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Sample records for lap adhesive composite

  1. Multitechnique monitoring of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded composite lap-joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias; Khomenko, Anton; Dib, Gerges; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2015-03-01

    The requirement for reduced structural weight has driven the development of adhesively bonded joints. However, a major issue preventing their full acceptance is the initiation of premature failure in the form of a disbond between adherends, mainly due to fatigue, manufacturing flaws or impact damage. This work presents the integrated approach for in-situ monitoring of degradation of the adhesive bond in the GFRP composite lap-joint using ultrasonic guided waves and dynamic measurements from strategically embedded FBG sensors. Guided waves are actuated with surface mounted piezoelectric elements and mode tuning is used to provide high sensitivity to the degradation of the adhesive layer parameters. Composite lap-joints are subjected to fatigue loading, and data from piezoceramic transducers are collected at regular intervals to evaluate the progression of damage. Results demonstrate that quasi-static loading affects guided wave measurements considerably, but FBG sensors can be used to monitor the applied load levels and residual strains in the adhesive bond. The proposed technique shows promise for determining the post-damage stiffness of adhesively bonded joints.

  2. Lamb wave based active damage identification in adhesively bonded composite lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Prateek

    Bonding composite structures using adhesives offers several advantages over mechanical fastening such as better flow stress, weight saving, improved fatigue resistance and the ability to join dissimilar structures. The hesitation to adopt adhesively bonded composite joints stems from the lack of knowledge regarding damage initiation and propagation mechanisms within the joint. A means of overcoming this hesitation is to continuously monitor damage in the joint. This study proposes a methodology to conduct structural health monitoring (SHM) of an adhesively bonded composite lap joint using acoustic, guided Lamb waves by detecting, locating and predicting the size of damage. Finite element modeling of a joint in both 2D and 3D is used to test the feasibility of the proposed damage triangulation technique. Experimental validation of the methodology is conducted by detecting the presence, location and size of inflicted damage with the use of tuned guided Lamb waves.

  3. A Semi-Analytical Method for Determining the Energy Release Rate of Cracks in Adhesively-Bonded Single-Lap Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Charles; Sun, Wenjun; Tomblin, John S.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2007-01-01

    A semi-analytical method for determining the strain energy release rate due to a prescribed interface crack in an adhesively-bonded, single-lap composite joint subjected to axial tension is presented. The field equations in terms of displacements within the joint are formulated by using first-order shear deformable, laminated plate theory together with kinematic relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. Based on the adhesive stress distributions, the forces at the crack tip are obtained and the strain energy release rate of the crack is determined by using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). Additionally, the test specimen geometry from both the ASTM D3165 and D1002 test standards are utilized during the derivation of the field equations in order to correlate analytical models with future test results. The system of second-order differential field equations is solved to provide the adherend and adhesive stress response using the symbolic computation tool, Maple 9. Finite element analyses using J-integral as well as VCCT were performed to verify the developed analytical model. The finite element analyses were conducted using the commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results determined using the analytical method correlated well with the results from the finite element analyses.

  4. Failure strength prediction for adhesively bonded single lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Niat Mahmud

    For adhesively bonded joint, failure strength depends on many factors such as material properties (both adhesive and adherend), specimen geometries, test environments, surface preparation procedures, etc. Failure occurs inside constitutive materials or along joint interfaces. Based on location, adhesively bonded failure mode can be classified as adhesive failure mode, cohesive failure mode and adherend failure mode. Failure mode directly affects the failure strength of joint. For last eight decades, researchers have developed analytical, empirical or semi-empirical methods capable of predicting failure strength for adhesively bonded joints generating either cohesive failure or adherend failure. Applicability of most of the methods is limited to particular cases. In this research, different failure modes for single lap joints (SLJs) were generated experimentally using epoxy based paste adhesive. Based on experimental data and analytical study, simplified failure prediction methods were developed for each failure mode. For adhesive failure mode, it is observed that peel stress distributions concur along interface near crack initiation points. All SLJs for this test endured consistent surface treatments. Geometric parameters of the joints were varied to study their effect on failure strength. Peel stress distributions were calculated using finite analysis (FEA). Based on peel stress distribution near crack initiation point, a failure model is proposed. Numerous analytical, empirical and semi-empirical models are available for predicting failure strengths of SLJs generating cohesive failures. However, most of the methods in the literature failed to capture failure behavior of SLJs having thickness of adhesive layer as variable. Cohesive failure mode was generated experimentally using aluminum as adherend and epoxy adhesive considering thickness of adhesive layers as variable within SLJs. Comparative study was performed among various methods. It was observed that

  5. Adhesive-bonded scarf and stepped-lap joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Continuum mechanics solutions are derived for the static load-carrying capacity of scarf and stepped-lap adhesive-bonded joints. The analyses account for adhesive plasticity and adherend stiffness imbalance and thermal mismatch. The scarf joint solutions include a simple algebraic formula which serves as a close lower bound, within a small fraction of a per cent of the true answer for most practical geometries and materials. Digital computer programs were developed and, for the stepped-lap joints, the critical adherend and adhesive stresses are computed for each step. The scarf joint solutions exhibit grossly different behavior from that for double-lap joints for long overlaps inasmuch as that the potential bond shear strength continues to increase with indefinitely long overlaps on the scarf joints. The stepped-lap joint solutions exhibit some characteristics of both the scarf and double-lap joints. The stepped-lap computer program handles arbitrary (different) step lengths and thickness and the solutions obtained have clarified potentially weak design details and the remedies. The program has been used effectively to optimize the joint proportions.

  6. Material characterization of structural adhesives in the lap shear mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancaktar, E.; Schenck, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    A general method for characterizing structual adhesives in the bonded lap shear mode is proposed. Two approaches in the form of semiempirical and theoretical approaches are used. The semiempirical approach includes Ludwik's and Zhurkov's equations to describe respectively, the failure stresses in the constant strain rate and constant stress loading modes with the inclusion of the temperature effects. The theoretical approach is used to describe adhesive shear stress-strain behavior with the use of viscoelastic or nonlinear elastic constitutive equations. Two different model adhesives are used in the single lap shear mode with titanium adherends. These adhesives (one of which was developed at NASA Langley Research Center) are currently considered by NASA for possible aerospace applications. Use of different model adhesives helps in assessment of the generality of the method.

  7. Lap Shear Testing of Candidate Radiator Panel Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David; Briggs, Maxwell; McGowan, Randy

    2013-01-01

    During testing of a subscale radiator section used to develop manufacturing techniques for a full-scale radiator panel, the adhesive bonds between the titanium heat pipes and the aluminum face sheets failed during installation and operation. Analysis revealed that the thermal expansion mismatch between the two metals resulted in relatively large shear stresses being developed even when operating the radiator at moderate temperatures. Lap shear testing of the adhesive used in the original joints demonstrated that the two-part epoxy adhesive fell far short of the strength required. A literature review resulted in several candidate adhesives being selected for lap shear joint testing at room temperature and 398 K, the nominal radiator operating temperature. The results showed that two-part epoxies cured at room and elevated temperatures generally did not perform well. Epoxy film adhesives cured at elevated temperatures, on the other hand, did very well with most being sufficiently strong to cause yielding in the titanium sheet used for the joints. The use of an epoxy primer generally improved the strength of the joint. Based upon these results, a new adhesive was selected for the second subscale radiator section.

  8. Nonlinear Analysis of Bonded Composite Tubular Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oterkus, E.; Madenci, E.; Smeltzer, S. S., III; Ambur, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study describes a semi-analytical solution method for predicting the geometrically nonlinear response of a bonded composite tubular single-lap joint subjected to general loading conditions. The transverse shear and normal stresses in the adhesive as well as membrane stress resultants and bending moments in the adherends are determined using this method. The method utilizes the principle of virtual work in conjunction with nonlinear thin-shell theory to model the adherends and a cylindrical shear lag model to represent the kinematics of the thin adhesive layer between the adherends. The kinematic boundary conditions are imposed by employing the Lagrange multiplier method. In the solution procedure, the displacement components for the tubular joint are approximated in terms of non-periodic and periodic B-Spline functions in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, respectively. The approach presented herein represents a rapid-solution alternative to the finite element method. The solution method was validated by comparison against a previously considered tubular single-lap joint. The steep variation of both peeling and shearing stresses near the adhesive edges was successfully captured. The applicability of the present method was also demonstrated by considering tubular bonded lap-joints subjected to pure bending and torsion.

  9. Nonlinear Analysis of Bonded Composite Single-LAP Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oterkus, E.; Barut, A.; Madenci, E.; Smeltzer, S. S.; Ambur, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a semi-analytical solution method to analyze the geometrically nonlinear response of bonded composite single-lap joints with tapered adherend edges under uniaxial tension. The solution method provides the transverse shear and normal stresses in the adhesive and in-plane stress resultants and bending moments in the adherends. The method utilizes the principle of virtual work in conjunction with von Karman s nonlinear plate theory to model the adherends and the shear lag model to represent the kinematics of the thin adhesive layer between the adherends. Furthermore, the method accounts for the bilinear elastic material behavior of the adhesive while maintaining a linear stress-strain relationship in the adherends. In order to account for the stiffness changes due to thickness variation of the adherends along the tapered edges, their in-plane and bending stiffness matrices are varied as a function of thickness along the tapered region. The combination of these complexities results in a system of nonlinear governing equilibrium equations. This approach represents a computationally efficient alternative to finite element method. Comparisons are made with corresponding results obtained from finite-element analysis. The results confirm the validity of the solution method. The numerical results present the effects of taper angle, adherend overlap length, and the bilinear adhesive material on the stress fields in the adherends, as well as the adhesive, of a single-lap joint

  10. Durability and Intelligent Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Composite Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    theories used for 195 data reduction, and whether they have to be modified to model the adhesive system properly. Computer modeling of the adhesive joint...analysis of single lap joints with unidirectional and cross-ply adherends 26 2. Modeling of single lap joints with unidirectional and cross-ply...part of the research were to develop a nonlinear finite element model for a cracked single-lap adhesive joint with laminated composite adherends and

  11. Adhesive-bonded double-lap joints. [analytical solutions for static load carrying capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Explicit analytical solutions are derived for the static load carrying capacity of double-lap adhesive-bonded joints. The analyses extend the elastic solution Volkersen and cover adhesive plasticity, adherend stiffness imbalance and thermal mismatch between the adherends. Both elastic-plastic and bi-elastic adhesive representations lead to the explicit result that the influence of the adhesive on the maximum potential bond strength is defined uniquely by the strain energy in shear per unit area of bond. Failures induced by peel stresses at the ends of the joint are examined. This failure mode is particularly important for composite adherends. The explicit solutions are sufficiently simple to be used for design purposes

  12. Single-cycle and fatigue strengths of adhesively bonded lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Metzinger, K.E.; Guess, T.R.

    1998-12-31

    This study considers a composite-to-steel tubular lap joint in which failure typically occurs when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. The same basic joint was subjected to compressive and tensile axial loads (single-cycle) as well as bending loads (fatigue). The purpose of these tests was to determine whether failure is more dependent on the plastic strain or the peel stress that develops in the adhesive. For the same joint, compressive and tensile loads of the same magnitude will produce similar plastic strains but peel stresses of opposite signs in the adhesive. In the axial tests, the tensile strengths were much greater than the compressive strengths - indicating that the peel stress is key to predicting the single-cycle strengths. To determine the key parameter(s) for predicting high-cycle fatigue strengths, a test technique capable of subjecting a specimen to several million cycles per day was developed. In these bending tests, the initial adhesive debonding always occurred on the compressive side. This result is consistent with the single-cycle tests, although not as conclusive due to the limited number of tests. Nevertheless, a fatigue test method has been established and future tests are planned.

  13. Material characterization of structural adhesives in the lap shear mode. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenck, S. C.; Sancaktar, E.

    1983-01-01

    A general method for characterizing structural adhesives in the bonded lap shear mode is proposed. Two approaches in the form of semi-empirical and theoretical approaches are used. The semi-empirical approach includes Ludwik's and Zhurkov's equations to describe respectively, the failure stresses in the constant strain rate and constant stress loading modes with the inclusion of the temperature effects. The theoretical approach is used to describe adhesive shear stress-strain behavior with the use of viscoelastic or nonlinear elastic constitutive equations. Three different model adhesives are used in the simple lap shear mode with titanium adherends. These adhesives (one of which was developed at NASA Langley Research Center) are currently considered by NASA for possible aerospace applications. Use of different model adhesives helps in assessment of the generality of the method.

  14. Highly Porous and Compositionally Intermediate Ordinary Chondrite LAP 031047

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, A.; Kring, D. A.; Friedrich, J. M.; Troiano, J.; Macke, R. J.; Britt, D. T.; Swindle, T. D.; Weirich, J. R.; Rumble, D.

    2010-03-01

    LAP 031047 is a highly porous ordinary chondrite with a very young Ar-Ar age, and oxygen isotopic, and bulk and silicate mineral composition intermediate between H- and L-chondrites: Shock-lithified debris of a distinct ordinary chondrite asteroid?

  15. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Kozowyk, P R B; Langejans, G H J; Poulis, J A

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  16. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives. PMID:26983080

  17. Lap shear strength and healing capability of self-healing adhesive containing epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Habibah; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ming-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a self-healing polymeric adhesive formulation with epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules. Epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules were dispersed into a commercialize two-part epoxy adhesive for developing self-healing epoxy adhesive. The influence of different content of microcapsules on the shear strength and healing capability of epoxy adhesive were investigated using single-lap-joints with average thickness of adhesive layer of about 180 µm. This self-healing adhesive was used in bonding of 5000 series aluminum alloys adherents after mechanical and alkaline cleaning surface treatment. The adhesion strength was measured and presented as function of microcapsules loading. The results indicated that the virgin lap shear strength was increased by about 26% with addition of 3 wt% of self-healing microcapsules. 12% to 28% recovery of the shear strength is achieved after self-healing depending on the microcapsules content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study fracture surface of the joints. The self-healing adhesives exhibit recovery of both cohesion and adhesion properties with room temperature healing.

  18. Characterization of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded lap joints through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors: 2. Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.; Shin, P.; Peters, K.; Zikry, M. A.; Stan, N.; Chadderdon, S.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we simulate the response of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the adhesive layer of a composite lap that is subjected to harmonic excitation. To simulate accumulated fatigue damage at the adhesive layer, two forms of numerical nonlinearities are introduced into the model: (1) progressive plastic deformation of the adhesive and (2) changing the boundary of an interfacial defect at the adhesive layer across the overlap shear area. The simulation results are compared with previous measurements of the dynamic, full-spectral response of such FBG sensors for condition monitoring of the lap joint. Short-time Fourier transforms (STFT) of the locally extracted axial strain time histories reveal a transition to nonlinear behavior of the composite lap joint by means of intermittent frequencies that were observed in the experimental measurements and are not associated with the external excitation. The simulation results verify that the nonlinear changes in measured dynamic FBG responses are due to the progression of damage in the lap joint.

  19. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  20. Monitoring of fatigue damage in composite lap-joints using guided waves and FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Oleksii; Khomenko, Anton; Koricho, Ermias; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2016-02-01

    Adhesive bonding is being increasingly employed in many applications as it offers possibility of light-weighting and efficient multi-material joining along with reduction in time and cost of manufacturing. However, failure initiation and progression in critical components like joints, specifically in fatigue loading is not well understood, which necessitates reliable NDE and SHM techniques to ensure structural integrity. In this work, concurrent guided wave (GW) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor measurements were used to monitor fatigue damage in adhesively bonded composite lap-joints. In the present set-up, one FBG sensor was strategically embedded in the adhesive bond-line of a lap-joint, while two other FBGs were bonded on the surface of the adherends. Full spectral responses of FBG sensors were collected and compared at specific intervals of fatigue loading. In parallel, guided waves were actuated and sensed using PZT wafers mounted on the composite adherends. Experimental results demonstrated that time-of-flight (ToF) of the fundamental modes transmitted through the bond-line and spectral response of FBG sensors were sensitive to fatigue loading and damage. Combination of guided wave and FBG measurements provided the desired redundancy and synergy in the data to evaluate the degradation in bond-line properties. Measurements taken in the presence of continuously applied load replicated the in-situ/service conditions. The approach shows promise in understanding the behavior of bonded joints subjected to complex loading.

  1. Progressive damage in single lap countersunk composite joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Maajid; Wang, Chun Hui; Thomson, Rodney S.; Orifici, Adrian

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental and computational investigation of the influences of countersink and bolt torque on the progressive failure of single-lap composite joint. Using the Abaqus® software, delamination damage and ply fracture are modelled using cohesive element approach and continuum damage mechanics method, respectively. The model is first validated against a filled-hole tension test to calibrate the composite damage model. Comparison with the experimental results indicates that the computational model is capable of accurately predicting the joint strength and the damage progression process.

  2. Analysis of interface cracks in adhesively bonded lap shear joints, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.; Yau, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Conservation laws of elasticity for nonhomogeneous materials were developed and were used to study the crack behavior in adhesively bonded lap shear joints. By using these laws and the fundamental relationships in fracture mechanics of interface cracks, the problem is reduced to a pair of linear algebraic equations, and stress intensity solutions can be determined directly by information extracted from the far field. The numerical results obtained show that: (1) in the lap-shear joint with a given adherend, the opening-mode stress intensity factor, (K sub 1) is always larger than that of the shearing-mode (K sub 2); (2) (K sub 1) is not sensitive to adherent thickness abut (K sub 2) increases rapidly with increasing thickness; and (3) (K sub 1) and (K sub 2) increase simultaneously as the interfacial crack length increases.

  3. Characterization of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded lap joints through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors: 1. Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.; Shin, P.; Peters, K.; Zikry, M. A.; Stan, N.; Chadderdon, S.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this study we measure the in situ response of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor embedded in the adhesive layer of a single composite lap joint, subjected to harmonic excitation after fatigue loading. After a fully reversed cyclic fatigue loading is applied to the composite lap joint, the full-spectral response of the sensor is interrogated at 100 kHz during two loading conditions: with and without an added harmonic excitation. The full-spectral information avoided dynamic measurement errors often experienced using conventional peak wavelength and edge filtering techniques. The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is computed for the extracted peak wavelength information to reveal time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes of the dynamic FBG sensor response. The dynamic response of the FBG sensor indicated a transition to strong nonlinear dynamic behavior as fatigue-induced damage progressed. The ability to measure the dynamic response of the lap joint through sensors embedded in the adhesive layer can provide in situ monitoring of the lap joint condition.

  4. Testing composite-to-metal tubular lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Slavin, A.M.

    1993-11-01

    Procedures were developed to fabricate, nondestructively evaluate, and mechanically test composite-to-metal tubular joints. The axially loaded tubular lap joint specimen consisted of two metal tubes bonded within each end of a fiberglass composite tube. Joint specimens with both tapered and untapered aluminum adherends and a plain weave E-glass/epoxy composite were tested in tension, compression, and flexure. Other specimens with tapered and untapered steel adherends and a triaxially reinforced E-glass/epoxy composite were tested in tension and compression. Test results include joint strength and failure mode data. A finite element analysis of the axially loaded joints explains the effect of adherend geometry and material properties on measured joint strength. The flexural specimen was also analyzed; calculated surface strains are in good agreement with measured values, and joint failure occurs in the region of calculated peak peel stress.

  5. Low frequency ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of aluminum/adhesive fuselage lap splices

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Thadd

    1994-01-04

    This thesis is a collection of research efforts in ultrasonics, conducted at the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability located at Iowa State University, as part of the Federal Aviation Administration`s ``Aging Aircraft Program.`` The research was directed toward the development of an ultrasonic prototype to inspect the aluminum/adhesive fuselage lap splices found on 1970`s vintage Boeing passenger aircraft. The ultrasonic prototype consists of a normal incidence, low frequency inspection technique, and a scanning adapter that allows focused immersion transducers to be operated in a direct contact manner in any inspection orientation, including upside-down. The inspection technique uses a computer-controlled data acquisition system to produce a C-scan image of a radio frequency (RF) waveform created by a low frequency, broadband, focused beam transducer, driven with a spike voltage pulser. C-scans produced by this technique are color representations of the received signal`s peak-to-peak amplitude (voltage) taken over an (x, y) grid. Low frequency, in this context, refers to a wavelength that is greater than the lap splice`s layer thicknesses. With the low frequency technique, interface echoes of the lap splice are not resolved and gating of the signal is unnecessary; this in itself makes the technique simple to implement and saves considerable time in data acquisition. Along with the advantages in data acquisition, the low frequency technique is relatively insensitive to minor surface curvature and to ultrasonic interference effects caused by adhesive bondline thickness variations in the lap splice.

  6. Chaotic and ambient vibration analysis of composite lap joint damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Lou; Nichols, Jon; Seaver, Mark; Trickey, Steve; Motley, Sara

    2007-04-01

    We examined strain time series from fiber Bragg gratings sensors located in various positions on a composite material beam attached to a steel plate by a lap joint. The beam was vibrated using both broad-band chaotic signals (Lorenz system), and a narrow band signal conforming to the Pierson-Moskowitz frequency distribution for wave height (ambient excitation). The system was damaged by decreasing the torque on instrumented bolts in the lap joint from very tight all the way through to a joint with a gap and slippage. We analyzed the strain data by reconstructing the attractor of the system in the case of chaotic forcing and a pseudo-attractor in the case of sea-wave forcing. Using the highest torque case as an "undamaged" baseline, we calculated the continuity statistic between the baseline attractor and the attractors of the various damage levels for both forcing cases. We show where one can and cannot say that the functional relationship between the attractors changes and how those changes are related to damage levels.

  7. Shear Strength of Single Lap Joint Aluminium-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (Al-TPNR) Laminated Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.

  8. Optimization of geometry of elastic bodies in the vicinity of singular points on the example of an adhesive lap joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveenko, V. P.; Sevodina, N. V.; Fedorov, A. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    The stress state in adhesive lap joints with various geometric shapes of spew fillet is studied. It is noted that the applied design models of the considered problem include singular points at which infinite stress values are possible if one uses the linear elasticity theory to calculate the stress state. Based on the conclusions of the solution of the geometry optimization problem in the vicinity of the singular points of elastic bodies, variants of the geometry of spew fillet, which provide the most significant decrease in the concentration of stresses in adhesive lap joints, are proposed.

  9. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  10. Evaluation of adhesives for adhering carbon/epoxy composites to various metallic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bonk, R.B.; Osterndorf, J.F.; Ambrosio, A.M.; Pettenger, B.L.

    1996-12-31

    The strength properties of composite matrix resins and adhesive are dependent on time, temperature, environment, and stress factors. All of these conditions combine to influence the properties of adhesives and composites in ways that are not yet fully known or quantifiable. Therefore, it is important to know the service conditions that structural adhesive bonded composite joints will encounter prior to fielding. This paper details an evaluation of five epoxy adhesives used to adhere a carbon/epoxy composite to 7075-T6 aluminum, 4340 steel and aluminum coated steel. Test results indicate that certain paste adhesives are capable of better lap-shear and peel performance than film adhesives, especially at elevated temperatures.

  11. Laser ablation assisted adhesive bonding of automotive structural composites

    SciTech Connect

    Boeman, R.G.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Laser ablation has been evaluated as a surface pretreatment prior to adhesive bonding. In prior experimental work, it was observed that when adhesively bonded, composite, single lap shear samples fail, the fracture often occurs at either the adhesive/adherend interface or in the resin rich surface layer of the composite. These two areas represent the weakest portion of the joint. Laser ablation pretreatment generates areas where the resin on the composite surface is selectively removed leaving behind exposed reinforcing fibers which are the major load bearing members of the composite. In a subsequent adhesive bonding operation, this allows portions of the fibers to be encapsulated in the adhesive while other portions of the fiber remain in the composite resin. This type of pretreatment permits fibers to bridge and reinforce the interface between adhesive and adherend. A secondary benefit is the removal of surface contaminantes by pyrolysis. Microscopic observation of laser ablated surfaces indicates a prominent, fiber rich area. Results of the mechanical evaluation indicated that the lap shear strength for laser ablated samples was significantly higher than specimens with no pretreatment or with solvent cleaning only, but were slightly lower than specimens that were mechanically roughened and cleaned with solvents prior to bonding.

  12. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  13. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  14. How geometric details can affect the strength of adhesive lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Metzinger, K.E.; Guess, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The durability of adhesively bonded joints--when utilized as blade attachments--has a significant impact on the performance of wind turbines. Accordingly, there is interest in determining how geometric details affect the strength of these joints. Finite element analyses were performed to aid in the selection of three composite-to-metal joint geometries for compressive axial testing. Both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted. Analysis and testing of these joints provide insight into the effects of adding extra adhesive to the end of the bond or tapering the metal adherend. The issue of whether the relative performance of different joints in monotonic tests can be used to predict the relative fatigue strength of these joints is also addressed.

  15. Effect of adhesive thickness and surface treatment on shear strength on single lap joint Al/CFRP using adhesive of epoxy/Al fine powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Anwar, Miftahul; Tarigan, Roy Aries P.; Rivai, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adhesive thickness and surface treatment on the shear strength and failure type characteristic of single lap joint (SLJ) CFRP/Al using adhesive epoxy/Al-fine-powder. The CFRP was produced by using hand layup method for 30% of woven roving carbon fiber (w/w) and the resin used was bisphenolic. The adhesive was prepared using 12.5% of aluminum fine powder (w/w) in the epoxy adhesive. The powder was mixed by using a mixing machine at 60 rpm for 6 minutes, and then it was used to join the Al plate-2024 and CFRP. The start time to pressure for the joint process was 20 minutes after the application of adhesive on the both of adherends. The variables in this research are adhesive thickness (i.e. 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.8 mm and 1 mm) and surface treatment of adherends (i.e. acetone, chromate sulphuric acid, caustic etch and tucker's reagent). Before shear testing, all specimens were post-cured at 100 °C for 15 minutes. The result shows that the SLJ has the highest shear strength for 0.4 mm of adhesive thickness. When the adhesive thickness is more than 0.4 mm (0.6-1 mm), the shear strength decreases significantly. It might be caused by the property change of adhesive from ductile to brittle. The acetone surface treatment produces the best bonding between the adhesive and adherends (CFRP and Al-plate 2024), and the highest shear strength is 9.31 MPa. The surface treatment give the humidification effect of adherend surfaces by adhesive. The failure characteristic shows that the mixed failure of light-fiber-tear-failure and cohesive-failure are occurred on the high shear strength of SLJ, and the low shear strength commonly has the adhesive-failure type.

  16. How cats lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  17. Biomimetic-inspired joining of composite with metal structures: A survey of natural joints and application to single lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoulas, Evangelos Ioannis; Sutcliffe, Michael P. F.

    2014-03-01

    Joining composites with metal parts leads, inevitably, to high stress concentrations because of the material property mismatch. Since joining composite to metal is required in many high performance structures, there is a need to develop a new multifunctional approach to meet this challenge. This paper uses the biomimetics approach to help develop solutions to this problem. Nature has found many ingenious ways of joining dissimilar materials and making robust attachments, alleviating potential stress concentrations. A literature survey of natural joint systems has been carried out, identifying and analysing different natural joint methods from a mechanical perspective. A taxonomy table was developed based on the different methods/functions that nature successfully uses to attach dissimilar tissues (materials). This table is used to understand common themes or approaches used in nature for different joint configurations and functionalities. One of the key characteristics that nature uses to joint dissimilar materials is a transitional zone of stiffness in the insertion site. Several biomimetic-inspired metal-to-composite (steel-to-CFRP), adhesively bonded, Single Lap Joints (SLJs) were numerically investigated using a finite element analysis. The proposed solutions offer a transitional zone of stiffness of one joint part to reduce the material stiffness mismatch at the joint. An optimisation procedure was used to identify the variation in material stiffness which minimises potential failure of the joint. It was found that the proposed biomimetic SLJs reduce the asymmetry of the stress distribution along the adhesive area.

  18. Optimum design of bolted composite lap joints under mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kradinov, Vladimir Yurievich

    A new approach is developed for the analysis and design of mechanically fastened composite lap joints under mechanical and thermal loading. Based on the combined complex potential and variational formulation, the solution method satisfies the equilibrium equations exactly while the boundary conditions are satisfied by minimizing the total potential. This approach is capable of modeling finite laminate planform dimensions, uniform and variable laminate thickness, laminate lay-up, interaction among bolts, bolt torque, bolt flexibility, bolt size, bolt-hole clearance and interference, insert dimensions and insert material properties. Comparing to the finite element analysis, the robustness of the method does not decrease when modeling the interaction of many bolts; also, the method is more suitable for parametric study and design optimization. The Genetic Algorithm (GA), a powerful optimization technique for multiple extrema functions in multiple dimensions search spaces, is applied in conjunction with the complex potential and variational formulation to achieve optimum designs of bolted composite lap joints. The objective of the optimization is to acquire such a design that ensures the highest strength of the joint. The fitness function for the GA optimization is based on the average stress failure criterion predicting net-section, shear-out, and bearing failure modes in bolted lap joints. The criterion accounts for the stress distribution in the thickness direction at the bolt location by applying an approach utilizing a beam on an elastic foundation formulation.

  19. Thermoelastic stress analysis of a pultruded composite double lap joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemann, John H.; Martin, Richard E.; Mandic, Davor G.

    1999-02-01

    The use of composite materials, in particular glass/epoxy systems for structural applications has seen widespread growth. Recent examples include a bridge in Butler County, Ohio and a covered pedestrian bridge that is scheduled to be installed in Akron, Ohio. Both of these structures employ pultruded composites for the main structural members due to their high strength, light weight and the ease of manufacture into common structural shapes such as wide flanges, I-beams and box sections. The use of these shapes gives the designer the ability to use many of the same types of structural details that are common to steel design. This paper will examine the most common method of joining structural members, bolted connections. The analysis of bolted connections in composite materials has been widely reported in the literature. Analysis methods have ranged from two and three dimensional finite element analysis to more empirical methods of calculating the stress concentration factors based on experimental data. This paper will focus on the use of the thermoelastic stress analysis method to determine the stress concentration around a steel pin loaded in double shear by a pultruded glass fiber composite. Further studies were conducted to determine the time dependent material behavior on the thermoelastic stress analysis signal output. The following is a description of the theory, experimental setup, and a summary of results.

  20. Bolted Double-Lap Composite Joints Under Mechanical and Thermal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kradinov, V.; Barut, A.; Madenci, E.; Walker, Sandra P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This study concerns the determination of the contact stresses and contact region around bolt holes and the bolt load distribution in single- and double-lap joints of composite laminates with arbitrarily located bolts under general mechanical loading conditions and uniform temperature change. The unknown contact stress distribution and contact region between the bolt and laminates and the interaction among the bolts require the bolt load distribution, as well as the contact stresses, to be as part of the solution. The present method is based on the complex potential theory and the variational formulation in order to account for bolt stiffness, bolt-hole clearance, and finite geometry of the composite laminates.

  1. Screening Adhesively Bonded Single-Lap-Joint Testing Results Using Nonlinear Calculation Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Jonathan Kaufman, and Wendy Kosik Chaney Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Benjamin Henrie Dynetics Technical Services, Inc...February 2012.  Dynetics Technical Services, Inc., Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 14. ABSTRACT Adhesive needs for Army ground vehicles are...us.army.mil Benjamin Henrie Dynetics Technical Services, Inc. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center, Al

  2. LAP5 and LAP6 Encode Anther-Specific Proteins with Similarity to Chalcone Synthase Essential for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dobritsa, Anna A.; Lei, Zhentian; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Huhman, David V.; Preuss, Daphne; Sumner, Lloyd W.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen grains of land plants have evolved remarkably strong outer walls referred to as exine that protect pollen and interact with female stigma cells. Exine is composed of sporopollenin, and while the composition and synthesis of this biopolymer are not well understood, both fatty acids and phenolics are likely components. Here, we describe mutations in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LESS ADHESIVE POLLEN (LAP5) and LAP6 that affect exine development. Mutation of either gene results in abnormal exine patterning, whereas pollen of double mutants lacked exine deposition and subsequently collapsed, causing male sterility. LAP5 and LAP6 encode anther-specific proteins with homology to chalcone synthase, a key flavonoid biosynthesis enzyme. lap5 and lap6 mutations reduced the accumulation of flavonoid precursors and flavonoids in developing anthers, suggesting a role in the synthesis of phenolic constituents of sporopollenin. Our in vitro functional analysis of LAP5 and LAP6 using 4-coumaroyl-coenzyme A yielded bis-noryangonin (a commonly reported derailment product of chalcone synthase), while similar in vitro analyses using fatty acyl-coenzyme A as the substrate yielded medium-chain alkyl pyrones. Thus, in vitro assays indicate that LAP5 and LAP6 are multifunctional enzymes and may play a role in both the synthesis of pollen fatty acids and phenolics found in exine. Finally, the genetic interaction between LAP5 and an anther gene involved in fatty acid hydroxylation (CYP703A2) demonstrated that they act synergistically in exine production. PMID:20442277

  3. Multivariate Analysis of High Through-Put Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joints: Experimental and Workflow Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    bondline thickness, surface preparation, presence of an overflow fillet, and adhesive type. Gains in the Education of Mathematics and Science high...Mr Nathan Jensen (ARL Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Outreach, Bring Your Child to Work Day). Mechanical testing setup was... Mathematics and Science (GEMS) high school and middle school students as part of the US Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL) involvement with Science

  4. UV-cured adhesives for carbon fiber composite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chun

    Carbon fiber composite materials are increasingly used in automobile, marine, and aerospace industries due to their unique properties, including high strength, high stiffness and low weight. However, due to their brittle characteristic, these structures are prone to physical damage, such as a bird strike or impact damage. Once the structure is damaged, it is important to have fast and reliable temporary repair until the permanent repair or replacement can take place. In this dissertation, UV-based adhesives were used to provide a bonding strength for temporary repair. Adhesively bonded patch repair is an efficient and effective method for temporary repair. In this study, precured patches (hard patches) and dry fabric patches with laminating resins (soft patches) were performed. UV-based epoxy adhesives were applied to both patch repair systems. For precured patch repair, the bonding strengths were investigated under different surface treatments for bonding area and different adhesives thicknesses. The shear stresses of different UV exposure times and curing times were tested. Besides, the large patch repair was investigated as well. For soft patch repair, the hand wet lay-up was applied due to high viscosity of UV resins. A modified single lap shear testing (ASTM D5868) was applied to determine the shear stress. The large patches used fiber glass instead of carbon fiber to prove the possibility of repair with UV epoxy resin by hand wet lay-up process. The hand lay-up procedure was applied and assisted by vacuum pressure to eliminate the air bubbles and consolidate the patches. To enhance the bonding strength and effective soft patch repair, vacuum assisted resin transferring molding (VaRTM) is the better option. However, only low viscosity resins can be operated by VaRTM. Hence, new UV-based adhesives were formulated. The new UV-based adhesives included photoinitiator (PI), epoxy and different solvents. Solvents were used to compound the photoinitiator into epoxy

  5. Polyimide adhesives for titanium and composite bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    Approach results in synthesis of addition polyimide adhesives with exceptional high temperature capabilities that show excellent potential for bonding titanium metal, polyimide/graphite composites, and combinations of these materials. Adhesives compatible with materials used in high performance aircraft and spacecraft structures also prove highly desirable in many other applications involving similar adherents.

  6. Abernathy's Lap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lap in this instance is not a midriff but a tool for presision.polishing and grinding. During the Saturn V moonbooster program, Marshall Space Flight Center found a need for a better lap. The need arose from the exquisitely precise tolerances required for parts of the launch vehicle's guidance,and control system. So William J. Abernathy, a former Marshall employee, built a better lap; he invented a method for charging aluminum lap plates with diamond powder, then hard-anodizing them. The resulting lap produces a high polish on materials ranging from the softest aluminum to the hardest ceramics. It operates faster, wears longer and requires less reworking. Abernathy got NASA's permission to obtain a personal patent and he formed the one-man Abernathy Laps Co. in Huntsville, which produces a variety of laps. One of Abernathy's customers is Bell Aerospace Textron, Buffalo, which uses the laps to finish polish delicate instrument parts produced for NASA's Viking and other space programs. Says a Bell official: "Time needed (with the Abernathy lap) is a fraction of that required by conventional methods. The result is extremely accurate flatness and surface finish." Abernathy is providing laps for other manufacturing applications and for preparation of metallurgical specimens. The business is small but steady, and Abernathy plans expansion into other markets.

  7. Secondary bending effects in progressively damaged single-lap, single-bolt composite joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Libin; Xin, An; Liu, Fengrui; Zhang, Jianyu; Hu, Ning

    Static tensile experiments and progressive failure simulations of single-bolt, single- and double-lap joints were carried out to comparatively investigate secondary bending effects, which present significant eccentric-loading phenomena in single-lap joints but are almost non-existent in symmetric double-lap joints. Progressive damage models of single-lap and double-lap joints were established, from which the numerical predictions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental outcomes. Experimental macro-scope failure patterns and seven numerical micro-scope failure modes obtained from the progressive damage analyses were presented for the two types of joints. The effects of secondary bending on the mechanical degradation and failure mechanism of single-lap joints were revealed. Some characterizations of secondary bending in the joints, such as a characterized parameter on the AGARD points, joint deformations and contact states, were quantitatively traced during the total progressive damage process. All these characterizations increased the understanding of the effects of secondary bending on the failure process of a single-bolt, single-lap joint.

  8. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma in polymer and composite adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang

    carboxyl groups, on the polymer surface after plasma treatment. The resulting strength of the bond based on lap-shear and T-peel tests correlates well with the concentration of oxygen on the polymer surface. The failure modes observed for lap-shear and T-peel tests changed from interfacial to cohesive after the plasma activation. Treating carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with the atmospheric plasma resulted in the removal of fluorinated contaminants in shallow surface layers. For contaminants that diffused deeply into the composite surface, mechanical abrasion was needed in addition to the plasma treatment to remove the impurities. While cleaning the composite, plasma also generated active oxygen groups on the substrate surface. The presence of these groups improved the adhesive bonding strength of the composite even in the presence of residual fluorine contaminants. Thus, it was speculated that plasma treatment can promote better polymer adhesion with or without fluorine contamination. Carbon nanotube sheets were also treated by the helium oxygen plasma, and the CNT surface turn from super hydrophobic to hydrophilic after a few seconds of exposure. The nanotube surface contained 15% of oxygen in the form of hydroxyl groups. Chemical coupling agents were added to the plasma activated CNT surfaces in order to crosslink the CNTs and to create bonding sites for the resin matrix. Stretched, activated and functionalized CNT was cured with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) to produce a sheet composite with a tensile strength of 636 MPa, a modulus of 28 GPa, and a density of 1.4 g/cm 3. This may be compared to aerospace-grade aluminum with tensile strength of 572 MPa, modulus of 72 GPa, and density of 2.7 g/cm3. This work demonstrates that new high-strength composite can be produced with the use of atmospheric plasma activation and chemical crosslinking of the fiber matrix.

  9. Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III

    2005-11-01

    Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

  10. Strengths of composite-to-metal double-lap bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hsien-Tang

    1998-12-01

    A three-dimensional analysis was proposed to study the through-the-thickness clamping effect on the bearing failure of double-lap bolted laminated composite joints. Experiments were first performed to characterize the material response due to bearing failure in composite bolted joints with and without lateral clamp-up supports. Composite plates made of T800H/3900-2 graphite/epoxy were selected in the tests, and various washer sizes and clamping forces were used in the study. The clamping force in the bolt was found to vary with the applied load, and may increase significantly due to a sudden through-the-thickness expansion of the laminate under the washers where bearing failure occurred. Experiments showed that the joint strength and response can be significantly affected by the bolt clamp-up, and the bolt bearing failure is a 3-D phenomenon. In order to facilitate the use of the proposed model with the ABAQUS code, an interface module 3DBOLT was developed. In order to reinforce the incompressibility condition in calculations for bearing-damaged material predicted by the model, the condition was imposed through a penalty method in the frame work of finite element analyses. The module provides a user-friendly input deck, generates automatically a joint mesh, and produces outputs and graphics for displaying the stresses, strains, and deformations of the joints and for simulating the failure progression in joints during loading. Extensive comparisons were made between the test data and model predictions. Overall, the model predicts both the failure load and response of bolted composite joints very well for various clamping forces and washer sizes. The model also predicted very well for joints failed in net-tension and shear-out modes. The predicted bolt clamp-up load as a function of the applied load agreed also very well with the data, which validates that the proposed incompressibility assumption for bearing-damaged material. Based on the model, a parametric study

  11. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  12. The Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Advanced Composite Joints Using Joint Finite Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and sizing of adhesively bonded joints has always been a major bottleneck in the design of composite vehicles. Dense finite element (FE) meshes are required to capture the full behavior of a joint numerically, but these dense meshes are impractical in vehicle-scale models where a course mesh is more desirable to make quick assessments and comparisons of different joint geometries. Analytical models are often helpful in sizing, but difficulties arise in coupling these models with full-vehicle FE models. Therefore, a joint FE was created which can be used within structural FE models to make quick assessments of bonded composite joints. The shape functions of the joint FE were found by solving the governing equations for a structural model for a joint. By analytically determining the shape functions of the joint FE, the complex joint behavior can be captured with very few elements. This joint FE was modified and used to consider adhesives with functionally graded material properties to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. Furthermore, proof-of-concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint. Furthermore, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior with large rotations was developed, and progressive failure of the adhesive was modeled by re-meshing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results predicted using the joint FE was compared with experimental results for various

  13. Modeling the Influence of Stitching on Delamination Growth in Stitched Warp-Knit Composite Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, I. S.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of stitches on the failure of a single lap joint configuration was determined in a combined experimental and analytical study. The experimental study was conducted to determine debond growth under static monotonic loading. The stitches were shown to delay the initiation of the debond and provide load transfer beyond the load necessary to completely debond the stitched lap joint. The strain energy release rates at the debond front were calculated using a finite element-based technique. Models of the unstitched configuration showed significant values of modes I and II across the width of the joint and showed that mode III is zero at the centerline but increases near the free edge. Models of the stitched configuration showed that the stitches effectively reduced mode I to zero, but had less of an effect on modes II and III.

  14. Mixed-mode cyclic debonding of adhesively bonded composite joints. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezaizadeh, M. A.; Mall, S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined experimental-analytical investigation to characterize the cyclic failure mechanism of a simple composite-to-composite bonded joint is conducted. The cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens of graphite/epoxy adherend bonded with EC-3445 adhesive are tested under combined mode 1 and 2 loading. In all specimens tested, fatigue failure occurs in the form of cyclic debonding. The cyclic debond growth rates are measured. The finite element analysis is employed to compute the mode 1, mode 2, and total strain energy release rates (i.e., GI, GII, and GT). A wide range of mixed-mode loading, i.e., GI/GII ranging from 0.03 to 0.38, is obtained. The total strain energy release rate, G sub T, appeared to be the driving parameter for cyclic debonding in the tested composite bonded system.

  15. PLASMA POLYMER FILMS AS ADHESION PROMOTING PRIMERS FOR ALUMINUM. PART II: STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF LAP JOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films (~800 A in thickness) were deposited onto 6111-T4 aluminum substrates in radio frequency and microwave powered reactors and used as primers for structural adhesive bonding. Processing variables such as substrate pre-treatment,...

  16. The effects of molecular weight on the single lap shear creep and constant strain rate behavior of thermoplastic polyimidesulfone adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembosky, Stanley K.; Sancaktar, Erol

    1985-01-01

    The bonded shear creep and constant strain rate behaviors of zero, one, and three percent endcapped thermoplastic polyimidesulfone adhesive were examined at room and elevated temperatures. Endcapping was accomplished by the addition of phthalic anhydrides. The primary objective was to determine the effects of molecular weight on the mechanical properties of the adhesive. Viscoelastic and nonlinear elastic constitutive equations were utilized to model the adhesive. Ludwik's and Crochet's relations were used to describe the experimental failure data. The effects of molecular weight changes on the above mentioned mechanical behavior were assessed. The viscoelastic Chase-Goldsmith and elastic nonlinear relations gave a good fit to the experimental stress strain behavior. Crochet's relations based on Maxwell and Chase-Goldsmith models were fit to delayed failure data. Ludwik's equations revealed negligible rate dependence. Ultimate stress levels and the safe levels for creep stresses were found to decrease as molecular weight was reduced.

  17. Integrating electrostatic adhesion to composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2015-04-01

    Additional functionality within load bearing components holds potential for adding value to a structure, design or product. We consider the adaptation of an established technology, electrostatic adhesion or electroadhesion, for application in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials. Electroadhesion uses high potential difference (~2-3 kV) between co-planar electrodes to generate temporary holding forces to both electrically conductive and nonconductive contact surfaces. Using a combination of established fabrication techniques, electroadhesive elements are co-cured within a composite host structure during manufacture. This provides an almost symbiotic relationship between the electroadhesive and the composite structure, with the electroadhesive providing an additional functionality, whilst the epoxy matrix material of the composite acts as a dielectric for the high voltage electrodes of the device. Silicone rubber coated devices have been shown to offer high shear load (85kPa) capability for GFRP components held together using this technique. Through careful control of the connection interface, we consider the incorporation of these devices within complete composite structures for additional functionality. The ability to vary the internal connectivity of structural elements could allow for incremental changes in connectivity between discrete sub-structures, potentially introducing variable stiffness to the global structure.

  18. Influence of Dissimilar Adherends on the Stress Distribution in Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints Subjected to Impact Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazimeh, R.; Challita, G.; Khalil, K.; Othman, R.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nonsymmetric rotation of laminates on the shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer of adhesively bonded double-lap composite joints (DLJ) subjected to in-plane impact compressive loadings is investigated by using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis. The compressive in-plane impact on DLJ is simulated using the direct Hopkinson bar system, and the specimen is impacted by an incident bar. It is found that the rotation of any adherend from the 0° orientation leads to a decrease in the average shear stress in the adhesive layer, but the maximum peel stress is affected only by the longitudinal stiffness of the outer adherend and decreases when this stiffness diminishes.

  19. Shear Pressed Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and their use as Composite and Adhesive Interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, James Joseph, III

    fiber nonwoven. A SPS falls into a short fiber nonwoven and is studied as a non-infused, infused, and infused functionalized interleaf in unidirectional carbon fiber composites for GIC improvement over non-interleaved samples. As with traditional interleaving studies it is possible to decrease delamination fracture toughness as well as increase, and the reasons for either are not always clear. While the SPS interleaves are promising to resist delamination, the scatter of the results make it an unreliable method of improvement. While these studies showed significant variability in effect of the interleaf, given the correct morphology of the SPS and precise measurement during the DCB testing it is possible to improve fracture toughness significantly with all SPS interleaves. A unique fabrication method is used to incorporate the SPS interleaves into lap joint and double strap joint geometries using a prepreg lay-up fabrication similar to forming the DCB specimens. This allowed study of the use of the SPS interleaf as an adhesive layer without the need to develop a SPS adhesive film that would not fail prematurely due to poor adhesion to cured composite panels. Results showed that improvement in GIC is not directly translated into improvement in joint strength. Lap joints showed a higher relationship between GIC than double strap joints likely due to the specimen geometry that results in the adhesive layer of lap joints failing in tension rather than shear.

  20. Environmental Aging of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M Structural Adhesive in Composite to Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Miner, Gilda A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Baughman, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites have found increased usage in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance is not well established. In this study, adhesive bonds were prepared by the secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminate. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of single-lap-shear (SLS) specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The aging results of strength retention and failure modes to date are reported.

  1. Influence of composition on the adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Hong, Guang; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maeda, Takeshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of composition on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength between denture adhesives and the denture base. Two types of water-soluble polymers (methoxy ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer [PVM-MA] and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC]) were used. Samples were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained only PVM-MA; Group 2 contained only CMC; and Group 3 contained PVM-MA and CMC. The initial viscosity and adhesive strength were measured. For Group 1, the initial viscosity increased significantly as PVM-MA content increased. The adhesive strength of Group 1 lasted longer than Group 2. The adhesive strength of Group 3 varied greatly. The ratio of CMC and PVM-MA has a significant effect on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of denture adhesives. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve the durability of a denture adhesive by combining different water-soluble polymers.

  2. Investigation of modified cottonseed protein adhesives for wood composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several modified cottonseed protein isolates were studied and compared to corresponding soy protein isolates for their adhesive properties when bonded to wood composites. Modifications included treatments with alkali, guanidine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea. Wood composites...

  3. Universal adhesive (glue composition) for electrical porcelain products

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Belen'kaya, E.S.; Omel'chenko, Y.A.; Vinogradova, T.K.

    1986-05-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an adhesive for porcelain insulators that exhibits high physicomechanical properties and increased resistance to the simultaneous action of heat and moisture. One method of solving this problem is to introduce special additives possessing hydrophobic (waterrepelling) properties into the adhesive composition during the process of its preparation. The adhesive based on the ED-20 epoxy resin and TEA hardened with 5 parts of AF-2 additive possesses higher resistance to the action of heat and moisture as compared to the adhesive used at the present time for assembling insulators. The improved and stable physiomechanical properties of the developed adhesive permit its use in any climactic conditions.

  4. Adhesives: Test Method, Group Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading-Rate Applications Preparation and Testing of Single Lap Joints (Ver. 2.2, Unlimited)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading- Rate Applications – Preparation and Testing of Single Lap Joints (Ver. 2.2, Unlimited) by...Rate Applications – Preparation and Testing of Single Lap Joints (Ver. 2.2, Unlimited) by Robert Jensen, Daniel DeSchepper, David Flanagan...Gerard Chaney, and Charles Pergantis Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Coatings, Corrosion, and Engineered Polymers Branch (CCEPB

  5. Evaluation of composite adhesive bonds using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Shashi Shekhar

    Advanced composite materials are widely used for many structural applications in the aerospace/aircraft industries today. Joining of composite structures using adhesive bonding offers several advantages over traditional fastening methods. However, this technique is not yet employed for fastening the primary structures of aircrafts or space vehicles. There are several reasons for this: There are not any reliable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can quantify the strength of the bonds, and there are no certifications of quality assurance for inspecting the bond quality. Therefore, there is a significant need for an effective, reliable, easy to use NDE method for the analysis of composite adhesive joints. This research aimed to investigate an adhesively bonded composite-aluminum joints of variable bond strength using digital image correlation (DIC). There are many future possibilities in continuing this research work. As the application of composite materials and adhesive bond are increasing rapidly, the reliability of the composite structures using adhesive bond should quantified. Hence a lot of similar research using various adhesive bonds and materials can be conducted for characterizing the behavior of adhesive bond. The results obtained from this research will set the foundation for the development of ultrasonic DIC as a nondestructive approach for the evaluation of adhesive bond line.

