C

    2018-02-28

    The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation-induced disordering on the behavior of lanthanide zirconate compounds (Ln 2 Zr 2 O 7 where Ln = Sm, Er, or Nd) at high pressures are investigated. After irradiation with 2.2 GeV 197 Au ions, the initial ordered pyrochlore structure (Fd3[combining macron]m) transformed to a defect-fluorite structure (Fm3[combining macron]m) in Sm 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Nd 2 Zr 2 O 7 . For irradiated Er 2 Zr 2 O 7 , which has a defect-fluorite structure, ion irradiation induces local disordering by introducing Frenkel defects despite retention of the initial structure. When subjected to high pressures (>29 GPa) in the absence of irradiation, all of these compounds transform to a cotunnite-like (Pnma) phase, followed by sluggish amorphization with further compression. However, if these compounds are irradiated prior to compression, the high pressure cotunnite-like phase is not formed. Rather, they transform directly from their post-irradiation defect-fluorite structure to an amorphous structure upon compression (>25 GPa). Defects and disordering induced by swift heavy ion irradiation alter the transformation pathways by raising the energetic barriers for the transformation to the high pressure cotunnite-like phase, rendering it inaccessible. As a result, the high pressure stability field of the amorphous phase is expanded to lower pressures when irradiation is coupled with compression. The responses of materials in the lanthanide zirconate system to irradiation and compression, both individually and in tandem, are strongly influenced by the specific lanthanide composition, which governs the defect energetics at extreme conditions.

  1. Equilibrium Speciation of Select Lanthanides in the Presence of Acidic Ligands in Homo- and Heterogeneous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Troy A

    2011-08-01

    europium (Eu 3+) and 8-hydroxyquinoline under cloud point extraction conditions, potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations coupled with modeling with Hyperquad and SQUAD computer programs were performed to assess europium (Eu 3+) and 8-hydroxyquinoline speciation. Experiments in both water and a 1wt% Triton X-114/water mixed solvent were compared to understand the effect of Triton X-114 on the system speciation. Results indicated that increased solvation of 8-hydroxyquinoline by the mixed solvent lead to more stable complexes involving 8-hydroxyquinoline than in water, whereas competition between hydroxide and Triton X-114 for Eu 3+ led to lower stability hydrolysis complexes in the mixed solvent than in water. Lanthanide speciation is challenging due to the trivalent oxidation state that leads to multiple ligand complexes, including some mixed complexes. The complexity of the system demands well-designed and precise experiments that capture the nuances of the chemistry. This work increased the understanding of lanthanide speciation in the explored systems, but more work is required to produce a comprehensive understanding of the speciation involved.« less

  2. Luminescent Lanthanide MOFs: A Unique Platform for Chemical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Na; Wang, Guangbo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, lanthanide metal–organic frameworks (LnMOFs) have developed to be an interesting subclass of MOFs. The combination of the characteristic luminescent properties of Ln ions with the intriguing topological structures of MOFs opens up promising possibilities for the design of LnMOF-based chemical sensors. In this review, we present the most recent developments of LnMOFs as chemical sensors by briefly introducing the general luminescence features of LnMOFs, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the applications of LnMOF sensors for cations, anions, small molecules, nitroaromatic explosives, gases, vapors, pH, and temperature, as well as biomolecules. PMID:29642458

  3. Electrical resistivity of liquid lanthanides using charge hard sphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have studied electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid lanthanides. To describe the structural information, the structure factor S(q) due to the charged hard sphere (CHS) reference systems is used along with our newly constructed model potential. To see the influence of exchange and correlation effect on the electrical resistivity (ρ) have used different local field correction functions like Hartree (H), Sarkar et al (S) and Taylor (T). Lastly we conclude that the proper choice of the model potential along with local field correction function plays a vital role to the study of the electrical resistivity (ρ).

  4. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxidemore » by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.« less

  5. Lanthanide sorbent based on magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with organophosphorus extractants

    PubMed Central

    Basualto, Carlos; Gaete, José; Molina, Lorena; Valenzuela, Fernando; Yañez, Claudia; Marco, Jose F

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an adsorbent was prepared based on the attachment of organophosphorus acid extractants, namely, D2EHPA, CYANEX 272, and CYANEX 301, to the surface of superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with oleic acid, first by a chemisorption mechanism and later by the respective extractant via physical adsorption. The obtained core–shell functionalized magnetite nanoparticle composites were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared absorption and vibrating sample magnetometry. All the prepared nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization capacity that varied between 72 and 46 emu g−1 and decreased as the magnetite nanoparticle was coated with oleic acid and functionalized. The scope of this study also included adsorption tests for lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium and the corresponding analysis of their results. Sorption tests indicated that the functionalized nanoparticles were able to extract the four studied lanthanide metal ions, although the best extraction performance was observed when the sorbent was functionalized with CYANEX 272, which resulted in a loading capacity of approximately 12–14 mgLa/gMNP. The magnetization of the synthesized nanoparticles was verified during the separation of the lanthanide-loaded sorbent from the raffinate by using a conventional magnet. PMID:27877811

  6. Sol-Gel Electrolytes Incorporated by Lanthanide Luminescent Materials and Their Photophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chufang; Zhang, Zhengyang; Fu, Meizhen; Gao, Jinwei; Zheng, Yuhui

    2017-10-01

    A group of silica gel electrolytes with lanthanide luminescent hybrid materials were assembled and investigated. Photophysical studies showed that terbium and europium hybrids displayed characteristic green and red emissions within the electrolytes. The influence of different concentration of the lanthanide hybrids on the electrochemical behavior of a gelled electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid battery were studied through cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water holding experiments and mobility tests. The morphology and particle size were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that lanthanide (Tb3+/Eu3+) luminescent materials are effective additives which will significantly improve the electrochemical properties of lead-acid batteries.

  7. Extraction of water and speciation of trivalent lanthanides and americium in organophosphorus extractants

    DOE PAGES

    Gullekson, Brian J.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Brown, M. Alex; ...

    2016-11-29

    Complexes of the trivalent lanthanides and Am with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in an aliphatic diluent were probed with UV–vis, X-ray absorption fine structure, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy while the water concentration was determined by Karl Fischer titrations. In particular, our work focuses on the Nd-hypersensitive UV–vis absorbance region to identify the cause of changing absorbance values at 570 and 583 nm in relation to the pseudooctahedral Nd environment when coordinated with three HDEHP dimers. In contrast to recently reported interpretations, we establish that while impurities have an effect on this electronic transition band, a high water content can causemore » distortion of the pseudooctahedral symmetry of the six-coordinate Nd, resembling the reported spectra of the seven-coordinate Nd compounds. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the Nd in high-concentration HDEHP solutions also points to an increase in the coordination number from 6 to 7. The spectral behavior of other lanthanides (Pr, Ho, Sm, and Er) and Am III as a function of the HDEHP concentration suggests that water coordination with the metal likely depends on the metal’s effective charge. Fluorescence data using lifetime studies and excitation and emission spectra support the inclusion of water in the Eu coordination sphere. Further, the role of the effective charge was confirmed by a comparison of the Gibbs free energies of six- and seven-coordinate La-HDEHP–H 2O and Lu-HDEHP–H 2O complexes using density functional theory. In contrast, HEH[EHP], the phosphonic acid analogue of HDEHP, exhibits a smaller capacity for water, and the electronic absorption spectra of Nd or Am appear to be unchanged, although the Pr spectra show a noticeable change in intensity as a function of the water content. As a result, electronic absorption extinction coefficients of Am III, Nd III, Pr III, Sm III, Er III, and Ho III as a function of the

  8. Extraction of water and speciation of trivalent lanthanides and americium in organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gullekson, Brian J.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Brown, M. Alex

    Complexes of the trivalent lanthanides and Am with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in an aliphatic diluent were probed with UV–vis, X-ray absorption fine structure, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy while the water concentration was determined by Karl Fischer titrations. In particular, our work focuses on the Nd-hypersensitive UV–vis absorbance region to identify the cause of changing absorbance values at 570 and 583 nm in relation to the pseudooctahedral Nd environment when coordinated with three HDEHP dimers. In contrast to recently reported interpretations, we establish that while impurities have an effect on this electronic transition band, a high water content can causemore » distortion of the pseudooctahedral symmetry of the six-coordinate Nd, resembling the reported spectra of the seven-coordinate Nd compounds. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the Nd in high-concentration HDEHP solutions also points to an increase in the coordination number from 6 to 7. The spectral behavior of other lanthanides (Pr, Ho, Sm, and Er) and Am III as a function of the HDEHP concentration suggests that water coordination with the metal likely depends on the metal’s effective charge. Fluorescence data using lifetime studies and excitation and emission spectra support the inclusion of water in the Eu coordination sphere. Further, the role of the effective charge was confirmed by a comparison of the Gibbs free energies of six- and seven-coordinate La-HDEHP–H 2O and Lu-HDEHP–H 2O complexes using density functional theory. In contrast, HEH[EHP], the phosphonic acid analogue of HDEHP, exhibits a smaller capacity for water, and the electronic absorption spectra of Nd or Am appear to be unchanged, although the Pr spectra show a noticeable change in intensity as a function of the water content. As a result, electronic absorption extinction coefficients of Am III, Nd III, Pr III, Sm III, Er III, and Ho III as a function of the

  9. Photoluminescent lanthanide-organic bilayer networks with 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate and oxalate.

    PubMed

    Soares-Santos, Paula C R; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Ferreira, Rute A S; Rocha, João; Carlos, Luís D; Nogueira, Helena I S

    2010-04-05

    The hydrothermal reaction between lanthanide nitrates and 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid led to a new series of two-dimensional (2D) lanthanide-organic frameworks: [Ln(2)(2,3-pzdc)(2)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)](n) [where 2,3-pzdc(2-) = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate, ox(2-) = oxalate, and Ln(III) = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, or Er]. The structural details of these materials were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (for Ce(3+) and Nd(3+)) that revealed the formation of a layered structure. Cationic monolayers of {(infinity)(2)[Ln(2,3-pzdc)(H(2)O)](+)} are interconnected via the ox(2-) ligand leading to the formation of neutral (infinity)(2)[Ln(2)(2,3-pzdc)(2)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)] bilayer networks; structural cohesion of the crystalline packing is reinforced by the presence of highly directional O-H...O hydrogen bonds between adjacent bilayers. Under the employed hydrothermal conditions 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid can be decomposed into ox(2-) and 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (2-pzc(-)), as unequivocally proved by the isolation of the discrete complex [Tb(2)(2-pzc)(4)(ox)(H(2)O)(6)].10H(2)O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of this latter complex revealed its co-crystallization with an unprecedented (H(2)O)(16) water cluster. Photoluminescence measurements were performed for the Nd(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+), and Tb(3+) compounds which show, under UV excitation at room temperature, the Ln(3+) characteristic intra-4f(N) emission peaks. The energy level of the triplet states of 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (18939 cm(-1)) and oxalic acid (24570 cm(-1)) was determined from the 12 K emission spectrum of the Gd(3+) compound. The (5)D(0) and (5)D(4) lifetime values (0.333 +/- 0.006 and 0.577 +/- 0.017 ms) and the absolute emission quantum yields (0.13 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01) were determined for the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) compounds, respectively. For the Eu(3+) compound the energy transfer efficiency arising from the ligands' excited states was estimated (0.93 +/- 0.01).

  10. The TRUSPEAK Concept: Combining CMPO and HDEHP for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Braley, Jenifer C.

    2013-04-08

    Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) into a single process solvent for separating transuranic elements from liquid high-level waste is explored. Co-extraction of americium and the lanthanide elements from nitric acid solution is possible with a solvent mixture consisting of 0.1-M CMPO plus 1-M HDEHP in n-dodecane. Switching the aqueous-phase chemistry to a citrate-buffered solution of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) allows for selective stripping of americium, separating it from the lanthanide elements. Potential strategies for managing molybdenum and zirconium (both of which co-extract with americium and the lanthanides) have been developed. The work presented here demonstratesmore » the feasibility of combining CMPO and HDEHP into a single extraction solvent for recovering americium from high-level waste and its separation from the lanthanides.« less

  11. Lanthanide alkyl and silyl compounds: Synthesis, reactivity and catalysts for green

    SciTech Connect

    Pindwal, Aradhana

    2016-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed enormous research in the field of organometallic lanthanide chemistry. Our research group has developed a few rare earth alkyl compounds containing tris(dimethylsilyl)methyl ligand and explored their reactivity. This thesis focusses on extending the study of lanthanide alkyl and silyl compounds to develop strategies for their synthesis and explore their reactivity and role as catalysts in processes such as hydrosilylation and cross-dehydrocoupling.

  12. Ion-Size-Dependent Formation of Mixed Titanium/Lanthanide Oxo Clusters.

    PubMed

    Artner, Christine; Kronister, Stefan; Czakler, Matthias; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    The mixed-metal oxo clusters LnTi 4 O 3 (O i Pr) 2 (OMc) 11 (Ln = La, Ce; OMc = methacrylate), Ln 2 Ti 6 O 6 (OMc) 18 (HO i Pr) (Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Sm) and Ln 2 Ti 4 O 4 (OMc) 14 (HOMc) 2 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho) have been synthesized from titanium isopropoxide, the corresponding lanthanide acetate and methacrylic acid. The type of cluster obtained strongly depends on the size of the lanthanide ion.

  13. SEPARATION OF EUROPIUM FROM OTHER LANTHANIDE RAE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-02-12

    This patent deals with a process of separating europium from other lanthanides present in aqueous hydrochloric or sulfuric acid solutions. The europium is selectively reduced to the divalent state with a divalent chromium salt formed in situ from chromium(III) salt plus zinc amalgam. The other trivalent lanthanides are then extracted away from the divalent europium with a nitrogen-flushed phosphoric acid ester or a phosphonic acid ester. (AEC)

  14. Photoluminescent and Slow Magnetic Relaxation Studies on Lanthanide(III)-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylate Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Maria Vanda; Reis, Daniella O; Oliveira, Willian X C; Marques, Lippy F; Stumpf, Humberto O; Déniz, Mariadel; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2017-02-20

    In the series described in this work, the hydrothermal synthesis led to oxidation of the 5-methyl-pyrazinecarboxylate anion to the 2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylate dianion (2,5-pzdc) allowing the preparation of three-dimensional (3D) lanthanide(III) organic frameworks of formula {[Ln 2 (2,5-pzdc) 3 (H 2 O) 4 ]·6H 2 O} n [Ln = Ce (1), Pr (2), Nd (3), and Eu (4)] and {[Er 2 (2,5-pzdc) 3 (H 2 O) 4 ]·5H 2 O} n (5). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction on 1-5 reveals that they crystallize in the triclinic system, P1̅ space group with the series 1-4 being isostructural. The crystal structure of the five compounds are 3D with the lanthanide(III) ions linked through 2,5-pzdc 2- dianions acting as two- and fourfold connectors, building a binodal 4,4-connected (4·6 4 8)(4 2 6 2 8 2 )-mog network. The photophysical properties of the Nd(III) (3) and Eu(III) (4) complexes exhibit sensitized photoluminescence in the near-infrared and visible regions, respectively. The photoluminescence intensity and lifetime of 4 were very sensitive due to the luminescence quenching of the 5 D 0 level by O-H oscillators of four water molecules in the first coordination sphere leading to a quantum efficiency of 11%. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for 1-5 reveal behaviors as expected for the ground terms of the magnetically isolated rare-earth ions [ 2 F 5/2 , 2 H 4 , 4 I 9/2 , 7 F 0 , and 4 I 15/2 for Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), and Er(III), respectively] with M J = 0 (2 and 4) and ±1/2 (1, 3, and 5). Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at low temperature corroborate these facts. Frequency-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility signals under external direct-current fields in the range of 100-2500 G were observed for the Kramers ions of 1, 3, and 5, indicating slow magnetic relaxation (single-ion magnet) behavior. In these compounds, τ -1 decreases with decreasing temperature at any magnetic field, but no Arrhenius law can simulate such

  15. Bioadsorption of Rare Earth Elements through Cell Surface Display of Lanthanide Binding Tags.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Reed, David W; Yung, Mimi C; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb(3+) could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb(3+) by citrate. No reduction in Tb(3+) adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  16. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitudemore » than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)« less

  17. Redox-activated MRI contrast agents based on lanthanide and transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Tsitovich, Pavel B; Burns, Patrick J; McKay, Adam M; Morrow, Janet R

    2014-04-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) potential of tissue is tightly regulated in order to maintain normal physiological processes, but is disrupted in disease states. Thus, the development of new tools to map tissue redox potential may be clinically important for the diagnosis of diseases that lead to redox imbalances. One promising area of chemical research is the development of redox-activated probes for mapping tissue through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we summarize several strategies for the design of redox-responsive MRI contrast agents. Our emphasis is on both lanthanide(III) and transition metal(II/III) ion complexes that provide contrast either as T1 relaxivity MRI contrast agents or as paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) contrast agents. These agents are redox-triggered by a variety of chemical reactions or switches including redox-activated thiol groups, and heterocyclic groups that interact with the metal ion or influence properties of other ancillary ligands. Metal ion centered redox is an approach which is ripe for development by coordination chemists. Redox-triggered metal ion approaches have great potential for creating large differences in magnetic properties that lead to changes in contrast. An attractive feature of these agents is the ease of fine-tuning the metal ion redox potential over a biologically relevant range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Two novel 2D lanthanide sulfate frameworks: Syntheses, structures, and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Fu-Li; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Xiang-Fei; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Guang-Xiu; Zhai, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Two novel lanthanide-sulfate compounds, [Ln2(SO4)3(H2O)8] (Ln = Tb (1) and Dy (2)), have been synthesized under hydrothermal reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and crystallize in monoclinic C2/c pace group, showing a layered structure. The layers bear a rare quasi-honeycomb metal arrangement, which is fastened by μ3 = η1:η1:η1 and μ2 = η1:η1 sulfates. If assigning the μ3 = η1:η1:η1 sulfate as a 3-connected node and the Ln3+ ion as a 4-connected node, the network can be rationalized as a binodal (3,4)-connected V2O5 topology with a Schäfli symbol of (42·63·8) (42·6). In addition, the infrared, thermogravimetric analysis and luminescent properties were also studied. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit outstanding thermal stability and characteristic terbium and dysprosium luminescence.

  19. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb 3+ could be effectively recovered usingmore » citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb 3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb 3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.« less

  20. Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardena-Mahanama, Buddhima N.; Allen, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of lanthanide(III)-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century, as well as implications of these strategies on the design of contrast agents. PMID:23921796

  1. Dual roles of f electrons in mixing Al 3 p character into d -orbital conduction bands for lanthanide and actinide dialuminides

    DOE PAGES

    Altman, Alison B.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Alayoglu, Selim; ...

    2018-01-15

    Correlated electron phenomena in lanthanide and actinide materials are driven by a complex interplay between the f and d orbitals. Here in this study, aluminum K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations are used to evaluate the electronic structure of the dialuminides, MAl 2 (M = Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, U, and Pu). The results show how the energy and occupancy of the 4f or 5f orbitals impacts mixing of Al 3p character into the 5d or 6d conduction bands, which has implications for understanding the magnetic and structural properties of correlated electron systems.

  2. Extending lifetimes of lanthanide-based near-infrared emitters (Nd, Yb) in the millisecond range through Cr(III) sensitization in discrete bimetallic edifices.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Daniel; Cantuel, Martine; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G; Bernardinelli, Gérald; Piguet, Claude

    2003-12-24

    A [Cr(alpha,alpha'-diimine)3]3+ chromophore is used as a donor for sensitizing NdIII and YbIII near-infrared (NIR) emitters in the heterobimetallic helicates [LnCrIIIL3]6+. The intramolecular CrIII --> LnIII energy transfer process controls the population of the lanthanide-centered emitting levels, thus leading to unprecedented extension of the NIR luminescence decay times in the millisecond range for Nd and Yb ions incorporated in coordination complexes.

  3. Lanthanide-Dependent Regulation of Methylotrophy in Methylobacterium aquaticum Strain 22A

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Sachiko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fujitani, Yoshiko; Mitsui, Ryoji; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methylobacterium species are representative of methylotrophic bacteria. Their genomes usually encode two types of methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs): MxaF and XoxF. The former is a Ca2+-dependent enzyme, and the latter was recently determined to be a lanthanide-dependent enzyme that is necessary for the expression of mxaF. This finding revealed the unexpected and important roles of lanthanides in bacterial methylotrophy. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis using M. aquaticum strain 22A grown in the presence of different lanthanides. Expression of mxaF and xoxF1 genes showed a clear inverse correlation in response to La3+. We observed downregulation of formaldehyde oxidation pathways, high formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and low accumulation of formaldehyde in the reaction with cells grown in the presence of La3+; this might be due to the direct oxidation of methanol to formate by XoxF1. Lanthanides induced the transcription of AT-rich genes, the function of most of which was unknown, and genes possibly related to cellular survival, as well as other MDH homologues. These results revealed not only the metabolic response toward altered primary methanol oxidation, but also the possible targets to be investigated further in order to better understand methylotrophy in the presence of lanthanides. IMPORTANCE Lanthanides have been considered unimportant for biological processes. In methylotrophic bacteria, however, a methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) encoded by xoxF was recently found to be lanthanide dependent, while the classic-type mxaFI is calcium dependent. XoxF-type MDHs are more widespread in diverse bacterial genera, suggesting their importance for methylotrophy. Methylobacterium species, representative methylotrophic and predominating alphaproteobacteria in the phyllosphere, contain both types and regulate their expression depending on the availability of lanthanides. RNA-seq analysis showed that the regulation takes place

  4. Lanthanide-Dependent Regulation of Methylotrophy in Methylobacteriumaquaticum Strain 22A.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sachiko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fujitani, Yoshiko; Mitsui, Ryoji; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Shintani, Masaki; Tani, Akio

    2018-01-01

    Methylobacterium species are representative of methylotrophic bacteria. Their genomes usually encode two types of methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs): MxaF and XoxF. The former is a Ca 2+ -dependent enzyme, and the latter was recently determined to be a lanthanide-dependent enzyme that is necessary for the expression of mxaF . This finding revealed the unexpected and important roles of lanthanides in bacterial methylotrophy. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis using M. aquaticum strain 22A grown in the presence of different lanthanides. Expression of mxaF and xoxF1 genes showed a clear inverse correlation in response to La 3+ . We observed downregulation of formaldehyde oxidation pathways, high formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and low accumulation of formaldehyde in the reaction with cells grown in the presence of La 3+ ; this might be due to the direct oxidation of methanol to formate by XoxF1. Lanthanides induced the transcription of AT-rich genes, the function of most of which was unknown, and genes possibly related to cellular survival, as well as other MDH homologues. These results revealed not only the metabolic response toward altered primary methanol oxidation, but also the possible targets to be investigated further in order to better understand methylotrophy in the presence of lanthanides. IMPORTANCE Lanthanides have been considered unimportant for biological processes. In methylotrophic bacteria, however, a methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) encoded by xoxF was recently found to be lanthanide dependent, while the classic-type mxaFI is calcium dependent. XoxF-type MDHs are more widespread in diverse bacterial genera, suggesting their importance for methylotrophy. Methylobacterium species, representative methylotrophic and predominating alphaproteobacteria in the phyllosphere, contain both types and regulate their expression depending on the availability of lanthanides. RNA-seq analysis showed that the regulation takes place

  5. 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine solvated lanthanide aryloxides: pre-catalysts for intramolecular hydroalkoxylation.

    PubMed

    Janini, Thomas E; Rakosi, Robert; Durr, Christopher B; Bertke, Jeffrey A; Bunge, Scott D

    2009-12-21

    The synthesis and structural characterization of six 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (H-TMG) solvated lanthanide aryloxide complexes are reported. Ln[N{Si(CH3)3}2]3 (Ln = Nd, La) was reacted with two equivalents of both H-TMG and HOAr {HOAr = HOC6H2(CMe3)2-2,6 (H-DBP) or HOC6H2(CMe3)2-2,6-CH3-4 (H-4MeDBP)} and one equivelent of ethanol (HOEt) to yield the corresponding [Nd(H-TMG)2(4MeDBP)2(OEt)] (1) and [La(H-TMG)2(DBP)2(OEt)] (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were further reacted with 4-pentyn-1-ol {HO(CH2)3C[triple bond]CH} to isolate [Nd(H-TMG)2(4MeDBP)2{O(CH2)3C[triple bond]CH}] (3) and [La(H-TMG)2(DBP)2{O(CH2)3C[triple bond]CH}] (4), respectively. Three equivalents of HOAr and one equivalent of H-TMG were additionally reacted with Ln[N{Si(CH3)3}2]3 to generate [Nd(4MeDBP)3(H-TMG)] (5) and [La(DBP)3(H-TMG)] (6). In order to examine the formation of 1-6, the interaction of H-TMG and HOAr was further examined in solution and the hydrogen bonded complexes (H-TMG:HOAr), 7 and 8, were isolated. Upon successful isolation of 1-6, the utility of 1, 2, 4 and 5 as pre-catalysts for the intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of 4-pentyn-1-ol was investigated. The bulk powders for all complexes were found to be in agreement with the crystal structures based on elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, and 1H and 13C NMR investigations.

