VECCHIO, R.; MARCHESE, S.; FAMOSO, F.; LA CORTE, F.; MARLETTA, S.; LEANZA, G.; ZANGHÌ, G.; LEANZA, V.; INTAGLIATA, E.
Aim Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in general population. The incidence seems to be higher in older age. Surgery remains the treatment of choice and laparoscopic approach offers numerous benefits. We report our personal experience in elderly patients operated on for colorectal cancer with laparoscopic resection. Patients and methods From January 2003 to September 2013, out of 160 patients aged 65 years or older and operated with minimally invasive techniques, 30 cases affected by colorectal cancer and operated on with laparoscopic approach were analyzed in this study. Results Male/female ratio was 1.35 and mean age 72 years. Constipation, weight loss, anemia and rectal bleeding were the most commonly reported symptoms. Lesions involved descending-sigmoid colon in 53% of cases, rectum in 37% and ascending colon in 10%. Among laparoscopic colorectal operations laparoscopic left colectomy was the most frequently performed, followed by right colectomy, abdominoperineal resection and Hartmann procedure. Operative times ranged from 3 to 5 hours depending on surgical procedure performed. Mean hospital stay was 6 days (range 4–9). Conversion to open approach occurred only in a case of laparoscopic right colectomy (3%) for uncontrolled bleeding. A single case of mortality was reported. In two cases (7%) anastomotic leakage was observed, conservatively treated in one patient and requiring reoperation in the other one. Conclusions Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is feasible and effective for malignancies in elderly population offering several advantages including immunologic and oncologic ones. However an experienced surgical team is essential in reducing risks and complications. PMID:25827663
Drosdeck, Joseph; Harzman, Alan; Suzo, Andrew; Arnold, Mark; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Husain, Syed
Surgical site infection (SSI) and incisional hernia (IH) are among the most common complications after colorectal surgery. While many risk factors for these complications are unavoidable, evidence suggests that use of Pfannenstiel incisions for specimen extraction during laparoscopic procedures may reduce their incidence. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for extraction site SSI (primary objective) and IH (secondary objective) in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center between January 2006 and October 2012 were included. In addition to reviewing medical records, data were gathered from patient questionnaires with a focus on two end points: extraction site SSI and IH. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant associations between the two end points and the following variables: age, gender, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), body mass index (BMI), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of immunosuppressant medications, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, smoking, surgical history, surgery duration, duration of follow-up, use of hand-assistance, and utilization of Pfannenstiel incisions for specimen extraction. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant variables. A total of 419 patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of SSI was 10.3%. Higher BMI, presence of IBD, younger age, and hand-assisted procedures were associated with a significantly higher risk of SSI. Use of Pfannenstiel extraction sites was associated with lower infection rates; however, this association was not statistically significant. IBD, BMI, and hand-assistance were statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Odds ratios for SSI with IBD, hand-assistance and BMI (per unit increase) were 3.3, 2.2, and 1.06, respectively
Mari, Giulio; Costanzi, Andrea; Crippa, Jacopo; Falbo, Rosanna; Miranda, Angelo; Rossi, Michele; Berardi, Valter; Maggioni, Dario
ERAS program applied to colorectal laparoscopic surgery is well known to reduce hospitalization improving short terms outcomes and minimizing the Surgical Stress Response. However its effectiveness in elderly population is yet to be demonstrated. The primary aim of this study is to compare the level of immune and nutritional serum indexes across surgery in patients aged over 70 years old undergoing elective colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS protocol or according to a Standard program. 83 patients undergoing colorectal laparoscopic surgery were enrolled and randomized in two groups (ERAS Group 40, Standard Group 43) within a larger randomized trial on a general population. Surgical stress parameters were collected preoperatively, 1, 3 and 5 days after surgery. Nutritional parameters were collected preoperatively, 1 and 5 days after surgery. Short Term Outcomes were also prospectively assessed. IL-6 levels were lower in the EG on 1, 3, and 5 days post-operatively (p 0.05). IL-6 levels in the Enhanced group returned to pre operative level 3 days after surgery. C-reactive protein level was lower in the Enhanced group on day 1, 3, and 5 (p 0.05). There was no difference in Cortisol and Prolactin levels between groups. Prealbumin serum level was higher on day 5 (p 0.05) compared to standard group. Postoperative outcomes in terms of normal bowel function and length of hospital stay were significantly improved in the ERAS group. Colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS prototcol in elderly patients affects Surgical Stress Response, decreasing IL-6 and CRP levels postoperatively and improving Prealbumin post operative synthesis.
Manuel Palazuelos, Carlos; Alonso Martín, Joaquín; Martín Parra, José I; Gómez Ruiz, Marcos; Maestre, José M; Redondo Figuero, Carlos; Castillo Diego, Julio; Gómez Fleitas, Manuel
Advanced laparoscopic surgery requires supplementary training outside the operating room. Clinical simulation with animal models or cadavers facilitates this learning. We measured the impact on clinical practice of a laparoscopic colorectal resection training program based on surgical simulation. Between March 2007 and March 2012, 163 surgeons participated in 30 courses that lasted 4 days, of 35 hours (18 h in the operating room, 12h in animal models, and 4h in seminars). In May 2012, participants were asked via an on-line survey about the degree of implementation of the techniques in their day-to-day work. Seventy surgeons (47%) from 60 different hospitals answered the survey. Average time elapsed after the course was 11.5 months (2-60 months). A total of 75% initiated or increased the number of surgeries performed after the training. The increase in practice was>10 cases/month in 19%, and<5 cases/month in 56% of surgeons. 38% of participants initiated this surgical approach. Seventy five percent of the surveyed surgeons increased the clinical implementation of a complicated surgical technique, such as laparoscopic colorectal surgery, after attending a training course based on clinical simulation. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Huscher, Cristiano G S; Bretagnol, Frederic; Corcione, Francesco
Strong evidence has confirmed the benefit of laparoscopy in colorectal cancer resection but remains a challenging procedure. It is not clear that such promising results in selected patients translate into a favorable risk-benefit balance in real practice. We conducted a multicenter national observational registry to assess operative and oncologic long-term outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. All patients with laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection between 2001 and 2004 were included. Data were extracted from the prospective Italian national database of 10 high-volume centers (≥40 colorectal cancer laparoscopic resections per year). Surgical technique and follow-up were standardized. Survivals were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. We reported 1832 patients with colon (58.5%) and rectal cancer (41.5%). TNM stage was 0-I-II in 1044 patients (57%) and III-IV in 788 patients (43%). Surgery included a totally laparoscopic procedure in 1820 patients (99.3%). Conversion was 10.5%. Postoperative morbidity and 30-day mortality rates were 17 and 1.2%, respectively. Clinical anastomotic leakage rate was 8.3% (n=152). R0 resection was 95%. With a median follow-up of 54.2 months, cancer recurrence rate was 13.3%. At 5 years, cancer-free survival was 86.7%. Upon multivariate analysis, age (P=0.001) and TNM stage (P<0.001) were associated with cancer-free survival. Predictive factors of cancer recurrence were gender (P=0.029) and TNM stage (P<0.001). In high-volume centers and non-selective patients, laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer achieves good operative results with satisfactory long-term oncologic results. Even in the laparoscopy era, age, gender, and TNM stage remain the most powerful predictor of oncologic outcomes.
Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul
Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure. In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1–2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1–2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The postoperative pain scores (P < 0.001) and incidence of postoperative shoulder tip pain were lower, whereas gas passing time (P = 0.002) and sips of water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group. Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery. PMID:26945393
Alias, David; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Moreno, Ana; Manso, Belen; Diaz, Gustavo; Duran, Manuel; Garcia-Olmo, Damian
Despite several interventions having been adopted to reduce the incidence of incisional surgical site infection (SSI), it still remains a challenge for surgeons, because incisional SSI is a common cause of health-care-associated infection, leading to increased morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, patient discomfort, and increased sanitary costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on incisional SSI of vitamin E ointment in the subcutaneous tissue of patients undergoing a laparoscopic colorectal surgical procedure. A randomized study was performed. Patients with colorectal neoplasms undergoing an elective laparoscopic surgical procedure were included. The patients were randomized into two groups: Those patients undergoing a subcutaneous vitamin E ointment application (Group 1) and those patients who did not receive it (Group 2). Incisional SSI, post-operative pain, and analytical acute phase reactants were analyzed. There were 108 patients who were assessed for eligibility, and 101 patients were analyzed. The incisional SSI rate was 4% in Group 1 and 17.6% in Group 2 (p = 0.03). Mean post-operative pain, 24 hours after operation, was 17.3 ± 10.5 mm in Group 1 and 31.9 ± 18.9 mm in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Median hospital stay was six days in Group 1 and eight days in Group 2 (p < 0.001). White blood cell count was significantly lower in Group 1 (p < 0.001). The subcutaneous application of sterile vitamin E acetate ointment leads to a reduction in the incisional SSI rate, lower post-operative pain, and decrease in C-reactive protein and white blood cell count.
Shariff, U; Kullar, N; Haray, P N; Dorudi, S; Balasubramanian, S P
Conventional teaching in surgical training programmes is constrained by time and cost, and has room for improvement. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational tool developed for an index colorectal surgical procedure (anterior resection) in teaching and assessment of cognitive skills and to evaluate its acceptability amongst general surgical trainees. Multimedia educational tools in open and laparoscopic anterior resection were developed by filming multiple operations which were edited into procedural steps and substeps and then integrated onto interactive navigational platforms using Adobe® Flash® Professional CS5 10.1. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on general surgical trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of online multimedia in comparison with conventional 'study day' teaching for the acquisition of cognitive skills. All trainees were assessed before and after the study period. Trainees in the multimedia group evaluated the tools by completing a survey. Fifty-nine trainees were randomized but 27% dropped out, leaving 43 trainees randomized to the multimedia group (n = 25) and study day group (n = 18) who were available for analysis. Posttest scores improved significantly in both groups (P < 0.01). The change in scores (mean ± SD) in the multimedia group was not significantly different from the study day group (6.02 ± 5.12 and 5.31 ± 3.42, respectively; P = 0.61). Twenty-five trainees completed the evaluation survey and experienced an improvement in their decision making (67%) and in factual and anatomical knowledge (88%); 96% agreed that the multimedia tool was a useful additional educational resource. Multimedia tools are effective for the acquisition of cognitive skills in colorectal surgery and are well accepted as an educational resource. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) scoring system could provide preoperative advice on whether to undergo laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer patients with a high physiological risk.
Zhang, Ao; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Liu, Ningbo; Huang, Fei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Tong; Fu, Weihua
Laparoscopic colorectal surgery had been widely used for colorectal cancer patient and showed a favorable outcome on the postoperative morbidity rate. We attempted to evaluate physiological status of patients by mean of Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) system and to analyze the difference variation of postoperative morbidity rate of open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in patients with different physiological status.In total 550 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery treatment were included. E-PASS and some conventional scoring systems were reviewed to examine their mortality prediction ability. The preoperative risk score (PRS) in the E-PASS system was used to evaluate the physiological status of patients. The difference of postoperative morbidity rate between open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgeries was analyzed respectively in patients with different physiological status.E-PASS had better prediction ability than other conventional scoring systems in colorectal cancer surgeries. Postoperative morbidities were developed in 143 patients. The parameters in the E-PASS system had positive correlations with postoperative morbidity. The overall postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries was lower than open surgeries (19.61% and 28.46%), but the postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries increased more significantly than in open surgery as PRS increased. When PRS was more than 0.7, the postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries would exceed the postoperative morbidity rate of open surgeries.The E-PASS system was capable to evaluate the physiological and surgical risk of colorectal cancer surgery. PRS could assist preoperative decision-making on the surgical method. Colorectal cancer patients who were assessed with a low physiological risk by PRS would be safe to undergo laparoscopic surgery. On the contrary, surgeons should make decisions prudently on the operation method for
Konishi, F; Kojima, M; Hoshino, T; Kanzaki, M
Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy is considered to be a less invasive technique, and patients experience less pain and more rapid postoperative recovery. This operation has been indicated for large sessile adenomas or for early invasive carcinomas in Japan. The indications for this procedure in more advanced colorectal carcinomas is controversial. However, based on our experience with 130 cases, laparoscopic-assisted colectomy can be as curative as open colectomy provided that the patients are properly selected. In this review, the technical difficulties of this procedure are also discussed.
Arribas-Martin, Antonio; Díaz-Pizarro-Graf, José Ignacio; Muñoz-Hinojosa, Jorge Demetrio; Valdés-Castañeda, Alberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Omar; Bertrand, Martin Marie
Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is currently accepted and widespread worldwide. However, according tol the surgical experience on this approach, surgical and short-term oncologic results may vary. Studies comparing laparoscopic vs. open surgery in our population are scarce. To determine the superiority of the laparoscopic vs. open technique for colorectal cancer surgery. This retrospective and comparative study collected data from patients operated on for colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2011 at the Angeles Lomas Hospital, Mexico. A total of 82 patients were included in this study; 47 were operated through an open approach and 35 laparoscopically. Mean operative time was significantly lower in the open approach group (p= 0.008). There were no significant difference between both techniques for intraoperative bleeding (p= 0.3980), number of lymph nodes (p= 0.27), time to initiate oral feeding (p= 0.31), hospital stay (p= 0.12), and postoperative pain (p= 0.19). Procedure-related complications rate and type were not significantly different in both groups (p= 0.44). Patients operated laparoscopically required significantly less analgesic drugs (p= 0.04) and less need for epidural postoperative analgesia (p= 0.01). Laparoscopic approach is as safe as the traditional open approach for colorectal cancer. Early oncological and surgical results confirm its suitability according to this indication.
Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Zabulis, Vaidotas
Introduction Because of their difficult location or size, some polyps are impossible to remove with a flexible colonoscope and must be surgically removed. Laparoscopy is a great alternative. Aim To assess outcomes of a laparoscopic approach for the management of difficult colorectal polyps. Material and methods From 2006 to 2014, patients with polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy were included. Demographic data, histology of the biopsy, type of surgery, length of postoperative stay, complications and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Results Forty-two patients with a mean age of 64.9 ±8.4 underwent laparoscopic polypectomy. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed for 12 (28.6%) polyps. Laparoscopic segmental bowel resection was performed in 30 (71.4%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 12 (28.6%), left hemicolectomy in 7 (16.6%), sigmoid resection in 6 (14.3%), ileocecal resection in 2 (4.76%), resection of transverse colon in 2 (4.76%) and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in 1 (2.38%). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.9 ±2.6 days. There were 4 complications (9.5%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. Mean polyp size was 3.6 ±2.2 cm. Final pathology revealed polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 6), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 20), carcinoma in situ (n = 10) and invasive cancer (n = 4). Two of these patients underwent laparoscopic left hemicolectomies 14 and 10 days after laparoscopic colotomy and polypectomy. Conclusions For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic polypectomy is currently the technique of choice. PMID:25960797
Dulskas, Audrius; Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Zabulis, Vaidotas
Because of their difficult location or size, some polyps are impossible to remove with a flexible colonoscope and must be surgically removed. Laparoscopy is a great alternative. To assess outcomes of a laparoscopic approach for the management of difficult colorectal polyps. From 2006 to 2014, patients with polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy were included. Demographic data, histology of the biopsy, type of surgery, length of postoperative stay, complications and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Forty-two patients with a mean age of 64.9 ±8.4 underwent laparoscopic polypectomy. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed for 12 (28.6%) polyps. Laparoscopic segmental bowel resection was performed in 30 (71.4%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 12 (28.6%), left hemicolectomy in 7 (16.6%), sigmoid resection in 6 (14.3%), ileocecal resection in 2 (4.76%), resection of transverse colon in 2 (4.76%) and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in 1 (2.38%). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.9 ±2.6 days. There were 4 complications (9.5%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. Mean polyp size was 3.6 ±2.2 cm. Final pathology revealed polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 6), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 20), carcinoma in situ (n = 10) and invasive cancer (n = 4). Two of these patients underwent laparoscopic left hemicolectomies 14 and 10 days after laparoscopic colotomy and polypectomy. For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic polypectomy is currently the technique of choice.
Bhama, Anuradha R; Obias, Vincent; Welch, Kathleen B; Vandewarker, James F; Cleary, Robert K
Until randomized trials mature, large database analyses assist in determining the role of robotics in colorectal surgery. ACS NSQIP database coding now allows differentiation between laparoscopic (LC) and robotic (RC) colorectal procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare LC and RC outcomes by analyzing the ACS NSQIP database. The ACS NSQIP database was queried to identify patients who had undergone RC and LC during 2013. Demographic characteristics, intraoperative data, and postoperative outcomes were identified. Using propensity score matching, abdominal and pelvic colorectal operative and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. A total of 11,477 cases were identified. In the abdomen, 7790 LC and 299 RC cases were identified, and 2057 LC and 331 RC cases were identified in the pelvis. There were significant differences in operative time, conversion to an open procedure in the pelvis, and hospital length of stay. RC operative times were significantly longer in both abdominal and pelvic cases. Conversion rates in the pelvis were less for RC when compared to LC--10.0 and 13.7%, respectively (p = 0.01). Hospital length of stay was significantly shorter for RC abdominal cases than for LC abdominal cases (4.3 vs. 5.3 days, p < 0.001) and for RC pelvic cases when compared to LC pelvic cases (4.5 vs. 5.3 days, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in surgical site infection (SSI), organ/space SSI, wound complications, anastomotic leak, sepsis/shock, or need for reoperation within 30 days. As the robotic platform continues to grow in colorectal surgery and as technical upgrades continue to advance, comparison of outcomes requires continuous reevaluation. This study demonstrated that robotic operations have longer operative times, decreased hospital length of stay, and decreased rates of conversion to open in the pelvis. These findings warrant continued evaluation of the role of minimally invasive technical upgrades in colorectal surgery.