  6. Fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion in natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, L. Q. N.; Yuan, X. W.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Fuentes, C.; van Vuure, A. W.; Verpoest, I.

    2015-04-01

    The interface between natural fibers and thermoplastic matrices is studied, in which fiber-matrix wetting analysis and interfacial adhesion are investigated to obtain a systematic understanding of the interface. In wetting analysis, the surface energies of the fibers and the matrices are estimated using their contact angles in test liquids. Work of adhesion is calculated for each composite system. For the interface tests, transverse three point bending tests (3PBT) on unidirectional (UD) composites are performed to measure interfacial strength. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization on the fibers is also carried out to obtain more information about the surface chemistry of the fibers. UD composites are examined to explore the correlation between the fiber-matrix interface and the final properties of the composites. The results suggest that the higher interfacial adhesion of the treated fiber composites compared to untreated fiber composites can be attributed to higher fiber-matrix physico-chemical interaction corresponding with the work of adhesion.

  7. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  8. Tubular lap joints for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Guess, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study of the strength of thick- walled, adhesively bonded PMMA-to-aluminum and E-glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum tubular lap joints under axial load has been conducted. Test results include strength and failure mode data. Moreover, strain gages placed along the length of the outer tubular adherend characterize load transfer from one adherend to the other. The strain gage data indicate that load transfer is nonuniform and that the relatively compliant PMMA has the shorter load transfer length. Strains determined by a finite element analysis of the tested joints are in excellent agreement with those measured. Calculated bond stresses are highest in the region of observed failure, and extensive bond yielding is predicted in the E- glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum joint prior to joint failure. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Rapid adhesive bonding of advanced composites and titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryart, J. R.; Hodgest, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) concepts utilize a toroid induction technique to heat the adhesive bond line directly. This technique was used to bond titanium overlap shear specimens with 3 advanced thermoplastic adhesives and APC-2 (graphite/PEEK) composites with PEEK film. Bond strengths equivalent to standard heated-platen press bonds were produced with large reductions in process time. RAB produced very strong bonds in APC-2 adherend specimens; the APC-2 adherends were highly resistant to delamination. Thermal cycling did not significantly affect the shear strengths of RAB titanium bonds with polyimide adhesives. A simple ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation process was found promising for evaluating bond quality.

  10. LARC-13 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.; Sheppard, C. H.; Johnson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A LARC-13 type adhesive system was developed and property data obtained that demonstrated improved thermomechanical properties superior to base LARC-13 adhesive. An improved adhesive for 589 K (600 F) use was developed by physical or chemical modification of LARC-13. The adhesive was optimized for titanium and composite bonding, and a compatible surface preparation for titanium and composite substrates was identified. The data obtained with the improved adhesive system indicated it would meet the 589 K (600 F) properties desired for application on space shuttle components. Average titanium lap shear data were: (1) 21.1 MPa (3355 psi) at RT, (2) 13.0 MPa (1881 psi) at 600 F, and (3) 16.4 MPa (2335) after aging 125 hours at 600 F and tested at 600 F.

  11. Surface modifications of nylon/carbon fiber composite for improving joint adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Liao, S.L.; Tong, T.S.; Young, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Various methods were used to modify the nylon/carbon fiber composite surfaces, including grit blasting, flame and plasma pretreatments. The surfaces of nylon composites after pretreatments were characterized by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that several functional groups were formed after plasma and flame pretreatments. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs suggest that the blasting pretreatment increased the surface roughness of nylon composites. All these surface pretreatments dramatically increased the lap shear strength if proper operation conditions were used. The reasons for the increase of lap shear strength were explained.

  12. Adhesive-Bonded Composite Joint Analysis with Delaminated Surface Ply Using Strain-Energy Release Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadegani, Alireza; Yang, Chihdar; Smeltzer, Stanley S. III

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to determine the strain energy release rate due to an interlaminar crack of the surface ply in adhesively bonded composite joints subjected to axial tension. Single-lap shear-joint standard test specimen geometry with thick bondline is followed for model development. The field equations are formulated by using the first-order shear-deformation theory in laminated plates together with kinematics relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. The system of second-order differential equations is solved to using the symbolic computation tool Maple 9.52 to provide displacements fields. The equivalent forces at the tip of the prescribed interlaminar crack are obtained based on interlaminar stress distributions. The strain energy release rate of the crack is then determined by using the crack closure method. Finite element analyses using the J integral as well as the crack closure method are performed to verify the developed analytical model. It has been shown that the results using the analytical method correlate well with the results from the finite element analyses. An attempt is made to predict the failure loads of the joints based on limited test data from the literature. The effectiveness of the inclusion of bondline thickness is justified when compared with the results obtained from the previous model in which a thin bondline and uniform adhesive stresses through the bondline thickness are assumed.

  13. Characterization of adhesive from oysters: A structural and compositional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, Erik

    The inability for man-made adhesives to set in wet or humid environments is an ongoing challenging the design of biomedical and marine adhesive materials. However, we see that nature has already overcome this challenge. Mussels, barnacles, oysters and sandcastle worms all have unique mechanisms by which they attach themselves to surfaces. By understanding what evolution has already spent millions of years perfecting, we can design novel adhesive materials inspired by nature's elegant designs. The well-studied mussel is currently the standard for design of marine inspired biomimetic polymers. In the work presented here, we aim to provide new insights into the adhesive produced by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Unlike the mussel, which produces thread-like plaques comprised of DOPA containing-protein, the oyster secretes an organic-inorganic hybrid adhesive as it settles and grows onto a surface. This form of adhesion renders the oyster to be permanently fixed in place. Over time, hundreds of thousands of oyster grow and agglomerate to form extensive reef structures. These reefs are not only essential to survival of the oyster, but are also vital to intertidal ecosystems. While the shell of the oyster has been extensively studied, curiously, only a few conflicting insights have been made into the nature of the adhesive and contact zone between shell and substrate, and even lesfs information has been ascertained on organic and inorganic composition. In this work, we provide microscopy and histochemical studies to characterize the structure and composition of the adhesive, using oyster in the adult and juvenile stages of life. Preliminary work on extracting and characterizing organic components through collaborative help with solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and proteomics are also detailed here. We aim to provide a full, comprehensive characterization of oyster adhesive so that in the future, we may apply what we learn to the design of new materials.

  14. Adhesive and Composite Properties of a New Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomer (PETI) from the reaction of 2,3,',4'- biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 4,4'-oxydianiline and endcapped with 4- phenylethynylphthalic anhydride at a calculated number average molecular weight of 5000 g/mole was evaluated as an adhesive and composite matrix. The asymmetric dianhydride imparts a low melt viscosity to the oligomer and a high glass transition temperature to the cured resin. Preliminary adhesive work with titanium (6Al-4V) adherend gave good room temperature (RT) tensile shear strengths and excellent retention of RT strength at 260 C. Preliminary composite work using unsized IM7 carbon fiber provided moderate to high mechanical properties. The chemistry, mechanical, and physical properties of the new PETI in neat resin, adhesive and composite form are presented.

  15. Adhesive Bonding Characterization of Composite Joints for Cryogenic Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Schieleit, Gregory F.; Biggs, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite cryogenic tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future reusable launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW). This weight reduction is possible due to the large reduction in weight that composite materials can provide over current aluminum technology. In addition to composite technology, adhesively bonded joints potentially have several benefits over mechanically fastened joints, such as weight savings and cryogenic fluid containment. Adhesively bonded joints may be used in several areas of these cryogenic tanks, such as in lobe-to-lobe joints (in a multi-lobe concept), skirt-to-tank joint, strut-to-tank joint, and for attaching stringers and ring frames. The bonds, and the tanks themselves, must be able to withstand liquid cryogenic fuel temperatures that they contain. However, the use of adhesively bonded composite joints at liquid oxygen and hydrogen temperatures is largely unknown and must be characterized. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Michoud Operations performed coupon-level tests to determine effects of material selection, cure process parameters, substrate surface preparation, and other factors on the strength of these composite joints at cryogenic temperatures. This led to the selection of a material and process that would be suitable for a cryogenic tank. KEY WORDS: Composites, Adhesive Bonding, Cryogenics

  16. Marginal adaptation of composite resins under two adhesive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dačić, Stefan; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolić, Marija; Cenić, Milica; Dačić-Simonović, Dragica

    2016-11-01

    In the present research, different adhesive techniques were used to set up fillings with composite resins. After the application of etch and rinse or self etch adhesive technique, marginal adaptation of composite fillings was estimated by the length of margins without gaps, and by the microretention of resin in enamel and dentin. The study material consisted of 40 extracted teeth. Twenty Class V cavities were treated with 35% phosphorous acid and restored after rinsing by Adper Single Bond 2 and Filtek Ultimate-ASB/FU 3M ESPE composite system. The remaining 20 cavities were restored by Adper Easy One-AEO/FU 3M ESPE composite system. Marginal adaptation of composite fillings was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The etch and rinse adhesive technique showed a significantly higher percentage of margin length without gaps (in enamel: 92.5%, in dentin: 57.3%), compared with the self-etch technique with lower percentage of margin length without gaps, in enamel 70.4% (p < .001), and in dentin-22.6% (p < .05). In the first technique, microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers as well as resin tugs in interprismatic spaces of enamel, while the dentin microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers with resin tugs in dentin canals. In the second technique, resin tugs were rarely seen and a microgap was dominant along the border of restoration margins. The SEM analysis showed a better marginal adaptation of composite resin to enamel and dentin with better microretention when the etch and rinse adhesive procedure was applied.

  17. Three-Dimensional Adhesion Map Based on Surface and Interfacial Cutting Analysis System for Predicting Adhesion Properties of Composite Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuman; Byun, Seoungwoo; Cho, Inseong; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-09-14

    Using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS) that can measure the adhesion strength of a composite electrode at a specific depth from the surface, we can subdivide the adhesion strength of a composite electrode into two classes: (1) the adhesion strength between the Al current collector and the cathode composite electrode (FAl-Ca) and (2) the adhesion strength measured at the mid-depth of the cathode composite electrode (Fmid). Both adhesion strengths, FAl-Ca and Fmid, increase with increasing electrode density and loading level. From the SAICAS measurement, we obtain a mathematical equation that governs the adhesion strength of the composite electrodes. This equation revealed a maximum accuracy of 97.2% and 96.1% for FAl-Ca and Fmid, respectively, for four randomly chosen composite electrodes varying in electrode density and loading level.

  18. Improved Materials for Composite and Adhesive Joints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Mechanical Testing 1 b. Composites Fabricated 2 2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEAT RESIN AND IN SITU COMPOSITE PROPERTIES 5 3. MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT 6 a...inspection revealed large variations in thickness across the width of the tape. This problem is serious in that the resin has a very high melt viscosity...and thus unfor- giving in correcting variations during composite processing. There is little or no resin loss during processing. The PEEK resin in

  19. Adhesion characterization and defect sizing of sandwich honeycomb composites.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Elhadji Barra; Maréchal, Pierre; Duflo, Hugues

    2015-09-01

    Defects may appear in composite structures during their life cycle. A 10MHz 128 elements phased array transducer was investigated to characterize join bonds and defects in sandwich honeycomb composite structures. An adequate focal law throughout the composite skin gives the ultrasonic dispersive properties of the composite skin and glue layer behind. The resulting B-scan cartographies allow characterizing locally the honeycomb adhesion. Experimental measurements are compared in good agreement with the Debye Series Method (DSM). In the processed C-scan image, flaws are detectable and measurable, localized both in the scanning plane and in the thickness of the composite skin.

  20. The Adhesive Bonding of Thermoplastic Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-19

    contact angle analyses results , since both of these experimental methods attempt to assess the surface intermolecular forces . Secondly, the data from...TPFC) materials will be presented. The materials used in the present research work will then be described. Finally, the surface pretreatment...composite interface. It was precisely for the above reason that the current research work was undertaken. In the last year or two there has been some

  1. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Aircraft Fluid Exposure on T800H/3900-2 Composites Bonded with AF-555M Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Lowther, Sharon E.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Connell, John W.; Blasini, Sheila Roman

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites and structural adhesives have found increased usage on commercial and military aircraft in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance has not been well established. In this study, single lap shear specimens (SLS) were fabricated by secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminates. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of the SLS specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually using an optical microscope for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C (180 F) and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The effect of this exposure on lap shear strength and failure modes to date is reported. In addition, the effects of water, saline water, deicing fluid, JP-5 jet fuel and hydraulic fluid on both the composite material and the adhesive bonds were investigated. The up to date results on the effects of these exposures will be discussed.

  2. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  3. Cariogenic Bacteria Degrade Dental Resin Composites and Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bourbia, M.; Ma, D.; Cvitkovitch, D.G.; Santerre, J.P.; Finer, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A major reason for dental resin composite restoration replacement is related to secondary caries promoted by acid production from bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). We hypothesized that S. mutans has esterase activities that degrade dental resin composites and adhesives. Standardized specimens of resin composite (Z250), total-etch (Scotchbond Multipurpose, SB), and self-etch (Easybond, EB) adhesives were incubated with S. mutans UA159 or uninoculated culture medium (control) for up to 30 days. Quantification of the BisGMA-derived biodegradation by-product, bishydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (BisHPPP), was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Surface analysis of the specimens was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). S. mutans was shown to have esterase activities in levels comparable with those found in human saliva. A trend of increasing BisHPPP release throughout the incubation period was observed for all materials and was more elevated in the presence of bacteria vs. control medium for EB and Z250, but not for SB (p < .05). SEM confirmed the increased degradation of all materials with S. mutans UA159 vs. control. S. mutans has esterase activities at levels that degrade resin composites and adhesives; degree of degradation was dependent on the material’s chemical formulation. This finding suggests that the resin-dentin interface could be compromised by oral bacteria that contribute to the progression of secondary caries. PMID:24026951

  4. Adhesive defect detection in composite adhesive joints using phased array transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2015-03-01

    Composite materials are widely used in aircraft structures due to their high specific stiffness and strength. The laminated nature of composite structures makes them subject to disbond and delamination. These types of defects will compromise the integrity of the structure and therefore need to be monitored. To monitor aircraft structures, light weight transducers capable of large area coverage are beneficial. Ultrasonic guided waves are able to travel long distance and are sensitive to localized defects. The multi-modal characteristic of propagating guided waves requires optimal mode selection and excitation. Phased array transducers provide good versatility for optimal mode excitation since they can excite different guided wave modes preferentially. Phased array transducers designed for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications are employed in this work to study the interaction between adhesive defects and guided wave modes. Amplitude ratios and wave packet composition are utilized as defect indicators that are uniquely available due to the phased array transducers.

  5. How cats lap: water uptake by Felis catus.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro M; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey M; Stocker, Roman

    2010-11-26

    Animals have developed a range of drinking strategies depending on physiological and environmental constraints. Vertebrates with incomplete cheeks use their tongue to drink; the most common example is the lapping of cats and dogs. We show that the domestic cat (Felis catus) laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue. A combined experimental and theoretical analysis reveals that Felis catus exploits fluid inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. This competition between inertia and gravity sets the lapping frequency and yields a prediction for the dependence of frequency on animal mass. Measurements of lapping frequency across the family Felidae support this prediction, which suggests that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  6. Electrostatic adhesion for added functionality of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-02-01

    Electrostatic adhesion can be used as a means of reversible attachment. The incorporation of electrostatic adhesion into fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structures could provide significant value added functionality. Imparting large potential differences (∼2 kV) across electrodes generates an attractive force, thus providing a means of attachment. This could be used as a reversible latching mechanism or as a means of controllable internal connectivity. Varying the connectivity for discrete elements of a substructure of a given design allows for control of internal load paths and moment of area of the cross section. This could facilitate variable stiffness (both in bending and torsion). Using a combination of existing fabrication techniques, functional electrodes have been integrated within a FRP. Copper polyimide thin film laminate material has been both co-cured with carbon fibre reinforced epoxy and bonded to PVC closed cell foam core material to provide a range of structural configurations with integrated electrodes. The ability of such integrated devices to confer variations in global bending stiffness of basic beam structures is investigated. Through the application of 4 kV across integrated electrostatic adhesive devices, a 112% increase in flexural stiffness has been demonstrated for a composite sandwich structure.

  7. Shear bond strength of new self-adhesive flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Wajdowicz, Michael N; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Means, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new self-adhesive flowable composite resin systems have been introduced to the market. These new composite resin systems reportedly bond to dentin and enamel without the application of an adhesive bonding agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel of two new self-adhesive flowable composites with and without the use of an etch-and-rinse bonding agent. The new self-adhesive flowable composites had significantly lower bond strengths to enamel compared to a traditional adhesively bonded flowable composite. Both self-adhesive flowable composites had a significant increase in bond strength to enamel with the use of a phosphoric acid-etch and adhesive bonding agent.

  8. Adhesive and composite evaluation of acetylene-terminated phenylquinoxaline resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    A series of acetylene-terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) oligomers of various molecular weights were prepared and subsequently chain extended by the thermally induced reaction of the ethynyl groups. The processability and thermal properties of these oligomers and their cured resins were compared with that of a relatively high molecular weight linear polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) with the same chemical backbone. The ATPQ oligomers exhibited significantly better processability than the linear PPQ but the PPQ displayed substantially better thermooxidative stability. Adhesive (Ti/Ti) and composite (graphite filament reinforcement) work was performed to evaluate the potential of these materials for structural applications. The PPQ exhibited better retention of adhesive and laminate properties than the ATPQ resins at 260 C after aging for 500 hr at 260 C in circulating air.

  9. Effect of different adhesion strategies on bond strength of resin composite to composite-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Özcan, M; Pekkan, G

    2013-01-01

    Service life of discolored and abraded resin composite restorations could be prolonged by repair or relayering actions. Composite-composite adhesion can be achieved successfully using some surface conditioning methods, but the most effective adhesion protocol for relayering is not known when the composite restorations are surrounded with dentin. This study evaluated the effect of three adhesion strategies on the bond strength of resin composite to the composite-dentin complex. Intact maxillary central incisors (N=72, n=8 per subgroup) were collected and the coronal parts of the teeth were embedded in autopolymerized poly(methyl tfr54methacrylate) surrounded by a polyvinyl chloride cylinder. Cylindrical cavities (diameter: 2.6 mm; depth: 2 mm) were opened in the middle of the labial surfaces of the teeth using a standard diamond bur, and the specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Two types of resin composite, namely microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine; AS) and nanohybrid (Grandio; G), were photo-polymerized incrementally in the cavities according to each manufacturer's recommendations. The composite-enamel surfaces were ground finished to 1200-grit silicone carbide paper until the dentin was exposed. The surfaces of the substrate composites and the surrounding dentin were conditioned according to one of the following adhesion protocols: protocol 1: acid-etching (dentin) + silica coating (composite) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); protocol 2: silica coating (composite) + acid-etching (dentin) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); and protocol 3: acid-etching (dentin) + primer (dentin) + silanization (composite) + bonding agent (dentin + composite). Applied primer and bonding agents were the corresponding materials of the composite manufacturer. Silica coating (CoJet sand, 30 μm) was achieved using a chairside air-abrasion device (distance: 10 mm; duration

  10. Composites with improved fiber-resin interfacial adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizmecioglu, Muzaffer (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion of fiber reinforcement such as high modulus graphite to a matrix resin such as polycarbonate is greatly enhanced by applying a very thin layer, suitably from 50 Angstroms to below 1000 Angstroms, to the surface of the fiber such as by immersing the fiber in a dilute solution of the matrix resin in a volatile solvent followed by draining to remove excess solution and air drying to remove the solvent. The thin layer wets the fiber surface. The very dilute solution of matrix resin is able to impregnate multifilament fibers and the solution evenly flows onto the surface of the fibers. A thin uniform layer is formed on the surface of the fiber after removal of the solvent. The matrix resin coated fiber is completely wetted by the matrix resin during formation of the composite. Increased adhesion of the resin to the fibers is observed at fracture. At least 65 percent of the surface of the graphite fiber is covered with polycarbonate resin at fracture whereas uncoated fibers have very little matrix resin adhering to their surfaces at fracture and epoxy sized graphite fibers exhibit only slightly higher coverage with matrix resin at fracture. Flexural modulus of the composite containing matrix resin coated fibers is increased by 50 percent and flexural strength by 37 percent as compared to composites made with unsized fibers.

  11. Test and analysis of Celion 3000/PMR-15, graphite/polyimide bonded composite joints: Data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Standard single lap, double lap and symmetric step lap bonded joints of Celion 3000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite were evaluated. Composite to composite and composite to titanium joints were tested at 116 K (-250 F), 294 K (70 F) and 561 K (550 F). Joint parameters evaluated are lap length, adherend thickness, adherend axial stiffness, lamina stacking sequence and adherend tapering. Advanced joint concepts were examined to establish the change in performance of preformed adherends, scalloped adherends and hybrid systems. The material properties of the high temperature adhesive, designated A7F, used for bonding were established. The bonded joint tests resulted in interlaminar shear or peel failures of the composite and there were very few adhesive failures. Average test results agree with expected performance trends for the various test parameters. Results of finite element analyses and of test/analysis correlations are also presented.

  12. Ultrasonic inspection of adhesive joints of composite pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeidaa, Priscila Duarte; Alcoforado Rebello, João Marcos; Pereira, Gabriela Ribeiro; Soares, Sérgio Damasceno; Fernandez, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Composite pipelines are an attractive solution when traditional materials are not suitable for this purpose, which happens frequently at aggressive environments and also where the structural weight is a limiting factor. This work studies the application of the ultrasonic technique at the detection of defects as lack of adhesive and lack of adhesion, commonly found in adhesive joints of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) pipelines applied at onshore and offshore facilities. Computational simulations were conducted in CIVA 11software (beta version) in order to obtain the best possible configuration for the inspections, applying the pulse-echo technique. Experimental results were compared to these simulations and several transducers were tested. An inspection methodology and reference blocks were developed for the calibration of the inspections. Some samples were selected for cutting in order to compare the ultrasonic results and the real condition of the joints. Results show that smaller frequencies are suitable for the inspection of this material and focused probes present more accurate results.

  13. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  14. Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko adhesive setae

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, N.W; Gardner, K.H; Walls, D.J; Keiper-Hrynko, N.M; Ganzke, T.S; Hallahan, D.L

    2005-01-01

    The ability of certain reptiles to adhere to vertical (and hang from horizontal) surfaces has been attributed to the presence of specialized adhesive setae on their feet. Structural and compositional studies of such adhesive setae will contribute significantly towards the design of biomimetic fibrillar adhesive materials. The results of electron microscopy analyses of the structure of such setae are presented, indicating their formation from aggregates of proteinaceous fibrils held together by a matrix and potentially surrounded by a limiting proteinaceous sheath. Microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis has shown conclusively that the only ordered protein constituent in these structures exhibits a diffraction pattern characteristic of β-keratin. Raman microscopy of individual setae, however, clearly shows the presence of additional protein constituents, some of which may be identified as α-keratins. Electrophoretic analysis of solubilized setal proteins supports these conclusions, indicating the presence of a group of low-molecular-weight β-keratins (14–20 kDa), together with α-keratins, and this interpretation is supported by immunological analyses. PMID:16849272

  15. Nondestructive inspection of CFRP adhesively bonded joints using embedded FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.; Shin, P.; Peters, K.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2013-05-01

    One challenging need for inspection capabilities is in adhesively bonded joints between composite components, a common location of premature failure in aerospace structures. In this work we demonstrate that dynamic, full spectral scanning of FBG sensors embedded in the adhesive bond can identify changes in bond quality through the measurement of non-linear dynamics of the joint. Eighteen lap joint specimens were fabricated with varying manufacturing quality. Ten samples also included fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the adhesive bond for real-time inspection during a simulated flight condition of these single-lap joints. Prior to testing, pulse phase thermography imaging of the pristine specimens revealed defects such as air bubbles, adhesive thickness variations, and weak bonding surface between the laminate and adhesive. The lap joint specimens were then subjected to fatigue loading, with regular interrogation of the FBG sensors at selected load cycle intervals. The FBG data was collected during vibration loading of the lap joint to represent an in-flight environment. Changes in the lap joint dynamic response, including the transition to non-linear responses, were measured from both the full-spectral and peak wavelength FBG data. These changes were correlated to initial manufacturing defects and the progression of fatigue-induced damage independently measured with pulse phase imaging and visual inspections of the failure surfaces.

  16. Indirect aesthetic adhesive restoration with fibre-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Corona, S A M; Garcia, P P N S; Palma-Dibb, R G; Chimello, D T

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the restoration of an endodontically treated upper first molar with a fibre-reinforced onlay indirect composite resin restoration. The clinical and radiographic examination confirmed that the tooth had suffered considerable loss of structure. Therefore, an indirect restoration was indicated. First, a core was built with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, followed by onlay preparation, mechanical/chemical gingival retraction and impression with addition-cured silicone. After the laboratory phase, the onlay was tried in, followed by adhesive bonding and occlusal adjustment. It can be concluded that fibre-reinforced aesthetic indirect composite resin restoration represented, in the present clinical case, an aesthetic and conservative treatment option. However, the use of fibres should be more extensively studied to verify the real improvement in physical and mechanical properties.

  17. Chemistry, Adhesive and Composite Properties of Low Molecular Weight Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2004-01-01

    PETI-5 (1250 and 2500 g/mole) were prepared and characterized. Neat resin, adhesive and composite properties were determined and compared with those of PETI-5 (5000 g/mole). Relative to PETI-5 (5000 g/mole), PETI-5 (2500 g/mole) exhibited improved processability and equivalency in the adhesive and composite properties measured thus far. This resin, in both adhesive film and prepreg form, has the potential to offer significant improvements in the processing of complex structural composite parts.

  18. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  19. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines, adhesions can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction . Adhesions inside the uterine cavity, called Asherman syndrome , ... 1. Read More Appendicitis Asherman syndrome Glaucoma Infertility Intestinal obstruction Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina ...

  20. Experimental determination of the effects of moisture on composite-to-composite adhesive joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiasi, R. J.; Schulte, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The primary mode of moisture ingress into bonded composite joints is determined using a nuclear probe for deuterium (NPD) to measure the localized D2O content along the length of the adhesive (FM-300 and EA-9601) and through the thickness of bonded composite speciments. Calculated diffusivities and NPD measured equilibrium moisture contents are used to predict the moisture profiles along the length of the adhesives as a function of exposure time, temperature, and relative humidity. These results are compared with the observed moisture profiles to evaluate the extent of enhanced edge diffusion. The FM-300 adhesive exhibits good agreement between measured and predicted profiles at 49 C, 70% and 90% RH, and 77 C, 70% RH. At 77 C, 90% RH, the measured moisture content near the adhesive edge is substantially larger than the predicted level. The EA-9601 adhesive also shows good agreement at 49 C, 70% and 90% RH, but at 77 C, the concentration of D20 near the edges is enhanced at each humidity level. The effect of moisture content on the bond shear strength at room temperature and at elevated temperature is evaluated.

  1. Nondestructive inspection in adhesive-bonded joint CFRP using pulsed phase thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, P. H.; Webb, S. C.; Peters, K. J.

    2013-05-01

    Many forms of damages in fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) composites are difficult to detect because they occurs in subsurface layers of the composites. One challenging need for inspection capabilities is in adhesively bonded joints between composite components, a common location of premature failure in aerospace structures. This paper investigates pulsed phase thermography (PPT) imaging of fatigue damage in these adhesively bonded joints. Simulated defects were created to calibrate parameters for fatigue loading conditions, PPT imaging parameters, and a damage sizing algorithm for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) single lap joints. Afterwards, lap joint specimens were fabricated with varying quality of manufacturing. PPT imaging of the pristine specimens revealed defects such as air bubbles, adhesive thickness variations, and weak bonding surface between the laminate and adhesive. Next, fatigue testing was performed and acquired PPT imaging data identified fatigue induced damage prior to final failure cycles. After failure of each sample, those images were confirmed by visual inspections of failure surface.

  2. Clinical approach to anterior adhesive restorations using resin composite veneers.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Francesco; Cerutti, Antonio; Putignano, Angelo; Bollero, Raffaele; Madini, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Scientific progress in adhesive dentistry has led to more conservative techniques, both direct and indirect, to solve esthetic problems in anterior teeth. This article will discuss only indirect techniques, which are clearly superior in complex cases in which it will be difficult to recreate harmonious tooth shape and color. After reviewing the literature and highlighting the properties of this technique, the indications and benefits compared to the direct technique will be assessed. This is followed by a step-by-step description of operative procedures, from treatment planning to relining and polishing of the cemented adhesive restoration. The long-term success of veneers depends mainly on the tooth preparation, which should be confined to enamel, involve proximal contact areas, maintain the cervical enamel margin, and incorporate the incisal edge to increase veneer resistance and enable correct placement. Although no clinical follow-up similar to that of ceramic materials is available, the latest-generation resin composites offer interesting features. They can withstand mechanical stress, have excellent esthetic properties, and, most importantly, can be repaired intraorally without impairing their physicochemical and mechanical properties.

  3. Permeability testing of composite material and adhesive bonds for the DC-XA composite feedline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Hercules IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy and Hysol EA 9394 epoxy adhesive bonded between composite/titanium were tested for permeability after various numbers of thermal cycles between 100 C and liquid nitrogen (-196 C). The specimens were quenched from the 100 C temperature into liquid nitrogen to induce thermal shock into the material. Results showed that the carbon/epoxy system was practically impermeable even after 12 thermal cycles. The EA 9394 adhesive bondline was more permeable than the carbon/epoxy, but vacuum mixing minimized the permeability and kept it within allowable limits. Thermal cycling had little effect on the permeability values of the bondline specimens.

  4. [Sample German LAPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  5. Influence of interphase morphology on adhesion and composite durability in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.L. Jr.; Kander, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The microstructure of the interphase in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites has a dramatic influence on their mechanical properties. Studies have been performed to alter this region and to correlate various interphase morphologies with changes in fiber-matrix adhesion. A reinforced nylon 66 composite, when subjected to specific thermal histories, contains an interphase composed of transcrystallinity. This region has been altered by coating fibers with a diluent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), and/or adding the diluent to the matrix material in very small quantities. Interphase morphology was investigated with optical microscopy, and adhesion was measured using a modified fiber pull-out test. It was found that transcrystallinity increases the interfacial shear strength. The effect different interphase morphologies have on the durability of bulk composite samples is currently under investigation.

  6. Characterization of EA9394 Adhesive for Repair Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    examined briefly. The resistance of the bond-4 joint system appears to be heavily dependent upon the thickness of the metal adherend exposed to the...applications for aluminum and/or composite structures. The study includes data on the effects of time, pressure, and temperature on adhesive tensile lap shear...1992. It was caried out under Air Force Contmacts No. F33615-86-C-5031, " Composites Supportability Rapid Test and Evaluation," and No. F33615-89-C

  7. Interfacial adhesion in rayon/nylon sheath/core composite fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Weiying.

    1991-01-01

    The fibers with enhanced adhesion were produced using a wire coating type process. One objective was to determine an effective coupling agent and the most-appropriate application conditions for maximum interfacial adhesion in the rayon/nylon bicomponent fibers. The second objective was to characterize the interfacial adhesion between the core fiber and the rayon skin. After removal of the spin finish by water washing, the nylon core fibers were pretreated with fumaric acid (FA) as an adhesion promoter and then were coated with viscose rayon. The results indicated that the interfacial adhesion in the rayon/nylon composite fibers was significantly improved under the application conditions of 1.0% with 36 second pretreatment time, 1.5% with 18 second pretreatment, and 2% with 9 second pretreatment time. A fiber pull adhesion test method was developed to test the interfacial adhesion. This method effectively determined the adhesion between the core and the skin.

  8. New primers for adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrell, B. W.; Port, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide adhesive primers are effective, with high temperature epoxy resins, at temperatures from 100 deg to 300 deg C. Lap-shear failure loads and lap-shear strength of both primers are discussed.

  9. AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COMPOSITES AND THEIR EFFECT ON COMPOSITE-ADHESIVE-DENTIN BONDING

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, J.M.; O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Schumacher, G.E.; Skrtic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bond strength and related properties of photo-polymerizable, remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) polymeric composite-adhesive systems to dentin after various periods of aqueous aging at 37 °C. An experimental ACP base and lining composite was made from a photo-activated resin comprising 2,2-bis[p-(2’-hydroxy-3’-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and zirconyl dimethacrylate (ZrDMA); designated BTHZ. An experimental orthodontic composite was formulated from a photo-activated resin comprising ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), TEGDMA, HEMA and methacryloxyethyl phthalate (MEP); designated ETHM. In both composite series three fillers were compared: 1) freshly precipitated zirconium-modified ACP freshly precipitated (as-prepared Zr-ACP), 2) milled Zr-ACP and 3) an ion-leachable fluoride glass. In addition to the shear bond strength (SBS), work to fracture and failure modes of the orthodontic composites were determined. The SBS of the base and lining ACP composites appeared unaffected by filler type or immersion time. In the orthodontic ACP composite series, milled ACP composites showed initial mechanical advantages over as-prepared ACP composites, and produced higher incidence of a failure mode consistent with stronger adhesion. After six months of aqueous exposure, 80 % of specimens failed at the dentin-primer interface, with a 42 % overall reduction in bond strength. BTHZ and ETHM based ACP composites are potentially effective anti-demineralizing-remineralizing agents with possible clinical utility as protective base-liners and orthodontic cements, respectively. The analysis of the bond strength and failure modalities suggests that milled ACP composites may offer greater potential in clinical applications. PMID:19696914

  10. [Studies on the pre-treatment of dental alloy for adhesive restorations. 4. Adhesive durability of adhesive resin to various dental alloys treated with composite plating].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Yamashita, A; Suzuki, K; Omura, I; Yamauchi, J I

    1989-07-01

    In this study, the durability of adhesion between an adhesive resin (Panavia EX) and dental alloys (gold or Ni-Cr) were examined in regard to thermal cycling, immersion, either in water (70 degrees C or 100 degrees C) or in sodium chloride solutions (pH was 3, 7 and 9). An favourable adhesive strength, such as 450-500 kgf/cm2, was obtained even after 24 hours immersion in 37 degrees C water, when the surface pre-treatment of the alloy was done with either Sn- or composite (TMSAC/Sn or PVC/Sn)-plating. However, during the durability test, the adhesive strength has decreased to such on extent, that about 60% of early strength with Sn-plating and 80% with TMSAC/Sn composite plating. But, with PVC/Sn composite-plating, more than 90% of the early strength was maintained. In regard to the pH of the corrosive solution, no apparent difference was observed regarding the above mentioned adhesive characteristics.

  11. Viscoelastic Properties of Collagen-Adhesive Composites under Water Saturated and Dry Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the time and rate dependent mechanical properties of collagen-adhesive composites, creep and monotonic experiments are performed under dry and wet conditions. The composites are prepared by infiltration of dentin adhesive into a demineralized bovine dentin. Experimental results show that for small stress level under dry conditions, both the composite and neat adhesive have similar behavior. On the other hand, in wet conditions, the composites are significantly soft and weak compared to the neat adhesives. The behavior in the wet condition is found to be affected by the hydrophilicity of both the adhesive and collagen. Since the adhesive-collagen composites area part of the complex construct that forms the adhesive-dentin interface, their presence will affect the overall performance of the restoration. We find that Kelvin-Voigt model with at least 4-elements is required to fit the creep compliance data, indicating that the adhesive-collagen composites are complex polymers with several characteristics time-scales whose mechanical behavior will be significantly affected by loading rates and frequencies. Such mechanical properties have not been investigated widely for these types of materials. The derived model provides an additional advantage that it can be exploited to extract other viscoelastic properties which are, generally, time consuming to obtain experimentally. The calibrated model is utilized to obtain stress relaxation function, frequency-dependent storage and loss modulus, and rate dependent elastic modulus. PMID:24753362

  12. Revisiting the Numerical Convergence of Cohesive-Zone Models in Simulating the Delamination of Composite Adhesive Joints by Using the Finite-Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. F.; Gu, Z. P.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    Delamination is the dominating failure mechanism in composite adhesive joints. A deep insight into the delamination failure mechanism requires advanced numerical methods. Currently, cohesive-zone models (CZMs), in combination with the finite-element analysis (FEA), have become powerful tools for modeling the initiation and growth of delaminations in composites. However, ensuring the numerical convergence in the CZMs used for a delamination analysis of three-dimensional (3D) composite structures is always a challenging issue due to the "snap-back" instability in the nonlinear implicit FEA, which arises mainly from the cohesive softening behavior. Based on the midplane interpolation technique, first numerical techniques for implementing 3D bilinear and exponential CZMs by using ABAQUS-UEL (user element subroutine) are developed in this paper. In particular, a viscous regularization by introducing the damping effect into the stiffness equation is used to improve the convergence. Two examples, a single-lap composite joint and a composite skin/stiffener panel under tension, demonstrate the numerical technique developed. Then, the effect of cohesion parameters on the numerical convergence based on the viscous regularization is studied.

  13. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to composite submitted to different surface pretreatments

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Victor Hugo; Griza, Sandro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extensively destroyed teeth are commonly restored with composite resin before cavity preparation for indirect restorations. The longevity of the restoration can be related to the proper bonding of the resin cement to the composite. This study aimed to evaluate the microshear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements to composite resin. Materials and Methods Composite discs were subject to one of six different surface pretreatments: none (control), 35% phosphoric acid etching for 30 seconds (PA), application of silane (silane), PA + silane, PA + adhesive, or PA + silane + adhesive (n = 6). A silicone mold containing a cylindrical orifice (1 mm2 diameter) was placed over the composite resin. RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) or BisCem (Bisco Inc.) self-adhesive resin cement was inserted into the orifices and light-cured. Self-adhesive cement cylinders were submitted to shear loading. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results Independent of the cement used, the PA + Silane + Adhesive group showed higher microshear bond strength than those of the PA and PA + Silane groups. There was no difference among the other treatments. Unicem presented higher bond strength than BisCem for all experimental conditions. Conclusions Pretreatments of the composite resin surface might have an effect on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to this substrate. PMID:24516824

  14. Functionally gradient hard carbon composites for improved adhesion and wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Roger Jagdish

    A new approach is proposed for fabricating biomedical devices that last longer and are more biocompatible than those presently available. In this approach, a bulk material is chosen that has desirable mechanical properties (low modulus, high strength, high ductility and high fatigue strength). This material is coated with corrosion-resistant, wear-resistant, hard, and biocompatible hard carbon films. One of the many forms of carbon, tetrahedral amorphous carbon, consists mainly of sp3-bonded atoms. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon possesses properties close to diamond in terms of hardness, atomic smoothness, and inertness. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond films usually contain large amounts of compressive and sometimes tensile stresses; adhesive failure from these stresses has limited widespread use of these materials. This research involves processing, characterization and modeling of functionally gradient tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond composite films on metals (cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys) and polymers (polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene) used in biomedical applications. Multilayer discontinuous thin films of titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum nitride, and tungsten carbide have been developed to control stresses and graphitization in diamond films. A morphology of randomly interconnected micron sized diamond crystallites provides increased toughness and stress reduction. Internal stresses in tetrahedral amorphous carbon were reduced via incorporation of carbide forming elements (silicon and titanium) and noncarbide forming elements (copper, platinum, and silver). These materials were produced using a novel target design during pulsed laser deposition. These alloying atoms reduce hardness and sp3-bonded carbon content, but increase adhesion and wear resistance. Silver and platinum provide the films with antimicrobial properties, and silicon provides bioactivity and aids bone formation. Bilayer coatings were created that couple

  15. Urea modified cottonseed protein adhesive for wood composite products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed protein has the potential to be used as renewable and environmentally friendly adhesives in wood products industry. However, the industry application was limited by its low mechanical properties, low water resistance and viscosity. In this work, urea modified cottonseed protein adhesive w...

  16. Composites Supportability Rapid Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Primer .......................... 85 33 A357 Chemical Composition ................................ 86 34 A357 Heat Treatment...88 37 Tensile Lap Shear Data, A357 Cast Aluminum vs. 2024-T3 Sheet Aluminum...89 38 Wedge Crack Growth Data, 250OF Curing Adhesive System, A357 Cast Aluminum vs. 2024-T3 Sheet Aluminum .............. 90 39 Wedge Crack Growth

  17. Composition and Humidity Response of the Black Widow Spider's Gumfoot Silk and its Implications on Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Zhang, Ci; Cool, Lydia Rose; Blackledge, Todd. A.; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Humidity plays an important part in the performance of biomaterials such as pollen, gecko toe, wheat awns, bird feathers and dragline silk. Capture silk produced by web building spiders form an interesting class of humidity responsive biological glues. The adhesive properties of the widely studied `viscid silk' produced by orbweb-weaving spiders is highly humidity sensitive. On the other hand, relatively less is known about the dependence of composition and humidity response towards adhesion for `gumfoot' silk produced by cobweb-weaving spiders. In the present study, we investigate the gumfoot silk produced by Black Widow using adhesion mechanics, microscopy and spectroscopic methods. The results show the presence of hygroscopic salts, glycoproteins and previously known spider coating peptides in silk and their importance in the humidity response and adhesion. The current study elucidates the role of constituents of capture silk in its adhesion mechanism and offers insights to novel ways for fabricating bio-inspired adhesives.

  18. Rubicon swaps autophagy for LAP.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Keith B; Randow, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Phagocytic cells engulf their prey into vesicular structures called phagosomes, of which a certain proportion becomes demarcated for enhanced maturation by a process called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Light has now been shed on the molecular requirements of LAP, establishing a central role for the protein Rubicon in the immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus.

  19. Analysis of the Static and Fatigue Strenght of a Damage Tolerant 3D-Reinforced Joining Technology on Composite Single Lap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. C.; Drechsler, K.; Hombergsmeier, E.

    2012-07-01

    The increasing usage of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) in aerospace together with the constant drive for fuel efficiency and lightweight design have imposed new challenges in next generation structural assemblies and load transfer efficient joining methods. To address this issue, an innovative technology, denominated Redundant High Efficiency Assembly (RHEA) joints, is introduced as a high-performance lightweight joint that combines efficient load transfer with good damage tolerance. A review of the ongoing research involving the RHEA joint technology, its through-thickness reinforcement concept and the results of quasi-static and fatigue tensile investigations of single lap shear specimens are exposed and discussed. Improvements in ultimate static load, maximum joint deformation, damage tolerance and fatigue life are encountered when comparing the performance of the RHEA lap shear joints to co-bonded reference specimens.

  20. Structural and compositional characterization of the adhesive produced by reef building oysters.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Erik M; Taylor, Stephen D; Edwards, Stephanie L; Sherman, Debra M; Huang, Chia-Ping; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2015-04-29

    Oysters have an impressive ability to overcome difficulties of life within the stressful intertidal zone. These shellfish produce an adhesive for attaching to each other and building protective reef communities. With their reefs often exceeding kilometers in length, oysters play a major role in balancing the health of coastal marine ecosystems. Few details are available to describe oyster adhesive composition or structure. Here several characterization methods were applied to describe the nature of this material. Microscopy studies indicated that the glue is comprised of organic fiber-like and sheet-like structures surrounded by an inorganic matrix. Phospholipids, cross-linking chemistry, and conjugated organics were found to differentiate this adhesive from the shell. Symbiosis in material synthesis could also be present, with oysters incorporating bacterial polysaccharides into their adhesive. Oyster glue shows that an organic-inorganic composite material can provide adhesion, a property especially important when constructing a marine ecosystem.

  1. Fracture surface analysis in composite and titanium bonding: Part 1: Titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, K. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Fractured lap shear Ti 6-4 adherends bonded with polyphenyquinoxaline (PPQ) and polysulfone were analyzed. The effects of adherend pretreatment, stress level, thermal aging, anodizing voltage, and modified adhesive of Ti 6-4 adherend bonded with PPQ on lap shear strength were studied. The effect of adherend pretreatment on lap shear strength was investigated for PS samples. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) used to study the surface topography and surface composition are also discussed.

  2. Marginal behaviour of self-etch adhesive/composite and combined amalgam-composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Kournetas, Nikos; Kakaboura, Afrodite; Giftopoulos, Dimitrios; Chakmachi, Magdad; Rahiotis, Christos; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the marginal and internal adaptation in self-etching adhesive (SEA)/composite restorations with combined amalgam-resin-based composite restorations in the proximal box with and without bonding agent beneath amalgam both before and after load-cycling. Class II restorations, were manufactured as following a) Bonding agent (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, Kuraray) beneath amalgam (Tytin, SDS Kerr) and resin-based composite (Clearfil APX, Kuraray) with SEA, b) Amalgam without bonding agent and resin-based composite with SEA and c) Resin-based composite with SEA. Each group divided into two equal subgroups (n=8). Marginal and internal adaptation of first subgroup evaluated after 7-day water storage and of the second after load-cycling in chewing simulator for 1.2 x 10(6) cycles. Marginal and internal adaptation at cervical and amalgam-composite sites evaluated by videomicroscope and ranked as "excellent"/"non-excellent". Slices of restorations examined under optical microscope to determine the quality of bonding layer. Defects in cervical adaptation observed in the three restorative techniques examined prior loading. Amalgam-composite combination in proximal surface provided comparable marginal and internal adaptation results at cervical wall, to self-etching-composite combination. Portion (25-37.5%) of amalgam-resin-based composite interfaces in proximal box presented no perfect sealing. The application of bonding agent beneath amalgam resulted in relatively inferior cervical adaptation. Loading resulted in fewer excellent restorations in all three restorative techniques but not in a statistically significant level.

  3. Effect of thermal shock loadings on stability of dentin-composite polymer material adhesive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Shlyapnikova, Olga A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Gribov, Andrey N.

    2015-03-01

    In the past several decades the problem of longevity and durability of adhesive interfaces between hard tooth tissues and composite resin-based materials are of great interest among dental researchers and clinicians. These parameters are partially determined by adhesive system mechanical properties. In the present research project nanoindentation has been examined to test hardness of dental adhesive systems. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to study the effect of light curing time and oxygen inhibition phenomenon on light-cured adhesive material hardness. An adhesive system AdperTM Single Bond (3M ESPE) was selected as a material for testing. The analysis of experimental data revealed that the maximum values of hardness were observed after the material had been light-cured for 20 seconds, as outlined in guidelines for polymerization time of the adhesive system. The experimental studies of oxygen inhibition influence on adhesive system hardness pointed out to the fact that the dispersive layer removal led to increase in adhesive system hardness. A long - time exposure of polymerized material of adhesive system at open air at room temperature resulted in no changes in its hardness, which was likely to be determined by the mutual effect of rival processes of air oxygen inhibition and directed light curing.

  4. Effect of interfacial chemical bonding and surface topography on adhesion in carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Drzal, L.T.; Sugiura, N.; Hook, D. |

    1994-12-31

    A series of PAN-based IM6 carbon fibers having varying amounts of surface treatment were, pretreated with compounds representing the constituents encountered in epoxy composites to pre-react any groups on the fiber surface before composite fabrication in order to determine the effect of chemical bonding on fiber-matrix adhesion. Chemical bonding was quantified using XPS. Chemical bonding between reactive groups in amine cured epoxy matrices and the surface groups present on IN46 carbon fibers as a result of commercial surface treatments has been detected although the absolute amount of chemical bonding is low (1-3%). It was found that reaction with monofunctional epoxy groups having hydrocarbon functionalities blocked the surface from further reaction and reduced the adhesion that could be attained to its lowest value. Prereaction with difunctional amines had little effect on adhesion when compared to normal composite fabrication procedures. Prereaction with difunctional epoxy groups did enhance adhesion levels over the level attained in normal composite fabrication methods. These results showed that chemical bonding between epoxy and the carbon fiber surface could increases the adhesion between fiber and matrix about 25% while between the amino group and the carbon fiber surface about 15%. Quantitative measurements of the fiber surface microtopography were made with scanning tunneling microscopy. An increase in roughness was detected with increasing surface treatment. It was concluded that surface roughness also accounted for a significant increase in fiber-matrix adhesion.

  5. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Hye

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250) discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control). In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP). The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9). Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p < 0.001). The cell surface of S. mutans tested showed hydrophobic characteristics. Group PoGo exhibited the greatest bacterial adhesion among all groups tested (p < 0.001). The sealant-coated groups showed statistically similar (groups PS and FP, p > 0.05) or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001) bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo. PMID:28194363

  6. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  7. Compositional design and optimization of dentin adhesive with neutralization capability

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Spencer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this work was to investigate the polymerization behavior, neutralization capability, and mechanical properties of dentin adhesive formulations with the addition of the tertiary amine co-monomer, 2-N-morpholinoethyl methacrylate (MEMA). Methods A co-monomer mixture based on HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w) was used as a control adhesive. Compared with the control formulation, the MEMA-containing adhesive formulations were characterized comprehensively with regard to water miscibility of liquid resin, water sorption and solubility of cured polymer, real-time photopolymerization kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The neutralization capacity was characterized by monitoring the pH shift of 1 mM lactic acid (LA) solution, in which the adhesive polymers were soaked. Results With increasing MEMA concentrations, experimental copolymers showed higher water sorption, lower glass transition temperature and lower crosslinking density compared to the control. The pH values of LA solution gradually increased from 3.5 to about 6.0–6.5 after 90 days. With the increase in crosslinking density of the copolymers, the neutralization rate was depressed. The optimal MEMA concentration was between 20 and 40 wt%. Conclusions As compared to the control, the results indicated that the MEMA-functionalized copolymer showed neutralization capability. The crosslinking density of the copolymer networks influenced the neutralization rate. PMID:26144189

  8. Preliminary evaluation of adhesion strength measurement devices for ceramic/titanium matrix composite bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohlchuck, Bobby; Zeller, Mary V.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive bond between ceramic cement and a titanium matrix composite substrate to be used in the National Aerospace Plane program is evaluated. Two commercially available adhesion testers, the Sebastian Adherence Tester and the CSEM REVETEST Scratch Tester, are evaluated to determine their suitability for quantitatively measuring adhesion strength. Various thicknesses of cements are applied to several substrates, and bond strengths are determined with both testers. The Sabastian Adherence Tester has provided limited data due to an interference from the sample mounting procedure, and has been shown to be incapable of distinguishing adhesion strength from tensile and shear properties of the cement itself. The data from the scratch tester has been found to be difficult to interpret due to the porosity and hardness of the cement. Recommendations are proposed for a more reliable adhesion test method.