  6. Molecular engineering of lanthanide ion chelating phospholipids generating assemblies with a switched magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Massabni, Sarah; Hodzic, Arnel; Durovic, Dzana; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Walde, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2017-08-09

    Lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating amphiphiles are powerful molecules for tailoring the magnetic response of polymolecular assemblies. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) complexed to Ln 3+ deliver highly magnetically responsive bicelles. Their magnetic properties are readily tuned by changing the bicellar size or the magnetic susceptibility Δχ of the bilayer lipids. The former technique is intrinsically bound to the region of the phase diagram guarantying the formation of bicelles. Methods aiming towards manipulating the Δχ of the bilayer are comparatively more robust, flexible and lacking. Herein, we synthesized a new Ln 3+ chelating phospholipid using glutamic acid as a backbone: DMPE-Glu-DTPA. The chelate polyhedron was specifically engineered to alter the Δχ, whilst remaining geometrically similar to DMPE-DTPA. Planar asymmetric assemblies hundreds of nanometers in size were achieved presenting unprecedented magnetic alignments. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex switched the Δχ, achieving perpendicular alignment of assemblies containing Dy 3+ and parallel alignment of those containing Tm 3+ . Moreover, samples with chelated Yb 3+ were more alignable than the Tm 3+ chelating counterparts. Such a possibility has never been demonstrated for planar Ln 3+ chelating polymolecular assemblies. The physico-chemical properties of these novel assemblies were further studied by monitoring the alignment behavior at different temperatures and by including 16 mol% of cholesterol (Chol-OH) in the phospholipid bilayer. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex and the resulting assemblies are promising candidates for applications in numerous fields including pharmaceutical technologies, structural characterization of membrane biomolecules by NMR spectroscopy, as contrasting agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and for the development of smart optical gels.

  7. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Luminescent Europium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, Amanda M.; Wang, Zheming; Clark, Sue B.

    Fast, cost effective, and robust means of detecting and quantifying lanthanides are needed for supporting more efficient tracking within the nuclear, medicinal, and industrial fields. Spectroelectrochemistry (SEC) is a powerful technique combining electrochemistry and spectroscopy that can meet those needs. The primary limitation of SEC as a detection method for lanthanides is their low molar absorptivity in absorbance based measurements and low emission intensities in fluorescence based measurements; both lead to high limits of detection. These limitations can be circumvented by complexing the lanthanides with sensitizing ligands that enhance fluorescence, thereby dropping the limits of detection. Complexation may also stabilizemore » the metal ions in solution and improve the electrochemical reversibility, or Nernstian behavior, of the redox couples. To demonstrate this concept, studies were completed using europium in complexes with four different sensitizing ligands. Initial work indicates Eu in the four complexes studied does display the necessary characteristics for SEC analysis, which was successfully and reproducibly applied to all Eu complexes.« less

  8. Parameter study of r-process lanthanide production and heating rates in kilonovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2015-04-01

    Explosive r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during compact object mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients are sensitive to the composition of the material after nuclear burning ceases, as the composition determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. The presence of lanthanides in the ejecta can drastically increase the opacity. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to run a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Ye, initial entropies s, and density decay timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Ye >~ 0 . 22 - 0 . 3 , depending on s and τ. The heating rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Ye lead to reduced heating rates, because single nuclides dominate the heating. With a simple model we estimate the luminosity, time, and effective temperature at the peak of the light curve. Since the opacity is much lower in the lanthanide-free case, we find the luminosity peaks much earlier at ~ 1 day vs. ~ 15 days in the lanthanide-rich cases. Although there is significant variation in the heating rate with Ye, changes in the heating rate do not mitigate the effect of the lanthanides. This research is partially supported by NSF under Award Numbers AST-1333520 and AST-1205732.

  9. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A., E-mail: nelambert@gru.edu

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domainsmore » in real time in living cells. - Highlights: • Diffusion enhances TR-FRET from membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. • Diffusion-dependent FRET can overshadow FRET due to oligomerization or clustering. • FRET studies using lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins should consider diffusion. • FRET from lanthanide donors can be used to monitor membrane protein diffusion.« less

  10. Use of lanthanides to alleviate the effects of metal ion-deficiency in Desmodesmus quadricauda (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Goecke, Franz; Jerez, Celia G.; Zachleder, Vilém; Figueroa, Félix L.; Bišová, Kateřina; Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry. Their concentration as environmental contaminants is, therefore, increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants, even though their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on the common freshwater microalga Desmodesmus quadricauda, grown under conditions of metal ion-deficiency (lower calcium or manganese concentrations). Our goal was to test if lanthanides can replace essential metals in their functions. Physiological stress was recorded by studying growth and photosynthetic activity using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeter. We found that nutrient stress reduced parameters of growth and photosynthesis, such as maximal quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, photon capturing efficiency and light saturation irradiance. After adding low concentrations of five lanthanides, we confirmed that they can produce a stimulatory effect on microalgae, depending on the nutrient (metal) deprivation. In the case of a calcium deficit, the addition of lanthanides partly alleviated the adverse effects, probably by a partial substitution of the element. In contrast, with manganese deprivation (and at even lower concentrations), lanthanides enhanced the deleterious effect on cellular growth and photosynthetic competence. These results show that lanthanides can replace essential elements, but their effects on microalgae depend on stress and the nutritional state of the microalgae, raising the possibility of environmental impacts at even low concentrations. PMID:25674079

  11. Two- and three-dimensional lanthanide-organic frameworks constructed using 1-hydro-6-oxopyridine-3-carboxylate and oxalate ligands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Ming; Xiong, Ming; Zhang, De-Qing; Du, Miao; Zhu, Dao-Ben

    2009-08-07

    6-Hydroxypyridine-3-carboxylic acid (6-HOPy-3-CO(2)H) reacts with Ln(2)O(3) (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and oxalic acid (H(2)OX) under hydrothermal conditions to generate four novel lanthanide-organic coordination polymeric networks [Ln(2)(1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2))(2)(OX)(2)(H(2)O)(3)] x 2.5 H(2)O (Ln = Nd, 1; Sm, 2; 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) = 1-hydro-6-oxopyridine-3-carboxylate) and [Ln(1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2))(OX)(H(2)O)(2)] x H(2)O (Ln = Eu, 3; Gd, 4). The new co-ligand 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) anion was generated by the autoisomerization of the single deprotonated 6-HOPy-3-CO(2)(-) anion (from the enol form into the ketone one). 1 and 2 are isomorphous, they possess a three-dimensional architecture constructed from Ln(3+) ions bridged by oxalate anions and two types of 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) bridges, showing a three-nodal (4,5)-connected topology (3.4(2).5(2).6(3).7.8)(2)(3.5(3).6(2))(2)(3(2).6.7(2).8) or a simplified uninodal 6-connected topology (3(3).4(6).5(5).6), both topologies are completely new; while only one type of 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) bridge is used to construct the two-dimensional layer networks of 3 and 4 besides oxalate bridges, both complexes 3 and 4 are isostructural, exhibiting the honeycomb topology 6(3). The lanthanide contraction effect is believed to play a key role in directing the formation of a particular structure. A magnetic study of 1-3 indicated that the coupling interaction between Ln(3+) ions is weak.

  12. Dissolution of lanthanide alumino-silicate oxynitride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, L.; Barré, N.; Guillopé, S.; Guittet, M. J.; Gautier-Soyer, M.; Duraud, J. P.; Trocellier, P.; Verdier, P.; Laurent, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The aqueous corrosion behavior of lanthanide aluminosilicate glasses has been studied under static conditions ( T=96°C, duration=1 and 3 months, glass surface area/leachate volume, S/ V=0.3 cm -1) by means of solution and solid analyses. It was found that these glasses exhibit a high chemical durability. The influence of yttrium, magnesium and nitrogen, which are supposed to improve the mechanical properties, on the chemical durability, has been investigated. After a one-month experiment, lanthanum and yttrium releases were found to be about 10 -7 mol l -1, while silicon and aluminum releases were about 10 -5 mol l -1. Yttrium seems to improve the chemical durability. The presence of nitrogen does not seem to modify the glass constituents releases, but seems to improve the surface state of the altered glass. XPS experiments reveal that lanthanum and yttrium are more concentrated near the surface (20-30 Å) of the glass after the leaching test.

  13. Pyrolytic synthesis and luminescence of porous lanthanide Eu-MOF.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangya; Liu, Zhijian; Sun, Hongfa; Tian, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A lanthanide metal coordination polymer [Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)] was synthesized by the reaction of europium oxide with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) in a mixed solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermo-gravimetric analysis of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) indicated that coordinated DMSO and H2O molecules could be removed to create Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py with permanent microporosity, which was also verified by powder XRD (PXRD) and elemental analysis. Both Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) and Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py showed mainly Eu-based luminescence and had characteristic emissions in the range 550-700 nm. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Gold coated lanthanide phosphate nanoparticles for targeted alpha generator radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Mark F; Woodward, Jonathan; Boll, Rose A; Wall, Jonathan S; Rondinone, Adam J; Kennel, Stephen J; Mirzadeh, Saed; Robertson, J David

    2013-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapies maximize cytotoxicty to cancer cells. In vivo α-generator targeted radiotherapies can deliver multiple α particles to a receptor site dramatically amplifying the radiation dose delivered to the target. The major challenge with α-generator radiotherapies is that traditional chelating moieties are unable to sequester the radioactive daughters in the bioconjugate which is critical to minimize toxicity to healthy, non-target tissue. The recoil energy of the (225)Ac daughters following α decay will sever any metal-ligand bond used to form the bioconjugate. This work demonstrates that an engineered multilayered nanoparticle-antibody conjugate can deliver multiple α radiations and contain the decay daughters of (225)Ac while targeting biologically relevant receptors in a female BALB/c mouse model. These multi-shell nanoparticles combine the radiation resistance of lanthanide phosphate to contain (225)Ac and its radioactive decay daughters, the magnetic properties of gadolinium phosphate for easy separation, and established gold chemistry for attachment of targeting moieties.

  15. Ultrasmall lanthanide-doped nanoparticles as multimodal platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.; Pedraza, Francisco J.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, there has been a great amount of interest in nanoparticles which are able to provide a platform with high contrast for multiple imaging modalities in order to advance the tools available to biomedical researchers and physicians. However, many nanoparticles do not have ideal properties to provide high contrast in different imaging modes. In order to address this, ultrasmall lanthanide doped oxide and fluoride nanoparticles with strong NIR to NIR upconversion fluorescence and a strong magnetic response for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed. Specifically, these nanoparticles incorporate gadolinium, dysprosium, or a combination of both into the nano-crystalline host to achieve the magnetic properties. Thulium, erbium, and neodymium codopants provide the strong NIR absorption and emission lines that allow for deeper tissue imaging since near infrared light is not strongly absorbed or scattered by most tissues within this region. This also leads to better image quality and lower necessary excitation intensities. As a part of the one pot synthesis, these nanoparticles are coated with peg, pmao, or d-glucuronic acid to make them water soluble, biocompatible, and bioconjugable due to the available carboxyl or amine groups. Here, the synthesis, morphological characterization, magnetic response, NIR emission, and the quantum yield will be discussed. Cytotoxicity tested through cell viability at varying concentrations of nanoparticles in growth media will also be discussed.

  16. Unexpected magnetism, and transport properties in mixed lanthanide compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun; Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Ames Laboratory Team

    For intelligent materials design it is desirable to have compounds which have multiple functionalities such as a large magnetoresistance, ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic states, and field-induced first-order metamagnetic transitions. Here, we discuss one such example where we have combined two lanthanide elements Pr and Er in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. This compound exhibits multiple functionalities in magnetic fields between 1 and 40 kOe. It undergoes only a trivial ferrimagnetism to paramagnetism transition in a zero magnetic field, but Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H >=40 kOe, a small but non negligible negative MR for H <=30 kOe, and a clear Griffiths-like phase behavior at <1 kOe. The compound also exhibits an asymmetry of hysteresis loop, or exchange bias (EB) effect after field cooling from the paramagnetic state. These phenomena are attributed to the competition between single-ion anisotropies of Pr and Er ions coupled with the opposite nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering. The research was performed at the Ames Laboratory. The Ames Laboratory is operated by Iowa State University for the US D.

  17. Designer Diamonds: Applications in Iron-based Superconductors and Lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    This talk will focus on the recent progress in the fabrication of designer diamond anvils as well as scientific applications of these diamonds in static high pressure research. The two critical parameters that have emerged in the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of designer diamond anvils are (1) the precise [100] alignment of the starting diamond substrate and (2) balancing the competing roles of parts per million levels of nitrogen and oxygen in the diamond growth plasma. The control of these parameters results in the fabrication of high quality designer diamonds with culet size in excess of 300 microns in diameter. The three different applications of designer diamond anvils will be discussed (1) simultaneous electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements using a synchrotron source on Iron-based superconductors with data on both electron and hole doped BaFe2As2 materials and other novel superconducting materials (2) high-pressure high-temperature melting studies on metals using eight-probe Ohmic heating designer diamonds and (3) high pressure low temperature studies on magnetic behavior of 4f-lanthanide metals using four-probe electrical resistance measurements and complementary neutron diffraction studies on a spallation neutron source. Future opportunities in boron-doped conducting designer diamond anvils as well as fabrication of two-stage designer diamonds for ultra high pressure experiments will also be presented. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) - National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under Grant No. DE-FG52-10NA29660.

  18. Two sodium and lanthanide(III) MOFs based on oxalate and V-shaped 4,4‧-oxybis(benzoate) ligands: Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chongchen; Guo, Guangliang; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Two lanthanide based metal-organic frameworks, [NaLn(oba)(ox)(H2O)] (Lndbnd6 Eu(1) and Sm(2)) were obtained from 4,4'-oxybisbenzoic acid, sodium oxalate and corresponding lanthanide salts by hydrothermal synthesis. They were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, and photoluminescent spectra. The crystallographic data reveals that complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, composed of three-dimensional framework built up of distorted tricapped trigonal EuO9 units, distorted octahedron NaO6 units, 4,4'-oxybis(benzoate) and oxalate. The carboxylate oxygen atoms of the 4,4'-oxybis(benzoate) and oxalate ligand are coordinated to lanthanide ions and sodium ions, resulting into two-dimensional inorganic sheets, which are further linked into three-dimensional network by organic ligands. Thermogravimetric analyses of 1-2 display a considerable thermal stability. Photoluminescent measurements indicated that europium complex 1 displayed strong red emission.

  19. Parameters for the RM1 Quantum Chemical Calculation of Complexes of the Trications of Thulium, Ytterbium and Lutetium

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2016-01-01

    The RM1 quantum chemical model for the calculation of complexes of Tm(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) is advanced. Subsequently, we tested the models by fully optimizing the geometries of 126 complexes. We then compared the optimized structures with known crystallographic ones from the Cambridge Structural Database. Results indicate that, for thulium complexes, the accuracy in terms of the distances between the lanthanide ion and its directly coordinated atoms is about 2%. Corresponding results for ytterbium and lutetium are both 3%, levels of accuracy useful for the design of lanthanide complexes, targeting their countless applications. PMID:27223475

  20. Theoretical Study on the Photoelectron Spectra of Ln(COT)2-: Lanthanide Dependence of the Metal-Ligand Interaction.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Erika; Masuda, Tomohide; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2016-12-08

    We have performed a theoretical analysis of the recently reported photoelectron (PE) spectra of the series of sandwich complex anions Ln(COT) 2 - (Ln = La-Lu, COT = 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene), focusing on the Ln dependence of the vertical detachment energies. For most Ln, the π molecular orbitals, largely localized on the COT ligands, have the energy order of e 1g < e 1u < e 2g < e 2u as in the actinide analogues, reflecting the substantial orbital interaction with the Ln 5d and 5p orbitals. Thus, it would be expected that the lanthanide contraction would increase the orbital interaction so that the overlaps between the COT π and Ln atomic orbitals tend to increase across the series. However, the PE spectra and theoretical calculations were not consistent with this expectation, and the details have been clarified in this study. Furthermore, the energy level splitting patterns of the anion and neutral complexes have been studied by multireference ab initio methods, and the X peak splittings observed in the PE spectra only for the middle-range Ln complexes were found to be due to the specific interaction between the Ln 4f and ligand π orbitals of the neutral complexes in e 2u symmetry. Because the magnitude of this 4f-ligand interaction depends critically on the final state 4f electron configuration and the spin state, a significant Ln dependence in the PE spectra is explained.

  1. Barcoded materials based on photoluminescent hybrid system of lanthanide ions-doped metal organic framework and silica via ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang; Yan, Bing

    2016-04-15

    A multicolored photoluminescent hybrid system based on lanthanide ions-doped metal organic frameworks/silica composite host has potential in display and barcode applications. By controlling the stoichiometry of the lanthanides via cation exchange, proportional various lanthanide ions are successfully introduced into metal organic frameworks, whose emission intensity is correspondingly proportional to its amount. The resulting luminescent barcodes depend on the lanthanide ions ratios and compositions. Subsequently, the lanthanide ions located in the channels of metal organic frameworks are protected from any interaction with the environment after the modification of silica on the surface. The optical and thermal stability of the hybrid materials are improved for technological application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Features of the Thermodynamics of Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Distribution Reactions by Tri-n-Octylphosphine Oxide and Bis(2-EthylHexyl) Phosphoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Travis S. Grimes; Peter R. Zalupski

    2014-11-01

    A new methodology has been developed to study the thermochemical features of the biphasic transfer reactions of trisnitrato complexes of lanthanides and americium by a mono-functional solvating ligand (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide - TOPO). Stability constants for successive nitrato complexes (M(NO3)x3-x (aq) where M is Eu3+, Am3+ or Cm3+) were determined to assist in the calculation of the extraction constant, Kex, for the metal ions under study. Enthalpies of extraction (?Hextr) for the lanthanide series (excluding Pm3+) and Am3+ by TOPO have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry. The observed ?Hextr were found to be constant at ~29 kJ mol-1across themore » series from La3+-Er3+, with a slight decrease observed from Tm3+-Lu3+. These heats were found to be consistent with enthalpies determined using van ’t Hoff analysis of temperature dependent extraction studies. A complete set of thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, ?S) was calculated for Eu(NO3)3, Am(NO3)3 and Cm(NO3)3 extraction by TOPO and Am3+ and Cm3+ extraction by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). A discussion comparing the energetics of these systems is offered. The measured biphasic extraction heats for the transplutonium elements, ?Hextr, presented in these studies are the first ever direct measurements offered using two-phase calorimetric techniques.« less

  3. The Role of Chromohalobacter on Transport of Lanthanides and Cesium in the Dolomite Mineral System

    SciTech Connect

    Zengotita, Frances; Emerson, Hilary Palmer; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2017-12-01

    The chemical behavior of actinide series elements and fission products is a concern for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository due to their uncertain mobility in the subsurface salt formation. In this work, we are observing the behavior of the halophilic bacterium, Chromohalobacter, and its effect on the mobility of lanthanides and cesium in the presence of dolomite. Batch and minicolumn experiments were conducted with Cs + and lanthanides (Nd 3+, Eu 3+) to quantify potential transport with bacteria. Preliminary results show that Cs does not interact strongly with dolomite or Chromohalobacter, while the lanthanides can interact strongly with bothmore » minerals and bacteria depending on which the Ln contacts first.« less

  4. Realizing up-conversion fluorescence tuning in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals by femtosecond pulse shaping method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shian; Yao, Yunhua; Shuwu, Xu; Liu, Pei; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2015-01-01

    The ability to tune color output of nanomaterials is very important for their applications in laser, optoelectronic device, color display and multiplexed biolabeling. Here we first propose a femtosecond pulse shaping technique to realize the up-conversion fluorescence tuning in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals dispersed in the glass. The multiple subpulse formation by a square phase modulation can create different excitation pathways for various up-conversion fluorescence generations. By properly controlling these excitation pathways, the multicolor up-conversion fluorescence can be finely tuned. This color tuning by the femtosecond pulse shaping technique is realized in single material by single-color laser field, which is highly desirable for further applications of the lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. This femtosecond pulse shaping technique opens an opportunity to tune the color output in the lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which may bring a new revolution in the control of luminescence properties of nanomaterials. PMID:26290391

  5. Nanoparticles of adaptive supramolecular networks self-assembled from nucleotides and lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Hashimoto, Nozomi; Cho, Ten; Watanabe, Kazuto; Yasunaga, Takefumi; Endo, Ayataka; Kaneko, Kenji; Niidome, Takuro; Murata, Masaharu; Adachi, Chihaya; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hashizume, Makoto; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2009-02-18

    Amorphous nanoparticles of supramolecular coordination polymer networks are spontaneously self-assembled from nucleotides and lanthanide ions in water. They show intrinsic functions such as energy transfer from nucleobase to lanthanide ions and excellent performance as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, adaptive inclusion properties are observed in the self-assembly process: functional materials such as fluorescent dyes, metal nanoparticles, and proteins are facilely encapsulated. Dyes in these nanoparticles fluoresce in high quantum yields with a single exponential decay, indicating that guest molecules are monomerically wrapped in the network. Gold nanoparticles and ferritin were also wrapped by the supramolecular shells. In addition, these nucleotide/lanthanide nanoparticles also serve as scaffolds for immobilizing enzymes. The adaptive nature of present supramolecular nanoparticles provides a versatile platform that can be utilized in a variety of applications ranging from material to biomedical sciences. As examples, biocompatibility and liver-directing characteristics in in vivo tissue localization experiments are demonstrated.

  6. Doping Lanthanide into Perovskite Nanocrystals: Highly Improved and Expanded Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Gencai; Bai, Xue; Yang, Dongwen; Chen, Xu; Jing, Pengtao; Qu, Songnan; Zhang, Lijun; Zhou, Donglei; Zhu, Jinyang; Xu, Wen; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2017-12-13

    Cesium lead halide (CsPbX 3 ) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have demonstrated extremely excellent optical properties and great application potentials in various optoelectronic devices. However, because of the anion exchange, it is difficult to achieve white-light and multicolor emission for practical applications. Herein, we present the successful doping of various lanthanide ions (Ce 3+ , Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , Er 3+ , and Yb 3+ ) into the lattices of CsPbCl 3 perovskite NCs through a modified hot-injection method. For the lanthanide ions doped perovskite NCs, high photoluminescence quantum yield (QY) and stable and widely tunable multicolor emissions spanning from visible to near-infrared (NIR) regions are successfully obtained. This work indicates that the doped perovskite NCs will inherit most of the unique optical properties of lanthanide ions and deliver them to the perovskite NC host, thus endowing the family of perovskite materials with excellent optical, electric, or magnetic properties.

  7. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  8. Bimetallic complexes and polymerization catalysts therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Jasson T.; Marks, Tobin J.; Li, Liting

    2000-11-28

    Group 3-6 or Lanthanide metal complexes possessing two metal centers, catalysts derived therefrom by combining the same with strong Lewis acids, Bronsted acid salts, salts containing a cationic oxidizing agent or subjected to bulk electrolysis in the presence of compatible, inert non-coordinating anions and the use of such catalysts for polymerizing olefins, diolefins and/or acetylenically unsaturated monomers are disclosed.

  9. Shape of intrinsic alpha pulse height spectra in lanthanide halide scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolszczak, W.; Dorenbos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Internal contamination with actinium-227 and its daughters is a serious drawback in low-background applications of lanthanide-based scintillators. In this work we showed the important role of nuclear γ de-excitations on the shape of the internal alpha spectrum measured in scintillators. We calculated with Bateman equations the activities of contamination isotopes and the time evolution of actinium-227 and its progenies. Next, we measured the intrinsic background spectra of LaBr3(Ce), LaBr3(Ce,Sr) and CeBr3 with a digital spectroscopy technique, and we analyzed them with a pulse shape discrimination method (PSD) and a time-amplitude analysis. Finally, we simulated the α background spectrum with Geant4 tool-kit, consequently taking into account complex α-γ-electron events, the α / β ratio dependence on the α energy, and the electron/γ nonproportionality. We found that α-γ mixed events have higher light yield than expected for alpha particles alone, which leads to overestimation of the α / β ratio when it is measured with internal 227Th and 223Ra isotopes. The time-amplitude analysis showed that the α peaks of 219Rn and 215Po in LaBr3(Ce) and LaBr3(Ce,Sr) are not symmetric. We compared the simulation results with the measured data and provided further evidence of the important role of mixed α-γ-electron events for understanding the shape of the internal α spectrum in scintillators.