Takorov, Ivelin; Lukanova, Tsonka; Atanasov, Boiko; Dzharov, Georgi; Djurkov, Ventzeslav; Odisseeva, Evelina; Vladov, Nikola
Backgrounds/Aims Synchronous liver metastases (SLMs) are found in 15-25% of patients at the time of diagnosis with colorectal cancer, which is limited to the liver in 30% of patients. Surgical resection is the most effective and potentially curative therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of the liver. The comparison of simultaneous resection of primary CRC and synchronous liver metastases with staged resections is the subject of debate with respect to morbidity. Laparoscopic surgery improves postoperative recovery, diminishes postoperative pain, reduces wound infections, shortens hospitalization, and yields superior cosmetic results, without compromising the oncological outcome. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate our initial experience with simultaneous laparoscopic resection of primary CRC and SLM. Methods Currently, laparoscopic resection of primary CRC is performed in more than 53% of all patients in our surgical department. Twenty-six patients with primary CRC and a clinical diagnosis of SLM underwent combined laparoscopic colorectal and liver surgery. Six of them underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection combined with major laparoscopic liver resection. Results The surgical approaches were total laparoscopic (25 patients) or hybrid technique (1 patients). The incision created for the extraction of the specimen varied between 5 and 8cm. The median operation time was 223 minutes (100 to 415 min.) with a total blood loss of 180 ml (100-300 ml). Postoperative hospital stay was 6.8 days (6-14 days). Postoperative complications were observed in 6 patients (22.2%). Conclusions Simultaneous laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection appears to be safe, feasible, and with satisfying short-term results in selected patients with CRC and SLM. PMID:28261695
The dissemination of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) has been slow despite increasing evidence for the clinical benefits, with a prolonged learning curve being one of the main restrictions for a prompt uptake. Performing advanced laparoscopic procedures requires dedicated surgical skills and new simulation methods designed precisely for LCS have been established: These include virtual reality simulators, box trainers, animal and human tissue and synthetic materials. Studies have even demonstrated an improvement in trainees’ laparoscopic skills in the actual operating room and a staged approach to surgical simulation with a combination of various training methods should be mandatory in every colorectal training program. The learning curve for LCS could be reduced through practice and skills development in a riskfree setting. PMID:26425266
Laforgia, Rita; D'Elia, Giovanna; Lattarulo, Serafina; Mestice, Anna; Volpi, Annalisa
Our aim is to compare the immune response after colorectal surgery performed laparoscopically and via traditional technique. This response seems to be proportional to the level of the surgical trauma and presumably is directed to improve host defence. This is a prospective reported study based on patients' randomisation. Fourteen patients with colorectal diseases undergoing laparoscopic or open surgery were enrolled. After both laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery, we observed a significant increase of circulating C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels. The count of lymphocytes subpopulations did not show significant differences after both procedures. IL-6 serum levels increased immediately after laparoscopic approach. IL-6 production was preserved only in the laparoscopic group, while its plasma levels were significantly higher in conventional group. Postoperative cell-mediated immunity was better preserved after laparoscopic than after conventional colorectal resection. Laparoscopy became a popular approach to treat surgically benign and malignant colorectal diseases and several authors reported a better immune response in patients performing laparoscopic surgery after comparing to conventional colorectal surgery. These findings may have important implications in performing a laparoscopic colorectal resection.
Madhoun, Nisreen; Keller, Deborah S; Haas, Eric M
As surgical techniques continue to move towards less invasive techniques, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), a hybrid between traditional multiport laparoscopy and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, was introduced to further the enhanced outcomes of multiport laparoscopy. The safety and feasibility of SILS for both benign and malignant colorectal disease has been proven. SILS provides the potential for improved cosmesis, postoperative pain, recovery time, and quality of life at the drawback of higher technical skill required. In this article, we review the history, describe the available technology and techniques, and evaluate the benefits and limitations of SILS for colorectal surgery in the published literature. PMID:26478673
Sangster, William; Messaris, Evangelos; Berg, Arthur S.; Stewart, David B.
BACKGROUND Compared to standard laparoscopy, single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgerymay potentially offer advantages by creating fewer surgical incisions and providing a multi-functional trocar. Previous comparisons, however, have been limited by small sample sizes and selection bias. OBJECTIVE To compare 60-day outcomes between standard laparoscopic and single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery patients undergoing elective and urgent surgeries. DESIGN This was an unselected retrospective cohort study comparing patients who underwent elective and unplanned standard laparoscopic or single-site laparoscopic colorectal resections for benign and malignant disease between 2008 and 2014. Outcomes were compared using univariate analyses. SETTING This study was conducted at a single institution. PATIENTS A total of 626 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Morbidity and mortality within 60 postoperative days. RESULTS 318 (51%) and 308 (49%) patients underwent standard laparoscopic and single-site laparoscopic procedures, respectively. No significant difference was noted in mean operative time (Standard laparoscopy 182.1 ± 81.3 vs. Single-site laparoscopy 177±86.5, p=0.30) and postoperative length of stay (Standard laparoscopy 4.8±3.4 vs. Single-site laparoscopy 5.5 ± 6.9, p=0.14). Conversions to laparotomy and 60-day readmissions were also similar for both cohorts across all procedures performed. A significant difference was identified in the number of patients who developed postoperative complications (Standard laparoscopy 19.2% vs. Single-site laparoscopy 10.7%, p=0.004), especially with respect to surgical-site infections (Standard laparoscopy 11.3% vs. Single-site laparoscopy 5.8%, p=0.02). LIMITATIONS This was a retrospective, single institution study. CONCLUSIONS Single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery demonstrates similar results to standard laparoscopic colorectal surgery in regards to
Ono, Kazumi; Idani, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Hidekuni; Kusudo, Kazuhito; Koyama, Yusuke; Taguchi, Shinya
No consensus exists whether to continue or withdraw aspirin therapy perioperatively in patients undergoing major laparoscopic abdominal surgery. To investigate whether preoperative continuation of aspirin therapy increases blood loss and associated morbidity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer resection, we compared duration of surgical procedures, amount of intraoperative blood loss, rate of blood transfusion, length of postoperative stay, rate of conversion to open surgery, and reoperation within 48 hours between patients with and without aspirin therapy preoperatively. Twenty-nine of 270 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 23 of 218 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection, respectively, were on aspirin therapy. We found no significant difference in the investigated outcome between groups with the exception of longer surgical duration of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in aspirin-treated patients. Although underpowered, above findings may suggest that aspirin continuation is unlikely to increase blood loss or postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy or colorectal cancer resection.
Maintaining Optimal Surgical Conditions With Low Insufflation Pressures is Possible With Deep Neuromuscular Blockade During Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.
Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul
Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure. In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1-2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1-2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The postoperative pain scores (P < 0.001) and incidence of postoperative shoulder tip pain were lower, whereas gas passing time (P = 0.002) and sips of water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group. Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery.
Dowson, H M; Gage, H; Jackson, D; Qiao, Y; Williams, P; Rockall, T A
Cost has been perceived to be a factor limiting the development of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. This study aimed to compare the costs of laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery. Patients undergoing laparoscopic or open elective colorectal surgery were recruited into a prospective study to evaluate the healthcare costs of each operative procedure in a district general hospital in England. All healthcare resources used (operation, hospital and community) were recorded and converted to costs in British pounds, 2006-2007. Costs of laparoscopic and open surgery were compared. In all, 201 consecutive patients consented and were recruited (131 laparoscopic, 70 open). Operative costs were greater in the laparoscopic group (£2049 vs£1263, P < 0.001) due to the costs of disposable instruments, but the hospital costs were less (£1807 vs£3468, P < 0.001) due to longer lengths of stay in the open group. Community costs were similar in the two groups and had little impact on the overall costs, which were not significantly different (£3875 laparoscopic vs£4383 open, P = 0.308). In the subgroup of patients with a stoma, overall costs in the laparoscopic group are higher (not significant). The costs of laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery are broadly equivalent. If there is an associated improvement in patient benefit, then laparoscopic colorectal surgery may be considered to be cost effective compared with open surgery. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Placek, Sarah B; Nelson, Jeffrey
Colonoscopy is the standard of care for screening and surveillance of colorectal cancers. Removal of adenomatous polyps prevents the transformation of adenomas to potential adenocarcinoma. While most polyps are amenable to simple endoscopic polypectomy, difficult polyps that are large, broad-based, or located in haustral folds or in tortuous colon segments can present a challenge for endoscopists. Traditionally, patients with endoscopically unresectable polyps have been referred for oncologic surgical resection due to the underlying risk of malignancy within the polyp; however, the majority of these polyps are benign on final pathology. Combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery can help facilitate endoscopic removal of difficult lesions, or allow the surgeon to select the correct laparoscopic approach for polyp excision. Current literature suggests that these procedures are safe and effective and can potentially save patients from the morbidity of laparotomy and segmental colectomy.
Dakwar, Anthony; Sivkovits, Krina; Mahajna, Ahmad
Background: Fast-track (FT) rehabilitation protocols have been shown to be successful in reducing both hospital stay and postoperative complications, as well as enhancing overall postoperative patient recovery. We are reporting the outcomes of our first group of patients undergoing colorectal surgery following the FT protocol. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective study of patients, between January 1, 2007 and January 31, 2010, who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections in accordance with the guidelines of FT rehabilitation protocol. Recovery parameters including time to removal of naso-gastric tube and urinary catheter, time to bowel function and to resume diet, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. Postoperative outcomes, that is, postoperative complications and mortality, reoperations, and readmissions were also studied. Results: A total of 71 patients, 30 women and 41 men, underwent FT rehabilitation for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 16 years. The most common surgical procedures were right hemicolectomy 30% and anterior resection 27%. Liquid and regular diet were initiated on postoperative day 1.2 ± 0.4 and 2.1 ± 0.4, respectively. Overall postoperative morbidity was 8.5%. The mean length of stay was 4.4 ± 1.7 days, with only 3 readmissions. Forty-five patients fulfilled the FT care plan and were discharged on postoperative day 3. No reoperations or mortality were observed. Conclusions: FT rehabilitation results in favorable postoperative outcomes. Our data provides evidence and suggests that FT protocols should be implemented as a reliable method of preparation and recovery for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. PMID:25489207
Li, Xin-Xiang; Wang, Ren-Jie
Since laparoscopy was first used in cholecystectomy in 1987, it has developed quickly and has been used in most fields of traditional surgery. People have now accepted its advantages like small incision, quick recovery, light pain, beauty and short hospital stays. In early times, there are still controversies about the application of laparoscopy in malignant tumor treatments, especially about the problems of oncology efficacy, incision implantation and operation security. However, these concerns have been fully eliminated by evidences on the basis of evidence-basis medicine. In recent years, new minimally invasive technologies are appearing continually, but they still have challenges and may increase the difficulties of radical dissection and the risks of potential complications, so they are confined to benign or early malignant tumors. The core value of the laparoscopic technique is to ensure the high quality of tumor's radical resection and less complications. On the basis of this, it is allowed to pursue more minimally invasive techniques. Since the development of laparoscopic colorectal surgery is rapid and unceasing, we have reasons to believe that laparoscopic surgery will become gold standard for colorectal surgery in the near future.
Dulskas, Audrius; Kuliešius, Žygimantas; E. Samalavičius, Narimantas
Background. Laparoscopy or its combination with endoscopy is the next step for “difficult” polyps. The purpose of the paper was to review the outcomes of the laparoscopic approach to the management of “difficult” colorectal polyps. Materials and methods. From 2006 to 2016, 58 patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment for “difficult” polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy at the National Cancer Institute, Lithuania, were included. The demographic data, the type of surgery, length of post-operative stay, complications, and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Results. The mean patient was 65.9 ± 8.9 years of age. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed in 15 (25.9%) patients, laparoscopic segmental bowel resection in 41 (70.7%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 18 (31.0%), sigmoid resection in nine (15.5%), left hemicolectomy in seven (12.1%), right hemicolectomies in two (3.4%), ileocecal resection in two (3.4%), resection of transverse colon in two (3.4%), and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in one (1.7%). Two patients (3.4%) underwent laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic polypectomy. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 5.7 ± 2.4 days. There were four complications (6.9%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. The mean polyp size was 3.5 ± 1.9 cm. Final histopathology revealed hyperplastic polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 9), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 31), carcinoma in situ (n = 12), and invasive cancer (n = 4). Conclusions. For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic surgery is currently the technique of choice. PMID:28630589
Dulskas, Audrius; Kuliešius, Žygimantas; E Samalavičius, Narimantas
Background. Laparoscopy or its combination with endoscopy is the next step for "difficult" polyps. The purpose of the paper was to review the outcomes of the laparoscopic approach to the management of "difficult" colorectal polyps. Materials and methods. From 2006 to 2016, 58 patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment for "difficult" polyps that could not be treated by endoscopy at the National Cancer Institute, Lithuania, were included. The demographic data, the type of surgery, length of post-operative stay, complications, and final pathology were reviewed prospectively. Results. The mean patient was 65.9 ± 8.9 years of age. Laparoscopic mobilization of the colonic segment and colotomy with removal of the polyp was performed in 15 (25.9%) patients, laparoscopic segmental bowel resection in 41 (70.7%) cases: anterior rectal resection with partial total mesorectal excision in 18 (31.0%), sigmoid resection in nine (15.5%), left hemicolectomy in seven (12.1%), right hemicolectomies in two (3.4%), ileocecal resection in two (3.4%), resection of transverse colon in two (3.4%), and sigmoid resection with transanal retrieval of specimen in one (1.7%). Two patients (3.4%) underwent laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic polypectomy. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 5.7 ± 2.4 days. There were four complications (6.9%). All patients recovered after conservative treatment. The mean polyp size was 3.5 ± 1.9 cm. Final histopathology revealed hyperplastic polyps (n = 2), tubular adenoma (n = 9), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 31), carcinoma in situ (n = 12), and invasive cancer (n = 4). Conclusions. For the management of endoscopically unresectable polyps, laparoscopic surgery is currently the technique of choice.
Pascual, Marta; Salvans, Silvia; Pera, Miguel
The introduction of laparoscopy is an example of surgical innovation with a rapid implementation in many areas of surgery. A large number of controlled studies and meta-analyses have shown that laparoscopic colorectal surgery is associated with the same benefits than other minimally invasive procedures, including lesser pain, earlier recovery of bowel transit and shorter hospital stay. On the other hand, despite initial concerns about oncological safety, well-designed prospective randomized multicentre trials have demonstrated that oncological outcomes of laparoscopy and open surgery are similar. Although the use of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery has increased in recent years, the percentages of patients treated with surgery using minimally invasive techniques are still reduced and there are also substantial differences among centres. It has been argued that the limiting factor for the use of laparoscopic procedures is the number of surgeons with adequate skills to perform a laparoscopic colectomy rather than the tumour of patients’ characteristics. In this regard, future efforts to increase the use of laparoscopic techniques in colorectal surgery will necessarily require more efforts in teaching surgeons. We here present a review of recent controversies of the use of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery, such as in rectal cancer operations, the possibility of reproducing complete mesocolon excision, and the benefits of intra-corporeal anastomosis after right hemicolectomy. We also describe the results of latest innovations such as single incision laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for colon and rectal diseases. PMID:26811618
Pascual, Marta; Salvans, Silvia; Pera, Miguel
The introduction of laparoscopy is an example of surgical innovation with a rapid implementation in many areas of surgery. A large number of controlled studies and meta-analyses have shown that laparoscopic colorectal surgery is associated with the same benefits than other minimally invasive procedures, including lesser pain, earlier recovery of bowel transit and shorter hospital stay. On the other hand, despite initial concerns about oncological safety, well-designed prospective randomized multicentre trials have demonstrated that oncological outcomes of laparoscopy and open surgery are similar. Although the use of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery has increased in recent years, the percentages of patients treated with surgery using minimally invasive techniques are still reduced and there are also substantial differences among centres. It has been argued that the limiting factor for the use of laparoscopic procedures is the number of surgeons with adequate skills to perform a laparoscopic colectomy rather than the tumour of patients' characteristics. In this regard, future efforts to increase the use of laparoscopic techniques in colorectal surgery will necessarily require more efforts in teaching surgeons. We here present a review of recent controversies of the use of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery, such as in rectal cancer operations, the possibility of reproducing complete mesocolon excision, and the benefits of intra-corporeal anastomosis after right hemicolectomy. We also describe the results of latest innovations such as single incision laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for colon and rectal diseases.