  9. Effect of laser preparation on adhesion of a self-adhesive flowable composite resin to primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Razmjoei, Faranak; Kianimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion of a self-adhering flowable composite resin to primary tooth enamel and dentin after silicon carbide paper (SiC) and laser pretreatment. Adhesive properties were evaluated as shear bond strength (SBS) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) characteristics. A total 120 primary canine teeth were randomly divided into two groups to study enamel and dentin. Each group was divided into 6 subgroups (n = 10) according to type of surface preparation (SiC or Er:YAG laser) of enamel or dentin. Three methods were used to build cylinders of restoration on tooth surface: OptiBond All-In-One + Premise Flowable composite, OptiBond All-In-One + Vertise Flow and Vertise flow. After restoration, samples were tested for SBS and failure mode. Twenty eight samples were examined by SEM. The results of the study showed SBS of Vertise Flow was lower than others in enamel and dentin samples pretreated with SiC and in dentin samples pretreated with laser (P < 0.001). Compared to SiC pretreatment, laser pretreatment led to a significantly higher SBS with Vertise Flow on enamel (P < 0.001). Vertise Flow associated with the adhesive led to a higher SBS in enamel and dentin compared to Vertise Flow alone. Adhesive and mixed failure modes were observed more frequently in Vertise Flow groups. SEM images showed that Vertise Flow led to more irregularities on enamel and more open dentinal tubules after laser ablation compared SiC pretreatment.

  10. Single anterior tooth restoration using a self-etching adhesive system and a reinforced microfill composite.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Norman

    2003-08-01

    Treatment for a single discolored anterior tooth may involve placement of a direct composite veneer to enhance a patient's smile and mask underlying discoloration. Among the challenges clinicians may face in this endeavor are the selection of suitable composite materials, application of an adhesive bonding system, and re-creation of the natural shade variations inherent in natural teeth. This article discusses the characteristics and placement protocol for a recently introduced self-etching adhesive system and a reinforced microfill composite when they are used to restore a single discolored central incisor.

  11. A phenomenological model of coating/substrate adhesion and interfacial bimetallic peeling stress in composite mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, Paul M.; Lawson, Daniel D.

    1990-01-01

    Adhesion and interfacial stress between metal films and structural composite material substrates is discussed. A theoretical and conceptual basis for selecting coating materials for composite mirror substrates is described. A phenomenological model that interrelates cohesive tensile strength of thin film coatings and interfacial peeling stresses is presented. The model serves as a basis in determining gradiated materials response and compatibility of composite substrate and coating combinations. Parametric evaluation of material properties and geometrical factors such as coating thickness are used to determine the threshold stress levels for maintaining adhesion at the different interfaces.

  12. Effect of new adhesion promoter and mechanical interlocking on bonding strength in metal-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, A.; Göring, M.; Lindner, T.; Töberling, G.; Puschmann, M.; Riedel, F.; Scharf, I.; Schreiter, K.; Spange, S.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    There are various opportunities to improve the adhesion between polymer and metal in metal-plastic composites. The addition of a bonding agent which reacts with both joining components at the interfaces of the composite can enhance the bonding strength. An alternative method for the adjustment of interfaces in metal-plastic composites is the specific surface structuring of the joining partners in order to exploit the mechanical interlock effect. In this study the potential of using an adhesion promoter based on twin polymerization for metal-plastic composites in combination with different methods of mechanical surface treatment is evaluated by using the tensile shear test. It is shown that the new adhesion promoter has a major effect when applied on smooth metal surfaces. A combination of both mechanical and chemical surface treatment of the metal part is mostly just as effective as the application of only one of these surface treatment methods.

  13. Film/Adhesive Processing Module for Fiber-Placement Processing of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, A. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    An automated apparatus has been designed and constructed that enables the automated lay-up of composite structures incorporating films, foils, and adhesives during the automated fiber-placement process. This apparatus, denoted a film module, could be used to deposit materials in film or thin sheet form either simultaneously when laying down the fiber composite article or in an independent step.

  14. Does the use of a novel self-adhesive flowable composite reduce nanoleakage?

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Abeer Abo El; Yousef, Mohammed; Ramadan, Rasha; Fayez Bahgat, Sherif; Alshawwa, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate the performance of a self-adhesive flowable composite and two self-etching adhesive systems, when subjected to cyclic loading, in preventing the nanoleakage of Class V restorations. Methods Wedge-shape Class V cavities were prepared (4×2×2 mm [length × width × depth]) on the buccal surfaces of 90 sound human premolars. Cavities were divided randomly into three groups (n=30) according to the used adhesive (Xeno® V [self-etching adhesive system]) and BOND-1® SF (solvent-free self-etching adhesive system) in conjunction with Artiste® Nano Composite resin, and Fusio™ Liquid Dentin (self-adhesive flowable composite), consecutively. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=10): (A) control, (B) subjected to occlusal cyclic loading (90N for 5,000 cycles), and (C) subjected to occlusal cyclic loading (90N for 10,000 cycles). Teeth then were coated with nail polish up to 1 mm from the interface, immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution for 24 hours and tested for nanoleakage using the environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis X-ray analysis. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (P≤0.05). Results The Fusio Liquid Dentin group showed statistically significant lower percentages of silver penetration (0.55 μ) compared with the BOND-1 SF (3.45 μ) and Xeno V (3.82 μ) groups, which were not statistically different from each other, as they both showed higher silver penetration. Conclusion Under the test conditions, the self-adhesive flowable composite provided better sealing ability. Aging of the two tested adhesive systems, as a function of cyclic loading, increased nanoleakage. PMID:25848318

  15. Adhesion to root canal dentine using one and two-step adhesives with dual-cure composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Foxton, R M; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J; Miura, H

    2005-02-01

    The regional tensile bond strengths of two dual-cure composite resin core materials to root canal dentine using either a one or two-step self-etching adhesive were evaluated. Extracted premolar teeth were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm. In one group, a one-step self-etching adhesive (Unifil Self-etching Bond) was applied to the walls of the post-space and light-cured for 10 s. After which, the post-spaces were filled with the a dual-cure composite resin (Unifil Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. In the second group, a self-etching primer (ED Primer II) was applied for 30 s, followed by an adhesive resin (Clearfil Photo Bond), which was light-cured for 10 s. The post-spaces were filled with a dual-cure composite resin (DC Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. Chemical-cure composite resin was placed on the outer surfaces of all the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 h. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into 8, 0.6 mm-thick slabs, and then transversely sectioned into beams, approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm, for the microtensile bond strength test (muTBS). Data were divided into two (coronal/apical half of post-space) and analysed using three-way anova and Scheffe's test (P < 0.05). Failure modes were observed under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed. Specimens for observation of the bonded interfaces were prepared in a similar manner as for bond strength testing, cut in half and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then polished to a high gloss, gold sputter coated, and after argon ion etching, observed under an SEM. For both dual-cure composite resins and curing strategies, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the coronal and apical regions (P > 0.05). In addition, both dual

  16. High Performance Composites and Adhesives for V/STOL Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-22

    methylene protons adjacent to the carbonyl group of sebacic acid . be exp The presence of these compounds in the C.-.-diamide/SnCl- mixture can lained by...adhesive evaluations. Fig. 1 gives the schematic of the specimen geometry. The adherends were 5086 aluminum alloy, cleaned by acid -chromate etching...minutes. At this stage, the material remains sufficiently fluid for proper prepregging. Further heating may increase the melt viscosity beyond the

  17. Influence of artificial ageing on surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to dental composite materials.

    PubMed

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Henrich, Anne; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Bürgers, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of artificial ageing on the surface properties and early Streptococcus mutans adhesion to current dental composites for the direct restoration of class II defects. Three hundred and thirty specimens each were prepared from five dental composites, and were randomly allotted to various artificial ageing protocols (storage in distilled water/ethanol/artificial saliva for 7/90/365 days; thermal cycling, 6,000 cycles 5/55 degrees C). Prior and after each treatment, surface roughness (R(a)) and hydrophobicity were determined, and S. mutans adhesion (ATCC 25175; 2.5 h, 37 degrees C) was simulated with and without prior exposition to human whole saliva (2 h, 37 degrees C). Adherence of S. mutans was determined fluorometrically. Means and standard deviations were calculated, and analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). For both R(a) and S. mutans adherence to uncoated and saliva-coated specimens, significant influences of the composite material, the ageing medium and the ageing duration have been observed; for surface hydrophobicity, significant influences of the composite material and the ageing duration were found. For uncoated specimens, significant increases in S. mutans adhesion were observed with prolonged artificial ageing, whereas significant decreases in S. mutans adhesion were found for the saliva-coated specimens. The data indicate influences of the artificial ageing method on surface parameters such as R(a) and hydrophobicity as well as microbial adhesion. The results underline the relevance of saliva coating on the outcome of studies simulating microbial adhesion, and highlight differences in the susceptibility of dental composites for the adhesion of oral bacteria.

  18. Relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive. As controls, micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites were tested. The universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Adhese Universal, and G-Premio Bond. The fracture toughness and flexural properties of resin composites, and shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength of universal adhesive with resin composite using both total-etch and self-etch modes were determined. In the results, short fiber-reinforced resin composite showed significantly higher fracture toughness than did micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The flexural strength and modulus of short fiber-reinforced and nano-hybrid resin composites were significantly lower than were those of micro-hybrid resin composites. Regardless of etching mode, the shear bond strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite did not show any significant differences from micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The shear fatigue strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite and micro-hybrid resin composites were significantly higher than that of nano-hybrid resin composites. The results of this study suggest that the mechanical properties of short fiber-reinforced resin composite improve their bond durability with universal adhesive.

  19. Initial adhesion of glass-fiber-reinforced composite to the surface of porcine calvarial bone.

    PubMed

    Tuusa, S M R; Lassila, L V J; Matinlinna, J P; Peltola, M J; Vallittu, P K

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the initial bond strength of the glass-fiber-reinforced composite veil to the surface of the porcine calvarial compact bone using different adhesives. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) made of E-glass fiber veil with the BisGMA-PMMA resin system was used in the study. For the shear bond strength test, porcine calvarial bone cubes were mounted into resin matrix. FRC-veil discs were bonded to compact bone with different types of adhesives: (A) BisGMA-HEMA based (3M-ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive), (B) 4-META/UDMA/BisGMA based (Unifil Bond Bonding Agent) and MDP based (Clearfil Se Bond adhesive), (C) UDMA/BisGMA/PMMA-based experimental adhesive, and (D) silane-based (APS, ICS, MPS) experimental adhesives. The surface of the bone was mechanically roughened and was either used as such, treated with dental primers (Unifil Bond Self-etching Primer, Clearfil Se Bond Primer), or treated with an experimental silane mixture (APS, ICS, MPS), or with a mixture of the experimental silane liquid and Clearfil Se Bond Primer. The 3M-ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive and UDMA/BisGMA/PMMA experimental adhesive gave poor results in the shear bond test (0.58 and 0.40 MPa, respectively). Unifil Bond Bonding Agent and Clearfil Se Bond adhesive with respective primers markedly improved the shear bond strength; with Unifil the result was 3.40 MPa, and with Clearfil it was 6.19 MPa. When the bone surface was primed with a mixture of Clearfil Se Bond Primer and Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, the Clearfil Se Bond adhesive-impregnated FRC veil gave the best adhesion to the bone surface in this test: 9.50 MPa. The addition of bioactive glass granules between the veil and the bone lowered the shear bond strength in the test system described above to 6.72 MPa. The test systems with the silane mixture were also promising. In the SEM study, it was found that the mechanical treatment reveals the pores of the bone surface. Chemical

  20. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry.

  1. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining NAg/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  2. Global-Local Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single-Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilic, Bahattin; Madenci, Erdogan; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2004-01-01

    Adhesively bonded lap joints involve dissimilar material junctions and sharp changes in geometry, possibly leading to premature failure. Although the finite element method is well suited to model the bonded lap joints, traditional finite elements are incapable of correctly resolving the stress state at junctions of dissimilar materials because of the unbounded nature of the stresses. In order to facilitate the use of bonded lap joints in future structures, this study presents a finite element technique utilizing a global (special) element coupled with traditional elements. The global element includes the singular behavior at the junction of dissimilar materials with or without traction-free surfaces.

  3. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words

  4. Adhesion and hemifusion of cytoplasmic myelin lipid membranes are highly dependent on the lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Banquy, Xavier; Kristiansen, Kai; Lee, Dong Woog; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of calcium ions on the adhesion and hemifusion mechanisms of model supported myelin lipid bilayer membranes of differing lipid composition. As in our previous studies [1, 2], the lipid compositions used mimic “healthy” and “diseased-like” (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE) membranes. Our results show that the interaction forces as a function of membrane separation distance are well described by a generic model that also (and in particular) includes the hydrophobic interaction arising from the hydrophobically exposed (interior) parts of the bilayers. The model is able to capture the mechanical instability that triggers the onset of the hemifusion event, and highlights the primary role of the hydrophobic interaction in membrane fusion. The effects of lipid composition on the fusion mechanism, and the adhesion forces between myelin lipid bilayers, can be summarized as follow: in calcium-free buffer, healthy membranes do not present any signs of adhesion or hemifusion, while diseased membranes hemifuse easily. Addition of 2 mM calcium favors adhesion and hemifusion of the membranes independently of their composition, but the mechanisms involved in the two processes were different: healthy bilayers systematically presented stronger adhesion forces and lower energy barriers to fusion compared to diseased bilayers. These results are of particular relevance for understanding lesion development (demyelination, swelling, vacuolization and/or vesiculation) in myelin associated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and its relationship to lipid domain formation in myelin membranes. PMID:22047743

  5. Materials research for High Speed Civil Transport and generic hypersonics: Adhesive durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark R.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers a portion of an ongoing investigation of the durability of adhesives for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Candidate HSCT adhesives need to possess the high-temperature capability required for supersonic flight. This program was designed to initiate an understanding of the behavior of candidate HSCT materials when subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. Two adhesives (K3A and FM57) and two adherends (IM7/K3B polymeric composite and the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V) were used to fabricate thick adherend lap shear specimens. Due to processing problems, only the FM57/titanium bonds could be fabricated successfully. These are currently undergoing thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing. There is an acute need for an adhesive to secondarily bond polymeric composite adherends or, alternately, polymeric composites that remain stable at the processing temperatures of today's adhesives.

  6. Influence of superconductor film composition on adhesion strength of coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Khatri, Narayan; Liu, Yuhao; Delgado, Louis; Galstyan, Eduard; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2015-11-20

    The effect of high temperature superconductor (HTS) film composition on the adhesion strength of rare- earth barium copper oxide coated conductors (CCs) has been studied. It has been found that the mechanical integrity of the superconductor layer is very susceptible to the defects especially those along the ab plane, probably due to the weak interfaces between the defects and the matrix. Gd and Y in the standard composition were substituted with Sm and the number of in-plane defects was drastically reduced. Consequently, a four-fold increase in adhesion or peeling strength in Sm-based CCs was achieved compared to the standard GdYBCO samples.

  7. Adhesive systems: important aspects related to their composition and clinical use

    PubMed Central

    SILVA E SOUZA JUNIOR, Mario Honorato; CARNEIRO, Karina Gama Kato; LOBATO, Marcelo Figueiredo; SILVA E SOUZA, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues; de GÓES, Mário Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This literature review article addresses the types and the main components of different etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems available in the market, and relates them to their function, possible chemical interactions and influence of handling characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are presented to characterize the interface between adhesives and dentin. Adhesive systems have been recently classified according to their adhesion approaches in etch-and-rinse, self-etch and glass ionomer. The etch-andrinse systems require a specific acid-etch procedure and may be performed in two or three steps. Self-etch systems employ acidic monomers that demineralize and impregnate dental substrates almost at the same time. These systems are separated in one or two steps. Some advantages and deficiencies were noted for etch-and-rinse and self-etch approaches, mainly for the simplified ones due to some chemical associations and interactions. The SeM micrographs illustrate different relationships between adhesive systems and dental structures, particularly dentin. The knowledge of composition, characteristics and mechanisms of adhesion of each adhesive system is of fundamental importance to permit the adoption of ideal bonding strategies under clinical conditions. PMID:20856995

  8. Composite Pillars with a Tunable Interface for Adhesion to Rough Substrates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives for temporary and reversible attachment to hard objects with smooth surfaces have been successfully demonstrated in previous studies. However, surface roughness induces a dramatic reduction in pull-off stresses and necessarily requires revised design concepts. Toward this aim, we introduce cylindrical two-phase single pillars, which are composed of a mechanically stiff stalk and a soft tip layer. Adhesion to smooth and rough substrates is shown to exceed that of conventional pillar structures. The adhesion characteristics can be tuned by varying the thickness of the soft tip layer, the ratio of the Young’s moduli and the curvature of the interface between the two phases. For rough substrates, adhesion values similar to those obtained on smooth substrates were achieved. Our concept of composite pillars overcomes current practical limitations caused by surface roughness and opens up fields of application where roughness is omnipresent. PMID:27997118

  9. Numerical study of adhesion enhancement by composite fibrils with soft tip layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balijepalli, Ram Gopal; Fischer, Sarah C. L.; Hensel, René; McMeeking, Robert M.; Arzt, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    Bio-inspired fibrillar surfaces with reversible adhesion to stiff substrates have been thoroughly investigated over the last decade. In this paper we propose a novel composite fibril consisting of a soft tip layer and stiffer stalk with differently shaped interfaces (flat vs. curved) between them. A tensile stress is applied remotely on the free end of the fibril whose other end adheres to a rigid substrate. The stress distributions and the resulting adhesion of such structures were numerically investigated under plane strain (2 D) and axisymmetric (3 D) conditions. The stress intensities were evaluated for different combinations of layer thickness and Young's moduli. The adhesion strength values were found to increase for thinner layers and larger modulus ratio; these trends are also reflected in selected experimental results. The results of this paper provide a new strategy for optimizing adhesion strength of fibrillar surfaces.

  10. Composite Pillars with a Tunable Interface for Adhesion to Rough Substrates.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah C L; Arzt, Eduard; Hensel, René

    2017-01-11

    The benefits of synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives for temporary and reversible attachment to hard objects with smooth surfaces have been successfully demonstrated in previous studies. However, surface roughness induces a dramatic reduction in pull-off stresses and necessarily requires revised design concepts. Toward this aim, we introduce cylindrical two-phase single pillars, which are composed of a mechanically stiff stalk and a soft tip layer. Adhesion to smooth and rough substrates is shown to exceed that of conventional pillar structures. The adhesion characteristics can be tuned by varying the thickness of the soft tip layer, the ratio of the Young's moduli and the curvature of the interface between the two phases. For rough substrates, adhesion values similar to those obtained on smooth substrates were achieved. Our concept of composite pillars overcomes current practical limitations caused by surface roughness and opens up fields of application where roughness is omnipresent.

  11. Improving adhesion of powder coating on PEEK composite: Influence of atmospheric plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Aurélie; Ho, Thu Huong; Fahs, Ahmad; Lafabrier, Aurore; Louarn, Guy; Bacharouche, Jalal; Airoudj, Aissam; Aragon, Emmanuel; Chailan, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    In aeronautic industries, powder coatings are increasingly used because of environmental considerations. During the deposition of such a coating on a substrate piece, the main objective is to obtain a good coating/substrate adhesion. In this study, the targeted substrate is a Poly-(Ether EtherKetone)-(PEEK) based composite material. Due to the poor surface energy of PEEK, a surface treatment is necessary in order to enhance its adhesion with the coating. In this purpose, atmospheric plasma treatment has been chosen and the influence of plasma parameters has been studied. Four scan speed nozzles and three gases (Air, N2 and Argon) plasma has been tested. The increase of adhesion with increasing wettability, polarity and nanoroughness has been evidenced. A particular study of the type of grafted polar functionalities according to gas nature allowed to better understand the plasma mechanism and the cross-impact of polarity and nanoroughness in adhesion enhancement.

  12. Fiber/matrix adhesion in graphite/PEKK composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, R. A.; Hinkley, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with poly ether ketone ketone (PEKK) resin and AS-4, IM-7, and G30-500 fibers showed excellent correlation between resin/fiber contact angle and composite transverse flexural strength as measures of resin/fiber interfacial strength. Both tests indicate the strongest interface for G30-500/PEKK followed by IM-7/PEKK and AS-4/PEKK. Also discussed are fiber effects on interlaminar fracture and on the in situ crystallization of the matrix during composite fabrication.

  13. Installation of adhesively bonded composites to repair carbon steel structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Dunn, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the viability and durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, efforts are underway to adapt bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. This paper presents a study in the application of composite patches on large trucks and hydraulic shovels typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. It is believed that the use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, will help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel structure and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures. This paper will focus on the first phase of this study which evaluated the performance of different mechanical and chemical surface preparation techniques. The factors influencing the durability of composite patches in severe field environments will be discussed along with related laminate design and installation issues.

  14. Hemp-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Optimization of Processing and Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Renhui; Ren, Xiaofeng; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Li, Kaichang

    2011-02-25

    The processing variables for making hemp-fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were optimized through orthogonal experiments. It was found that the usage of initiator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, had the most significant effect on the tensile strength of the composites. The treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (DIH) and 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) significantly increased tensile strength, flexural modulus of rupture and flexural modulus of elasticity, and water resistance of the resulting hemp-UPE composites. FTIR spectra revealed that DIH and HEA were covalently bonded to hemp fibers. Scanning electronic microscopy graphs of the fractured hemp-UPE composites demonstrated that treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of DIH and HEA greatly improved the interfacial adhesion between hemp fibers and UPE. The mechanism of improving the interfacial adhesion is proposed.

  15. Adhesive/Dentin Interface: The Weak Link in the Composite Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Paulette; Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Misra, Anil; Marangos, Orestes; Wang, Yong; Bohaty, Brenda S.; Singh, Viraj; Sene, Fabio; Eslick, John; Camarda, Kyle; Katz, J. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Results from clinical studies suggest that more than half of the 166 million dental restorations that were placed in the United States in 2005 were replacements for failed restorations. This emphasis on replacement therapy is expected to grow as dentists use composite as opposed to dental amalgam to restore moderate to large posterior lesions. Composite restorations have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement as compared to amalgam. Penetration of bacterial enzymes, oral fluids, and bacteria into the crevices between the tooth and composite undermines the restoration and leads to recurrent decay and premature failure. Under in vivo conditions the bond formed at the adhesive/dentin interface can be the first defense against these noxious, damaging substances. The intent of this article is to review structural aspects of the clinical substrate that impact bond formation at the adhesive/dentin interface; to examine physico-chemical factors that affect the integrity and durability of the adhesive/dentin interfacial bond; and to explore how these factors act synergistically with mechanical forces to undermine the composite restoration. The article will examine the various avenues that have been pursued to address these problems and it will explore how alterations in material chemistry could address the detrimental impact of physico-chemical stresses on the bond formed at the adhesive/dentin interface. PMID:20195761

  16. Synthesis of imide/arylene ether copolymers for adhesives and composite matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    A series of imide/arylene ether copolymers were prepared from the reaction of an amorphous arylene ether oligomer and a semi-crystalline imide oligomer. These copolymers were thermally characterized and mechanical properties were measured. One block copolymer was endcapped and the molecular weight was controlled to provide a material that displayed good compression moldability and attractive adhesion and composite properties.

  17. Failure analysis of adhesively bonded composite joint: an elasto-plastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. C.; Kishore, N. N.; Iyengar, N. G. R.

    1993-09-01

    Joints are important load transferring members in large assembled structures. In joining similar and dissimilar materials, the use of adhesives offers many advantages when compared to other conventional methods. Most commonly used adhesives are the polymers, which exhibit nonlinear behavior. Finite element analysis with paired nodes along the crack path is employed to predict the crack initiation and growth leading to failure. The bond strength is predicted by investigating the possibility of propagation of a crack at the interface of adherend and adhesive. Paired nodes are opened in a sequence, modelling the crack growth. The adhesive is treated to be elasto-plastic for its response. Effect of the parameters such as, stacking sequences in composite adherend, crack growth locations, bond length, bond thicknesses and adhesive stiffnesses on the failure load is studied. The growth of plastic zone as the crack propagates is also examined. On the basis of this study optimal geometrical and material parameters are suggested. The elasto-plastic analysis predicts higher failure loads as compared to linear elastic analysis. The computed bond strength assuming elastic behavior for the adhesive shows satisfactory comparison with experimental results.

  18. Structural and in vitro adhesion analysis of a novel covalently coupled bioactive composite.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul S; Hassan, Khawaja R; Bukhari, Syeda F; Wong, Ferranti S L; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between a restorative composite and tooth is one of the major factors that determine the ultimate performance of composite restoration. A novel polyurethane (PU) composite material was prepared by chemically binding the nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) to the diisocyanate component in the PU backbone by utilizing solvent polymerization. The procedure involved stepwise addition of monomeric units of the PU and optimizing the reagent concentrations. The resultant materials were characterized structurally (Raman Spectroscopy) and in vitro bioactive analysis was conducted in modified-simulated body fluid for periodical time intervals. The in vitro study evaluated the push-out bond strength of existing obturating material and novel covalently linked PU/nHA composites to dentin after long-term storage in deionized water and artificial saliva. Human extracted molar roots were filled with experimental samples and analyzed at predetermined time intervals. The shear bond strength of samples was measured and surface morphologies were evaluated. Covalent bond formation was achieved between PU and nHA without intermediate coupling agent. With the increase in concentration of nHA, the composite showed more bioactivity and adhesion toward tooth structure. Bond strength of this new composite were in accordance with obutrating material, therefore, the material can be used as an obturating material because of its direct adhesion with tooth structure.

  19. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of Composite Restorations in Primary Teeth: Effect of Adhesive System after Three Years

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Secil Bektaş; Uysal, Serdar; Ozdemir, Pinar; Tekcicek, Meryem; Zimmerli, Brigitte; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of composite restorations placed with different adhesive systems in primary teeth. In 32 patients, 128 composite restorations were placed using a split-mouth design as follows (4 groups/patient): three-step etch-and-rinse (Group 1), two-step etch-and-rinse (Group 2), two-step self-etch (Group 3), and one-step self-etch (Group 4). The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and at 6, 18, and 36 months according to the FDI criteria. There was no significant difference between the adhesive systems in retention of the restorations (p > 0.05). Over time, there was a statistically significant decrease in marginal adaptation in all groups, whereas surface and marginal staining significantly increased in Groups 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). The etch-and-rinse adhesive systems resulted in better marginal adaptation than the self-etch adhesive systems (p < 0.05). It was concluded that preetching of the primary enamel might help improve the clinical performance of the self-etch adhesive systems in primary teeth. PMID:27833917

  1. Polyelectrolytes Multilayers to Modulate Cell Adhesion: A Study of the Influence of Film Composition and Polyelectrolyte Interdigitation on the Adhesion of the A549 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Muzzio, Nicolás E; Pasquale, Miguel A; Gregurec, Danijela; Diamanti, Eleftheria; Kosutic, Marija; Azzaroni, Omar; Moya, Sergio E

    2016-04-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) with different polycation/polyanion pairs are fabricated by the layer-by-layer technique employing synthetic, natural, and both types of polyelectrolytes. The impact of the chemical composition of PEMs on cell adhesion is assessed by studying cell shape, spreading area, focal contacts, and cell proliferation for the A549 cell line. Cells exhibit good adhesion on PEMs containing natural polycations and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as polyanion, but limited adhesion is observed on PEMs fabricated from both natural polyelectrolytes. PEMs are then assembled, depositing a block of natural polyelectrolytes on top of a stiffer block with PSS as polyanion. Cell adhesion is enhanced on top of the diblock PEMs compared to purely natural PEMs. This fact could be explained by the interdigitation between polyelectrolytes from the two blocks. Diblock PEM assembly provides a simple means to tune cell adhesion on biocompatible PEMs.

  2. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

  3. Polymer Composition and Substrate Influences on the Adhesive Bonding of a Biomimetic, Cross-Linking Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Matos-Pérez, Cristina R.; White, James D.; Wilker, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical biological materials such as bone, sea shells, and marine bioadhesives are providing inspiration for the assembly of synthetic molecules into complex structures. The adhesive system of marine mussels has been the focus of much attention in recent years. Several catechol-containing polymers are being developed to mimic the cross-linking of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) used by shellfish for sticking to rocks. Many of these biomimetic polymer systems have been shown to form surface coatings or hydrogels, however bulk adhesion is demonstrated less often. Developing adhesives requires addressing design issues including finding a good balance between cohesive and adhesive bonding interactions. Despite the growing number of mussel mimicking polymers, there has been little effort to generate structure-property relations and gain insights on what chemical traits give rise to the best glues. In this report, we examined the simplest of these biomimetic polymers, poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]. Pendant catechol groups (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxystyrene) were distributed throughout a polystyrene backbone. Several polymer derivatives were prepared, each with a different 3,4-dihyroxystyrene content. Bulk adhesion testing showed where the optimal middle ground of cohesive and adhesive bonding resides. Adhesive performance was benchmarked against commercial glues as well as the genuine material produced by live mussels. In the best case, bonding was similar to cyanoacrylate “Krazy” or “Super” glue. Performance was also examined using low (e.g., plastics) and high (e.g., metals, wood) energy surfaces. Adhesive bonding of poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene] may be the strongest of reported mussel protein mimics. These insights should help us to design future biomimetic systems, thereby bringing us closer to development of bone cements, dental composites, and surgical glues. PMID:22582754

  4. Polymer composition and substrate influences on the adhesive bonding of a biomimetic, cross-linking polymer.

    PubMed

    Matos-Pérez, Cristina R; White, James D; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2012-06-06

    Hierarchical biological materials such as bone, sea shells, and marine bioadhesives are providing inspiration for the assembly of synthetic molecules into complex structures. The adhesive system of marine mussels has been the focus of much attention in recent years. Several catechol-containing polymers are being developed to mimic the cross-linking of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) used by shellfish for sticking to rocks. Many of these biomimetic polymer systems have been shown to form surface coatings or hydrogels; however, bulk adhesion is demonstrated less often. Developing adhesives requires addressing design issues including finding a good balance between cohesive and adhesive bonding interactions. Despite the growing number of mussel-mimicking polymers, there has been little effort to generate structure-property relations and gain insights on what chemical traits give rise to the best glues. In this report, we examine the simplest of these biomimetic polymers, poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]. Pendant catechol groups (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxystyrene) are distributed throughout a polystyrene backbone. Several polymer derivatives were prepared, each with a different 3,4-dihyroxystyrene content. Bulk adhesion testing showed where the optimal middle ground of cohesive and adhesive bonding resides. Adhesive performance was benchmarked against commercial glues as well as the genuine material produced by live mussels. In the best case, bonding was similar to that obtained with cyanoacrylate "Krazy Glue". Performance was also examined using low- (e.g., plastics) and high-energy (e.g., metals, wood) surfaces. The adhesive bonding of poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene] may be the strongest of reported mussel protein mimics. These insights should help us to design future biomimetic systems, thereby bringing us closer to development of bone cements, dental composites, and surgical glues.

  5. Cashier/Checker Learning Activity Packets (LAPs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…

  6. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives. [bonding metal and composite material structures for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rubber-toughened, addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber-containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride has been mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  7. Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites for Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, Jennifer; Morscher, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    High temperature adhesives with good thermal conductivity, mechanical performance, and long term durability are crucial for the assembly of heat rejection system components for space exploration missions. In the present study, commercially available adhesives were used to bond high conductivity carbon-carbon composites to titanium sheets. Bonded pieces were also exposed to high (530 to 600 Kelvin for 24 hours) and low (liquid nitrogen 77K for 15 minutes) temperatures to evaluate the integrity of the bonds. Results of the microstructural characterization and tensile shear strengths of bonded specimens will be reported. The effect of titanium surface roughness on the interface microstructure will also be discussed.

  8. The effect of elevated temperatures on the dentin adhesion of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Brackett, William W; Covey, David A; Haisch, Larry D

    2003-01-01

    Although resin composite restorations may undergo relatively extreme temperature changes in the oral cavity, little is known about the effects of temperature on their adhesion to tooth structure. This study evaluated the effect of temperature on shear bond strength to dentin of three commercial resin dentin adhesives through testing of matured specimens over the 20 degrees to 55 degrees C temperature range. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between 20 degrees C and 55 degrees C for all the materials, and for one of the materials, a significant difference was also observed between 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C.

  9. [Bond strength to dentin of resin composites associated with filled and unfilled adhesive systems].

    PubMed

    Youssef, J A; Turbino, M L; Youssef, M N; Matson, E

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzed in vitro two brands of one-step adhesive systems of fourth generation (Optisolo--Kerr, filled; and Single Bond--3M, unfilled) and two composite resins (Prodigy--Kerr and Z100--3M), aiming at evaluating their bond strength to dentin. Eighty human extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin and grounded until dentin was exposed in longitudinal direction. The specimens were divided in 4 groups. Composite resin cones were bonded to the specimens using the mentioned adhesive systems, following the instructions of the manufacturers. The test-specimens were submitted to tensile tests using a 4442 Universal Mini-Instron Machine with the speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were converted into MPa, according to the area of adhesion, and submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA. There was significant statistical difference (p < 0.01) between the adhesive systems (F = 7.24). Optisolo (m = 11.03 +/- 4.23) showed better bond strength than Single Bond (m = 8.37 +/- 4.54). There was no significant statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the composites (F = 0.43).

  10. Adhesively bonded steel and composites-durability in substitute ocean water

    SciTech Connect

    Aartun, L.; Dillard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Ocean water, marine life and certain oil-well fluids constitute a highly aggressive environment for most metals. In the offshore oil industry, the economic driving force to seek new materials points towards polymeric composites which offer reduction of weight and elimination of corrosion. However, a combined use of steel and composites creates a joining problem. Exposure to humid air and liquid water affects adhesive bonds in a negative manner, and adhesively bonded metal systems are even less durable in marine than in non-ocean environments. In marine environments and sea coast atmospheres, marine life and salts can contribute to the degradation process. On an operating oil rig, repair and replacements involving adhesive bonding are forced to be carried out under non-ideal conditions because of environmental regulations (affecting surface treatments) and safety requirements (affecting the curing method). The objective of this work is to develop environmentally friendly surface preparations and to study, the influence of salt water on the durability of adhesively bonded steel/composite systems.

  11. Damage state evaluation of adhesive composite joints using chaotic ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-03-01

    Ultrasonic chaotic excitations combined with sensor prediction algorithms have shown the ability to identify incipient damage (loss of preload) in a bolted joint. In this study we examine the capability of this damage detection scheme to identify disbonds and poorly cured bonds in a composite-to-composite adhesive joint. The test structure consists of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate that has been bonded to a CFRP rectangular tube/spar with several sizes of disbond as well as a poorly cured section. Each excitation signal is imparted to the CFRP plate through a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch on one side of the adhesive joint and sensed using an equivalent MFC patch on the opposite side of the joint. A novel statistical classification feature is developed from information theory concepts of cross-prediction and interdependence. Temperature dependence of this newly developed feature will also be examined.

  12. Effect of low-shrinking composite on the bonding effectiveness of two adhesives in occlusal Class-I cavities.

    PubMed

    Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio V; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Kuboki, Takuo; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a low-shrinking composite can improve the bonding effectiveness of adhesives in highly constrained conditions. A low-shrinking composite ('els-extra low shrinkage', Saremco) was bonded in standardized occlusal Class-I cavities using a three-step ('cmf', Saremco) and a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive ('XP Bond', Dentsply). Both adhesives were also combined with a conventional composite ('Z100', 3M ESPE). Half of the restored cavities were exposed to 20,000 thermo-cycles. 3-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the factors 'adhesive' and 'composite' (both p<0.0001), but not for 'thermo-cycling' (p=0.994). Significantly higher bond strengths were recorded for the low-shrinking composite than for the control composite, using either of the adhesives. The low-shrinking composite in combination with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive performed best in the high C-factor Class-I cavity. The two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive suffered strongly from polymerization-shrinkage stress, which could be partially restored by using the low-shrinking composite.

  13. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  14. Analytical and experimental investigation of fatigue in lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Daniel V.; Chih-Chien, Chia; Derber, Thomas G.

    A finite element model is presented that can simulate crack growth in layered structures such as lap joints. The layers can be joined either by rivets or adhesives. The crack is represented discretely in the mesh, and automatic remeshing is performed as the crack grows. Because of the connections between the layers, load is transferred to the uncracked layer as the crack grows. This reduces the stress intensity and slows the crack growth rate. The model is used to analyze tests performed on a section of a wing spanwise lap joint. The crack was initiated at a rivet and grown under constant amplitude cyclic loads. Both experimentally observed crack growth rates and the analysis show the retardation that occurs as a result of load transfer between layers. A good correlation is obtained between predicted and observed crack growth rates for the fullly developed through-thickness crack.

  15. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  16. Engineering adhesion to thermoresponsive substrates: effect of polymer composition on liquid-liquid-solid wetting.

    PubMed

    Gambinossi, Filippo; Sefcik, Lauren S; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, Andre; Ferri, James K

    2015-02-04

    Adhesion control in liquid-liquid-solid systems represents a challenge for applications ranging from self-cleaning to biocompatibility of engineered materials. By using responsive polymer chemistry and molecular self-assembly, adhesion at solid/liquid interfaces can be achieved and modulated by external stimuli. Here, we utilize thermosensitive polymeric materials based on random copolymers of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (x = MEO2MA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (y = OEGMA), that is, P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy), to investigate the role of hydrophobicity on the phenomenon of adhesion. The copolymer ratio (x/y) dictates macromolecular changes enabling control of the hydrophilic-to-lipophilic balance (HBL) of the polymer brushes through external triggers such as ionic strength and temperature. We discuss the HBL of the thermobrushes in terms of the surface energy of the substrate by measuring the contact angle at water-decane-P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) brush contact line as a function of polymer composition and temperature. Solid supported polyelectrolyte layers grafted with P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) display a transition in the wettability that is related to the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer brushes. Using experimental observation of the hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition by the contact angle, we extract the underlying energetics associated with liquid-liquid-solid adhesion as a function of the copolymer ratio. The change in cellular attachment on P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) substrates of variable (x/y) composition demonstrates the subtle role of compositional tuning on the ability to control liquid-liquid-solid adhesion in biological applications.

  17. Influence of Copolyester Composition on Adhesion to Soda-Lime Glass via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben; Hofmann, John; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Copolyesters are a subset of polymers that have the desirable properties of strength and clarity while retaining chemical resistance, and are thus potential candidates for enhancing the impact resistance of soda-lime glass. Adhesion between the polymer and the glass relates to the impact performance of the system, as well as the longevity of the bond between the polymer and the glass under various conditions. Modifying the types of diols and diacids present in the copolyester provides a method for fine-tuning the physical properties of the polymer. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the influence of the chemical composition of the polymers on adhesion of polymer film laminates to two soda-lime glass surfaces, one tin-rich and one oxygen-rich. By calculating properties such as adhesion energies and contact angles, these results provide insights into how the polymer-glass interaction is impacted by the polymer composition, temperature, and other factors such as the presence of free volume or pi stacking. These results can be used to optimize the adhesion of copolyester films to glass surfaces.

  18. ADHESION OF AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COMPOSITES BONDED TO DENTIN: A STUDY IN FAILURE MODALITY

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Schumacher, G.E.; Antonucci, J.M.; Skrtic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims As a bioactive filler capable of remineralizing tooth structures, the main disadvantage of as-made amorphous calcium phosphate (am-ACP) are its large agglomerates. The objective of this study was to mill ACP, and compare the adhesive strength to dentin, work to fracture, and failure modes of both groups to glass-filled composites and one commercial compomer after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months of exposure to simulated saliva solution (SLS). Flat dentin surfaces were acid-etched, primed, and photopolymerized. Composites were applied, photo-cured, and debonded in shear. The resin used in each composite was identical: ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methacryloxyethyl phthalate. Fillers consisted of am-ACP and milled ACP (m-ACP), and a strontium-containing glass (Sr-glass) at respective mass fractions of (40, 60, and 75) %. Findings 90 % of the fracture surfaces in this study showed adhesive failure, with most of these occurring at the dentin/primer interface. 52 % of failures after 24 h immersion occurred at the primer/composite interface. After six months of SLS exposure, 80 % of specimens failed at the dentin/primer interface, with a 42 % overall reduction in bond strength. Conclusions Milled ACP composites showed initial mechanical advantages over am-ACP composites and the compomer, and produced a higher incidence of a failure mode consistent with stronger adhesion. Evidence is provided which suggests that milled ACP composites may offer enhanced potential in clinical bonding applications. PMID:19107798

  19. Temperature Gradient Measurements by Using Thermoelectric Effect in CNTs-Silicone Adhesive Composite

    PubMed Central

    Chani, Muhammad Tariq Saeed; Karimov, Kh. S.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Ahmed, Nisar; Bashir, Muhammad Mehran; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rub, Malik Abdul; Azum, Naved

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and investigation of thermoelectric cells based on composite of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicone adhesive. The composite contains CNT and silicon adhesive 1∶1 by weight. The current-voltage characteristics and dependences of voltage, current and Seebeck coefficient on the temperature gradient of cell were studied. It was observed that with increase in temperature gradient the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and the Seebeck coefficient of the cells increase. Approximately 7 times increase in temperature gradient increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current up to 40 and 5 times, respectively. The simulation of experimental results is also carried out; the simulated results are well matched with experimental results. PMID:24748375

  20. Temperature gradient measurements by using thermoelectric effect in CNTs-silicone adhesive composite.

    PubMed

    Chani, Muhammad Tariq Saeed; Karimov, Kh S; Asiri, Abdullah M; Ahmed, Nisar; Bashir, Muhammad Mehran; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rub, Malik Abdul; Azum, Naved

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and investigation of thermoelectric cells based on composite of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicone adhesive. The composite contains CNT and silicon adhesive 1∶1 by weight. The current-voltage characteristics and dependences of voltage, current and Seebeck coefficient on the temperature gradient of cell were studied. It was observed that with increase in temperature gradient the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and the Seebeck coefficient of the cells increase. Approximately 7 times increase in temperature gradient increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current up to 40 and 5 times, respectively. The simulation of experimental results is also carried out; the simulated results are well matched with experimental results.

  1. Damage prognosis of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles R; Gobbato, Maurizio; Conte, Joel; Kosmatke, John; Oliver, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The extensive use of lightweight advanced composite materials in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drastically increases the sensitivity to both fatigue- and impact-induced damage of their critical structural components (e.g., wings and tail stabilizers) during service life. The spar-to-skin adhesive joints are considered one of the most fatigue sensitive subcomponents of a lightweight UAV composite wing with damage progressively evolving from the wing root. This paper presents a comprehensive probabilistic methodology for predicting the remaining service life of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of UAVs. Non-destructive evaluation techniques and Bayesian inference are used to (i) assess the current state of damage of the system and, (ii) update the probability distribution of the damage extent at various locations. A probabilistic model for future loads and a mechanics-based damage model are then used to stochastically propagate damage through the joint. Combined local (e.g., exceedance of a critical damage size) and global (e.g.. flutter instability) failure criteria are finally used to compute the probability of component failure at future times. The applicability and the partial validation of the proposed methodology are then briefly discussed by analyzing the debonding propagation, along a pre-defined adhesive interface, in a simply supported laminated composite beam with solid rectangular cross section, subjected to a concentrated load applied at mid-span. A specially developed Eliler-Bernoulli beam finite element with interlaminar slip along the damageable interface is used in combination with a cohesive zone model to study the fatigue-induced degradation in the adhesive material. The preliminary numerical results presented are promising for the future validation of the methodology.

  2. Near-Infrared Radiation Based Composite Repair Using Thermoplastics as Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    molding , which has been used for most of the thermoplastics described above. The first of five is a plain PA12 alloy, with no promoter. Within the...FINAL REPORT Near-Infrared Radiation Based Composite Repair Using Thermoplastics as Adhesives SERDP Project WP-1581 DECEMBER 2007 Dr...Using Thermoplastics as Adhesiveste 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  3. An investigation of adhesive/adherend and fiber/matrix interactions. Part B: SEM/ESCA analysis of fracture surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B.; Widyani, E.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesion was studied with emphasis on the characterization of surface oxide layers, the analysis of fracture surfaces, and the interaction of matrices and fibers. A number of surface features of the fractured lap shear samples were noted in the SEM photomicrographs including the beta phase alloy of the Ti 6-4 adherend, the imprint of the adherend on the adhesive failure surface, increased void density for high temperature samples, and the alumina filler particles. Interfacial failure of some of the fractured lap shear samples is invariably characterized by the appearance of an ESCA oxygen photopeak at 530.3 eV assigned to the surface oxide layer of Ti 6-4 adherend. The effect of grit blasting on carbon fiber composites is evident in the SEM analysis. A high surface fluorine concentration on the composite surface is reduced some ten fold by grit blasting.

  4. How Tongue Size and Roughness Affect Lapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, M. J.; Hay, K. M.

    2012-10-01

    The biomechanics of domestic cat lapping (Felis catus) and domestic dog lapping (Canis familiaris) is currently under debate. Lapping mechanics in vertebrates with incomplete cheeks, such as cats and dogs, is a balance of inertia and the force of gravity likely optimized for ingestion and physical necessities. Physiology dictates vertebrate mass, which dictates vertebrate tongue size, which dictates lapping mechanics to achieve optimum liquid ingestion; with either touch lapping, scooping, or a hybrid lapping method. The physics of this optimized system then determines how high a column of liquid can be raised before it collapses due to gravity, and therefore, lapping frequency. Through tongue roughness model variation experiments it was found that pore-scale geometrical roughness does not appear to affect lapping or liquid uptake. Through tongue size model variation experiments it was found that there is a critical tongue radius in the range of 25 mm to 35 mm above which touch lapping is no longer an efficient way to uptake liquid. Vertebrates with incomplete cheeks may use a touch lapping method to ingest water if their tongue radius is less than this critical radius and use an alternative ingestion method if their tongue radius is larger.

  5. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Thermal Degradation in Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Mal, Ajit K.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1994-01-01

    The critical role played by adhesive bonds in lap joints is well known. A good knowledge of the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds in lap joints is a prerequisite to the design and reliable prediction of the performance of these bonded structures. Furthermore, the lap joint may be subject to high-temperature environments in service. Early detection of the degree of thermal degradation in adhesive bonds is required under these circumstances. A variety of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques can be used to determine the thickness and the elastic moduli of adhesively bonded joints. In this paper we apply a previously developed technique based on the leaky Lamb wave (LLW) experiment to investigate the possibility of characterizing the thermal degradation of adhesive bonds in lap joints. The degradation of the adhesive bonds is determined through comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations.

  6. The effect of elastin on chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/elastin composites.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Nasim; Fathi, Ali; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Martens, Penny; Weiss, Anthony S; Dehghani, Fariba

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of elastin on chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation within the structure of poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)/elastin composites. The homogenous 3D structure composites were constructed by using high pressure CO(2) in two stages. Porous PCL structures with average pore sizes of 540 ± 21 μm and a high degree of interconnectivity were produced using gas foaming/salt leaching. The PCL scaffolds were then impregnated with elastin and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) under high pressure CO(2). The effects of elastin and cross-linker concentrations on the characteristics of composites were investigated. Increasing the elastin concentration from 25mg/ml to 100mg/ml elevated the amount of cross-linked elastin inside the macropores of PCL. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that elastin was homogeneously distributed throughout the 3D structure of all composites. The weight gain of composites increased 2-fold from 15.8 ± 0.3 to 38.3 ± 0.7 (w/w) % by increasing the elastin concentration from 25mg/ml to 50mg/ml and approached a plateau above this concentration. The presence of elastin within the pores of PCL improved the water uptake properties of PCL scaffolds; the water uptake ratio of PCL was enhanced 100-fold from 0.030 ± 0.005g liquid/g polymer to 11.80 ± 0.01g liquid/g polymer, when the elastin solution concentration was 50mg/ml. These composites exhibited lower compressive modulus and energy loss compared to pure PCL scaffolds due to their higher water content and elasticity. In vitro studies show that these composites can support primary articular cartilage chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation within the 3D structures. These results demonstrate the potential of using PCL/elastin composites for cartilage repair.

  7. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Christina; Manzo, Carlo; Keijzer, Sandra de; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; García-Parajo, Maria F.; Cambi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how this precisely occurs is difficult to address given the intricacy of the PM lipid-network. Here, we combined biochemical assays and single molecule dynamic approaches to demonstrate that the local lipid environment regulates adhesion of integrin receptors by impacting on their lateral mobility. Induction of sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity reduced sphingomyelin (SM) levels by conversion to ceramide (Cer), resulting in impaired integrin adhesion and reduced integrin mobility. Dual-colour imaging of cortical actin in combination with single molecule tracking of integrins showed that this reduced mobility results from increased coupling to the actin cytoskeleton brought about by Cer formation. As such, our data emphasizes a critical role for the PM local lipid composition in regulating the lateral mobility of integrins and their ability to dynamically increase receptor density for efficient ligand binding in the process of cell adhesion. PMID:26869100

  8. Adhesive bond strength evaluation in composite materials by laser-generated high amplitude ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perton, M.; Blouin, A.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of composites laminates is highly efficient but is not used for joining primary aircraft structures, since there is presently no nondestructive inspection technique to ensure the quality of the bond. We are developing a technique based on the propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves to evaluate the adhesive bond strength. Large amplitude compression waves are generated by a short pulse powerful laser under water confinement and are converted after reflection by the assembly back surface into tensile waves. The resulting tensile stresses can cause a delamination inside the laminates or at the bond interfaces. The adhesion strength is evaluated by increasing the laser pulse energy until disbond. A good bond is unaffected by a certain level of stress whereas a weaker one is damaged. The method is shown completely non invasive throughout the whole composite assembly. The sample back surface velocity is measured by an optical interferometer and used to estimate stress history inside the sample. The depth and size of the disbonds are revealed by a post-test inspection by the well established laser-ultrasonic technique. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to differentiate weak bond from strong bonds and to estimate quantitatively their bond strength.