  10. Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating Phospholipid Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon

    2018-01-03

    Bicelles are tunable disk-like polymolecular assemblies formed from a large variety of lipid mixtures. Applications range from membrane protein structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanotechnological developments including the formation of optically active and magnetically switchable gels. Such technologies require high control of the assembly size, magnetic response and thermal resistance. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Introduction of cholesterol (Chol-OH) and steroid derivatives in the bilayer results in another set of assemblies offering unique physico-chemical properties. For a given lipid composition, the magnetic alignability is proportional to the bicelle size. The complexation of Ln 3+ results in unprecedented magnetic responses in terms of both magnitude and alignment direction. The thermo-reversible collapse of the disk-like structures into vesicles upon heating allows tailoring of the assemblies' dimensions by extrusion through membrane filters with defined pore sizes. The magnetically alignable bicelles are regenerated by cooling to 5 °C, resulting in assembly dimensions defined by the vesicle precursors. Herein, this fabrication procedure is explained and the magnetic alignability of the assemblies is quantified by birefringence measurements under a 5.5 T magnetic field. The birefringence signal, originating from the phospholipid bilayer, further enables monitoring of polymolecular changes occurring in the bilayer. This simple technique is complementary to NMR experiments that are commonly employed to characterize bicelles.

  11. On the nature of actinide- and lanthanide-metal bonds in heterobimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Miró, Pere; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2011-06-28

    Eleven experimentally characterized complexes containing heterobimetallic bonds between elements of the f-block and other elements were examined by quantum chemical methods: [(η⁵-C₅H₅)₂(THF)LuRu(η⁵-C₅H₅) (CO)₂], [(η⁵-C₅Me₅)₂(I)ThRu(η⁵-C₅H₅) (CO)₂], [(η⁵-C₅H₅)₂YRe(η⁵-C₅H₅)₂], [{N(CH₂CH₂NSiMe₃)₃}URe(η⁵-C₅H₅)₂], [Y{Ga(NArCh)₂}{C(PPh₂NSiH₃)₂}(CH₃OCH₃)₂], [{N(CH₂CH₂NSiMe₃)₃}U{Ga(NArCH)₂}(THF)], [(η⁵-C₅H₅)₃UGa(η⁵-C₅Me₅)], [Yb(η⁵-C₅H₅){Si(SiMe₃)₃(THF)₂}], [(η⁵-C₅H₅)₃U(SnPh₃)], [(η⁵-C₅H₅)₃U(SiPh₃)], and (Ph[Me]N)₃USi(SiMe₃)₃. Geometries in good agreement with experiment were obtained at the density functional level of theory. The multiconfigurational complete active space self-consistent field method (CASSCF) and subsequent corrections with second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) were applied to further understand the electronic structure of the lanthanide/actinide–metal (or metal–metalloid) bonds. Fragment calculations and energy-decomposition analyses were also performed and indicate that charge transfer occurs from one supported metalmore » fragment to the other, while the bonding itself is always dominated by ionic character.« less

  12. Cathodoluminescence response of natural and synthetic lanthanide-rich phosphates (Ln3+: Ce, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Villatoro, A.; Boronat, C.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Zarate-Medina, J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both natural and synthetic lanthanide-rich phosphates (Ln3+: Ce, Nd) previously characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Environmental Scanning Electronic Microscopy (ESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The thermal treatment at 700 °C performed on the synthetic sample obtained by chemical precipitation, promotes increasing of the crystallinity degree giving rise to a phase transition from the hexagonal (comprising monazite and rabdophane) into the monoclinic (cerianite and monazite) structures detected by XRD. Despite the size and the morphology of the grains are similar under ESEM, it could be appreciated significant differences among CL signals attending to the shape (with well-defined peaks for the annealed sample) and intensity (with lower emission for the non-thermally pretreated synthetic phosphate). The main wavebands centered at (i) 360, 380 and 490 nm are associated respectively with 5D3/2 → 2F5/2 and 5D3/2 → 2F7/2 transitions as well as a redox reaction assigned to the presence of Ce3+, (ii) 276, 424, 516 and 531 nm are linked respectively to 2G9/2→4I9/2, 2P1/2→4I9/2, 4G9/2→4I9/2 and 4G7/2→4I9/2 Nd3+ transitions and (iii) 400-490 nm is due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers related to the tetrahedral PO43- groups or structural defects for the heated synthetic samples. The natural sample from Madagascar, with a very complex CL spectrum, displays a characteristic band emission in the green-yellow and red regions corresponding to [UO2]2+ groups and Sm3+ respectively.

  13. Network dimensionality and ligand flexibility in lanthanide terephthalate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, Ralph A.; Renn, Robert A.; Pippin, Ethan; Zeller, Matthias; Wheeler, Kraig A.; Carr, Jason A.; Fontaine, Nick; McMullen, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Various lanthanide open framework materials incorporating the terephthalate (TP) entity were prepared using hydrothermal synthesis methods at a moderate temperature of 170 °C. The compounds Nd 2(TP) 3(H 2O) 4( 1), Er 2(TP) 3(H 2O) 4( 2), Yb 2(TP) 3(H 2O) 2( 3), Yb 2(TP) 3(H 2O) 6( 4), and Yb 2(TP) 3(H 2O) 8·2H 2O ( 5), were characterized by single crystal structural analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. While compounds 1 and 2 have been reported before on the basis of powder X-ray diffraction, the structural characterization of any ytterbium terephthalate species is unprecedented. Compounds 1- 5 crystallize in triclinic settings with space group P-1. The compounds are compared with their previously reported Er and Tb-counterparts and the reduction of the dimensionality of the resulting networks from 3D over 2D to 1D with increasing level of hydration is discussed. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 with the lowest water content assemble in three-dimensional network lattices. Compounds 4 and 5, however, form 2D layered systems and 1D rod like chains, respectively, which are held together by hydrogen bonds originating from coordinating H 2O. The crystal lattices of the 3D networks experience higher levels of tension as can be seen by increasing out-of-plane torsion with regard to the terephthalate carboxylate groups. Moreover, there seems to be a correlation between the level of strain on the aromatic ligands and the reduction of the number of carboxylate oxygen atoms that are part of the coordination polyhedra.

  14. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  15. Unique (3,8)-connected lanthanide arenedisulfonate metal-organic frameworks containing benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid co-ligand: Syntheses, structures and luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Liu, Qi; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Pan, Qun-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Two isostructural 3D lanthanide arenedisulfonate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ln(Hbidc)(nds)0.5(H2O)]n(Ln=Eu(1), La(2)) have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide oxide with 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate sodium (Na2nds) and an auxiliary ligand, 1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid (H3bidc). The two complexes are both constructed from 2D [Ln(Hbidc)]+ double layers pillared by nds2- ligands to generate 3D (3, 8)-connected open-framework structures with 1D long narrow channels running along the a axis. From topological point of view, the 3D framework is a (3, 8)-connected tfz-d net. The weak interactions including N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking are observed in 1. The 2D IR correlation spectroscopy was applied to study the molecular interactions induced by thermal perturbation. The emission spectra of 1 exhibit the characteristic transition of 5D0→7FJ(J=0-4) of Eu(III).

  16. Hot-pressed silicon nitride with various lanthanide oxides as sintering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, K.; Toibana, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of addition of various lanthanide oxides and their mixture with Y2O3 on the sintering of Si3N4 were investigated. The addition of simple and mixed lanthanide oxides promoted the densification of Si3N4 in hot-pressing at 1800 C under 300-400kg/ centimeters squared for 60 min. The crystallization of yttrium and lanthanide-silicon oxynitrides which was observed inn the sintered body containing yttrium-lanthanide mixed oxides as additives led to the formation of a highly refractory Si3N4 ceramic having a bending strength of 82 and 84 kg/millimeters squared at room temperature and 1300 C respectively. In a Y2O3+La2O3 system, a higher molar ratio of La2O3 to Y2O3 gave a higher hardness and strength at high temperatures. It was found that 90 min was an optimum sintering time for the highest strength.

  17. Controlled synthesis of bright and compatible lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Bruce E.; Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Chan, Emory M.; Gargas, Daniel J.; Katz, Elan M.; Schuck, P. James; Milliron, Delia J.

    2017-01-31

    Certain nanocrystals possess exceptional optical properties that may make them valuable probes for biological imaging, but rendering these nanoparticles biocompatible requires that they be small enough not to perturb cellular systems. This invention describes a phosphorescent upconverting sub-10 nm nanoparticle comprising a lanthanide-doped hexagonal .beta.-phase NaYF.sub.4 nanocrystal and methods for making the same.

  18. Selective biosorption of lanthanide (La, Eu, Yb) ions by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Texier, A.C.; Andres, Y.; Cloirec, P. le

    1999-02-01

    The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to adsorb selectively La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, and Yb{sup 3+} from aqueous solution was investigated. The lanthanide biosorption equilibrium obeyed the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm model, indicating multilayer adsorption. Determined levels of maximum adsorption capacities were 397 {micro}mol/g for lanthanum, 290 {micro}mol/g for europium and 326 {micro}mol/g for ytterbium. The results indicated that there were about 100 preferential sites for lanthanum per g of dry biomass. Experiments with mixed-cation solutions showed that the sequence of preferential biosorption was Eu{sup 3+} = Yb{sup 3+} > La{sup 3+}. Biomass dried at 37 and 70 C showed the same selectivemore » behavior as wet biomass. Inert microbial biomass dried at 37 C appeared to be the most efficient form for experimental use. The uptake of lanthanide by P. aeruginosa cells was not affected by the presence of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, sulfate and nitrate ions. Aluminum was a strong inhibitor of lanthanide ions biosorption. 87% of the total Al{sup 3+} was removed from the 3 mM solution, whereas only 8%, 20% and 3% of the total La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, and Yb{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 3 mM solutions. The results suggested that cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may find promising applications for removal and separation of lanthanide ions from aqueous effluents.« less

  19. MxaY regulates the lanthanide-mediated methanol dehydrogenase switch in Methylomicrobium buryatense

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Frances; Beck, David A. C.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2016-09-07

    Many methylotrophs, microorganisms that consume carbon compounds lacking carbon–carbon bonds, use two different systems to oxidize methanol for energy production and biomass accumulation. The MxaFI methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) contains calcium in its active site, while the XoxF enzyme contains a lanthanide in its active site. The genes encoding the MDH enzymes are differentially regulated by the presence of lanthanides. In this study, we found that the histidine kinase MxaY controls the lanthanide-mediated switch in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1C. MxaY controls the transcription of genes encoding MxaFI and XoxF at least partially by controlling the transcript levels of the orphan response regulatormore » MxaB. We identify a constitutively active version of MxaY, and identify the mutated residue that may be involved in lanthanide sensing. Finally, we find evidence to suggest that tight control of active MDH production is required for wild-type growth rates.« less

  20. Method for forming an extraction agent for the separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Harrup, Mason K.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2010-04-27

    An extraction agent for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides in an acidic media and a method for forming same are described, and wherein the methodology produces a stable regiospecific and/or stereospecific dithiophosphinic acid that can operate in an acidic media having a pH of less than about 7.

  1. Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen: synthesis, crystal structure, and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianju; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Wang, Yongjie; Wu, Bing; Shen, Jun; Li, Li; Li, Qingxu

    2014-12-01

    Two new lanthanide complexes with general formula [Ln2(carprofen)6(DMF)2] (Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2), DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide, carprofen = 6-chloro-α-methylcarbazole-2-acetic acid) have been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Complex 1 was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), and it was found to crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c. The coordination of the ligand to the lanthanide ion has been investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra. Complex 1 emits red light, but the antenna effect of the ligand is not effective, whereas complex 2 presents intense green emission with effective energy transfer from the ligand. The different performance of the two complexes is related to the energy matching between the excited states of the lanthanide ion and the triplet state of the ligand. The intramolecular energy transfer mechanisms are also discussed.

  2. Intrinsic and Carrier Colloid-facilitated transport of lanthanides through discrete fractures in chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, N.; Tran, E. L.; Klein-BenDavid, O.; Teutsch, N.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the long term solution for the disposal of long lived radionuclides and spent fuel. However, some radionuclides might be released from these repositories into the subsurface as a result of leakage, which ultimately make their way into groundwater. Engineered bentonite barriers around nuclear waste repositories are generally considered sufficient to impede the transport of radionuclides from their source to the groundwater. However, colloidal-sized mobile bentonite particles ("carrier" colloids) originating from these barriers have come under investigation as a potential transport vector for radionuclides sorbed to them. As lanthanides are generally accepted to have the same chemical behaviors as their more toxic actinide counterparts, lanthanides are considered an acceptable substitute for research on radionuclide transportation. This study aims to evaluate the transport behaviors of lanthanides in colloid-facilitated transport through a fractured chalk matrix and under geochemical conditions representative the Negev desert, Israel. The migration of Ce both with and without colloidal particles was explored and compared to the migration of a conservative tracer (bromide) using a flow system constructed around a naturally fractured chalk core. Results suggest that mobility of Ce as a solute is negligible. In experiments conducted without bentonite colloids, the 1% of the Ce that was recovered migrated as "intrinsic" colloids in the form of carbonate precipitates. However, the total recovery of the Ce increased to 9% when it was injected into the core in the presence of bentonite colloids and 13% when both bentonite and precipitate colloids were injected. This indicates that lanthanides are essentially immobile in chalk as a solute but may be mobile as carbonate precipitates. Bentonite colloids, however, markedly increase the mobility of lanthanides through fractured chalk matrices.

  3. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms (Agaricales) from the Chicago region.

    SciTech Connect

    Aruguete, D. M.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Mueller, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to (1) fungal species; (2) collection location; (3) differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and (4) mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi. In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms, as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. In 1995 and 1996, sporocarps from three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Amanita flavorubescens, Amanita rubescens, and Russula pectinatoides) were collected from Cowles Bog, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (near an industrial area) andmore » the Palos forest preserves (near a residential area). Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes. The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest (Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb) and three lanthanides (La, Ce, and Nd). Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. rubescens and R. pectinatoides, while A. rubescens and A. flavorubescens were not significantly different. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. rubescens, while Palos forest A. rubescens had more of the lanthanides and barium. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides. Sporocarps

  4. Four one-dimensional lanthanide-phenylacetate polymers exhibiting luminescence and magnetic cooling/spin-glass behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yi; Xu, Ya-Lan; Zhang, Xiang-Fei; Zhai, Bin; Zhang, Fu-Li; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Chi; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Guang-Xiu

    2017-12-21

    Four isostructural lanthanide coordination polymers with a phenylacetate (PAA - ) ligand, [Ln(PAA) 3 (H 2 O)] n (Ln = Eu (1); Gd (2); Tb (3); Dy (4)), were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1-4 display a one-dimensional (1D) wave chain structure bridged by the carboxylate of the PAA - ligand, which was generated via the in situ decarboxylation of phenylmalonic acid. Magnetic studies suggest the presence of ferromagnetic LnLn coupling in the 1D chain of 1-4. Meanwhile, 2 has a significant cryogenic magnetocaloric effect with the maximum -ΔS m of 26.73 at 3 K and 7 T, and 3 and 4 show interesting spin-glass behavior, which is rarely reported for Ln-containing complexes. Additionally, the solid-state photophysical properties of 1 and 3 display strong characteristic Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ photoluminescence emission in the visible region, indicating that Eu- and Tb-based luminescence are sensitized by the effective energy transfer from the ligand to the metal centers.

  5. A Series of Lanthanide Selenidogermanates: The First Coexistence of Three Types of Selenidogermanate Units in the Same Architecture.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shimei; Zhou, Jian; Zou, Hua-Hong; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Li

    2018-02-05

    A series of lanthanide selenidogermanates, (H 2 peha)[Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 Cl 2 ]{[Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 Cl] 2 (μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )}[Ge 2 Se 6 ]Cl 2 [Ln = Y (1a) and Er (1b); peha = pentaethylenexamine, tepa = tetraethylenepentamine], [Sm 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 (μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )] n (2), [Ho 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 (μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )] n (3), and [Ce 4 (tepa) 4 (μ-GeSe 4 )(μ-GeSe 5 )(μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )] n (4), were made under solvothermal conditions. Compounds 1a and 1b contain a protonated H 2 peha 2+ ion, the complex cation [Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 Cl 2 ] 2+ , a [Ge 2 Se 6 ] 4- anion, free Cl - ions, and a {[Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 Cl] 2 (μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )} 2+ cation constructed by two unsaturated [Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 Cl] 3+ groups connecting via the trans terminal Se atoms of the [Ge 2 Se 6 ] 4- anion, which provides the first example of an organic decorated lanthanide selenidogermanate cation. Both compounds 2 and 3 contain one-dimensional chains [Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 (μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )] n constructed by a combination of unsaturated complex cations [Ln 2 (μ-OH) 2 (tepa) 2 ] 4+ and [Ge 2 Se 6 ] 4- anions, but their stacking patterns of neutral chains are different. Compound 4 contains one-dimensional chain [Ce 4 (tepa) 4 (μ-GeSe 4 )(μ-GeSe 5 )(μ-Ge 2 Se 6 )] n , where three different selenidogermanate units acting as bridging ligands connect unsaturated [Ce(tepa)] 3+ ions. Compound 4 represents the first example of the coexistence of three different selenidogermanate anions in the same architecture. Their optical properties are studied, and the magnetic properties of compounds 1b and 2-4 are also investigated.

  6. Interactions of Plutonium and Lanthanides with Ordered Mesoporous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi

    Ordered mesoporous materials are porous solids with a regular, patterned structure composed of pores between 2 and 50 nm wide. Such materials have attracted much attention in the past twenty years because the chemistry of their synthesis allows control of their unique physicochemical properties, which can be tuned for a variety of applications. Generally, ordered mesoporous materials have very high specific surface areas and pore volumes, and offer unique structures that are neither crystalline nor amorphous. The large tunable interface provided by ordered mesoporous solids may be advantageous in applications involving sequestration, separation, or detection of actinides and lanthanides in solution. However, the fundamental chemical interactions of actinides and lanthanides must be understood before applications can be implemented. This dissertation focuses primarily on the fundamental interactions of plutonium with organically modified mesoporous silica, as well as several different porous carbon materials, both untreated and chemically oxidized. A method for functionalizing mesoporous silica by self assembly and molecular grafting of functional organosilane ligands was optimized for the 2D-hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica known as SBA-15 (Santa Barbara amorphous silica). Four different organically-modified silica materials were synthesized and characterized with several techniques. To confirm that covalent bonds were formed between the silane anchor of the ligand and the silica substrate, functionalized silica samples were analyzed with 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy was used in combination with 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to verify the molecular structures of the ligands after they were synthesized and grafted to the silica. The densities of the functional silane ligands on the silica surface were estimated using thermogravimetric analysis. Batch sorption experiments were conducted with solutions of

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products by use of ionic liquids: from discovery to understanding.

    PubMed

    Billard, Isabelle; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde

    2011-06-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides and lanthanides by use of ionic liquids is reviewed, considering, first, phenomenological aspects, then looking more deeply at the various mechanisms. Future trends in this developing field are presented.

  8. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  9. Rare-earth organic frameworks involving three types of architecture tuned by the lanthanide contraction effect: hydrothermal syntheses, structures and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhao-Peng; Kang, Wei; Huo, Li-Hua; Zhao, Hui; Gao, Shan

    2010-07-21

    The first example of rare-earth organic frameworks with 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (Hapca) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, PL, TG, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These ten complexes exhibit three different structure types with decreasing lanthanide radii: [La(apca)(3)](n) () for type I, {[Ln(apca)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)].H(2)O}(n) (Ln = Pr (2), Nd (3), ox = oxalate) for type II, and [Ln(2)(apca)(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n) (Ln = Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Tb (7), Dy (8), Er (9), Y (10)) for type III. The structure of type I consists of 1D "snowflake" chains along a-axis, which are further interconnected by hydrogen bonds to produce a 3D sra net topology containing infinite (-C-O-La-)(n) rod-shaped SBU. Type II has 2D Ln-apca-ox 4(4)-net, in which a planar udud water tetramers (H(2)O)(4) are formed by coordinated and free water molecules. Type III also comprises of 2D 4(4)-layer network constructed from Ln-apca-OH. The structure diversity is mainly caused by the variation of coordinated ligand and lanthanide contraction effect. Remarkably, the oxalate in type II was in situ synthesized from 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxylic acid through an oxidation-hydrolysis reaction. The luminescent investigations reveal that complex exhibits strong blue emission and complex exhibits characteristic luminescence of Eu(3+).

  10. Lanthanide(II) complexes of a phosphine-borane-stabilised carbanion.

    PubMed

    Izod, Keith; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W

    2010-08-07

    The reaction between two equivalents of the potassium salt [(Me(3)Si)(2){Me(2)P(BH(3))}C]K (4) and SmI(2)(THF)(2) in refluxing THF yields the dialkylsamarium(II) compounds [(Me(3)Si)(2){Me(2)P(BH(3))}C](2)Sm(THF) (5a) or [(Me(3)Si)(2){Me(2)P(BH(3))}C](2)Sm(THF)(3) (5b), depending on the crystallisation conditions, in good yield as air- and moisture-sensitive crystalline solids. X-ray crystallography shows that, whereas both alkyl ligands chelate the samarium(II) ion in 5a, in 5b one alkyl ligand chelates the metal centre and one binds the metal only through its borane hydrogen atoms. The reaction between YbI(2) and two equivalents of 4 in refluxing benzene yields the solvent-free dialkylytterbium(II) compound [(Me(3)Si)(2){Me(2)P(BH(3))}C](2)Yb (8). In contrast to 5a and 5b, compound 8 reacts rapidly with THF to give the free phosphine-borane (Me(3)Si)(2){Me(2)P(BH(3))}CH as the only identifiable product.

  11. N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid-based lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, magnetism and quantum Monte Carlo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Guilin, E-mail: glzhuang@zjut.edu.cn; Chen Wulin; Zheng Jun

    2012-08-15

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers have been obtained through the hydrothermal reaction of N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid (H{sub 3}SIDA) and Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Gd, 4). Crystal structure analysis exhibits that lanthanide ions affect the coordination number, bond length and dimension of compounds 1-4, which reveal that their structure diversity can be attributed to the effect of lanthanide contraction. Furthermore, the combination of magnetic measure with quantum Monte Carlo(QMC) studies exhibits that the coupling parameters between two adjacent Gd{sup 3+} ions for anti-anti and syn-anti carboxylate bridges are -1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and -5.0 Multiplication-Signmore » 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}, respectively, which reveals weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 4. - Graphical abstract: Four lanthanide coordination polymers with N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid were obtained under hydrothermal condition and reveal the weak antiferromagnetic coupling between two Gd{sup 3+} ions by Quantum Monte Carlo studies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four lanthanide coordination polymers of H{sub 3}SIDA ligand were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanide ions play an important role in their structural diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measure exhibits that compound 4 features antiferromagnetic property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum Monte Carlo studies reveal the coupling parameters of two Gd{sup 3+} ions.« less

  12. Colloid facilitated transport of lanthanides through discrete fractures in chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Emily; Klein Ben-David, Ofra; Teutsch, Nadya; Weisbrod, Noam

    2015-04-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the internationally agreed-upon, long term solution for the disposal of long lived radionuclides and spent fuel. Eventually, corrosion of the waste canisters may lead to leakage of their hazardous contents, and the radionuclides can ultimately make their way into groundwater and pose a threat to the biosphere. Engineered bentonite barriers placed around nuclear waste repositories are generally considered sufficient to impede the transport of radionuclides from their storage location to the groundwater. However, colloidal-sized mobile bentonite particles eroding from these barriers have come under investigation as a potential transport vector for radionuclides sorbed to them. In addition, the presence of organic matter in groundwater has been shown to additionally facilitate the uptake of radionuclides by the clay colloids. This study aims to evaluate the transport behaviors of radionuclides in colloid-facilitated transport through a fractured chalk matrix and under geochemical conditions representative of the Negev desert, Israel. Lanthanides are considered an acceptable substitute to actinides for research on radionuclide transportation due to their similar chemical behavior. In this study, the migration of Ce both with and without colloidal particles was explored and compared to the migration of a conservative tracer (bromide). Tracer solutions containing known concentrations of Ce, bentonite colloids, humic acid and bromide were prepared in a matrix solution containing salt concentrations representative of that of the average rain water found in the Negev. These solutions were then injected into a flow system constructed around a naturally fractured chalk core. Samples were analyzed for Ce and Br using ICP-MS, and colloid concentrations were determined using spectrophotographic analysis. Breakthrough curves comparing the rates of transportation of each tracer were obtained, allowing for comparison of

  13. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of lanthanide coordination polymers assembled from imidazophenanthroline derivative and oxalate ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Huai-Ming, E-mail: ChemHu1@NWU.EDU.CN

    2017-01-15

    Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, [Ln(Hsfpip)(ox){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·2n(H{sub 2}O) ((Ln=Eu (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Yb (6), Y(7)), [Ln(H{sub 2}sfpip)(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub n}·2n(H{sub 2}O) (Ln=Nd (8) Sm (9)), [H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, H{sub 3}sfpip=2-(2,4-disulfophenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10)-phenanthroline] have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. When sodium oxalate is added, the reactions of lanthanide ions with H{sub 3}sfpip resulted in two types of structures. Compounds 1–7 are obtained at pH 5.0 and exhibit 3D tfz-d networks with ox{sup 2−} anions as linkers to bridge themore » adjacent layers. Compounds 8–9 are obtained at pH 2.0, and display a 1D chain which is further extended to a 3D supramolecular framework through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. The structural variation from compounds 1–7 to 8–9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescence properties of 1–9 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compounds 1–7 exhibit a 3D tfz-d network. Compounds 8–9 display a 1D chain structure. The structural variation from compounds 1–7 to 8–9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. - Highlights: • Nine lanthanide coordination polymers were prepared under hydrothermal conditions. • Their crystal structures have been determined. • The luminescence and thermal stabilities were studied in the solid state.« less

  14. Theoretical Prediction of Am(III)/Eu(III) Selectivity to Aid the Design of Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Agents

    DOE PAGES

    Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2015-03-20

    Selective extraction of minor actinides from lanthanides is a critical step in the reduction of radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuels. However, the design of suitable ligands for separating chemically similar 4f- and 5f-block trivalent metal ions poses a significant challenge. Furthermore, first-principles calculations should play an important role in the design of new separation agents, but their ability to predict metal ion selectivity has not been systematically evaluated. We examine the ability of several density functional theory methods to predict selectivity of Am(III) and Eu(III) with oxygen, mixed oxygen–nitrogen, and sulfur donor ligands. The results establish a computational method capablemore » of predicting the correct order of selectivities obtained from liquid–liquid extraction and aqueous phase complexation studies. To allow reasonably accurate predictions, it was critical to employ sufficiently flexible basis sets and provide proper account of solvation effects. The approach is utilized to estimate the selectivity of novel amide-functionalized diazine and 1,2,3-triazole ligands.« less

  15. A series of three-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with rutile and unprecedented rutile-related topologies.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Wang, En-Bo; Su, Zhong-Min

    2005-10-03

    The complexes of formulas Ln(pydc)(Hpydc) (Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2), Gd (3); H2pydc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) and Ln(pydc)(bc)(H2O) (Ln = Sm (4), Gd (5); Hbc = benzenecarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 are isomorphous and crystallize in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbcn. Their final three-dimensional racemic frameworks can be considered as being constructed by helix-linked scalelike sheets. Compounds 4 and 5 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c. pydc ligands bridge dinuclear lanthanide centers to form the three-dimensional frameworks featuring hexagonal channels along the a-axis that are occupied by one-end-coordinated bc ligands. From the topological point of view, the five three-dimensional nets are binodal with six- and three-connected nodes, the former of which exhibit a rutile-related (4.6(2))(2)(4(2).6(9).8(4)) topology that is unprecedented within coordination frames, and the latter two species display a distorted rutile (4.6(2))(2)(4(2).6(10).8(3)) topology. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of 2 were studied.