Van Leersum, N J; Snijders, H S; Henneman, D; Kolfschoten, N E; Gooiker, G A; ten Berge, M G; Eddes, E H; Wouters, M W J M; Tollenaar, R A E M; Bemelman, W A; van Dam, R M; Elferink, M A; Karsten, Th M; van Krieken, J H J M; Lemmens, V E P P; Rutten, H J T; Manusama, E R; van de Velde, C J H; Meijerink, W J H J; Wiggers, Th; van der Harst, E; Dekker, J W T; Boerma, D
In 2009, the nationwide Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) was initiated by the Association of Surgeons of the Netherlands (ASN) to monitor, evaluate and improve colorectal cancer care. The DSCA is currently widely used as a blueprint for the initiation of other audits, coordinated by the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). This article illustrates key elements of the DSCA and results of three years of auditing. Key elements include: a leading role of the professional association with integration of the audit in the national quality assurance policy; web-based registration by medical specialists; weekly updated online feedback to participants; annual external data verification with other data sources; improvement projects. In two years, all Dutch hospitals participated in the audit. Case-ascertainment was 92% in 2010 and 95% in 2011. External data verification by comparison with the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) showed high concordance of data items. Within three years, guideline compliance for diagnostics, preoperative multidisciplinary meetings and standardised reporting increased; complication-, re-intervention and postoperative mortality rates decreased significantly. The success of the DSCA is the result of effective surgical collaboration. The leading role of the ASN in conducting the audit resulted in full participation of all colorectal surgeons in the Netherlands. By integrating the audit into the ASNs' quality assurance policy, it could be used to set national quality standards. Future challenges include reduction of administrative burden; expansion to a multidisciplinary registration; and addition of financial information and patient reported outcomes to the audit data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yin, Tao; Cui, Dian-Sheng; Xiong, Zhi-Guo; Wei, Shao-Zhong
This study aims to investigate the clinical synchronization of the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NC) and the laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) in the treatment of locally aggressive colorectal cancer (LACC). 92 LACC patients were selected for the research, among who 46 cases, who were performed the synchronized NC, were divided into the treatment group, after having rest for 4-6 weeks after the treatment, the 40 patients of the treatment group, who were performed the laparoscopic surgery, formed the laparoscopy group. The rest 46 patients were divided into the control group, who were performed the conventional treatment. The intraoperative conditions, postoperative recoveries, postoperative complications and recurrence rates of the two groups were compared. The stage-declining rate of the treatment group was 67.3%, and the surgical resection rate, anal preservation rate and postoperative complications were 86.9%, 69.6% and 26%, respectively, which were significantly higher than the control group; while the long-term recurrence rate significantly decreased to 21.7%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The NC could effectively achieve the stage-declining purpose against the LACC, improve the resection rate and reduce the postoperative recurrence rate.
Taggarshe, Deepa; Attuwaybi, Bashir O.; Matier, Brian; Visco, Jeffrey J.; Butler, Bryan N.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of synchronous hand-assisted laparoscopic (HAL) segmental colorectal resections. The surgical options for synchronous colonic pathology include extensive colonic resection with single anastomosis, multiple synchronous segmental resections with multiple anastomoses, or staged resections. Traditionally, multiple open, synchronous, segmental resections have been performed. There is a lack of data on HAL multiple segmental colorectal resections. A retrospective chart review was compiled on all patients who underwent HAL synchronous segmental colorectal resections by all the colorectal surgeons from our Group during the period of 1999 to 2014. Demographics, operative details, and short-term outcomes are reported. During the period, 9 patients underwent HAL synchronous multiple segmental colorectal resections. There were 5 women and 4 men, with median age of 54 (24–83) years and median BMI of 24 (19.8–38.7) kg/m2. Two patients were on long-term corticosteroid therapy. The median operative time was 210 (120–330) minutes and median operative blood loss was 200 (75–300) mLs. The median duration for return of bowel function was 2 days and the median length of stay was 3.5 days. We had 2 minor wound infections. There were no deaths. Synchronous segmental colorectal resections with anastomoses using the hand-assisted laparoscopic technique are safe. Early conversion to open and use of stomas are advisable in challenging cases. PMID:25875544
Hoznek, András; Katz, Ran; Gettman, Matthew; Salomon, Laurent; Antiphon, Patrick; de la Taille, Alexandre; Yiou, René; Chopin, Dominique; Abbou, Clément-Claude
The most important change in urology during the past decade was the development of minimally invasive surgery, particularly laparoscopy. However, the main drawback of laparoscopy is a steep learning curve, which results from the significant changes in the surgical environment. Although laparoscopy can provide important advantages for the patient, including decreased length of hospitalization, decreased analgesic requirement, and a shortened postoperative convalescence, one concern has been whether laparoscopic techniques should be learned solely in the operating room. For example, sports, music, and aviation are practiced before an actual performance is ever undertaken. In this review, the advantages and limitations of all available training modalities in minimally invasive surgery are described. Testing basic laparoscopic skills on inanimate models, becoming familiar with the principles of dissection and hemostasis on living animals, and studying surgical anatomy on cadavers should be considered as indispensable and complementary elements for laparoscopic training in the future. In addition, telementoring with the help of modern image processing and virtual reality eventually may become the basis of tomorrow's surgical instruction.
Oh, Bo Young; Park, Yoon Ah; Koo, Hye Young; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Cho, Juhee; Sim, Woo Seog
Purpose Local anesthetic wound infusion has been previously investigated in postoperative pain management. However, a limited number of studies have evaluated its use in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. This study aims to evaluate whether ropivacaine wound infusion is effective for postoperative pain management after laparoscopic surgery in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods This prospective study included 184 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer between July 2012 and June 2013. The patients were grouped as the combined group (intravenous patient-controlled analgesia [IV-PCA] plus continuous wound infusion with ropivacaine, n = 92) and the PCA group (IV-PCA only, n = 92). Efficacy and safety were assessed in terms of numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score, opioid consumption, postoperative recovery, and complications. Results The total quantity of PCA fentanyl was significantly less in the combined group than in the PCA group (P < 0.001). The NRS score of the combined group was not higher than in the PCA group, despite less opioid consumption. There were no differences between groups for postoperative recovery and most complications, including wound complications. However, the rate of nausea and vomiting was significantly lower in the combined group (P = 0.022). Conclusion Ropivacaine wound infusion significantly reduced postoperative opioid requirements and the rate of nausea/vomiting. This study showed clinical efficacy of ropivacaine wound infusion for postoperative pain control in colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. PMID:27757398
Oh, Bo Young; Park, Yoon Ah; Koo, Hye Young; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Cho, Juhee; Sim, Woo Seog; Cho, Yong Beom
Local anesthetic wound infusion has been previously investigated in postoperative pain management. However, a limited number of studies have evaluated its use in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. This study aims to evaluate whether ropivacaine wound infusion is effective for postoperative pain management after laparoscopic surgery in patients with colorectal cancer. This prospective study included 184 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer between July 2012 and June 2013. The patients were grouped as the combined group (intravenous patient-controlled analgesia [IV-PCA] plus continuous wound infusion with ropivacaine, n = 92) and the PCA group (IV-PCA only, n = 92). Efficacy and safety were assessed in terms of numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score, opioid consumption, postoperative recovery, and complications. The total quantity of PCA fentanyl was significantly less in the combined group than in the PCA group (P < 0.001). The NRS score of the combined group was not higher than in the PCA group, despite less opioid consumption. There were no differences between groups for postoperative recovery and most complications, including wound complications. However, the rate of nausea and vomiting was significantly lower in the combined group (P = 0.022). Ropivacaine wound infusion significantly reduced postoperative opioid requirements and the rate of nausea/vomiting. This study showed clinical efficacy of ropivacaine wound infusion for postoperative pain control in colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery.
Kolfschoten, Nikki E; van Leersum, Nicoline J; Gooiker, Gea A; Marang van de Mheen, Perla J; Eddes, Eric-Hans; Kievit, Job; Brand, Ronald; Tanis, Pieter J; Bemelman, Willem A; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Meijerink, Jeroen; Wouters, Michel W J M
To investigate the safety of laparoscopic colorectal cancer resections in a nationwide population-based study. Although laparoscopic techniques are increasingly used in colorectal cancer surgery, little is known on results outside trials. With the fast introduction of laparoscopic resection (LR), questions were raised about safety. Of all patients who underwent an elective colorectal cancer resection in 2010 in the Netherlands, 93% were included in the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Short-term outcome after LR, open resection (OR), and converted LR were compared in a generalized linear mixed model. We further explored hospital differences in LR and conversion rates. A total of 7350 patients, treated in 90 hospitals, were included. LR rate was 41% with a conversion rate of 15%. After adjustment for differences in case-mix, LR was associated with a lower risk of mortality (odds ratio 0.63, P < 0.01), major morbidity (odds ratio 0.72, P < 0.01), any complications (odds ratio 0.74, P < 0.01), hospital stay more than 14 days (odds ratio 0.71, P < 0.01), and irradical resections (odds ratio 0.68, P < 0.01), compared to OR. Outcome after conversion was similar to OR (P > 0.05). A large variation in LR and conversion rates among hospitals was found; however, the difference in outcome associated with operative techniques was not influenced by hospital of treatment. Use of laparoscopic techniques in colorectal cancer surgery in the Netherlands is safe and results are better in short-term outcome than open surgery, irrespective of the hospital of treatment. Outcome after conversion was similar to OR.
Nassiopoulos, Konstantinos; Menenakos, Evangelos; Chanson, Cristian; Zografos, George; Petropoulos, Panajotis
Background: Colonic polyps are usually removed endoscopically. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, inaccessible colorectal polyps that have underdone malignant transformation. Laparoscopic management of colonic polyps has gained a well-defined role. Methods: Since 1993, 650 laparoscopic colectomies have been performed in our department. Twenty-eight patients with large, sessile, polyps that have undergone malignant transformation underwent elective laparoscopic colectomy. Operative procedures included 14 sigmoidectomies, 10 low anterior recto-sigmoid resections, 3 right colectomies, and 1 left colectomy. Central ligation of vessels and lymph node dissection were preformed in all patients. Results: The main outcome measures include conversion rate (11%), morbidity (11%), and mortality (3.5%). The mean return of bowel function was 3.1 days, liquid intake 1.4 days, solid food intake 2.5 days, and mean hospital stay 8 days. The mean specimen length was 23 cm, and the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was 15. Malignancy according to Dukes classification was in situ, n=4; A, n=15; B, n=4; C, n=4; and D, n=1. During follow-up, 2 patients developed liver metastases. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colectomy is a technically feasible and effective method for treating large colorectal polyps that have undergone malignant transformation. PMID:15791972
Wei, MingTian; He, YaZhou; Wang, JiaRong; Chen, Nan; Zhou, ZongGuang; Wang, ZiQiang
To compare short-term and long-term results of colorectal patients undergoing laparoscopic and open hepatectomy. Moreover, outcomes of laparoscopic versus open procedures for simultaneous primary colorectal tumor and liver metastasis resection were compared. A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed and EmBase databases (until Oct. 22. 2013) with no limits. Bibliographic citation management software (EndNote X6) was used for extracted literature management. Quality assessment was performed according to a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The data were analyzed using Review Manager (Version 5.1), and sensitivity analysis was performed by sequentially omitting each study. Finally, 14 studies, including a total of 975 CLM (colorectal liver metastasis) patients, compared laparoscopic with open hepatectomy. 3 studies of them, including a total of 107 CLM patients, compared laparoscopic with open procedures for synchronous hepatectomy and colectomy. Laparoscopic hepatectomy was associated with a significantly less blood loss, shorter hospitalization time, and less operative transfusion rate. In addition, lower hospital morbidity rate (OR=0.57, 95%CI:0.42-0.78, P=0.0005) and better R0 resection (OR=2.44, 95%CI:1.21-4.94, P=0.01) were observed in laparoscopic hepatectomy. For long-term outcomes, there were no significant differences between two surgical procedures on recurrence and overall survival. In comparison of synchronous hepatectomy and colectomy, laparoscopic procedure displayed shorter hospitalization (MD = -3.40, 95%CI:-4.37-2.44, P<0.00001) than open procedure. Other outcomes, including surgical time, estimated blood loss, hospital morbidity, and overall survival did not differ significantly in the comparison. Laparoscopic hepatectomy with or without synchronous colectomy are acceptable for selective CLM patients. We suggest standard inclusion criteria of CLM patients be formulated.
Wang, JiaRong; Chen, Nan; Zhou, ZongGuang; Wang, ZiQiang
Background To compare short-term and long-term results of colorectal patients undergoing laparoscopic and open hepatectomy. Moreover, outcomes of laparoscopic versus open procedures for simultaneous primary colorectal tumor and liver metastasis resection were compared. Methods A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed and EmBase databases (until Oct. 22. 2013) with no limits. Bibliographic citation management software (EndNote X6) was used for extracted literature management. Quality assessment was performed according to a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The data were analyzed using Review Manager (Version 5.1), and sensitivity analysis was performed by sequentially omitting each study. Results Finally, 14 studies, including a total of 975 CLM (colorectal liver metastasis) patients, compared laparoscopic with open hepatectomy. 3 studies of them, including a total of 107 CLM patients, compared laparoscopic with open procedures for synchronous hepatectomy and colectomy. Laparoscopic hepatectomy was associated with a significantly less blood loss, shorter hospitalization time, and less operative transfusion rate. In addition, lower hospital morbidity rate (OR = 0.57, 95%CI:0.42–0.78, P = 0.0005) and better R0 resection (OR = 2.44, 95%CI:1.21–4.94, P = 0.01) were observed in laparoscopic hepatectomy. For long-term outcomes, there were no significant differences between two surgical procedures on recurrence and overall survival. In comparison of synchronous hepatectomy and colectomy, laparoscopic procedure displayed shorter hospitalization (MD = −3.40, 95%CI:−4.37–2.44, P<0.00001) than open procedure. Other outcomes, including surgical time, estimated blood loss, hospital morbidity, and overall survival did not differ significantly in the comparison. Conclusions Laparoscopic hepatectomy with or without synchronous colectomy are acceptable for selective CLM patients. We suggest standard inclusion criteria of CLM patients be
Zheng, Bin; Fung, Eric; Fu, Bo; Panton, Neely M; Swanström, Lee L
Performing laparoscopic procedures requires different skill sets and team dynamics compared with open procedures. We evaluated team composition and procedure time between these two surgical approaches using data collected from hospitals in the United State and Canada. A total of 1,260 general surgical cases were reviewed retrospectively, recording the number of operation personnel, procedure complexity, and the procedure time. Laparoscopic procedures (n = 930), on average, had a higher procedure difficulty coding which led to a longer procedure time and involved more people in the surgical team than open procedures (n = 330). When we selected cases with matched procedure difficulty coding, laparoscopic procedures (n = 450) still required longer procedure times and involved more operative personnel than open procedures (n = 92). Increased laparoscopic team size and procedure time must be influenced by factors other than case difficulty. The factors may derive from inherent complexity of the surgical setting and team dynamics unique to laparoscopic procedures.
Lee, S Y; Kim, C H; Kim, Y J; Kim, H R
Internal hernia of the small bowel through a mesenteric defect following colorectal cancer surgery is a serious but rarely reported complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical features, and management of these hernias. We retrospectively reviewed 4589 primary colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between January 2007 and December 2015. The incidence, clinical presentations, and short-term outcomes of patients with symptomatic internal hernia following colorectal surgery were investigated in detail. We found 9 (0.2 %) patients who presented with symptomatic internal hernia. In all cases, preceding surgical procedures were laparoscopic anterior resection (n = 9), including low anterior resection (n = 3) and intersphincteric resection (n = 3). The median time interval between initial surgery and the occurrence of internal hernia was 4 months (range 5 days-27 months). Main symptoms were abdominal distension and pain; 4 (44.4 %) patients presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Most cases (7/9, 77.8 %) were suspected of internal hernia by preoperative abdominal computed tomography. Six (66.6 %) patients underwent emergency surgery, after which all developed postoperative complications without mortality. The median hospital stay was 27.5 days (range 25-54 days) among patients who underwent surgical intervention. Internal hernia following colorectal cancer surgery is a rare but potentially fatal complication, and as such, early recognition and management of these cases are important.