  9. Effect of curing unit and adhesive system on marginal adaptation of composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Casselli, Denise Sa Maia; Faria-e-Silva, Andre Luis; Casselli, Henrique; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how a curing unit and adhesive system affected the marginal adaptation of resin composite restorations. Class V cavities were prepared in bovine teeth with a gingival margin in dentin and an incisal margin in enamel. The cavities were restored with a micro-hybrid resin composite using one of four adhesives: Single Bond 2, Prime & Bond NT, Clearfil SE Bond, Xeno IV. The light-activations were performed using a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) lamp or a second-generation light-emitting diode (LED). Restorations were finished and polished and epoxy replicas were prepared. Marginal adaptation was analyzed by using scanning electronic microscopy (magnification 500X). The widest gaps in each margin were recorded, and data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Differences between the adhesives were observed only when the dentin margins were evaluated: Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated better marginal adaptation than Prime & Bond NT or Single Bond 2 (which demonstrated the widest gaps in the dentin margin). The type of curing unit only affected the results for Xeno IV when the enamel margin was analyzed; the LED lamp promoted smaller gaps than the QTH lamp.

  10. Tooth bleaching effects 
on the adhesive interface 
of composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lorena; Thedei, Geraldo; Menezes-Oliveira, Maria Angélica; Nogueira, Ruchele D; Geraldo-Martins, Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different bleaching techniques on the tooth-restoration interface of composite restorations. Cavities (3 x 3 x 2 mm) were prepared in 100 bovine incisor fragments, which were etched with a conventional adhesive system and restored with a nanocomposite. The fragments were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20): Control (no bleaching), At-home bleaching (HB) (10% hydrogen peroxide [HP]), In-office bleaching (OB) (35% HP), LED-activated bleaching (LB) (35% HP activated by LED), and Laser-activated bleaching (LaB) (35% HP activated by diode laser, λ = 880 nm). After bleaching, 10 samples per group were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5°C to 55°C), immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution, sectioned, evaluated under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage. The other samples were pH cycled for 14 consecutive days, sectioned, and the enamel adjacent to the adhesive interface assessed by cross-sectional Knoop hardness. The data were compared using the one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). No differences between the microleakage indexes found for the control and experimental groups were observed. The enamel of the bleached groups located near the adhesive interface presented the same Knoop hardness numbers as the samples of the control group. Tooth bleaching does not damage the tooth-restoration interface of composite restorations.

  11. Designing heterogeneous chemical composition on hierarchical structured copper substrates for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Hou, Rui; Du, Ying; Lai, Hua; Fu, Kewei; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2013-09-11

    Controlling water adhesion is important for superhydrophobic surfaces in many applications. Compared with numerous researches about the effect of microstructures on the surface adhesion, research relating to the influence of surface chemical composition on the surface adhesion is extremely rare. Herein, a new strategy for preparation of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces through designing heterogeneous chemical composition (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) on the rough substrate is reported, and the influence of surface chemical composition on the surface adhesion are examined. The surfaces were prepared through self-assembling of mixed thiol (containing both HS(CH2)9CH3 and HS(CH2)11OH) on the hierarchical structured copper substrates. By simply controlling the concentration of HS(CH2)11OH in the modified solution, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces can be obtained. The adhesive force of the surfaces can be increased from extreme low (about 8 μN) to very high (about 65 μN). The following two reasons can be used to explain the tunable effect: one is the number of hydrogen bond for the variation of surface chemical composition; and the other is the variation of contact area between the water droplet and surface because of the capillary effect that results from the combined effect of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and microstructures on the surface. Noticeably, water droplets with different pH (2-12) have similar contact angles and adhesive forces on the surfaces, indicating that these surfaces are chemical resistant to acid and alkali. Moreover, the as-prepared surfaces were also used as the reaction substrates and applied in the droplet-based microreactor for the detection of vitamin C. This report provides a new method for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion, which could not only help us further understand the principle for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, but also potentially be used in many

  12. In situ synthesis of mesoporous polyvinyl alcohol/hydroxyapatite composites for better biomedical coating adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Riaz; Tabassum, Sobia; Gilani, Mazhar Amjad; Ahmed, Ejaz; Sharif, Ahsan; Manzoor, Faisal; Shah, Asma Tufail; Asif, Anila; Sharif, Faiza; Iqbal, Farasat; Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) shows diverse biomedical applications as bone filler and coating material for metal implants to enhance osteoconduction. Four different PVAHA composites were synthesized in situ by an economical co-precipitation wet methodology. The FTIR spectra of PVAHA composites showed characteristic signals of HA and PVA. The BET surface area of PVAHA composites were in range of 41.3-63.7 m2/g. The composites showed type IV nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm, a characteristic for mesoporous material. The pore diameter range (6.3-8.1 nm) of PVAHA composites also confirmed their mesoporous nature. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution curves indicated a narrow pore size distribution. To obtain a homogeneous crack free coating with EPD on stainless steel (SS) plates, different parameters such as PVA percentages in PVAHA composites, solvent, deposition time and voltage were optimized. The PVAHA composites were stable after EPD as confirmed by FTIR spectra recorded before and after EPD. The SEM images of the coating showed a homogeneous morphology. The thickness of the coating was controlled by varying voltage and time. The best results were obtained with c-PVAHA composite at 30 volts for 5-10 min and current density was around 4.5 to 5 mA. The adhesion strength of c-PVAHA coating was measured by using ASTM standard F1044-99. The average value was approximately 9.328 ± 1.58 MPa.

  13. A Study on the Structure and Adhesive Properties of Epoxy-Silicate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantseva, T. V.; Ilyin, S. O.; Gorbunova, I. Yu.; Antonov, S. V.; Kerber, M. L.

    2014-11-01

    Compositions based on an ED-20 resin with three types of modifiers: natural montmorillonite (MMT) Cloisite Na +, organomodified MMT Cloisite 30B, and halloysite, were investigated. An optimum regime was chosen for preparation of the epoxy/modifier systems by employing the ultrasonic mixing. The rheological characteristics of suspensions were used to estimate the distribution of modifier in the epoxy oligomer. According to rheological data, the best dispersion of MMT in the epoxy oligomer after ultrasonic stirring was observed for the organomodified MMT Cloisite 30B. The maximum shear adhesion strength was also observed for the epoxy resin+Cloisite 30B systems. For the systems with 2 wt. % of Cloisite 30B, the increase in the adhesion strength was up to 65% as compared with that of the pristine epoxy oligomer.

  14. Characterization of debond growth mechanism in adhesively bonded composites under mode II static and fatigue loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize the debond growth mechanism under mode II static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, end-notched flexure specimens of graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) adherends bonded with EC 3445 adhesive were tested. In all specimen tested, the fatigue failure occurred in the form of cyclic debonding. The present study confirmed the result of previous studies that total strain-energy-release rate is the driving parameter for cyclic debonding. Further, the debond growth resistance under cyclic loading with full shear reversal (i.e., stress ratio, R = -1) is drastically reduced in comparison to the case when subjected to cyclic shear loading with no shear reversal (i.e., R = 0.1).

  15. Composite generalized Langevin equation for Brownian motion in different hydrodynamic and adhesion regimes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Eckmann, David M; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2015-05-01

    We present a composite generalized Langevin equation as a unified framework for bridging the hydrodynamic, Brownian, and adhesive spring forces associated with a nanoparticle at different positions from a wall, namely, a bulklike regime, a near-wall regime, and a lubrication regime. The particle velocity autocorrelation function dictates the dynamical interplay between the aforementioned forces, and our proposed methodology successfully captures the well-known hydrodynamic long-time tail with context-dependent scaling exponents and oscillatory behavior due to the binding interaction. Employing the reactive flux formalism, we analyze the effect of hydrodynamic variables on the particle trajectory and characterize the transient kinetics of a particle crossing a predefined milestone. The results suggest that both wall-hydrodynamic interactions and adhesion strength impact the particle kinetics.

  16. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins by silicon-oxygen thin film coatings.

    PubMed

    Mandracci, Pietro; Mussano, Federico; Ceruti, Paola; Pirri, Candido F; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-01-29

    Adhesion of bacteria on dental materials can be reduced by modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of their surfaces, either through the application of specific surface treatments or by the deposition of thin film coatings. Since this approach does not rely on the use of drugs or antimicrobial agents embedded in the materials, its duration is not limited by their possible depletion. Moreover it avoids the risks related to possible cytotoxic effects elicited by antibacterial substances released from the surface and diffused in the surrounding tissues. In this work, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis was studied on four composite resins, commonly used for manufacturing dental prostheses. The surfaces of dental materials were modified through the deposition of a-SiO(x) thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemical bonding structure of the coatings was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the dental materials before and after the coating deposition was assessed by means of optical microscopy and high-resolution mechanical profilometry, while their wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements. The sample roughness was not altered after coating deposition, while a noticeable increase of wettability was detected for all the samples. Also, the adhesion of S. mitis decreased in a statistically significant way on the coated samples, when compared to the uncoated ones, which did not occur for S. mutans. Within the limitations of this study, a-SiO(x) coatings may affect the adhesion of bacteria such as S. mitis, possibly by changing the wettability of the composite resins investigated.

  17. Bond strength evaluation of three self-adhesive luting systems used for cementing composite and porcelain.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Minnoni, A; Vitalone, L M; Carluccio, F; Vadini, M; Paolantonio, M; D'Arcangelo, C

    2011-01-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements were recently introduced with the purpose of simplifying the cementation technique, as they combine the use of adhesive and cement in a single application, eliminating the need for pretreatment of the tooth. In the present study a microtensile bond strength test (μ-TBS) was used to compare three self-adhesives, an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch luting system, in the cementation of resin-based composite (RBC) and ceramic disks to dentin. Freshly extracted molars were transversally sectioned to expose flat, deep dentin surfaces. Cylindrical specimens (5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height), consisting of RBC disks and leucite-based glass ceramic disks, were produced. The RBC disks were sandblasted with 50-μm Al2O3. The ceramic disks were conditioned with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid gel and silane application. All of the disks were then bonded to dentin surfaces employing five different luting agents: iCEM Self Adhesive (Heraeus Kulzer), MaxCem (Kerr Corporation), RelyX UniCem (3M ESPE), EnaCem HF (Micerium), and Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray-Dental). The products were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce multiple beams measuring approximately 1 mm2 in cross section. For each experimental group 12 beams were tested. The preterm failures were also taken into account. All of the specimen preparations were performed by the same operator. The beams were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Mean μ-TBS values were calculated for each group. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were performed using a Tukey test (α=0.05). The UniCem group showed the lowest number of preterm failures among the tested self-adhesive systems. When premature debondings were included in the mean value calculation, bond strength values for the UniCem group were statistically equal to or even higher than those

  18. Repairs of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  19. Develop, demonstrate, and verify large area composite structural bonding with polyimide adhesives. [adhesively bonding graphite-polyimide structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhombal, B. D.; Wykes, D. H.; Hong, K. C.; Stenersen, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The technology required to produce graphite-polyimide structural components with operational capability at 598 K (600 F) is considered. A series of polyimide adhesives was screened for mechanical and physical properties and processibility in fabricating large midplane bonded panels and honeycomb sandwich panels in an effort to fabricate a structural test component of the space shuttle aft body flap. From 41 formulations, LaRC-13, FM34B-18, and a modified LaRC-13 adhesive were selected for further evaluation. The LaRC-13 adhesive was rated as the best of the three adhesives in terms of availability, cost, processibility, properties, and ability to produce void fee large area (12" x 12") midplane bonds. Surface treatments and primers for the adhesives were evaluated and processes were developed for the fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels of very good quality which was evidenced by rupture in the honeycomb core rather than in the facesheet bands on flatwise tensile strength testing. The fabrication of the adhesively bonded honeycomb sandwich cover panels, ribs, and leading edge covers of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide laminates is described.

  20. Micro-measurements of mechanical properties for adhesives and composites using digital imaging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, Hal F.

    1994-01-01

    The need for a constituent based durability or accelerated life prediction procedure to be used for the engineering design of polymer matrix composites is discussed in the light of current plans for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concerns about the U.S. infrastructure (bridges, pipelines, etc.) and other technological considerations of national concern. It is pointed out that good measurement procedures for insitu resin properties are needed for both adhesives and composites. A double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen which shows promise for the easy determination of adhesive shear properties is presented and compared with measurements of strains within the bondline using a new optical digital imaging micro-measurement system (DIMMS). The DCB specimen is also used to assess damage in a bonded joint using a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis system (DMTA). The possible utilization of the same DIMMS and DMTA procedures to determine the insitu properties of the resin in a composite specimen are discussed as well as the use of the procedures to evaluate long term mechanical and physical aging. Finally, a discussion on the state-of-the art of the measurement of strains in micron and sub-micron domains is given.

  1. Bacterial immobilization by adhesion onto agave-fiber/polymer foamed composites.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Ortíz, J R; Ramírez-Arreola, D E; Gomez, C; González-Reynoso, O; González-Núñez, R

    2010-02-01

    Adhesion of Pseudomonas putida F1 onto agave-fiber/recycled-polyethylene foamed composites was studied under different controlled conditions. The adhesion process was analyzed in batch experiments controlling factors such as pH, contact time, temperature, initial biomass concentration and ionic strength; and was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of adhered bacteria after the experimental time was determined by difference between concentration of suspended cells in NaCl solution contained in two different Erlenmeyer flasks, one of the flasks with composite pellets and the other one without them. The concentration of cells in each flask was obtained using the serial dilution technique. Experimental data analysis showed that adsorption follows first-order kinetics. And it was further corroborated to be an irreversible process. For the first time, an equation is proposed here to predict the correlation between adhered bacteria and aqueous pH. In addition to the obvious reuse of waste material, these results suggested that agave-fiber/polymer foamed composites could be used as support for bacterial immobilization to be applied, among others in environmental processes such as bioremediation and biofiltration of gases with almost limitless possibilities.

  2. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Lunar meteorite LAP 02205 is a 1.23 kg basalt collected during the 2002 field season in the La- Paz ice field, Antarctica [1]. We present a petrographic description including mineral modes and compositions, and the major-element composition of the bulk meteorite. LAP 02205 is an Fe-rich, moderately low-Ti mare basalt that is similar in composition, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry to the NWA 032 basaltic lunar meteorite. LAP 02205 is yet another of the moderately low- Ti basaltic meteorites that are underrepresented among Apollo and Luna samples but that appear from remote sensing to be the most common basalt type on the Moon.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of high temperature curable poly(arylene ether) structural adhesive and composite matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Mecham, S.J.; Jayaraman, S.; Bobbitt, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    Crosslinked poly(arylene ether) systems are projected to display many desirable properties suitable for aerospace structural adhesive and composite matrix applications. The synthesis and characterization of a series of processable high temperature curing poly(arylene ether) oligomers incorporating terminally reactive phenylethynyl endgroups will be discussed. Characterization of the oligomers includes NMR, intrinsic viscosity, parallel plate rheological behavior, TGA, and DSC. Curing of these oligomers was conducted at or above 380{degrees}C, providing a large processing window. Thermal stability is very good and the melt viscosity of the oligomers in the processing temperature range is exceptionally low.

  4. A new fluorinated urethane dimethacrylate with carboxylic groups for use in dental adhesive compositions.

    PubMed

    Buruiana, Tinca; Melinte, Violeta; Aldea, Horia; Pelin, Irina M; Buruiana, Emil C

    2016-05-01

    A urethane macromer containing hexafluoroisopropylidene, poly(ethylene oxide) and carboxylic moieties (UF-DMA) was synthesized and used in proportions varying between 15 and 35 wt.% (F1-F3) in dental adhesive formulations besides BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The FTIR and (1)H ((13)C) NMR spectra confirmed the chemical structure of the UF-DMA. The experimental adhesives were characterized with regard to the degree of conversion, water sorption/solubility, contact angle, diffusion coefficient, Vickers hardness, and morphology of the crosslinked networks and compared with the specimens containing 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HAP) or calcium phosphate (CaP). The conversion degree (after 180 s of irradiation with visible light) ranged from 59.5% (F1) to 74.8% (F3), whereas the water sorption was between 23.15 μg mm(-3) (F1) and 40.52 μg mm(-3) (F3). Upon the addition of HAP or CaP this parameter attained values of 37.82-49.14 μg mm(-3) (F1-F3-HAP) and 34.58-45.56 μg mm(-3), respectively. Also, the formation of resin tags through the infiltration of a dental composition (F3) was visualized by SEM analysis. The results suggest that UF-DMA taken as co-monomer in dental adhesives of acrylic type may provide improved properties in the moist environment of the mouth.

  5. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Niloofar; Farzin Ebrahimi, Shahram; Mollaie, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat) on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm) were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P<0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results. Only in the Excite group, contamination did not have adverse effects on dentin microleakage (P > 0.05). In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003). AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05). Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite.

  6. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Niloofar; Farzin Ebrahimi, Shahram; Mollaie, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat) on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm) were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P<0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results. Only in the Excite group, contamination did not have adverse effects on dentin microleakage (P > 0.05). In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003). AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05). Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite. PMID:27092210

  7. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-01

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints. The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  8. How dogs lap: ingestion and intraoral transport in Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Crompton, A W; Musinsky, Catherine

    2011-12-23

    It has recently been suggested that the mechanism for lifting liquid from a bowl into the oral cavity during lapping is fundamentally different in cats and dogs: cats use adhesion of liquid to the tongue tip while dogs 'scoop' with their backwardly curled tongue. High-speed light videos and X-ray videos show that on the contrary, both cats and dogs use the mechanism of adhesion. Liquid is transported through the oral cavity to the oesophagus, against gravity, on the surface of the tongue as it is drawn upwards, then a tight contact between the tongue surface and palatal rugae traps liquid and prevents its falling out as the tongue is protruded. At least three cycles are needed for intraoral transport of liquid in the dog.

  9. Atomic force and super-resolution microscopy support a role for LapA as a cell-surface biofilm adhesin of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Ivan E.; Boyd, Chelsea D.; Newell, Peter D.; Schwartz, Mary E.; Turnbull, Lynne; Johnson, Michael S.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; O’Toole, George A.; Camesano, Terri A.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescence Pf0-1 requires the large repeat protein LapA for stable surface attachment. This study presents direct evidence that LapA is a cell-surface-localized adhesin. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a significant twofold reduction in adhesion force for mutants lacking the LapA protein on the cell surface compared to the wild-type strain. Deletion of lapG, a gene encoding a periplasmic cysteine protease that functions to release LapA from the cell surface, resulted in a twofold increase in the force of adhesion. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) revealed the presence of the LapA protein on the cell surface, consistent with its role as an adhesin. The protein is only visualized in the cytoplasm for a mutant of the ABC transporter responsible for translocating LapA to the cell surface. Together, these data highlight the power of combining the use of AFM and 3D-SIM with genetic studies to demonstrate that LapA, a member of a large group of RTX-like repeat proteins, is a cell-surface adhesin. PMID:23064158

  10. Bonding and nondestructive evaluation of graphite/PEEK composite and titanium adherends with thermoplastic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Berry, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bonded single overlap shear specimens were fabricated from Graphite/PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) composite adherends and titanium adherends. Six advanced thermoplastic adhesives were used for the bonding. The specimens were bonded by an electromagnetic induction technique producing high heating rates and high-strength bonds in a few minutes. This contrasts with conventionally heated presses or autoclaves that take hours to process comparable quality bonds. The Graphite/PEEK composites were highly resistant to delamination during the testing. This allowed the specimen to fail exclusively through the bondline, even at very high shear loads. Nondestructive evaluation of bonded specimens was performed ultrasonically by energizing the entire thickness of the material through the bondline and measuring acoustic impedance parameters. Destructive testing confirmed the unique ultrasonic profiles of strong and weak bonds, establishing a standard for predicting relative bond strength in subsequent specimens.

  11. Ultrasonic, microwave, and millimeter wave inspection techniques for adhesively bonded stacked open honeycomb core composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Clint D.; Cox, Ian; Ghasr, Mohammad Tayeb Ahmed; Ying, Kuang P.; Zoughi, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Honeycomb sandwich composites are used extensively in the aerospace industry to provide stiffness and thickness to lightweight structures. A common fabrication method for thick, curved sandwich structures is to stack and bond multiple honeycomb layers prior to machining core curvatures. Once bonded, each adhesive layer must be inspected for delaminations and the presence of unwanted foreign materials. From a manufacturing and cost standpoint, it can be advantageous to inspect the open core prior to face sheet closeout in order to reduce end-article scrap rates. However, by nature, these honeycomb sandwich composite structures are primarily manufactured from low permittivity and low loss materials making detection of delamination and some of the foreign materials (which also are low permittivity and low loss) quite challenging in the microwave and millimeter wave regime. Likewise, foreign materials such as release film in adhesive layers can be sufficiently thin as to not cause significant attenuation in through-transmission ultrasonic signals, making them difficult to detect. This paper presents a collaborative effort intended to explore the efficacy of different non-contact NDI techniques for detecting flaws in a stacked open fiberglass honeycomb core panel. These techniques primarily included air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonics, single-sided wideband synthetic aperture microwave and millimeter-wave imaging, and lens-focused technique. The goal of this investigation has been to not only evaluate the efficacy of these techniques, but also to determine their unique advantages and limitations for evaluating parameters such as flaw type, flaw size, and flaw depth.

  12. Transverse Reinforcement of Adhesive Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, S.; Shakirov, A.

    2015-05-01

    The shear of single-lap adhesive joints causes significant peel stresses in the adhesive layer, which is a particularly urgent problem for low-modulus polyurethane compositions. An experimental and computational analysis of various methods for increasing the load-bearing capacity of the joints by their strengthening with metallic z-elements was carried out. This strengthening hinders their delamination by the action of peel stresses, which allows one to reduce the overall dimensions and weight of adhesive joints. Two main strengthening methods were considered: with steel tapping screws (of diameter 2.5 mm) and blind aluminum rivets (of diameter 4.0 mm). The peculiarity of the strengthening lies in the fact that z-elements of minimum available diameter were used for reducing the effect of stress concentrations on the strength of the joints. The test of specimens for each type of strengthening showed an average increase in the ultimate load by 40% for the threaded reinforcements and by 10% for the rivets. During an analysis of stress state of the joints by the FEM, the nonlinear behavior of constituent materials and stress concentration in the region of reinforcing elements were taken into account. The mechanical properties of the adhesive layer and the GFRP covering were determined in separate experiments. The analysis showed that the weight of the reinforced adhesive joints could be lowered by 20-25% relative to that of unreinforced ones without reducing their load-bearing capacity. An additional effect caused by using the threaded reinforcing elements was a more than threefold increase in their rigidity as compared with that of analogous nonreinforced ones.

  13. Decreased astroglial cell adhesion and proliferation on zinc oxide nanoparticle polyurethane composites

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer a number of properties that are of interest to the field of neural tissue engineering. Specifically, materials that exhibit nanoscale surface dimensions have been shown to promote neuron function while simultaneously minimizing the activity of cells such as astrocytes that inhibit central nervous system regeneration. Studies demonstrating enhanced neural tissue regeneration in electrical fields through the use of conductive materials have led to interest in piezoelectric materials (or those materials which generate a transient electrical potential when mechanically deformed) such as zinc oxide (ZnO). It has been speculated that ZnO nanoparticles possess increased piezoelectric properties over ZnO micron particles. Due to this promise in neural applications, the objective of the present in vitro study was, for the first time, to assess the activity of astroglial cells on ZnO nanoparticle polymer composites. ZnO nanoparticles embedded in polyurethane were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy to evaluate nanoscale surface features of the composites. The surface chemistry was characterized via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Astroglial cell response was evaluated based on cell adhesion and proliferation. Astrocyte adhesion was significantly reduced on ZnO nanoparticle/polyurethane (PU) composites with a weight ratio of 50:50 (PU:ZnO) wt.%, 75:25 (PU:ZnO) wt.%, and 90:10 (PU:ZnO) wt.% in comparison to pure PU. The successful production of ZnO nanoparticle composite scaffolds suitable for decreasing astroglial cell density demonstrates their potential as a nerve guidance channel material with greater efficiency than what may be available today. PMID:19337420

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Bonds via Ultrasonic Phase Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldren, Harold A.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Gupta, Mool C.

    2016-01-01

    The use of advanced composites utilizing adhesively bonded structures offers advantages in weight and cost for both the aerospace and automotive industries. Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved unable to reliably detect weak bonds or bond deterioration during service life conditions. A new nondestructive technique for quantitatively measuring adhesive bond strength is demonstrated. In this paper, an ultrasonic technique employing constant frequency pulsed phased-locked loop (CFPPLL) circuitry to monitor the phase response of a bonded structure from change in thermal stress is discussed. Theoretical research suggests that the thermal response of a bonded interface relates well with the quality of the adhesive bond. In particular, the effective stiffness of the adhesive-adherent interface may be extracted from the thermal phase response of the structure. The sensitivity of the CFPPLL instrument allows detection of bond pathologies that have been previously difficult-to-detect. Theoretical results with this ultrasonic technique on single epoxy lap joint (SLJ) specimens are presented and discussed. This technique has the potential to advance the use of adhesive bonds - and by association, advanced composite structures - by providing a reliable method to measure adhesive bond strength, thus permitting more complex, lightweight, and safe designs.

  15. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-13 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples.

  16. Micro-Energy Rates for Damage Tolerance and Durability of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the adhesive bond strength of lap-jointed graphite/aluminum composites is examined by computational simulation. Computed micro-stress level energy release rates are used to identify the damage mechanisms associated with the corresponding acoustic emission (AE) signals. Computed damage regions are similarly correlated with ultrasonically scanned damage regions. Results show that computational simulation can be used with suitable NDE methods for credible in-service monitoring of composites.

  17. Quadruple Lap Shear Processing Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Tony N.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Thiokol, Science and Engineering Huntsville Operations (SEHO) Laboratory has previously experienced significant levels of variation in testing Quadruple Lap Shear (QLS) specimens. The QLS test is used at Thiokol / Utah for the qualification of Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle flex bearing materials. A test was conducted to verify that process changes instituted by SEHO personnel effectively reduced variability, even with normal processing variables introduced. A test matrix was designed to progress in a series of steps; the first establishing a baseline, then introducing additional solvents or other variables. Variables included normal test plan delay times, pre-bond solvent hand-wipes and contaminants. Each condition tested utilized standard QLS hardware bonded with natural rubber, two separate technicians and three replicates. This paper will report the results and conclusions of this investigation.

  18. Single-Phase Photo-Cross-Linkable Bioinspired Adhesive for Precise Control of Adhesion Strength.

    PubMed

    Harper, Tristan; Slegeris, Rimantas; Pramudya, Irawan; Chung, Hoyong

    2017-01-18

    A bioinspired, modular terpolymer adhesive, poly(N-methacryloyl-3,4-dihydroxyl-l-phenylalanine-co-9-(acryloyloxy)butyl anthracene-9-carboxylate-co-acrylic acid), has been synthesized containing three different functionalities: a photo-cross-linking segment, a wet interfacial adhesion segment, and a water-soluble segment. The synthesized adhesive polymer is the first example of a single-phase, photo-cross-linkable adhesive which does not require additional photoinitiator or other cross-linking agents. The terpolymer demonstrates strong adhesion when it swells in water and/or ethanol. The terpolymer is composed of three repeating units: N-methacryloyl-3,4-dihydroxyl-l-phenylalanine (MDOPA), which has been known to generate strong adhesion under wet conditions, poly(acrylic acid), which has been known to increase water solubility of polymers, and a photo-cross-linking segment consisting of an anthracene-based monomer used for enhancement of cohesion properties via UV irradiation (352 nm). A photomediated [4 + 4] cycloaddition reaction of anthracene results in the cross-linking of individual polymer chains after interfacial adhesion between substrates and adhesive polymers. Chemically, the covalent photo-cross-linking was confirmed by UV-vis, (1)H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cross-linking-fortified cohesion of the adhesive polymer network yields strengthened cohesion properties of the bulk material. The photoreaction was conveniently controlled via the duration of UV-irradiation. The adhesion properties of new adhesives were characterized by lap shear strength on transparent Mylar film and glasses after the adhesive was swollen in biologically friendly solvents including water and ethanol. The adhesion strength (J/m(2)) was enhanced by 850% under 352 nm UV-irradiation. Multiple application variables were tested to determine the optimal conditions, such as solvent, concentration, polymer composition, and substrate. The best adhesion properties were

  19. Composites containing albumin protein or cyanoacrylate adhesives and biodegradable scaffolds: I. Acute wound closure study in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Grant T.; Soller, Eric C.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Gonnerman, Krista N.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.

    2004-07-01

    Composite adhesives composed of biodegradable scaffolds impregnated with a biological or synthetic adhesive were investigated for use in wound closure as an alternative to using either one of the adhesives alone. Two different scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biological material, small intestinal sub mucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. The biological adhesive was composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. The synthetic adhesive was Ethicon's Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength of skin incisions repaired ex vivo in a rat model, by adhesive alone or in combination with a scaffold, as well as the time-to-failure, were measured and compared. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the scaffold-enhanced biological adhesives were on average, 80% stronger than their non-enhanced counterparts, with an accompanying increase in the time-to-failure of the repairs. These results support the theory that a scaffold material with an irregular surface that bridges the wound provides a stronger, more durable and consistent adhesion, due to the distribution of the tensile stress forces over the many micro-adhesions provided by the irregular surface, rather than the one large continuous adhesive contact. This theory is also supported by several previous ex vivo experiments demonstrating enhanced tensile strength of irregular versus smooth scaffold surfaces in identical tissue repairs performed on bovine thoracic aorta, liver, spleen, small intestine and lung tissue.

  20. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts for specimen and panel fabrication and field repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has developed bonding concepts for aerospace composite materials which employ induction heating to directly apply heat to the bond line and/or adherends without simultaneously heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. These methods have demonstrated bonding process time reductions of two to three orders of magnitude, by comparison with conventional press molding. Attention is presently given to rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens for aerospace panel bonding or field repair, as well as for the field repair requirements of metallic and advanced polymeric matrix composite structures.

  1. Seam bonding of graphite reinforced composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D.; Fox, Robert L.; Tyeryar, James R.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and operating characteristics of a method for the joining of composite parts, at a rate of 2 to 6 inches/min, in which the heating process responsible for adhesive flow at 800 F is focused upon the overlapped seam. The heating element is a self-tuning solid state power oscillator whose ferrite's toroid geometry generates a uniform, concentrated magnetic flux in the component to be bonded. Specimens cut from graphite/epoxy panels bonded with epoxy-phenolic adhesive by this process have exhibited average lap-shear strengths of the order of 3400 lbs/sq in.

  2. Evaluation of a thermoplastic polyimide (422) for bonding GR/PI composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hot-melt processable copolyimide previously studied and characterized as an adhesive for bonding Ti-6Al-4V was used to bond Celion 6000/LARC-160 composite. Comparisons are made for the two adherend systems. A bonding cycle was determined for the composite bonding and lap shear specimens were prepared which were thermally exposed in a forced-air oven for up to 5000 h at 204 C. The lap shear strengths (LSSs) were determined at RT, 177, and 204 C. After thermal exposure at RT, 177, and 204 C the LSS decreased significantly; however, a slight increase was noted for the 204 C tests. Initially the LSS values are higher for the bonded Ti-6Al-4V than for the bonded composite, however, the LSS decreases dramatically between 5000 and 10,000 h of 204 C thermal exposure. Longer periods of thermal exposure up to 20,000 h results in further decreases in the LSSs. Although the bonded composite retained useful strengths for exposures up to 5000 h, based on the poor results of the bonded Ti-6Al-4V beyond 5000 h, the 422 adhesive bonded composites would most likely also produce poor strengths beyond 5000 h exposure. Adhesive bonded composite lap shear specimens exposed to boiling water for 72 h exhibited greatly reduced strengths at all test temperatures. The percent retained after water boil for each test temperature was essentially the same for both systems.

  3. Evaluation of a thermoplastic polyimide (422) for bonding GR/PI composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hot-melt processable copolyimide previously studied and characterized as an adhesive for bonding Ti-6Al-4V was used to bond Celion 6000/LARC-160 composite. Comparisons are made for the two adherend systems. A bonding cycle was determined for the composite bonding and lap shear specimens were prepared which were thermally exposed in a forced-air oven for up to 5000 h at 204 C. The lap shear strengths (LSSs) were determined at RT, 177, and 204 C. After thermal exposure at RT, 177, and 204 C the LSS decreased significantly; however, a slight increase was noted for the 204 C tests. Initially the LSS values are higher for the bonded Ti-6Al-4V than for the bonded composite, however, the LSS decreases dramatically between 5000 and 10,000 h of 204 C thermal exposure. Longer periods of thermal exposure up to 20,000 h results in further decreases in the LSSs. Although the bonded composite retained useful strengths for exposures up to 5000 h, based on the por results of the bonded Ti-6Al-4V beyond 5000 h, the 422 adhesive bonded composites would most likely also produce poor strengths beyond 5000 h exposure. Adhesive bonded composite lap shear specimens exposed to boiling water for 72 h exhibited greatly reduced strengths at all test temperatures. The percent retained after water boil for each test temperature was essentially the same for both systems.

  4. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  5. The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. II - Lap Joints. 2; Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Manley J.

    1938-01-01

    Tests have been made in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the drag caused by four types of lap joint. The tests were made on an airfoil of NACA 23012 section and 5-foot chord and covered in a range of speeds from 80 to 500 miles per hour and lift coefficients from 0 to 0.30. The increases in profile drag caused by representative arrangements of laps varied from 4 to 9%. When there were protruding rivet heads on the surface, the addition of laps increased the drag only slightly. Laps on the forward part of a wing increased the drag considerably more than those farther back.

  6. Supersonic Retropulsion Surface Preparation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Adhesive Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Blohowiak, Kay Y.; Connell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Surface preparation is widely recognized as a key step to producing robust and predictable bonds in a precise and reproducible manner. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, can lack precision and reproducibility, which can lead to variation in surface properties and subsequent bonding performance. The use of a laser to ablate composite surface resin can provide an efficient, precise, and reproducible means of preparing composite surfaces for adhesive bonding. Advantages include elimination of physical waste (i.e., grit media and sacrificial peel ply layers that ultimately require disposal), reduction in process variability due to increased precision (e.g. increased reproducibility), and automation of surface preparation, all of which improve reliability and process control. This paper describes a Nd:YAG laser surface preparation technique for composite substrates and the mechanical performance and failure modes of bonded laminates thus prepared. Additionally, bonded specimens were aged in a hot, wet environment for approximately one year and subsequently mechanically tested. The results of a one year hygrothermal aging study will be presented.

  7. Effect of time on the flexural strength of glass ionomer and composite orthodontic adhesives.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Christophe; Forestier, Jean-Paul; Tavernier, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of time on the flexural strength of a resin-reinforced glass ionomer and a composite adhesive system, specifically at three time frames corresponding to the three stages of polymerization of Fuji Ortho LC. Ten rectangular specimens of each material were prepared in a metal mold (25 x 2 x 2 mm) and then stored at 37 degrees C and 100% humidity in an incubator. Six test groups were created, in which each specimen was fractured using a 3-point-bending test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The test results indicated that there were significant differences among the groups (P = .0001). The flexural strengths were significantly higher in the two groups (III and VI) that were fractured after seven days. This was true for both the Fuji Ortho LC (x = 77 +/- 6.1 MPa) and the Concise (x = 103.9 +/- 4.2 MPa). The flexural strength of the resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive was significantly lower than that for the composite whatever the time of fracture, 10 minutes, one hour, or seven days. The analysis of the strength-deformation curve of the group of Fuji Ortho LC, which was fractured within 10 minutes after setting (group I), showed viscoplastic behavior, whereas that of all the others groups showed elastic behavior. According to this study, clinicians must consider the mechanics of Fuji Ortho LC setting and, when this material is used, wait for at least one hour to ligate initial or repaired arch wires.

  8. Conditioning of root canals prior to dowel cementation with composite luting cement and two dentine adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Liberman, R; Ben-Amar, A; Urstein, M; Gontar, G; Fitzig, S

    1989-11-01

    Two hundred and forty root canals of extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared to the same dimension, and Dentatus posts of equal size were cemented without screwing them into the dentine. Five cleansing solutions and two dentine adhesive systems were evaluated prior to post-cementation using chemical-cure composite resin. 'Pull-out' tests were then conducted in order to evaluate the bond strength of these intra-pulpal posts. The use of Conclude (composite luting cement) alone, with or without the cleansing solutions, resulted in significantly lower pull-out forces. Scotchbond Dental Adhesive gave significantly better results, regardless of the cleansing solution used. Gluma Dentine Adhesive significantly increased the pull-out forces only when used with its supplied cleanser or Tubulicid.

  9. Active Metal Brazing and Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to C/C Composites for Heat Rejection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, Tarah; Cerny, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Robust assembly and integration technologies are critically needed for the manufacturing of heat rejection system (HRS) components for current and future space exploration missions. Active metal brazing and adhesive bonding technologies are being assessed for the bonding of titanium to high conductivity Carbon-Carbon composite sub components in various shapes and sizes. Currently a number of different silver and copper based active metal brazes and adhesive compositions are being evaluated. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Several mechanical tests have been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of different brazing and adhesive approaches in tension and in shear that are both simple and representative of the actual system and relatively straightforward in analysis. The results of these mechanical tests along with the fractographic analysis will be discussed. In addition, advantages, technical issues and concerns in using different bonding approaches will also be presented.

  10. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims and objectives: To measure and compare the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of light-cure composite. (Enlight, Ormco.) and dual-cure composite (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho). Materials and methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were divided into two groups: group I (blue): conventional light cure composite resin. (Enlight, Ormco.) and group II (green): dual cure composite resin. (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho.) with 30 teeth in each group. These samples were tested on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength. Results: Student t-test showed that the mean shear bond strength of the conventional light cure group (8.54 MPa - 10.42 MPa) was significantly lower than dual cure group (10.45 MPa -12.17 MPa). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the shear bond strength of dual-cure composite resin (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho) is comparatively higher than conventional light-cure composite resin (Enlight, Ormco). In the majority of the samples, adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were 4 and 5 in both the groups whereas score 1 is attained by the least number of samples in both the groups. How to cite this article: Verma G, Trehan M, Sharma S. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):166-170. PMID:25206216

  11. Direct Pen Writing of Adhesive Particle-Free Ultrahigh Silver Salt-Loaded Composite Ink for Stretchable Circuits.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingjun; Cai, Xiaobing; Guo, Qiuquan; Bian, Bin; Zhang, Tengyuan; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-26

    In this article, we describe a writable particle-free ink for fast fabrication of highly conductive stretchable circuits. The composite ink mainly consists of soluble silver salt and adhesive rubber. Low toxic ketone was employed as the main solvent. Attributed to ultrahigh solubility of silver salt in short-chain ketone and salt-assisted dissolution of rubber, the ink can be prepared into particle-free transparent solution. As-prepared ink has a good chemical stability and can be directly filled into ballpoint pens and use to write on different substrates to form well adhesive silver salt-based composite written traces as needed. As a result of high silver salt loading, the trace can be converted into highly conductive silver nanoparticle-based composites after in situ reduction. Because of the introduction of adhesive elastomeric rubber, the as-formed conductive composite written trace can not only maintain good adhesion to various substrates but also show good conductivity under various deformations. The conductivity of written traces can be enhanced by repeated writing-reduction cycles. Different patterns can be fabricated by either direct handwriting or hand-copying. As proof-of-concept demonstrations, a typical handwriting heart-like circuit was fabricated to show its capability to work under different deformations, and a pressure-sensitive switch was also manufactured to present pressure-dependent change of resistance.

  12. LAPS Grid generation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliantini, Cecilia; Delzanno, Gia Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu; Chacon, Luis

    2011-10-01

    LAPS uses a common-data framework in which a general purpose grid generation and adaptation package in toroidal and simply connected domains is implemented. The initial focus is on implementing the Winslow/Laplace-Beltrami method for generating non-overlapping block structured grids. This is to be followed by a grid adaptation scheme based on Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport method [Delzanno et al., J. Comput. Phys,227 (2008), 9841-9864], that equidistributes application-specified error. As an initial set of applications, we will lay out grids for an axisymmetric mirror, a field reversed configuration, and an entire poloidal cross section of a tokamak plasma reconstructed from a CMOD experimental shot. These grids will then be used for computing the plasma equilibrium and transport in accompanying presentations. A key issue for Monge-Kantorovich grid optimization is the choice of error or monitor function for equi-distribution. We will compare the Operator Recovery Error Source Detector (ORESD) [Lapenta, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng,59 (2004) 2065-2087], the Tau method and a strategy based on the grid coarsening [Zhang et al., AIAA J,39 (2001) 1706-1715] to find an ``optimal'' grid. Work supported by DOE OFES.

  13. Effect of lining with a flowable composite on internal adaptation of direct composite restorations using all-in-one adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Yahagi, Chika; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Ikeda, Masaomi; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lining with a flowable composite on internal adaptation of composite restorations using three all-in-one adhesive systems; Bond Force (BF), G-Bond Plus (GP), and OptiBond All-in-one (OP), and a two-step self-etching adhesive system; Clearfil SE Bond (SE). They were applied to each cylindrical cavity prepared on the human dentin. The cavity surface was lined with/without a flowable resin composite prior to filling with a resin composite (FL/NL). After water storage for 24 h, the specimens were sectioned and polished, and internal adaptation of the restorations was assessed using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. For SE, a perfect cavity adaptation was recognized in both FL and NL. For BF, GP and OP, cavity adaptation was material dependent in NL, whereas no gap formation was observed in FL. However, voids formation was observed at the composite-adhesive-dentin interface in every all-in-one adhesive system.

  14. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Anish

    Adhesive bonding of graphite epoxy composite laminates to itself or traditional metal alloys in modern aerospace and aircraft structural applications offers an excellent opportunity to use the most efficient and intelligent combination of materials available thus providing an attractive package for efficient structural designs. However, one of the major issues of adhesive bonding is the occasional formation of interfacial defects such as kissing or weak bonds in the bondline interface. Also, there are shortcomings of existing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to non-destructively detect/characterize these interfacial defects and reliably predicting the bond shear strength. As a result, adhesive bonding technology is still not solely implemented in primary structures of an aircraft. Therefore, there is a greater demand for a novel NDE tool that can meet the existing aerospace requirement for adhesive bondline characterization. This research implemented a novel Acoustography ultrasonic imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique to detect and characterize interfacial defects in the bondline and determine bond shear strength in adhesively bonded composite-metal joints. Adhesively bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate and 2024-T3 Aluminum single lap shear panels subjected to various implanted kissing/weak bond defects were the primary focus of this study. Kissing/weak bonds were prepared by controlled surface contamination in the composite bonding surface and also by improperly mixing the adhesive constituent. SEM analyses were also conducted to understand the surface morphology of substrates and their interaction with the contaminants. Morphological changes were observed in the microscopic scale and the chemical analysis confirmed the stability of the contaminant at or very close to the interface. In addition, it was also demonstrated that contaminants migrated during the curing of the adhesive from CFRP substrate which caused a

  15. ADHESIVES WITH DIFFERENT PHS: EFFECT ON THE MTBS OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED AND LIGHT-ACTIVATED COMPOSITES TO HUMAN DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Mallmann, André; de Melo, Renata Marques; Estrela, Verbênia; Pelogia, Fernanda; Campos, Laura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the bond strength between human dentin and composites, using two light-activated single-bottle total-etch adhesive systems with different pHs combined with chemically activated and light-activated-composites. The tested hypothesis was that the dentin bond strength is not influenced by an adhesive system of low pH, combined with chemically activated or light-activated composites. Material and Method: Flat dentin surfaces of twenty-eight human third molars were allocated in 4 groups (n=7), depending on the adhesive system: (One Step Plus-OS and Prime & Bond NT-PB) and composite (light-activated Filtek Z-100 [Z100] and chemically activated Bisfil 2B [B2B]). Each adhesive system was applied on acid-etched dentin and then one of the composites was added to form a 5 mm-high resin block. The specimens were stored in tap water (37°C/24 h) and sectioned into two axes, x and y. This was done with a diamond disk under coolant irrigation to obtain beams with a cross-section area of approximately 0.8 mm2. Each specimen was then attached to a custom-made device and submitted to the microtensile test (1 mm.min−1). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p<0.05). Results: The anticipated hypothesis was not confirmed (p<0.0001). The bond strengths (MPa) were not statistically different between the two adhesive systems when light-activated composite was used (OS+Z100 = 24.7±7.1ª; PB+Z100 = 23.8±5.7ª). However, with use of the chemically activated composite (B2B), PB (7.8±3.6b MPa) showed significantly lower dentin bond strengths than OS (32.2±7.6ª). Conclusion: The low pH of the adhesive system can affect the bond of chemically activated composite to dentin. On the other hand, under the present conditions, the low pH did not seem to affect the bond of light-activated composites to dentin significantly. PMID:19089142

  16. Adhesion of Type 1-Fimbriated Escherichia coli to Abiotic Surfaces Leads to Altered Composition of Outer Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Karen; Norbeck, Joakim; Larsson, Thomas; Karlsson, Karl-Anders; Hermansson, Malte

    2001-01-01

    Phenotypic differences between planktonic bacteria and those attached to abiotic surfaces exist, but the mechanisms involved in the adhesion response of bacteria are not well understood. By the use of two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we have demonstrated that attachment of Escherichia coli to abiotic surfaces leads to alteration in the composition of outer membrane proteins. A major decrease in the abundance of resolved proteins was observed during adhesion of type 1-fimbriated E. coli strains, which was at least partly caused by proteolysis. Moreover, a study of fimbriated and nonfimbriated mutants revealed that these changes were due mainly to type 1 fimbria-mediated surface contact and that only a few changes occurred in the outer membranes of nonfimbriated mutant strains. Protein synthesis and proteolytic degradation were involved to different extents in adhesion of fimbriated and nonfimbriated cells. While protein synthesis appeared to affect adhesion of only the nonfimbriated strain, proteolytic activity mostly seemed to contribute to adhesion of the fimbriated strain. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, six of the proteins resolved by 2D analysis were identified as BtuB, EF-Tu, OmpA, OmpX, Slp, and TolC. While the first two proteins were unaffected by adhesion, the levels of the last four were moderately to strongly reduced. Based on the present results, it may be suggested that physical interactions between type 1 fimbriae and the surface are part of a surface-sensing mechanism in which protein turnover may contribute to the observed change in composition of outer membrane proteins. This change alters the surface characteristics of the cell envelope and may thus influence adhesion. PMID:11274103

  17. Shock adhesion test for composite bonded assembly using a high pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, E.; Berthe, L.; Buzaud, E.; Boustie, M.; Arrigoni, M.

    2013-07-01

    In a context of the rising use of composite assemblies in aeronautic or defense fields, the assessment of their strength is a key issue. The method developed in this study attempts to provide solutions. A shock adhesion test based on short compressive loads, obtained by a high pulsed power generator, is proposed as a proof test to ensure the quality of composite bonded assemblies. A calibrated load induces a local tensile stress able to damage the bond interface. The high pulsed power source is the GEnerateur de Pression Isentropique device (Isentropic Pressure Generator), used to generate the required stresses, with a 450 ns pulse duration to test assemblies above the mm thickness range. The understanding of the mechanisms of wave propagation and tensile stress generation within these multilayer assemblies are scientific challenges. The ability of the technique to induce a tensile stress able to disbond the laminates and the assemblies is demonstrated. This paper details the response of carbon epoxy laminates and their bonded assemblies to a shock loading near the damage threshold.

  18. An experimental study on infrared drying kinetics of an aqueous adhesive supported by polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanic, Nadine; Le Bideau, Pascal; Glouannec, Patrick; Deterre, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    The infrared drying of an aqueous polymer emulsion spread on a thin composite flat film is experimentally studied. The composite film is composed of polyamide fibers supported by a poly(vinyl fluoride) film. The aqueous polymer is an Ethylene Vinyl Acetate emulsion playing the role of adhesive. It is spread over the film with a low thickness, about one hundred micrometers. The aim of this work is to understand the effects of the presence of fibers on the drying of this thin-layer product. With this in mind, a specific laboratory set up composed of a near infrared heater is used in order to get the drying kinetics. First, incident heat fluxes received at the product surface and transmittances of materials (semi-transparent medium) are measured with an ad-hoc heat flux sensor. Then, many experiments are performed with and without fibers. For linking the final moisture content to the fibers thermal and hydric behavior, a microscopic analysis of the dried samples is investigated. This analysis is performed for two thicknesses of polymer corresponding to two covering rates of fibers.

  19. Influence of Photoinitiator System on Physical-Chemical Properties of Experimental Self-Adhesive Composites.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Marcus Vinicius Loureiro; Moraes, Rita de Cássia Martins; Pfeifer, Carmem; Salgado, Vinícius Esteves; Correr, Ana Rosa Costa; Schneider, Luis Felipe J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of photoinitiator systems on physical-chemical properties of flowable composites. Conventional (CFC), composed by bisphenol-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA)+triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and self-adhesive (SAFC), composed by BisGMA+TEDGMA+bis{2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl} phosphate (2MP), flowable composites were developed. Five photoinitiator systems were tested: camphorquinone (CQ), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB), diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO), phenylbis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (BAPO), CQ+EDMAB+TPO and CQ+EDMAB+BAPO. A two-peak LED was used; degree of conversion (DC) and the maximum polymerization rate (RPmax) were determined by near infrared spectroscopy. For the yellowing degree a spectrophotometer was used. Water sorption (Wsp) was obtained after 30 days of water storage (n=5). Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (a=0.05). BAPO presented the highest DC and RPmax values for both series. SAFCs presented lower DC and RPmax for CQ+EDMAB-based materials. Greater yellowing was observed for SAFCs compared with CFCs, except for BAPO. Greater Wsp was observed for SAFCs compared with CFCs. The photoinitiator did not influence Wsp for CFCs, but TPO and BAPO presented the highest Wsp in SAFCs. The photoinitiator system affected differently the physical-chemical properties of CFCs and SAFCs.

  20. Evaluation of dental adhesive systems with amalgam and resin composite restorations: comparison of microleakage and bond strength results.