  16. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  17. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  18. Does the 4f-shell contribute to bonding in tetravalent lanthanide halides?

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Wen-Xin; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, 750015 Yinchuan; Xu, Wei

    2014-12-28

    Lanthanide tetrahalide molecules LnX{sub 4} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Tb; X = F, Cl, Br, I) have been investigated by density functional theory at the levels of the relativistic Zero Order Regular Approximation and the relativistic energy-consistent pseudopotentials, using frozen small- and medium-cores. The calculated bond lengths and vibrational frequencies are close to the experimental data. Our calculations indicate 4f shell contributions to bonding in LnX{sub 4}, in particular for the early lanthanides, which show significant overlap between the Ln 4f-shell and the halogen np-shells. The 4f shells contribute to Ln-X bonding in LnX{sub 4} about one third more thanmore » in LnX{sub 3}.« less

  19. Tuning the sensitivity of lanthanide-activated NIR nanothermometers in the biological windows.

    PubMed

    Cortelletti, P; Skripka, A; Facciotti, C; Pedroni, M; Caputo, G; Pinna, N; Quintanilla, M; Benayas, A; Vetrone, F; Speghini, A

    2018-02-01

    Lanthanide-activated SrF 2 nanoparticles with a multishell architecture were investigated as optical thermometers in the biological windows. A ratiometric approach based on the relative changes in the intensities of different lanthanide (Nd 3+ and Yb 3+ ) NIR emissions was applied to investigate the thermometric properties of the nanoparticles. It was found that an appropriate doping with Er 3+ ions can increase the thermometric properties of the Nd 3+ -Yb 3+ coupled systems. In addition, a core containing Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ can generate light in the visible and UV regions upon near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation at 980 nm. The multishell structure combined with the rational choice of dopants proves to be particularly important to control and enhance the performance of nanoparticles as NIR nanothermometers.

  20. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  1. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  2. Optimized auxiliary basis sets for density fitted post-Hartree-Fock calculations of lanthanide containing molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmela, Jiří; Harding, Michael E.

    2018-06-01

    Optimised auxiliary basis sets for lanthanide atoms (Ce to Lu) for four basis sets of the Karlsruhe error-balanced segmented contracted def2 - series (SVP, TZVP, TZVPP and QZVPP) are reported. These auxiliary basis sets enable the use of the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation in post Hartree-Fock methods - as for example, second-order perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster (CC) theory. The auxiliary basis sets are tested on an enlarged set of about a hundred molecules where the test criterion is the size of the RI error in MP2 calculations. Our tests also show that the same auxiliary basis sets can be used together with different effective core potentials. With these auxiliary basis set calculations of MP2 and CC quality can now be performed efficiently on medium-sized molecules containing lanthanides.

  3. Role of Lanthanides in the Traceability of the Milk Production Chain.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Musso, Davide; Calà, Elisa; Arieri, Fabio; Oddone, Matteo

    2017-05-24

    The traceability and authentication of milk were studied using trace and ultratrace elements as chemical markers. Among these variables, the group of lanthanides resulted in being particularly useful for this purpose as a result of their homogeneous distribution inside milk, which showed on the contrary to be intrinsically inhomogeneous from the elemental point of view. Using in this pilot study milk samples from a factory in Piedmont (Italy), we demonstrated that the distribution of lanthanides can be used as a fingerprint to put into relation the soil of the pasture land on which cows graze and the bottled milk produced in the factory. In fact, the distribution is maintained nearly unaltered along the production chain of milk, apart from the passage into the stomachs of the cows. Using the same variables, it was possible to discriminate between milk produced in the factory and milk samples taken from the large-scale retail trade.

  4. Facile synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles with high purity using lanthanide oleate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ning; Ai, Chao-Chao; Zhou, Ya-Ming; Wang, Zuo; Ren, Lei

    2018-02-01

    A novel strategy for preparing highly pure NaYF4-based upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) was developed using lanthanide oleate compounds [Ln(OA)3] as the precursor, denoted as the Ln-OA preparation method. Compared to the conventional solvothermal method for synthesizing UCNPs using lanthanide chloride compounds (LnCl3) as the precursor (denoted as the Ln-Cl method), the Ln-OA strategy exhibited the merits of high purity, reduced purification process and a uniform size in preparing core and core-shell UCNPs excited by a 980 or 808 nm near infrared (NIR) laser. This work sheds new insight on the preparation of UCNPs and promotes their application in biomedical fields.

  5. A new heterometallic hybrid based on polymeric iodoplumbate and lanthanide metal-carboxylic coordination polycation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, An-Weng; Wu, Hong-Yan; Lian, Zhao-Xun; Dong, Hai-Jun; Li, Hao-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Rong

    2013-03-01

    A 3-D supramolecular hybrid {[La(EPC)3(H2O)3]2(Pb6I18)}n (EPC+ = N-ethyl-pyridium-4-carboxylate) (1) has been structurally determined, which assume significance for its incorporating lanthanide metal-carboxylic coordination polycation into polymeric iodoplumbate to get heterometallics. 1 consists of 1-D (PbI)n6n- zigzag-like anion chains with lanthanide metalcarboxylic [La(EPC)3(HO)3]n3n+ polycations, which arrange in a criss-cross configuration. C-H⋯I and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds among inorganic anions and polycations contribute to the formation of a 3-D supramolecular framework. Moreover, the framework displays an absorption edge at 2.46 eV which is comparable to PbI2's absorption edge.

  6. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sanyang; Qin, Xian; An, Zhongfu; Zhu, Yihan; Liang, Liangliang; Han, Yu; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-10-01

    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting.

  7. Lanthanide-Dependent Regulation of Methanol Oxidation Systems in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Their Contribution to Methanol Growth.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong N; Subuyuj, Gabriel A; Vijayakumar, Srividhya; Good, Nathan M; Martinez-Gomez, N Cecilia; Skovran, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 has two distinct types of methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH) enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. MxaFI-MeDH requires pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and Ca in its active site, while XoxF-MeDH requires PQQ and lanthanides, such as Ce and La. Using MeDH mutant strains to conduct growth analysis and MeDH activity assays, we demonstrate that M. extorquens AM1 has at least one additional lanthanide-dependent methanol oxidation system contributing to methanol growth. Additionally, the abilities of different lanthanides to support growth were tested and strongly suggest that both XoxF and the unknown methanol oxidation system are able to use La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and, to some extent, Sm. Further, growth analysis using increasing La concentrations showed that maximum growth rate and yield were achieved at and above 1 μM La, while concentrations as low as 2.5 nM allowed growth at a reduced rate. Contrary to published data, we show that addition of exogenous lanthanides results in differential expression from the xox1 and mxa promoters, upregulating genes in the xox1 operon and repressing genes in the mxa operon. Using transcriptional reporter fusions, intermediate expression from both the mxa and xox1 promoters was detected when 50 to 100 nM La was added to the growth medium, suggesting that a condition may exist under which M. extorquens AM1 is able to utilize both enzymes simultaneously. Together, these results suggest that M. extorquens AM1 actively senses and responds to lanthanide availability, preferentially utilizing the lanthanide-dependent MeDHs when possible. The biological role of lanthanides is a nascent field of study with tremendous potential to impact many areas in biology. Our studies demonstrate that there is at least one additional lanthanide-dependent methanol oxidation system, distinct from the MxaFI and XoxF MeDHs, that may aid in classifying additional environmental organisms as methylotrophs. Further

  8. Lanthanide-Dependent Regulation of Methanol Oxidation Systems in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Their Contribution to Methanol Growth

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Huong N.; Subuyuj, Gabriel A.; Vijayakumar, Srividhya; Good, Nathan M.; Martinez-Gomez, N. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 has two distinct types of methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH) enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. MxaFI-MeDH requires pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and Ca in its active site, while XoxF-MeDH requires PQQ and lanthanides, such as Ce and La. Using MeDH mutant strains to conduct growth analysis and MeDH activity assays, we demonstrate that M. extorquens AM1 has at least one additional lanthanide-dependent methanol oxidation system contributing to methanol growth. Additionally, the abilities of different lanthanides to support growth were tested and strongly suggest that both XoxF and the unknown methanol oxidation system are able to use La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and, to some extent, Sm. Further, growth analysis using increasing La concentrations showed that maximum growth rate and yield were achieved at and above 1 μM La, while concentrations as low as 2.5 nM allowed growth at a reduced rate. Contrary to published data, we show that addition of exogenous lanthanides results in differential expression from the xox1 and mxa promoters, upregulating genes in the xox1 operon and repressing genes in the mxa operon. Using transcriptional reporter fusions, intermediate expression from both the mxa and xox1 promoters was detected when 50 to 100 nM La was added to the growth medium, suggesting that a condition may exist under which M. extorquens AM1 is able to utilize both enzymes simultaneously. Together, these results suggest that M. extorquens AM1 actively senses and responds to lanthanide availability, preferentially utilizing the lanthanide-dependent MeDHs when possible. IMPORTANCE The biological role of lanthanides is a nascent field of study with tremendous potential to impact many areas in biology. Our studies demonstrate that there is at least one additional lanthanide-dependent methanol oxidation system, distinct from the MxaFI and XoxF MeDHs, that may aid in classifying additional environmental organisms as

  9. Inkjet Printing of Lanthanide-Organic Frameworks for Anti-Counterfeiting Applications.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Leonis L; Milani, Raquel; Felix, Jorlandio F; Ribeiro, Igor R B; Talhavini, Márcio; Neto, Brenno A D; Chojnacki, Jaroslaw; Rodrigues, Marcelo O; Júnior, Severino A

    2015-12-16

    Photoluminescent lanthanide-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) were printed onto plastic and paper foils with a conventional inkjet printer. Ln-MOF inks were used to reproduce color images that can only be observed under UV light irradiation. This approach opens a new window for exploring Ln-MOF materials in technological applications, such as optical devices (e.g., lab-on-a-chip), as proof of authenticity for official documents.

  10. Lanthanide-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a New Mixed Precursor Method by Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Roh, Y.; Yeary, L. W.; Lauf, R. J.; Phelps, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus successfully converted the precursor of L (lanthanide)-mixed akaganeite (LxFe1-xOOH) phase to L-substituted magnetite (LyFe3-yO4) while avoiding the potentially toxic effects of soluble L-ions. Antibiotic elements, lanthanide (Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er)-substituted magnetites were produced by microbial fermentation using LxFe1-xOOH, where x was up to 0.02 which is equivalent to 0.72 mM. Combining lanthanides into the akaganeite precursor phase mitigated some of the toxicity when compared to the traditional method by using pure akaganeite and the dissolved L-salt form. This new technique showed that an upper limit of L-concentrations between 0.02 and 0.1 mM might suppress bacterial activity. At the equivalent L-cation mole fraction, the traditional method increased the concentration of soluble toxic L ions in the final media. The precursor method enabled production of microbially synthesized L- substituted magnetite with an L-concentration 36-fold greater than could be obtained when the lanthanides were added as soluble salts. These results were confirmed by protein assay. The increase of L-concentration in the magnetite evidently manipulates its physical properties such as decreasing Curie temperature and decreasing saturation magnetism of L-substituted magnetite. This mixed precursor method can therefore be used to extend the application for nanofermentation and other bacterial synthesis fields where there is a need for economically low-energy consumable microbial production of nanoscale materials that should involve toxic or inhibitory elements to bacterial growth.

  11. Structural properties of lanthanide and actinide compounds within the plane wave pseudopotential approach

    PubMed

    Pickard; Winkler; Chen; Payne; Lee; Lin; White; Milman; Vanderbilt

    2000-12-11

    We show that plane wave ultrasoft pseudopotential methods readily extend to the calculation of the structural properties of lanthanide and actinide containing compounds. This is demonstrated through a series of calculations performed on UO, UO2, UO3, U3O8, UC2, alpha-CeC2, CeB6, CeSe, CeO2, NdB6, TmOI, LaBi, LaTiO3, YbO, and elemental Lu.

  12. Structural Studies on Dy to 119 GPa and Applications to Lanthanide Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J; Akella, J

    2005-05-31

    The Rare Earth elements (REE) are known to undergo crystallographic as well as electronic structure changes with applied pressure. On increasing pressure, the trivalent lanthanides follow the sequence hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} fcc {yields} dfcc. In this report we present room-temperature high-pressure x-ray diffraction data for Dy as well as our observations on the post-dfcc phases and concomitant volume changes in the heavy REE.

  13. Development and Application of Multifunctional Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles in Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, Francisco J., III

    Medical imaging has become one of the most important tools of modern medicine soon after it was developed. Presently, several imaging modalities are available to clinicians for the detection of skeletal fractures and functional abnormalities of organs and tissues; and also an excellent tool during surgical procedures. Unfortunately, each imaging technique possesses its own strengths and inherent limitations which can be mitigated via the use of multiple imaging modalities and imaging probes. Through the use of multiple imaging modalities, it is possible to gather complementary information for a more reliable diagnosis. Each imaging technique requires its own imaging probes, providing selectivity and improved contrast. However, conventional contrast agents are incapable of providing what the new generation of multifunctional nanomaterials offer. In addition to improved selectivity and contrast, multifunctional materials possess therapeutic capabilities such as photo-thermal therapy and controlled drug delivery. Lanthanide-based nanomaterials are viable candidates for multimodal imaging agents due to possessing multifunctional capabilities, optical and chemical stability, and an intense tunable emission. This doctoral dissertation will delve into the development of lanthanide-based nanoparticles by proposing a novel multifunctional contrast agent for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Furthermore, the study of surface modification effects on upconversion emission and nanoparticle-cell interactions was performed. Results presented will confirm the potential application of multifunctional lanthanide-based nanomaterials as multimodal imaging probes.

  14. Radiometric evaluation of diglycolamide resins for the chromatographic separation of actinium from fission product lanthanides

    DOE PAGES

    Radchenko, Valery; Mastren, Tara; Meyer, Catherine A. L.; ...

    2017-07-20

    Actinium-225 is a potential Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) isotope. It can be generated with high energy (≥ 100 MeV) proton irradiation of thorium targets. The main challenge in the chemical recovery of 225Ac lies in the separation from thorium and many fission by-products most importantly radiolanthanides. We recently developed a separation strategy based on a combination of cation exchange and extraction chromatography to isolate and purify 225Ac. In this study, actinium and lanthanide equilibrium distribution coefficients and column elution behavior for both TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra- n-octyldiglycolamide) and TEHDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide) were determined. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed and were inmore » agreement with experimental observations providing the foundation for understanding of the selectivity for Ac and lanthanides on different DGA (diglycolamide) based resins. The results of Gibbs energy (ΔG aq) calculations confirm significantly higher selectivity of DGA based resins for Ln III over Ac III in the presence of nitrate. As a result, DFT calculations and experimental results reveal that Ac chemistry cannot be predicted from lanthanide behavior under comparable circumstances.« less

  15. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  16. Synthesis of Core-shell Lanthanide-doped Upconversion Nanocrystals for Cellular Applications.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xiangzhao; Lyu, Linna; Mu, Jing; Hu, Ming; Wang, Zhimin; Xing, Bengang

    2017-11-10

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) have attracted much attention in recent years based on their promising and controllable optical properties, which allow for the absorption of near-infrared (NIR) light and can subsequently convert it into multiplexed emissions that span over a broad range of regions from the UV to the visible to the NIR. This article presents detailed experimental procedures for high-temperature co-precipitation synthesis of core-shell UCNs that incorporate different lanthanide ions into nanocrystals for efficiently converting deep-tissue penetrable NIR excitation (808 nm) into a strong blue emission at 480 nm. By controlling the surface modification with biocompatible polymer (polyacrylic acid, PAA), the as-prepared UCNs acquires great solubility in buffer solutions. The hydrophilic nanocrystals are further functionalized with specific ligands (dibenzyl cyclooctyne, DBCO) for localization on the cell membrane. Upon NIR light (808 nm) irradiation, the upconverted blue emission can effectively activate the light-gated channel protein on the cell membrane and specifically regulate the cation (e.g., Ca 2+ ) influx in the cytoplasm. This protocol provides a feasible methodology for the synthesis of core-shell lanthanide-doped UCNs and subsequent biocompatible surface modification for further cellular applications.

  17. Radiometric evaluation of diglycolamide resins for the chromatographic separation of actinium from fission product lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, Valery; Mastren, Tara; Meyer, Catherine A. L.

    Actinium-225 is a potential Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) isotope. It can be generated with high energy (≥ 100 MeV) proton irradiation of thorium targets. The main challenge in the chemical recovery of 225Ac lies in the separation from thorium and many fission by-products most importantly radiolanthanides. We recently developed a separation strategy based on a combination of cation exchange and extraction chromatography to isolate and purify 225Ac. In this study, actinium and lanthanide equilibrium distribution coefficients and column elution behavior for both TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra- n-octyldiglycolamide) and TEHDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide) were determined. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed and were inmore » agreement with experimental observations providing the foundation for understanding of the selectivity for Ac and lanthanides on different DGA (diglycolamide) based resins. The results of Gibbs energy (ΔG aq) calculations confirm significantly higher selectivity of DGA based resins for Ln III over Ac III in the presence of nitrate. As a result, DFT calculations and experimental results reveal that Ac chemistry cannot be predicted from lanthanide behavior under comparable circumstances.« less

  18. An optical authentication system based on imaging of excitation-selected lanthanide luminescence.

    PubMed

    Carro-Temboury, Miguel R; Arppe, Riikka; Vosch, Tom; Sørensen, Thomas Just

    2018-01-01

    Secure data encryption relies heavily on one-way functions, and copy protection relies on features that are difficult to reproduce. We present an optical authentication system based on lanthanide luminescence from physical one-way functions or physical unclonable functions (PUFs). They cannot be reproduced and thus enable unbreakable encryption. Further, PUFs will prevent counterfeiting if tags with unique PUFs are grafted onto products. We have developed an authentication system that comprises a hardware reader, image analysis, and authentication software and physical keys that we demonstrate as an anticounterfeiting system. The physical keys are PUFs made from random patterns of taggants in polymer films on glass that can be imaged following selected excitation of particular lanthanide(III) ions doped into the individual taggants. This form of excitation-selected imaging ensures that by using at least two lanthanide(III) ion dopants, the random patterns cannot be copied, because the excitation selection will fail when using any other emitter. With the developed reader and software, the random patterns are read and digitized, which allows a digital pattern to be stored. This digital pattern or digital key can be used to authenticate the physical key in anticounterfeiting or to encrypt any message. The PUF key was produced with a staggering nominal encoding capacity of 7 3600 . Although the encoding capacity of the realized authentication system reduces to 6 × 10 104 , it is more than sufficient to completely preclude counterfeiting of products.

  19. Mean-field potential approach for thermodynamic properties of lanthanide: Europium as a prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, a simple conjunction scheme [mean-field potential (MFP) + local pseudopotential] is used to study the thermodynamic properties of divalent lanthanide europium (Eu) at extreme environment. Present study has been carried out due to the fact that divalent nature of Eu arises because of stable half-filled 4f-shell at ambient condition, which has great influence on the thermodynamic properties at extreme environment. Due to such electronic structure, it is different from remaining lanthanides having incomplete 4f-shell. The presently computed results of thermodynamic properties of Eu are in good agreement with the experimental results. Looking to such success, it seems that the concept of MFP approach is successful to account contribution due to nuclear motion to the total Helmholtz free energy at finite temperatures and pressure-induced inter-band transfer of electrons for condensed state of matter. The local pseudopotential is used to evaluate cold energy and hence MFP accounts the s-p-d-f hybridization properly. Looking to the reliability and transferability along with its computational and conceptual simplicity, we would like to extend the present scheme for the study of thermodynamic properties of remaining lanthanides and actinides at extreme environment.

  20. Lanthanide-Doped Ceria Nanoparticles as Backside Coaters to Improve Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hajjiah, Ali; Samir, Effat; Shehata, Nader; Salah, Mohamed

    2018-05-23

    This paper introduces lanthanide-doped ceria nanoparticles as silicon solar cell back-side coaters, showing their influence on the solar cell efficiency. Ceria nanoparticles can be synthesized to have formed oxygen vacancies (O-vacancies), which are associated with converting cerium ions from the Ce 4+ state ions to the Ce 3+ ones. These O-vacancies follow the rule of improving silicon solar cell conductivity through a hopping mechanism. Besides, under near-ultra violet (near-UV) excitation, the reduced trivalent cerium Ce 3+ ions are directly responsible for down converting the un-absorbed UV wavelengths to a resultant green photo-luminescence emission at ~520 nm, which is absorbed through the silicon solar cell’s active layer. Adding lanthanide elements such as Neodymium “Nd” as ceria nanoparticle dopants helps in forming extra oxygen vacancies (O-vacancies), followed by an increase in the number of Ce 4+ to Ce 3+ ion reductions, thus enhancing the conductivity and photoluminescence down conversion mechanisms. After introducing lanthanide-doped ceria nanoparticles on a silicon solar cell surface, a promising enhancement in the behavior of the solar cell current-voltage curve is observed, and the efficiency is improved by about 25% of its initial value due to the mutual impact of improving both electric conductivity and optical conversions.

  1. The inhibition of mitochondrial calcium transport by lanthanides and Ruthenium Red

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Ken C.; Bygrave, Fyfe L.