Tsimogiannis, Konstantinos E; Tellis, Constantinos C; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Pappas-Gogos, George K; Tsimoyiannis, Evangelos C; Basdanis, George
Surgical interventions activate a cascade of reactions that result in an aseptic inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory response initiates the organism's innate immunity. Laparoscopic surgery reduces the trauma, and patients benefit from diminished surgical trauma and maintained immune function. Cytokine levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) are related to the magnitude of surgical trauma and surgical stress. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 are the first sensor-recognition receptors of the invading pathogens for the innate immune response. This study aimed to compare the inflammatory response and then the stress response during laparoscopic and open colectomy for cancer by calculating TLR-2 and TLR-4 as the first sensor-recognition receptors together with interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP). A total 40 patients with colorectal cancer were randomized in two groups: group A (open colectomy, n = 20) and group B (laparoscopic colectomy, n = 20). An epidural catheter was placed in all patients 1 h preoperatively. Rupivocaine was administered perioperatively and 48 h postoperatively. Blood samples were taken for calculation of IL-6, TNF-α, hsCRP, TLR-2, and TLR-4 preoperatively and 5 min after deflation of pneumoperitoneum (group B) or 5 min after division of the colon (group A), then 6 and 24 h postoperatively. The mean operative time was 115 for group A and 142 min for group B. The mean blood loss was respectively 240 and 105 ml (P < 0.001), and the mean hospital stay was respectively 8 and 5 days (P < 0.05). The IL-6 level was significant higher in group A than in group B at 6 and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.0001), and the hsCRP level was significant higher in group A than in group B at 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.001). The TNF-α values did not differ between the two groups. The TLR-2 level was significantly higher in group A than in group B at 5 min (P = 0.013) and 24 h (P = 0.007) postoperatively. The TLR-4
White, Eoin J; McMahon, Muireann; Walsh, Michael T; Coffey, J Calvin; O Sullivan, Leonard
To create a human information-processing model for laparoscopic surgery based on already established literature and primary research to enhance laparoscopic surgical education in this context. We reviewed the literature for information-processing models most relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Our review highlighted the necessity for a model that accounts for dynamic environments, perception, allocation of attention resources between the actions of both hands of an operator, and skill acquisition and retention. The results of the literature review were augmented through intraoperative observations of 7 colorectal surgical procedures, supported by laparoscopic video analysis of 12 colorectal procedures. The Wickens human information-processing model was selected as the most relevant theoretical model to which we make adaptions for this specific application. We expanded the perception subsystem of the model to involve all aspects of perception during laparoscopic surgery. We extended the decision-making system to include dynamic decision-making to account for case/patient-specific and surgeon-specific deviations. The response subsystem now includes dual-task performance and nontechnical skills, such as intraoperative communication. The memory subsystem is expanded to include skill acquisition and retention. Surgical decision-making during laparoscopic surgery is the result of a highly complex series of processes influenced not only by the operator's knowledge, but also patient anatomy and interaction with the surgical team. Newer developments in simulation-based education must focus on the theoretically supported elements and events that underpin skill acquisition and affect the cognitive abilities of novice surgeons. The proposed human information-processing model builds on established literature regarding information processing, accounting for a dynamic environment of laparoscopic surgery. This revised model may be used as a foundation for a model describing robotic
Spychała, Arkadiusz; Lewandowski, Adam; Nowaczyk, Piotr
Aim of the study Thermoablation of metastatic lesions in the liver is very commonplace. At present there are 3 essential techniques of access to carry out the procedure: open surgery, percutaneous technique and laparoscopic method. Percutaneous thermoablation is criticised due to the possible lack of radicalism. On the other hand, thermoablation during open surgery is a big perioperative trauma for the patient. The laparoscopic technique seems to be a compromise between the aforementioned techniques. The aim of this study was to present the technique and preliminary results of thermoablation of the liver carried out by means of the laparoscopic technique. Material and methods Laparoscopic thermoablation was carried out in 4 patients with colorectal cancer metastases to the liver. In order to precisely locate the tumour and guarantee radicalism of the surgery, laparoscopic probe ultrasonography was carried out during the procedure. Results All the patients underwent the procedure without any difficulties. All the patients left the hospital department as soon as 3 or 4 days after the surgery. This was about 7 days earlier in comparison with the open surgery procedure, which had been carried out before. The patients required a supply of analgesics only during the first 48 hours – non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, which made a substantial difference between them and the patients treated with the open surgical technique. Thanks to the laparoscopic ultrasound technique one patient had an additional lesion located, which had not been described in preoperative examinations. Conclusions In combination with ultrasonography, laparoscopic access, which does not have a very invasive character, seems to be relatively simple and effective to carry out the procedure of thermoablation. PMID:23788874
Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Shiwaku, Hironari; Aisu, Naoya; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Tanimura, Syu; Yamashita, Yuichi
Among all procedures, surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal surgery continue to have the highest rate, accounting for 5%-45%. To prevent the bacterial colonization of suture material, which disables local mechanisms of wound decontamination, triclosan-coated sutures were developed. We assessed the effectiveness of triclosan-coated sutures used for skin closure on the rate of SSIs in colorectal cancer surgery. Until August 2012, we used conventional methods for skin closure in colorectal cancer surgery at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine. Therefore, for the control group, we retrospectively collected surveillance data over a 1.5-y period. From September 2012, we began using triclosan-coated polydioxanone antimicrobial sutures (PDS plus) for skin and fascia closure. Hence, we collected data for the study group from September 2012 to October 2013. Differences in baseline characteristics and selection bias were adjusted using the propensity score-matching method. A total of 399 patients who underwent colorectal surgery were included in this study. There were 214 patients in the control group and 185 patients in the study group. Baseline patient characteristics were similar between the propensity score-matched groups. The incidence of SSIs was less in the study group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the site of the procedure, laparoscopic surgery, and using triclosan-coated sutures remained the independent predictors of SSIs. The use of triclosan-coated sutures was advantageous for decreasing the risk of SSIs after colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tam, Michael S; Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Mullard, Andrew J; Regenbogen, Scott E; Franz, Michael G; Hendren, Samantha; Krapohl, Greta; Vandewarker, James F; Lampman, Richard M; Cleary, Robert K
Current data addressing the role of robotic surgery for the management of colorectal disease are primarily from single-institution and case-matched comparative studies as well as administrative database analyses. The purpose of this study was to compare minimally invasive surgery outcomes using a large regional protocol-driven database devoted to surgical quality, improvement in patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. This is a retrospective cohort study from the prospectively collected Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative registry designed to compare outcomes of patients who underwent elective laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, and robotic colon and rectal operations between July 1, 2012 and October 7, 2014. We adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between cases with different surgical approaches using propensity score quintiles modeled on patient demographics, general health factors, diagnosis, and preoperative co-morbidities. The primary outcomes were conversion rates and hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes included operative time, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. A total of 2735 minimally invasive colorectal operations met inclusion criteria. Conversion rates were lower with robotic as compared to laparoscopic operations, and this was statistically significant for rectal resections (colon 9.0 vs. 16.9%, p < 0.06; rectum 7.8 vs. 21.2%, p < 0.001). The adjusted length of stay for robotic colon operations (4.00 days, 95% CI 3.63-4.40) was significantly shorter compared to laparoscopic (4.41 days, 95% CI 4.17-4.66; p = 0.04) and hand-assisted laparoscopic cases (4.44 days, 95% CI 4.13-4.78; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in overall postoperative complications among groups. When compared to conventional laparoscopy, the robotic platform is associated with significantly fewer conversions to open for rectal operations, and significantly shorter length of hospital stay for colon operations, without increasing
Cianchi, Fabio; Staderini, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta
A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer resection provides the same oncologic results as open surgery along with all clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery. During the last years, a great effort has been made to research for minimizing parietal trauma, yet for cosmetic reasons and in order to further reduce surgery-related pain and morbidity. New techniques, such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) have been developed in order to reach the goal of “scarless” surgery. Although NOTES may seem not fully suitable or safe for advanced procedures, such as colectomies, SIL is currently regarded as the next major advance in the progress of minimally invasive surgical approaches to colorectal disease that is more feasible in generalized use. The small incision through the umbilicus allows surgeons to use familiar standard laparoscopic instruments and thus, perform even complex procedures which require extraction of large surgical specimens or intestinal anastomosis. The cosmetic result from SIL is also better because the only incision is made through the umbilicus which can hide the wound effectively after operation. However, SIL raises a number of specific new challenges compared with the laparoscopic conventional approach. A reduced capacity for triangulation, the repeated conflicts between the shafts of the instruments and the difficulties to achieve a correct exposure of the operative field are the most claimed issues. The use therefore of this new approach for complex colorectal procedures might understandingly be viewed as difficult to implement, especially for oncologic cases. PMID:24876729
Cianchi, Fabio; Staderini, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta
A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the laparoscopic approach for colorectal cancer resection provides the same oncologic results as open surgery along with all clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery. During the last years, a great effort has been made to research for minimizing parietal trauma, yet for cosmetic reasons and in order to further reduce surgery-related pain and morbidity. New techniques, such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) have been developed in order to reach the goal of "scarless" surgery. Although NOTES may seem not fully suitable or safe for advanced procedures, such as colectomies, SIL is currently regarded as the next major advance in the progress of minimally invasive surgical approaches to colorectal disease that is more feasible in generalized use. The small incision through the umbilicus allows surgeons to use familiar standard laparoscopic instruments and thus, perform even complex procedures which require extraction of large surgical specimens or intestinal anastomosis. The cosmetic result from SIL is also better because the only incision is made through the umbilicus which can hide the wound effectively after operation. However, SIL raises a number of specific new challenges compared with the laparoscopic conventional approach. A reduced capacity for triangulation, the repeated conflicts between the shafts of the instruments and the difficulties to achieve a correct exposure of the operative field are the most claimed issues. The use therefore of this new approach for complex colorectal procedures might understandingly be viewed as difficult to implement, especially for oncologic cases.
Maggiori, Léon; Panis, Yves
For IBD surgical management, laparoscopic approach offers several theoretical advantages over the open approach. However, the frequent presence of adhesions from previous surgery and the high rate of inflammatory lesions have initially questioned its feasibility and safety. In the present review article, we will discuss the role of laparoscopic approach for IBD surgical management, along with its potential benefits as compared to the open approach.
Santoro, Emanuele; Carboni, Fabio; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Lepiane, Pasquale; Mancini, Pietro; Santoro, Roberto; Santoro, Eugenio
This study aimed to evaluate the early results of colorectal laparoscopic surgery with special attention to surgical and medical complications. The risk factors of such surgery are also investigated on the basis of a large series of operated cases: the preoperative knowledge of such factors could guide the operative program and the postoperative treatment with reduction of complications and improvement of the outcome. Between 1998 and 2008, 492 patients had been submitted to colorectal laparoscopic surgery by the same team: 387 for cancer and 105 for benign disease. All colorectal surgical operations are included in the series. No selection of the patients was made: laparoscopy was performed in all cases accepting the procedure. Several risk factors have been analysed in cases of fistula (age, pathology sex, type of the operation, cancer stages, preoperative radiochemotherapy, stool diversion and team experience) and in cases of medical complications (age, pathology, cancer stages and type of operation). The overall results in this series of laparoscopic colorectal operated cases are similar to other results published at present by the main surgical Department all over the world; no mortality and low number of medical (2.4%) and surgical complications (9.3%), with no differences also with the best open surgery series. Complete or partial conversion to open surgery was required in few cases (1.2%) and same others (1.4%) were operated again for bleeding or sudden anastomotic leakage. Regarding the risk factors in such surgery, a good correlation has been discovered between anastomotic leakage and the team experience, the age over 70 of the patients, the rectal tumour site in man, the advanced tumour stages, the previous radiochemotherapy, while medical complications seem to depend on advanced patients age and advanced cancer stages. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery at present is going to be considered the gold standard in the large majority of colorectal diseases
Compeau, Christopher; McLeod, Natalie T.; Ternamian, Artin
Background Laparoscopic surgery has gained popularity over open conventional surgery as it offers benefits to both patients and health care practitioners. Although the overall risk of complications during laparoscopic surgery is recognized to be lower than during laparotomy, inadvertent serious complications still occur. Creation of the pneumoperitoneum and placement of laparoscopic ports remain a critical first step during endoscopic surgery. It is estimated that up to 50% of laparoscopic complications are entry-related, and most injury-related litigations are trocar-related. We sought to evaluate the current practice of laparoscopic entry among Canadian general surgeons. Methods We conducted a national survey to identify general surgeon preferences for laparoscopic entry. Specifically, we sought to survey surgeons using the membership database from the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS) with regards to entry methods, access instruments, port insertion sites and patient safety profiles. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was used as a representative general surgical procedure. Results The survey was completed by 248 of 1000 (24.8%) registered members of CAGS. Respondents included both community and academic surgeons, with and without formal laparoscopic fellowship training. The demographic profile of respondents was consistent nationally. A substantial proportion of general surgeons (> 80%) prefer the open primary entry technique, use the Hasson trocar and cannula and favour the periumbilical port site, irrespective of patient weight or history of peritoneal adhesions. One-third of surgeons surveyed use Veress needle insufflation in their surgical practices. More than 50% of respondents witnessed complications related to primary laparoscopic trocar insertion. Conclusion General surgeons in Canada use the open primary entry technique, with the Hasson trocar and cannula applied periumbilically to establish a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery. This
Shum, N F; Choi, H K; Mak, J C K; Foo, D C C; Li, W C; Law, W L
Chewing gum may enhance intestinal motility after surgery. This trial studied whether chewing gum could lead to a further reduction in ileus in patients who had a laparoscopic colorectal resection and followed an enhanced recovery programme. Patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection were randomized to a control or intervention group. Patients in the control group received a standardized recovery programme. Patients in the intervention group were, in addition, given chewing gum three times daily from day 1 until discharge. Primary outcome measures were time to first flatus and first bowel motion. Time to feeling hungry and hospital stay were secondary outcome measures. Forty-one patients were randomized into each group. Thirty-seven patients underwent rectal resection and 45 had a colonic resection. Time to passage of flatus was shorter (18 versus 34 h; P = 0·007), first bowel motion occurred earlier (19 versus 44 h; P = 0·001) and time to feeling hungry was earlier (16 versus 25 h; P = 0·001) in the intervention group. There was no difference in the duration of hospital stay (5 days in the intervention group versus 5·5 days in the control group). Subgroup analyses revealed that the benefits of chewing gum were clearer in patients who had a colonic resection, with a shorter time to first flatus (20 versus 35 h; P = 0·043), first bowel motion (19 versus 53 h; P = 0·014) and feeling hungry (14 versus 40 h; P = 0·001). No adverse events were attributed to chewing gum. Chewing gum is a simple intervention that speeds intestinal transit in patients managed with a recovery programme after laparoscopic colorectal resection. NCT02419586 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Celentano, V; Browning, M; Hitchins, C; Giglio, M C; Coleman, M G
Instructive laparoscopy videos with appropriate exposition could be ideal for initial training in laparoscopic surgery, but unfortunately there are no guidelines for annotating these videos or agreed methods to measure the educational content and the safety of the procedure presented. Aim of this study is to systematically search the World Wide Web to determine the availability of laparoscopic colorectal surgery videos and to objectively establish their potential training value. A search for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos was performed on the three most used English language web search engines Google.com, Bing.com, and Yahoo.com; moreover, a survey among 25 local trainees was performed to identify additional websites for inclusion. All laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos with an English language title were included. Videos of open surgery, single incision laparoscopic surgery, robotic, and hand-assisted surgery were excluded. The safety of the demonstrated procedure was assessed with a validated competency assessment tool specifically designed for laparoscopic colorectal surgery and data on the educational content of the video were extracted. Thirty-one websites were identified and 182 surgical videos were included. One hundred and seventy-three videos (95%) detailed the year of publication; this demonstrated a significant increase in the number of videos published per year from 2009. Characteristics of the patient were rarely presented, only 10 videos (5.4%) reported operating time and only 6 videos (3.2%) reported 30-day morbidity; 34 videos (18.6%) underwent a peer-review process prior to publication. Formal case presentation, the presence of audio narration, the use of diagrams, and snapshots and a step-by-step approach are all characteristics of peer-reviewed videos but no significant difference was found in the safety of the procedure. Laparoscopic videos can be a useful adjunct to operative training. There is a large and increasing amount of
Yamamoto, Masashi; Tanaka, Keitaro; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Keisaku; Isii, Masatsugu; Hamamoto, Hiroki; Okuda, Junji; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa
Laparoscopic surgery is widespread and is safe and effective for the management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, surgical site infection (SSI) remains an unresolved complication. The present study investigated the comparative effect of supraumbilical incision versus transumbilical incision (TU) on the incidence of SSI in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer. Medical records from patients with colorectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid and rectosigmoid colon surgeries with either supraumbilical incision (n = 150) or TU (n = 150) were retrospectively reviewed. There was no difference in demographics, comorbidities, or operative variables between the two groups. The transumbilical group and the supraumbilical group were comparable with regards to overall SSI (6.0% vs 4.0%; P = 0.4062), superficial SSI (6.0% vs 3.3%; P = 0.2704), and deep SSI (0% vs 0.7%; P = 0.2385). SSI developed after laparoscopic sigmoid and rectosigmoid colon cancer surgery in 15 (5.0%) of the 300 patients. Of these superficial SSI, all wounds were in the left lower quadrant incision, and the transumbilical port sites did not become infected. Univariate analysis failed to identify any risk factors for SSI. Avoidance of the umbilicus offers no benefit with regard to SSI compared with TU.