    PubMed

    Neme, A L; Evans, D B; Maxson, B B

    2000-01-01

    A variety of laboratory tests have been developed to assist in predicting the clinical performance of dental restorative materials. Additionally, more than one methodology is in use for many types of tests performed in vitro. This project assessed and compared results derived from two specific laboratory testing methods, one for bond strength and one for microleakage. Seven multi-purpose dental adhesives were tested with the two methodologies in both amalgam and resin composite restorations. Bond strength was determined with a punch-out method in sections of human molar dentin. Microleakage was analyzed with a digital imaging system (Image-Pro Plus, Version 1.3) to determine the extent of dye penetration in Class V preparations centered at the CEJ on both the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molar teeth. There were 32 treatment groups (n = 10); seven experimental (dental adhesives) and one control (copal varnish, 37% phosphoric acid) followed by restoration with either amalgam or resin composite. Specimens were thermocycled 500 times in 5 degrees and 55 degrees C water with a one-minute dwell time. Bond strength and microleakage values were determined for each group. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests demonstrated an interaction between restorative material and adhesive system with a significant difference among adhesives (p < 0.05). Using a multi-purpose adhesive system resulted in both a statistically significant increase in bond strength and a statistically significant decrease in extent of microleakage (p < 0.05). The effect of the adhesive upon both microleakage and bond strength was greater in the resin composite restorations than in the amalgam restorations. Bond strength testing was more discriminating than microleakage evaluation in identifying differences among materials.

  1. Delamination Damage Analyses of FRP Composite Spar Wingskin Joints with Modified Elliptical Adhesive Load Coupler Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, S. K.; Pradhan, B.

    2008-11-01

    Three-dimensional non-linear finite element analyses (FEA) for delamination damage onset and its growth in Graphite Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) composite Spar Wingskin Joints (SWJ) with modified elliptical adhesive load coupler profile for varied ratios of base width to height of the spar have been presented in this paper. Both in-plane and out-of-plane normal and shear stress variations on the interfacial surface of the wingskin between the spar and the wingskin have been evaluated. Coupled stress failure criterion has been used to predict the locations of initiation of failures due to delamination induced damages. Based on the stress and delamination damage analyses, suitable geometry of the modified elliptical adhesive load coupler profile of the SWJ has been recommended. The delamination damage has been observed to be initiated from the toe-end of the interfacial surface of the spar and the wingskin of the SWJ. Subsequently, the delamination propagations have also been studied by calculating the individual and the total Mode of Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR) along the delamination front using Modified Crack Closure Integral (MCCI) technique based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) approach. It is seen that SERR variations along the delamination front i.e. across the width of the SWJ are not uniform. Therefore, a straight delamination front may grow into a curved delamination front as the delamination propagates. Also, it is found that Mode I SERR ( G I) governs the delamination propagation predominantly for the SWJ. Accordingly, suitable delamination arresting mechanism has been suggested.

  2. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on structure of adhesive composite systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H; Mueller, H J

    1995-02-01

    This work evaluates the degradation of three adhesive/composite systems (Tenure/Marathon One. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 and Optibond/Herculite XRV) upon immersion in 75% ethanol solution and in an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir). Shear bond strength (SBS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) specimens were employed for this study. For the SBS specimens, the bonded interface and composite were exposed to food and oral simulating fluids at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. A similar control series was stored in air. DTS specimens were stored in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. The SBS specimens were sheared to failure. Small quantities of bonding resin were removed from the tooth side of the fractured surface and from the non-fractured fractured end of the composite for Fourier transform infrared microscopic evaluation. Similar scrapings were taken from DTS specimen surfaces. The infrared absorbance intensity (AI) of the major peaks was measured as a function of storage time and ratioed against the aromatic C = C (1609.4 cm-1) peak. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The AI of major peaks was similar for the materials stored either in air or in Moi-Stir for all testing periods. Storage in ethanol caused the AI of aliphatic C = C (1638 cm-1) and of O-H (approximately 3500 cm-1) bonds to significantly decrease (30-50%) for specimens of bonding resin while the AI of C = O bonds (1730 cm-1) increased (60-120%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Effects of molecular weight and surface functionalization on surface composition and cell adhesion to Hyaluronan coated titanium.

    PubMed

    Morra, M; Cassinelli, C; Carpi, A; Giardino, R; Fini, M

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the effect of surface functionalization on surface composition and cell adhesion to titanium samples by high and low molecular weight Hyaluronan (HA). HA was covalently linked to aminated Ti surfaces obtained by two different surface functionalization techniques, that is polyethyleneimine (PEI) adsorption and deposition from allylamine plasma. The two approaches yield very different surface densities of available amino groups, affecting this way the number and frequency of surface-HA bonds and the configurational freedom of the latter. Results of cell adhesion test are dependent on the surface functionalization approach adopted, low molecular weight HA coupled to PEI functionalized Ti does not yield the same degree of resistance to cell adhesion found on other samples. These results indicate that the details of the surface functionalization step are crucial for surface engineering of implant devices by biological molecules.

  4. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma on the adhesion and durability of resin composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Kim, Chang-Keun; Seo, Deog-Gyu; Son, Ho-Hyun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-power, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NT-APP) treatments, in pulsed and conventional modes, on the adhesion of resin composite to dentin and on the durability of the bond between resin composite and dentin. A pencil-type NT-APP jet was applied in pulsed and conventional modes to acid-etched dentin. The microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of resin composite to dentin was evaluated at 24 h and after thermocycling in one control group (no plasma) and in two experimental groups (pulsed plasma and conventional plasma groups) using the Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive System. Data were analyzed using two-factor repeated-measures anova and Weibull statistics. Fractured surfaces and the bonded interfaces were evaluated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope. Although there were no significant differences between the plasma treatment groups, the plasma treatment improved the MTBS compared with the control group. After thermocycling, the MTBS did not decrease in the control or conventional plasma group but increased in the pulsed plasma group. Thermocycling increased the Weibull moduli of plasma-treated groups. In conclusion, plasma treatment using NT-APP improved the adhesion of resin composite to dentin. Using a pulsed energy source, the energy delivered to the dentin was effectively reduced without any reduction in bond strength or durability.

  5. Influence of methyl mercaptan on the repair bond strength of composites fabricated using self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Miho; Rikuta, Akitomo; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Shibasaki, Syo; Matsuyoshi, Saki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    The influence of methyl mercaptan on the repair bond strength of composites fabricated using self-etch adhesives was investigated. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of test liquids placed on composites that had been immersed in different concentrations of methyl mercaptan (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 M). To determine the repair bond strength, self-etch adhesives were applied to the aged composite, and then newly added composites were condensed. Ten samples of each specimen were subjected to shear testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm min(-1). Samples were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Although the dispersion force of the composites remained relatively constant, their polar force increased slightly as the concentration of methyl mercaptan increased. The hydrogen-bonding forces were significantly higher after immersion in 1.0 M methyl mercaptan, leading to higher surface-free energies. However, the repair bond strengths for the repair restorations prepared from composites immersed in 1.0 M methyl mercaptan were significantly lower than for those immersed in 0.01 and 0.10 M methyl mercaptan. Considering the results of this study, it can be concluded that the repair bond strengths of both the aged and newly added composites were affected by immersion in methyl mercaptan solutions.

  6. LAPS discretization and solution of plasma equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missanelli, Maria; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu

    2011-10-01

    LAPS provides spectral element discretization for solving steady state plasma profiles. Our initial focus is on its implementation for two dimensional open magnetic field equilibria in linear and toroidal geometries. The linear geometry is an axisymmetric magnetic mirror with anisotropic pressure. The toroidal case is a tokamak scrape-off layer plasma. Structured grids are produced by the grid generation package in LAPS. The spectral element discretization uses modal bases over quadrilateral elements. A Newton-Krylov solver implemented with the Portable, Extensible Toolkits for Scientific Computing PETSc is applied to iteratively converge the solution. Care has been taken in the code design to separate the grid generation, spectral element discretization, and (non)linear solver from the user-specified equilibrium equations, so the LAPS infrastructure can be easily used for different applications. Work supported by DOE OFES.

  7. An orientation-selective orthogonal lapped transform.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Dietmar

    2008-08-01

    A novel critically sampled orientation-selective orthogonal lapped transform called the lapped Hartley transform (LHT) is derived. In a first step, overlapping basis functions are generated by modulating basis functions of a 2-D block Hartley transform by a cosine wave. To achieve invertibility and orthogonality, an iterative filter is applied as prefilter in the analysis and as postfilter in the synthesis operation, respectively. Alternatively, filtering can be restricted to analysis or synthesis, ending up with a biorthogonal transform (LHT-PR, LHT-PO). A statistical analysis based on a 4000-image data base shows that the LHT and LHT-PO have better redundancy removal properties than other block or lapped transforms. Finally, image compression and noise removal examples are given, showing the advantages of the LHT especially in images containing oriented textures.

  8. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment condition on adhesion of ramie fibers to polypropylene for composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Manolache, Sorin; Qiu, Yiping; Sarmadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between hydrophilic ramie fibers and hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) matrices, ramie fibers are modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with our continuous ethanol flow technique in helium environment. A central composite design of experiments with different plasma processing parameter combinations (treatment current, treatment time and ethanol flow rate) is applied to find the most influential parameter and to obtain the best modification effect. Field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the roughened surfaces of ramie fibers from the treated groups due to plasma etching effect. Dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) demonstrates that the wettability of the treated fibers drastically decreases. Microbond pullout test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between treated ramie fibers and PP matrices increases significantly. Residual gas analysis (RGA) confirms the creation of ethyl groups during plasma treatment. This study shows that our continuous ethanol flow technique is effective in the plasma modification process, during which the ethanol flow rate is the most influential parameter but all parameters have simultaneous influence on plasma modification effect of ramie fibers.

  9. Aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene cured epoxy resins and the composites, laminates, adhesives and structures thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Devendra (Inventor); Fohlen, George M. (Inventor); Parker, John A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Aminophenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes such as hexakis (4-aminophenoxy) cyclotriphosphazene and tris (4-aminophenoxy)-tris phenoxy cyclotriphosphazene are used as curing agents for epoxy resins. These 1,2-epoxy resins are selected from di- or polyepoxide containing organic moieties of the formula (CH2-CHO-CH2) m-W-R-W- (CH2CH-CH2O)m where R is diphenyl dimethylmethane, diphenylmethane; W is a nitrogen or oxygen atom; and m is 1 when W is oxygen and 2 when W is nitrogen. The resins are cured thermally in stages at between about 110 to 135 C for between about 1 and 10 min, then at between about 175 to 185 C for between 0.5 to 10 hr and post cured at between about 215 and 235 C for between 0.1 and 2 hr. These resins are useful for making fire resistant elevated temperature stable composites, laminates, molded parts, and adhesives and structures, usually for aircraft secondary structures and for spacecraft construction.

  10. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society. PMID:24699375

  11. Effect of adherend thickness and mixed mode loading on debond growth in adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalgiri, P. D.; Johnson, W. S.; Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Symmetric and unsymmetric double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens were tested and analyzed to assess the effect of: (1) adherend thickness, and (2) a predominantly mode I mixed mode loading on cyclic debond growth and static fracture toughness. The specimens were made of unidirectional composite (T300/5208) adherends bonded together with EC3445 structural adhesive. The thickness was 8, 16, or 24 plies. The experimental results indicated that the static fracture toughness increases and the cyclic debond growth rate decreases with increasing adherend thickness. This behavior was related to the length of the plastic zone ahead of the debond tip. For the symmetric DCB specimens, it was further found that displacement control tests resulted in higher debond growth rates than did load control tests. While the symmetric DCB tests always resulted in cohesive failures in the bondline, the unsymmetric DCB tests resulted in the debond growing into the thinner adherend and the damage progressing as delamination in that adherend. This behavior resulted in much lower fracture toughness and damage growth rates than found in the symmetric DCB tests.

  12. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  13. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-04

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  14. The effect of acrylate-based dental adhesive solvent content on microleakage in composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakhani, Mahboubeh; Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different percentages of ethanol solvent of an experimental methacrylate-based dentin bonding agent containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on the microleakage of resin composite restorations. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 extracted human premolar teeth used and 84 standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth. The teeth were divided into 6 groups of 7. Experimental bonding agents with different percentages of solvent were used in 5 groups and Single Bond® as a control. The teeth were restored with resin composite and subjected to thermal cycling test. Teeth were then immersed in a solution of 2% basic fuchsine dye for 24 h and sectioned buccolingually and scored using stereomicroscope with ×32 magnification. Microleakage data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney U, and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There were significant differences between the microleakage enamel margins (P = 0.036) and dentinal margins (P = 0.008) in all the groups. These significant differences were seen between the control group and groups containing 46 wt% solvent (P = 0.011), 46 wt% and 31 wt% solvent in dentinal (P = 0.027), 31 wt% and 0 wt% in enamel (P = 0.021), also 0 wt% and control in enamel (P = 0.039), and dentinal margins microleakage (P = 0.004). The microleakage in dentinal margins was higher than enamel margins (P < 0.001). In the groups with 46 wt% solvent (P = 0.103), 0 wt% (P = 0.122), and control group (P = 0.096), however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion: The adhesive containing 31 wt% solvent showed the least marginal microleakage, presence of POSS filler may also result in the reduction of microleakage. PMID:28182040

  15. Experimental study of lap splice bolted connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dehui; Tian, Lishan; Jiang, Wenqiang; An, Liqiang; Zhang, Ziyang

    2017-01-01

    The bolted connection is prone to slip under external load in the lattice transmission tower, which will affect the internal forces and deformation of tower. In order to better simulate the effect of bolt connection slippage on transmission tower, the load deformation relationship should be established. In this paper, the single lap splice bolt connection under tension load is tested and the load displacement curve is obtained. Furthermore, the existing model of single lap splice bolted connection is modified, which will plays an important role in the influence of the bolt slippage of the transmission lines towers more accurately and reasonably.

  16. Translucent titanium coating altered the composition of focal adhesions and promoted migration of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells on glass.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi; Kok, Sang-Heng; Wang, Juo-Song; Lin, Li-Deh

    2014-04-01

    "TiGlass" was designed and was known to promote initial adhesion and increase migration of rat calvarial osteoblats. In this article, migration study and a series of epifluorescence microscopic studies were conducted to find out the composition of focal adhesion on titanium surface. The translucent titanium surface was applied in random migration analysis and immunofluorescence cell staining. In the immunofluorescent double staining, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase was tested with vinculin. Various integrin subunits were then tested with vinculin to study the composition of activated focal adhesions. Integrin subunit α5 and αV were tested against β3; integrin subunits α5, αV, β3, and αVβ3 were tested with F-actin, respectively. The MG-63 cells began migration earlier and migrated faster on "TiGlass." Immunofluorescent double staining revealed that all focal adhesion kinase in the focal adhesions were activated on both the surfaces. The osteoblast was inferred to made adhesion to titanium and glass through integrins. The focal adhesions on glass were found to be composed of integrin subunits αV and β3. However, on "TiGlass," integrin subunits α5 might have supplemented the adhesion to titanium. Results from double staining of integrin subunits α5, αV, β3, and αVβ3 with F-actin also supported integrin subunits α5 might have involved in adhesion of titanium.

  17. The effect of acrylic latex-based polymer on cow blood adhesive resins for wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.; Lin, H. L.; Feng, G. Z.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, alkali-modified cow blood adhesive (BA) and blood adhesive/acrylic latex-based adhesive (BA/ALB) were prepared. The physicochemical and adhesion properties of cow blood adhesive such as UV- visible spectra, particle size, viscosity were evaluated; share strength, water resistance were tested. UV- visible spectra indicates that the strong bonding strength of BA/ALB appeared after incorporating; the particle size of adhesive decreased with the increase of ALB concentration, by mixing ALB and BA, hydrophilic polymer tends locate or extand the protein chains and provide stability of the particles; viscosity decreased as shear rate increased in concordance with a pseudoplastic behavior; both at dry and soak conditions, BA and ALB/BA show significant difference changes when mass fraction of ALB in blend adhesive was over 30% (p < 0.05). ALB/ BA (ALB30%) is not significant different than that of phenol formaldehyde which was used as control. A combination of cow blood and acrylic latex-based adhesive significantly increased the strength and water resistance of the resulting wood.

  18. Effects of etching and adhesive applications on the bond strength between composite resin and glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PAMIR, Tijen; ŞEN, Bilge Hakan; EVCIN, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study determined the effects of various surface treatment modalities on the bond strength of composite resins to glass-ionomer cements. Material and Methods Conventional (KetacTM Molar Quick ApplicapTM) or resin-modified (PhotacTM Fil Quick AplicapTM) glass-ionomer cements were prepared. Two-step etch-rinse & bond adhesive (AdperTM Single Bond 2) or single-step self-etching adhesive (AdperTM PromptTM L-PopTM) was applied to the set cements. In the etch-rinse & bond group, the sample surfaces were pre-treated as follows: (1) no etching, (2) 15 s of etching with 35% phosphoric acid, (3) 30 s of etching, and (4) 60 s of etching. Following the placement of the composite resin (FiltekTM Z250), the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine and the data obtained were analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis (p=0.05). Then, the fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results The bond strength of the composite resin to the conventional glass-ionomer cement was significantly lower than that to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (p<0.001). No significant differences were determined between the self-etching and etch-rinse & bond adhesives at any etching time (p>0.05). However, a greater bond strength was obtained with 30 s of phosphoric acid application. Conclusions The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement improved the bond strength of the composite resin to the glass-ionomer cement. Both etch-rinse & bond and self-etching adhesives may be used effectively in the lamination of glass-ionomer cements. However, an etching time of at least 30 s appears to be optimal. PMID:23329245

  19. A two-dimensional stress analysis of single lap joints subjected to external bending moments

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Katsuyuki; Toratani, Hiroshi

    1995-11-01

    The stress distribution of single lap adhesive joints subjected to external bending moments are analyzed as a three-body contact problem by using a two-dimensional theory of elasticity. In the analysis, two similar adherends and an adhesive are replaced by finite strips, respectively. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratio of Young;s modulus of adherends to that of adhesive and the adhesive thickness on the stress distribution at the interface are examined. As the results, it is seen that the stress singularity causes at the edges of the interfaces and the peel stress at the edges of the interface increases with a decrease of Young`s modulus of the adherends. In addition, photoelastic experiments are carried out. A fairly good agreement is seen between the analytical and the experimental results.

  20. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  1. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  2. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  3. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  4. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  5. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study. PMID:27041894

  6. Effect of postoperative peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Roubickova, A; Dudek, M; Comba, L; Housova, D; Bradna, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with several adhesive systems. Combined cylindrical Class V cavities located half in enamel and half in dentin were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molars. The cavities were bonded with the self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE-Bond (CLF), Adper Prompt (ADP), and iBond (IBO) and an etch-and-rinse adhesive Gluma Comfort Bond (GLU) and restored with a microhybrid composite Charisma. Experimental groups were treated 25 times for eight hours per day with a peroxide bleaching gel Opalescence PF 20, while the control groups were stored in distilled water for two months and then subjected to a microleakage test using a dye penetration method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the etching and penetration abilities of the adhesives and morphology of debonded restoration-enamel interfaces after the microleakage tests. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests at p=0.05. The microleakage of all GLU groups was low and not significantly affected by peroxide bleaching. Low microleakage was recorded for CLF control groups, but after bleaching, a small but significant increase in microleakage at the enamel margin indicated its sensitivity to peroxide bleaching. For ADP and IBO control groups, the microleakage at the enamel margins was significantly higher than for GLU and CLF and exceeded that at the dentin margins. Bleaching did not induce any significant changes in the microleakage. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that in our experimental setup, decreased adhesion and mechanical resistance of the ADP- and IBO-enamel interfaces could be more important than the chemical degradation effects induced by the peroxide bleaching gel.

  7. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

  8. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of SEM/EDAX to determine the physical and chemical composition of very small areas was used to study several diverse types of samples representative of NASA-LaRC technology. More systematic investigation was carried out on differences in the results of grit-blasting Ti 6-4 adherends and the presence of extraneous elements, primarily silicon, in some polymer/HT-S fiber composites. Initial results were obtained from a fractured (ILS) short-beam shear specimen, and from Ti 6-4 alloy, before and after a proprietary Boeing anodizing surface preparation for adhesive bonding. Photomicrographs and EDAX spectra were also obtained from new, fractured lap shear strength specimens that employed PPQ and LARC-13 adhesives.

  9. Composite resin's adhesive resistance to dentin: influence of Er:YAG laser focal distance variation.

    PubMed

    Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Atoui, Juliana Abdallah; Chimello, Daniela Thomazatti; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the influence of Er:YAG laser focal distance variation on tensile bond strength of a composite resin to dentin. Although there are several studies using the Er:YAG laser for dentin treatment, there is a lack of available literature related to the Er:YAG laser focal distance variation. Sixty vestibular and lingual dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars, kept in a 0.4% azide sodium solution, were ground and assigned to six groups. The control group was conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid (CA). In the lased groups, the dentin surface treatment was performed by irradiation with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ/2 Hz), varying the focal distance (11, 12, 14, 16, and 17 mm), followed by acid etching. The Single Bond/Filtek Z250 (3M) resinous system was used for the specimen manufacture. The tensile bond strength tests were performed in a Universal Testing Machine with 50 kgf load cell and 0.5 mm/min cross head speed. The averages in MPa were: CA: 18.03 (+/-2.09); 11 mm; 9.92 (+/-3.34); 12 mm: 9.49 (+/-2.29); 14 mm: 10.99 (+/-3.45); 16 mm: 10.56 (+/-1.93); and 17 mm: 17.05 (+/-2.31). It was concluded that the application of Er:YAG laser in a defocused mode (17 mm) associated with acid etching was similar to the treatment of acid solely. Er:YAG laser irradiation in a focused (12 mm) and a defocused (11, 14, and 16 mm) mode coupled with acid conditioning produced the lowest values of adhesion.

  10. Shear Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate to Composite Resin with Two Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Motahhari, Paria; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Immediate restoration after vital pulp therapy is essential in order to create and maintain effective coronal seal. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of recently used pulp capping materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture cement (CEM) to composite resin with the use of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems and compare them with the bond strength of commonly used resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens from each test material were fabricated, measuring 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth. The specimens of each material were divided into 2 groups of 20 specimens according to the adhesive system (Single Bond vs. Clearfil SE Bond) used for bonding of resin composite. The shear bond strength values were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min and fractured surfaces were examined. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: Analysis of data showed a significantly higher bond strength for RMGI compared to MTA and CEM (P<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the bond strength values of MTA and CEM (P=0.9). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in relation to the type of the adhesive system irrespective of the type of the material used (P=0.95) All the failures were of cohesive type in RMGI, MTA and CEM. Conclusion: Bond strength of RMGI cement to composite resin was higher than that of MTA or CEM cement irrespective of the type of the adhesive system. PMID:25628696

  11. MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microsphere composite-coated titanium surfaces promote increased adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongshan; Wu, Guofeng; Bai, Shizhu; Feng, Zhihong; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Jian; Qin, Haiyan; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-06-01

    Infection and epithelial downgrowth are two major problems with maxillofacial transcutaneous implants, and both are mainly due to lack of stable closure of soft tissues at transcutaneous sites. Fibroblasts have been shown to play a key role in the formation of biological seals. In this work, titanium (Ti) model surfaces were coated with mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) utilizing its unique adhesion ability on diverse inorganic and organic surfaces in wet environments. Prepared basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres can be easily synthesized and combined onto MAPs-coated Ti surfaces, due to the negative surface charges of microspheres in aqueous solution, which is in contrast to the positive charges of MAPs. Titanium model surfaces were divided into three groups. Group A: MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microspheres composite-coated Ti surfaces. Group B: MAPs-coated Ti surfaces. Group C: uncoated Ti surfaces. The effects of coated Ti surfaces on adhesion of fibroblasts, cytoskeletal organization, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expressions were examined. The results revealed increased adhesion (P < 0.05), enhanced actin cytoskeletal organization, and up-regulated ECM-related gene expressions in groups A and B compared with group C. Increased proliferation of fibroblasts during five days of incubation was observed in group A compared with groups B and C (P < 0.05). Collectively, the results from this in vitro study demonstrated that MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microspheres composite-coated Ti surfaces had the ability to increase fibroblast functionality. In addition, MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microsphere composite-coated Ti surfaces should be studied further as a method of promoting formation of stable biological seals around transcutaneous sites.

  12. Improved enrichment culture technique for methane-oxidizing bacteria from marine ecosystems: the effect of adhesion material and gas composition.

    PubMed

    Vekeman, Bram; Dumolin, Charles; De Vos, Paul; Heylen, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation. This positive effect was attributed to bacterial adhesion on the particles via extracellular compounds, with a minimum amount of particles required for effect. As a result, the particles were immobilized, thus creating a stratified environment in which a limited diffusive gas gradients could build up and various microniches were formed. Such diffusive gas gradient might necessitate high headspace concentrations of CH4 and CO2 for sufficient concentrations to reach the methane-oxidizing bacteria in the enrichment culture technique. Therefore, high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide, in addition to the addition of adhesion material, were tested and indeed further stimulated methane oxidation. Use of adhesion material in combination with high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide might thus facilitate the cultivation and subsequent enrichment of environmentally important members of this functional guild. The exact mechanism of the observed positive effects on methane oxidation and the differential effect on methanotrophic diversity still needs to be explored.

  13. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    SciTech Connect

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-04

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints.The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  14. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems - (CASTS). [graphite fiber/polyimide matrix composites and polyimide adhesives for the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The CASTS Project initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K operational capability for aerospace vehicles is described. Near term tasks include screening composites and adhesives for 589K service, developing fabrication procedures and specifications, developing design allowables test methods and data, design and test of structural elements, and construction of a full scale aft body flap for the space shuttle orbiter vehicle for ground testing. Far term tasks include research efforts directed at new materials, manufacturing procedures and design/analysis methodology. Specific results discussed include: (1) identification of four GR/PI composites and three PI adhesives with 589K service potential for periods ranging from 125 to 500 hours; (2) development of an adhesive formulation suitable for bonding reusable surface insulation (RSI) titles to 589K (GR/PI) substructure; (3) the capability to fabricate and nondestructively inspect laminates, hat section shaped stiffeners, honeycomb sandwich panels, and chopped fiber moldings; and (4) test methods for measuring design allowables at 117K.

  15. Flexible fiber-reinforced composites with improved interfacial adhesion by mussel-inspired polydopamine and poly(methyl methacrylate) coating.

    PubMed

    Yi, Mi; Sun, Hongyang; Zhang, Hongcheng; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    To obtain a kind of light-curable fiber-reinforced composite for dental restoration, an excellent interfacial adhesion between the fiber and the acrylate resin matrix is quite essential. Herein, surface modification on glass fibers were carried out by coating them with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polydopamine (PDA), or both. The PMMA or PDA coating was performed by soaking fibers in PMMA/acetone solution or dopamine aqueous solution. PDA/PMMA co-coated glass fibers were obtained by further soaking PDA-coated fibers in PMMA/acetone solution. These modified fibers were impregnated with bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (5:5, w/w) dental resin at a volume fraction of 75%, using unmodified fibers as reference. Light-cured specimens were submitted to evaluations including flexural properties, morphological observation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and pull-out test. In comparison with unmodified glass fibers, all the modified glass fibers showed enhancements in flexural strength and modulus of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin composites. Results of DMTA and pull-out tests confirmed that surface modification had significantly improved the interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and the resin matrix. Particularly, the PDA/PMMA co-coated glass fibers displayed the most efficient reinforcement and the strongest interfacial adhesion due to the synergetic effects of PDA and PMMA. It indicated that co-coating method was a promising approach in modifying the interfacial compatibility between inorganic glass fiber and organic resin matrix.

  16. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  17. Effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of composite resin and lithium disilicate glass ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Myung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of a composite resin and a lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Materials and Methods The specimens (dimension: 2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) of the composite resin, lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) were prepared. These were then divided into nine groups: three non-luting groups, three non-adhesive luting groups, and three adhesive luting groups, for each restorative material. In the non-luting groups, specimens were placed on the bovine tooth without any luting agents. In the non-adhesive luting groups, only zinc phosphate cement was used for luting the specimen to the bovine tooth. In the adhesive luting groups, specimens were pretreated, and the adhesive luting procedure was performed using a self-adhesive resin cement. For all the groups, a flexural test was performed using universal testing machine, in which the fracture resistance was measured by recording the force at which the specimen was fractured. Results The fracture resistance after adhesive luting increased by approximately 29% in the case of the composite resin, 26% in the case of the lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and only 2% in the case of Y-TZP as compared to non-adhesive luting. Conclusions The fracture resistance of Y-TZP did not increased significantly after adhesive luting as compared to that of the composite resin and the lithium disilicate glass ceramic. PMID:28194358

  18. High Temperature Adhesives for Bonding Kapton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.; Stclair, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental polyimide resins were developed and evaluated as potential high temperature adhesives for bonding Kapton polyimide film. Lap shear strengths of Kapton/Kapton bonds were obtained as a function of test temperature, adherend thickness, and long term aging at 575K (575 F) in vacuum. Glass transition temperatures of the polyimide/Kapton bondlines were monitored by thermomechanical analysis.

  19. Nucleation kinetics, growth and characterization of dLAP, dLAP:KF and dLAP:NaN 3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, A. S. Haja; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2003-03-01

    The nucleation parameters, such as interfacial tension, radius of the critical nucleus and critical free energy change have been estimated for deuterated L-arginine phosphate (dLAP), potassium fluoride mixed dLAP and sodium azide mixed dLAP single crystals. Pure and additive mixed dLAP single crystals are grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and colouration on the growth solutions has been studied. The crystalline powder of the grown crystals has been examined by X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses in order to estimate the lattice parameters and study thermal properties respectively.

  20. Adhesion improvement of electroless copper plating on phenolic resin matrix composite through a tin-free sensitization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Bian, Cheng; Jing, Xinli

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve the adhesion of electroless copper plating on phenolic resin matrix composite (PRMC), a new and efficient tin-free sensitization process has been developed. Electroless copper plating could be achieved in three steps, namely: (i) chemical etching with potassium permanganate solution; (ii) sensitization and activation with glucose and silver nitrate solution respectively; and (iii) electroless copper plating. Compared with the sample sensitized with stannous chloride (SnCl2), the copper plating obtained in the tin-free process showed excellent adhesion with the PRMC substrate, but had lower plating rate and conductivity. Additionally, the morphology of the copper plating was affected by the sensitization process, and the tin-free process was conducive to the formation of the large spherical copper polycrystal. Although the process is slightly complicated, the new sensitization process is so low-cost and environment-friendly that it is of great significance and could be applied into large-scale commercial manufacturing.

  1. Rapid adhesive bonding and field repair of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process are often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid Adhesive Bonding concepts are developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens can be cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press or autoclave bonding. The development of Rapid Adhesive Bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1002 and D3163), for aerospace panel or component bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric-matrix composite structures is reviewed. Equipment and procedures are described for bonding and repairing thin sheets, simple geometries, and honeycomb core panels.

  2. Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Ludemann, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The propfan is an advanced propeller concept which maintains the high efficiencies traditionally associated with conventional propellers at the higher aircraft cruise speeds associated with jet transports. The large-scale advanced propfan (LAP) program extends the research done on 2 ft diameter propfan models to a 9 ft diameter article. The program includes design, fabrication, and testing of both an eight bladed, 9 ft diameter propfan, designated SR-7L, and a 2 ft diameter aeroelastically scaled model, SR-7A. The LAP program is complemented by the propfan test assessment (PTA) program, which takes the large-scale propfan and mates it with a gas generator and gearbox to form a propfan propulsion system and then flight tests this system on the wing of a Gulfstream 2 testbed aircraft.

  3. Dynamic fracture of adhesively bonded composite structures using cohesive zone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhecha, Dhaval P.

    Using experimental data obtained from standard fracture test configurations, theoretical and numerical tools are developed to mathematically describe non-self-similar progression of cracks without specifying an initial crack. A cohesive-decohesive zone model, similar to the cohesive zone model known in the fracture mechanics literature as the Dugdale-Barenblatt model, is adopted to represent the degradation of the material ahead of the crack tip. This model unifies strength-based crack initiation and fracture-mechanics-based crack progression. The cohesive-decohesive zone model is implemented with an interfacial surface material that consists of an upper and a lower surface that are connected by a continuous distribution of normal and tangential nonlinear elastic springs that act to resist either Mode I opening, Mode II sliding, Mode III sliding, or a mixed anode. The initiation of fracture is determined by the interfacial strength and the progression of the crack is determined by the critical energy release rate. The adhesive is idealized with an interfacial surface material to predict interfacial fracture. The interfacial surface material is positioned within the bulk material to predict discrete cohesive cracks. The interfacial surface material is implemented through an interface element, which is incorporated in ABAQUS using the user defined element (UEL) option. A procedure is established to formulate a rate dependent model based on experiments carried out on compact tension test specimens. The rate dependent model is incorporated into the interface element approach to capture the unstable crack growth observed in experiments under quasi-static loading conditions. The compact tension test gives the variation of the fracture toughness with the rate of loading, this information is processed and a relationship between the fracture toughness and the rate of the opening displacement is established. The cohesive-decohesive zone model is implemented through a

  4. Adhesive plasters

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Swain, Ronald L.; Banker, John G.; Edwards, Charlene C.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive plaster compositions are provided by treating particles of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 or Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with dilute acid solutions. The resulting compositions have been found to spontaneously harden into rigid reticulated masses resembling plaster of Paris. Upon heating, the hardened material is decomposed into the oxide, yet retains the reticulated rigid structure.

  5. Self-healing Nanofiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites. 2. Delamination/Debonding and Adhesive and Cohesive Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Wook; An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2015-09-09

    The capacity for core-shell nanofiber mats containing healing agents (resin monomer and cure) in their cores to adhere to a substrate was studied using blister testing. After extended periodic bending, the adhesion energy was measured, and the effect of self-healing on the composite's delamination from the substrate was considered. In addition, the cohesion of two layers of the self-healing nanofibers was examined using blister testing and compared to that of ordinary nanofiber mats. The damage inflicted by prolonged periodic bending to the interface of the two nanofiber mats was demonstrated to have self-healed, and the cohesion energy was measured.

  6. Inorganic composition and filler particles morphology of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements by SEM/EDX.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Di Francescantonio, Marina; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Giannini, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inorganic components and morphology of filler particles of conventional and self-adhesive, dual-curing, resin luting cements. The main components were identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), and filler particles were morphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four resin cements were used in this study: two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC/3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/Kuraray Medical) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem/3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Luting/Kuraray Medical). The materials (n = 5) were manipulated according to manufacturers' instructions, immersed in organic solvents to eliminate the organic phase and observed under SEM/EDX. Although EDX measurements showed high amount of silicon for all cements, differences in elemental composition of materials tested were identified. RelyX ARC showed spherical and irregular particles, whereas other cements presented only irregular filler shape. In general, self-adhesive cements contained higher filler size than conventional resin luting cements. The differences in inorganic components and filler particles were observed between categories of luting material and among them. All resin cements contain silicon, however, other components varied among them.

  7. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Yildiz, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel, Sevda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Post-operative sensitivity to cold and air was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after 24 hours, 30, 90, and 180 days. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Friedman tests (P < 0.05). Results: Post-operative sensitivity scores for OBF and CPB were higher for the dental student (P < 0.05), while IB scores did not differ statistical significantly according to the operator (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Operator skill and experience appears to play a role in determining the outcome of post-operative sensitivity of multi-step adhesive systems although the post-operative sensitivity was low. It is suggested that the less experienced clinicians (rather than experienced clinicians) should better use the self-etching dentin bonding systems with reduced application steps to minimize the potential risk of post-operative sensitivity of dental adhesives. PMID:24966741

  8. The Environmental and Impact Resistance of Adhesively Bonded Thermoplastic Fibre Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    129 5.4.3 XPS Narrow Scan Spectra ................................................. 131 S5.4.4 Peak Synthesis ...crosslinking elastomers against reactive substrates. Klein et al. [17], using an infrared analysis, found evidence for covalent primary bonds between a...electron acceptor and electron donor e.g. amides and polyamides . The significance of these interactions to the intrinsic adhesion of polymeric materials

  9. Bond Strength of Methacrylate-Based Composite to Dentin using a Silorane Adhesive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    failures using Clearfil SE Bond were mixed or cohesive in nature suggesting a more stable adhesive interface (Al- Salehi and Burke, 1997). However, the...REFERENCES Al- Salehi SK, Burke FJ. Methods used in dentin bonding tests: An analysis of 50 investigations on bond strength. Quint Inter 1997;28:717–723

  10. Spider's super-glue: thread anchors are composite adhesives with synergistic hierarchical organization.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Grawe, Ingo; Wirth, Marina; Karstedt, André; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-03-28

    Silk is a key innovation in spiders, fascinating both biologists and material scientists. However, to fulfil their biological function silken threads must be strongly fastened to substrates or other threads. The majority of modern spiders produce a unique and rather unexplored bio-adhesive: the two-compound pyriform secretion, which is spun into elaborate patterns (so called attachment discs) and used to anchor silken threads to substrates. Strong adhesion is achieved on a high variety of surfaces with a minimum of material consumption. Pyriform threads polymerize under ambient conditions, become functional within less than a second and can remain stable for years. They are biodegradable, biocompatible and highly versatile - the adhesion and the overall toughness of the attachment disc can be controlled by spinneret movements on a macroscopic level (ref. 1: V. Sahni et al., Nat. Commun., 2012, 3, 1106, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2099). We found that the pyriform thread is a silk fibre that is coated with glue-like cement consisting of aligned nanofibrils, lipid enclosures and a dense, isotropic boundary layer. The threads are spun in a meshwork pattern that promotes stress distribution and crack arresting. Our results demonstrate, that hierarchical organization and fibre embedding may explain the high adhesive strength and flaw tolerance of a structure made by the same, rather simple type of silk glands.

  11. Homologs of the LapD-LapG c-di-GMP Effector System Control Biofilm Formation by Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosis, Nicolás; Boyd, Chelsea D.; O´Toole, George A.; Fernández, Julieta; Sisti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for infection by many pathogens. Bordetella bronchiseptica causes respiratory tract infections in mammals and forms biofilm structures in nasal epithelium of infected mice. We previously demonstrated that cyclic di-GMP is involved in biofilm formation in B. bronchiseptica. In the present work, based on their previously reported function in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified three genes in the B. bronchiseptica genome likely involved in c-di-GMP-dependent biofilm formation: brtA, lapD and lapG. Genetic analysis confirmed a role for BrtA, LapD and LapG in biofilm formation using microtiter plate assays, as well as scanning electron and fluorescent microscopy to analyze the phenotypes of mutants lacking these proteins. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the protease LapG of B. bronchiseptica cleaves the N-terminal domain of BrtA, as well as the LapA protein of P. fluorescens, indicating functional conservation between these species. Furthermore, while BrtA and LapG appear to have little or no impact on colonization in a mouse model of infection, a B. bronchiseptica strain lacking the LapG protease has a significantly higher rate of inducing a severe disease outcome compared to the wild type. These findings support a role for c-di-GMP acting through BrtA/LapD/LapG to modulate biofilm formation, as well as impact pathogenesis, by B. bronchiseptica PMID:27380521

  12. Embedded optical fibres as strain sensors in polymer matrix fibre composites: The influence of adhesion in strain transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekroth, M.

    1994-06-01

    Optical fibers can serve as strain sensors embedded in load carrying polymer matrix fiber composites. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of chemical bonding between the optical fiber, its protective polyimide coating and the surrounding composite, in strain transfer from the composite to the optical fiber. The degree of adhesion was determined by measuring the force during debonding and pull-out of the optical fiber from the composite. Debonding occurred between the quartz fiber and the coating for both untreated and ammonia modified fibers. The PTFE coated fibers debonded between the coating and the composite. The modified fibers debonded at a lower applied load than the untreated fibers. The strain during tensile loading was measured both with conventional resistance strain gages mounted on the specimen surfaces, and optically with a Mach-Zehnder-interferometer. The optically measured strains, obtained with the untreated fiber and the modified fibers, were all in good agreement with the response from the resistance strain gages. It is concluded that the chemical bonding between the quartz fiber/coating/composite consequently has little or no influence on the strain transfer. Internal stresses (mechanical pressure and friction forces) arising from the laminate fabrication process are sufficient for strain transfer.

  13. Volatile compounds in fruits of Peucedanum cervaria (Lap.) L.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Wozniak, Krystyna; Los, Renata; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Malm, Anna

    2009-07-01

    The volatile compounds from Peucedanum cervaria (Lap.) L. were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and headspace solid-phase microextraction techniques (HS-SPME), and then analyzed by GC/MS methods. The composition of samples from a botanical garden was compared with plants collected in the wild. The main compounds of the essential oils of P. cervaria were identified as alpha-pinene, sabinene, and beta-pinene (more than 80% of oil). The content of beta-myrcene, limonene+beta-phellandrene, and germacrene D was higher than 1%. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by the agar dilution method against ten reference strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  15. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  16. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping

    PubMed Central

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog’s tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue’s interaction with the air–fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  17. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-12-29

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats.

  18. Systematic Construction of Real Lapped Tight Frame Transforms

    PubMed Central

    Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Chebira, Amina; Milo, Christina; Kovčcević, Jelena; Püschel, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present a constructive algorithm for the design of real lapped equal-norm tight frame transforms. These transforms can be efficiently implemented through filter banks and have recently been proposed as a redundant counterpart to lapped orthogonal transforms, as well as an infinite-dimensional counterpart to harmonic tight frames. The proposed construction consists of two parts: First, we design a large class of new real lapped orthogonal transforms derived from submatrices of the discrete Fourier transform. Then, we seed these to obtain real lapped tight frame transforms corresponding to tight, equal-norm frames. We identify those frames that are maximally robust to erasures, and show that our construction leads to a large class of new lapped orthogonal transforms as well as new lapped tight frame transforms. PMID:20607116

  19. The peel test in experimental adhesive fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Several testing methods have been proposed for obtaining critical energy release rate or adhesive fracture energy in bond systems. These tests include blister, cone, lap shear, and peel tests. Peel tests have been used for many years to compare relative strengths of different adhesives, different surface preparation techniques, etc. The present work demonstrates the potential use of the peel test for obtaining adhesive fracture energy values.

  20. Effects of removing adhesive from tooth surfaces by Er:YAG laser and a composite bur on enamel surface roughnessand pulp chamber temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yassaei, Sogra; Aghili, Hossein; Joshan, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: At the end of fixed orthodontic treatment, the remnant of adhesive should be eliminated from the tooth surface. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three methods of removing adhesive on enamel surface roughness, dental pulp temperature, and also on the time spent. Materials and Methods: The brackets on 90 extracted teeth were debonded using bracket removal pliers. A thermocouple sensor was fitted on the buccal wall of the pulp chamber through access cavity to measure thermal changes during adhesive removal. The residue of adhesive was eliminated from enamel surface of teeth by either tungsten carbide bur, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, or fiber reinforced composite bur. Scanning electron micrographs images were taken to assess the roughness of enamel surface. The time spent for adhesive removal was recorded as well. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the remnants of adhesive and enamel surface roughness; t-test and also repeated measurement analysis of variance were applied at P < 0.05 to compare the thermal changes of the pulp chamber and time spent between the methods of surface treatment. Results: The results of surface roughness were significantly different (P < 0.001). The pulp temperature changed significantly (P < 0.001). Tungsten carbide bur increased the temperature by 5.5°C significantly slower than reinforced composite bur (P = 0.004), however removed the adhesive residue faster than two other methods although not significantly (P = 0.069). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, fiber reinforced composite bur created the smoothest enamel surface while Er:YAG laser the roughest. Tungsten carbide and composite burs generated more heat compared to Er:YAG laser. In addition, tungsten carbide bur was the fastest and Er:YAG laser the slowest devices to remove adhesive residue. PMID:26005466

  1. Influence of Binder Adhesion Ability on the Performance of Silicon/Carbon Composite as Li-Ion Battery Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierzek, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    A series of anodes for Li-ion battery was prepared by conventional homogenization of active material, percolator, and Na-CMC or several kinds of PVDF as a binder. Si/C composite was synthesized by embedding micro-sized silicon and synthetic battery-grade graphite in a pitch-derived carbon matrix and taken as active material. Adhesion strength of anodic film to a current collector was determined by peeling test. Thermal relaxation (120-180 °C) after calendering of PVDF-based anode slightly increases the adhesion of the film to the collector. The highest peeling strength was recorded for ultrahigh molecular weight PVDF (~0.05 N cm-1) but without advantage for cycling stability of the cell. An initial reversible capacity of 512 mAh g-1, with average capacity decay only of 0.5% per cycle, was achieved for CMC-based anode of moderate peeling strength (~0.035 N cm-1). Such good performance was attributed to a specific Si/C composite structure as well as profitable physicochemical properties of the binder.

  2. Computer Controller Optical Surfacing (CCOS) lap pressure control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenleaf

    1985-09-01

    A rotary lapping system and process is disclosed for producing a controlled pressure gradient, including positive and negative lift, when lapping a workpiece coated with an abrasive slurry liquid with a plurality of grinding pads mounted beneath a rotating lap substrate. To obtain positive and negative lift, the grinding pads are tilted with respectively a positive and negative angle of attack, which hydrodynamically reacts with the abrasive slurry liquid to produce the desired lift. The controlled pressure gradient is further varied by decentering the rotation of lap substrate.

  3. Al-to-Cu Friction Stir Lap Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzdor, Vahid; Kou, Sindo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, friction stir welding (FSW) has been used frequently to join dissimilar metals, for instance, Al to Mg, Cu, and steel. The formation of brittle intermetallic compounds often severely limits the strength and ductility of the resultant welds. In the present study, Al-to-Cu lap FSW was studied by welding 6061 Al to commercially pure Cu. Conventional lap FSW was modified by butt welding a small piece of Al to the top of Cu, with a slight pin penetration into the bottom of Al. At travel speeds up to 127 mm/min (5 ipm), the modified welds were about twice the joint strength and five to nine times the ductility of the conventional lap welds. In the conventional lap welds, voids were present along the Al-Cu interface, and fracture occurred along the interface in tensile testing. No such voids were observed in the modified lap welds, and fracture occurred through Cu. Thus, as in the case of Al-to-Mg lap FSW recently studied by the authors, modified lap FSW significantly improved the weld quality in Al-to-Cu lap FSW. At the relatively high travel speed of 203 mm/min (8 ipm), however, modified lap FSW was no longer superior because of channel formation.

  4. Novel Epoxy Particulate Composites for Mitigation of Insect Residue Adhesion on Future Aircraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Gardner, John M.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2014-01-01

    Drag is reduced significantly for airflow over surfaces when laminar flow can be maintained over greater chord lengths, the distance from the leading edge of an airfoil.1 However, surface imperfections, such as chipped paint, scratches, and events that change topography on a microscopic scale can introduce airflow instabilities resulting in premature transition to turbulent flow.1 Although many of these surface imperfections can be avoided with proper maintenance, advanced materials, and advanced manufacturing practices, topographical surface anomalies arising during flight from insect impacts cannot be controlled and can influence laminar flow stability. Practical solutions to this operational challenge need to be developed for future aircraft to have full advantage of laminar flow designs that improve fuel efficiency.2 Researchers have investigated various methods to mitigate insect residue adhesion for decades.3 Although several techniques have demonstrated efficacy including mechanical scrapers, active liquid discharge systems, and sacrificial paper coatings, they have not been commercially implemented due to increased manufacturing and operational complexity, environmental impact, and weight penalties. Coatings offer a simple route for passive insect residue adhesion prevention without many of the challenges associated with maintenance of laminar flow.4 In our previous work, we determined that most commercially available materials were not effective at insect residue adhesion.5 We also identified improvements when both surface energy could be controlled by surface modifying agents and the topography could be altered through the use of micron-sized and nanometer-sized filler materials.6 In this work, these general principles were applied to an epoxy system to evaluate the behavior of the surface modifying agent, a fluorinated alkyl ether oligomer, on surface energy and insect residue adhesion properties.

  5. Simulated adhesion between realistic hydrocarbon materials: effects of composition, roughness, and contact point.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kathleen E; Keating, Pamela L; Jacobs, Tevis D B; Grierson, David S; Turner, Kevin T; Carpick, Robert W; Harrison, Judith A

    2014-03-04

    The work of adhesion is an interfacial materials property that is often extracted from atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements of the pull-off force for tips in contact with flat substrates. Such measurements rely on the use of continuum contact mechanics models, which ignore the atomic structure and contain other assumptions that can be challenging to justify from experiments alone. In this work, molecular dynamics is used to examine work of adhesion values obtained from simulations that mimic such AFM experiments and to examine variables that influence the calculated work of adhesion. Ultrastrong carbon-based materials, which are relevant to high-performance AFM and nano- and micromanufacturing applications, are considered. The three tips used in the simulations were composed of amorphous carbon terminated with hydrogen (a-C-H), and ultrananocrystalline diamond with and without hydrogen (UNCD-H and UNCD, respectively). The model substrate materials used were amorphous carbon with hydrogen termination (a-C-H) and without hydrogen (a-C); ultrananocrystalline diamond with (UNCD-H) and without hydrogen (UNCD); and the (111) face of single crystal diamond with (C(111)-H) and without a monolayer of hydrogen (C(111)). The a-C-H tip was found to have the lowest work of adhesion on all substrates examined, followed by the UNCD-H and then the UNCD tips. This trend is attributable to a combination of roughness on both the tip and sample, the degree of alignment of tip and substrate atoms, and the surface termination. Continuum estimates of the pull-off forces were approximately 2-5 times larger than the MD value for all but one tip-sample pair.

  6. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  7. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  8. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam

    DOEpatents

    Mead, Judith W.; Montoya, Orelio J.; Rand, Peter B.; Willan, Vernon O.

    1984-01-01

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  9. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  10. Characterization of lap joints laser beam welding of thin AA 2024 sheets with Yb:YAG disk-laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Lap joints obtained by overlapping two plates are widely diffused in aerospace industry. Nevertheless, because of natural aging, adhesively bonded and riveted aircraft lap joints may be affected by cracks from rivets, voids or corrosion. Friction stir welding has been proposed as a valid alternative, although large heat affected zones are produced both in the top and the bottom plate due to the pin diameter. Interest has therefore been shown in studying laser lap welding as the laser beam has been proved to be competitive since it allows to concentrate the thermal input and increases productivity and quality. Some challenges arise as a consequence of aluminum low absorptance and high thermal conductivity; furthermore, issues are due to metallurgical challenges such as both micro and macro porosity formation and softening in the fused zone. Welding of AA 2024 thin sheets in a lap joint configuration is discussed in this paper: tests are carried out using a recently developed Trumpf TruDisk 2002 Yb:YAG disk-laser with high beam quality which allows to produce beads with low plates distortion and better penetration. The influence of the processing parameters is discussed considering the fused zone extent and the bead shape. The porosity content as well as the morphological features of the beads have been examined.