    1974-01-01

    An EGTA (ethanedioxybis(ethylamine)tetra-acetic acid)-quench technique was developed for measuring initial rates of 45Ca2+ transport by rat liver mitochondria. This method was used in conjunction with studies of Ca2+-stimulated respiration to examine the mechanisms of inhibition of Ca2+ transport by the lanthanides and Ruthenium Red. Ruthenium Red inhibits Ca2+ transport non-competitively with Ki 3×10−8m; there are 0.08nmol of carrier-specific binding sites/mg of protein. The inhibition by La3+ is competitive (Ki=2×10−8m); the concentration of lanthanide-sensitive sites is less than 0.001nmol/mg of protein. A further difference between their modes of action is that lanthanide inhibition diminishes with time whereas that by Ruthenium Red does not. Binding studies showed that both classes of inhibitor bind to a relatively large number of external sites (probably identical with the `low-affinity' Ca2+-binding sites). La3+ competes with Ruthenium Red for most of these sites, but a small fraction of the bound Ruthenium Red (less than 2nmol/mg of protein) is not displaced by La3+. The results are discussed briefly in relation to possible models for a Ca2+ carrier. PMID:4375957

  2. Characteristics of water and ion exchange of Elodea nuttallii cells at high concentrations of lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, Vladimir N; Mirziev, Samat I; Alexandrov, Evgeniy A; Sibgatullin, Timur A

    2016-12-01

    Changes of diffusive permeability of membranes of Elodea nuttallii cells following a short-term (60 min) treatment with high concentrations of lanthanides were recorded by the 1 H NMR-diffusometry and conductometry methods. The 1-h infiltration of segments of Elodea nuttallii internodes in 10 mM solutions of nitrates of La, Nd and Lu resulted in the increased leakage of electrolytes from cells, but has no effect on a water diffusive permeability of membranes. In samples subjected to a 30 min pretreatment with a water channel inhibitor HgCl 2 the water diffusive permeability of membranes (P d ) drops down under the influence of lanthanides, as well as an outcome of electrolytes. To explain the observed effects the change of spontaneous curvature of membrane lipid layer has been taken into consideration. The interaction of lanthanides with lipids of plasmalemma leads to the negative spontaneous curvature of lipid layer at which membrane channels are unclosed. Blocking of the ionic and water channels by mercury ions compensate the effect of change of spontaneous curvature of lipid layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of lanthanide coordination polymers assembled from imidazophenanthroline derivative and oxalate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Huai-Ming; An, Ran; Yang, Meng-Lin; Xue, Ganglin

    2017-01-01

    Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, [Ln(Hsfpip)(ox)0.5(H2O)]n·2n(H2O) ((Ln=Eu (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Yb (6), Y(7)), [Ln(H2sfpip)(ox)(H2O)4]n·2n(H2O) (Ln=Nd (8) Sm (9)), [H2ox=oxalic acid, H3sfpip=2-(2,4-disulfophenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10)-phenanthroline] have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. When sodium oxalate is added, the reactions of lanthanide ions with H3sfpip resulted in two types of structures. Compounds 1-7 are obtained at pH 5.0 and exhibit 3D tfz-d networks with ox2- anions as linkers to bridge the adjacent layers. Compounds 8-9 are obtained at pH 2.0, and display a 1D chain which is further extended to a 3D supramolecular framework through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. The structural variation from compounds 1-7 to 8-9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescence properties of 1-9 were also investigated.

  4. Simulating the synthesis and thermodynamic characteristics of the desolvation of lanthanide borohydride tris-Tetrahydrofuranates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, B. A.; Mirsaidov, I. U.; Nasrulloeva, D. Kh.; Badalov, A.

    2013-10-01

    Lanthanide borohydride tris-tetrahydrofuranates (Ln(BH4) · 3THF, where THF is tetrahydrofuran and Ln is La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Er, Yb, and Lu) is synthesized via the exchange reaction of lanthanide(III) chloride and sodium borohydride in THF. It is found that synthesis proceeds according to a stepwise mechanism and the product of the reaction (lanthanide borohydride) initiates the process. The two-step character of the desolvation of Ln(BH4)3 · 3THF under steady-state conditions in the temperature range of 300 to 400 K is determined through X-ray phase and chemical analyses, tensiometry, and gas volumetry. It is established that one mole and then two moles of THF are removed from the initial sample at the first and second steps, respectively. Equations for barograms are obtained and the thermodynamic characteristics of desolvation of Ln(BH4)3 · 3THF under study are calculated. Gibbs energy values of the stages of process are determined semi-empirically. The law of its change for the entire series of Ln(BH4)3 · 3THF is determined with the emergence of the tetrad effect.

  5. Lanthanide Contraction as a Design Factor for High-Performance Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yintu; Fu, Chenguang; Xia, Kaiyang; Yu, Junjie; Zhao, Xinbing; Pan, Hongge; Felser, Claudia; Zhu, Tiejun

    2018-06-25

    Forming solid solutions, as an effective strategy to improve thermoelectric performance, has a dilemma that alloy scattering will reduce both the thermal conductivity and carrier mobility. Here, an intuitive way is proposed to decouple the opposite effects, that is, using lanthanide contraction as a design factor to select alloying atoms with large mass fluctuation but small radius difference from the host atoms. Typical half-Heusler alloys, n-type (Zr,Hf)NiSn and p-type (Nb,Ta)FeSb solid solutions, are taken as paradigms to attest the validity of this design strategy, which exhibit greatly suppressed lattice thermal conductivity and maintained carrier mobility. Furthermore, by considering lanthanide contraction, n-type (Zr,Hf)CoSb-based alloys with high zT of ≈1.0 are developed. These results highlight the significance of lanthanide contraction as a design factor in enhancing the thermoelectric performance and reveal the practical potential of (Zr,Hf)CoSb-based half-Heusler compounds due to the matched n-type and p-type thermoelectric performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thermodynamic Studies to Support Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng

    2016-09-04

    Thermodynamic data on the complexation of Np(V) with HEDTA in a wide pH region were re-modeled by including a dimeric complex species, (NpO 2) 2(OH) 2L 2 6- where L 3- stands for the fully deprotonated HEDTA ligand and better fits were achieved for the spectrophotometric data. The presence of the dimeric complex species in high pH region was verified for the first time by the EXAFS experiments at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL).

  7. Separation of americium from europium using 3,3'-dimethoxy-phenyl-bis-1,2,4-triazinyl-2,6-pyridine

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Talon G.; Chin, Ai Lin; Tai, Serene; ...

    2017-03-22

    Development of liquid-liquid separation processes for the effective removal of the minor actinide Am(III) from used nuclear fuel using ligand-based strategies continues to be an area of significant research focus. The current investigation demonstrates the efficacy of a nitrogen-based bis-triazinyl pyridine (BTP) derivative to selectively extract Am(III) from nitric acid solutions containing light lanthanides. The performance of 3,3’-dimethoxy-phenyl-bis-1,2,4-triazinyl-2,6- pyridine (MOB-BTP) was compared to that of a camphor substituted BTP (CA-BTP). The results of this investigation demonstrate the novel 3,3’-methoxy-BTP extractant dissolved in a polar diluent was a more efficient extractant for Am(III) at a lower concentration than CA-BTP under comparablemore » conditions.« less

  8. Separation of americium from europium using 3,3'-dimethoxy-phenyl-bis-1,2,4-triazinyl-2,6-pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Talon G.; Chin, Ai Lin; Tai, Serene

    Development of liquid-liquid separation processes for the effective removal of the minor actinide Am(III) from used nuclear fuel using ligand-based strategies continues to be an area of significant research focus. The current investigation demonstrates the efficacy of a nitrogen-based bis-triazinyl pyridine (BTP) derivative to selectively extract Am(III) from nitric acid solutions containing light lanthanides. The performance of 3,3’-dimethoxy-phenyl-bis-1,2,4-triazinyl-2,6- pyridine (MOB-BTP) was compared to that of a camphor substituted BTP (CA-BTP). The results of this investigation demonstrate the novel 3,3’-methoxy-BTP extractant dissolved in a polar diluent was a more efficient extractant for Am(III) at a lower concentration than CA-BTP under comparablemore » conditions.« less

  9. Development of a fluorescent label tool based on lanthanide nanophosphors for viral biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quoc Minh; Huong Tran, Thu; Huong Nguyen, Thanh; Khuyen Hoang, Thi; Binh Nguyen, Thanh; Do, Khanh Tung; Tran, Kim Anh; Hien Nguyen, Dang; Luan Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Dung Dang, Mai; Thu Nguyen, Nu Anh; Nguyen, Van Man

    2012-09-01

    We report for the first time the preparation of luminescent lanthanide nanomaterial (LLN) linked bioconjugates and their application as a label tool for recognizing virus in the processing line of vaccine industrial fabrication. Several LLNs with the nanostructure forms of particles or rods/wires with europium (III) and terbium (III) ions in lattices of vanadate, phosphate and metal organic complex were prepared to develop novel fluorescent conjugates able to be applied as labels in fluorescence immunoassay analysis of virus/vaccine. With regard to the LLNs, we have successfully synthesized nanoparticles around 10 nm of YVO4:Eu(III), with high emission in the red spectral region, nanorod and nanowire of TbPO4·H2O and Eu1-xTbxPO4·H2O, width 5-7 nm and length 300 nm, showing very bright luminescence in green, and core/shell nanosized Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) complexes with naphthoyl trifluoroacetone and tri-n-octylphosphineoxide (Eu.NTA.TOPO@PVP, EuXTb1-X.NTA.TOPO). The appropriated core/shell structures can play a double role, one for enhancing luminescence efficiency and another for providing nanophosphors with better stability in water media for facilitating the penetration of nanophosphor core into a biomedical environment. The organic functionalizations of the obtained LLNs were done through their surface encapsulation with a functional polysiloxane including active groups such as amine (NH2), thiocyanate (SCN) or mecarpto (SH). The properties of functional sol-gel matrix have great influence on the luminescence properties, especially luminescence intensity of YVO4:Eu(III), Eu.NTA.TOPO@PVP, TbPO4·H2O and EuxTb1-xPO4·H2O. Bioconjugation processes of the functionalized LLNs have been studied with some bioactive molecules such as biotin, protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of LLN-bioconjugate linking with IgG for recognizing virus (vaccine) will be presented in brief. It is consistent to state that the LLN bioconjugates

  10. A Long Journey in Lanthanide Chemistry: From Fundamental Crystallogenesis Studies to Commercial Anticounterfeiting Taggants.

    PubMed

    Guillou, Olivier; Daiguebonne, Carole; Calvez, Guillaume; Bernot, Kevin

    2016-05-17

    Lanthanide ions have unique physical properties and are essential for numerous technological devices. Indeed, much research has been undertaken in order to understand and optimize their luminescent behavior. From a chemical and more specific point of view, lanthanides can be used to build coordination polymers (CPs). CPs are materials in which metal ions are associated with organic molecules (ligands) to form extended networks. They present great structural diversity and a wide range of unique properties such as great porosity, strong catalytic activities, and original magnetic and luminescent behaviors. In this Account, we highlight recent research advances obtained by our team in the field of lanthanide-based CPs. However, rather than present a simple chronological description of successive investigations, we have chosen present our own experience in order to show how standard academic studies can be successfully turned into applied research and finally into a viable startup that commercializes these products as anticounterfieting taggants. A taggant is a compound that can be dispersed in a host matrix at parts per million rates for it to be labeled. Its economic advantages over traditional anticounterfeiting techniques (labels, chips, etc.) are its very low cost and its ability to label a raw material at every stage of its processing, unlike traditional techniques that label only the final product. It thus permits traceability of a given material over a wide range of suppliers/subcontractors/sellers or customers at every step of its life. After 15 years of fundamental crystallogenesis research, we identified a very stable phase of lanthanide-based CPs in which strong lanthanide luminescence can be observed. We investigated this phase further and showed that a heteronuclear approach can give access to billions of different compositions and makes it possible to turn these powders into taggants. After the creation of a startup, we refocused on fundamental studies

  11. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the

  12. Lanthanide luminescence enhancements in porous silicon resonant microcavities.

    PubMed

    Jenie, S N Aisyiyah; Pace, Stephanie; Sciacca, Beniamino; Brooks, Robert D; Plush, Sally E; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-08-13

    In this paper, the covalent immobilization and luminescence enhancement of a europium (Eu(III)) complex in a porous silicon (pSi) layer with a microcavity (pSiMC) structure are demonstrated. The alkyne-pendant arm of the Eu(III) complex was covalently immobilized on the azide-modified surface via ligand-assisted "click" chemistry. The design parameters of the microcavity were optimized to obtain an efficient luminescence-enhancing device. Luminescence enhancements by a factor of 9.5 and 3.0 were observed for Eu(III) complex bound inside the pSiMC as compared to a single layer and Bragg reflector of identical thickness, respectively, confirming the increased interaction between the immobilized molecules and the electric field in the spacer of the microcavity. When comparing pSiMCs with different resonance wavelength position, luminescence was enhanced when the resonance wavelength overlapped with the maximum emission wavelength of the Eu(III) complex at 614 nm, allowing for effective coupling between the confined light and the emitting molecules. The pSiMC also improved the spectral color purity of the Eu(III) complex luminescence. The ability of a pSiMC to act as an efficient Eu(III) luminescence enhancer, combined with the resulting sharp linelike emission, can be exploited for the development of ultrasensitive optical biosensors.

  13. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III)more » formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.« less

  14. Visible and NIR photoluminescence properties of a series of novel lanthanide-organic coordination polymers based on hydroxyquinoline-carboxylate ligands.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yan-Li; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Chen, Lian; Bu, Yang; Li, Xing-Jun; Jiang, Fei-Long; Hong, Mao-Chun

    2012-12-17

    A series of novel two-dimensional (2D) lanthanide coordination polymers with 4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylate (H(2)hqc) ligands, [Ln(Hhqc)(3)(H(2)O)](n)·3nH(2)O (Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2), Sm (3), Nd (4), and Gd (5)) and [Ln(Hhqc)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)](n) (Ln = Eu (6), Tb (7), Sm (8), Tm (9), Dy (10), Nd (11), Yb (12), and Gd (13); H(2)ox = oxalic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1-5 are isomorphous, which can be described as a two-dimensional (2D) hxl/Shubnikov network based on Ln(2)(CO(2))(4) paddle-wheel units, and the isomorphous complexes 6-13 feature a 2D decker layer architecture constructed by Ln-ox infinite chains cross-linked alternatively by bridging Hhqc(-) ligands. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of complexes Eu(III) (1 and 6), Tb(III) (2 and 7), and Sm(III) (3 and 8) exhibit strong characteristic emissions in the visible region, whereas Nd(III) (4 and 11) and Yb(III) (12) complexes display NIR luminescence upon irradiation at the ligand band. Moreover, the triplet state of H(2)hqc matches well with the emission level of Eu(III), Tb(III), and Sm(III) ions, which allows the preparation of new optical materials with enhanced luminescence properties.

  15. Lanthanides-clay nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Celedon, Salvador; Quiroz, Carolina; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2009-05-06

    Complexes of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) with 2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline were inserted into Na-bentonite by ion exchange reactions at room temperature. The products display interlaminar distances and stoichiometries in agreement with the ion exchange capacity and the interlayer space available in the clay. The optical properties of the intercalates, being qualitatively similar to those of the free complexes, are additionally improved with respect to exchange processes with the medium, especially in a moist environment. The protection again hydrolysis, together with the intensity of the optical transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 5}F{sub 2} observed in the nanocomposite, makes these products promising for themore » development of novel optical materials.« less

  16. Study of 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide as a new ligand for preconcentration of lanthanides from aqueous media by liquid-liquid extraction prior to ICP-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Varbanova, Evelina K; Angelov, Plamen A; Stefanova, Violeta M

    2016-11-01

    In the present work the potential of a new ligand 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide (representing the class of enaminones) for selective preconcentration of lanthanides (La, Ce, Eu, Gd and Er) from aqueous medium is examined. Liquid-liquid extraction parameters, such as pH of the water phase, type and volume of organic solvent, quantity of ligand and reaction time are optimized on model solutions. Recovery of lanthanides by re-extraction with nitric acid makes the LLE procedure compatible with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Spectral and non-spectral interferences are studied. Two isotopes per element are measured (with exception of La) for dynamic evaluation of the potential risk of spectral interference in variable real samples. The selectivity of complex formation reaction towards concomitant alkali and alkali-earth elements eliminates the interferences from sample matrix. Subjecting the standards to the optimized extraction procedure in combination with Re as internal standard is recommended as calibration strategy. The accuracy of developed method is approved by analysis of CRM Bush branches and leaves (NCS DC 73348) and recovery of spiked water and plant samples. The method's limits of detection for both studied objects are in the ranges from 0.2 ((158)Gd) to 3.7 ((139)La) ngl(-1) and 0.02 ((158)Gd) to 0.37((139)La) ngg(-1) for waters and plants respectively. The studied compound is an effective new ligand for preconcentration/separation of lanthanides from aqueous medium by LLE and subsequent determination by ICP-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid-based lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, magnetism and quantum Monte Carlo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Gui-lin; Chen, Wu-lin; Zheng, Jun; Yu, Hui-you; Wang, Jian-guo

    2012-08-01

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers have been obtained through the hydrothermal reaction of N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid (H3SIDA) and Ln(NO3)3 (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Gd, 4). Crystal structure analysis exhibits that lanthanide ions affect the coordination number, bond length and dimension of compounds 1-4, which reveal that their structure diversity can be attributed to the effect of lanthanide contraction. Furthermore, the combination of magnetic measure with quantum Monte Carlo(QMC) studies exhibits that the coupling parameters between two adjacent Gd3+ ions for anti-anti and syn-anti carboxylate bridges are -1.0×10-3 and -5.0×10-3 cm-1, respectively, which reveals weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 4.

  18. Ferromagnetic interactions and slow magnetic relaxation behaviors of two lanthanide coordination polymers bridged by 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ming; Li, Xiuhua; Cui, Ping

    2015-03-15

    Two lanthanide-based frameworks: (Ln(phen)(NDA){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (Ln=Gd(1), NDA=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate anion, phen=1,10-phenanthroline), and ([Dy(phen)(NDA){sub 1.5}]·0.5H{sub 2}NDA){sub n} (2) were structurally and magnetically characterized. Compound 1 exhibits 2D layer structure, belonging to the triclinic system with space group P−1, while compound 2 features a 3D framework with space group P−1. The magnetic studies revealed that ferromagnetic coupling existed between adjacent lanthanide ions in 1 and 2, and frequency-dependence out-of-phase signals in the measurement of alternate-current susceptibilities were observed for 2, albeit without reaching the characteristic maxima above 2 K, implying slow magnetic relaxation behavior in 2. After the application of a dcmore » field, good peak shapes of ac signal were obtained and got the energy barrier ΔE/k{sub B}=29 K and the pre-exponential factor τ{sub 0}=4.47×10{sup −7} s at 2000 Oe field; and when the dc field was in 5000 Oe, giving ΔE/k{sub B}=40 K and τ{sub 0}=2.82×10{sup −6}. - Graphical abstract: Two novel lanthanide-based frameworks 1 and 2 were structurally and magnetically characterized. The results revealed that ferromagnetic coupling exists between adjacent lanthanide ions in 1 and 2, and 2 displayed slow magnetic relaxation behavior with the energy barrier of 29 K. - Highlights: • Two lanthanide frameworks were synthesized and magnetically characterized. • The magnetism studies indicate slow magnetic relaxation behavior in 2. • Weak ferromagnetic coupling existing between adjacent lanthanide centers.« less

  19. X-ray spectroscopy studies of nonradiative energy transfer processes in luminescent lanthanide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacold, Joseph I.

    Luminescent materials play important roles in energy sciences, through solid state lighting and possible applications in solar energy utilization, and in biomedical research and applications, such as in immunoassays and fluorescence microscopy. The initial excitation of a luminescent material leads to a sequence of transitions between excited states, ideally ending with the emission of one or more optical-wavelength photons. It is essential to understand the microscopic physics of this excited state cascade in order to rationally design materials with high quantum efficiencies or with other fine-tuning of materials response. While optical-wavelength spectroscopies have unraveled many details of the energy transfer pathways in luminescent materials, significant questions remain open for many lanthanide-based luminescent materials. For organometallic dyes in particular, quantum yields remain limited in comparison with inorganic phosphors. This dissertation reports on a research program of synchrotron x-ray studies of the excited state electronic structure and energy-relaxation cascade in trivalent lanthanide phosphors and dyes. To this end, one of the primary results presented here is the first time-resolved x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy studies of the transient 4f excited states in lanthanide-activated luminescent dyes and phosphors. This is a new application of time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy that makes it possible to directly observe and, to some extent, quantify intramolecular nonradiative energy transfer processes. We find a transient increase in 4f spectral weight associated with an excited state confined to the 4f shell of trivalent Eu. This result implies that it is necessary to revise the current theoretical understanding of 4f excitation in trivalent lanthanide activators: either transient 4f-5d mixing effects are much stronger than previously considered, or else the lanthanide 4f excited state has an unexpectedly large contribution

  20. A luminescent Lanthanide-free MOF nanohybrid for highly sensitive ratiometric temperature sensing in physiological range.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Zhang, Denan; Zeng, Jin; Gan, Ning; Cuan, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Luminescent MOF materials with tunable emissions and energy/charge transfer processes have been extensively explored as ratiometric temperature sensors. However, most of the ratiometric MOF thermometers reported thus far are based on the MOFs containing photoactive lanthanides, which are potentially facing cost issue and serious supply shortage. Here, we present a ratiometric luminescent thermometer based on a dual-emitting lanthanide-free MOF hybrid, which is developed by encapsulation of a fluorescent dye into a robust nanocrystalline zirconium-based MOF through a one-pot synthesis approach. The structure and morphology of the hybrid product was characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore confinement effect well isolates the guest dye molecules and therefore suppresses the nonradiative energy transfer process between dye molecules. The incorporated dye emission is mainly sensitized by the organic linkers within MOF through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The ratiometric luminescence of the MOF hybrid shows a significant response to temperature due to the thermal-related back energy transfer process from dye molecules and organic linkers, thus can be exploited for self-calibrated temperature sensing. The maximum thermometric sensitivity is 1.19% °C -1 in the physiological temperature range, which is among the highest for the ratiomtric MOF thermometers that operating in 25-45°C. The temperature resolution is better than 0.1°C over the entire operative range (20-60°C). By integrating the advantages of excellent stability, nanoscale nature, and high sensitivity and precision in the physiological temperature range, this dye@MOF hybrid might have potential application in biomedical diagnosis. What' more, this work has expanded the possibility of non-lanthanide luminescent MOF materials for the development of ratiometric temperature sensors. Copyright © 2018

  1. Ab initio approaches for the determination of heavy element energetics: Ionization energies of trivalent lanthanides (Ln = La-Eu)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Charles; Penchoff, Deborah A.; Wilson, Angela K., E-mail: wilson@chemistry.msu.edu

    2015-11-21

    An effective approach for the determination of lanthanide energetics, as demonstrated by application to the third ionization energy (in the gas phase) for the first half of the lanthanide series, has been developed. This approach uses a combination of highly correlated and fully relativistic ab initio methods to accurately describe the electronic structure of heavy elements. Both scalar and fully relativistic methods are used to achieve an approach that is both computationally feasible and accurate. The impact of basis set choice and the number of electrons included in the correlation space has also been examined.

  2. Pushing the sensitivity envelope of lanthanide-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for molecular imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Aime, Silvio; Castelli, Daniela Delli; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Gianolio, Eliana; Terreno, Enzo

    2009-07-21

    Contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arises from changes in the intensity of the proton signal of water between voxels (essentially, the 3D counterpart of pixels). Differences in intervoxel intensity can be significantly enhanced with chemicals that alter the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) intensity of the imaged spins; this alteration can occur by various mechanisms. Paramagnetic lanthanide(III) complexes are used in two major classes of MRI contrast agent: the well-established class of Gd-based agents and the emerging class of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents. A Gd-based complex increases water signal by enhancing the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons, whereas CEST agents decrease water signal as a consequence of the transfer of saturated magnetization from the exchangeable protons of the agent. In this Account, we survey recent progress in both areas, focusing on how MRI is becoming a more competitive choice among the various molecular imaging methods. Compared with other imaging modalities, MRI is set apart by its superb anatomical resolution; however, its success in molecular imaging suffers because of its intrinsic insensitivity. A relatively high concentration of molecular agents (0.01-0.1 mM) is necessary to produce a local alteration in the water signal intensity. Unfortunately, the most desirable molecules for visualization in molecular imaging are present at much lower concentrations, in the nano- or picomolar range. Therefore, augmenting the sensitivity of MRI agents is key to the development of MR-based molecular imaging applications. In principle, this task can be tackled either by increasing the sensitivity of the reporting units, through the optimization of their structural and dynamic properties, or by setting up proper amplification strategies that allow the accumulation of a huge number of imaging reporters at the site of interest. For Gd-based agents, high sensitivities can be attained by exploiting a

  3. Activation barriers for series of exothermic homologous reactions. VI. Reactions of lanthanide and transition metal atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Alan S.; Fontijn, Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Semiempirical configuration interaction (SECI) theory to predict activation barriers, E, as given by k(T)=ATn exp(-E(RT), has been applied to homologous series of lanthanide (LN) and transition metal (TM) atom oxidation reactions. This was achieved by considering as homologous series reactions of elements differing only by the number of electrons in one subshell. Comparison between SECI and experimental results leads to an average deviation for the LN+N2O reactions of 0.66 kJ mol-1, and up to 5.5 kJ mol-1 for other series. Thirty-one activation barriers are reported.