Kaiser, Andreas M
The advances of laparoscopic surgery since the early 1990s have caused one of the largest technical revolutions in medicine since the detection of antibiotics (1922, Flemming), the discovery of DNA structure (1953, Watson and Crick), and solid organ transplantation (1954, Murray). Perseverance through a rocky start and increased familiarity with the chop-stick surgery in conjunction with technical refinements has resulted in a rapid expansion of the indications for minimally invasive surgery. Procedure-related factors initially contributed to this success and included the improved postoperative recovery and cosmesis, fewer wound complications, lower risk for incisional hernias and for subsequent adhesion-related small bowel obstructions; the major breakthrough however came with favorable long-term outcomes data on oncological parameters. The future will have to determine the specific role of various technical approaches, define prognostic factors of success and true progress, and consider directing further innovation while potentially limiting approaches that do not add to patient outcomes. PMID:25386060
George, Arvin K; Srinivasan, Arun K; Cho, Jane; Sadek, Mostafa A; Kavoussi, Louis R
Surgical site infections have been categorized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as "never events". The incidence of surgical site infection following laparoscopic urological surgery and its risk factors are poorly defined. We evaluated surgical site infection following urological laparoscopic surgery and identified possible factors that may influence occurrence. Patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic procedures during a 4-year period by a single laparoscopic surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical site infections were identified postoperatively and defined using the Centers for Disease Control criteria. Clinical parameters, comorbidities, smoking history, preoperative urinalysis and culture results as well as operative data were analyzed. Nonparametric testing using the Mann-Whitney U test, multivariable logistic regression and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In 556 patients undergoing urological laparoscopic procedures 14 surgical site infections (2.5%) were identified at mean postoperative day 21.5. Of the 14 surgical site infections 10 (71.4%) were located at a specimen extraction site. Operative time, procedure type and increasing body mass index were significantly associated with the occurrence of surgical site infections (p = 0.007, p = 0.019, p = 0.038, respectively), whereas history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.071) and intraoperative transfusion (p = 0.053) were found to trend toward significance. Age, gender, positive urine culture, steroid use, procedure type and smoking history were not significantly associated with surgical site infection. Body mass index and operative time remained significant predictors of surgical site infection on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Surgical site infection is an infrequent complication following laparoscopic surgery with the majority occurring at the specimen extraction site. Infection is associated with prolonged operative time and
Rocco, B; Coelho, R F; Albo, G; Patel, V R
Prostate tumours are among the most frequently diagnosed solid tumours in males (a total of 192,280 new cases in the USA in 2009); since the approval of the PSA test by the Food and Drug Administration in 1986, incidence has risen significantly, particularly in the '90s; furthermore the spread of the PSA test has led to an increased frequency of cancer diagnosis at the localised stage. The standard treatment for tumour of the prostate is retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) which however is not morbidity-free, e.g. intraoperative bleeding, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. This is why the interest of the scientific community has turned increasingly to mini-invasive surgical procedures able to achieve the same oncological results as the open procedure, but which also reduce the impact of the treatment on these patients' quality of life. The first step in this direction was laparoscopic prostatectomy described by Schuessler in 1992 and standardised by Gaston in 1997. However, the technical difficulty inherent in this procedure has limited its more widespread use. In May 2000 Binder and Kramer published a report on the first robot-assisted prostatectomy (RARP) using the Da Vinci system (da Vinci TM, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). From the original experience, RARP, which exploits the advantages of an enlarged, three-dimensional view and the ability of the instruments to move with 7 degrees of freedom, the technique has spread enormously all over the world. At the time of writing, in the USA, RARP is the most common therapeutic option for the treatment of prostate tumour at localised stage. In the present study we describe the RARP technique proposed by dr. Vipul Patel, head of the Global Robotic Institute (Orlando Fl).
Kwak, Han Deok; Kim, Seon-Hahn; Seo, Yeon Seok; Song, Ki-Joon
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission is known to occur through direct contact with infected blood. There has been some suspicion that the virus can also be detected in aerosol form. However, this has never been directly shown. The purpose of this study was to sample and analyse surgical smoke from laparoscopic surgeries on patients with hepatitis B to determine whether HBV is present. A total of 11 patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic abdominal surgeries between October 2014 and February 2015 at Korea University Anam Hospital were included in this study. A high efficiency collector was used to obtain surgical smoke in the form of hydrosol. The smoke was analysed by using nested PCR. Robotic or laparoscopic colorectal resections were performed in 5 cases, laparoscopic gastrectomies in 3 cases and laparoscopic hepatic wedge resections in another 3 cases. Preoperatively, all of the patients had positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). 2 patients had detectable HBsAb, and 2 were positive for hepatitis B e antigen. 3 patients were taking antihepatitis B viral medications at the time of the study. The viral load measured in the patients' blood was undetectable to 1.7×10(8) IU/mL. HBV was detected in surgical smoke in 10 of the 11 cases. HBV is detectable in surgical smoke. This study provides preliminary data in the investigation of airborne HBV infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Palanivelu, Latha; Davidson, Brian R
Surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. To determine whether virtual reality training can supplement or replace conventional laparoscopic surgical training (apprenticeship) in surgical trainees with limited or no prior laparoscopic experience. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and grey literature until March 2008. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including video trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little or no prior laparoscopic experience. We also included trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We collected the data on the characteristics of the trial, methodological quality of the trials, mortality, morbidity, conversion rate, operating time, and hospital stay. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included 23 trials with 612 participants. Four trials compared virtual reality versus video trainer training. Twelve trials compared virtual reality versus no training or standard laparoscopic training. Four trials compared virtual reality, video trainer training and no training, or standard laparoscopic training. Three trials compared different methods of virtual reality training. Most of the trials were of high risk of bias. In trainees without prior surgical experience, virtual
Boni, Luigi; David, Giulia; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rausei, Stefano; Cassinotti, Elisa; Fingerhut, Abe
Anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery is a severe complication. One possible cause of anastomotic leakage is insufficient vascular supply. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and the usefulness of intraoperative assessment of vascular anastomotic perfusion in colorectal surgery using indocyanine green (ICG)-enhanced fluorescence. Between May 2013 and October 2014, all anastomosis and resection margins in colorectal surgery were investigated using fluorescence angiography (KARL STORZ GmbH & Co. KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) intraoperatively to assess colonic perfusion prior to and after completion of the anastomosis, both in right and left colectomies. A total of 107 patients undergoing colorectal laparoscopic resections were enrolled: 40 right colectomies, 10 splenic flexure segmental resections, 35 left colectomies, and 22 anterior resections. In 90 % of cases, the indication for surgery was cancer and high ligation of vessels was performed. Based on the fluorescence intensity, the surgical team judged the distal part of the proximal bowel to be anastomosed insufficiently perfused in 4/107 patients (two anterior, one sigmoid and one segmental splenic flexure resections for cancer), and consequently, further proximal "re-resection" up to a "fluorescent" portion was performed. None of these patients had a clinical leak. The overall morbidity rate was 30 %; one patient undergoing right colectomy had an anastomotic leakage, apparently unrelated to ischemia; there were no clinical evident anastomotic leakages in colorectal resections including all low anterior resections. ICG-enhanced fluorescent angiography provides useful intraoperative information about the vascular perfusion during colorectal surgery and may lead to change the site of resection and/or anastomosis, possibly affecting the anastomotic leak rate. Larger further randomized prospective trials are needed to validate this new technique.
Watanabe, Masanori; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Hanawa, Hidetsugu; Chihara, Naoto; Mizutani, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Uchida, Eiji
The traditional National Healthcare Safety Network (previously National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance) risk index is used to predict the risk of surgical site infection across many operative procedures. However, this index may be too simple to predict risk in the various procedures performed in colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the risk index by analyzing the impact of the risk index factors on surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. Using our surgical site infection surveillance database, we analyzed retrospectively 538 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2010. Correlations between surgical site infection and the following risk index factors were analyzed: length of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, wound classification, and use of laparoscopy. The 75th percentile for length of operation was determined separately for open and laparoscopic surgery in the study model. Univariate analyses showed that surgical site infection was more strongly associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (odds ratio [OR], 2.07) than in the traditional risk index model (OR, 1.64). Multivariable analysis found that surgical site infection was independently associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-4.55), American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.10-4.34), wound classification ≥III (OR, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.62-10.69), and open surgery (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.07-5.17). Performance of the risk index category was improved in the study model compared with the traditional model. The risk index category is sufficiently useful for predicting the risk of surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. However, the 75th percentile length of operation should be set separately for open and laparoscopic surgery.
Prot, Thomas; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas
Surgery offer the only curative treatment for colorectal hepatic metastasis. Nowadays, five-year survival increases up to 58% in selected cases, due to the improvement and combination of chemotherapy, surgery and ablative treatment like embolisation, radio-frequency or cryoablation. Surgery should be integrated in a multi disciplinary approach and initial work-up must take in account patient general conditions, tumor location, and possible extra hepatic extension. Thus, a surgical resection may be performed immediately or after preparation with chemotherapy or selective portal embolization. Management of liver metastasis should be carried out in oncological hepato-biliary centre.
Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Martin-del-Campo, Luis Alfonso
Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder that leads to dysphagia, chest pain, and weight loss. Its diagnosis is clinically suspected and is confirmed with esophageal manometry. Although pneumatic dilation has a role in the treatment of patients with achalasia, laparoscopic Heller myotomy is considered by many experts as the best treatment modality for most patients with newly diagnosed achalasia. This review will focus on the surgical treatment of achalasia, with special emphasis on laparoscopic Heller myotomy. We will also present a brief discussion of the evaluation of patients with persistent or recurrent symptoms after surgical treatment for achalasia and emerging technologies such as LESS, robot-assisted myotomy, and POEM. PMID:24348542
Yazici, Pinar; Onder, Akin; Benlice, Cigdem; Yigitbas, Hakan; Kahramangil, Bora; Tasci, Yunus; Aksoy, Erol; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Berber, Eren
Background The aim of this study is to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes of open and laparoscopic approaches for concomitant resection of synchronous colorectal cancer and liver metastases. Methods Between 2006 and 2015, all patients undergoing combined resection of primary colorectal cancer and liver metastases were included in the study (n=43). Laparoscopic and open groups were compared regarding clinical, perioperative and oncologic outcomes. Results There were 29 patients in the open group and 14 patients in the laparoscopic group. The groups were similar regarding demographics, comorbidities, histopathological characteristics of the primary tumor and liver metastases. Postoperative complication rate (44.8% vs. 7.1%, P=0.016) was higher, and hospital stay (10 vs. 6.4 days, P=0.001) longer in the open compared to the laparoscopic group. Overall survival (OS) was comparable between the groups (P=0.10); whereas, disease-free survival (DFS) was longer in laparoscopic group (P=0.02). Conclusions According to the results, in patients, whose primary colorectal cancer and metastatic liver disease was amenable to a minimally invasive resection, a concomitant laparoscopic approach resulted in less morbidity without compromising oncologic outcomes. This suggests that a laparoscopic approach may be considered in appropriate patients by surgeons with experience in both advanced laparoscopic liver and colorectal techniques. PMID:28861371
Kennedy, Robin H; Francis, E Anne; Wharton, Rose; Blazeby, Jane M; Quirke, Philip; West, Nicholas P; Dutton, Susan J
Laparoscopic resection and a multimodal approach known as an enhanced recovery program (ERP) have been major changes in colorectal perioperative care that have improved clinical outcomes for colorectal cancer resection. EnROL (Enhanced Recovery Open Versus Laparoscopic) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial examining whether the benefits of laparoscopy still exist when open surgery is optimized within an ERP. Adults with colorectal cancer suitable for elective resection were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to laparoscopic or open surgery within an ERP, stratified by center, cancer site (colon v rectum), and age group (<66 v 66-75 v >75 years) using minimization. The primary outcome was physical fatigue at 1 month postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included hospital stay, complications, other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and physical function. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded until 7 days postsurgery or discharge if earlier. Central independent and blinded pathologic assessment of surgical quality was undertaken. A total of 204 patients (laparoscopy, n=103; open surgery, n=101) were recruited from 12 UK centers from July 2008 to April 2012. One-month physical fatigue scores were similar in both groups (mean: laparoscopy, 12.28; 95% CI, 11.37 to 13.19 v open surgery, 12.05; 95% CI, 11.14 to 12.96; adjusted mean difference, -0.23; 95% CI, -1.52 to 1.07). Median total hospital stay was significantly shorter after laparoscopic surgery (median: laparoscopy, 5; interquartile range [IQR], 4 to 9 v open surgery, 7; IQR, 5 to 11 days; P=.033). There were no differences in other secondary outcomes or in specimen quality after central pathologic review. In patients treated by experienced surgeons within an ERP, physical fatigue and other PROs were similar in both groups, but laparoscopic surgery significantly reduced length of hospital stay. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Devoto, Laurence; Celentano, Valerio; Cohen, Richard; Khan, Jim; Chand, Manish
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death from neoplastic disease in men and third in women of all ages. Globally, life expectancy is increasing, and consequently, an increasing number of operations are being performed on more elderly patients with the trend set to continue. Elderly patients are more likely to have cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbidities that are associated with increased peri-operative risk. They further tend to present with more locally advanced disease, more likely to obstruct or have disseminated disease. The aim of this review was to investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic colorectal resection in very elderly patients, and whether there are benefits over open surgery for colorectal cancer. A systematic literature search was performed on Medline, Pubmed, Embase and Google Scholar. All comparative studies evaluating patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer in the patients population over 85 were included. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day overall morbidity. Secondary outcomes were operating time, time to oral diet, number of retrieved lymph nodes, blood loss and 5-year survival. The search provided 1507 citations. Sixty-nine articles were retrieved for full text analysis, and only six retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall mortality for elective laparoscopic resection was 2.92% and morbidity 23%. No single study showed a significant difference between laparoscopic and open surgery for morbidity or mortality, but pooled data analysis demonstrated reduced morbidity in the laparoscopic group (p = 0.032). Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery are more likely to have a shorter hospital stay and a shorter time to oral diet. Elective laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer in the over 85 age group is feasible and safe and offers similar advantages over open surgery to those demonstrated in patients of younger ages.
Easy cleaning of the scope's lens in a syringe to prevent condensation during laparoscopic surgery is a simple and good way to use antifog solution more easily during laparoscopic surgery. This report explains a more inexpensive way to overcome condensation during laparoscopic surgery. Rubbing povidone-iodine surgical scrub solution on the scope's lens prevents its fogging during laparoscopic surgery.
Casillas, Mark A; Leichtle, Stefan W; Wahl, Wendy L; Lampman, Richard M; Welch, Kathleen B; Wellock, Trisha; Madden, Erin B; Cleary, Robert K
Robotic assistance may offer unique advantages over conventional laparoscopy in colorectal operations. This prospective observational study compared operative measures and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopic and robotic abdominal and pelvic resections for benign and malignant disease. From 2005 through 2012, 200 (58%) laparoscopic and 144 (42%) robotic operations were performed by a single surgeon. After adjustment for differences in demographics and disease processes using propensity score matching, all laparoscopic operations had a significantly shorter operative time (P < .01), laparoscopic left colectomies had a longer length of hospital stay (2009 and 2010: 6.5 vs 3.6 days, P = .01); and laparoscopic right colectomies had a higher risk for overall complications (P = .03) and postoperative ileus (P = .04). There were no significant differences in the outcomes of pelvic operations (P = .15). Compared with conventional laparoscopy, some types of robotic-assisted colorectal operations may offer advantages regarding postoperative length of stay and perioperative complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Paolo Angelucci, Giulio; Missori, Giulia; Capuano, Ilaria; Franceschilli, Luana; Quaresima, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Nicola
Background and Objectives: Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common surgical emergency that occurs in 9% of patients after abdominal surgery. Up to 73% are caused by peritoneal adhesions. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the rate of SBOs between patients who underwent laparoscopic (LPS) and those who had open (OPS) colorectal surgery. The secondary reasons were to evaluate the rate of adhesive SBO in a cohort of patients who underwent a range of colorectal resections and to assess risk factors for the development of SBO. Method: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data were analyzed from a prospectively collected database and cross checked with operating theater records and hospital patient management systems. Results: During the study period, 707 patients underwent colorectal resection, 350 of whom (49.5%) were male. Median follow-up was 48.3 months. Of the patients included, 178 (25.2%) underwent LPS, whereas 529 (74.8%) had OPS. SBO occurred in 72 patients (10.2%): 20 (11.2%) in the LPS group and 52 (9.8%) in the OPS group [P = .16; hazards ratio (HR) 1.4 95% CI 0.82–2.48] within the study period. Conversion to an open procedure was associated with increased risk of SBO (P = .039; HR 2.82; 95% CI 0.78–8.51). Stoma formation was an independent risk factor for development of SBO (P = .049; HR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.39–1.03). The presence of an incisional hernia in the OPS group was associated with SBO (P = .0003; HR, 2.85; 95% CI 1.44–5.283). There was no difference in SBO between different types of procedures: right colon, left colon, and rectal surgery. Patients who developed early small-bowel obstruction (ESBO) were more often treated surgically compared to late SBO (P = .0001). Conclusion: The use of laparoscopy does not influence the rate of SBO, but conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery is associated with an increased risk of SBO. Stoma formation is associated with a 2-fold increase in SBO. Development of ESBO is
Hayashi, Yuichiro; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Hirose, Tomoaki; Nagino, Masato; Mori, Kensaku
This paper describes a surgical navigation system for laparoscopic surgery and its application to laparoscopic hepatectomy. The proposed surgical navigation system presents virtual laparoscopic views using a 3D positional tracker and preoperative CT images. We use an electromagnetic tracker for obtaining positional information of a laparoscope and a forceps. The point-pair matching registration method is performed for aligning coordinate systems between the 3D positional tracker and the CT images. Virtual laparoscopic views corresponding to the laparoscope position are generated from the obtained positional information, the registration results, and the CT images using a volume rendering method. We performed surgical navigation using the proposed system during laparoscopic hepatectomy for fourteen cases. The proposed system could generate virtual laparoscopic views in synchronization with the laparoscope position during surgery.
Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Nam Kyu; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Jinae; Noh, Hyun-young; Lee, Jong Ho; Koo, Bon-Neyo
Abstract There has been a rising interest in the possible association between perioperative opioid use and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Continuous surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is a nonopioid analgesic technique that can be used as a postoperative pain management alternative to opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an opioid-based analgesic regimen versus a local anesthetic wound infiltration-based analgesic regimen on immune modulation and short-term cancer recurrence or metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer. Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to either the opioid group or the ON-Q group. For postoperative analgesia during the first 48 hours, the opioid group (n = 30) received fentanyl via IV PCA, whereas the ON-Q group (n = 30) received continuous wound infiltration of 0.5% ropivacaine with an ON-Q pump and tramadol via IV PCA. Pethidine for the opioid group and ketorolac or propacetamol for the ON-Q group were used as rescue analgesics. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. The primary outcome was postoperative immune function assessed by natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and interleukin-2. Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications, cancer recurrence, or metastasis within 1 year after surgery, and postoperative inflammatory responses measured by white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, and C-reactive protein. Immune function and inflammatory responses were measured before surgery and 24 and 48 hours after surgery. Fifty-nine patients completed the study. In the circumstance of similar pain control efficacy between the opioid group and the ON-Q group, postoperative NKCC and interleukin-2 levels did not differ between the 2 groups. The incidence of postoperative complications and recurrence
Vavra, Petr; Nowakova, Jana; Ostruszka, Petr; Jurcikova, Jana; Martinek, Lubomir; Penhaker, Marek; Ihnat, Peter; Habib, Nagy; Zonca, Pavel
Introduction The liver is the most common site of colorectal metastases (colorectal liver metastases – CLM). Surgical treatment in combination with oncological therapy is the only potentially curative method. Unfortunately, only 10–25% of patients are suitable for surgery. Traditionally, open liver resection (OLR) is usually performed. However, laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has become popular worldwide in the last two decades. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of radiofrequency minor LLR of CLM in comparison with OLR. Material and methods The indication for surgery was CLM and the possibility to perform minor laparoscopic or OLR not exceeding two hepatic segments according to Couinaud's classification. Results Sixty-six minor liver resections for CLM were performed. Twenty-five (37.9%) patients underwent a laparoscopic approach and 41 (62.1%) patients underwent OLR. The mean operative time was 166.4 min for LLR and 166.8 min for OLR. Average blood loss was 132.3 ±218.0 ml during LLR and 149.5 ±277.5 ml during OLR. Length of hospital stay was 8.4 ±2.0 days for LLR and 10.5 ±5.8 days for OLR. All resections were R0. There was no case of mortality. Postoperative complications were recognized in 9 (13.6%) patients: 8 in the group of OLR patients and 1 in the LLR group. The median survival time for LLR was 70.5 months and for OLR 61.9 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was higher for LLR vs. OLR – 82.1% vs. 69.8%. The average length of disease-free interval after LLR was greater (52.2 months) in comparison with OLR (49.4%). The 5-year disease-free interval was 63.2% for LLR and 58% for OLR. Conclusions Outcomes and oncological radicality of minor laparoscopic liver resections of CLM are comparable to outcomes of OLR. PMID:26240620
Moloo, Husein; Haggar, Fatima; Martel, Guillaume; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Coyle, Doug; Graham, Ian D.; Sabri, Elham; Poulin, Eric C.; Mamazza, Joseph; Balaa, Fady K.; Boushey, Robin P.
Background Laparoscopic surgery may become the standard of care for the treatment of colorectal disease. Little is known regarding North American patterns of practice or the limiting factors and strategies for adoption among surgeons. Methods We sent a 28-item questionnaire to all general surgeon members of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. We derived descriptive and correlative information using χ2, Wilcoxon rank sum and Student t tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results The return rate was 55% (694/1266). A total of 67% (462/694; 95% confidence interval 63%–70%) of respondents perform colorectal surgery. Of these, 54% perform laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Multivariate logistic regression identified 5 factors related to performing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: fewer years in practice (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.015), practising in the province of Quebec (p = 0.005), university-hospital affiliation (p = 0.034) and minimally invasive surgery fellowship training (p = 0.023). Lack of adequate operating time and formal training were the main reasons cited by surgeons not offering laparoscopic colon resections. Most surgeons (67%) felt that site visits from a minimally invasive surgeon would represent the most effective training method for acquiring advanced laparoscopic skills. Conclusion About half of Canadian general surgeons offer laparoscopic colorectal resections. Recent graduation, male sex, practice location, university-hospital affiliation and minimally invasive surgery training are significant predictors for offering a laparoscopic approach. Lack of operative time and formal training are the main barriers to adoption of the technique. Site visits by trained laparoscopic surgeons is the preferred method of acquiring advanced skills. PMID:20011180
Kang, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Ki-Hun; Shin, Min-Ho; Yoon, Young-In; Kim, Wan-Jun; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sung-Gyu
Abstract The aim of the study was to report surgical outcomes (efficacy and safety) of laparoscopic major hepatectomy for various liver diseases. Although the number of laparoscopic liver resections has increased, expansion of laparoscopic major hepatic resection remains limited, mainly owing to the technical difficulties for the procedure as compared to open surgery. We describe our experiences with laparoscopic major hepatectomy for various liver diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 192 patients who underwent laparoscopic major hepatectomy between October 2007 and March 2015 at Asan Medical Center, Korea. The mean age of the patients was 54 ± 11.6 years, and their mean body mass index was 23.5 kg/m2. The most common preoperative diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 82, 42.7%), followed by intrahepatic duct stones (n = 51, 26.6%). We performed 108 left hepatectomies, 55 right hepatectomies, 18 right posterior sectionectomies, 6 right anterior sectionectomies, 2 central bisectionectomies, and 3 donor right hepatectomies. The conversion rate was 1.6% (3 cases) due to bleeding, bile leakage, and uncontrolled hypercapnea during the operation. The mean operation time was 272 ± 80.2 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 300.4 ± 252.2 mL. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 9.8 days. All resection margins were tumor-free in cases of malignant tumors. The morbidity rate was 3.1% (n = 6), including for case of biliary stricture. There were no deaths. Laparoscopic major hepatectomy, including donor hepatectomy, is a safe and feasible option for various liver diseases when careful selection criteria are used by a surgeon experienced with the relevant surgical techniques. PMID:27787374
Suh, Sang Gyun; Sohn, Hee Joo; Kim, Beom Gyu; Park, Joong-Min; Choi, Yoo-Shin; Park, Yong Keum
Background: Single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) is one of the most commonly performed single port surgeries in the world. However, there are few publications documenting a young resident’s experience. The purpose of this study is to investigate clinical outcomes of SILA performed by a surgical trainee and to evaluate its feasibility and safety compared with conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TPLA) when performed by a surgical trainee and SILA by surgical staff. Methods: Between September 2014 and August 2015, clinical data were retrospectively collected for SILA and TPLA cases performed at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Three surgical residents who have assisted at least 50 cases of TPLA and 30 cases of SILA performed by gastrointestinal surgery specialists performed the surgeries. The indication of SILA by surgical trainees was noncomplicated appendicitis with no comorbidity. Results: In total, 47 patients underwent SILA by surgical residents, 98 patients underwent TPLA by surgical residents and 137 patients underwent SILA by surgical staff. In comparing SILA and TPLA performed by surgical residents, the mean age was younger (26 vs. 41 y, P<0.005) in the SILA group, the operative time (47.2 vs. 61.5 min, P<0.010) and hospital stay (2.3 vs. 2.7 d, P=0.003) were shorter in SILA group. In the SILA group, 2 cases of postoperative fluid collection (5.7%) occurred, necessitating antibiotic treatment. In TPLA group, 1 postoperative abscess occurred, requiring drainage. When comparing SILA performed by surgical residents and SILA performed by surgical staff, there were no significant differences in operation time, and postoperative complications. Conclusion: Surgical residents safely performed SILA with good postoperative outcomes after short learning curve. PMID:27846185
Kimberley, Nicholas A.; Kirkpatrick, Susan M.; Watters, James M.
Objective To compare the effects of laparoscopic and open surgical procedures on postoperative strength and respiratory mechanics. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Adult university hospital. Participants Fifty-one women aged 21 to 62 years scheduled to undergo elective cholecystectomy or hysterectomy (or related procedures), otherwise in good health. Intervention Open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy or hysterectomy (or related procedures). Main Outcome Measures Maximum voluntary handgrip strength (HGS), forced vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) were each measured preoperatively and on the first postoperative morning. A visual analogue pain scale score was evaluated in relation to performance of the postoperative strength and respiratory measurements. Results VC, FEV1 and MIP, but not HGS, were decreased after surgery. Postoperative VC, FEV1 and MIP were lower after open procedures than after laparoscopic procedures and after cholecystectomy than after hysterectomy (all p < 0.001). Pain scores were lower after laparoscopic than after open procedures (p < 0.005) and could account in part for differences in postoperative respiratory mechanics. Conclusions Cholecystectomy and hysterectomy do not result in generalized muscle weakness, unlike more major abdominal procedures. Postoperative alterations in respiratory mechanics are related to the site of the surgery, the use of an open versus a laparoscopic approach and postoperative pain. PMID:8697322
Joshi, HMN; Gosselink, MP; Adusumilli, S; Hompes, R; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I
Introduction The advantages of single port surgery remain controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of single incision glove port colon resections using a diathermy hook, reusable ports and standard laparoscopic straight instrumentation. Methods Between June 2012 and February 2014, 70 consecutive patients (30 women) underwent a colonic resection using a wound retractor and glove port. Forty patients underwent a right hemicolectomy through the umbilicus and thirty underwent attempted single port resection via an incision in the right rectus sheath (14 high anterior resection, 13 low anterior resection, 3 abdominoperineal resection). Results Sixty-two procedures (89%) were completed without conversion to open or multiport techniques. Four procedures had to be converted and additional ports were needed in four other patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 0%. Complications occurred in six patients (9%). Two cases were R1 while the remainder were R0 with a median nodal harvest of 20 (range: 9–48). The median length of hospital stay was 5 days (range: 3–25 days) (right hemicolectomy: 5 days (range: 3–12 days), left sided resection: 6 days (range: 4–25 days). At a median follow-up of 14 months, no port site hernias were observed. Conclusions Single incision glove port surgery is an appropriate technique for different colorectal cancer resections and has the advantage of being less expensive than surgery with commercial single incision ports. PMID:26263805
Reza, M M; Blasco, J A; Andradas, E; Cantero, R; Mayol, J
This study compares the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery (LS) and open surgery (OS) for colorectal cancer. An electronic search of the literature was undertaken to identify primary studies and systematic reviews. Information on the efficacy and safety of LS versus OS was analysed. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine long-term outcomes. A systematic review published in 2000 and 12 more recent randomized clinical trials were identified. Compared with OS, LS reduced blood loss and pain, and resulted in a faster return of bowel function and earlier resumption of normal diet. Hospital stay was up to 2 days shorter after LS. No significant differences between the techniques were noted in the incidence of complications or postoperative mortality. The time required to complete LS was significantly longer (0.5-1.0 h more). No significant differences were found between the two procedures in terms of overall mortality, cancer-related mortality or disease recurrence. LS takes longer than OS but offers several short-term benefits. However, complication rates are similar for both procedures and no differences were found in long-term outcomes.
Flor, Nicola; Campari, Alessandro; Ravelli, Anna; Lombardi, Maria Antonietta; Pisani Ceretti, Andrea; Maroni, Nirvana; Opocher, Enrico; Cornalba, Gianpaolo
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography colonography (CE-CTC) is a useful guide for the laparoscopic surgeon to avoid incorrectly removing the colonic segment and the failure to diagnose of synchronous colonic and extra-colonic lesions. Lymph node dissection and vessel ligation under a laparoscopic approach can be time-consuming and can damage vessels and organs. Moreover, mesenteric vessels have extreme variations in terms of their courses and numbers. We describe the benefit of using an abdominal vascular map created by CE-CTC in laparoscopic colorectal surgery candidates. We describe patients with different diseases (colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease) who underwent CE-CTC just prior to laparoscopic surgery.
Campari, Alessandro; Ravelli, Anna; Lombardi, Maria Antonietta; Pisani Ceretti, Andrea; Maroni, Nirvana; Opocher, Enrico; Cornalba, Gianpaolo
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography colonography (CE-CTC) is a useful guide for the laparoscopic surgeon to avoid incorrectly removing the colonic segment and the failure to diagnose of synchronous colonic and extra-colonic lesions. Lymph node dissection and vessel ligation under a laparoscopic approach can be time-consuming and can damage vessels and organs. Moreover, mesenteric vessels have extreme variations in terms of their courses and numbers. We describe the benefit of using an abdominal vascular map created by CE-CTC in laparoscopic colorectal surgery candidates. We describe patients with different diseases (colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease) who underwent CE-CTC just prior to laparoscopic surgery. PMID:26175581
Harenberg, Sebastian; McCaffrey, Rob; Butz, Matthew; Post, Dustin; Howlett, Joel; Dorsch, Kim D; Lyster, Kish
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between multiple object tracking (MOT) and simulated laparoscopic surgery skills. A total of 29 second-year medical students were recruited for this study. The participants completed 3 rounds of a three-dimensional MOT and a simulated laparoscopic surgery task. Averages of the performance on the tasks were calculated. Descriptive variables (i.e., age, hours of sleep, caffeine, and video game use) were measured via questionnaires. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression models with surgical performance as the outcome variable. Predictor variable was the multiple objects tracking score and the descriptive variables. The regression models revealed a significant prediction of simulated laparoscopic surgical skills by the multiple objects tracking score. In particular, 29% of the variance of time to completion and 28% of the average surgical arm movement were explained. In both regressions, the MOT score was the only significant predictor. This study demonstrates the potential implications of perceptual-cognitive training for future surgeons. Along with motor skill practice, MOT may aid to better prepare health care professionals for the complex cognitive demands of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nigim, Fares; Thomas, Ajith J.; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Critchlow, Jonathan F.; Chen, Clark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.
Objectives: Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a mainstay of hydrocephalus therapy, but carries a significant risk of device malfunctioning. This study aims to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunting versus open ventriculoperitoneal shunting (OVPS) VPS-placement and reviews our findings in the pertinent context of the literature from 1993 to 2012. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 232 patients underwent first time VPS placement at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Of those, 155 were laparoscopically guided and 77 were done conventionally. We analyzed independent variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique) and dependent variables (operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay in the hospital) and occurrence of shunt failure. Results: Mean operative time was 43.7 min (18.0-102.0) in the laparoscopic group versus 63.0 min (30.0-151.0) in the open group, (P < 0.05). Length of stay was similar, 5 days in the laparoscopic and in the open group, (P = 0.945). The incidence of shunt failure during the entire follow-up period was not statistically different between the two groups, occurring in 14.1% in the laparoscopic group and 16.9% in the open group, (P = 0.601). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in shunt survival between the two groups (P = 0.868), with functionality in 85% at 6-months and 78.5% at 1-year. Conclusion: According to our study, LVPS-placement results compare similarly to OVPS placement in most aspects. Since laparoscopic placement is not routinely indicated, we suggest a prospective study to assess its value as an alternate technique especially suitable in obese patients and patients with previous abdominal operations. PMID:25126122
Nigim, Fares; Thomas, Ajith J; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E; Critchlow, Jonathan F; Chen, Clark C; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Zinn, Pascal O; Kasper, Ekkehard M
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a mainstay of hydrocephalus therapy, but carries a significant risk of device malfunctioning. This study aims to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunting versus open ventriculoperitoneal shunting (OVPS) VPS-placement and reviews our findings in the pertinent context of the literature from 1993 to 2012. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 232 patients underwent first time VPS placement at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Of those, 155 were laparoscopically guided and 77 were done conventionally. We analyzed independent variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique) and dependent variables (operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay in the hospital) and occurrence of shunt failure. Mean operative time was 43.7 min (18.0-102.0) in the laparoscopic group versus 63.0 min (30.0-151.0) in the open group, (P < 0.05). Length of stay was similar, 5 days in the laparoscopic and in the open group, (P = 0.945). The incidence of shunt failure during the entire follow-up period was not statistically different between the two groups, occurring in 14.1% in the laparoscopic group and 16.9% in the open group, (P = 0.601). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in shunt survival between the two groups (P = 0.868), with functionality in 85% at 6-months and 78.5% at 1-year. According to our study, LVPS-placement results compare similarly to OVPS placement in most aspects. Since laparoscopic placement is not routinely indicated, we suggest a prospective study to assess its value as an alternate technique especially suitable in obese patients and patients with previous abdominal operations.