  11. How dogs lap: open pumping driven by acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-11-01

    Dogs drink by lapping because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck fluids into the mouth. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from a bath, which is then swallowed, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured the kinematics of lapping from nineteen dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments with an accelerating rod help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results suggest that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, and that dogs curl the tongue ventrally (backwards) and time their bite on the column to increase fluid intake per lap. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that though they both lap with the same frequency scaling with respect to body mass and have similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: a high-acceleration regime for dogs and a low-acceleration regime for cats.

  12. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  13. Lapping: Polishing and shear mode grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1990-02-01

    It is the thesis of this paper that shear mode grinding (SMG), (ductile grinding, nanogrinding, fractureless grinding) is just a particular form of polishing. It may be unique in that it can involve a hard wheel of very precise dimensions compared to the soft laps usually used in polishing. Such a wheel would permit the fabrication of a precision surface on a brittle material such as glass at a precisely located and oriented position on a part. The technological and economic consequences of such a process seem important but the technical obstacles to implementing the technique are for the moment formidable. It is in production in Japan. This paper provides a bit of understanding of that process obtained by making an end run around the obstacles to view the process from the vantage point of lapping. The paper will lay out some of the concepts and terminology necessary to understand the papers that have supplied the real labor to get us to this point. It will refer to parts of this work briefly in passing so the reader who needs the details knows where to look, and for what, in the bibliography appended. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Adhesion and integration of tissue engineered cartilage to porous polyethylene for composite ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Niamh A; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ranka, Mitun P; Zaleski, Katherine L; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Randolph, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of tissue engineered cartilage to adhere to and integrate with porous polyethylene (PPE) in vivo and to evaluate the biomechanical integrity of the bond formed at the interface. Porcine auricular, articular, and costal chondrocytes were suspended in fibrin gel polymer and placed between discs of PPE to form tri-layer constructs. Controls consisted of fibroblasts suspended in gel or gel alone between the discs. Constructs were implanted into nude mice for 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Upon harvest, specimens were evaluated for neocartilage formation and integration into the PPE, using histological, dimensional (mass, thickness, diameter), and biomechanical (adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, failure energy and failure strain) analyses. Neotissue was formed in all experimental constructs, consisting mostly of neocartilage integrating with discs of PPE. Control samples contained only fibrous tissue. Biomechanical analyses demonstrated that adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, and failure energy were all significantly higher in the chondrocyte-seeded samples than in fibroblast-seeded controls, with the exception of costal constructs at 12 weeks, which were not significantly greater than controls. In general, failure strains did not vary between groups. In conclusion, porous polyethylene supported the growth of neocartilage that formed mechanically functional bonds with the PPE.

  15. Influence of adhesive systems on bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin cores in a pull-out test design.

    PubMed

    Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Schirrmeister, Jörg Fabian; Altenburger, Markus Jörg; Agrafioti, Anastasia; Kielbassa, Andrej Michael

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of post surface conditioning with adhesive systems on tensile bond strength between two composite resin core systems and FRP posts (ER DentinPost). Forty-eight posts were trimmed at the coronal part, and the upper part of 3 mm was covered with a standardized composite resin core build-up. Twenty-four posts were treated with the respective adhesive systems. Four groups were formed: G1 - ClearfilCore; G2 - Clearfil New Bond + ClearfilCore; G3 - MultiCore Flow; and G4 - AdheSE + MultiCore Flow. Mean (SD) bond strengths in MPa were 7.53 (0.89) for ClearfilCore and 8.08 (0.93) for New Bond + ClearfilCore; 5.80 (0.39) for MultiCore Flow and 5.92 (0.43) for AdheSE + MultiCore Flow. ClearfilCore achieved significantly higher bond strengths than MultiCore Flow (two-way ANOVA; p<0.0001). In conclusion, composite resin core materials exerted a significant influence on tensile bond strength, while adhesive systems did not significantly affect the results.

  16. Facile spray-coating process for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous chemical compositions used for selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Zha, Fei; Yang, Yaoxia; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-06-11

    In this paper, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces have been fabricated successfully by spraying ZnO nanoparticle (NP) suspensions onto desired substrates. We regulate the spray-coating process by changing the mass percentage of hydrophobic ZnO NPs (which were achieved by modifying hydrophilic ZnO NPs with stearic acid) in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ZnO NP mixtures to control heterogeneous chemical composition of the ZnO surfaces. Thus, the water adhesion on the same superhydrophobic ZnO surface could be effectively tuned by controlling the surface chemical composition without altering the surface morphology. Compared with the conventional tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, on which there were only three different water sliding angle values: lower than 10°, 90° (the water droplet is firmly pinned on the surface at any tilted angles), and the value between the two ones, the water adhesion on the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces has been tuned effectively, on which the sliding angle is controlled from 2 ± 1° to 9 ± 1°, 21 ± 2°, 39 ± 3°, and 90°. Accordingly, the adhesive force can be adjusted from extremely low (∼2.5 μN) to very high (∼111.6 μN). On the basis of the different adhesive forces of the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes was achieved, which has never been reported before. In addition, we demonstrated a proof of selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes for application in the droplet-based microreactors via our tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces for the quantitative detection of AgNO3 and NaOH. The results reported herein realize the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes and we believe that this method would potentially be used in many important applications, such as selective water droplet transportation, biomolecular quantitative detection and droplet-based biodetection.

  17. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P < 0.05). In general, improvements in bond strength (MPa) were found in the following order: M10 > C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

  18. Effect of vacuum conditions and plasma concentration on the chemical composition and adhesion of vacuum-plasma coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. P.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Slabodchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on the chemical composition of titanium nitride (TiN) and silicon (Si) coatings deposited with a new technological vacuum plasma setup which comprises magnetron sputtering systems, arc evaporators, and an efficient plasma generator. It is shown that due to highly clean vacuum conditions and highly clean surface treatment in the gas discharge plasma, both the coating-substrate interface and the coatings as such are almost free from oxygen and carbon. It is found that the coating-substrate interface represents a layer of thickness ≥ 60 nm formed through vacuum plasma mixing of the coating and substrate materials. The TiN coatings obtained on the new equipment display a higher adhesion compared to brass coatings deposited by industrial technologies via intermediate titanium oxide layers. It is concluded that the designed vacuum plasma equipment allows efficient surface modification of materials and articles by vacuum plasma immersion processes.

  19. Effect of noble metal adhesive systems on bonding between an indirect composite material and a gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kiyoshi; Tanoue, Naomi; Atsuta, Mitsuru; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the bond strength between an indirect composite and a gold alloy was determined for the purpose of evaluating noble metal bonding systems. A single liquid primer designed for conditioning noble metal alloys (Infis Opaque Primer) and tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resins (Super-Bond C & B), with or without the powder component, were assessed. Cast gold alloy disks (Casting Gold type IV) were air-abraded with alumina, followed by six surface preparations, and were then bonded with a light-activated composite material (New Metacolor Infis). Shear testing was performed both before and after thermocycling for evaluation of bond durability. The results showed that three primed groups improved post-thermocycling bond strengths compared to each of the corresponding unprimed groups (P < 0.01). The bond strength was reduced for all six groups by the application of thermocycling (P < 0.01). After thermocycling, the group primed with the Infis Opaque Primer material and bonded with the Super-Bond C & B resin exhibited the greatest bond strength (23.4 MPa). The Infis Opaque Primer and Super-Bond bonding system increased the post-thermocycling bond strength of the control group by a factor of approximately ten. This simple technique is applicable in the fabrication of composite veneered restorations and cone-telescope dentures.

  20. Kevlar fiber-epoxy adhesion and its effect on composite mechanical and fracture properties by plasma and chemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, S.S.; Wu, S.R.; Sheu, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Kevlar 49 fibers were surface modified by gas (ammonia, oxygen, and water vapor) plasmas etching and chlorosulfonation and subsequent reaction with some reagents (glycine, deionized water, ethylenediamine, and 1-butanol) to improve the adhesion to epoxy resin. After these treatments, the changes in fiber topography, chemical compositions of the fiber surfaces and the surface functional groups introduced to the surface of fibers were identified by SEM XPS and static SIMS. Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and T-peel strength between the fiber and epoxy resin were markedly improved by gas plasma and chlorosulfonation (0.1% and 0.25% ClSO{sub 3}H at 30 s). However, it is clear from the similar G{sub IC} values of the treated and untreated fiber composites that the fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength is only a minor contributor to G{sub IC}. SEM was also used to study the surface topography of the fracture surfaces of composites in T-peel test.

  1. Tamarindus indica pectin blend film composition for coating tablets with enhanced adhesive force strength.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Kuldeep; Sapra, Bharti; Tiwary, A K; Rana, Vikas

    2014-02-15

    Tablet coating is the most useful method to improve tablet texture, odour and mask taste. Thus, the present investigation was aimed at developing an industrially acceptable aqueous tablet coating material. The physico-chemical, electrical and SEM investigations ensures that blending of Tamarindus indica (Linn.) pectin (TP) with chitosan gives water resistant film texture. Therefore, CH-TP (60:40) spray coated tablets were prepared. The evaluation of CH-TP coated tablets showed enhanced adhesive force strength (between tablet surface to coat) and negligible cohesive force strength (between two tablets) both evaluated using texture analyzer. The comparison of CH-TP coated tablets with Eudragit coated tablets further supported superiority of the former material. Thus, the findings pointed towards the potential of CH-TP for use as a tablet coating material in food as well as pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Strength and Performance Enhancement of Bonded Joints by Spatial Tailoring of Adhesive Compliance via 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Wardle, Brian L; Arif, Muhamad F

    2017-01-11

    Adhesive bonding continues to emerge as a preferred route for joining materials with broad applications including advanced structures, microelectronics, biomedical systems, and consumer goods. Here, we study the mechanics of deformation and failure of tensile-loaded single-lap joints with a compliance-tailored adhesive. Tailoring of the adhesive compliance redistributes stresses and strains to reduce both shear and peel concentrations at the ends of the adhesive that determine failure of the joint. Utilizing 3D printing, the modulus of the adhesive is spatially varied along the bondlength. Experimental strength testing, including optical strain mapping, reveals that the strain redistribution results in a greater than 100% increase in strength and toughness concomitant with a 50% increase in strain-to-break while maintaining joint stiffness. The tailoring demonstrated here is immediately realizable in a broad array of 3D printing applications, and the level of performance enhancement suggests that compliance tailoring of the adhesive is a generalizable route for achieving superior performance of joints in other applications, such as advanced structural composites.

  3. Effect of bond thickness on fracture and fatigue strength of adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Ramamurthy, G.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of composite to composite bonded joints was undertaken to study the effect of bond thickness on debond growth rate under cyclic loading and critical strain energy release rate under static loading. Double cantilever beam specimens of graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 were tested under mode I loading. A different behavior of fracture and fatigue strength was observed with variation of bondline thickness.

  4. Effects of tributylborane-activated adhesive and two silane agents on bonding computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin composite.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Ayano; Taira, Yohsuke; Sawase, Takashi

    2017-01-09

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an experimental adhesive agent [methyl methacrylate-tributylborane liquid (MT)] and two adhesive agents containing silane on the bonding between a resin composite block of a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and a light-curing resin composite veneering material. The surfaces of CAD/CAM resin composite specimens were ground with silicon-carbide paper, treated with phosphoric acid, and then primed with either one of the two silane agents [Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SC) and GC Ceramic Primer II (GC)], no adhesive control (Cont), or one of three combinations (MT/SC, MT/GC, and MT/Cont). A light-curing resin composite was veneered on the primed CAD/CAM resin composite surface. The veneered specimens were subjected to thermocycling between 4 and 60 °C for 10,000 cycles, and the shear bond strengths were determined. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey-Kramer HSD test (α = 0.05, n = 8). MT/SC (38.7 MPa) exhibited the highest mean bond strengths, followed by MT/GC (30.4 MPa), SC (27.9 MPa), and MT/Cont (25.7 MPa), while Cont (12.9 MPa) and GC (12.3 MPa) resulted in the lowest bond strengths. The use of MT in conjunction with a silane agent significantly improved the bond strength. Surface treatment with appropriate adhesive agents was confirmed as a prerequisite for veneering CAD/CAM resin composite restorations.

  5. The behavior of bonded doubler splices for composite sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, T. A.; Weisahaar, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the behavior of adhesively bonded doubler splices of two composite material sandwich panels are presented. The splices are studied from three approaches: analytical; numerical (finite elements); and experimental. Several parameters that characterize the splice are developed to determine their influence upon joint strength. These parameters are: doubler overlap length; core stiffness; laminate bending stiffness; the size of the gap between the spliced sandwich panels; and room and elevated temperatures. Similarities and contrasts between these splices and the physically similar single and double lap joints are discussed. The results of this investigation suggest several possible approaches to improving the strength of the sandwich splices.

  6. Influence of wool and thermo-binder fibers relative fractions on the adhesion of non-woven Alfa fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Omri, Med; Triki, A.; Ben Hassen, Med; Arous, M.; Bulou, A.

    2016-10-01

    Alfa/wool/thermo-binder fibers hybrid composites were investigated in order to analyze adhesion state. Bearing in mind the chemical structure of wool and thermo-binder fibers, this study revealed a good compatibility between the reinforcement and the matrix. Dielectric measurements revealed the presence of two dielectric relaxations in the composite. The first relaxation was attributed to the α mode relaxation and the second one was associated with the conductivity noted for high temperature. This study allowed the analysis of the interfacial polarization effect using the Havrilliak-Negami model in the electric modulus formalism. The lowness of this relaxation intensity revealed a good adhesion of the fibers in the matrix. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed a slow decrease of the Tg glass transition temperature compared to the matrix, which could be explained by the existence of interactions between the fibers and the matrix. Vibrational analysis, based on FTIR measurements, showed a less hydrophilic character of Alfa fibers owing to a basic dissociation that occurs between the wool fibers and the water molecules associated with Alfa fibers. Furthermore, adhesion mechanism in the composite material was established by covalent and hydrogen bonds. Tensile testing performed on this composite confirmed that such adhesion was improved by increasing the thermo-binder fibers relative fraction.

  7. Flaw Tolerance In Lap Shear Brazed Joints. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Len; Flom, Yury

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results of the second part of an on-going effort to gain better understanding of defect tolerance in braze joints. In the first part of this three-part series, we mechanically tested and modeled the strength of the lap joints as a function of the overlap distance. A failure criterion was established based on the zone damage theory, which predicts the dependence of the lap joint shear strength on the overlap distance, based on the critical size of a finite damage zone or an overloaded region in the joint. In this second part of the study, we experimentally verified the applicability of the damage zone criterion on prediction of the shear strength of the lap joint and introduced controlled flaws into the lap joints. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the lap joint strength as a function of flaw size and its location through mechanical testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) employing damage zone criterion for definition of failure. The results obtained from the second part of the investigation confirmed that the failure of the ductile lap shear brazed joints occurs when the damage zone reaches approximately 10% of the overlap width. The same failure criterion was applicable to the lap joints containing flaws.

  8. The role of damage-softened material behavior in the fracture of composites and adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungsuwarungsri, T.; Knauss, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Failure mechanisms of materials under very high strains experienced at and ahead of the crack tip such as formation, growth, and interaction of microvoids in ductile materials, microcracks in brittle solids or crazes in polymers and adhesives are represented by one-dimensional, nonlinear stress-strain relations possessing different ways by which the material loses capacity to carry load up to fracture or total separation. A double cantilever beam (DCB) type specimen is considered. The nonlinear material is confined to a thin strip between the two elastic beams loaded by a wedge. The problem is first modeled as a beam on a nonlinear foundation. The pertinent equation is solved numerically as a two-point boundary value problem for both the stationary and the quasi-stationay propagating crack. A finite element model is then used to model the problem in more detail in order to assess the adequacy of the beam model for the reduction of experimental data to determine in-situ properties of the thin interlayer.

  9. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  10. Research Adhesion and Physico-Mechanical Properties and Development of Anticorrosive Composite Polymeric Coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negamatov, S. S.; Mamadalimov, R. M.; Latipov, I. X.; Babxanova, M. G.; Negmatova, K. S.; Salimsakov, Y. A.

    2008-08-01

    In work is shown, that introduction loading on the basis of industrial screenings such as phosphoslag, phosphogypsum and withdrawal Mardjanbulak gold-mining of factory the incorporating sets oxides of metals positively influence on anticorrosive, physical and strength of property of the investigated composite materials on basis epoxy of pitch [1-4].

  11. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical impacts bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock wave have been identified.

  12. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.

    2014-05-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical impacts on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock waves have been identified.

  13. Interfacial adhesion and microfailure modes of electrodeposited carbon fiber/epoxy-PEI composites by microdroplet and surface wettability tests.

    PubMed

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Wonho; Park, In-Seo

    2002-05-01

    Interfacial properties and microfailure modes of electrodeposition (ED)-treated carbon fiber-reinforced polyetherimide (PEI) toughened epoxy composite were investigated using microdroplet test and the measurement of surface wettability. ED was performed to improve the interfacial shear strength (IFSS). As PEI content increased, IFSS increased due to enhanced toughness and plastic deformation of PEI. In the untreated case, IFSS increased with adding PEI content, and the IFSS of the pure PEI matrix showed the highest. On the other hand, for the ED-treated case IFSS increased with PEI content with rather low improvement rate. In the untreated case, neat epoxy resin appeared brittle microfailure mode, whereas the pure PEI matrix exhibited a more likely ductile microfailure mode. In the ED-treated case, neat epoxy exhibited a more ductile fracture than that of the untreated case. Critical surface tension and polar surface free energy of ED-treated carbon fiber was higher than those of the untreated fiber. The work of adhesion between fiber and matrix was not directly proportional to IFSS for both the untreated and ED-treated cases. The matrix toughness might contribute to IFSS more likely than the surface wettability. Interfacial properties of the epoxy-PEI composite can be affected efficiently by both the control of matrix toughness and ED treatment.

  14. Effects of argon plasma treatment on the interfacial adhesion of PBO fiber/bismaleimide composite and aging behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Ping; Chen, Mingxin; Yu, Qi; Lu, Chun

    2011-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the influence of argon plasma on the interfacial adhesion of PBO fiber/bismaleimide composites and aging behaviors. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) was greatly increased to 62.3 MPa with an increase of 39.7% after treatment for 7 min at 80 Pa, 200 W. A small amount of O and N atoms was incorporated onto the fiber surface, but the plasma caused C-O bonds to break and generated Odbnd C-N groups. The fiber surface roughness increased, contributing much to the wettability. However, long-time treatment excessively destroyed the inherent and newly created structures. The SEM images suggested that the fracture shifted from the interface to the matrix. The modification effects degraded with storage time in the air and the ILSS decreased to approximately 54.0 MPa after 10-30 days. The composite had low water absorption of 2.0 wt% and a high retention of 90% in the ILSS at moisture conditions.

  15. Controllable degradation of medical magnesium by electrodeposited composite films of mussel adhesive protein (Mefp-1) and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping-Li; Hou, Rui-Qing; Chen, Cheng-Dong; Sun, Lan; Dong, Shi-Gang; Pan, Jin-Shan; Lin, Chang-Jian

    2016-09-15

    To control the degradation rate of medical magnesium in body fluid environment, biocompatible films composed of Mussel Adhesive Protein (Mefp-1) and chitosan were electrodeposited on magnesium surface in cathodic constant current mode. The compositions and structures of the films were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). And the corrosion protection performance was investigated using electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (Hanks' solution). The results revealed that Mefp-1 and chitosan successfully adhered on the magnesium surface and formed a protective film. Compared with either single Mefp-1 or single chitosan film, the composite film of chitosan/Mefp-1/chitosan (CPC (chitosan/Mefp-1/chitosan)) exhibited lower corrosion current density, higher polarization resistance and more homogenous corrosion morphology and thus was able to effectively control the degradation rate of magnesium in simulated body environment. In addition, the active attachment and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on the CPC film coated magnesium indicated that the CPC film was significantly able to improve the biocompatibility of the medical magnesium.

  16. Effect of fiber-matrix adhesion on the creep behavior of CF/PPS composites: temperature and physical aging characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta Dias, M. H.; Jansen, K. M. B.; Luinge, J. W.; Bersee, H. E. N.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of `as received' and `surface modified' carbon fibers (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45° specimens under six different isothermal conditions, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 °C. Physical aging effects were evaluated on both systems using the short-term test method established by Struik. The results showed that the shapes of the curves were affected neither by physical aging nor by the test temperature, allowing then superposition to be made. A unified model was proposed with a single physical aging and temperature-dependent shift factor, a_{T,te}. It was suggested that the surface treatment carried out in SM-CF/PPS had two major effects on the creep response of CF/PPS composites at a reference temperature of 40 °C: a lowering of the initial compliance of about 25 % and a slowing down of the creep response of about 1.1 decade.

  17. Clinical Effectiveness of Different Polishing Systems and Self-Etch Adhesives in Class V Composite Resin Restorations: Two-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jang, J-H; Kim, H-Y; Shin, S-M; Lee, C-O; Kim, D S; Choi, K-K; Kim, S-Y

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical effectiveness of different polishing systems and self-etch adhesives in class V composite resin restorations. A total of 164 noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) from 35 patients were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, each of which used a combination of polishing systems and adhesives. The two polishing systems used were Sof-Lex XT (Sof), a multistep abrasive disc, and Enhance/Pogo (EP), a simplified abrasive-impregnated rubber instrument. The adhesive systems were Clearfil SE bond (CS), a two-step self-etch adhesive, and Xeno V (XE), a one-step self-etch adhesive. All NCCLs were restored with light-cured microhybrid resin composites (Z250). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months by two blinded independent examiners using modified FDI criteria. The Fisher exact test and generalized estimating equation analysis considering repeated measurements were performed to compare the outcomes between the polishing systems and adhesives. Three restorations were dislodged: two in CS/Sof and one in CS/EP. None of the restorations required any repair or retreatment except those showing retention loss. Sof was superior to EP with regard to surface luster, staining, and marginal adaptation (p<0.05). CS and XE did not show differences in any criteria (p>0.05). Sof is clinically superior to EP for polishing performance in class V composite resin restoration. XE demonstrates clinically equivalent bonding performance to CS.

  18. Nano-hydroxyapatite-coated metal-ceramic composite of iron-tricalcium phosphate: Improving the surface wettability, adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Surmeneva, Maria A; Kleinhans, Claudia; Vacun, Gabriele; Kluger, Petra Juliane; Schönhaar, Veronika; Müller, Michaela; Hein, Sebastian Boris; Wittmar, Alexandra; Ulbricht, Mathias; Prymak, Oleg; Oehr, Christian; Surmenev, Roman A

    2015-11-01

    Thin radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) films were prepared on the surface of a Fe-tricalcium phosphate (Fe-TCP) bioceramic composite, which was obtained using a conventional powder injection moulding technique. The obtained nano-hydroxyapatite coated Fe-TCP biocomposites (nano-HA-Fe-TCP) were studied with respect to their chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle, surface free energy and hysteresis. The deposition process resulted in a homogeneous, single-phase HA coating. The ability of the surface to support adhesion and the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied using biological short-term tests in vitro. The surface of the uncoated Fe-TCP bioceramic composite showed an initial cell attachment after 24h of seeding, but adhesion, proliferation and growth did not persist during 14 days of culture. However, the HA-Fe-TCP surfaces allowed cell adhesion, and proliferation during 14 days. The deposition of the nano-HA films on the Fe-TCP surface resulted in higher surface energy, improved hydrophilicity and biocompatibility compared with the surface of the uncoated Fe-TCP. Furthermore, it is suggested that an increase in the polar component of the surface energy was responsible for the enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation in the case of the nano-HA-Fe-TCP biocomposites.

  19. Deformations and strains in adhesive joints by moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Wood, J.; John, D.; Lubowinski, S.

    1984-01-01

    Displacement fields in a thick adherend lap joint and a cracked lap shear specimen were measured by high sensitivity moire interferometry. Contour maps of in-plane U and V displacements were obtained across adhesive and adherent surfaces. Loading sequences ranged from modest loads to near-failure loads. Quantitative results are given for displacements and certain strains in the adhesive and along the adhesive/adherend boundary lines. The results show nonlinear displacements and strains as a function of loads or stresses and they show viscoelastic or time-dependent response. Moire interferometry is an excellent method for experimental studies of adhesive joint performance. Subwavelength displacement resolution of a few micro-inches, and spatial resolution corresponding to 1600 fringes/inch (64 fringes/mm), were obtained in these studies. The whole-field contour maps offer insights not available from local measurements made by high sensitivity gages.

  20. Chaotic insonification for health monitoring of an adhesively bonded composite stiffened panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasel, T. R.; Todd, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    Time series prediction algorithms combined with ultrasonic chaotic excitations have shown the ability to locate and identify loss of preload in a bolted aluminum joint in previous research [1,2]. This study examines the ability of this method to classify various bond state damage conditions of a composite bonded joint, including various disbond sizes and poorly cured bonds. The stiffened panel test structure is intended to be a simplification of a wing skin-to-spar bonded joint. An active excitation signal is imparted to the structure through a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch on one side of the bonded joint and sensed using an equivalent MFC patch on the opposite side of the joint. There is an MFC actuator/sensor pair for each bond condition to be identified. A novel statistical classification feature is developed from information theory concepts of cross-prediction and interdependence.

  1. Adhesively-Bonded Structural Composite Joint Utilizing Shoulder-Centered Sleeves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukowski, Florian P., Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite joint includes a first member having a groove therein, a second member adjacent to the first member, and a connector member disposed between the second member and the first member. The connector member is received in the groove so as to bias a load path between the first member and the second member from a peripheral portion to a central portion of the connector member.

  2. Amine Enrichment of Thin-Film Composite Membranes via Low Pressure Plasma Polymerization for Antimicrobial Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F; He, Li; She, Fenghua; Orbell, John D; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Duke, Mikel C

    2015-07-15

    Thin-film composite membranes, primarily based on poly(amide) (PA) semipermeable materials, are nowadays the dominant technology used in pressure driven water desalination systems. Despite offering superior water permeation and salt selectivity, their surface properties, such as their charge and roughness, cannot be extensively tuned due to the intrinsic fabrication process of the membranes by interfacial polymerization. The alteration of these properties would lead to a better control of the materials surface zeta potential, which is critical to finely tune selectivity and enhance the membrane materials stability when exposed to complex industrial waste streams. Low pressure plasma was employed to introduce amine functionalities onto the PA surface of commercially available thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. Morphological changes after plasma polymerization were analyzed by SEM and AFM, and average surface roughness decreased by 29%. Amine enrichment provided isoelectric point changes from pH 3.7 to 5.2 for 5 to 15 min of plasma polymerization time. Synchrotron FTIR mappings of the amine-modified surface indicated the addition of a discrete 60 nm film to the PA layer. Furthermore, metal affinity was confirmed by the enhanced binding of silver to the modified surface, supported by an increased antimicrobial functionality with demonstrable elimination of E. coli growth. Essential salt rejection was shown minimally compromised for faster polymerization processes. Plasma polymerization is therefore a viable route to producing functional amine enriched thin-film composite PA membrane surfaces.

  3. Non-destructive Evaluation of Bonds Between Fiberglass Composite and Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Selina; Sonta, Kestutis; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. E.; Berger, Libby

    2015-01-01

    To assess the integrity and reliability of an adhesive joint in an automotive composite component, several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methodologies are correlated to lap shear bond strengths. A glass-fabric-reinforced composite structure was bonded to a metallic structure with a two-part epoxy adhesive. Samples were subsequently cut and tested in shear, and flaws were found in some areas. This study aims to develop a reliable and portable NDE system for service-level adhesive inspection in the automotive industry. The results of the experimental investigation using several NDE methods are presented and discussed. Fiberglass-to-metal bonding is the ideal configuration for NDE via thermography using excitation with induction heating, due to the conductive metal and non-conductive glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Excitation can be either by a research-grade induction heater of highly defined frequency and intensity, or by a service-level heater, such as would be used for sealing windshields in a body shop. The thermographs thus produced can be captured via a high-resolution infrared camera, with principal component analysis and 2D spatial Laplacian processing. Alternatively, the thermographs can be captured by low resolution thermochromic microencapsulated liquid crystal film imaging, which needs no post-processing and can be very inexpensive. These samples were also examined with phased-array ultrasound. The NDE methods are compared to the lap shear values and to each other for approximate cost, accuracy, and time and level of expertise needed.

  4. Silorane adhesive system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro Júnior, Sylvio; Andrada, Mauro Amaral Caldeira de

    2014-01-01

    Silorane-based composite resin requires a specific adhesive system: a 2-step self-etching adhesive. Clinical protocols are well established and are based on the principles of adhesion to mineralized dental tissues. In this paper, we present a clinical application of the silorane adhesive system in a class-II restoration using silorane-based composite resin.

  5. Addition polyimide adhesives containing ATBN and silicone elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of added elastomers on the thermal stability, adhesive strength, and fracture toughness of LARC-13, a high-temperature addition polyimide adhesive. Various butadiene/acrylonitrile and silicon elastomers were incorporated into the polyimide resin either as physical polyblends, or by chemically reacting the elastomers with the polyimide backbone. Adhesive single lap-shear and T-peel strengths were measured before and after ageing at elevated temperature. A tapered double-cantilever beam specimen was used to determine the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified polyimide adhesives.

  6. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  7. 15 CFR 285.5 - Termination of a LAP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.5 Termination of a LAP. (a) The Chief of NVLAP...

  8. Mechanical properties of a lap joint under uniform clamping pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, S. V.; Metherell, A. F.

    1969-01-01

    Equations were derived for the load deflection relations, the energy dissipation per cycle, and the instantaneous rate of dissipation for a lap joint idealized as two overlapping plates clamped together under a uniform clamping pressure.

  9. FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2015-02-16

    Friction Stir Scribe (FSS) technology is a relatively new variant of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) which enables lap joining of dissimilar material with very different melting points and different high temperature flow behaviors. The cutter scribe attached at the tip of FSW tool pin effectively cuts the high melting point material such that a mechanically interlocking feature is created between the dissimilar materials. The geometric shape of this interlocking feature determines the shear strength attained by the lap joint. This work presents first use of scribe technology in joining polymers to aluminum alloy. Details of the several runs of scribe welding performed in lap joining of ~3.175mm thick polymers including HDPE, filled and unfilled Nylon 66 to 2mm thick AA5182 are presented. The effect of scribe geometry and length on weld interlocking features is presented along with lap shear strength evaluations.

  10. 13. Detail closeup view of wooden peg fastenings; note lapped ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail close-up view of wooden peg fastenings; note lapped joint fastened with iron bolts using washers fashioned from oxen shoes. - Mormon Tabernacle, Temple Square, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. Bending effects of unsymmetric adhesively bonded composite repairs on cracked aluminum panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Cory; Sun, C. T.

    1994-09-01

    The bending effects of unsymmetrically bonded composite repairs on cracked aluminum panels were quantified using a plate linear finite element model. Stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates were obtained from the model twice, once with out-of-plane displacement suppressed and another time without these restrictions. Several configurations were examined, crack growth stability was identified, and the effect of a debond was considered. The maximum stress intensity factor was also analyzed. Previous work by other authors was found to underpredict the bending effect.

  12. Adhesive strength of bone-implant interfaces and in-vivo degradation of PHB composites for load-bearing applications.

    PubMed

    Meischel, M; Eichler, J; Martinelli, E; Karr, U; Weigel, J; Schmöller, G; Tschegg, E K; Fischerauer, S; Weinberg, A M; Stanzl-Tschegg, S E

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the response of bone to novel biodegradable polymeric composite implants in the femora of growing rats. Longitudinal observation of bone reaction at the implant site (BV/TV) as well as resorption of the implanted pins were monitored using in vivo micro-focus computed tomography (µCT). After 12, 24 and 36 weeks femora containing the implants were explanted, scanned with high resolution ex vivo µCT, and the surface roughness of the implants was measured to conclude on the ingrowth capability for bone tissue. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to observe changes on the surface of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) during degradation and cell ingrowth. Four different composites with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and Herafill(®) were compared. After 36 weeks in vivo, none of the implants did show significant degradation. The PHB composite with ZrO2 and a high percentage (30%) of Herafill® as well as the Mg-alloy WZ21 showed the highest values of bone accumulation (increased BV/TV) around the implant. The lowest value was measured in PHB with 3% ZrO2 containing no Herafill®. Roughness measurements as well as EDX and SEM imaging could not reveal any changes on the PHB composites׳ surfaces. Biomechanical parameters, such as the adhesion strength between bone and implant were determined by measuring the shear strength as well as push-out energy of the bone-implant interface. The results showed that improvement of these mechanical properties of the studied PHBs P3Z, P3Z10H and P3Z30H is necessary in order to obtain appropriate load-bearing material. The moduli of elasticity, tensile strength and strain properties of the PHB composites are close to that of bone and thus promising. Compared to clinically used PLGA, PGA and PLA materials, their additional benefit is an unchanged local pH value during degradation, which makes them well tolerated by cells and immune system. They might be used

  13. Reduction of Moisture Effects During the Cure of Epoxy Adhesives Used in Composite Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augl, J. M.; Sivy, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for repair work on Naval aircraft composite wing skins that can be performed under depot conditions (or still worse, under field conditions) are quite restrictive. Equipment that can be used is rather limited as are the available repair space and time. The procedures must be simple enough so that they can be performed satisfactorily by personnel without special knowledge in composite materials technology. Repairs of small holes should not require more than perhaps a short predrying cycle (with heat guns) and a subsequent patch bonding using a heating blanket, held in place by applying a vacuum. However, it has been observed during simulated experimental repair work that the glue lines frequently show a high content of pores and bubbles which are attributed to evaporation of moisture during the curing cycle. (Of course, other volatile materials such as residual solvent would act similarly). The purpose of this paper is to give some detailed analysis of the problem of moisture transport as a function of repair conditions, and to discuss some preliminary work to reduce the effect of moisture by removing moisture chemically with carbodiimides before it reaches a critical level for bubble formations.

  14. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  15. Bond strength of composite to dentin: effect of acid etching and laser irradiation through an uncured self-etch adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, F. L. A.; Carvalho, J. G.; Andrade, M. F.; Saad, J. R. C.; Hebling, J.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µ-TBS) of laser irradiation of etched/unetched dentin through an uncured self-etching adhesive. Dentinal surfaces were treated with Clearfil SE Bond Adhesive (CSE) either according to the manufacturer’s instructions (CSE) or without applying the primer (CSE/NP). The dentin was irradiated through the uncured adhesive, using an Nd:YAG laser at 0.75 or 1 W power settings. The adhesive was cured, composite crowns were built up, and the teeth were sectioned into beams (0.49 mm2) to be stressed under tension. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey statistics (α = 5%). Dentin of the fractured specimens and the interfaces of untested beams were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that non-etched irradiated surfaces presented higher µ-TBS than etched and irradiated surfaces (p < 0.05). Laser irradiation alone did not lead to differences in µ-TBS (p > 0.05). SEM showed solidification globules on the surfaces of the specimens. The interfaces were similar on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces. Laser irradiation of dentin through the uncured adhesive did not lead to higher µ-TBS when compared to the suggested manufacturer’s technique. However, this treatment brought benefits when performed on unetched dentin, since bond strengths were higher when compared to etched dentin.

  16. Effect Of Molecular Weight On Adhesive Properties Of The Phenylethynyl-Terminated Polyimide LARC(sup TM)-PETI-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    Future civilian aircraft will require the use of advanced adhesive systems with high temperature capabilities. One such material has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, a phenylethynyl-terminated polyimide given the designation LARC(sup TM)-PETI-5. Recent work has shown the advantages of similar phenylethynyl-terminated polyimides as films, moldings, adhesives, and composite matrix resins. Phenylethynyl-terminated oligomers provide greater processing windows than materials which incorporate simple ethynyl endcaps. Since these low molecular weight, low melt viscosity oligomers thermally cure without the evolution of volatile by-products, they provide an excellent means of producing polymers with high glass transition temperatures, excellent solvent resistance, and high mechanical properties. Three different versions of LARC(sup TM)-PETI-5 with theoretical number average molecular weights (M(sub n)s) of 250, 5000, and 10000 g/mol were synthesized in this work. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed on the dry powder form of these materials to establish cure conditions which result in high glass transition temperatures (T(sub g)s). Lap shear specimens were prepared from adhesive tape made from each material and with the thermal cure conditions determined from the DSC data. The tensile shear data established processing conditions which provided the best adhesive strengths. Further testing was performed to establish the properties of LARC(sup TM)-PETI-5 as an adhesive material and to determine its solvent resistance.

  17. Biocompatibility of a flowable composite bonded with a self-etching adhesive compared with a glass lonomer cement and a high copper amalgam.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasushi; Seki, Yuichi; Sasafuchi, Yasutaka; Arakawa, Makoto; Burrow, Michael F; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the pulpal response and in-vivo microleakage of a flowable composite bonded with a self-etching adhesive and compared the results with a glass ionomer cement and amalgam. Cervical cavities were prepared in monkey teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups. A self-etching primer system (Imperva FluoroBond, Shofu) was applied to the teeth in one of the experimental groups, and the cavities were filled with a flowable composite (SI-BF-2001-LF, Shofu). In the other groups, a glass ionomer cement (Fuji II, GC) or amalgam (Dispersalloy, Johnson & Johnson) filled the cavity. The teeth were then extracted after 3, 30 and 90 days, fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution and prepared according to routine histological techniques. Five micrometer sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Brown and Brenn gram stain for bacterial observation. No serious inflammatory reaction of the pulp, such as necrosis or abscess formation, was observed in any of the experimental groups. Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main initial reaction, while deposition of reparative dentin was the major long-term reaction in all groups. No bacterial penetration along the cavity walls was detected in the flowable composite or glass ionomer cement except for one case at 30 days in the glass ionomer cement. The flowable composite bonded with self-etching adhesive showed an acceptable biological com- patibility to monkey pulp. The in vivo sealing ability of the flowable composite in combination with the self-etching adhesive was considered comparable to glass ionomer cement. Amalgam restorations without adhesive liners showed slight bacterial penetration along the cavity wall.

  18. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    D, Krishnakanth Reddy; V, Kishore M S; Safeena, Safeena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine shear bond strength and the effect on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. Materials & Methods: Group I: Brackets bonded with Ultimate cure-on-light Light-cure composite adhesive system. Group II: Brackets bonded with Ortho-one no-mix. Self-cure composite adhesive system. Group III: Brackets bonded with Light-cure glass ionomer adhesive system. Group IV: Brackets bonded with Transbond plus self etching primer. Results: The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength when using Transbond plus self etching primer showed the highest bond strength Group- IV(8.69 2.54 MPa) followed by Ultimate cure-on-light Group-I (8.62 1.84 MPa), Ortho-one no-mix (Bisco Inc. USA)Group-II (8.07 1.72 MPa), and least bond strength was seen in G.C. Fuji Ortho L.C. Group-III (6.01 1.6) MPa Conclusion: Use of self etching primer saves chairside time and satisfactory high bond strength was obtained. Care should be taken during debonding of ceramic brackets How to cite this article: Reddy K D, Kishore M S V, Safeena S. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):73-78. PMID:24155606

  19. Biocompatible Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    pressure sensitive elastomer, polyisobutylene. with water soluble adhesives such as carboxy methyl ceiiulose, pectin and gelatin for adhesion to... cellulose and nylon films, were most often used in 180 peel adhesion tests on the adhesives. Films were cast on one substrate and the other was moistened...irritation. 4. Peel adhesion to hydrated cellulose , nylon and cotton cloth substrates was satisfactory. So too was the peel adhesion as a function of

  20. Marginal integrity of low-shrinking versus methacrylate-based composite: effect of different one-step self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Ladislav; Dorien, Lefever; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Feilzer, Albert J; Krejci, Ivo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of composite type and adhesive system on the quality of marginal adaptation in standardized Class V cavities before and after thermo-mechanical loading (TML). The cavities were restored using different combinations of three adhesive systems [(Silorane System Adhesive (SSA), Clearfil S(3) Bond (S3), G-Bond (G-B)] and two resin composite materials (Filtek Silorane, Clearfil AP-X). Six groups (n = 10): Group A (SSA-Primer + SSA-Bond, Filtek Silorane), Group B (SSA-Primer + SSA-Bond, Clearfil AP-X), Group C (S3 + SSA-Bond, Filtek Silorane), Group D (S3 + SSA-Bond, Clearfil AP-X), Group E (G-B + SSA-Bond, Filtek Silorane) and Group F (G-B + SSA-Bond, Clearfil AP-X) were defined. Marginal adaptation was assessed on replicas in the SEM at 200 × magnification before and after TML (3000 × 5-55 °C, 1.2 10(6) × 49 N; 1.7 Hz) under simulated dentinal fluid. The highest scores of continuous margins (%CM) were observed in the group F (G-B + SSA-Bond, Clearfil AP-X: before loading 96.4 (±3.2)/after loading 90.8 (±7.0)). A significant effect of adhesive system, composite type and loading interval was observed on the results (p < 0.05). Significantly lower scores of %CM were observed for silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane) after TML in comparison with methacrylate-based composite (Clearfil AP-X) considering total marginal length (p < 0.05). For both Filtek Silorane and Clearfil AP-X, G-Bond performed significantly better than SSA-Primer and Clearfil S(3) Bond (p < 0.05). For all combinations of one-step self-etch adhesives and SSA-Bond resin coating, silorane-based low-shrinking composite exhibited inferior marginal adaptation than did the methacrylate-based composite.

  1. Epithelial adhesive junctions

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Christopher T.; Farkas, Attila E.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial adhesive cell-to-cell contacts contain large, plasma membrane-spanning multiprotein aggregates that perform vital structural and signaling functions. Three prominent adhesive contacts are the tight junction, adherens junction, and the desmosome. Each junction type has unique cellular functions and a complex molecular composition. In this review, we comment on recent and exciting advances in our understanding of junction composition and function. PMID:24592313

  2. Research on the design of surface acquisition system of active lap based on FPGA and FX2LP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongshen; Li, Xiaojin; Fan, Bin; Zeng, Zhige

    2014-08-01

    In order to research the dynamic surface shape changes of active lap during the processing, this paper introduces a dynamic surface shape acquisition system of active lap using FPGA and USB communication. This system consists of high-precision micro-displacement sensor array, acquisition board, PC computer composition, and acquisition circuit board includes six sub-boards based on FPGA, a hub-board based on FPGA and USB communication. A sub-board is responsible for a number of independent channel sensors' data acquisition; hub-board is responsible for creating encoder simulation tools to active lap deformation control system with location information, sending synchronization information to latch the sensor data in all of the sub-boards for a time, while addressing the sub-boards to gather the sensor data in each sub-board one by one and transmitting all the sensor data together with location information via the USB chip FX2LP to the host computer. Experimental results show that the system is capable of fixing the location and speed of active lap, meanwhile the control of surface transforming and dynamic surface data acquisition at a certain location in the processing is implemented.

  3. SiO2-nanocomposite film coating of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks improves surface hardness and reduces susceptibility to bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamonwanon, Pranithida; Hirose, Nanako; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Kitagawa, Haruaki; Kitagawa, Ranna; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Imazato, Satoshi

    2017-01-31

    Composite resin blocks for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) applications have recently become available. However, CAD/CAM composite resins have lower wear resistance and accumulate more plaque than CAD/CAM ceramic materials. We assessed the effects of SiO2-nanocomposite film coating of four types of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks: Cerasmart, Katana Avencia block, Lava Ultimate, and Block HC on surface hardness and bacterial attachment. All composite blocks with coating demonstrated significantly greater Vickers hardness, reduced surface roughness, and greater hydrophobicity than those without coating. Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the coated specimens was significantly less than those for the uncoated specimens. These reduced levels of bacterial adherence on the coated surface were still evident after treatment with saliva. Surface modification by SiO2-nanocomposite film coating has potential to improve wear resistance and susceptibility to plaque accumulation of CAD/CAM composite resin restorations.

  4. Flaw Tolerance in Lap Shear Brazed Joints. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Li-Qin

    2003-01-01

    Furnace brazing is a joining process used in the aerospace and other industries to produce strong permanent and hermetic structural joints. As in any joining process, brazed joints have various imperfections and defects. At the present time, our understanding of the influence of the internal defects on the strength of the brazed joints is not adequate. The goal of this 3-part investigation is to better understand the properties and failure mechanisms of the brazed joints containing defects. This study focuses on the behavior of the brazed lap shear joints because of their importance in manufacturing aerospace structures. In Part 1, an average shear strength capability and failure modes of the single lap joints are explored. Stainless steel specimens brazed with pure silver are tested in accordance with the AWS C3.2 standard. Comparison of the failure loads and the ultimate shear strength with the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the same specimens as a function of the overlap widths shows excellent correlation between the experimental and calculated values for the defect-free lap joints. A damage zone criterion is shown to work quite well in understanding the failure of the braze joints. In Part 2, the findings of the Part 1 will be verified on the larger test specimens. Also, various flaws will be introduced in the test specimens to simulate lack of braze coverage in the lap joints. Mechanical testing and FEA will be performed on these joints to verify that behavior of the flawed ductile lap joints is similar to joints with a reduced braze area. Finally, in Part 3, the results obtained in Parts 1 and 2 will be applied to the actual brazed structure to evaluate the load-carrying capability of a structural lap joint containing discontinuities. In addition, a simplified engineering procedure will be offered for the laboratory testing of the lap shear specimens.

  5. Influence of the LED curing source and selective enamel etching on dentin bond strength of self-etch adhesives in class I composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Araújo, Cíntia Tereza Pimenta; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the LED curing unit and selective enamel etching on dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) for self-etch adhesives in class I composite restorations. On 96 human molars, box-shaped class I cavities were made maintaining enamel margins. Self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE - CSE and Clearfil S(3) - S3) were used to bond a microhybrid composite. Before adhesive application, half of the teeth were enamel acid-etched and the other half was not. Adhesives and composites were cured with the following light curing units (LCUs): one polywave (UltraLume 5 - UL) and two single-peak (FlashLite 1401 - FL and Radii Cal - RD) LEDs. The specimens were then submitted to thermomechanical aging and longitudinally sectioned to obtain bonded sticks (0.9 mm(2)) to be tested in tension at 0.5 mm/min. The failure mode was then recorded. The μTBS data were submitted to a three-way ANOVA and Tukey's (α = 0.05). For S3, the selective enamel-etching provided lower μTBS values (20.7 ± 2.7) compared to the non-etched specimens (26.7 ± 2.2). UL yielded higher μTBS values (24.1 ± 3.2) in comparison to the photoactivation approach with FL (18.8 ±3.9) and RD (19.9 ±1.8) for CSE. The two-step CSE was not influenced by the enamel etching (p ≥ 0.05). Enamel acid etching in class I composite restorations affects the dentin μTBS of the one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S(3), with no alterations for Clearfil SE bond strength. The polywave LED promoted better bond strength for the two-step adhesive compared to the single-peak ones.

  6. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  7. Use of two-dimensional transmission photoelastic models to study stresses in double-lap bolted joints: Load transfer and stresses in the inner lap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the stress distribution in the inner lap of double-lap, double-bolt joints using photoelastic models of the joint is discussed. The principal idea is to fabricate the inner lap of a photoelastic material and to use a photoelastically sensitive material for the two outer laps. With this setup, polarized light transmitted through the stressed model responds principally to the stressed inner lap. The model geometry, the procedures for making and testing the model, and test results are described.

  8. Stress analysis of the cracked lap shear specimens: An ASTM round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  9. Stress analysis of the cracked-lap-shear specimen - An ASTM round-robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  10. Flaw Tolerance in Lap Shear Brazed Joints. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Liqin; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum brazing is a viable process to achieve strong permanent and hermetic joints in space. As in any joining process, brazed Joints have various imperfections and defects. It is important to understand the impact that flaws have on the load carrying capacity and performance of the brazed joints. This study focuses on the behavior of lap shear joints due to their engineering importance in brazed aerospace structures. In Part 1 an average shear strength capabilitY and failure modes of the single lap joints are explored. Specimens comprised of 0.090 inch thick 347 stainless steel sheet brazed with pure silver are tested in accordance with the AWS C3.2 standard. Comparison of the measured loads and average shear stresses at failure with the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the same specimens as a function of the overlap lengths shows excellent correlation between the experimental and calculated values for the defect-free lap joints. In Part 2, various flaws will be introduced in the test specimens to simulate lack of braze coverage in the lap joints. Mechanical testing and FEA will be performed on these joints to verify if behavior of ductile ]appoints containing flaws is similar to the joints with the reduced braze area. Finally, in Part 3, the results obtained in Part 1 and 2 will be applied to the brazed assembly to evaluate a load carrying capability of the structural lap joint containing defects.

  11. Development and evaluation of surface treatments to enhance the fiber-matrix adhesion in PAN-based carbon fiber/liquid crystal polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Various amine and electrochemical polymerization treatments were applied to comingled as-received AS4 carbon fiber/Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) fibers, and unidirectional composite plates were fabricated. Short beam shear (SBS) tests were conducted to determine the level of AS4 carbon fiber-LCP matrix adhesion present. The shear strength of the as-received AS4/LCP system was approximately 49 MPa (7.1 ksi). The as-received AS4 fiber-LCP matrix adhesion was determined to be reasonably good, at approximately 85 to 90% of a perfect bond as determined by micromechanics analyses. Several di/triamine treatments yielded approximately a 10 to 15% increase in fiber-matrix adhesion relative to the as-received AS4/LCP system. The electropolymerization of a polyphenylene oxide (PPO) coating on the AS4 surface enhanced the fiber-matrix adhesion by 14% relative to the as-received AS4/LCP system. Apparently, a good bond was established between the AS4 fiber, the PPO coating, and the LCP matrix. After these treatments, SEM observations of the shear failure surfaces indicated that a perfect fiber-matrix bond was obtained. That is, the failure location was in the LCP matrix material. A two-dimensional finite element analysis also supported this result. Thus, in order to improve the shear strength of the AS4/LCP system further, the shear strength of the LCP matrix material must be increased.