  4. Lanthanide Organophosphate Spiro Polymers: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetocaloric Effect in the Gadolinium Polymer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Bhat, Gulzar A; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2017-08-07

    Spirocyclic lanthanide organophosphate polymers, {[Ln(dipp)(dippH)(CH 3 OH)(H 2 O) 2 ](CH 3 OH) 2 } n [Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3), Nd (4), Sm (5), Eu (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9), Ho (10), Er (11)], have been prepared from the reaction of Ln(NO 3 ) 3 ·xH 2 O with sterically hindered 2,6-diisopropylphenyl phosphate (dippH 2 ) using aqueous NaOH as the base. The one-dimensional chainlike lanthanide (III) organophosphate coordination polymers have been characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods. The single crystal structure determination of polymers (2-5 and 7-11) reveals that in these compounds the hydrophobic organic groups of the phosphate provide a protective coating for the inorganic lanthanide phosphate polymeric chain. The encapsulation of inorganic lanthanide phosphate core, which has very low solubility product, within the organic groups assists in the facile crystallization of the polymers. The di- and monoanionic organophosphate ligands dipp 2- and dippH - display [2.111] and [2.110] binding modes, respectively, in 2-5 and 7. However, they exhibit only [2.110] binding mode in the case of 8-11. This results in the formation of two different types of polymers. While the lighter rare-earth metal ions in 2-5 and 7 display eight coordinate biaugmented trigonal prismatic geometry, the heavier rare-earth metal ions in 9-11 exhibit a seven coordinate capped trigonal prismatic environment. The Tb(III) ion in 8 displays distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. Magnetic studies reveal the presence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Ln(III) ions through the organophosphate ligand. The isotropic Gd(III) polymer 7 exhibits a maximum entropy change of 17.83 J kg -1 K -1 for a field change of 7.0 T at 2.5 K, which is significant considering the high molecular weight of the organophosphate ligand. These polymers represent the first family of any structurally characterized rare-earth organophosphate polymers derived from monoesters

  5. NMR Spectroscopy Using a Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagent to Assess the Optical Purity of 1-Phenylethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Tito; Toland, Alan

    1995-10-01

    Enantiomeric forms of 1-phenylethylamine cannot be distinguished by 1H or 13C-NMR because the groups attached to the stereocenter are in an enantiopic environment. However, the chemical shifts of the protons in the groups attached to the stereocenter can be differentially altered to appear as distinct peaks in the NMR spectrum. This is accomplished by the use of a commercially available chiral lanthanide shift reagent, Yb(tfC)3. The NMR spectrum after the addition of a chiral shift reagent allows one to assess the optical purity of the sample.

  6. Thermodynamics properties of lanthanide series near melting point-A pseudopotential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthar, P. H.; Gajjar, P. N.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper deals with computational study of thermodynamics properties for fifteen elements of lanthanide series. The Helmholtz free energy (F), Internal energy (E) and Entropy (S)have been computed using variational method based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov (GB) along with Percus-Yevick hard sphere reference system and Gajjar's model potential. The local field correction function proposed by Taylor is applied to introduce the exchange and correlation effects in the study of thermodynamics of these metals. The present results in comparison with available theoretical and experimental are found to be in good agreement and confirm the ability of the model potential.

  7. Multicolor Luminescence from Conjugates of Genetically Encoded Elastin-like Polymers and Terpyridine-Lanthanides

    DOE PAGES

    Ghosh, Koushik; Balog, Eva Rose M.; Kahn, Jennifer L.; ...

    2015-08-20

    Functional hybrid materials with optically active metal-ligand moieties embedded within a polymer matrix have a great potential in (bio)materials science, including applications in light-emitting diode devices. Here, we report a simple strategy to incorporate terpyridine derivatives into the side chains of elastin-like polymers (ELPs). The further binding of trivalent lanthanide ions with the terpyridine ligands generated an array of photoluminescence ranging from the visible to the near-infrared regions. Lastly, as thin films, these ELP-based optical materials also exhibited distinct morphologies that depend upon the temperature of the aqueous solutions from which the hybrid polymers were spin coated or drop cast.

  8. A multifunctional chemical sensor based on a three-dimensional lanthanide metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pei-Yao; Liao, Sheng-Yun; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2016-12-01

    A 3D lanthanide MOF with formula [Sm2(abtc)1.5(H2O)3(DMA)]·H2O·DMA (1) has been successfully synthesized via solvothermal method. Luminescence studies reveal that 1 exhibits dual functional detection benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde among different aromatic molecules. In addition, 1 displays a turn-on luminescence sensing with respect to ethanol among different alcohol molecules, which suggests that 1 is also a promising luminescent probe for high selective sensing of ethanol.

  9. Structural properties of liquid lanthanides using charge hard sphere reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakora, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Patel, H. P.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper Charge Hard Sphere (CHS) system is employed to investigate the structural properties like long wavelength limit S(0), isothermal compressibility (χT) and coordination number n for some liquid lanthanides viz.: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu. Our well established parameter free model potential is used to describe the electron-ion interaction alongwith sarkar et al. dielectric function. From the present results, it is seen that good agreement between present results and available experimental data have been achieved. At last, we establish the applicability of our parameter free model potential and CHS method to account such structural properties.

  10. Time-gated luminescence microscopy allowing direct visual inspection of lanthanide-stained microorganisms in background-free condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dayong; Piper, James A

    2011-03-15

    Application of standard immuno-fluorescence microscopy techniques for detection of rare-event microorganisms in dirty samples is severely limited by autofluorescence of nontarget organisms or other debris. Time-gated detection using gateable array detectors in combination with microsecond-lifetime luminescent bioprobes (usually lanthanide-based) is highly effective in suppression of (nanosecond-lifetime) autofluorescence background; however, the complexity and cost of the instrumentation is a major barrier to application of these techniques to routine diagnostics. We report a practical, low-cost implementation of time-gated luminescence detection in a standard epifluorescence microscope which has been modified to include a high-power pulsed UV light-emitting diode (LED) illumination source and a standard fast chopper inserted in the focal plane behind a microscope eyepiece. Synchronization of the pulsed illumination/gated detection cycle is driven from the clock signal from the chopper. To achieve time-gated luminescence intensities sufficient for direct visual observation, we use high cycle rates, up to 2.5 kHz, taking advantage of the fast switching capabilities of the LED source. We have demonstrated real-time direct-visual inspection of europium-labeled Giardia lamblia cysts in dirty samples and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in fruit juice concentrate. The signal-to-background ratio has been enhanced by a factor of 18 in time-gated mode. The availability of low-cost, robust time-gated microscopes will aid development of long-lifetime luminescence bioprobes and accelerate their application in routine laboratory diagnostics.

  11. Microwave-Mediated Synthesis of Bulky Lanthanide Porphyrin-Phthalocyanine Triple-Deckers: Electrochemical and Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Kühne, Irina A; Clair, Sylvain; Monnier, Valérie; Chendo, Christophe; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Powell, Annie K; Kadish, Karl M; Balaban, Teodor Silviu

    2017-05-01

    Five heteroleptic lanthanide porphyrin-bis-phthalocyanine triple-decker complexes with bulky peripheral groups were prepared via microwave-assisted synthesis and characterized in terms of their spectroscopic, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. These compounds, which were easily obtained under our preparative conditions, would normally not be accessible in large quantities using conventional synthetic methods, as a result of the low yield resulting from steric congestion of bulky groups on the periphery of the phthalocyanine and porphyrin ligands. The electrochemically investigated triple-decker derivatives undergo four reversible one-electron oxidations and three reversible one-electron reductions. The sites of oxidation and reduction were assigned on the basis of redox potentials and UV-vis spectral changes during electron-transfer processes monitored by thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry, in conjunction with assignments of electronic absorption bands of the neutral compounds. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on two derivatives containing Tb III and Dy III metal ions reveal the presence of ferromagnetic interactions, probably resulting from magnetic dipolar interactions. The Tb III derivative shows SMM behavior under an applied field of 0.1 T, where the direct and Orbach process can be determined, resulting in an energy barrier of U eff = 132.0 K. However, Cole-Cole plots reveal the presence of two relaxation processes, the second of which takes place at higher frequencies, with the data conforming to a 1/t ∝ T 7 relation, thus suggesting that it can be assigned to a Raman process. Attempts were made to form two-dimensional (2D) self-assembled networks on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface but were unsuccessful due to bulky peripheral groups on the two Pc macrocycles.

  12. Rapid separation of beryllium and lanthanide derivatives by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Lucke, Richard B.; Douglas, Matt

    2012-09-04

    Previous studies describe derivatization of metal ions followed by analysis using gas chromatography, usually on packed columns. In many of these studies, stable and volatile derivatives were formed using fluorinated β-diketonate reagents. This paper extends previous work by investigating separations of the derivatives on small-diameter capillary gas chromatography columns and exploring on-fiber, solid-phase microextraction derivatization techniques for beryllium. The β-diketonate used for these studies was 1,1,1,2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione. Derivatization of lanthanides also required addition of a neutral donor, dibutyl sulfoxide, in addition to 1,1,1,2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione. Unoptimized separations on a 100-μm i.d. capillary column proved capable of rapid separations (within 15 min) of lanthanidemore » derivatives that are adjacent to one another in the periodic table. Full-scan mass spectra were obtained from derivatives containing 5 ng of each lanthanide. Studies also developed a simple on-fiber solid-phase microextraction derivatization of beryllium. Beryllium could be analyzed in the presence of other alkali earth elements (Ba(II) and Sr(II)) without interference. Finally, extension of the general approach was demonstrated for several additional elements (i.e. Cu(II), Cr(III), and Ga(III)).« less

  13. Measurement of Magnetic Exchange in Asymmetric Lanthanide Dimetallics: Toward a Transferable Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Giansiracusa, Marcus J; Moreno-Pineda, Eufemio; Hussain, Riaz; Marx, Raphael; Martínez Prada, María; Neugebauer, Petr; Al-Badran, Susan; Collison, David; Tuna, Floriana; van Slageren, Joris; Carretta, Stefano; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Winpenny, Richard E P; Chilton, Nicholas F

    2018-02-21

    Magnetic exchange interactions within the asymmetric dimetallic compounds [hqH 2 ][Ln 2 (hq) 4 (NO 3 ) 3 ]·MeOH, (Ln = Er(III) and Yb(III), hqH = 8-hydroxyquinoline) have been directly probed with EPR spectroscopy and accurately modeled by spin Hamiltonian techniques. Exploitation of site selectivity via doping experiments in Y(III) and Lu(III) matrices yields simple EPR spectra corresponding to isolated Kramers doublets, allowing determination of the local magnetic properties of the individual sites within the dimetallic compounds. CASSCF-SO calculations and INS and far-IR measurements are all employed to further support the identification and modeling of the local electronic structure for each site. EPR spectra of the pure dimetallic compounds are highly featured and correspond to transitions within the lowest-lying exchange-coupled manifold, permitting determination of the highly anisotropic magnetic exchange between the lanthanide ions. We find a unique orientation for the exchange interaction, corresponding to a common elongated oxygen bridge for both isostructural analogs. This suggests a microscopic physical connection to the magnetic superexchange. These results are of fundamental importance for building and validating model microscopic Hamiltonians to understand the origins of magnetic interactions between lanthanides and how they may be controlled with chemistry.

  14. Photon parameters for gamma-rays sensing properties of some oxide of lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Shams A. M.; Sayyed, M. I.; Zaid, M. H. M.; Matori, K. A.

    2018-06-01

    In the present research work, the mass attenuation coefficients (μm) representing the interaction of gamma photons with some oxide of lanthanides (Lu2O3Yb2O3, Er2O3, Sm2O3, Dy2O3, Eu2O3, Nd2O3, Pr6O11, La2O3 and Ce2O3) were investigated using WinXCom software in the wide energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV. The calculated values of μm afterwards were used to evaluate some gamma rays sensing properties as effective atomic effective atomic numbers (Zeff), effective electron densities (Nel), half value layer (HVL) and mean free path (MFP). The computed data observes that, the Lu2O3 shown excellent γ-rays sensing response in the broad energy range. At the absorption edges of the high elements present in the lanthanide compounds, more than a single value of Zeff were found due to the non-uniform variation of μm. Comparisons with experiments wherever possible have been achieved for the calculated μm and Zeff values. The calculated properties are beneficial expanded use of designing in radiation shielding, gas sensors, glass coloring agent and in electronic sensing devices.

  15. Water molecule-enhanced CO{sub 2} insertion in lanthanide coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Liushan; Huang Xiaoyuan; Wang Ning

    2009-08-15

    Two new lanthanide coordination polymers H{sub 2}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}.[Eu{sup III}{sub 2}(L{sub 1}){sub 3}(L{sub 2})] (1, L{sub 1}=isophthalic acid dianion, L{sub 2}=formic acid anion) and [La{sup III}(2,5-PDC)(L{sub 2})](2, 2,5-PDC=2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate dianion) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions. It is of interest that the formic ligand (L{sub 2}) is not contained in the stating materials, but arises from the water molecule-enhanced CO{sub 2} insertion during the solvothermal process. Both of the two compounds exhibit complicated three dimensional sandwich-like frameworks. - Graphical abstract: Two new lanthanide coordination polymers involving water molecule-enhanced CO{sub 2} insertion resulting in the formation of formic anion and dimethylammonium cation weremore » synthesized under solvothermal conditions.« less

  16. Recent Advances in Inorganic Nanoparticle-Based NIR Luminescence Imaging: Semiconductor Nanoparticles and Lanthanide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dokyoon; Lee, Nohyun; Park, Yong Il; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2017-01-18

    Several types of nanoparticle-based imaging probes have been developed to replace conventional luminescent probes. For luminescence imaging, near-infrared (NIR) probes are useful in that they allow deep tissue penetration and high spatial resolution as a result of reduced light absorption/scattering and negligible autofluorescence in biological media. They rely on either an anti-Stokes or a Stokes shift process to generate luminescence. For example, transition metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles have been demonstrated as anti-Stokes shift-based agents that absorb NIR light through two- or three-photon absorption process and upconversion process, respectively. On the other hand, quantum dots (QDs) and lanthanide-doped nanoparticles that emit in NIR-II range (∼1000 to ∼1350 nm) were suggested as promising Stokes shift-based imaging agents. In this topical review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress in the development of inorganic nanoparticle-based luminescence imaging probes working in NIR range.

  17. Sensing temperature via downshifting emissions of lanthanide-doped metal oxides and salts. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2016-12-01

    Temperature is important because it has an effect on even the tiniest elements of daily life and is involved in a broad spectrum of human activities. That is why it is the most commonly measured physical quantity. Traditional temperature measurements encounter difficulties when used in some emerging technologies and environments, such as nanotechnology and biomedicine. The problem may be alleviated using optical techniques, one of which is luminescence thermometry. This paper reviews the state of luminescence thermometry and presents different temperature read-out schemes with an emphasis on those utilizing the downshifting emission of lanthanide-doped metal oxides and salts. The read-out schemes for temperature include those based on measurements of spectral characteristics of luminescence (band positions and shapes, emission intensity and ratio of emission intensities), and those based on measurements of the temporal behavior of luminescence (lifetimes and rise times). This review (with 140 references) gives the basics of the fundamental principles and theory that underlie the methods presented, and describes the methodology for the estimation of their performance. The major part of the text is devoted to those lanthanide-doped metal oxides and salts that are used as temperature probes, and to the comparison of their performance and characteristics.

  18. An Efficient Lanthanide-Dependent DNAzyme Cleaving 2'-5'-Linked RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-05-17

    RNA can form two types of linkage. In addition to the predominant 3'-5' linkage, 2'-5'-linked RNA is also important in biology, medicine, and prebiotic studies. Here, in vitro selection was used to isolate a DNAzyme that specifically cleaves 2'-5' RNA by using Ce(3+) as the metal cofactor, but leaves the 3'-5' counterpart intact. This Ce5 DNAzyme requires trivalent light lanthanide ions and shows a rate of 0.16 min(-1) in the presence of 10 μm Ce(3+) ; the activity decreases with heavier lanthanide ions. This is the fastest DNAzyme reported for this reaction, and it might enable applications in chemical biology. As a proof-of-concept, using this DNAzyme, the reactions between phosphorothioate-modified RNA and strongly thiophilic metals (Hg(2+) and Tl(3+) ) were studied as a function of pH. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lanthanide-Containing Polymer Microspheres by Multiple-Stage Dispersion Polymerization for Highly Multiplexed Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I.; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 µm and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of LnCl3 salts and excess acrylic acid or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, i.e., well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 106 – 108 chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles, and its detection by an anti-mouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr. PMID:19807075

  20. The Emergence of a Lanthanide-rich Kilonova Following the Merger of Two Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; González-Fernández, C.

    Here, we report the discovery and monitoring of the near-infrared counterpart (AT2017gfo) of a binary neutron-star merger event detected as a gravitational wave source by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo (GW170817) and as a short gamma-ray burst by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Integral SPI-ACS (GRB 170817A). The evolution of the transient light is consistent with predictions for the behavior of a "kilonova/macronova" powered by the radioactive decay of massive neutron-rich nuclides created via r-process nucleosynthesis in the neutron-star ejecta. In particular, evidence for this scenario is found from broad features seen in Hubble Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy, similar to those predicted for lanthanide-dominated ejecta, and the much slower evolution in the near-infraredmore » $${K}_{{\\rm{s}}}$$-band compared to the optical. This indicates that the late-time light is dominated by high-opacity lanthanide-rich ejecta, suggesting nucleosynthesis to the third r-process peak (atomic masses $$A\\approx 195$$). This discovery thus confirms that neutron-star mergers produce kilo-/macronovae and that they are at least a major—if not the dominant—site of rapid neutron capture nucleosynthesis in the universe.« less

  1. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Delplanque, Aleksandra; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Jaworski, Pawel; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Buckle, Malcolm; Nyk, Marcin; Nogues, Claude; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio) probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+) act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm) NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA) by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5) modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+) and the acceptor (Cy5) with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  2. Mixed monofunctional extractants for trivalent actinide/lanthanide separations: TALSPEAK-MME

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Aaron T.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    The basic features of an f-element extraction process based on a solvent composed of equimolar mixtures of Cyanex-923 (a mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) extractants in n-dodecane are investigated in this report. This system, which combines features of the TRPO and TALSPEAK processes, is based on co-extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 0.1 to 1.0 M HNO 3 followed by application of a buffered aminopolycarboxylate solution strip to accomplish a Reverse TALSPEAK selective removal of actinides. This mixed-extractant medium could enable a simplified approach to selective trivalent f-element extraction and actinide partitioning in amore » single process. As compared with other combined process applications in development for more compact actinide partitioning processes (DIAMEX-SANEX, GANEX, TRUSPEAK, ALSEP), this combination features only monofunctional extractants with high solubility limits and comparatively low molar mass. Selective actinide stripping from the loaded extractant phase is done using a glycine-buffered solution containing N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid (TTHA). Lastly, the results reported provide evidence for simplified interactions between the two extractants and demonstrate a pathway toward using mixed monofunctional extractants to separate trivalent actinides (An) from fission product lanthanides (Ln).« less

  3. The Emergence of a Lanthanide-rich Kilonova Following the Merger of Two Neutron Stars

    DOE PAGES

    Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; González-Fernández, C.; ...

    2017-10-16

    Here, we report the discovery and monitoring of the near-infrared counterpart (AT2017gfo) of a binary neutron-star merger event detected as a gravitational wave source by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo (GW170817) and as a short gamma-ray burst by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Integral SPI-ACS (GRB 170817A). The evolution of the transient light is consistent with predictions for the behavior of a "kilonova/macronova" powered by the radioactive decay of massive neutron-rich nuclides created via r-process nucleosynthesis in the neutron-star ejecta. In particular, evidence for this scenario is found from broad features seen in Hubble Space Telescope infrared spectroscopy, similar to those predicted for lanthanide-dominated ejecta, and the much slower evolution in the near-infraredmore » $${K}_{{\\rm{s}}}$$-band compared to the optical. This indicates that the late-time light is dominated by high-opacity lanthanide-rich ejecta, suggesting nucleosynthesis to the third r-process peak (atomic masses $$A\\approx 195$$). This discovery thus confirms that neutron-star mergers produce kilo-/macronovae and that they are at least a major—if not the dominant—site of rapid neutron capture nucleosynthesis in the universe.« less

  4. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Inorganic Materials: Encapsulating Guest Lanthanide Oxides in Chiral Silica Hosts.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masumi; Liu, Xin-Ling; Tsunega, Seiji; Nakajima, Erika; Abe, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Takuya; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Jin, Ren-Hua

    2018-05-02

    Recently, circularly polarized luminescence (CPL)-active systems have become a very hot and interesting subject in chirality- and optics-related areas. The CPL-active systems are usually available by two approaches: covalently combining a luminescent centre to chiral motif or associating the guest of luminescent probe to a chiral host. However, all the chiral components in CPL materials were organic, although the luminescent components were alternatively organics or inorganics. Herein, the first totally inorganic CPL-active system by "luminescent guest-chiral host" strategy is proposed. Luminescent sub-10 nm lanthanide oxides (Eu 2 O 3 or Tb 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles (guests) were encapsulated into chiral non-helical SiO 2 nanofibres (host) through calcination of chiral SiO 2 hybrid nanofibres, trapping Eu 3+ (or Tb 3+ ). These lanthanide oxides display circular dichroism (CD) optical activity in the ultraviolet wavelength and CPL signals around at 615 nm for Eu 3+ and 545 nm for Tb 3+ . This work has implications for inorganic-based CPL-active systems by incorporation of various luminescent guests within chiral inorganic hosts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Recent advances in enhanced luminescence upconversion of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Verma, Kartikey; Verma, Shefali; Chaudhary, Babulal; Som, Sudipta; Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    NaYF4 is regarded as the best upconversion (UC) matrix owing to its low phonon energy, more chemical stability, and a superior refractive index. This review reports on the various synthesis techniques of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 phosphors for UC application. The UC intensity depends on different properties of the matrix and those are discussed in detail. Plasmon-enhanced luminescence UC of the lanthanide-doped NaYF4 core-shells structure is discussed based on a literature survey. The present review provides the information about how the UC intensity can be enhanced. The idea about the UC is then deliberately used for versatile applications such as luminescent materials, display devices, biomedical imaging and different security appliances. In addition, the present review demonstrates the recent trends of NaYF4 UC materials in solar cell devices. The role of NaYF4 phosphor to eradicate the spectral variance among the incident solar spectrum, semiconductor as well as the sub-band gap nature of the semiconductor materials is also discussed in detail. Considering the fact that the research status on NaYF4 phosphor for photovoltaic application is now growing, the present review is therefore very important to the researchers. More importantly, this may promote more interesting research platforms to investigate the realistic use of UC nanophosphors as spectral converters for solar cells.

  6. Snynthesis and magnetization of BaLn2O4 (Ln = lanthanide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Matthew

    The BaLn2O4 family has been synthesized successfully as single crystals by the flux-growth method. The phases crystallize in the CaV2O4 structure prototype in space group Pnma (# 62). The structure has been studied using single-crystal x-ray diffraction, and stoichiometry confirmed with EDS, and the unit cell parameters and atomic positions have been determined for the whole lanthanide series (with the exception of the Lu compound). The effects of the lanthanide ionic radius on the atomic positions in the unit cell has been studied in terms of fractional atomic coordinates, bond lengths and angles, and bond valence sums. Magnetic measurements have been performed on the series with the exception of the La, Eu, and Lu members in the form of susceptibility versus temperature. The crystals all show signs of geometric antiferromagnetic frustration with the Neel temperatures significantly below the temperature predicted by the Weiss constant. Additionally some members of the family, namely BaCe2O4, BaNd2O4, BaPr 2O4, BaSm2O4, BaTb2O 4, and BaYb2O4 show significant crystal field splitting, that causes deviation from Currie-Weiss behavior.

  7. Photofunctional hybrids of lanthanide functionalized bio-MOF-1 for fluorescence tuning and sensing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang; Yan, Bing

    2015-08-01

    A series of luminescent Ln(3+)@bio-MOF-1 (Ln=Eu, Tb, bio-MOF-1=Zn8(ad)4(BPDC)6O⋅2Me2NH2 (ad=adeninate, BPDC=biphenyldicarboxylate)) are synthesized via postsynthetic cation exchange by encapsulating lanthanide ions into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF), and their photophysical properties are studied. After loading 2-thenoyltrifluroacetone (TTA) as sensitized ligand by a gas diffusion ("ship-in-bottle") method, it is found that the luminescent intensity of Eu(3+) is enhanced. Especially, when loading two different lanthanide cations into bio-MOF-1, the luminescent color can be tuned to close white (light pink) light output. Additionally, bio-MOF-1 and Eu(3+)@bio-MOF-1 are selected as representative samples for sensing metal ions. When bio-MOF-1 is immersed in the aqueous solutions of different metal ions, it shows highly sensitive sensing for Fe(3+) as well as Eu(3+)@bio-MOF-1 immersed in the DMF solutions of different metal ion. The results are benefit for the further application of functionalized bio-MOFs in practical fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixed monofunctional extractants for trivalent actinide/lanthanide separations: TALSPEAK-MME

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Aaron T.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2015-08-20

    The basic features of an f-element extraction process based on a solvent composed of equimolar mixtures of Cyanex-923 (a mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) extractants in n-dodecane are investigated in this report. This system, which combines features of the TRPO and TALSPEAK processes, is based on co-extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 0.1 to 1.0 M HNO 3 followed by application of a buffered aminopolycarboxylate solution strip to accomplish a Reverse TALSPEAK selective removal of actinides. This mixed-extractant medium could enable a simplified approach to selective trivalent f-element extraction and actinide partitioning in amore » single process. As compared with other combined process applications in development for more compact actinide partitioning processes (DIAMEX-SANEX, GANEX, TRUSPEAK, ALSEP), this combination features only monofunctional extractants with high solubility limits and comparatively low molar mass. Selective actinide stripping from the loaded extractant phase is done using a glycine-buffered solution containing N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid (TTHA). Lastly, the results reported provide evidence for simplified interactions between the two extractants and demonstrate a pathway toward using mixed monofunctional extractants to separate trivalent actinides (An) from fission product lanthanides (Ln).« less

  9. High Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Cancers Using Lanthanide Ion-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Naccache, Rafik; Rodríguez, Emma Martín; Bogdan, Nicoleta; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; de la Cruz, Maria del Carmen Iglesias; de la Fuente, Ángeles Juarranz; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Jaque, Daniel; Solé, José García; Capobianco, John A.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade inorganic luminescent nanoparticles that emit visible light under near infrared (NIR) excitation (in the biological window) have played a relevant role for high resolution imaging of cancer. Indeed, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoparticles, mostly gold nanorods (GNRs), are already commercially available for this purpose. In this work we review the role which is being played by a relatively new class of nanoparticles, based on lanthanide ion doped nanocrystals, to target and image cancer cells using upconversion fluorescence microscopy. These nanoparticles are insulating nanocrystals that are usually doped with small percentages of two different rare earth (lanthanide) ions: The excited donor ions (usually Yb3+ ion) that absorb the NIR excitation and the acceptor ions (usually Er3+, Ho3+ or Tm3+), that are responsible for the emitted visible (or also near infrared) radiation. The higher conversion efficiency of these nanoparticles in respect to those based on QDs and GNRs, as well as the almost independent excitation/emission properties from the particle size, make them particularly promising for fluorescence imaging. The different approaches of these novel nanoparticles devoted to “in vitro” and “in vivo” cancer imaging, selective targeting and treatment are examined in this review. PMID:24213500

  10. Analysis of Performance of Selected AFC, ATF Fuels, and Lanthanide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2015-09-29

    We started to look at the performance of ATF concept in LWRs late in FY14 and finish our studies in FY15. The work has been presented in AFC review meetings, ICAPP and TOPFUEL conferences. The final version of the work is accepted for publication in Nuclear Engineering and Science Journal (NES). The copy of ICAPP and NES papers are attached separately to this document as our milestone deliverables. We made an important progress in the modeling of lanthanide transport in FY15. This work produced an ANS Winter Meeting paper and GLOBAL 2015 paper. GLOBAL 2015 paper is also attached asmore » deliverable of FY15. The work on the lanthanide transport is preliminary. We are exploring other potential mechanisms, in addition to “liquid-like” diffusion mechanisms, proposed by Robert Mariani [1] before we analyze data that will be taken by Ohio State University. This year, we concentrate on developing diffusion kernels and principles of modeling. Next year, this work will continue and analyze the Ohio State data and develop approaches to solve multicomponent diffusion. In addition to three papers we attached to this report, we have done some research on coupling and the development of gas release model for metallic fuels in FY15. They are also preliminary in nature; therefore, we give the summary of what we found rather than an extended report that will be done in FY16.« less

  11. Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Urine through Sensitized Lanthanide Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Subhankar; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine. Although ciprofloxacin itself shows inherent fluorescence, direct fluorescent detection of ciprofloxacin in raw urine sample is difficult due to autofluorescence of urine by other components. Herein we report that a Tb(III) complex of DO3A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) can be efficiently sensitized by ciprofloxacin to emit luminescence separately from the urine autofluorescence wavelength region. Tb-DO3A shows excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of three parts per billion in aqueous buffer solution. Further, Tb-DO3A is used to detect ciprofloxacin with high sensitivity and selectivity in a raw urine sample without any purification or separation procedures in the concentrations ranging from 1 µg·mL−1 to 50 µg·mL−1. The direct measurement of ciprofloxacin excreted in urine may be used to control overdose of the drug. PMID:27929396

  12. Superprotonic conduction through one-dimensional ordered alkali metal ion chains in a lanthanide-organic framework

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xia; Wang, Yanlong; Silver, Mark A.; ...

    2018-01-01

    An ultrahigh proton conductivity of 2.91 × 10 −2 S cm −1 and an ultralow activation energy of 0.10 eV were observed in an anionic lanthanide-organic framework. Both values approach the records for proton-conducting MOF materials.

  13. A General Model of Sensitized Luminescence in Lanthanide-Based Coordination Polymers and Metal-Organic Framework Materials.

    PubMed

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D; Clark, Jessica M; Paulive, Alec; Tanner, Garrett P; de Lill, Daniel T

    2017-05-15

    Luminescent lanthanides containing coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks hold great potential in many applications due to their distinctive spectroscopic properties. While the ability to design coordination polymers for specific functions is often mentioned as a major benefit bestowed on these compounds, the lack of a meaningful understanding of the luminescence in lanthanide coordination polymers remains a significant challenge toward functional design. Currently, the study of these compounds is based on the antenna effect as derived from molecular systems, where organic antennae are used to facilitate lanthanide-centered luminescence. This molecular-based approach does not take into account the unique features of extended network solids, particularly the formation of band structure. While guidelines for the antenna effect are well established, they require modification before being applied to coordination polymers. A series of nine coordination polymers with varying topologies and organic linkers were studied to investigate the accuracy of the antenna effect in coordination polymer systems. By comparing a molecular-based approach to a band-based one, it was determined that the band structure that occurs in aggregated organic solids needs to be considered when evaluating the luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers.

  14. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Bentlin, Fabrina R S; dos Santos, Clarissa M M; Flores, Erico M M; Pozebon, Dirce

    2012-01-13

    This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 μL of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L(-1), respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonlinear optical properties and excited state dynamics of sandwich-type mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) triple-decker complexes: Effect of rare earth atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongguo; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Zhengguo; Wu, Xingzhi; Zuo, Jinglin; Song, Yinglin

    2018-07-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of two di-lanthanide (Ln = Tb and Dy) sandwich complexes with mixed phthalocyanine and Schiff-base ligands were studied using Z-scan technique at 532 nm with 20 ps and 4 ns pulses. Both complexes exhibit reverse saturable absorption and self-focusing effect in ps regime, while the second-order hyperpolarizability decreases from Dy to Tb. Interestingly, the Tb triple-decker complexes show larger nonlinear absorption than Dy complexes on ns timescale. The time-resolved pump-probe measurements demonstrate that the nonlinear optical response was caused by excited-state mechanism related to the five-level model, while the singlet state lifetime of Dy complexes is 3 times shorter than that of Tb complexes. Our results indicate the lanthanide ions play a critical role in the photo-physical properties of triple-decker phthalocyanine complexes for their application as optical limiting materials.

  16. A new series of lanthanide coordination polymers with 2,2‧-bipyridine and glutaric acid: Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of [Ln(bipy)(glut)(NO3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunguang; Xing, Yongheng; Li, Zhangpeng; Li, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Ge, Maofa; Niu, Shuyun

    2009-08-01

    A series of new lanthanide coordination polymers, with the formula [Ln(bipy)(glut)(NO 3)] (Ln = Eu ( 1), Tb ( 2), Sm ( 3), Pr ( 4); bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; H 2glut = glutaric acid), have been synthesized under the hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses reveal that all four complexes are isostructural and crystallized in monoclinic system, P2 1/ c space group. For these complexes, the Ln 3+ are all linked through glutaric acid ligands to form 1D chain-like polymeric structures, and bipy and NO3- are coordinated on two sides of the chains. The thermogravimetric analysis of 1 and photoluminescent properties of 1 and 2 are discussed in detail.

  17. Probing the Influence of Disorder on Lanthanide Luminescence Using Eu-Doped LaPO4 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanocrystals (NCs) differ from their bulk counterparts due to their large surface to volume ratio. It is generally assumed that the optical properties are not affected by size effects as electronic transitions occur within the well-shielded 4f shell of the lanthanide dopant ions. However, defects and disorder in the surface layer can affect the luminescence properties. Trivalent europium is a suitable ion to investigate the subtle influence of the surface, because of its characteristic luminescence and high sensitivity to the local environment. Here, we investigate the influence of disorder in NCs on the optical properties of lanthanide dopants by studying the inhomogeneous linewidth, emission intensity ratios, and luminescence decay curves for LaPO4:Eu3+ samples of different sizes (4 nm to bulk) and core–shell configurations (core, core–isocrystalline shell, and core–silica shell). We show that the emission linewidths increase strongly for NCs. The ratio of the intensities of the forced electric dipole (ED) and magnetic dipole (MD) transitions, a measure for the local symmetry distortion around Eu3+ ions, is higher for samples with a large fraction of Eu3+ ions close to the surface. Finally, we present luminescence decay curves revealing an increased nonradiative decay rate for Eu3+ in NCs. The effects are strongest in core and core–silica shell NCs and can be reduced by growth of an isocrystalline LaPO4 shell. The present systematic study provides quantitative insight into the role of surface disorder on the optical properties of lanthanide-doped NCs. These insights are important in emerging applications of lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. PMID:28919934

  18. Role of 4 f electrons in crystallographic and magnetic complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, Durga; Mudryk, Yaroslav

    2017-08-09

    Here, the functionality of many magnetic materials critically depends on first manipulating and then taking advantage of highly nonlinear changes of properties that occur during phase transformations. Unique to lanthanides, property-defining 4f electrons are highly localized and, as commonly accepted, play little to no role in chemical bonding. Yet here we demonstrate that the competition between 4f-electron energy landscapes of Dy (4f 9) and Er (4f 11) is the key element of the puzzle required to explain complex interplay of magnetic and structural features observed in Er 1–xDy xCo 2, and likely many other mixed lanthanide systems. Unlike the parentmore » binaries—DyCo 2 and ErCo 2—Er 1–xDy xCo 2 exhibits two successive magnetostructural transitions: a first order at TC, followed by a second order in the ferrimagnetically ordered state. Supported by first-principles calculations, our results offer new opportunities for targeted design of magnetic materials with multiple functionalities, and also provide a critical insight into the role of 4f electrons in controlling the magnetism and structure of lanthanide intermetallics.« less

  19. A Systematic Study on the Generation of Multimetallic Lanthanide Fullerene ions by Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiyun; Ma, LiFu; Mu, Lei; Ren, Juan; Kong, Xianglei

    2018-06-01

    Laser ablation masss spectromety has been previously proved to be a powerful tool for studying endohedro metallofullerene (EMF) ions. Our previous study showed the possiblity of forming multi-metallofullerene ions containg more than six metal atoms for La, Y and Lu. Thus, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the generation of multi-metallofullerenes and their distribuitons for all lanthanide elements. Experiments were performed on a 7.0 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometer. Laser ablation mass spectra were obtained by laser irradiation on mixtures of graphene and MCl 3 on a stainless steel plate, applying a 355 nm Nd: YAG laser with a typical energy of 2.5 mJ/pulse. Reaction test experiments were performed by introducing O 2 into the FT ICR cell with a pulse valve. Multi-metallofullerene ions Ce2-4C2m+, Pr2-4C2m+, Gd2-4C2m+, Nd3C2m+, Dy2-3C2m+, Tb2-7C2m+, Ho2-6C2m+ were observed in the mass spectra. For metal Sm and Eu, no multi-metallofullerene ion was observed. No reaction with O 2 was observed in the reaction experiments, verifying that these species had endohedral structures. For the observed series of multi-metallofullerene ions, tri-metallofullerene ions dominated their mass spectra. The results were further compared with previously generated EMF ions for La, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu. Endohedral lanthanide metallofullerene ions were generated by laser ablation of graphene and the corresponding metal salts MCl 3 (M = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho) and studied with a FT ICR mass spectrometer. Typically, multi-metallofullerene ions of TbnC2m+2≤n≤780≤2m≤176, Ho6C2m+2≤n≤674≤2m≤162 were observed. The results show that the formation of multi-EMF ions containing lanthanides that have +3 and +4 oxidation states is easier than those containing +2 oxidation states in the process of laser ablation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Luminescence of europium (III) complexes for visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Pozharov, Mikhail V.; Korolovich, Vladimir F.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Kirdyanova, Anna N.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.; Zakharova, Tamara V.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.

    2016-04-01

    With the purpose to develop bright non-toxic luminescent label for theranostic application we have studied complexation of lanthanide dipicolinates (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylates) by sodium alginate and effect of thermal exposure of synthesized micro-capsules on their luminescent properties. Synthesized micro-capsules are stable in acidic medium but dissolve at pH ~ 4 due to transformation of cationic europium dipicolinate complex to anionic. Luminescence studies have shown that emission spectra of europium(III)-alginate complexes (both chloride and dipicolinate) contain two intensive bands characteristic to Eu3+ ion (5D0 --> 7F1 (590 nm) and 5D0 --> 7F1 (612 nm)). We have also found that at 160ºC europium(III)- alginate micro-capsules decompose to black, soot-like substance, therefore, their thermal treatment must be performed in closed environment (i.e., sealed ampoules).

  1. Influence of deformed surface diffuseness on alpha decay half-lives of actinides and lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmardeh, S.; Alavi, S. A.; Dehghani, V.

    2017-07-01

    By using semiclassical WKB method and taking into account the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition, the alpha decay half-lives of some deformed lanthanide (with 151 ≤ A ≤ 160 and 66 ≤ Z ≤ 73) and rare-earth nuclei (with 217 ≤ A ≤ 261 and 92 ≤ Z ≤ 104) have been calculated. The effective potential has been considered as sum of deformed Woods-Saxon nuclear potential, deformed Coulomb potential, and centrifugal potential. The influence of deformed surface diffuseness on the potential barrier, transmission coefficient at each angle, assault frequency, and alpha decay half-lives has been investigated. Good agreement between calculated half-lives with deformed surface diffuseness and experiment is observed. Relative differences between calculated half-lives with deformed surface diffuseness and with constant surface diffuseness were significant.

  2. Lanthanide-labeled clay: A new method for tracing sediment transport in Karst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Bennett, P.C.; Zimmerman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mobile sediment is a fundamental yet poorly characterized aspect of mass transport through karst aquifers. Here the development and field testing of an extremely sensitive particle tracer that may be used to characterize sediment transport in karst aquifers is described. The tracer consists of micron-size montmorillonite particles homoionized to the lanthanide form; after injection and retrieval from a ground water system, the lanthanide ions are chemically stripped from the clay and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The tracer meets the following desired criteria: low detection limit; a number of differentiable signatures; inexpensive production and quantification using standard methods; no environmental risks; and hydrodynamic properties similar to the in situ sediment it is designed to trace. The tracer was tested in laboratory batch experiments and field tested in both surface water and ground water systems. In surface water, arrival times of the tracer were similar to those of a conservative water tracer, although a significant amount of material was lost due to settling. Two tracer tests were undertaken in a karst aquifer under different flow conditions. Under normal flow conditions, the time of arrival and peak concentration of the tracer were similar to or preceded that of a conservative water tracer. Under low flow conditions, the particle tracer was not detected, suggesting that in low flow the sediment settles out of suspension and goes into storage.Mobile sediment is a fundamental yet poorly characterized aspect of mass transport through karst aquifers. Here the development and field testing of an extremely sensitive particle tracer that may be used to characterize sediment transport in karst aquifers is described. The tracer consists of micron-size montmorillonite particles homoionized to the lanthanide form; after injection and retrieval from a ground water system, the lanthanide ions are chemically stripped from the clay and

  3. Thermal NF3 fluorination/oxidation of cobalt, yttrium, zirconium, and selected lanthanide oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of our continuing investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as a fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by exploiting the different volatilities of the constituent fission product and actinide fluorides. This article focuses on fission products that do not have volatile fluorides or oxyfluorides at expected operations temperatures. Our thermodynamic calculations show that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to completely fluorinate fission product oxides to their fluorides. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show that the oxides of cobalt, zirconium, and the lanthanides are fluorinated but do not formmore » volatile fluorides when treated with nitrogen trifluoride at temperatures up to 550°C. Our studies of gadolinium-doped commercial nuclear fuel indicate that nitrogen trifluoride can extract uranium from the non-volatile gadolinium.« less

  4. PIXE analysis of tumors and localization behavior of a lanthanide in nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pei-Jiun; Yang, Czau-Siung; Chou, Ming-Ji; Wei, Chau-Chin; Hsu, Chu-Chung; Wang, Chia-Yu

    1984-04-01

    We have used particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analyze the elemental compositions and uptakes of a lanthanide, yttrium in this report, in tumors and normal tissues of nude mice. A small amount of yttrium nitrate was injected into nude mice with tumors. Samples of normal and malignant tissues taken from these mice were bombarded by the 2 MeV proton beam from a 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a Ge detector system to determine the relative elemental compositions of tissues and the relative concentrations of yttrium taken up by these tissues. We found that the uptakes of yttrium by tumors were at least five times more than those by normal tissues. Substantial differences were often observed between the trace element weight (or concentration) pattern of the cancerous and normal tissues. The present result is compared with human tissues.

  5. Record high magnetic ordering temperature in a lanthanide at extreme pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; ...

    2017-11-07

    Today's best permanent magnet materials, SmCo 5 and Nd 2Fe 14B, could likely be made signi fi cantly more powerful were it not necessary to dilute the strong magnetism of the rare earth ions (Sm, Nd) with the 3 d transition elements (Fe, Co). Since the rare-earth metals order magnetically at relatively low temperatures T o <= 292 K, transition elements must be added to bring T o to temperatures well above ambient. Under pressure T o (P) for the neighboring lanthanides Gd, Tb, and Dy follows a notably nonmonotonic, but nearly identical, dependence to similar to 60 GPa. Atmore » higher pressures, however, Tb and Dy exhibit highly anomalous behavior, T o for Dy soaring to temperatures well above ambient. In conclusion, we suggest that this anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature is an heretofore unrecognized feature of the Kondo lattice state.« less

  6. Review Article: Overview of lanthanide pnictide films and nanoparticles epitaxially incorporated into III-V semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Bomberger, Cory C.; Lewis, Matthew R.; Vanderhoef, Laura R.; ...

    2017-03-30

    The incorporation of lanthanide pnictide nanoparticles and films into III-V matrices allows for semiconductor composites with a wide range of potential optical, electrical, and thermal properties, making them useful for applications in thermoelectrics, tunnel junctions, phototconductive switches, and as contact layers. The similarities in crystal structures and lattice constants allow them to be epitaxially incorporated into III-V semiconductors with low defect densities and high overall film quality. A variety of growth techniques for these composites with be discussed, along with their growth mechanisms and current applications, with a focus on more recent developments. Results obtained from molecular beam epitaxy filmmore » growth will be highlighted, although other growth techniques will be mentioned. Optical and electronic characterization along with the microscopy analysis of these composites is presented to demonstrate influence of nanoinclusion composition and morphology on the resulting properties of the composite material.« less

  7. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Aluminum Oxides Observed by Fast Pulse CV Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Lu, Qifeng; Yan, Xiaoyi; Taylor, Stephen; Chalker, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Oxide materials with large dielectric constants (so-called high-k dielectrics) have attracted much attention due to their potential use as gate dielectrics in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). A novel characterization (pulse capacitance-voltage) method was proposed in detail. The pulse capacitance-voltage technique was employed to characterize oxide traps of high-k dielectrics based on the Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure. The variation of flat-band voltages of the MOS structure was observed and discussed accordingly. Some interesting trapping/detrapping results related to the lanthanide aluminum oxide traps were identified for possible application in Flash memory technology. After understanding the trapping/detrapping mechanism of the high-k oxides, a solid foundation was prepared for further exploration into charge-trapping non-volatile memory in the future. PMID:28788225

  8. Paramagnetic Nanocrystals: Remarkable Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles with Varied Shape, Size, and Composition.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Rebecca J; Aharen, Tomoko; Murugesu, Muralee

    2012-12-20

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been developed in recent years with applications in unique and crucial areas such as biomedicine, data storage, environmental remediation, catalysis, and so forth. NaYF4 nanoparticles were synthesized and isolated with lanthanide dopant percentages, confirmed by ICP-OES measurements, of Er, Yb, Tb, Gd, and Dy that were in agreement with the targeted ratios. SEM images showed a distinct variation in particle size and shape with dopant type and percentage. HRTEM and XRD studies confirmed the particles to be crystalline, possessing both α and β phases. Magnetic measurements determined that all of the nanoparticles were paramagnetic and did not exhibit a blocking temperature from 2 to 300 K. The multifunctional properties of these nanoparticles make them suitable for many applications, such as multimodal imaging probes, up-conversion fluorescent markers, as well as MRI contrast agents.

  9. Record high magnetic ordering temperature in a lanthanide at extreme pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.

    Today's best permanent magnet materials, SmCo 5 and Nd 2Fe 14B, could likely be made signi fi cantly more powerful were it not necessary to dilute the strong magnetism of the rare earth ions (Sm, Nd) with the 3 d transition elements (Fe, Co). Since the rare-earth metals order magnetically at relatively low temperatures T o <= 292 K, transition elements must be added to bring T o to temperatures well above ambient. Under pressure T o (P) for the neighboring lanthanides Gd, Tb, and Dy follows a notably nonmonotonic, but nearly identical, dependence to similar to 60 GPa. Atmore » higher pressures, however, Tb and Dy exhibit highly anomalous behavior, T o for Dy soaring to temperatures well above ambient. In conclusion, we suggest that this anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature is an heretofore unrecognized feature of the Kondo lattice state.« less

  10. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in biological imaging and photovoltaics. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb3+) , and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er3+ states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increases the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14 fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared, and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong columbic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  11. Structure factor and radial distribution function of some liquid lanthanides using charged hard sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2017-05-01

    The structure factor S(q) and radial distribution function g(r) play vital role to study the various structural properties like electronic, dynamic, magnetic etc. The present paper deals with the structural studies of foresaid properties using our newly constructed parameter free model potential with the Charged Hard Sphere (CHS) approximation. The local field correction due to Sarkar et al. is used to incorporate exchange and correlation among the conduction electrons in dielectric screening. Here we report the S(q) and g(r) for some liquid lanthanides viz: La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Eu. Present computed results are compared with the available experimental data. Lastly we found that our parameter free model potential successfully explains the structural propertiesof4fliquidlanthanides.

  12. Review Article: Overview of lanthanide pnictide films and nanoparticles epitaxially incorporated into III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bomberger, Cory C.; Lewis, Matthew R.; Vanderhoef, Laura R.

    The incorporation of lanthanide pnictide nanoparticles and films into III-V matrices allows for semiconductor composites with a wide range of potential optical, electrical, and thermal properties, making them useful for applications in thermoelectrics, tunnel junctions, phototconductive switches, and as contact layers. The similarities in crystal structures and lattice constants allow them to be epitaxially incorporated into III-V semiconductors with low defect densities and high overall film quality. A variety of growth techniques for these composites with be discussed, along with their growth mechanisms and current applications, with a focus on more recent developments. Results obtained from molecular beam epitaxy filmmore » growth will be highlighted, although other growth techniques will be mentioned. Optical and electronic characterization along with the microscopy analysis of these composites is presented to demonstrate influence of nanoinclusion composition and morphology on the resulting properties of the composite material.« less

  13. Combining CMPO and HEH[EHP] for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2013-09-05

    Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) into a single process solvent for separating transuranic elements from liquid high-level waste is explored. The lanthanides and americium can be co-extracted from HNO3 into 0.2 mol/L CMPO + 1.0 mol/L HEH[EHP] in n-dodecane. The extraction is relatively insensitive to the HNO3 concentration within 0.1 to 5 mol/L HNO3. Americium can be selectively stripped from the CMPO/HEH[EHP] solvent into a citrate-buffered N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid solution . Separation factors >14 can be achieved in the range pH 2.5 to 3.7, and the separation factors are relatively insensitive to pH, a major advantagemore » of this solvent formulation.« less

  14. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Viviane P; Oliveira, Cristiane K; de Souza, Thiago M; Menezes, Paulo H; Alves, Severino; Longo, Ricardo L; Malvestiti, Ivani

    2016-11-16

    Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  15. Ordered microporous layered lanthanide 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates pillared with cationic organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takahiro; Kondo, Atsushi; Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-13

    Novel isomorphous pillared-layer-type crystalline lanthanide 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates were prepared with bpy and dbo as organic pillars (LnBP-bpy and LnBP-dbo; Ln: Ce, Pr, and Nd). Ab initio crystal structure solution using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the organic pillars do not exist as neutral coordinating ligands but as cationic molecules. Especially the LnBP-dbo phases have ordered interlayer space filled with water molecules between the dbo pillars, and the interlayer water is successfully removed by heating under vacuum with slightly distorted but basically retained pillared layer structures. Microporosity of the materials is confirmed by adsorption of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gases. Such microporous layered metal phosphonates pillared with cationic molecules should be unprecedented and should offer new strategies to design ordered microporous materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Active caspase-1 induces plasma membrane pores that precede pyroptotic lysis and are blocked by lanthanides#

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Hana M.; Rathkey, Joseph; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Katsnelson, Michael A.; Abbott, Derek W.; Dubyak, George R.