  12. Lap time optimisation of a racing go-kart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lot, Roberto; Dal Bianco, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    The minimum lap time optimal control problem has been solved for a go-kart model. The symbolic algebra software Maple has been used to derive equations of motion and an indirect method has been adopted to solve the optimal control problem. Simulation has been successfully performed on a full track lap with a multibody model endowed with seven degrees of freedom. Geometrical and mechanical characteristics of a real kart have been measured by a lab test to feed the mathematical model. Telemetry recorded in an entire lap by a professional driver has been compared to simulation results in order to validate the model. After the reliability of the optimal control model was proved, the simulation has been used to study the peculiar dynamics of go-karts and focus to tyre slippage dynamics, which is highly affected by the lack of differential.

  13. Investigation of the Viability, Adhesion, and Migration of Human Fibroblasts in a Hyaluronic acid/Gelatin Microgel-Reinforced Composite Hydrogel for Vocal Fold Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Heris, Hossein K.; Daoud, Jamal; Sheibani, Sara; Vali, Hojatollah; Tabrizian, Maryam; Mongeau, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of a novel scaffold biomaterial consisting of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA)–gelatin (Ge) composite microgels was investigated for use in treating vocal fold injury and scarring. Cell adhesion integrins and kinematics of cell motion were investigated in two- and three-dimensional culture conditions, respectively. Human vocal fold fibroblast (hVFF) cells were seeded on HA–Ge microgels attached to a HA hydrogel thin film. The results showed that hVFF cells established effective adhesion to HA–Ge microgels through the ubiquitous expression of β1 integrin in the cell membrane. The microgels were then encapsulated in a three-dimensional HA hydrogel for the study of cell migration. The cells within the HA–Ge microgel-reinforced composite hydrogel (MRCH) scaffold had an average motility speed of 0.24±0.08 μm/minute. The recorded microscopic images revealed features that are presumably associated with lobopodial and lamellipodial cell migration modes within the MRCH scaffold. Average cell speed during lobopodial migration was greater than that during lamellipodial migration. The cells moved faster in the MRCH than in the HA–Ge gel without microgels. These findings support the hypothesis that HA–Ge MRCH promote cell adhesion and migration; thereby they constitute a promising biomaterial for vocal fold repair. PMID:26501384

  14. Investigation of the Viability, Adhesion, and Migration of Human Fibroblasts in a Hyaluronic Acid/Gelatin Microgel-Reinforced Composite Hydrogel for Vocal Fold Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Heris, Hossein K; Daoud, Jamal; Sheibani, Sara; Vali, Hojatollah; Tabrizian, Maryam; Mongeau, Luc

    2016-01-21

    The potential use of a novel scaffold biomaterial consisting of cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin (Ge) composite microgels is investigated for use in treating vocal fold injury and scarring. Cell adhesion integrins and kinematics of cell motion are investigated in 2D and 3D culture conditions, respectively. Human vocal fold fibroblast (hVFF) cells are seeded on HA-Ge microgels attached to a HA hydrogel thin film. The results show that hVFF cells establish effective adhesion to HA-Ge microgels through the ubiquitous expression of β1 integrin in the cell membrane. The microgels are then encapsulated in a 3D HA hydrogel for the study of cell migration. The cells within the HA-Ge microgel-reinforced composite hydrogel (MRCH) scaffold have an average motility speed of 0.24 ± 0.08 μm min(-1) . The recorded microscopic images reveal features that are presumably associated with lobopodial and lamellipodial cell migration modes within the MRCH scaffold. Average cell speed during lobopodial migration is greater than that during lamellipodial migration. The cells move faster in the MRCH than in the HA-Ge gel without microgels. These findings support the hypothesis that HA-Ge MRCH promotes cell adhesion and migration; thereby they constitute a promising biomaterial for vocal fold repair.

  15. Loose abrasive lapping hardness of optical glasses and its interpretation.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, J C; Xu, S; Fang, T

    1997-03-01

    We present an interpretation of the lapping hardness of commercially available optical glasses in terms of a micromechanics model of material removal by subsurface lateral cracking. We analyze data on loose abrasive microgrinding, or lapping at fixed nominal pressure, for many commercially available optical glasses in terms of this model. The Schott and Hoya data on lapping hardness are correlated with the results of such a model. Lapping hardness is a function of the mechanical properties of the glass: The volume removal rate increases approximately linearly with Young's modulus, and it decreases with fracture toughness and (approximately) the square of the Knoop hardness. The microroughness induced by lapping depends on the plastic and elastic properties of the glass, depending on abrasive shape. This is in contrast to deterministic microgrinding (fixed infeed rate), where it is determined from the plastic and fracture properties of the glass. We also show that Preston's coefficient has a similar dependence as lapping hardness on glass mechanical properties, as well as a linear dependence on abrasive size for the case of brittle material removal. These observations lead to the definition of an augmented Preston coefficient during brittle material removal. The augmented Preston coefficient does not depend on glass material properties or abrasive size and thus describes the interaction of the glass surface with the coolant-immersed abrasive grain and the backing plate. Numerical simulations of indentation are used to locate the origin of subsurface cracks and the distribution of residual surface and subsurface stresses, known to cause surface (radial) and subsurface (median, lateral) cracks.

  16. Composites containing albumin protein or cyanoacrylate adhesives and biodegradable scaffolds: II. In vivo wound closure study in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Soller, Eric C.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Hoffman, Grant T.; Edward, Deepak

    2004-07-01

    Our Scaffold-Enhanced Biological Adhesive (SEBA) system was investigated as an alternative to sutures or adhesives alone for repair of wounds. Two scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biologic material, small intestinal submucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. Two adhesive materials were also investigated: (i) a biologic adhesive composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser; and (ii) Ethicon"s Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength and time-to-failure of skin incisions repaired in vivo in a rat model were measured at seven days postoperative. Incisions closed by protein solder alone, by Dermabond alone, or by suture, were also tested for comparison. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the SEBA system were 50% to 65% stronger than repairs formed by suture or either adhesive alone, with significantly less variations within each experimental group (average standard deviations of 15% for SEBA versus 38% for suture and 28% for adhesive alone). In addition, the time-to-failure curves showed a longevity not previously seen with the suture or adhesive alone techniques. The SEBA system acts to keep the dermis in tight apposition during the critical early phase of wound healing when tissue gaps are bridged by scar and granulation tissue. It has the property of being more flexible than either of the adhesives alone and may allow the apposed edges to move in conjunction with each other as a unit for a longer period of time and over a greater range of stresses than adhesives alone. This permits more rapid healing and establishment of integrity since the microgaps between the dermis edges are significantly reduced. By the time the scaffolds are sloughed from the wound site, there is greater strength and healing than that produced by adhesive alone or

  17. Initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives with silane coupling agent to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation.

    PubMed

    Mamanee, Teerapong; Takahashi, Masahiro; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding silane coupling agent on initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation. Cervical cavities were prepared on extracted molars and filled with Clearfil AP-X. After water-storage for one-week, the filled teeth were sectioned in halves to expose enamel, dentin and composite surfaces and then enamel-dentin-composite surface was totally applied with one of adhesive treatments (Clearfil SE One, Clearfil SE One with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Beautibond Multi, Beautibond Multi with Beautibond Multi PR Plus and Scotchbond Universal). After designed period, micro-shear bond strengths (µSBSs) to each substrate were determined. For each period of water-storage, additive silane treatments significantly increased µSBS to composite (p<0.001). On the other hand, they significantly decreased µSBS to dentin (p<0.001), although did not have adverse effect on µSBS to enamel (p>0.05). Moreover, the stability of µSBS was depended on materials and substrates used.

  18. Seam-Tracking for Friction Stir Welded Lap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Paul A.; Hendricks, Christopher E.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, D. M.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Lammlein, David H.

    2010-11-01

    This article presents a method for automatic seam-tracking in friction stir welding (FSW) of lap joints. In this method, tracking is accomplished by weaving the FSW tool back-and-forth perpendicular to the direction of travel during welding and monitoring force and torque signals. Research demonstrates the ability of this method to automatically track weld seam positions. Additionally, tensile and S-bend test result comparisons demonstrate that weaving most likely does not reduce weld quality. Finally, benefits of this weave-based method to FSW of lap joints are discussed and methods for incorporating it into existing friction stir welding control algorithms (such as axial load control) are examined.

  19. Fatigue Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Joints. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    electron spectroscopy (AES) and/or XPS scans. The adhesive used is FM-73M, a 2500F-cure tape from American Cyanamid of Havre de Grace, MD. This...34PABST Technical Bulletin No. 1", March 28, 1975. 14. FM 73 Adhesive Film, Data Bulletin BPT 20B, Cyanamid Bloom- ingdale Aerospace Products, Havre de...Joints," J. Appl. Mech. 11, 1944 , A17-A27. 29. Hart-Smith, L. C., Adhesive-Bonded Single-Lap Joints, NASA, CR-11236, January 1973. 30. Quarterly Progress

  20. Effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement lining and composite layering technique on the adhesive interface of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO, Larissa Marinho; CASAS-APAYCO, Leslie Carol; VILLAVICENCIO ESPINOZA, Carlos Andres; WANG, Linda; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Interface integrity can be maintained by setting the composite in a layering technique and using liners. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) lining and composite layering technique on the bond strength of the dentin/resin adhesive interface of lateral walls of occlusal restorations. Material and Methods Occlusal cavities were prepared in 52 extracted sound human molars, randomly assigned into 4 groups: Group 2H (control) – no lining + two horizontal layers; Group 4O: no lining + four oblique layers; Group V-2H: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + two horizontal layers; and Group V-4O: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + four oblique layers. Resin composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was placed after application of an adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE) dyed with a fluorescent reagent (Rhodamine B) to allow confocal microscopy analysis. The teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours before being sectioned into 0.8 mm slices. One slice of each tooth was randomly selected for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The other slices were sectioned into 0.8 mm x 0.8 mm sticks to microtensile bond strength test (MPa). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Fisher’s test. Results There was no statistical difference on bond strength among groups (p>0.05). CLSM analysis showed no significant statistical difference regarding the presence of gap at the interface dentin/resin among groups. Conclusions RMGIC lining and composite layering techniques showed no effect on the microtensile bond strength and gap formation at the adhesive interface of lateral walls of high C-factor occlusal restorations. PMID:26221927

  1. Comparison of adhesive gut bacteria composition, immunity, and disease resistance in juvenile hybrid tilapia fed two different Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshu; Ren, Pengfei; He, Suxu; Xu, Li; Yang, Yaling; Gu, Zemao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the effects of two Lactobacillus strains, highly adhesive Lactobacillus brevis JCM 1170 (HALB) and less-adhesive Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM 1132 (LALB), on the survival and growth, adhesive gut bacterial communities, immunity, and protection against pathogenic bacterial infection in juvenile hybrid tilapia. During a 5-week feeding trial the fish were fed a diet containing 0 to 10(9) cells/g feed of the two Lactobacillus strains. Samples of intestine, kidney, and spleen were taken at the start and at 10, 20, and 35 days for analysis of stress tolerance and cytokine gene mRNA levels and to assess the diversity of adhesive gut bacterial communities. A 14-day immersion challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 was also performed following the feeding trial. The results showed no significant differences in survival rate, weight gain, or feed conversion in the different dietary treatments. The adhesive gut bacterial communities were strikingly altered in the fish fed either the HALB or the LALB, but the response was more rapid and substantial with the adhesive strain. The two strains induced similar changes in the patterns (upregulation or downregulation) of intestinal, splenic or kidney cytokine expression, but they differed in the degree of response for these genes. Changes in intestinal HSP70 expression levels coincided with changes in the similarity coefficient of the adhesive gut bacterial communities between the probiotic treatments. The highest dose of the HALB appeared to protect against the toxic effects of immersion in A. hydrophila (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the degree to which Lactobacillus strains adhere to the gut may be a favorable criterion in selecting probiotic strain for aquaculture.

  2. Covering of fiber-reinforced composite bars by adhesive materials, is it necessary to improve the bond strength of lingual retainers?

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Kerayechian, Navid; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Shafaee, Hooman; Heravi, Parya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers when bonding them to teeth with and without covering the FRC bars using two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Hundred and twenty extracted human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 15). FRC bars (4 mm length, Everstick Ortho®, Stick Tech, Oy, Turku, Finland) were bonded to the proximal (distal) surfaces of the teeth using two different adhesives (Tetric Flow [TF, Ivoclar Vivadent, Switzerland] and resin-modified glass ionomer cement [RMGIC, ODP, Vista, CA, USA]) with and without covering with the same adhesive. Specimens were exposed to thermocycling (625 cycles per day [5–55°C, intervals: 30 s] for 8 days). The SBS test was then performed using the universal testing machine (Zwick, GMBH, Ulm, Germany). After debonding, the remaining adhesive on the teeth was recorded by the adhesive remnant index (0–3). Results: The lowest mean SBS (standard deviation) was found in the TF group without covering with adhesive (12.6 [2.11] MPa), and the highest bond strength was in the TF group with covering with adhesive (16.01 [1.09] MPa). Overall, the uncovered RMGIC (15.65 [3.57] MPa) provided a higher SBS compared to the uncovered TF. Covering of FRC with TF led to a significant increase in SBS (P = 0.001), but this was not true for RMGIC (P = 0.807). Thermal cycling did not significantly change the SBS values (P = 0.537). Overall, eight groups were statistically different (ANOVA test, F = 3.32, P = 0.034), but no significant differences in bond failure locations were found between the groups (Fisher's exact tests, P = 0.92). Conclusions: The present findings showed no significant differences between SBS of FRC bars with and without covering by RMGIC. However, when using TF, there was a significant difference in SBS measurements between covering and noncovering groups. Therefore, the use of RMGIC without

  3. Catechol-Functionalized Synthetic Polymer as a Dental Adhesive to Contaminated Dentin Surface for a Composite Restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bae; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2015-08-10

    This study reports a synthetic polymer functionalized with catechol groups as dental adhesives. We hypothesize that a catechol-functionalized polymer functions as a dental adhesive for wet dentin surfaces, potentially eliminating the complications associated with saliva contamination. We prepared a random copolymer containing catechol and methoxyethyl groups in the side chains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the polymer to dentin surface in the presence of water and salivary components were determined. It was found that the new polymer combined with an Fe(3+) additive improved bond strength of a commercial dental adhesive to artificial saliva contaminated dentin surface as compared to a control sample without the polymer. Histological analysis of the bonding structures showed no leakage pattern, probably due to the formation of Fe-catechol complexes, which reinforce the bonding structures. Cytotoxicity test showed that the polymers did not inhibit human gingival fibroblast cells proliferation. Results from this study suggest a potential to reduce failure of dental restorations due to saliva contamination using catechol-functionalized polymers as dental adhesives.

  4. Catechol-Functionalized Synthetic Polymer as a Dental Adhesive to Contaminated Dentin Surface for a Composite Restoration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a synthetic polymer functionalized with catechol groups as dental adhesives. We hypothesize that a catechol-functionalized polymer functions as a dental adhesive for wet dentin surfaces, potentially eliminating the complications associated with saliva contamination. We prepared a random copolymer containing catechol and methoxyethyl groups in the side chains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the polymer to dentin surface in the presence of water and salivary components were determined. It was found that the new polymer combined with an Fe3+ additive improved bond strength of a commercial dental adhesive to artificial saliva contaminated dentin surface as compared to a control sample without the polymer. Histological analysis of the bonding structures showed no leakage pattern, probably due to the formation of Fe–catechol complexes, which reinforce the bonding structures. Cytotoxicity test showed that the polymers did not inhibit human gingival fibroblast cells proliferation. Results from this study suggest a potential to reduce failure of dental restorations due to saliva contamination using catechol-functionalized polymers as dental adhesives. PMID:26176305

  5. 15 CFR 285.4 - Establishment of laboratory accreditation programs (LAPs) within NVLAP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.4 Establishment of laboratory accreditation programs (LAPs) within NVLAP. NVLAP establishes LAPs in response to... accreditation programs (LAPs) within NVLAP. 285.4 Section 285.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  6. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section D--Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains six learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "suspension" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The six LAPs cover the following topics: wheel bearings, tires and wheels, wheel balancing, suspension system, steering system, and wheel alignment. Each LAP contains a…

  7. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains five learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "engine" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The five LAPs cover the following topics: basic engine principles, cooling system, engine lubrication system, exhaust system, and fuel system. Each LAP contains a cover sheet…

  8. Adhesion of Polymer Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John J.; Bates, Frank S.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Silas, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The adhesion and bending modulus of polybutadiene-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer vesicles made from a bidisperse mixture of polymers is measured using micropipette aspiration. The adhesion energy between biotinylated vesicles and avidin beads is modeled by incorporating the extension of the adhesive ligands above the surface brush of the vesicle according to the blob model of bidisperse polymer mixtures of Komura and Safran assuming the polymer brush at the surface of the vesicle is compact. The same model accurately reproduces the scaling of the bending modulus with polymer composition.

  9. Effect of primer composition on cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability of three layer polyethylene coated steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuri, S.; Takao, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1998-12-31

    The cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability of three layer polyethylene coated steel pipe were studied from the viewpoint of water permeability and the water uptake of dicyandiamide-imidazole cured epoxy primer. The reaction between the epoxy resin and dicyandiamide generates hydroxyl groups. Therefore, as the content of dicyandiamide increased, the water uptake of the primer increased and the water diffusion rate of the primer decreased because of the strong interaction between hydroxyl reaction product and water molecules. Excellent cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability were observed when the primer had the lowest water permeability which was expressed as the product of the water uptake and water diffusion rate. On the other hand, the addition of a corrosion protective pigment to the primer improved cathodic disbonding resistance and adhesion durability when the primer had high water uptake, which secured the sufficient solubility of the pigment. Polyethylene coated steel pipes are often used as pipelines for oil and natural gas.

  10. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (p<0.05). Comparison between each sealer in different experimental times did not reveal any differences. The main failure type was adhesive at dentin/cement interface (89.4%). The time elapsed between the root canal filling and post cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin.

  11. Intrauterine Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesion formation are infections of the uterine lining (endometritis), removal of fibroids in the cavity of the ... to prevent adhesions from reforming. Hormonal treatment with estrogen and NSAIDs are frequently prescribed after surgery to ...

  12. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  13. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  14. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  15. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  16. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  17. The effect of cores and coating dispersion composition on the mechanical and adhesion properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films.

    PubMed

    Banovec, M; Planinsek, O; Vrecer, F

    2014-08-01

    The influence of different additives on the mechanical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) free films was studied using tensile testing. Free films were prepared using the cast method and sliced into bands, and their tensile strength and maximal elongation at break was measured. The results showed that the addition of PEG 400 and polysorbate 80 into the coating formulation had the most influence on the films' mechanical properties compared to the HPMC film used as a control. Tablet cores composed of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose with and without Mg stearate and compressed at three different compression forces were tested for wettability with coating formulations containing PEG 400 and polysorbate 80. For formulations with no Mg stearate added, the contact angle decreased with increasing core hardness and it also coincided with greater adhesion force of the coating. The addition of Mg stearate in the core led to reduced adhesion of the film coating with PEG 400, whereas the influence on the adhesion force of the film coating containing polysorbate 80 was negligible. The results also show that the adhesion force, regardless of the tablet core formulation, is highest at medium core hardness.

  18. A Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints Including Geometric Nonlinearity, Nonlinear Viscoelasticity, Moisture Diffusion, and Delayed Failure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    code. List no more than two levels of an organizacional hierarchy. Display the name of the orgaaization exactly as it should appear in Government in...Performing Organizacion Name and Address 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Center forAdhesion Science

  19. Dynamic deformation measurement and analysis of active stressed lap using optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Liu, Yuankun; Xiang, Liqun

    2007-12-01

    The active stressed lap is the heart of polishing process. A novel non-contact optical method of dynamic deformation measurement and analysis of an active stressed lap is put forward. This method, based on structured illumination, is able to record full-field information of the bending and rotating stressed lap dynamically and continuously, while its profile is changed under computer control, and restore the whole process of lap deformation varied with time at different position and rotating angle. It has been verified by experiments that this proposed method will be helpful to the opticians to ensure the stressed lap as expected.

  20. Heparin dopant increases the electrical stability, cell adhesion, and growth of conducting polypyrrole/poly(L,L-lactide) composites.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shiyun; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Shi, Guixin; Zhang, Ze

    2008-11-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising conductive polymer for tissue engineering and bioelectrical applications. However, its electrical conductivity deteriorates easily in aqueous conditions. Cell adhesion to PPy is also relatively poor. The goal of this study was to simultaneously improve the electrical stability of and cell adhesion to PPy by using heparin (HE) as dopant, for HE is both a polyanion and an important glycosaminoglycan in cell membranes and extracellular matrix. PPy particles doped with HE were synthesized through emulsion polymerization using Fenton's reagent as an oxidant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the PPy particles. Conductive biodegradable membranes of 10(2) to 10(3) Omega/square were prepared from 5% (w) PPy with various amounts of HE and 95% (w) poly(L,L-lactide) (PPy/PLLA). Azure A staining was employed to quantify the HE exposed on the surface of the PPy particles and PPy/PLLA membranes. The distribution of HE on membranes was demonstrated by DAPI staining. Results showed that HE was incorporated into the PPy particles as counterions and presented on particle surface. A unique "filament"-like morphology of the PPy preparation was observed at high-HE content. The electrical stability of the PPy/PLLA membranes was tested in saline at 37 degrees C for 500 h. Human skin fibroblasts were used to test the cell adhesion capacity. The conductive membranes containing HE-doped PPy particles recorded significantly increased electrical stability, cell adhesion, and growth. The electrically more stable and cell adhesive conductive biodegradable membrane may act as a platform for various biomedical applications.

  1. Adhesive evaluation of thin films of LARC-TPI and LARC-TPI with 5 mol % ODA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A commercially available LARC-TPI film and an experimentally prepared film of LARC-TPI with 5 mol % of 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), designated as LARC-TPI/ODA in the report, supplied by Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated (MTCI), Japan, were evaluated as thermoplastic adhesive films for bonding Ti-6Al-4V. The LARC-TPI/ODA had been shown by MTCI to possess more flow than thermoplastic LARC-TPI and was, therefore, evaluated and compared to the LARC-TPI. Lap shear strength was used to evaluate the materials as adhesives. They were characterized after fracture by determining the glass transition temperature, Tg. The mode of failure was also reported. Thermal exposure at 204C for 500 and 1000 hrs and a 72-hour water-boil were conducted on lap shear specimens prepared with the two adhesive films. Lap shear tests were conducted at RT, 177C, 204C, and 232C before and after exposures.

  2. Improvement of interfacial adhesion and nondestructive damage evaluation for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers/epoxy composites using micromechanical techniques and surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ryong

    2003-08-15

    Comparison of interfacial properties and microfailure mechanisms of oxygen-plasma treated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO, Zylon) and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) fibers/epoxy composites were investigated using a micromechanical technique and nondestructive acoustic emission (AE). The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and work of adhesion, Wa, of PBO or Kevlar fiber/epoxy composites increased with oxygen-plasma treatment, due to induced hydrogen and covalent bondings at their interface. Plasma-treated Kevlar fiber showed the maximum critical surface tension and polar term, whereas the untreated PBO fiber showed the minimum values. The work of adhesion and the polar term were proportional to the IFSS directly for both PBO and Kevlar fibers. The microfibril fracture pattern of two plasma-treated fibers appeared obviously. Unlike in slow cooling, in rapid cooling, case kink band and kicking in PBO fiber appeared, whereas buckling in the Kevlar fiber was observed mainly due to compressive and residual stresses. Based on the propagation of microfibril failure toward the core region, the number of AE events for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers increased significantly compared to the untreated case. The results of nondestructive AE were consistent with microfailure modes.

  3. Evaluation of adhesive materials used on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, H. W.; Keough, B. K.; Pippin, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    The adhesive and adhesive-like materials flown on LDEF included epoxies and silicones (including lap shear specimens), conformal coatings, potting compounds, and several tapes and transfer films. With the exception of the lap shear specimens, these materials were used in the fabrication and assembly of the experiments such as bonding thermal control surfaces to other hardware and holding individual specimens in place, similar to applications on other spacecraft. Typically, the adhesives were not exposed to solar radiation or atomic oxygen. Only one adhesive system was used in a structural application. This report documents all results of the Materials and Systems SIG investigation into the effect of long term low Earth orbit (LEO) exposure of these materials. Results of this investigation show that if the material was shielded from exposure to LDEF's external environment, the 69 month exposure to LEO had, in most cases, minimal effect on the material.

  4. Surface characterization in composite and titanium bonding: Carbon fiber surface treatments for improved adhesion to thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of anodization in NaOH, H2SO4, and amine salts on the surface chemistry of carbon fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surfaces of carbon fibers after anodization in NaOH and H2SO4 were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), angular dependent XPS, UV absorption spectroscopy of the anodization bath, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and polar/dispersive surface energy analysis. Hercules AS-4, Dexter Hysol XAS, and Union Carbide T-300 fibers were examined by STEM, angular dependent XPS, and breaking strength measurement before and after commercial surface treatment. Oxygen and nitrogen were added to the fiber surfaces by anodization in amine salts. Analysis of the plasmon peak in the carbon 1s signal indicated that H2SO4 anodization affected the morphological structure of the carbon fiber surface. The work of adhesion of carbon fibers to thermoplastic resins was calculated using the geometric mean relationship. A correlation was observed between the dispersive component of the work of adhesion and the interfacial adhesion.

  5. Evaluation of high temperature structural adhesives for extended service. [supersonic cruise aircraft research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different Ti-6Al-4V surface treatments were investigated for each of 10 candidate resins. Primers (two for each resin) were studied for appropriate cure and thickness and initial evaluation of bond joints began using various combinations of the adhesive resins and surface treatments. Surface failure areas of bonded titanium coupons were analyzed by electron microscopy and surface chemical analysis techniques. Results of surface characterization and failure analysis are described for lap shear bond joints occurring with adhesive systems consisting of: (1) LARC-13 adhesive, Pasa jell surface treatment; (2) LARC-13 adhesive, 10 volt CAA treatment; (3) PPQ adhesive, 10 volt CAA treatment; and (4) PPQ adhesive, 5 volt CAA treatment. The failure analysis concentrated on the 10,000 hr 505K (450 F) exposed specimens which exhibited adhesive failure. Environmental exposure data being generated on the PPQ-10 volt CAA and the LARC-TPI-10 volt CAA adhesive systems is included.

  6. FRICTION-STIR-LAP-WELDS OF AA6111 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect

    Yadava, Manasij; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2007-01-09

    Lap joints of 1 mm thick AA6111 aluminum sheets were made by friction stir welding, using robotic and conventional machines. Welds were made for advancing as well as retreating side loading. Thinning in welds was quantified. Lap shear test of welds was conducted in as-welded and paint-baked conditions. Conventional machine welds showed less thinning and better strength than robotic machine welds. Process forces in conventional machine welding were higher. Paint bake treatment improved the weld strength; but the improvement varied with process parameters. Advancing side loaded welds achieved higher strength than the retreating side loaded welds. Fracture location was found to occur on the loaded side of the weld and along the thinning defect.

  7. Low-temperature curing of a nitrile-epoxy adhesive. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1981-04-01

    Adhesive strength and glass transition temperature were correlated with cure times at 85/sup 0/C and above. The effect of moisture on adhesive cure and strength was tested. With a 3-hour cure at 85/sup 0/C, lap shear strength met specification requirements. The adhesive was found to absorb moisture with time, especially if one or both polyethylene covers are removed. Placing the adhesive in a desiccator for 30 minutes produced excellent room temperature shear strengths. Preconditioning (removal of moisture) is critical for elevated temperature cures.

  8. Qualification of room-temperature-curing structural adhesives for use on JPL spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Alain; O'Donnell, Tim

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the comparative advantages of numerous room temperature-cure structural primers and adhesives applicable to spacecraft structures. The EA 9394 adhesive and BR 127 primer were chosen for use in all primary structure bonding on the Galileo spacecraft, in virtue of adequate room-temperature lap shear and peel strengths and superior mechanical properties above 200 F. EA 9394 also offers superior work life, shelf-life, and storage properties, by comparison with the EA 934 alternative.

  9. Chronic Mammalian Toxicological Effects of LAP (Load, Assemble, and Pack).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    samples were extracted and cleaned up according to official AOAC methods .- The extracts were analyzed for chlorinated organic *; pesticides using glass...Weight Variation From Control Males . . .... 54 4. Percent Body Weight Variation From Control Females .. ...... 55 . 6 *%1% 6? LIST OF TABLES 1. Pesticides...corn oil with acetone added and removed in the same manner as for the LAP samples. Stability studies using this method showed that diets mixed once every

  10. Residual Strength Analyses of Riveted Lap-Splice Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyze the crack-linkup behavior in riveted-stiffened lap-splice joint panels with small multiple-site damage (MSD) cracks at several adjacent rivet holes. Analyses are based on the STAGS (STructural Analysis of General Shells) code with the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. To account for high constraint around a crack front, the "plane strain core" option in STAGS was used. The importance of modeling rivet flexibility with fastener elements that accurately model load transfer across the joint is discussed. Fastener holes are not modeled but rivet connectivity is accounted for by attaching rivets to the sheet on one side of the cracks that simulated both the rivet diameter and MSD cracks. Residual strength analyses made on 2024-T3 alloy (1.6-mm thick) riveted-lap-splice joints with a lead crack and various size MSD cracks were compared with test data from Boeing Airplane Company. Analyses were conducted for both restrained and unrestrained buckling conditions. Comparison of results from these analyses and results from lap-splice-joint test panels, which were partially restrained against buckling indicate that the test results were bounded by the failure loads predicted by the analyses with restrained and unrestrained conditions.

  11. Investigation into Interface Lifting Within FSW Lap Welds

    SciTech Connect

    K. S. Miller; C. R. Tolle; D. E. Clark; C. I. Nichol; T. R. McJunkin; H. B. Smartt

    2008-06-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is rapidly penetrating the welding market in many materials and applications, particularly in aluminum alloys for transportation applications. As this expansion outside the research laboratory continues, fitness for service issues will arise, and process control and NDE methods will become important determinants of continued growth. The present paper describes research into FSW weld nugget flaw detection within aluminum alloy lap welds. We present results for two types of FSW tool designs: a smooth pin tool and a threaded pin tool. We show that under certain process parameters (as monitored during welding with a rotating dynamometer that measures x, y, z, and torque forces) and tooling designs, FSW lap welds allow significant nonbonded interface lifting of the lap joint, while forming a metallurgical bond only within the pin region of the weld nugget. These lifted joints are often held very tightly together even though unbonded, and might be expected to pass cursory NDE while representing a substantial compromise in joint mechanical properties. The phenomenon is investigated here via radiographic and ultrasonic NDE techniques, with a copper foil marking insert (as described elsewhere) and by the tensile testing of joints. As one would expect, these results show that tool design and process parameters significantly affect plactic flow and this lifted interface. NDE and mechanical strength ramifications of this defect are discussed.

  12. Two-component spin-coated Ag/CNT composite films based on a silver heterogeneous nucleation mechanism adhesion-enhanced by mechanical interlocking and chemical grafting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Zhixin; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-03-10

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of silver carbon nanotube (Ag/CNT) composite films as conductive connection units for flexible electronic devices is presented. This method is about a two-component solution process by spin coating with an after-treatment annealing process. In this method, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as the core of silver heterogeneous nucleation, which can be observed and analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope. With the effects of mechanical interlocking, chemical grafting, and annealing, the interfacial adhesive strength between films and PET sheets was enhanced to 12 N cm(-1). The tensile strength of the Ag/CNT composite films was observed to increase by 38% by adding 5 g l(-1) MWCNTs. In the four-probe method, the resistivity of Ag/CNT-5 declined by 78.2% compared with pristine Ag films. The anti-fatigue performance of the Ag/CNT composite films was monitored by cyclic bending deformation and the results revealed that the growth rate of electrical resistance during the deformation was obviously retarded. As for industrial application, this method provides an efficient low-cost way to prepare Ag/CNT composite films and can be further applied to other coating systems.

  13. Two-component spin-coated Ag/CNT composite films based on a silver heterogeneous nucleation mechanism adhesion-enhanced by mechanical interlocking and chemical grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Zhixin; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of silver carbon nanotube (Ag/CNT) composite films as conductive connection units for flexible electronic devices is presented. This method is about a two-component solution process by spin coating with an after-treatment annealing process. In this method, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as the core of silver heterogeneous nucleation, which can be observed and analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope. With the effects of mechanical interlocking, chemical grafting, and annealing, the interfacial adhesive strength between films and PET sheets was enhanced to 12 N cm‑1. The tensile strength of the Ag/CNT composite films was observed to increase by 38% by adding 5 g l‑1 MWCNTs. In the four-probe method, the resistivity of Ag/CNT-5 declined by 78.2% compared with pristine Ag films. The anti-fatigue performance of the Ag/CNT composite films was monitored by cyclic bending deformation and the results revealed that the growth rate of electrical resistance during the deformation was obviously retarded. As for industrial application, this method provides an efficient low-cost way to prepare Ag/CNT composite films and can be further applied to other coating systems.

  14. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOEpatents

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  15. Traditional Glue, Adhesive and Poison Used for Composite Weapons by Ju/’hoan San in Nyae Nyae, Namibia. Implications for the Evolution of Hunting Equipment in Prehistory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ju/’hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/’hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/’hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone Age sites of

  16. Traditional Glue, Adhesive and Poison Used for Composite Weapons by Ju/'hoan San in Nyae Nyae, Namibia. Implications for the Evolution of Hunting Equipment in Prehistory.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Trower, Gary; Backwell, Lucinda; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Ju/'hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/'hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/'hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone Age sites of Diepkloof

  17. Assembly of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli requires the essential LapB heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gracjana; Kobylak, Natalia; Lindner, Buko; Stupak, Anna; Raina, Satish

    2014-05-23

    Here, we describe two new heat shock proteins involved in the assembly of LPS in Escherichia coli, LapA and LapB (lipopolysaccharide assembly protein A and B). lapB mutants were identified based on an increased envelope stress response. Envelope stress-responsive pathways control key steps in LPS biogenesis and respond to defects in the LPS assembly. Accordingly, the LPS content in ΔlapB or Δ(lapA lapB) mutants was elevated, with an enrichment of LPS derivatives with truncations in the core region, some of which were pentaacylated and exhibited carbon chain polymorphism. Further, the levels of LpxC, the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of lipid A synthesis, were highly elevated in the Δ(lapA lapB) mutant. Δ(lapA lapB) mutant accumulated extragenic suppressors that mapped either to lpxC, waaC, and gmhA, or to the waaQ operon (LPS biosynthesis) and lpp (Braun's lipoprotein). Increased synthesis of either FabZ (3-R-hydroxymyristoyl acyl carrier protein dehydratase), slrA (novel RpoE-regulated non-coding sRNA), lipoprotein YceK, toxin HicA, or MurA (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase) suppressed some of the Δ(lapA lapB) defects. LapB contains six tetratricopeptide repeats and, at the C-terminal end, a rubredoxin-like domain that was found to be essential for its activity. In pull-down experiments, LapA and LapB co-purified with LPS, Lpt proteins, FtsH (protease), DnaK, and DnaJ (chaperones). A specific interaction was also observed between WaaC and LapB. Our data suggest that LapB coordinates assembly of proteins involved in LPS synthesis at the plasma membrane and regulates turnover of LpxC, thereby ensuring balanced biosynthesis of LPS and phospholipids consistent with its essentiality.

  18. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  19. Preparation and properties of silane-endcapped polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Silane-endcapped polyimide high temperature adhesive formulations were prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acid), obtained from benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and a diamine (3,3'-, 3,4'- or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 3,3', 3,4'- or 4,4'-diaminobenzophenone) with varying amounts of gama-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in dimethylacetamide. Resin properties were evaluated by torsional braid analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Lap shear strengths of some of the adhesive bonds were determined at room temperature and at 177 C before and after ageing at 200 C for 2500 h and after boiling in water for 72 h.

  20. Micromorphology and bond strength evaluation of adhesive interface of a self-adhering flowable composite resin-dentin: Effect of surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Saadat, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin surface treatment on the micromorphology and shear bond strength (SBS) of a self-adhering flowable composite, Vertis Flow (VF). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from sixty extracted human molars were divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the following surface treatments: (G1) control, no treatment; (G2) self-etching adhesive, Optibond All-in-One; (G3) phosphoric acid etching for 15 s; (G4) polyacrylic acid for 10 s; (G5) EDTA for 60 s; and G6) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 15 s. After restoration using VF, SBS was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test (α = 0.05). Six additional specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. SBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (P < 0.001). SBS of six groups from the highest to the lowest were as follows: (G3) 13.5(A); (G5) 8.98(AB); (G2) 8.85(AB); (G4) 8.21(AB); (G1) 7.53(BC); and (G6) 4.49(C) (groups with the same superscript letter were statistically similar). Morphological analysis revealed numerous long resin tags at the adhesive interface for acid-etched group, with a few short resin tags for the control group and small gap formation for NaOCl-treated group. In conclusion, dentin surface treatments tested differently affected bonding performance of VF; only acid-etching effectively improved this.

  1. Crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucine aminopeptidase, from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Natarajan, Sampath; Park, Hanseul; Huynh, Kim-Hung; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Aminopeptidases are metalloproteinases that degrade N-terminal residues from protein and play important roles in cell growth and development by controlling cell homeostasis and protein maturation. We determined the crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucyl aminopeptidase, at 2.6 Å resolution from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing the destructive rice disease of bacterial blight. It is the first crystal structure of aminopeptidase from phytopathogens as a drug target. XoLAP existed as a hexamer and the monomer structure consisted of an N-terminal cap domain and a C-terminal peptidase domain with two divalent zinc ions. XoLAP structure was compared with BlLAP and EcLAP (EcPepA) structures. Based on the structural comparison, the molecular model of XoLAP in complex with the natural aminopeptidase inhibitor of microginin FR1 was proposed. The model structure will be useful to develop a novel antibacterial drug against Xoo.

  2. Apparatus and method for lapping an edge surface of an object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Vito N. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for lapping an edge surface of an object comprises a block having a side adapted to engage a wide surface of an object, adjustable spacers disposed on the block and adapted to engage a lap plate, and a weighted spring disposed on the block for urging the spacers and the object edge surface towards the lap plate. A method for lapping comprises setting surfaces of adjustable spacers disposed on a block to be substantially the same distance from the block, affixing a wide surface of an object to the block, urging an edge surface of the object and the spacers towards a lap plate, lapping the edge of the object, inspecting the edge for parallelism to a reference line, resetting the spacers and relapping the edge surface.

  3. Acceptance Criteria for Aerospace Structural Adhesives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ADHESIVES, *AIRFRAMES, PRIMERS, STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION , DATA ACQUISITION , PARTICLE SIZE, ACCEPTANCE TESTS, ELASTOMERS, BONDING, QUALITY CONTROL, .

  4. Carbon/Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Composites from Green Pellets Contain CNTs and Self-adhesive Carbon Grains from Fibres of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraman, Mohamad; Saad, Siti Khatijah Md.; Ishak, Maria M.; Awitdrus, Taer, Erman; Talib, Ibrahim; Omar, Ramli; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj.

    2010-10-01

    Nano composites green pellets (GPs) were prepared from the mixtures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at varying percentage (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunch. These GPs were carbonized and CO2 activated to produce activated carbon/CNTs composites in the form of pellets (ACPs). It was found that the density (ρ) and electrical conductivity (σ) of the ACPs varied nonlinearly with CNTs content; as for the CNTs content of 3-5%, we observed the peak values of ρ and σ at 1.3781 gcm-3 and 3.4146 (Ωcm)-1 respectively. The presence of the agglomerated and individual particles of CNTs in the pores of the ACPs was clearly shown by the micrograph of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The nitrogen adsorption isotherm data showed the decrease in surface area, volume and diameter of pores due to the effect of CNTs. The effect of CNTs on the electrochemical behavior of the ACPs were investigated from the supercapacitor cells fabricated using the ACPs as composite electrodes. It was found that the specific capacitance, energy density and power density of the supercapacitor with electrodes containing 10% CNTs were lower than that with electrodes without CNTs. This result is consistent with the change of pores characteristic due to the presence of CNTs in the ACPs, suggesting the need to optimize the pore characteristic for improving the supercapacitor performance.

  5. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  6. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Javadi, Fatemeh; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad) and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding). Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa). The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa). The statistical difference between this two groups was significant (P value = 0/0038). The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = 16/427 ± 1/79) and without laser preparation (mean = 12/85 ± 1/90) were statistically significant too (P value = 0/01). Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength. PMID:27493829

  7. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Fotouhi Ardakani, Faezeh; Javadi, Fatemeh; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad) and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding). Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa). The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa). The statistical difference between this two groups was significant (P value = 0/0038). The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = 16/427 ± 1/79) and without laser preparation (mean = 12/85 ± 1/90) were statistically significant too (P value = 0/01). Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength.

  8. The application of thermodynamic and spectroscopic techniques to adhesion in the polyimide/Ti 6-4 and polyphenylquinoxaline/Ti 6-4 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The results of calorimetric measurements of Ti adherend surfaces are presented. The measurements were carried out after several chemical pretreatments and after fracture of several lap shear samples aged at high temperature. The exact composition of the Ti samples was Ti(6 percent Al-4 percent V). The adhesives used were polyimides and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ). Each chemical pretreatment was accompanied by a unique spectroscopic feature which was characterized by XPS, SEM, and specular reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The energetics of the interaction between primer solutions and the Ti adherend were evaluated by microcalorimetry. Changes in the structure of the surface oxide layer upon heating of the adherend were deduced from immersion temperatures of the PI and PPQ solutions. The XPS and SEM data are given is a table.

  9. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  10. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts.

    PubMed

    Torres, J R; Jay, G D; Kim, K-S; Bothun, G D

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  11. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  12. Verification of surface preparation for adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Rodney S.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of solid rocket booster (SRB) production operations identified potential contaminants which might adversely affect bonding operations. Lap shear tests quantified these contaminants' effects on adhesive strength. The most potent contaminants were selected for additional studies on SRB thermal protection system (TPS) bonding processes. Test panels were prepared with predetermined levels of contamination, visually inspected using white and black light, then bonded with three different TPS materials over the unremoved contamination. Bond test data showed that white and black light inspections are adequate inspection methods for TPS bonding operations. Extreme levels of contamination (higher than expected on flight hardware) had an insignificant effect on TPS bond strengths because of the apparent insensitivity of the adhesive system to contamination effects, and the comparatively weak cohesive strength of the TPS materials.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Fatigue Behavior of Ultrasonic Weld-Bonded Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Magnesium and Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Jen

    The mechanical behaviors of LiFePO4 battery cell and module specimens under in-plane constrained compression were investigated for simulations of battery cells, modules and packs under crush conditions. The experimental stress-strain curves were correlated to the deformation patterns of battery cell and module specimens. Analytical solutions were developed to estimate the buckling stresses and to provide a theoretical basis for future design of representative volume element cell and module specimens. A physical kinematics model for formation of kinks and shear bands in battery cells was developed to explain the deformation mechanism for layered battery cells under in-plane constrained compression. A small-scale module constrained punch indentation test was also conducted to benchmark the computational results. The computational results indicate that macro homogenized material models can be used to simulate battery modules under crush conditions. Fatigue behavior and failure modes of ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium and steel sheets with and without adhesive were investigated. For ultrasonic spot welded lap-shear specimens, the failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under low-cycle loading conditions to the kinked crack failure mode under high-cycle loading conditions. For adhesive-bonded and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens, the test results show the near interface cohesive failure mode and the kinked crack failure mode under low-cycle and high-cycle loading conditions, respectively. Next, the analytical effective stress intensity factor solutions for main cracks in lap-shear specimens of three dissimilar sheets under plane strain conditions were developed and the solutions agreed well with the computational results. The analytical effective stress intensity factor solutions for kinked cracks were compared with the computational results at small kink lengths. The results indicate that the computational results approach to

  14. System integration and demonstration of adhesive bonded high temperature aluminum alloys for aerospace structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Laakso, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive bonding materials and processes were evaluated for assembly of future high-temperature aluminum alloy structural components such as may be used in high-speed civil transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. A number of candidate high-temperature adhesives were selected and screening tests were conducted using single lap shear specimens. The selected adhesives were then used to bond sandwich (titanium core) test specimens, adhesive toughness test specimens, and isothermally aged lap shear specimens. Moderate-to-high lap shear strengths were obtained from bonded high-temperature aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced (SiC(sub p)) aluminum specimens. Shear strengths typically exceeded 3500 to 4000 lb/in(sup 2) and flatwise tensile strengths exceeded 750 lb/in(sup 2) even at elevated temperatures (300 F) using a bismaleimide adhesive. All faceskin-to-core bonds displayed excellent tear strength. The existing production phosphoric acid anodize surface preparation process developed at Boeing was used, and gave good performance with all of the aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum alloys investigated. The results of this program support using bonded assemblies of high-temperature aluminum components in applications where bonding is often used (e.g., secondary structures and tear stoppers).

  15. Micro topography of different material surface by solid abrasive lapped at high speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chunlin; Yang, Jiandong; Fan, Jingfeng; Zhou, Huawen

    2007-12-01

    The principle of solid abrasives lapping is that the abrasives are fixed and made into a special lapping tool; the workpiece is lapped in high speed lapping machine tool. It possesses many advantages compared with traditional low speed lapping with particulate abrasives, e.g. high machining efficiency, low machining cost, high and stable machining accuracy. So the highly efficient lapping method has been paid close attention to. This paper made a study on surface micro topography of different material by solid abrasive lapped at high speed. In experiments the lapping technique parameter is fixed, and different workpiece which are made by T10 steel, carbide, ceramic glass and alumina ceramics are lapped. The surface micro topography is measured by SEM, from the measuring result, it can be known that there is some shallow scribe on the surface of T10 steel, and the obvious plastic deformation can be observed. The SEM pictures show that there is some scribe on the surface of ceramics glass after lapped, with more magnification times many micro cracking and some plastic hump can be observed on the scribe. These scribes and humps are first cause of depressing surface quality, and these micro cracking can result in a lot of diffuse reflection on workpiece surface, it decreases the glossiness of mirror surface. On the surface of alumina ceramics there are a lot of defects, the size of such defect is more than the scribe of abrasive, it can be sure that the defect is not produced by lapping, so the material quality is an important effect fact to surface macro topography. On the surface of carbide there are a little of scribe and air cavity, and the scribe is very shallow; the defect of powder metallurgy martial is the primary reason.

  16. Mixed-mode fatigue fracture of adhesive joints in harsh environments and nonlinear viscoelastic modeling of the adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanidis, Alexis Gerasimos

    A four point bend, mixed-mode, reinforced, cracked lap shear specimen experimentally simulated adhesive joints between load bearing composite parts in automotive components. The experiments accounted for fatigue, solvent and temperature effects on a swirled glass fiber composite adherend/urethane adhesive system. Crack length measurements based on compliance facilitated determination of da/dN curves. A digital image processing technique was also utilized to monitor crack growth from in situ images of the side of the specimen. Linear elastic fracture mechanics and finite elements were used to determine energy release rate and mode-mix as a function of crack length for this specimen. Experiments were conducted in air and in a salt water bath at 10, 26 and 90°C. Joints tested in the solvent were fully saturated. In air, both increasing and decreasing temperature relative to 26°C accelerated crack growth rates. In salt water, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature. Threshold energy release rate is shown to be the most appropriate design criteria for joints of this system. In addition, path of the crack is discussed and fracture surfaces are examined on three length scales. Three linear viscoelastic properties were measured for the neat urethane adhesive. Dynamic tensile compliance (D*) was found using a novel extensometer and results were considerably more accurate and precise than standard DMTA testing. Dynamic shear compliance (J*) was determined using an Arcan specimen. Dynamic Poisson's ratio (nu*) was extracted from strain gage data analyzed to include gage reinforcement. Experiments spanned three frequency decades and isothermal data was shifted by time-temperature superposition to create master curves spanning thirty decades. Master curves were fit to time domain Prony series. Shear compliance inferred from D* and nu* compared well with measured J*, forming a basis for finding the complete time dependent material property matrix for this

  17. Environmental Durability Testing of Structural Adhesives. Part I. AF- 143-2/EC-3917; PL-729-3/PL-728

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    ten analytical wipes with methanol . The last three specimens contained two faces as a result of the lap shear test. One face was yellow (adhesive...8217I;. I I. .. .... . 1.;; 11 !1;: V3M: !M M: H .. .... 11 ... M; 7. -11 Ili: N it -if N .. ....l! itK it :1,:: nrM .. .... ... .. ::ij .. -I is

  18. LAP (NF-IL-6), a tissue-specific transcriptional activator, is an inhibitor of hepatoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, M; Turler, H; Chojkier, M

    1994-01-01

    During postnatal liver development, LAP (NF-IL-6, C/EBP beta) expression and hepatocyte proliferation are mutually exclusive. In addition to transactivating liver-specific genes, LAP, but not C/EBP alpha, arrests the cell cycle before the G1/S boundary in hepatoma cells. LIP, a liver-inhibitory protein, which is translated from LAP mRNA lacking the activation domain of LAP, is not only ineffective in blocking hepatoma cell proliferation but also antagonizes the effect of LAP on the cell cycle. Deletion analysis indicated that this effect of LIP required only the DNA-binding and leucine zipper domains. In addition we found that integrity of the LAP dimerization and activation domains is indispensable for the arrest of cell proliferation induced by LAP. Thus, hepatocyte differentiation and its characteristic quiescent state may be modulated by the LAP/LIP ratio. Images PMID:7906646

  19. Analysis of the ’Joggle-Lap’ Joint for Automotive Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    An analytical model is developed to describe the response of the ’ joggle -lap’ joint to both tensile and bending loads. The model consists of a non...8217 joggle -lap’ joint due to tensile loads was verified through experimental testing and ultimate loads were accurately predicted within experimental error

  20. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section B--Basic and Related Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains eight learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "basic and related technology" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The eight LAPs cover the following topics: basic mathematics, blueprints, rules, micrometer measuring tools, Vernier measuring tools, dial indicators, gaging and inspection tools, and…

  1. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo

    2015-08-05

    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate.

  2. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection of Inconel 625 brazed lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comot, Pierre; Bocher, Philippe; Belanger, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The aerospace industry has been investigating the use of brazing for structural joints, as a mean of reducing cost and weight. There therefore is a need for a rapid, robust, and cost-effective non-destructive testing method for evaluating the structural integrity of the joints. The mechanical strength of brazed joints depends mainly on the amount of brittle phases in their microstructure. Ultrasonic guided waves offer the possibility of detecting brittle phases in joints using spatio-temporal measurements. Moreover, they offer the opportunity to inspect complex shape joints. This study focused on the development of a technique based on ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of Inconel 625 lap joints brazed with BNi-2 filler metal. A finite element model of a lap joint was used to optimize the inspection parameters and assess the feasibility of detecting the amount of brittle phases in the joint. A finite element parametric study simulating the input signal shape, the center frequency, and the excitation direction was performed. The simulations showed that the ultrasonic guided wave energy transmitted through, and reflected from, the joints was proportional to the amount of brittle phases in the joint.

  3. Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian

    2014-05-05

    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.

  4. Multicrack growth monitoring at riveted lap joints using piezoelectric patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2002-06-01

    A built-in cost-effective diagnostic system is being developed to monitor fatigue crack growth in aircraft structures. The proposed system consists of a SMART Layer by Acellent Technologies with an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric sensors/actuators, a diagnostic unit, and software. Multi-riveted aluminum lap joints (936 x 462 mm) were tested for a constant amplitude fatigue test under tensile loading to monitor crack growth at rivet holes. A SMART Layer was designed as a strip and surface-mounted to the critical area of lap joints where crack initiation and growth were suspected. The SMART Layer installed between the two rivet rows was used as an actuator strip and the other layer located below the rivets was used as a sensor strip. Using the software, pre-selected diagnostic signals from a designated piezoelectric actuator to its neighboring sensors were generated by the diagnostic unit. A corresponding sensor signals were recorded and compared to a previously recorded baseline reference. The signal processing technique and interpretation algorithm were developed and implemented for extracting features related to crack growth condition at the time of measurement. The results of estimates were compared with non-destructive testing (NDT) data taken from the experiments, which were conducted during the course of the investigation. The probability of damage detection, compared to conventional NDT techniques, was evaluated.

  5. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degeorge, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel efficiency. Analytical studies and research with wind tunnel models have demonstrated that the high inherent efficiency of low speed turboprop propulsion systems may now be extended to the Mach .8 flight regime of today's commercial airliners. This can be accomplished with a propeller, employing a large number of thin highly swept blades. The term Prop-Fan has been coined to describe such a propulsion system. In 1983 the NASA-Lewis Research Center contracted with Hamilton Standard to design, build and test a near full scale Prop-Fan, designated the Large Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP). This report provides a detailed description of the LAP program. The assumptions and analytical procedures used in the design of Prop-Fan system components are discussed in detail. The manufacturing techniques used in the fabrication of the Prop-Fan are presented. Each of the tests run during the course of the program are also discussed and the major conclusions derived from them stated.

  6. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to three different liners: TheraCal LC, Biodentine, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using universal adhesive: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Balaji, Tandri S

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate the bonding ability of resin composite (RC) to three different liners: TheraCal LC™ (TLC), a novel resin-modified (RM) calcium silicate cement, Biodentine™ (BD), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) using an universal silane-containing adhesive and characterizing their failure modes. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted intact human molars with occlusal cavity (6-mm diameter and 2-mm height) were mounted in acrylic blocks and divided into three groups of 10 samples each based on the liner used as Group A (TLC), Group B (BD), and Group C (RMGIC). Composite post of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm height was then bonded to each sample using universal adhesive. Shear bond strength (SBS) analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: No significant difference was observed between group A and group C (P = 0.573) while group B showed the least bond strength values with a highly significant difference (P = 0.000). The modes of failure were predominantly cohesive in Groups A and B (TLC and BD) while RMGIC showed mixed and adhesive failures. Conclusions: Hence, this present study concludes that the bond strength of composite resin to TLC and RMGIC was similar and significantly higher than that of BD following application of universal adhesive. PMID:27099425

  7. Behavioral comparison of sucrose and l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) tastes in rats: does L-AP4 have a sweet taste?

    PubMed

    Eschle, B K; Eddy, M C; Spang, C H; Delay, E R

    2008-08-13

    Even though it is generally thought that umami stimuli such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sweet stimuli such as sucrose are detected by different taste receptors, these stimuli appear to share taste qualities when amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) is present to reduce the sodium taste. Single fiber recording studies of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves have shown that encoding of L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4), a potent mGluR4 agonist that elicits a taste quite similar to MSG, may occur in the same fibers that also encode sweet stimuli. This suggests that L-AP4 and sweet substances may activate common receptors or afferent signaling mechanisms. We report results of behavioral experiments that test this hypothesis. In the first study, rats conditioned to avoid sucrose or L-AP4 generalized the aversion to the opposite substance, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes. However, two taste discrimination experiments showed that rats easily discriminated between sucrose and L-AP4 over a wide range of concentrations, even when the cue function of sodium associated with L-AP4 was reduced by amiloride and neutralized by adding equimolar concentrations of NaCl to sucrose. These data suggest that even though L-AP4 and sucrose elicit similar taste qualities, one or both substances also elicit other taste qualities not shared by the opposite substance. They also suggest that the taste-mGluR4 receptor and the signal pathway activated by L-AP4 are not the same as those activated by sucrose. These data, when combined with fiber recording data, suggest that there is convergence of L-AP4 and sucrose signals at some point early in the gustatory pathway.

  8. Effect of Surface Engineering Processes on the Surface Properties and Adhesive Bonding of Graphite/Epoxy Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    chemistry significantly by removing contaminants such as mold release agents and introducing free radicals as a result of fracture processes. Surface...aluminum foil and cut into 18 x 8 mm samples with a hacksaw. Dust from the cutting process was removed by blowing the sample surfaces with compressed...probably related to a filler. Although the surfaces of similarly prepared composites are usually contaminated with fluorine characteristic of mold

  9. Dentin-enamel adhesives in pediatric dentistry: an update.

    PubMed

    García-Godoy, Franklin; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Adhesives and composite technology have made composite resins and polyacid-modified resin-based composites (compomers) very popular as materials to restore primary and permanent anterior and posterior teeth. More conservative preparations can be performed that maintain more tooth structure due to the adhesive properties of the adhesives used with composites and compomers. Meticulous care in the placement of adhesives and, subsequently, resin-based composites and compomers is necessary to produce long-term satisfactory results. The purpose of this paper is to update the current status in regards to dentin-enamel adhesives in primary teeth.

  10. Modified carbon fibers to improve composite properties. [sizing fibers for reduced electrical conductivity and adhesion during combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepler, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thin coatings, 5 to 10 wt. percent, were applied to PAN-based carbon fibers. These coatings were intended to make the carbon fibers less electrically conductive or to cause fibers to stick together when a carbon fiber/epoxy composite burned. The effectiveness of the coatings in these regards was evaluated in burn tests with a test rig designed to simulate burning, impact and wind conditions which might release carbon fibers. The effect of the coatings on fiber and composite properties and handling was also investigated. Attempts at sizing carbon fibers with silicon dioxide, silicon carbide and boron nitride meet with varying degrees of success; however, none of these materials provided an electrically nonconductive coating. Coatings intended to stick carbon fibers together after a composite burned were sodium silicate, silica gel, ethyl silicate, boric acid and ammonium borate. Of these, only the sodium silicate and silica gel provided any sticking together of fibers. The amount of sticking was insufficient to achieve the desired objectives.

  11. Role of LAP+CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wu; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jia-Hao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Liao, Cun; Cai, Bin; Chen, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP+CD4+ T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS Proportions of LAP+CD4+ T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP-CD4+ and LAP+CD4+ T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. RESULTS The proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in peripheral blood from patients (9.44% ± 3.18%) than healthy controls (1.49% ± 1.00%, P < 0.001). Among patients, the proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in tumor tissues (11.76% ± 3.74%) compared with paratumor tissues (3.87% ± 1.64%, P < 0.001). We also observed positive correlations between the proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells and TNM stage (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.05). Magnetic-activated cell sorting gave an overall enrichment of LAP+CD4+ T cells (95.02% ± 2.87%), which was similar for LAP-CD4+ T cells (94.75% ± 2.76%). In contrast to LAP-CD4+ T cells, LAP+CD4+ T cells showed lower Foxp3 expression but significantly higher levels of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 (P < 0.01). LAP+CD4+ T cells expressed significantly larger amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β but lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ, compared with LAP-CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION LAP+CD4+ T cells accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of CRC patients and were involved in immune evasion mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β. PMID:28210081

  12. LapF and Its Regulation by Fis Affect the Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Lahesaare, Andrio; Ainelo, Hanna; Teppo, Annika; Kivisaar, Maia; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Teras, Riho

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to regulate cell surface hydrophobicity is important for the adaptation to different environmental conditions. The hydrophobicity of cell surface can be determined by several factors, including outer membrane and surface proteins. In this study, we report that an adhesin LapF influences cell surface hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas putida. Cells lacking LapF are less hydrophobic than wild-type cells in stationary growth phase. Moreover, the overexpression of the global regulator Fis decreases surface hydrophobicity by repressing the expression of lapF. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that bacteria producing LapF are more viable when confronted with methanol (a hydrophilic compound) but are more susceptible to 1-octanol (a hydrophobic compound). Thus, these results revealed that LapF is the hydrophobicity factor for the cell surface of P. putida. PMID:27812186

  13. The Teacher's Lap--A Site of Emotional Well-Being for the Younger Children in Day-Care Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a particular relationship between teachers and one- to three-year-old children: the child in the teacher's lap. When, in what situations, does this happen? Who are the children in the teacher's lap? Why are they there? How do children express emotional well-being when in the teacher's lap? Relational, sociocultural and…

  14. Distribution of adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP)/ER-aminopeptidase (ERAP)-1 in human uterine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Daijiro; Ando, Hisao; Iwase, Akira; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Mizutani, Shigehiko

    2004-09-01

    Adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAP1) is specialized to produce peptides presented on the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) by trimming epitopes to eight or nine residues, in addition to its enzymatic activity to degrade angiotensin II. Previously we identified placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), another member of the oxytocinase subfamily of aminopeptidases, in human uterine endometrial epithelial cells. Here we analyzed the distribution of A-LAP in human cyclic endometrium. Western blotting analysis showed that A-LAP was present in the endometrial tissue throughout the menstrual cycle. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of A-LAP showed a similar distribution to that of P-LAP. A-LAP was localized predominantly in the endometrial glands and the luminal surface epithelium. However, the intracellular localization change that accompanied apocrine secretion, which was observed in P-LAP, was not shown in A-LAP. Subcellular localization of A-LAP, demonstrated by immunofluorescence, was ER in the cultured glandular epithelial cells. Our results indicate that A-LAP may fit the endometrial localization as an antigen-presenting ER aminopeptidase. Further understanding of the function(s) of A-LAP in the endometrium appear likely to yield insights into the cyclic changes during the normal endometrial cycle.

  15. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  16. Factors Affecting the Processing of Epoxy Film Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing awareness that adhesive performance is controlled not only by the condition of the adherend surface but also the condition or state of the adhesive and the process parameters used during fabrication is expected to result in improved reliability, as well as bond performance. The critical process variables which have been found to control adhesive bond formation and ultimate bond strength in 250F and 350F curing epoxy adhesives are described in terms of fabrication parameters and adhesive characteristics. These include the heat-up rate and cure temperature during processing and the adhesive moisture content and age condition (degree of advancement). The diagnostic methods used to delineate the effects of these process variables on adhesive performance are illustrated. These are dielectric, thermomechanical (TMA) and dynamic mechanical (DMA) analyses. Correlation of test results with measured mechanical tensile lap shear strengths of bonded joints is presented and the results briefly discussed in terms of the additives and hardeners used in the adhesive systems.

  17. Adhesion of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Ryan; Miller, David C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-11-21

    The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  18. C/EBPβ-LAP*/LAP Expression Is Mediated by RSK/eIF4B-Dependent Signalling and Boosted by Increased Protein Stability in Models of Monocytic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Christmann, Martin; Friesenhagen, Judith; Westphal, Andreas; Pietsch, Daniel; Brand, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor C/EBPβ plays a key role in monocytic differentiation and inflammation. Its small isoform LIP is associated with proliferation at early premonocytic developmental stages and regulated via mTOR-dependent signalling. During later stages of (pre)monocytic differentiation there is a considerable increase in the large C/EBPβ isoforms LAP*/LAP which inhibit proliferation thus supporting terminal differentiation. Here, we showed in different models of monocytic differentiation that this dramatic increase in the LAP*/LAP protein and LAP/LIP ratio was accompanied by an only modest/retarded mRNA increase suggesting an important role for (post)translational mechanisms. We found that LAP*/LAP formation was induced via MEK/RSK-dependent cascades, whereas mTOR/S6K1 were not involved. Remarkably, LAP*/LAP expression was dependent on phosphorylated eIF4B, an acceleratory protein of RNA helicase eIF4A. PKR inhibition reduced the expression of eIF4B and C/EBPβ in an eIF2α-independent manner. Furthermore, under our conditions a marked stabilisation of LAP*/LAP protein occurred, accompanied by reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome/calpain activities and increased calpastatin levels. Our study elucidates new signalling pathways inducing LAP*/LAP expression and indicates new alternative PKR functions in monocytes. The switch from mTOR- to RSK-mediated signalling to orchestrate eIF4B-dependent LAP*/LAP translation, accompanied by increased protein stability but only small mRNA changes, may be a prototypical example for the regulation of protein expression during selected processes of differentiation/proliferation. PMID:26646662

  19. Evaluation of a high-temperature adhesive for aerospace structural bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, A.; Pate, K.D.; Cao, T.Q.; Hsu, G.F.; Rogalski, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    High-temperature polymeric adhesives are required for many new aerospace applications, and such adhesives must possess both processability for bonding as well as durability for elevated temperature service. Evaluation of one candidate adhesive, based on phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETI) developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, for titanium bonding is described here and includes a discussion of processing, and physical and mechanical properties. Mechanical testing included single lap shear, wedge-crack extension, climbing drum peel, and flatwise tension for honeycomb sandwich. Thermal aging with and without fluids was conducted for up to 5,000 hours for preliminary short term durability testing. Excellent processability and mechanical performance was obtained from PETI adhesive films, including adhesive films produced with production equipment in production scale batches. Processability and elevated temperature durability indicate that PETI resinbased adhesives are promising candidates for demanding high-temperature aerospace applications.

  20. An examination of faying surface fretting in single lap splices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam

    While fretting damage in mechanically fastened joints is widely acknowledged as a common source of crack nucleation, little work is available in the open literature on the role that fretting damage plays in the fatigue life of a riveted joint. To expand on the limited knowledge available, a study was undertaken on fretting fatigue in thin-sheet riveted fuselage lap joints. In joints constructed out of 1 mm thick 2024-T3 aluminum sheet the rivet forming load was found to have a significant effect on the location of fretting damage and crack nucleation. This effect was observed for splices riveted with machine countersunk and with universal rivets. The shift in the location of peak fretting damage and crack nucleation with changing rivet forming loads was investigated through numerical and experimental methods. A predictive model based on the critical plane Smith-Watson-Topper strain life equation was applied to the complex geometry of the single lap splice and was shown to be effective in predicting the fretting fatigue life as well as the location of fretting-induced crack nucleation. Basing this model on an explicit finite element simulation allowed for the inclusion of compressive residual stresses generated during rivet forming. Key to the proper functionality of the predictive model was to have a validated finite element model from which results for the stress and strain field in the loaded component could be obtained. In addition to the predictive model, a series of splice coupon and simplified geometry fretting fatigue tests were performed. The tests showed that, at higher rivet forming loads, crack nucleation is on the faying surface away from the hole edge and that the type of surface condition is important to the fretting fatigue life of the splice. The discovery of this variation with surface treatment at high rivet forming loads is important as more research is showing the benefit of using load-controlled rivet forming and higher rivet forming loads in

  1. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  2. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    PubMed Central

    ALMILHATTI, Hercules Jorge; NEPPELENBROEK, Karin Hermana; VERGANI, Carlos Eduardo; MACHADO, Ana Lúcia; PAVARINA, Ana Cláudia; GIAMPAOLO, Eunice Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm) were cast and subjected to polishing (P) or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB) or 250 mm (250SB) Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP), Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP), Targis Link (TL), and one surface modification system Siloc (S), were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7). All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min) until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05). No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05). Conclusion Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi. PMID:24473727

  3. The LAPS Project : A live 1D Radiative-Convective Model to explore the possible climates of terrestrial planets and exoplanets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Schott, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    The LAPS (Live Atmospheres-of-Planets Simulator) is a live 1D version of the LMD Global Climate Model that provides an accelerated and interactive simulation of the climate of terrestrial planets and exoplanets.This tool was designed for students to explore the «Classical Habitable Zone», defined as the range of orbital distances within which a planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. The model faithfully reproduces both the inner edge and the outer edge limits of the Habitable Zone, and their dependencies to the type of star and the gas composition.Furthermore, it provides a "hands on" experiment by showing how the surface and atmospheric temperatures as well as the profile of water vapor evolve through time when the external forcing (insolation, star spectrum, ...) or the planet (quantity of CO2, initial amount of water reservoir, ...) is modified.The tool is available at http://laps.lmd.jussieu.fr/ .

  4. Development of critical molecular weight-property specifications for high performance polymers used as adhesives and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    The polyimide resin, LARC-160, was prepared from diethyl-3, 3', 4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylate, ethyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylate and Jeffamine AP-22. The imidization reactions of NE and BTDE were studied by HPLC, C-13-NMR and IR. NE imidizes slowly at 12 C; BTDE imidizes when the resin is heated above 100 C. Both imidization reactions proceed directly to the imide. Neither amic acid is present in significant quantities at any stage of the imidization reactions. The monomer mixture was stored at 12 C for periods up to 14 months. The effects of resin aging at this temperature on the chemical composition of the resin monomer mixture and the imidized polymer formed on curing were investigated. Aging the resin monomer mixture has the effect of partially advancing the imidization reaction. The average size of the cured polymer increases slightly with resin age.

  5. A review of high-temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of high temperature adhesives and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) is reported. Thermoplastic polyimides and linear PPQ adhesive are shown to have potential for bonding both metals and composite structures. A nadic terminated addition polyimide adhesive, LARC-13, and an acetylene terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) were developed. Both of the addition type adhesives are shown to be more readily processable than linear materials but less thermooxidatively stable and more brittle. It is found that the addition type adhesives are able to perform, at elevated temperatures up to 595 C where linear systems fail thermoplastically.

  6. Direct Tensile Strength and Characteristics of Dentin Restored with All-Ceramic, Resin-Composite, and Cast Metal Prostheses Cemented with Resin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Piemjai, Morakot; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A dentin-cement-prosthesis complex restored with either all-porcelain, cured resin-composite, or cast base metal alloy and cemented with either of the different resin cements was trimmed into a mini-dumbbell shape for tensile testing. The fractured surfaces and characterization of the dentin-cement interface of bonded specimens were investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope. A significantly higher tensile strength of all-porcelain (12.5 ± 2.2 MPa) than that of cast metal (9.2 ± 3.5 MPa) restorations was revealed with cohesive failure in the cement and failure at the prosthesis-cement interface in Super-Bond C&B group. No significant difference in tensile strength was found among the types of restorations using the other three cements with adhesive failure on the dentin side and cohesive failure in the cured resin. SEM micrographs demonstrated the consistent hybridized dentin in Super-Bond C&B specimens that could resist degradation when immersed in hydrochloric acid followed by NaOCl solutions whereas a detached and degraded interfacial layer was found for the other cements. The results suggest that when complete hybridization of resin into dentin occurs tensile strength at the dentin-cement is higher than at the cement-prosthesis interfaces. The impermeable hybridized dentin can protect the underlying dentin and pulp from acid demineralization, even if detachment of the prosthesis has occurred. PMID:26539520

  7. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Violette, John A.; Sullivan, William E.; Turnberg, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the design analysis of a very thin, highly swept, propeller blade to be used in the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) test program. The report includes: design requirements and goals, a description of the blade configuration which meets requirements, a description of the analytical methods utilized/developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements, and the results of these analyses. The methods described include: finite element modeling, predicted aerodynamic loads and their application to the blade, steady state and vibratory response analyses, blade resonant frequencies and mode shapes, bird impact analysis, and predictions of stalled and unstalled flutter phenomena. Summarized results include deflections, retention loads, stress/strength comparisons, foreign object damage resistance, resonant frequencies and critical speed margins, resonant vibratory mode shapes, calculated boundaries of stalled and unstalled flutter, and aerodynamic and acoustic performance calculations.

  8. Shear bond strength of resin composite bonded with two adhesives: Influence of Er: YAG laser irradiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Farzaneh; Birang, Reza; Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Hourmehr, Zahra; Kazemi, Shantia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental surfaces prepared with different Er:YAG laser distance may have different characteristics compared with those prepared with conventional instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance from enamel and dentin surfaces on the shear bond strength of composite with self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems compared with conventional preparation method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred caries-free human third molars were randomly divided into twenty groups (n = 10). Ten groups were designated for enamel surface (E1-E10) and ten for dentin surface (D1-D10). Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was used on the E1-E8 (240 mJ, 25 Hz) and D1-D8 (140 mJ, 30 Hz) groups at four different distances of 0.5 (standard), 2, 4 and 11 mm. Control groups (E9, E10, D9 and D10) were ground with medium grit diamond bur. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into two subgroups that were bonded with either Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond. Resin composite (Z100) was dispensed on prepared dentin and enamel. The shear bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by SPSS12 statistical software using three way analysis of variance, Tukey and independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between enamel and dentin substrates (P < 0.001) and between lased and un-lased groups; the un-lased group had significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.001). Shear bond strength increased significantly with an increase in the laser irradiation distance (P < 0.05) on enamel surfaces (in both bonding agent subgroups) and on dentin surfaces (in the Single Bond subgroup). Conclusion: Laser irradiation decreases shear bond strength. Irradiation distance affects shear bond strength and increasing the distance would decrease the negative effects of laser irradiation. PMID:25540665

  9. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluation of TNT Wastewaters. Volume II. Acute and Subacute Mammalian Toxicity of TNT and LAP Mixture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    synthesis assay ; UDS assay . 20 ABSTRACT (Continued) ,LAP and LAP(I) produced conjunctivitis, iritis, and/or corneal opacity In rabbit eyes; the...and 0.38 (mildly irritating) for LAP(I). j j: In the maximization ,egt, LAP ane LAP(I) produced mild reactions in 67 and 70%, respectively, of the sites...of guinea pigs challenged with the material; these •alues classify both as strong allergens. "’In in vitro microbial assays using microsomal

  10. Use of two-dimensional transmission photoelastic models to study stresses in double-lap bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The stress distribution in two hole connectors in a double lap joint configuration was studied. The following steps are described: (1) fabrication of photoelastic models of double lap double hole joints designed to determine the stresses in the inner lap; (2) assessment of the effects of joint geometry on the stresses in the inner lap; and (3) quantification of differences in the stresses near the two holes. The two holes were on the centerline of the joint and the joints were loaded in tension, parallel to the centerline. Acrylic slip fit pins through the holes served as fasteners. Two dimensional transmission photoelastic models were fabricated by using transparent acrylic outer laps and a photoelastic model material for the inner laps. It is concluded that the photoelastic fringe patterns which are visible when the models are loaded are due almost entirely to stresses in the inner lap.

  11. The effect of diamond powder characteristics on lapping of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosczyk, Benjamin; Burkam, Eric; Titov, Artem; Onyenemezu, Clement; Benea, Ion C.

    2015-10-01

    In Automotive applications, sintered Silicon Carbide has been used in applications such as seal pump faces. The surface of sintered SiC, when lapped or polished for sealing to another surface, must be free of blemishes and mechanical defects. Lapping and polishing processes therefore must be well defined and controlled assuring minimal variation and production scrap. In this study, we related the characteristics of different diamond powders (particle size distribution, particle shape and surface) to their performance in lapping of sintered silicon carbide material, expressed as removal rate and surface finish.

  12. Machine imparting complex rotary motion for lapping a spherical inner diameter

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Thomas A.; Yetter, Harold H.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for imparting complex rotary motion is used to lap an inner spherical diameter surface of a workpiece. A lapping tool consists of a dome and rod mounted along the dome's vertical axis. The workpiece containing the lapping tool is held in a gimbal which uses power derived from a secondary takeoff means to impart rotary motion about a horizontal axis. The gimbal is rotated about a vertical axis by a take means while mounted at a radially outward position on a rotating arm.

  13. Machine imparting complex rotary motion for lapping a spherical inner diameter

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, T.A.; Yetter, H.H.

    1985-01-30

    An apparatus for imparting complex rotary motion is used to lap an inner spherical diameter surface of a workpiece. A lapping tool consists of a dome and rod mounted along the dome's vertical axis. The workpiece containing the lapping tool is held in a gimbal which uses power derived from a secondary takeoff means to impart rotary motion about a horizontal axis. The gimbal is rotated about a vertical axis by a take means while mounted at a radially outward position on a rotating arm.

  14. Relevance of in vitro tests of adhesive and composite dental materials, a review in 3 parts. Part 1: Approval requirements and standardized testing of composite materials according to ISO specifications.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this three-part review on the relevance of laboratory testing of composites and adhesives deals with approval requirements for composite materials. We compare the in vivo and in vitro literature data and discuss the relevance of in vitro analyses. The standardized ISO protocols are presented, with a focus on the evaluation of physical parameters. These tests all have a standardized protocol that describes the entire test set-up. The tests analyse flexural strength, depth of cure, susceptibility to ambient light, color stability, water sorption and solubility, and radiopacity. Some tests have a clinical correlation. A high flexural strength, for instance, decreases the risk of fractures of the marginal ridge in posterior restorations and incisal edge build-ups of restored anterior teeth. Other tests do not have a clinical correlation or the threshold values are too low, which results in an approval of materials that show inferior clinical properties (e.g., radiopacity). It is advantageous to know the test set-ups and the ideal threshold values to correctly interpret the material data. Overall, however, laboratory assessment alone cannot ensure the clinical success of a product.

  15. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications.

  16. Universal adhesives: the next evolution in adhesive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Alex, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Every so often a new material, technique, or technological breakthrough spurs a paradigm shift in the way dentistry is practiced. The development and evolution of reliable enamel and dentin bonding agents is one such example. Indeed, the so-called "cosmetic revolution" in dentistry blossomed in large part due to dramatic advances in adhesive technology. It is the ability to bond various materials in a reasonably predictable fashion to both enamel and dentin substrates that enables dentists to routinely place porcelain veneers, direct and indirect composites, and a plethora of other restorative and esthetic materials. In fact, the longevity and predictability of many (if not most) current restorative procedures is wholly predicated on the dentist's ability to bond various materials to tooth tissues. Adhesive systems have progressed from the largely ineffective systems of the 1970s and early 1980s to the relatively successful total- and self-etching systems of today. The latest players in the adhesive marketplace are the so-called "universal adhesives." In theory, these systems have the potential to significantly simplify and expedite adhesive protocols and may indeed represent the next evolution in adhesive dentistry. But what defines a universal system, and are all these new systems truly "universal" and everything they are claimed to be? This article will examine the origin, chemistry, strengths, weaknesses, and clinical relevance of this new genre of dental adhesives.

  17. Influence of substrate modulus on gecko adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Klittich, Mena R.; Wilson, Michael C.; Bernard, Craig; Rodrigo, Rochelle M.; Keith, Austin J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system’s performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces. Here, we investigate for the first time the influence of macroscale and nanoscale substrate modulus on whole animal adhesion on two different substrates (cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane) in air and find that across 5 orders of magnitude in macroscale modulus, there is no change in adhesion. On the nanoscale, however, gecko adhesion is shown to depend on substrate modulus. This suggests that low surface-layer modulus may inhibit the gecko adhesion system, independent of other influencing factors such as macroscale composite modulus and surface energy. Understanding the limits of gecko adhesion is vital for clarifying adhesive mechanisms and in the design of synthetic adhesives for soft substrates (including for biomedical applications and wearable electronics). PMID:28287647

  18. Influence of substrate modulus on gecko adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klittich, Mena R.; Wilson, Michael C.; Bernard, Craig; Rodrigo, Rochelle M.; Keith, Austin J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system’s performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces. Here, we investigate for the first time the influence of macroscale and nanoscale substrate modulus on whole animal adhesion on two different substrates (cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane) in air and find that across 5 orders of magnitude in macroscale modulus, there is no change in adhesion. On the nanoscale, however, gecko adhesion is shown to depend on substrate modulus. This suggests that low surface-layer modulus may inhibit the gecko adhesion system, independent of other influencing factors such as macroscale composite modulus and surface energy. Understanding the limits of gecko adhesion is vital for clarifying adhesive mechanisms and in the design of synthetic adhesives for soft substrates (including for biomedical applications and wearable electronics).

  19. Adhesion Prevention Efficacy of Composite Meshes Parietex®, Proceed® and 4DryField® PH Covered Polypropylene Meshes in an IPOM Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Winny, Markus; Maegel, Lavinia; Grethe, Leonie; Lippmann, Torsten; Jonigk, Danny; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Juergen; Poehnert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adhesions to intraperitoneally implanted meshes (IPOM) are a common problem following hernia surgery and may cause severe complications. Recently, we showed that missing peritoneal coverage of the intestine is a decisive factor for adhesion formation and 4DryField® PH (4DF) gel significantly prevents intestine-to-mesh adhesions even with use of uncoated Ultrapro® polypropylene mesh (UPM). The present study investigates adhesion prevention capability of coated Parietex® mesh (PTM) and Proceed® mesh (PCM) in comparison to 4DF treated UPM. Methods: 20 rats were randomized into two groups. A 1.5 x 2 cm patch of PTM or PCM was attached to the abdominal wall and the cecum was depleted from peritoneum by abrasion. After seven days incidence of intestine-to-mesh adhesions was evaluated using Lauder and Hoffmann adhesion scores. Histological specimens were evaluated; statistics were performed using student's t-test. The data were compared with recently published data of 4DF treated uncoated UPM. Results: Use of PTM or PCM did not significantly diminish development of intestine-to-mesh adhesions (adhesion reduction rate PTM: 29%, p = 0.069 and PCM: 25%, p = 0.078). Histological results confirmed macroscopic finding of agglutination of intestine and abdominal wall with the mesh in between. Compared to these data, the use of UPM combined with 4DF gel reveals significantly better adhesion prevention capability (p < 0.0001) as shown in earlier studies. However, in clinical situation interindividual differences in adhesion induction mechanisms cannot be excluded by this experimental approach as healing responses towards the different materials might vary. Conclusion: This study shows that in case of impaired intestinal peritoneum coated PTM and PCM do not provide significant adhesion prevention. In contrast, use of UPM combined with 4DF gel achieved a significant reduction of adhesions. Hence, in case of injury of the visceral peritoneum, application of a

  20. Adhesion Prevention Efficacy of Composite Meshes Parietex(®), Proceed(®) and 4DryField(®) PH Covered Polypropylene Meshes in an IPOM Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Winny, Markus; Maegel, Lavinia; Grethe, Leonie; Lippmann, Torsten; Jonigk, Danny; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Juergen; Poehnert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adhesions to intraperitoneally implanted meshes (IPOM) are a common problem following hernia surgery and may cause severe complications. Recently, we showed that missing peritoneal coverage of the intestine is a decisive factor for adhesion formation and 4DryField(®) PH (4DF) gel significantly prevents intestine-to-mesh adhesions even with use of uncoated Ultrapro(®) polypropylene mesh (UPM). The present study investigates adhesion prevention capability of coated Parietex(®) mesh (PTM) and Proceed(®) mesh (PCM) in comparison to 4DF treated UPM. Methods: 20 rats were randomized into two groups. A 1.5 x 2 cm patch of PTM or PCM was attached to the abdominal wall and the cecum was depleted from peritoneum by abrasion. After seven days incidence of intestine-to-mesh adhesions was evaluated using Lauder and Hoffmann adhesion scores. Histological specimens were evaluated; statistics were performed using student's t-test. The data were compared with recently published data of 4DF treated uncoated UPM. Results: Use of PTM or PCM did not significantly diminish development of intestine-to-mesh adhesions (adhesion reduction rate PTM: 29%, p = 0.069 and PCM: 25%, p = 0.078). Histological results confirmed macroscopic finding of agglutination of intestine and abdominal wall with the mesh in between. Compared to these data, the use of UPM combined with 4DF gel reveals significantly better adhesion prevention capability (p < 0.0001) as shown in earlier studies. However, in clinical situation interindividual differences in adhesion induction mechanisms cannot be excluded by this experimental approach as healing responses towards the different materials might vary. Conclusion: This study shows that in case of impaired intestinal peritoneum coated PTM and PCM do not provide significant adhesion prevention. In contrast, use of UPM combined with 4DF gel achieved a significant reduction of adhesions. Hence, in case of injury of the visceral peritoneum, application of a

  1. Adhesive Performance of Biomimetic Adhesive-Coated Biologic Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John L.; Vollenweider, Laura; Xu, Fangmin; Lee, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical repair of a discontinuity in traumatized or degenerated soft tissues is traditionally accomplished using sutures. A current trend is to reinforce this primary repair with surgical grafts, meshes, or patches secured with perforating mechanical devices (i.e., sutures, staples, or tacks). These fixation methods frequently lead to chronic pain and mesh detachment. We developed a series of biodegradable adhesive polymers that are synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), composed of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-derivatives, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polycaprolactone (PCL). These polymers can be cast into films, and their mechanical properties, extent of swelling, and degradation rate can be tailored through the composition of the polymers as well as blending with additives. When coated onto a biologic mesh used for hernia repair, these adhesive constructs demonstrated adhesive strengths significantly higher than fibrin glue. With further development, a pre-coated bioadhesive mesh may represent a new surgical option for soft tissue repair. PMID:20919699

  2. Coordinated Analysis of Two Graphite Grains from the CO3.0 LAP 031117 Meteorite: First Identification of a CO Nova Graphite and a Presolar Iron Sulfide Subgrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; José, Jordi; Amari, Sachiko; Lodders, Katharina; Jadhav, Manavi; Wang, Alian; Gyngard, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Presolar grains constitute the remnants of stars that existed before the formation of the solar system. In addition to providing direct information on the materials from which the solar system formed, these grains provide ground-truth information for models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Here we report the in situ identification of two unique presolar graphite grains from the primitive meteorite LaPaz Icefield 031117. Based on these two graphite grains, we estimate a bulk presolar graphite abundance of {5}-3+7 ppm in this meteorite. One of the grains (LAP-141) is characterized by an enrichment in 12C and depletions in 33,34S, and contains a small iron sulfide subgrain, representing the first unambiguous identification of presolar iron sulfide. The other grain (LAP-149) is extremely 13C-rich and 15N-poor, with one of the lowest 12C/13C ratios observed among presolar grains. Comparison of its isotopic compositions with new stellar nucleosynthesis and dust condensation models indicates an origin in the ejecta of a low-mass CO nova. Grain LAP-149 is the first putative nova grain that quantitatively best matches nova model predictions, providing the first strong evidence for graphite condensation in nova ejecta. Our discovery confirms that CO nova graphite and presolar iron sulfide contributed to the original building blocks of the solar system.

  3. Relevance of in-vitro tests of adhesive and composite dental materials. A review in 3 parts. Part 2: non-standardized tests of composite materials.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Summary The first part of this review examined ISO approval requirements and in vitro testing. In the second part, non-standardized test methods for composite materials are presented and discussed. Physical tests are primarily described. Analyses of surface gloss and alterations, as well as aging simulations of dental materials are presented. Again, the importance of laboratory tests in determining clinical outcomes is evaluated. Differences in the measurement protocols of the various testing institutes and how these differences can influence the results are also discussed. Because there is no standardization of test protocols, the values determined by different institutes cannot be directly compared. However, the ranking of the tested materials should be the same if a valid protocol is applied by different institutes. The modulus of elasticity, the expansion after water sorption, and the polishability of the material are all clinically relevant, whereas factors measured by other test protocols may have no clinical correlation. The handling properties of the materials are highly dependent on operators' preferences. Therefore, no standard values can be given.

  4. A characterization of the LAP Aquarius Phantom for external LAP laser alignment and magnetic resonance geometric distortion verification for stereotactic radiation surgery patient simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Daniel

    The Thesis explores additional applications of LAP's Aquarius external laser alignment verification Phantom by examining geometric accuracy of magnetic resonance images commonly used for planning intracranial stereotactic radiation surgery (ICSRS) cases. The scans were performed with MRI protocols used for ICSRS, and head and neck diagnosis, and their images fused to computerized tomographic (CT) images. The geometric distortions (GDs) were measured against the CT in all axial, sagittal, and coronal directions at different levels. Using the Aquarius Phantom, one is able to detect GD in ICSRS planning MRI acquisitions, and align the external LAP patient alignment lasers, by following the LAP QA protocol. GDs up to about 2 mm are observed at the distal regions of the longitudinal axis in the SRS treatment planning MR images. Based on the results, one may recommend the use of the Aquarius Phantom to determine if margins should be included for SRS treatment planning.

  5. Alteration of Sulphides in the Rumuruti Chondrite La Paz Icefield (LAP) 031275

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, E. D.; Treiman, A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Pyrrhotite in LAP 03175 (R5) has altered to a fine-grained mineral mixture. New data (optical, chemical, and Raman) suggest the mixture includes violarite and tochilinite, but not (as suggested earlier) graphite, hematite, and/or jarosite.

  6. Adhesion and growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on precise-geometry 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffolds for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Chatzinikolaidou, Maria; Rekstyte, Sima; Danilevicius, Paulius; Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Papadaki, Helen; Farsari, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell-material combination in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Marginal microleakage of cervical composite resin restorations bonded using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives: two dimensional vs. three dimensional methods

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was evaluated the marginal microleakage of two different adhesive systems before and after aging with two different dye penetration techniques. Materials and Methods Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 48 human molars. Clearfil SE Bond and Single Bond (self-etching and etch-and-rinse systems, respectively) were applied, each to half of the prepared cavities, which were restored with composite resin. Half of the specimens in each group underwent 10,000 cycles of thermocycling. Microleakage was evaluated using two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) dye penetration techniques separately for each half of each specimen. Data were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 (SPSS Inc.), using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Results The difference between the 2D and 3D microleakage evaluation techniques was significant at the occlusal margins of Single bond groups (p = 0.002). The differences between 2D and 3D microleakage evaluation techniques were significant at both the occlusal and cervical margins of Clearfil SE Bond groups (p = 0.017 and p = 0.002, respectively). The difference between the 2D and 3D techniques was significant at the occlusal margins of non-aged groups (p = 0.003). The difference between these two techniques was significant at the occlusal margins of the aged groups (p = 0.001). The Mann-Whitney test showed significant differences between the two techniques only at the occlusal margins in all specimens. Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the 3D technique has the capacity to detect occlusal microleakage more precisely than the 2D technique. PMID:27200275

  8. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints: A closed form solution. [plate theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The plane strain of adhesively bonded structures which consist of two different orthotropic adherents is considered. Assuming that the thicknesses of the adherends are constant and are small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, the adherends are treated as plates. The transverse shear effects in the adherends and the in-plane normal strain in the adhesive are taken into account. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form. A single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions are considered as examples. To verify the basic trend of the solutions obtained from the plate theory a sample problem is solved by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic continua. The plate theory not only predicts the correct trend for the adhesive stresses but also gives rather surprisingly accurate results.

  9. Adhesive Properties of Cured Phenylethynyl containing Imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Alice C.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a program to develop structural adhesives for high performance aerospace applications, several phenylethynyl containing oligomer blends of Larc(TM) MPEI and a reactive plasticizer designated LaRC LV-1 21 were prepared and evaluated. The fully imidized blends exhibited minimum melt viscosity as low as 1000 poise at 371 C. Ti/Ti lap shear specimens fabricated at 316 C under 15 psi gave RT strength of approx. 4300 psi and no change in strength was observed at 177 C. The chemistry and properties of this new MPEI as well as some blends of MPEI with LV-121 are presented and compared to the linear version, LARC(TM)-PETI-5.

  10. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  11. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and thermal properties of [Zn(Lap)2(DMF)(H2O)] and isomorphous [M(Lap)2]n (M: Cd, Mn) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, R. A.; Espíndola, J. A.; Gomez, M. I.; de Jiménez, M. C. L.; Piro, O. E.; Castellano, E. E.; Martínez, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    The solid state structure of the lapacholate (Lap-) complexes with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. [Zn(Lap)2(DMF)(H2O)] crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 bar with a = 10.5051(4), b = 12.8020(4), c = 13.0394(4) Å, α = 60.418(2), β = 83.904(2), γ = 86.206(2)°, and Z = 2 molecules per unit cell. The isomorphous complexes [M(Lap)2]n (M: Cd, Mn) crystallize in the tetragonal space group P43212 with a = b = 13.5770(6) Å, c = 14.5730(6) Å (Cd), and a = b = 13.3539(4), c = 14.7148(4) Å (Mn), and Z = 4. In [Zn(Lap)2(DMF)(H2O)] the Zn(II) ion is in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to two different and nearly perpendicular Lap- molecules acting as bidentate ligands through their adjacent carbonyl and phenol oxygen atoms. The remaining two cis-coordination sites are occupied by water and DMF molecules. [M(Lap)2]n (M: Cd, Mn) isomorphous complexes are also octahedral and present a supra-molecular arrangement in the lattice. There is only one independent Lap- molecule that coordinates the metal through all three ligand binding sites, giving rise to a 3-D structure of [M(Lap)2]n complexes that extends throughout the crystal lattice. The lapachol binding to metal is also revealed by the IR spectra. In fact, the carbonyl Cdbnd O stretching frequency is appreciable red-shifted in the complexes as compared to uncoordinated lapachol ligand. As expected, the IR and UV-Vis spectra of the isomorphous pair of complexes closely resemble to each other. Up to above 300 °C there are significant differences in the TGA of the Zn complex when compared with the isomorphous pair: while the former shows the loss of the secondary ligands (water and DMF), the latter exhibits a plateau signaling the lesser labile character of the lapacholate ligand.

  12. Echinoderm adhesive secretions: from experimental characterization to biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Flammang, P; Santos, R; Haesaerts, D

    2005-01-01

    Adhesion is a way of life in echinoderms. Indeed, all the species belonging to this phylum use adhesive secretions extensively for various vital functions. According to the species or to the developmental stage considered, different adhesive systems may be recognized. (1) The tube feet or podia are organs involved in attachment to the substratum, locomotion, feeding or burrowing. Their temporary adhesion relies on a duo-gland adhesive system resorting to both adhesive and de-adhesive secretions. (2) The larval adhesive organs allow temporary attachment of larvae during settlement and strong fixation during metamorphosis. (3) The Cuvierian tubules are sticky defence organs occurring in some holothuroid species. Their efficacy is based on the instantaneous release of a quick-setting adhesive. All these systems rely on different types of adhesion and therefore differ in the way they operate, in their structure and in the composition of their adhesive. In addition to fundamental interests in echinoderm bioadhesives, a substantial impetus behind understanding these adhesives are the potential technological applications that can be derived from their knowledge. These applications cover two broad fields of applied research: design of water-resistant adhesives and development of new antifouling strategies. In this context, echinoderm adhesives could offer novel features or performance characteristics for biotechnological applications. For example, the rapidly attaching adhesive of Cuvierian tubules, the releasable adhesive of tube feet or the powerful adhesive of asteroid larvae could each be useful to address particular bioadhesion problems.

  13. Adhesion molecules in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Asrar, A.; Geboes, K.; Al-Kharashi, S.; Tabbara, K.; Missotten, L.; Desmet, V.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Adhesion molecules play a key role in the selective recruitment of different leucocyte population to inflammatory sites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of adhesion molecules in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—The presence and distribution of adhesion molecules were studied in 14 conjunctival biopsy specimens from seven patients with active VKC and in four normal conjunctival biopsy specimens. We used a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3), lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). In addition, a panel of mAbs were used to characterise the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, ICAM-1 was expressed on the vascular endothelium only, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 on epithelial and stromal mononuclear cells , and VLA-4 on stromal mononuclear cells. The expression of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was absent. The number of cells expressing adhesion molecules was found to be markedly increased in all VKC specimens. This was concurrent with a heavy inflammatory infiltrate. Strong ICAM-1 expression was induced on the basal epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was expressed on stromal mononuclear cells. LFA-1 and ICAM-3 were expressed on the majority of epithelial and stromal infiltrating mononuclear cells. VLA-4 expression was noted on stromal mononuclear cells. Compared with controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more ICAM-3+, LFA-1+, and VLA-4+ cells. VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 were induced on the vascular endothelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS—Increased expression of adhesion molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC.

 PMID

  14. Adhesion and Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    von Fraunhofer, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed. PMID:22505913

  15. The effect of elastomer chain length on properties of silicone-modified polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.; Ezzell, S.

    1981-01-01

    A series of polyimides containing silicone elastomers was synthesized in order to study the effects of the elastomer chain length on polymer properties. The elastomer with repeat units varying from n=10 to 105 was chemically reacted into the backbone of an addition polyimide oligomer via reactive aromatic amine groups. Glass transition temperatures of the elastomer and polyimide phases were observed by torsional braid analysis. The elastomer-modified polyimides were tested as adhesives for bonding titanium in order to determine their potential for aerospace applications. Adhesive lap shear tests were performed before and after aging bonded specimens at elevated temperatures.

  16. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; List, Martina S.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesively bonded structures are potentially lighter in weight than mechanically fastened ones, but existing surface treatments are often considered unreliable. Two main problems in achieving reproducible and durable adhesive bonds are surface contamination and variability in standard surface preparation techniques. In this work three surface pretreatments were compared: laser etching with and without grit blasting and conventional Pasa-Jell treatment. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Laser -etching was found to produce clean surfaces with precisely controlled surface topographies and PETI-5 lap shear strengths and durabilities were equivalent to those produced with Pasa-Jell.

  17. Measurement of adhesive joint fracture properties as a function of environmental degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wylde, J.W.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    The increased use of structural adhesives in industry would benefit from a comprehensive failure load prediction tool to ensure competent design. The work of Fernlund and Spelt has proposed a fracture envelope that relates the critical strain energy release rate to the nominal phase angle of loading. The work of Plasinus and Spelt extended this work to incorporate the viscoelastic effect of the adhesive. The objective of the present research is to incorporate the effects of temperature and water absorption into the prediction of adhesive joint fracture. Ample evidence exists to demonstrate the notion that absorbed water has an effect predominantly detrimental, on the strength of an adhesive joint. Past work was concentrated on degrading typical, in service joints such as the Single Lap Shear (SLS) joint or the Cracked Lap Shear (CLS) joint. Since water is absorbed through the exposed edges, typically small in area compared to the volume of the joint, degradation times are usually long and the water concentration varies both with time and spatially throughout the joint. In this research, a novel method of degrading adhesive fracture specimens to a spatially constant degradation condition is being used to incorporate environmental effects into the fracture load prediction tool of Spelt et al.

  18. Nd:Yag laser irradiation of single lap joints made by polyethylene and polyethylene doped by carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, A. M.; Brancato, V.; Cutroneo, M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    Thermoplastic polyethylene can be welded by the transmission laser welding technique (TTLW) that exhibits some process related benefits with respect other conventional joining methods. This justifies its large use in wide fields, from the automotive to medical or domestic appliances. In this research, we studied single lap joints made by polyethylene pure and filled with carbon nanomaterials (0.2% in weight) to make the polymer laser absorbent. The joints were irradiated by a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm (first harmonic) with an intensity of 107 W/cm2 and 1 ÷ 30Hz, a maximum pulse energy of 300mJ and a laser spot of ≈ 1 cm2 (no focusing lens were employed). The joints were characterized by morphological analysis, mechanical shear tests and calorimetric analysis. The results suggested that the laser exposition time must be opportunely balanced in order to avoid a poor adhesion between the polymer sheets and to realized efficient joints. In particular the mechanical test showed that the laser exposition time of 40 seconds is the best conditions to obtain the highest shear strength of the joints of 140 N. After too prolonged laser exposure times, degrading phenomena starts.

  19. Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) high speed wind tunnel test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William A.; Wainauski, Harold S.; Arseneaux, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    High Speed Wind Tunnel testing of the SR-7L Large Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) is reported. The LAP is a 2.74 meter (9.0 ft) diameter, 8-bladed tractor type rated for 4475 KW (6000 SHP) at 1698 rpm. It was designated and built by Hamilton Standard under contract to the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LAP employs thin swept blades to provide efficient propulsion at flight speeds up to Mach .85. Testing was conducted in the ONERA S1-MA Atmospheric Wind Tunnel in Modane, France. The test objectives were to confirm that the LAP is free from high speed classical flutter, determine the structural and aerodynamic response to angular inflow, measure blade surface pressures (static and dynamic) and evaluate the aerodynamic performance at various blade angles, rotational speeds and Mach numbers. The measured structural and aerodynamic performance of the LAP correlated well with analytical predictions thereby providing confidence in the computer prediction codes used for the design. There were no signs of classical flutter throughout all phases of the test up to and including the 0.84 maximum Mach number achieved. Steady and unsteady blade surface pressures were successfully measured for a wide range of Mach numbers, inflow angles, rotational speeds and blade angles. No barriers were discovered that would prevent proceeding with the PTA (Prop-Fan Test Assessment) Flight Test Program scheduled for early 1987.

  20. Effect of salt stress on morphology and membrane composition of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and their adhesion to human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of NaCl reduction (10.0, 7.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 0% NaCl) and its substitution with KCl (50% substitution at each given concentration) on morphology of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in membrane composition, including fatty acids and phospholipids, were investigated using gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Adhesion ability of these bacteria to human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells, as affected by NaCl and its substitution with KCl, was also evaluated. Bacteria appeared elongated and the intracellular content appeared contracted when subjected to salt stress, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Fatty acid content was altered with an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid content on increasing the NaCl-induced stress. Among the phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol was reduced, whereas phosphatidylinositol and cardioplipin were increased when the bacteria were subjected to salt stress. There was a significant reduction in adhesion ability of the bacteria to Caco-2 cells when cultured in media supplemented with NaCl; however, the adhesion ability was improved on substitution with KCl at a given total salt concentration. The findings provide insights into bacterial membrane damage caused by NaCl.