    2016-01-01

    Canonical inflammasome activation induces a caspase-1/gasdermin D (Gsdmd) dependent lytic cell death called pyroptosis which promotes anti-microbial host defense but may contribute to sepsis. The nature of the caspase-1-dependent change in plasma membrane (PM) permeability during pyroptotic progression remains incompletely defined. We assayed propidium2+ (Pro2+) influx kinetics during NLRP3 or Pyrin inflammasome activation in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as an indicator of this PM permeabilization. BMDM were characterized by rapid Pro2+ influx after initiation of NLRP3 or Pyrin inflammasomes by nigericin or C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), respectively. No Pro2+ uptake in response to nigericin or TcdB was observed in Caspase-1−/− or ASC−/− BMDM. The cytoprotectant glycine profoundly suppressed nigericin and TcdB-induced lysis but not Pro2+ influx. The absence of Gsdmd expression resulted in suppression of nigericin-stimulated Pro2+ influx and pyroptotic lysis. Extracellular La3+ and Gd3+ rapidly and reversibly blocked the induced Pro2+ influx and markedly delayed pyroptotic lysis without limiting upstream inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activation. Thus, caspase-1 driven pyroptosis requires induction of initial pre-lytic pores in the PM that are dependent on Gsdmd expression. These PM pores also facilitated the efflux of cytosolic ATP and influx of extracellular Ca2+. Although lanthanides and Gsdmd deletion both suppressed PM pore activity and pyroptotic lysis, robust IL-1β release was observed in lanthanide-treated BMDM but not in Gsdmd-deficient cells. This suggests roles for Gsdmd in both passive IL-1β release secondary to pyroptotic lysis and in non-lytic/non-classical IL-1β export. PMID:27385778

  17. Lanthanide co-doped paramagnetic spindle-like mesocrystals for imaging and autophagy induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Lin, Jun; Lu, Yang; Zhong, Sheng-Liang; Wang, Lei; Dong, Liang; Wu, Ya-Dong; Peng, Jun; Zhang, Li; Pan, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yang; Wen, Long-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-07-01

    We synthesized two novel lanthanide doped spindle-like mesocrystals, YF3:Ce,Eu,Gd and YF3:Ce,Tb,Gd (abbreviated as YEG and YTG mesospindles, respectively). Both of them possess paramagnetic and fluorescent properties, and their excellent cyto-compatibility and low haemolysis are further confirmed. Therefore, they could act as dual mode contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, YEG and YTG mesospindles induce dose and time dependent autophagy by activating the PI3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by YEG and YTG mesocrystals is confirmed by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. This work is important to illustrate how rare-earth mesocrystals affect the autophagic pathway, indicating the potential of the YEG and YTG mesospindles in diagnosis and therapy.We synthesized two novel lanthanide doped spindle-like mesocrystals, YF3:Ce,Eu,Gd and YF3:Ce,Tb,Gd (abbreviated as YEG and YTG mesospindles, respectively). Both of them possess paramagnetic and fluorescent properties, and their excellent cyto-compatibility and low haemolysis are further confirmed. Therefore, they could act as dual mode contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, YEG and YTG mesospindles induce dose and time dependent autophagy by activating the PI3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by YEG and YTG mesocrystals is confirmed by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. This work is important to illustrate how rare-earth mesocrystals affect the autophagic pathway, indicating the potential of the YEG and YTG mesospindles in diagnosis and therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Size distribution, HRTEM image and additional cellular data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03171d

  18. Development and Testing of Diglycolamide Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Sorption of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Shusterman, Jennifer A.; Mason, Harris E.; Bowers, Jon

    Sequestration of trivalent actinides and lanthanides present in used nuclear fuel and legacy wastes is necessary for appropriate long-term stewardship of these metals, particularly to prevent their release into the environment. Organically modified mesoporous silica is an efficient material for recovery and potential subsequent separation of actinides and lanthanides because of its high surface area, tunable ligand selection, and chemically robust substrate. Here, we have synthesized the first novel hybrid material composed of SBA-15 type mesoporous silica functionalized with diglycolamide ligands (DGA-SBA). Because of the high surface area substrate, the DGA-SBA was found to have the highest Eu capacity reportedmore » so far in the literature of all DGA solid-phase extractants. The sorption behavior of europium and americium on DGA-SBA in nitric and hydrochloric acid media was tested in batch contact experiments. DGA-SBA was found to have high sorption of Am and Eu in pH 1, 1 M, and 3 M nitric and hydrochloric acid concentrations, which makes it promising for sequestration of these metals from used nuclear fuel or legacy waste. The kinetics of Eu sorption were found to be two times slower than that for Am in 1 M HNO 3. Additionally, the short-term susceptibility of DGA-SBA to degradation in the presence of acid was probed using 29Si and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the material was found to be relatively stable under these conditions, with the ligand remaining intact after 24 h of contact with 1 M HNO 3, an important consideration in use of the DGA-SBA as an extractant from acidic media.« less

  19. Development and Testing of Diglycolamide Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Sorption of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides

    DOE PAGES

    Shusterman, Jennifer A.; Mason, Harris E.; Bowers, Jon; ...

    2015-09-03

    Sequestration of trivalent actinides and lanthanides present in used nuclear fuel and legacy wastes is necessary for appropriate long-term stewardship of these metals, particularly to prevent their release into the environment. Organically modified mesoporous silica is an efficient material for recovery and potential subsequent separation of actinides and lanthanides because of its high surface area, tunable ligand selection, and chemically robust substrate. Here, we have synthesized the first novel hybrid material composed of SBA-15 type mesoporous silica functionalized with diglycolamide ligands (DGA-SBA). Because of the high surface area substrate, the DGA-SBA was found to have the highest Eu capacity reportedmore » so far in the literature of all DGA solid-phase extractants. The sorption behavior of europium and americium on DGA-SBA in nitric and hydrochloric acid media was tested in batch contact experiments. DGA-SBA was found to have high sorption of Am and Eu in pH 1, 1 M, and 3 M nitric and hydrochloric acid concentrations, which makes it promising for sequestration of these metals from used nuclear fuel or legacy waste. The kinetics of Eu sorption were found to be two times slower than that for Am in 1 M HNO 3. Additionally, the short-term susceptibility of DGA-SBA to degradation in the presence of acid was probed using 29Si and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the material was found to be relatively stable under these conditions, with the ligand remaining intact after 24 h of contact with 1 M HNO 3, an important consideration in use of the DGA-SBA as an extractant from acidic media.« less

  20. Engineering Encodable Lanthanide-Binding Tags (LBTs) into Loop Regions of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmes, Katja; Reynolds, Anne M.; Peisach, Ezra; Jonker, Hendrik R. A.; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Allen, Karen N.; Imperiali, Barbara; Schwalbe, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanide-binding-tags (LBTs) are valuable tools for investigation of protein structure, function, and dynamics by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and luminescence studies. We have inserted LBTs into three different loop positions (denoted L, R, and S) of the model protein interleukin-1β and varied the length of the spacer between the LBT and the protein (denoted 1-3). Luminescence studies demonstrate that all nine constructs bind Tb3+ tightly in the low nanomolar range. No significant change in the fusion protein occurs from insertion of the LBT, as shown by two X-ray crystallographic structures of the IL1β-S1 and IL1β-L3 constructs and for the remaining constructs by comparing 1H-15N-HSQC NMR spectra with wild-type IL1β. Additionally, binding of LBT-loop IL1β proteins to their native binding partner in vitro remains unaltered. X-ray crystallographic phasing was successful using only the signal from the bound lanthanide. Large residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) could be determined by NMR spectroscopy for all LBT-loop-constructs and revealed that the LBT-2 series were rigidly incorporated into the interleukin-1β structure. The paramagnetic NMR spectra of loop-LBT mutant IL1β-R2 were assigned and the Δχ tensor components were calculated based on RDCs and pseudocontact shifts (PCSs). A structural model of the IL1β-R2 construct was calculated using the paramagnetic restraints. The current data provide support that encodable LBTs serve as versatile biophysical tags when inserted into loop regions of proteins of known structure or predicted via homology modelling. PMID:21182275

  1. Molecular dynamics investigation of water-exchange reactions on lanthanide ions in water/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsufate ([EMIm][OTf])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yi-Jung; Lin, Zhijin; Allen, Matthew J.; Cisneros, G. Andrés

    2018-01-01

    We report a kinetic study of the water exchange on lanthanide ions in water/[1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][trifluoromethylsufate] (water/[EMIm][OTf]). The results from 17O-NMR measurements show that the water-exchange rates in water/[EMIm][OTf] increase with decreasing size of the lanthanide ions. This trend for water-exchange is similar to the previously reported trend in water/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (water/[EMIm][EtSO4]) but opposite to that in water. To gain atomic-level insight into these water-exchange reactions, molecular dynamics simulations for lanthanide ions in water/[EMIm][OTf] have been performed using the atomic-multipole-optimized-energetics-for-biomolecular-application polarizable force field. Our molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental water-exchange rates in terms of the trend and provide possible explanations for the observed experimental behavior. The smaller lanthanide ions in water/[EMIm][OTf] undergo faster water exchange because the smaller lanthanide ions coordinate to the first shell [OTf]- anions more tightly, resulting in a stronger screening effect for the second-shell water. The screening effect weakens the interaction of the lanthanide ions with the second-shell water molecules, facilitating the dissociation of water from the second-shell and subsequent association of water molecules from the outer solvation shells.

  2. Molecular dynamics investigation of water-exchange reactions on lanthanide ions in water/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsufate ([EMIm][OTf]).

    PubMed

    Tu, Yi-Jung; Lin, Zhijin; Allen, Matthew J; Cisneros, G Andrés

    2018-01-14

    We report a kinetic study of the water exchange on lanthanide ions in water/[1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][trifluoromethylsufate] (water/[EMIm][OTf]). The results from 17 O-NMR measurements show that the water-exchange rates in water/[EMIm][OTf] increase with decreasing size of the lanthanide ions. This trend for water-exchange is similar to the previously reported trend in water/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (water/[EMIm][EtSO 4 ]) but opposite to that in water. To gain atomic-level insight into these water-exchange reactions, molecular dynamics simulations for lanthanide ions in water/[EMIm][OTf] have been performed using the atomic-multipole-optimized-energetics-for-biomolecular-application polarizable force field. Our molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental water-exchange rates in terms of the trend and provide possible explanations for the observed experimental behavior. The smaller lanthanide ions in water/[EMIm][OTf] undergo faster water exchange because the smaller lanthanide ions coordinate to the first shell [OTf] - anions more tightly, resulting in a stronger screening effect for the second-shell water. The screening effect weakens the interaction of the lanthanide ions with the second-shell water molecules, facilitating the dissociation of water from the second-shell and subsequent association of water molecules from the outer solvation shells.

  3. Lanthanide-Functionalized Metal-Organic Framework Hybrid Systems To Create Multiple Luminescent Centers for Chemical Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing

    2017-11-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess an important advantage over other candidate classes for chemosensory materials because of their exceptional structural tunability and properties. Luminescent sensing using MOFs is a simple, intuitive, and convenient method to recognize species, but the method has limitations, such as insufficient chemical selectivity and signal loss. MOFs contain versatile building blocks (linkers or ligands) with special chemical reactivity, and postsynthetic modification (PSM) provides an opportunity to exploit and expand their unique properties. The linkers in most MOFs contain aromatic subunits that can readily display luminescence after ultraviolet or visible (typically blue) excitation, and this is the main luminescent nature of most MOFs. The introduction of photoactive lanthanide ions (Ln 3+ ) into the MOF hosts may produce new luminescent signals at different positions from that of the MOF linker, but this depends on the intramolecular energy transfer (antenna effect) from the MOF (linkers) to the Ln 3+ ions. Controlling the Ln 3+ content in MOF hybrids may create multiple luminescent centers. The nature of the unique luminescent centers may cause different responses to sensing species (i.e., ratiometric sensing), which may provide a new opportunity for luminescence research with applications to chemical sensing. In this Account, recent research progress on using lanthanide-functionalized MOF hybrid materials to create multiple luminescent centers for chemical sensing is described. Here we propose a general strategy to functionalize MOF hosts with lanthanide ions, compounds, or other luminescent species (organic dyes or carbon dots) and to assemble types of photofunctional hybrid systems based on lanthanide-functionalized MOFs. Five main methods were used to functionalize the MOFs and assemble the hybrid materials: in situ composition, ionic doping, ionic exchange, covalent PSM, and coordinated PSM. Through the lanthanide

  4. Bio-Functional, Lanthanide-Labeled Polymer Particles by Seeded Emulsion Polymerization and their Characterization by Novel ICP-MS Detection.

    PubMed

    Thickett, Stuart C; Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of monodisperse, sub-micron poly(styrene) (PS) particles loaded with up to and including 10(7) lanthanide (Ln) ions per particle. These particles have been synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization with a mixture of monomer and a pre-formed Ln complex, and analyzed on a particle-by-particle basis by a unique inductively coupled plasma mass cytometer. Seed particles were prepared by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) to obtain large particle sizes in aqueous media. Extensive surface acid functionality was introduced using the acid-functional initiator ACVA, either during seed latex synthesis or in the second stage of polymerization. The loading of particles with three different Ln ions (Eu, Tb, and Ho) has proven to be close to 100 % efficient on an individual and combined basis. Covalent attachment of metal-tagged peptides and proteins such as Neutravidin to the particle surface was shown to be successful and the number of bound species can be readily determined. We believe these particles can serve as precursors for multiplexed, bead-based bio-assays utilizing mass cytometric detection.

  5. Bio-Functional, Lanthanide-Labeled Polymer Particles by Seeded Emulsion Polymerization and their Characterization by Novel ICP-MS Detection

    PubMed Central

    Thickett, Stuart C.; Abdelrahman, Ahmed I.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of monodisperse, sub-micron poly(styrene) (PS) particles loaded with up to and including 107 lanthanide (Ln) ions per particle. These particles have been synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization with a mixture of monomer and a pre-formed Ln complex, and analyzed on a particle-by-particle basis by a unique inductively coupled plasma mass cytometer. Seed particles were prepared by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) to obtain large particle sizes in aqueous media. Extensive surface acid functionality was introduced using the acid-functional initiator ACVA, either during seed latex synthesis or in the second stage of polymerization. The loading of particles with three different Ln ions (Eu, Tb, and Ho) has proven to be close to 100 % efficient on an individual and combined basis. Covalent attachment of metal-tagged peptides and proteins such as Neutravidin to the particle surface was shown to be successful and the number of bound species can be readily determined. We believe these particles can serve as precursors for multiplexed, bead-based bio-assays utilizing mass cytometric detection. PMID:20396648

  6. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 3. Heavy Lanthanides (Gd–Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl; Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com

    This is the third part of the volume devoted to solubility data for the rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water and in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. It covers experimental results of trivalent fluorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (so-called heavy lanthanides), since no quantitative data on solubilities of TbF{sub 4} and YbF{sub 2} (the most stable compounds at these valencies) are available. The related literature has been covered through the end of 2014. Compilations of all available papers with the solubility data are introduced for each REM fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation.more » Every such assessment contains a collection of all solubility results in aqueous solution, a selection of suggested solubility data, a solubility equation, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or double salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. General features of the systems, such as nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, solution pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and the solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.« less

  7. Analysis of the isomer ratios of polymethylated-DOTA complexes and the implications on protein structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Opina, Ana Christina L.; Strickland, Madeleine; Lee, Yong-Sok; Tjandra, Nico; Byrd, R. Andrew; Swenson, Rolf E.; Vasalatiy, Olga

    2016-01-01

    A rigidified and symmetrical polymethylated 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) ligand bearing four SSSS methyl groups in both the tetraaza ring and the acetate arms (SSSS-SSSS-M4DOTMA) was prepared. The isomer ratio of SSSS-SSSS-M4DOTMA complexed with a series of lanthanide ions was carefully investigated using RP-HPLC and NMR. A square antiprismatic (SAP) configuration was exclusively observed for the early lanthanides, while the twisted square antiprismatic (TSAP) geometry was preferred as the lanthanide ion size decreases. The late lanthanides preferentially adopted the TSAP geometry. One of the pendant arms was modified with a pyridyl disulfide group (SSSS-SSSS-M8SPy) for cysteine attachment and displayed a similar isomer trend as the parent compound, Ln-SSSS-SSSS-M4DOTMA. Covalent attachment to the ubiquitin S57C mutant showed resonances whose intensities are in agreement with the isomeric population observed by HPLC. Furthermore, the NOE experiments combined with quantum chemical calculations have unequivocally demonstrated that the SAP of Pr-SSSS-SSSS-M4DOTMA and Pr-SSSS-SSSS-M8SPy, as well as the TSAP of Yb-SSSS-SSSS-M8SPy are more stable than their corresponding isomers. PMID:26857249

  8. Single crystal synthesis and magnetism of the Ba Ln 2O 4 family ( Ln = lanthanide)

    DOE PAGES

    Besara, Tiglet; Lundberg, Matthew S.; Sun, Jifeng; ...

    2014-05-27

    The series of compounds in the Ba Ln 2O 4 family (Ln = La–Lu, Y) has been synthesized for the first time in single crystalline form, using a molten metal flux. The series crystallizes in the CaV 2O 4 structure type with primitive orthorhombic symmetry (space group Pnma, #62), and a complete structural study of atomic positions, bonds, angles, and distortions across the lanthanide series is presented. With the exception of the Y, La, Eu, and Lu members, magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed between 2 K and 300 K. BaCe 2O 4 and BaYb 2O 4 display large crystal fieldsmore » effects and suppression of magnetic ordering. As a result, all compounds show signs of magnetic frustration due to the trigonal arrangements of the trivalent lanthanide cations in the structure.« less

  9. Anionic Lanthanide MOFs as a Platform for Iron-Selective Sensing, Systematic Color Tuning, and Efficient Nanoparticle Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Pan; Xu, Guo-Wang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2017-02-06

    New porous anionic Ln-MOFs, namely, [Me 2 NH 2 ][Ln(CPA) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (Ln = Eu, Gd), have been prepared through the self-assembly of 5-(4-carboxy phenyl)picolinic acid (H 2 CPA) and lanthanide ions. They feature open anionic frameworks with 1-D hydrophilic channels and exchangeable dimethylamine ions. The Eu phase could detect Fe 3+ ions with high selectivity and sensitivity in either aqueous solution or biological condition. The ratios of lanthanide ions on this structure platform could be rationally tuned to not only achieve dichromatic emission colors with linear correlation but also attain three primary colors (RGB) and even white light with favorable correlated color temperature. Furthermore, the Ag(I)-exchanged phases can be readily reduced to afford Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared Ag@Ln-MOFs composite shows highly efficient catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  10. Effect of polyoxyethylene n-alkyl ethers on carrier-mediated transport of lanthanide ions through cellulose triacetate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Masaaki

    1992-02-01

    Fluxes of 14 kinds of lanthanides across cellulose triacetate membranes were determined by using mixtures of o-nitrophenyl n-octyl ether and a series of polyoxythylene n-alkyl ethers (POE ethers) as plasticizers, and hinokitiol as carrier. Effects of alkyl and polyoxyethylene (POE) chains of POE ether on the flux were demonstrated. The transport of the lanthanides was coupled to a flow of hydrogen ions. The POE ethers used (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub x}OH, referred to as C{sub n}E{sub x}) were C{sub 10}E{sub 3}, C{sub 12}E{sub 3}, C{sub 14}E{sub 3}, C{sub 16}E{sub 3}, C{sub 12}E{sub 2}, C{sub 12}E{sub 4}, C{sub 12}E{sub 6}more » and C{sub 12}E{sub 8}, In all cases, high fluxes were observed for the lanthanides from samarium to lutetium. On the contrary, the fluxes for lanthanum to neodymium were extremely low. In experiments testing the effect of the alkyl chain, the order of the POE ethers in the lanthanide flux for samarium to lutetium was C{sub 12}E{sub 3} > C{sub 10}E{sub 3} > C{sub 14}E{sub 3} >C{sub 16}E{sub 3}. In experiments testing the effect of the POE chain, the flux decreased with an increase in the chain length.« less

  11. Aqueous Binary Lanthanide(III) Nitrate Ln(NO3)3 Electrolytes Revisited: Extended Pitzer and Bromley Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Campbell, Emily L.; Neiner, Doinita

    To date, only limited thermodynamic models describing activity coefficients of the aqueous solutions of lanthanide ions are available. This work expands the existing experimental osmotic coefficient data obtained by classical isopiestic technique for the aqueous binary trivalent lanthanide nitrate Ln(NO3)3 solutions using a combination of water activity and vapor pressure osmometry measurements. The combined osmotic coefficient database for each aqueous lanthanide nitrate at 25°C, consisting of literature available data as well as data obtained in this work, was used to test the validity of Pitzer and Bromley thermodynamic models for the accurate prediction of mean molal activity coefficients of themore » Ln(NO3)3 solutions in wide concentration ranges. The new and improved Pitzer and Bromley parameters were calculated. It was established that the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients in the solutions with ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 can be estimated by both Pitzer and single-parameter Bromley models, even though the latter provides for more accurate prediction, particularly in the lower ionic strength regime (up to 6 mol kg-1). On the other hand for the concentrated solutions, the extended three-parameter Bromley model can be employed to predict the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients with remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of the extended Bromley model in predicting the activity coefficients was greater than ~95% and ~90% for all solutions with the ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 and and 20 mol kg-1, respectively. This is the first time that the activity coefficients for concentrated lanthanide solutions have been predicted with such a remarkable accuracy.« less

  12. Lanthanide paramagnetic probes for NMR spectroscopic studies of fast molecular conformational dynamics and temperature control. Effective six-site proton exchange in 18-crown-6 by exchange spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Babailov, Sergey P

    2012-02-06

    (1)H and (13)C NMR measurements are reported for the CDCl(3) and CD(2)Cl(2) solutions of [La(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (I), [Pr(18-crown-6) (NO(3))(3)] (II), [Ce(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (III), and [Nd(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (IV) complexes. Temperature dependencies of the (1)H NMR spectra of paramagnetic II-IV have been analyzed using the dynamic NMR (DNMR) methods for six-site exchange. Two types of conformational dynamic processes were identified (the first one is conditioned by interconversion of complex enantiomeric forms and pseudorotation of a macrocycle molecule upon the C(2) symmetry axis; the second one is conditioned by macrocycle molecule inversion). Application of exchange spectroscopy (2D-EXSY) of DNMR for investigation of this dynamic system (II-IV) simplifies the assignment of the NMR signals and represents the first experimental study of multisite exchange. In the present work, the methodology of paramagnetic 4f (Ce, Pr, and Nd) probe applications for the study of free-energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes in chemical exchange processes, as well as the advantages of this method in a comparison with DNMR studies of diamagnetic substances, is discussed. In particular, as a result of paramagnetic chemical shifts in 4f complexes, the range of measurable rate constants expands considerably compared to the analogous range in diamagnetic compounds. Coordination compounds investigated in the paper represent new types of thermometric NMR sensors and lanthanide paramagnetic probes for in situ temperature control in solution.

  13. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of a series of 3D lanthanide coordination polymers with tripodal semirigid ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Junsheng; Department of Applied Chemistry, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022; Du Dongying

    2011-02-15

    Reactions of the tripodal bridging ligand 5-(4-carboxy-phenoxy)-isophthalic acid (abbreviated as H{sub 3}cpia) with lanthanide salts lead to the formation of a family of different coordination polymers, that is, [Ln(cpia)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Ce (1), Pr (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Eu (5), Gd (6), Dy (7), Er (8), Tm (9) and Y (10)) in the presence of formic acid or diethylamine, which are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRPD spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-10 are isostructural and exhibit three-dimensional microporous frameworks. Furthermore, the photoluminescent properties of 4, 5 and 7 have been studiedmore » in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Reactions of the tripodal bridging ligand (H{sub 3}cpia) with lanthanide ions lead to the formation of a series of coordination polymers in the presence of formic acid or diethylamine. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} Ten new lanthanides-based coordination polymers (1-10) have been synthesized. {yields} 1-10 exhibit 3D (4,8)-connected fluorite topology networks with 1D channel parallel to the b-axis. {yields} Compounds 4, 5 and 7 exhibit characteristic luminescence of Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions, respectively.« less

  14. Barium titanate microparticles as potential carrier platform for lanthanide radionuclides for their use in the treatment of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Sharma, Jyothi; Shetty, Priyalata; Sarma, H D; Chakravarty, Rubel; Prakash, Deep; Sinha, P K; Dash, Ashutosh

    2018-06-15

    Since the inception of radiation synovectomy, a host of radioactive colloids and microparticles incorporating suitable therapeutic radionuclides have been proposed for the treatment of arthritis. The present article reports the synthesis and evaluation of barium titanate microparticles as an innovative and effective carrier platform for lanthanide radionuclides in the preparation of therapeutic agents for treatment of arthritis. The material was synthesized by mechanochemical rout