Romy, Sébastien; Eisenring, Marie-Christine; Bettschart, Vincent; Petignat, Christiane; Francioli, Patrick; Troillet, Nicolas
To compare surgical site infection (SSI) rates in open or laparoscopic appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and colon surgery. To investigate the effect of laparoscopy on SSI in these interventions. Lower rates of SSI have been reported among various advantages associated with laparoscopy when compared with open surgery, particularly in cholecystectomy. However, biases such as the lack of postdischarge follow-up and confounding factors might have contributed to the observed differences between the 2 techniques. This observational study was based on prospectively collected data from an SSI surveillance program in 8 Swiss hospitals between March 1998 and December 2004, including a standardized postdischarge follow-up. SSI rates were compared between laparoscopic and open interventions. Factors associated with SSI were identified by using logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounding factors. SSI rates in laparoscopic and open interventions were respectively 59/1051 (5.6%) versus 117/1417 (8.3%) in appendectomy (P = 0.01), 46/2606 (1.7%) versus 35/444 (7.9%) in cholecystectomy (P < 0.0001), and 35/311 (11.3%) versus 400/1781 (22.5%) in colon surgery (P < 0.0001). After adjustment, laparoscopic interventions were associated with a decreased risk for SSI: OR = 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.87) in appendectomy, 0.27 (0.16-0.43) in cholecystectomy, and 0.43 (0.29-0.63) in colon surgery. The observed effect of laparoscopic techniques was due to a reduction in the rates of incisional infections, rather than in those of organ/space infections. When feasible, a laparoscopic approach should be preferred over open surgery to lower the risks of SSI.
Background Laparoscopic procedure is a rapid developed technique in colorectal surgery. In this investigation we aim at assessing the diversities of short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Methods A total number of 519 patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled for this study. The patients underwent either laparoscopic-assisted surgery (LAP) (n = 254) or open surgery (OP) (n = 265). Surgical techniques, perioperative managements and clinical follow-ups were standardized. Short-term perioperative data and medium-term recurrence and survival were compared and analyzed between the two groups. Results There were no differences in perioperative parameters between the two groups except in regards to a trend of faster recovery in laparoscopic procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative complications, reoperation rate, or perioperative mortality. Statistically significant differences in a faster return of gastrointestinal function and shorter hospital stay were identified in favor of laparoscopic-assisted resection. In colon and rectal cancer cases separately, the overall survival, cancer-free survival and recurrence rate were similar in two groups. There was also no tendency of significant differences in overall survival, cancer-free survival and recurrence in stage I-II and stage III patients in two cancer categories between the two groups, respectively. pT, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were independent predictors of overall death risk, while pT, pN, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage were found to be the independent predictors of recurrence risk in enrolled patients database. Conclusions Laparoscopic-assisted procedure has more benefits on postoperative recovery, while has the same effects on medium-term recurrence and survival compared with open surgery in the treatment of non-metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:21794159
Bozkurt, Mehmet Abdussamet; Kocataş, Ali; Gemici, Eyüp; Kalaycı, Mustafa Uygar; Alış, Halil
Objective: Robotic surgery was first introduced in 2000 especially to overcome the limitations of low rectum cancer surgery. There is still no consensus regarding the standard method for colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare robotic surgery with laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Data of patients with a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer were analyzed for robotic colorectal surgery and laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Results: The cost of robotic surgery group was statistically higher than the laparoscopic surgery group (p=0.032). The average operation duration was 178 minutes in the laparoscopic surgery group and 228 minutes in the robotic surgery group, and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.044). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding other parameters. Discussion: Disadvantages of robotic surgery seem to be its higher cost and longer operation duration as compared to laparoscopic surgery. We claim that an increase in the number of cases and experience may shorten the operation time while the increase in commercial interest may decrease the cost disadvantage of robotic surgery. PMID:27436931
Künzli, Beat M; Friess, Helmut; Shrikhande, Shailesh V
Laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) is an evolving subject. Recent studies show that LCS can not only offer safe surgery but evidence is growing that this new technique can be superior to classical open procedures. Fewer perioperative complications and faster postoperative recovery are regularly mentioned when studies of LCS are presented. Even though the learning curve of LCS is frequently debated when limitations of laparoscopic surgeries are reviewed, studies show that in experienced hands LCS can be a safe procedure for colorectal cancer treatment. The learning curve however, is associated with high conversion rates and economical aspects such as higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. Nevertheless, laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery (LCCR) offers several advantages such as less co-morbidity and less postoperative pain in comparison with open procedures. Furthermore, the good exposure of the pelvic cavity by laparoscopy and the magnification of anatomical structures seem to facilitate pelvic dissection laparoscopically. Moreover, recent studies describe no difference in safety and oncological radicalness in LCCR compared to the open total mesorectal excision (TME). The oncological adequacy of LCCR still remains unproven today, because long-term results do not yet exist. To date, only a few studies have described the results of laparoscopic TME combined with preoperative adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer. The aim of this review is to examine the various areas of development and controversy of LCCR in comparison to the conventional open approach. PMID:21160858
Holzmacher, Jeremy L; Luka, Samuel; Aziz, Madiha; Amdur, Richard L; Agarwal, Samir; Obias, Vincent
To date there exists no published study examining the safety and efficacy of the EndoWrist 45 (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) robotic stapler. We compared outcomes between the robotic and comparable laparoscopic stapler in robotic-assisted colorectal procedures. We conducted a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent robotic-assisted colorectal surgery at our institution from 2012 to 2014. Surgeries included left, sigmoid, subtotal and total colectomies, and low anterior rectal resections. Indications were malignancy and diverticular and inflammatory bowel disease. Preoperative demographics, intraoperative data, and postoperative outcomes were examined. Student's t-test and Fischer's exact used were appropriate. Forty-five millimeters laparoscopic staplers were used in 58 cases, while the 45 mm robotic stapler was used in 35 cases. There was no difference in age (P = .651), gender (P = .832), or body mass index (P = .204) between groups. There was no difference in estimated blood loss (P = .524), operative time (P = .769), length of stay (P = .895), or complication rate (P = .778). The robotic stapler group had one anastomotic leak, while the laparoscopic stapler group had six (P = .705). There were more laparoscopic stapler fires (2.69) per patient than robotic stapler fires (1.86) (P = .001). The cost per patient for the laparoscopic group was $631.45 versus $473.28 for the robotic group (P = .001). This is the first study to evaluate the robotic stapler. Advantages of the robotic stapler include large range of motion and 90° of articulation, which may provide a benefit when using the stapler in difficult areas like the pelvis. The robotic stapler has a comparable level of safety as a 45 mm laparoscopic stapler and is more cost effective.
D'Hoore, André; Wolthuis, Albert M; Mizrahi, Hagar; Parker, Mike; Bemelman, Willem A; Wara, Pål
Single incision laparoscopic surgery resection of colon is feasible, but so far evidence of benefit compared to standard laparoscopic technique is lacking. In addition to robot-controlled camera, there is only one robot system on the market capable of performing laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci robot may contribute to making complex laparoscopic procedures easier to perform, but the system is costly in purchase and maintenance. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery aiming to reduce abdominal wall trauma is developing and bringing new technology. Combinations of laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques will expand future indications.
Nicolau, Stéphane; Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques
Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient. However, minimally invasive surgery increases the operative difficulty since the depth perception is usually dramatically reduced, the field of view is limited and the sense of touch is transmitted by an instrument. However, these drawbacks can currently be reduced by computer technology guiding the surgical gesture. Indeed, from a patient's medical image (US, CT or MRI), Augmented Reality (AR) can increase the surgeon's intra-operative vision by providing a virtual transparency of the patient. AR is based on two main processes: the 3D visualization of the anatomical or pathological structures appearing in the medical image, and the registration of this visualization on the real patient. 3D visualization can be performed directly from the medical image without the need for a pre-processing step thanks to volume rendering. But better results are obtained with surface rendering after organ and pathology delineations and 3D modelling. Registration can be performed interactively or automatically. Several interactive systems have been developed and applied to humans, demonstrating the benefit of AR in surgical oncology. It also shows the current limited interactivity due to soft organ movements and interaction between surgeon instruments and organs. If the current automatic AR systems show the feasibility of such system, it is still relying on specific and expensive equipment which is not available in clinical routine. Moreover, they are not robust enough due to the high complexity of developing a real-time registration taking organ deformation and human movement into account. However, the latest results of automatic AR systems are extremely encouraging and show that it will become a standard requirement for future computer-assisted surgical oncology. In this article, we will explain the concept of AR and its principles. Then, we
Al-Taher, Mahdi; van den Bos, Jacqueline; Schols, Rutger M; Bouvy, Nicole D; Stassen, Laurents P S
Ureteral injury during laparoscopic surgery is rare, but when it occurs, it can be a serious problem. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) with methylene blue (MB) administration is a promising technique for easier and potentially earlier intraoperative visualization of the ureter. Aim of this prospective study was to assess the feasibility of NIRF imaging of the ureter during laparoscopic colorectal surgery, using MB. Patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were included and received intravenous injection of MB preoperatively. The ureter was visualized using a laparoscope, which offered both conventional and fluorescence imaging. Intraoperative recognition of the ureter was registered. The precision of ureter distinction with MB imaging was compared to the conventional laparoscopic view. Ten patients were included. All procedures were initially performed using a laparoscopic approach. Dose per injection ranged between 0.125 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg bodyweight. There were no adverse effects attributable to MB administration. The ureter was successfully detected in five patients, with highest contrast between ureter and surrounding tissue at an administered dose of 0.75-1.0 mg/kg. The fluorescent signal was only picked up after the ureter was already visible in the conventional white light mode. Ureteral fluorescence imaging using MB proved to be safe and feasible. However, the present technique does not provide practical advantage over conventional laparoscopic imaging for identification of the ureter during laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Future research is necessary to explore more extensive dose finding, alternative fluorescent dyes, or improvement of the imaging system to make this application clinically beneficial.
The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.
Background Colorectal cancer is one kind of frequent malignant tumors of the digestive tract which gets high morbidity and mortality allover the world. Despite the promising clinical results recently, less information is available regarding the perioperative immunological effects of laparoscopic surgery when compared with the open surgery. This study aimed to compare the cellular immune responses of patients who underwent laparoscopic(LCR) and open resections(OCR) for colorectal cancer. Methods Between Mar 2009 and Sep 2009, 35 patients with colorectal carcinoma underwent LCR by laparoscopic surgeon. These patients were compared with 33 cases underwent conventional OCR by colorectal surgeon. Clinical data about the patients were collected prospectively. Comparison of the operative details and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopic and open resection was performed. Peripheral venous blood samples from these 68 patients were taken prior to surgery as well as on postoperative days(POD) 1, 4 and 7. Cell counts of total white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer(NK) cells as well as CRP were determined by blood counting instrument, flow cytometry and hematology analyzer. Results There was no difference in the age, gender and tumor status between the two groups. The operating time was a little longer in the laparoscopic group (P > 0.05), but the blood loss was less (P = 0.039). Patients with laparoscopic resection had earlier return of bowel function and earlier resumption of diet as well as shorter median hospital stay (P < 0.001). Compared with OCR group, cell numbers of total lymphocytes, CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells were significant more in LCR group (P < 0.05) on POD 4, while there was no difference in the CD45RO+T or NK cell numbers between the two groups. Cellular immune responds were similar between the two groups on POD1 and POD7. Conclusions Laparoscopic colorectal resection gets less surgery stress and short-term advantages
Duda, Miloslav; Srovnal, Josef; Bartos, Jiri; Radova, Lenka; Hajduch, Marian; Soumarova, Renata
Aim Detection of the possible impact of surgical management on the occurrence of minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in bone marrow samples, portal and peripheral blood samples. Comparison of MRD prevalence in patients with laparoscopic resection of CRC and those with open colorectal resection. Assessment of the potential impact of MRD on the relapse of the disease and overall survival of patients. Material and methods The study included 124 patients with primary CRC without proven distant metastases indicated for elective laparoscopic resection and operated on between September 21, 2006 and December 31, 2008 at the Department of Surgery, Hospital and J.G. Mendel Oncological Centre Novy Jicin. 6 samples were collected from each patient to determine MRD (system venous blood and bone marrow at the beginning of surgery, venous blood from mesenteric bloodstream, system venous blood after the resection, system venous blood and bone marrow 1 month after the surgery). Detection of MRD on the basis of CEA expression was performed by real-time RT-PCR technique. The results were compared with those obtained within the similar research using the same methodology at the 2nd Department of Surgery, University Hospital in Olomouc (the group included 230 patients treated with open resection of CRC). Results In the group of patients treated with laparoscopic resection, a correlation between positive MRD in the sample of bone marrow collected before the surgery and the stage of the disease was found (p < 0.035). We also recorded the impact of surgical management on MRD occurrence in system venous blood in primary negative patients (p < 0.025). However, in the course of the short period of time we have not found a statistically significant correlation between the finding in patients with stage I-III, and the period prior to the relapse of the disease (p < 0.59). With regard to the results obtained, we can expect a potential direct correlation
Zhang, Xing-Mao; Wang, Zheng; Liang, Jian-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang
This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal resection in a period of learning curve completed by surgeons with different experience and aptitudes with a view to making clear whether seniors had a better learning curve compared with juniors. From May 2010 to August 2012, the first twenty patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection completed by each surgeon were selected for analysis retrospectively. A total of 240 patients treated by 5 seniors and 7 juniors were divided into the senior group (n=100) and the junior group (n=140). The short-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery of the two groups were compared. The mean numbers of lymph nodes harvested were 21.2 ± 11.0 in the senior group and 17.3 ± 11.5 in the junior group (p=0.010); The mean operative times were 187.9 ± 60.0 min as compared to 231.3 ± 55.7 min (p=0.006), and blood loss values were 177.0 ± 100.7 ml and 234.0 ± 185 ml, respectively (p=0.001); Conversion rate in the senior group was obviously lower than in the junior group (10.0% vs 20.7%, p=0.027) and the mean time to passing of first flatus were 3.3 ± 0.9 and 3.8 ± 0.9 days (p=0.001). For low rectal cancer, the sphincter preserving rates were 68.7% and 35.3% (p=0.027). Seniors could perform laparoscopic colorectal resection with relatively better oncological outcomes and quicker recovery, and seniors could master the laparoscopic skill more easily and quickly. Seniors had a better learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection compared to juniors.
Adams, Barbara J; Margaron, Franklin; Kaplan, Brian J
The video game industry has become increasingly popular over recent years, offering photorealistic simulations of various scenarios while requiring motor, visual, and cognitive coordination. Video game players outperform nonplayers on different visual tasks and are faster and more accurate on laparoscopic simulators. The same qualities found in video game players are highly desired in surgeons. Our investigation aims to evaluate the effect of video game play on the development of fine motor and visual skills. Specifically, we plan to examine if handheld video devices offer the same improvement in laparoscopic skill as traditional simulators, with less cost and more accessibility. We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved study, including categorical surgical residents and preliminary interns at our institution. The residents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 study arms, including a traditional laparoscopic simulator, XBOX 360 gaming console, or Nintendo DS handheld gaming system. After an introduction survey and baseline timed test using a laparoscopic surgery box trainer, residents were given 6 weeks to practice on their respective consoles. At the conclusion of the study, the residents were tested again on the simulator and completed a final survey. A total of 31 residents were included in the study, representing equal distribution of each class level. The XBOX 360 group spent more time on their console weekly (6 hours per week) compared with the simulator (2 hours per week), and Nintendo groups (3 hours per week). There was a significant difference in the improvement of the tested time among the 3 groups, with the XBOX 360 group showing the greatest improvement (p = 0.052). The residents in the laparoscopic simulator arm (n = 11) improved 4.6 seconds, the XBOX group (n = 10) improved 17.7 seconds, and the Nintendo DS group (n = 10) improved 11.8 seconds. Residents who played more than 10 hours of video games weekly had the fastest times on the simulator
Nishigori, Naoto; Koyama, Fumikazu; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ueda, Takeshi; Inoue, Takashi; Kawasaki, Keijirou; Obara, Shinsaku; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Fujii, Hisao; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki
In laparoscopic colorectal cancer (Lap-CRC) surgery, determination of a suitable mesentery division line and the appropriate degree of lymphadenectomy by tracing the blood supply is critical. We performed visualization of the lymph and blood flow by laparoscopic indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging (Lap-IGFI). ICG is injected into the submucosa near the tumor via colonoscopy, and the lymph flow is observed. Intestinal blood flow is evaluated by administering ICG intravenously. For lymph flow, visualization of the main lymph node basin helped to determine the surgical division line for cases in which the blood flow was not completely visualized. Lap-IGFI changed the surgical plan of the lymphadenectomy in 23.5 %. In our experience, the metastatic rate of ICG-positive nodes was 10.0 %, and the metastatic rate of ICG-negative nodes was 5.3 %. Furthermore, there were no metastatic nodes that were ICG negative more than 5 cm from the tumor. For blood flow, the blood flow distribution of the intestinal wall from the last branch of the vasa recta of the anastomotic site was clearly visualized and proved useful in choosing the extent of intestinal resection. Lap-IGFI changed the surgical plan of the extensive intestinal resection in 16.7 %. Lap-IGFI can noninvasively provide detailed lymph and blood flow information and is a useful device to aid in the accurate identification of individual patients' lymph drainage. This helps dictate adequate lymphadenectomy and the extent of intestinal resection in Lap-CRC surgery.
Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie
Context-aware technologies have great potential to help surgeons during laparoscopic interventions. Their underlying idea is to create systems which can adapt their assistance functions automatically to the situation in the OR, thus relieving surgeons from the burden of managing computer assisted surgery devices manually. To this purpose, a certain kind of understanding of the current situation in the OR is essential. Beyond that, anticipatory knowledge of incoming events is beneficial, e.g. for early warnings of imminent risk situations. To achieve the goal of predicting surgical events based on previously observed ones, we developed a language to describe surgeries and surgical events using Description Logics and integrated it with methods from computational linguistics. Using n-Grams to compute probabilities of followup events, we are able to make sensible predictions of upcoming events in real-time. The system was evaluated on professionally recorded and labeled surgeries and showed an average prediction rate of 80%.
Lee, Dong Hee; Kim, Hwa Cheung; Seong, Seok Ju
Objective To present our experience with laparoscopic tube-preserving surgery for ectopic tubal pregnancy and evaluate its feasibility and efficacy. Methods This was a prospective study of 57 consecutive patients with ectopic tubal pregnancies undergoing laparoscopic tube-preserving procedures including salpingotomy, salpingostomy, segmental resection and reanastomosis, and fimbrial milking. The outcome measures were treatment success rates and homolateral patency rates. Results Of the 57 surgical procedures, 55 (96.4%) were performed successfully without any additional intervention. The number of patients receiving salpingotomy, salpingostomy, segmental resection and reanastomosis, and fimbrial milking were 24 (42.1%), 25 (43.9%), 4 (7.0%), and 2 (3.5%), respectively. Two case was switched to salpingectomy because excessive bipolar coagulation was required to obtain hemostasis at the tubal bleeding bed. Over a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin resolution time of 18.3±5.9 days, no persistent trophoblast or postoperative complications occurred. A tubal patency test using hysterosalpingography was performed in 15 cases at 3 months postoperatively. Among these, the homolateral tubal patency rate was 75% (11 of 15) and the contralateral patency rate was 80% (12 of 15). Conclusion Tube-preserving surgery is a feasible and safe treatment option for ectopic tubal pregnancy. However, considering that the optimal goal of tube-preserving surgical procedures is not the treatment success, some caution is warranted in interpreting results of this study. PMID:27896254
Fu, Shangxi; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Meisheng; Wang, Liming
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of surgical laparoscopic operation course on laparoscopic operation skills after the simulated training for medical students with relatively objective results via data gained before and after the practice course of laparoscopic simulator of the resident standardized trainees. Experiment 1: 20 resident standardized trainees with no experience in laparoscopic surgery were included in the inexperienced group and finished simulated cholecystectomy according to simulator videos. Simulator data was collected (total operation time, path length, average speed of instrument movement, movement efficiency, number of perforations, the time cautery is applied without appropriate contact with adhesions, number of serious complications). Ten attending doctors were included in the experienced group and conducted the operation of simulated cholecystectomy directly. Data was collected with simulator. Data of two groups was compared. Experiment 2: Participants in inexperienced group were assigned to basic group (receiving 8 items of basic operation training) and special group (receiving 8 items of basic operation training and 4 items of specialized training), and 10 persons for each group. They received training course designed by us respectively. After training level had reached the expected target, simulated cholecystectomy was performed, and data was collected. Experimental data between basic group and special group was compared and then data between special group and experienced group was compared. Results of experiment 1 showed that there is significant difference between data in inexperienced group in which participants operated simulated cholecystectomy only according to instructors' teaching and operation video and data in experienced group. Result of experiment 2 suggested that, total operation time, number of perforations, number of serious complications, number of non-cauterized bleeding and the time cautery is applied
Currie, A C; Malietzis, G; Jenkins, J T; Yamada, T; Ashrafian, H; Athanasiou, T; Okabayashi, K; Kennedy, R H
Laparoscopic approaches and standardized recovery protocols have reduced morbidity following colorectal cancer surgery. As the optimal regimen remains inconclusive, a network meta-analysis was undertaken of treatments for the development of postoperative complications and mortality. MEDLINE, Embase, trial registries and related reviews were searched for randomized trials comparing laparoscopic and open surgery within protocol-driven or conventional perioperative care for colorectal cancer resection, with complications as a defined endpoint. Relative odds ratios (ORs) for postoperative complications and mortality were estimated for aggregated data. Forty trials reporting on 11 516 randomized patients were included with the network. Open surgery within conventional perioperative care was the index for comparison. The OR relating to complications was 0·77 (95 per cent c.i. 0·65 to 0·91) for laparoscopic surgery within conventional care, 0·69 (0·48 to 0·99) for open surgery within protocol-driven care, and 0·43 (0·28 to 0·67) for laparoscopic surgery within protocol-driven care. Sensitivity analyses excluding trials of low rectal cancer and those with a high risk of bias did not affect the treatment estimates. Meta-analyses demonstrated that mortality risk was unaffected by perioperative strategy. Laparoscopic surgery combined with protocol-driven care reduces colorectal cancer surgery complications, but not mortality. The reduction in complications with protocol-driven care is greater for open surgery than for laparoscopic approaches. Registration number: CRD42015017850 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pucciarelli, S; Chiappetta, A; Giacomazzo, G; Barina, A; Gennaro, N; Rebonato, M; Nitti, D; Saugo, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Surgical Unit volume on the 30-day reoperation rate in patients with CRC. Data were extracted from the regional Hospital Discharge Dataset and included patients who underwent elective resection for primary CRC in the Veneto Region (2005-2013). The primary outcome measure was any unplanned reoperation performed within 30 days from the index surgery. Independent variables were: age, gender, comorbidity, previous abdominal surgery, site and year of the resection, open/laparoscopic approach and yearly Surgical Unit volume for colorectal resections as a whole, and in detail for colonic, rectal and laparoscopic resections. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of variables on the outcome measure. During the study period, 21,797 elective primary colorectal resections were performed. The 30-day reoperation rate was 5.5% and was not associated with Surgical Unit volume. In multivariate multilevel analysis, a statistically significant association was found between 30-day reoperation rate and rectal resection volume (intermediate-volume group OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56-0.99) and laparoscopic approach (high-volume group OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.51-0.96). While Surgical Unit volume is not a predictor of 30-day reoperation after CRC resection, it is associated with an early return to the operating room for patients operated on for rectal cancer or with a laparoscopic approach. These findings suggest that quality improvement programmes or centralization of surgery may only be required for subgroups of CRC patients.
Lehmann, K S; Gröne, J; Lauscher, J C; Ritz, J-P; Holmer, C; Pohlen, U; Buhr, H-J
Training and simulation are gaining importance in surgical education. Today, virtual reality surgery simulators provide sophisticated laparoscopic training scenarios and offer detailed assessment methods. This also makes simulators interesting for the application in surgical skills courses. The aim of the current study was to assess the suitability of a virtual surgery simulator for training and assessment in an established surgical training course. The study was conducted during the annual "Practical Course for Visceral Surgery" (Warnemuende, Germany). 36 of 108 course participants were assigned at random for the study. Training was conducted in 15 sessions over 5 days with 4 identical virtual surgery simulators (LapSim) and 2 standardised training tasks. The simulator measured 16 individual parameters and calculated 2 scores. Questionnaires were used to assess the test persons' laparoscopic experience, their training situation and the acceptance of the simulator training. Data were analysed with non-parametric tests. A subgroup analysis for laparoscopic experience was conducted in order to assess the simulator's construct validity and assessment capabilities. Median age was 32 (27 - 41) years; median professional experience was 3 (1 - 11) years. Typical laparoscopic learning curves with initial significant improvements and a subsequent plateau phase were measured over 5 days. The individual training sessions exhibited a rhythmic variability in the training results. A shorter night's sleep led to a marked drop in performance. The participants' different experience levels could clearly be discriminated ( ≤ 20 vs. > 20 laparoscopic operations; p ≤ 0.001). The questionnaire showed that the majority of the participants had limited training opportunities in their hospitals. The simulator training was very well accepted. However, the participants severely misjudged the real costs of the simulators that were used. The learning curve on the
Jabor, Antonín; Bartos, Pavel; Eim, Josef; Kliment, Lev
Objective: To analyze the results and determine the contribution of laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of women with endometrial cancer and compare with the open technique. Methods: A prospective multicenter study was carried out on 120 women who underwent laparoscopic surgery (96 women) and open procedures (24 women) for endometrial cancer between April 1996 and March 2000. Results: Four patients whose laparoscopic surgery was completed by laparotomy were excluded from the study. The other 92 laparoscopic procedures were successfully completed. Laparoscopically assisted surgical staging (LASS) was performed based on the grade of the tumor and the depth of myometrial invasion. Sixty-seven of the patients underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO), and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and 25 women also had para-aortic lymph node sampling dissection. Eleven of these patients had positive pelvic or para-aortic nodes. The mean operating time for the laparoscopic procedure was significantly longer (173.8 min, P < 0.0001) than the time for the open procedure (135.0 min). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. The recovery time was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for early stage endometrial carcinoma is an attractive alternative to the abdominal surgical approach. The advantages of laparoscopically assisted surgical staging are patient related. Because the abdominal incision is avoided, the recovery time is reduced. Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection is a procedure that is appropriate, when applicable. PMID:12113415
Sasaki, Kazuhito; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Murono, Koji; Watanabe, Toshiaki
Anastomotic leakage remains the most serious complications of colorectal surgery. To prevent colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL), an air leak test (ALT) with intraoperative colonoscopy (IOCS) is performed to detect mechanically insufficient colorectal anastomoses. The approaches to an intraoperative anastomotic air leak (IOAL) have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to clarify the safe management of an IOAL in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. One hundred forty-eight consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic resection with double-stapling technique (DST) anastomosis for left-sided colorectal cancer between April 2015 and June 2016 were included and retrospectively reviewed. Intraoperative anastomotic ALT yielded positive results in 7 patients. In all 7 patients, reanastomoses were performed, and diverting stomas were constructed to protect the anastomosis in 2 patients whose reanastomosis sites were close to the anus. Three of the revised DST anastomoses showed air leakage on the repeat ALT; these sites underwent suturing repair and were confirmed to be airtight. None of the patients with a positive intraoperative ALT had postoperative CAL. The overall CAL rate was 1.4%. Combination management using DST revision, direct suturing repair, and a diverting stoma is recommended for intraoperative repair of anastomotic defects detected by IOCS. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R
Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared
Vidal; Garza-Leal; Iglesias; Salvidar; Garza
We report the first four cases of LASS for endometrial cancer in Mexico. Four patients diagnosed with endometrial adenocarcinoma were selected. These patients underwent peritoneal washing, vaginally assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic biopsies. These biopsies included dissection of common iliac vessel, hypogastric and external vessels, and obturator nerve. An average of 10 nodes were obtained (8-11). In all patients both the nodes and the peritoneal washings were negative. The pathologic surgical staging was: three patients with IBG2 and one patient with IAG2. The patients were discharged on the sixth postoperative day, without complications. The follow-up is of 1 to 7 months and all are alive and without tumor activity. Patients with endometrial cancer often have associated obesity, diabetes and hypertension. For this reason the practice of minimally invasive surgery reduces morbidity. However, a full knowledge of anatomy, oncologic gynecology, and operative laparoscopy is imperative.
Cui, Guoce; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yao, Weiwei; Li, Huashan
The objective of this study was to systematically compare the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) in patients with colorectal cancer after laparoscopic surgery and conventional open surgery. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. Eleven randomized control trials involving 3058 individuals who reported VTE outcomes were identified, of whom 1677 were treated with laparoscopic therapy and 1381 underwent open surgery. The combined results of the individual trials showed no statistically significant difference in the odds ratio for overall VTE (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.23, P=0.18), as well as in subgroups of deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulant prophylaxis between these 2 approaches. In conclusion, laparoscopic resection could achieve similar outcomes in terms of the incidence of VTE, which are associated with long-term benefits of the patients.
Keller, Deborah S; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan R; Ibarra, Sergio; Haas, Eric M
Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a minimally invasive platform with specific benefits over traditional multiport laparoscopic surgery. The safety and feasibility of SILS has been proven, and the applications continue to grow with experience. After 500 cases at a high-volume, single-institution, we were able to standardize instrumentation and operative steps, as well as develop adaptations in technique to help overcome technical and ergonomic challenges. These technical adaptations have allowed the successful application of SILS to technically difficult patient populations, such as pelvic cases, inflammatory bowel disease cases, and high body mass index patients. This review is a frame of reference for the application and wider integration of the single incision laparoscopic platform in colorectal surgery. PMID:26811615
Nicolau, A E; Beuran, M; Veste, V; Grecu, Irina; Vasilescu, Cleopatra; Grinţescu, Ioana
Laparoscopic jejunostomy (LJ) represents a new way of enteral nutrition (EN) for surgical malnourished patients. LJ is an alternative form of therapy, with restricted indications to the few cases when classical way for EN (nosogastroenteral tube feeding, PEG/PEJ, surgical gastrostomy), are contraindicated or can not be used, and the patient is unable to eat. This technique is also preferred to the open surgical jejunostomy. The paper describes our LJ technique, indications and contraindications. We used JL in two surgical severely malnourished patients, within 11 and 14 days, before the elective, open, curative operations. In this period the patients where exclusively nourished with special feeding solutions through the LJ catheter. The main pathologic lesions were: extrinsec antral obstruction from a perforated transverse colon carcinoma in the omental pouch, in the first case, and proximal inflammatory stenosis of efferent loop, after gastric resection with Billroth II anastomosis for duodenal ulcer, in the second case. LJ gives the opportunity for the exploration of the whole abdominal cavity, and for the direct imaging of the pathological lesions. With EN being delivered before the open, elective operations, we get an amelioration of serum albumin values, and we have no morbidity related to the LJ or open, curative operation. EN was administrated after open surgery in the same way, and in the first case, during chemotherapy. LJ is an efficient, miniinvasive way for EN, in selected surgical severe malnourished patients with proximal digestive obstructions, especially oncologic ones, the aim being an amelioration of the nutritional status and a reduction of postoperative morbidity. A continuous study on a larger number of cases is imperative necessary.
Ferri, Mario; Rossi Del Monte, Simone; Salerno, Gerardo; Bocchetti, Tommaso; Angeletti, Stefano; Malisan, Florence; Cardelli, Patrizia; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Visco, Vincenzo
Differences in postoperative outcome and recovery between patients subjected to laparoscopic-assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) resection have been widely documented, though not specifically for right-sided tumors. We investigated the immunological responses to the different surgical approaches, by comparing postoperative data simultaneously obtained at systemic, local and cellular levels. A total of 25 right-sided CRC patients and controls were managed, assessing -in the immediate followup- the conventional perioperative parameters and a large panel of cytokines on plasma, peritoneal fluids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) tissue cultures. A general better recovery for patients operated with laparoscopy compared to conventional procedure, as indicated by the analysis of typical pre- and post-surgical parameters, was observed. The synchronous evaluation of 12 cytokines showed that preoperative plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα were significantly lower in healthy donors versus CRC patients and that such differences progressively increase with tumor stage. After surgery, the IL-6 and IL-8 increases were significantly higher in open compared to laparoscopic approach only in CRC at early stages. The postsurgical whole panel of cytokine levels were significantly higher in peritoneal fluids compared to corresponding plasma, but with no significant differences depending on kind of surgery or stage of disease. Then we observed that, pre- compared to the corresponding post-surgery derived LPS-stimulated PBMC cultures, produced higher supernatant levels of the whole cytokine panel. In particular IL-6 in vitro production was significantly higher in PBMC derived from patients subjected to laparoscopic versus open intervention, but -again- only in CRC at early stages of disease. Our results thus show that laparoscopy compared to open right resection is associated with a
Røsok, Bård I; Edwin, Bjørn
Minimally invasive surgical techniques for liver tumors are gaining increased acceptance as an alternative to traditional resections by laparotomy. In this article we describe a laparoscopic liver resection of a metastatic lesion in a patient primarily operated for colorectal cancer. The resection was conducted as a single port procedure through the stoma aperture at time of reversal of the diversion ileostomy. Sigle incision liver resections may be less traumatic than conventional laparoscopy and could be applied in selected patients with both benign and malignant liver tumors.
Røsok, Bård I.; Edwin, Bjørn
Minimally invasive surgical techniques for liver tumors are gaining increased acceptance as an alternative to traditional resections by laparotomy. In this article we describe a laparoscopic liver resection of a metastatic lesion in a patient primarily operated for colorectal cancer. The resection was conducted as a single port procedure through the stoma aperture at time of reversal of the diversion ileostomy. Sigle incision liver resections may be less traumatic than conventional laparoscopy and could be applied in selected patients with both benign and malignant liver tumors. PMID:22091359
Bouman, Mark-Bram; van der Sluis, Wouter B; Buncamper, Marlon E; Özer, Müjde; Mullender, Margriet G; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J H J
In young transgender women previously treated with puberty-suppressing hormones, penoscrotal hypoplasia can make penoscrotal inversion vaginoplasty unfeasible. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess surgical outcomes and follow-up of total laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty as primary reconstruction in a cohort of transgender women with penoscrotal hypoplasia. Baseline demographics, surgical characteristics, and intraoperative and postoperative complications of all performed total laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty procedures were prospectively recorded. From November of 2007 to July of 2015, 42 transgender women underwent total laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty as primary vaginal reconstruction. The mean age at the time of surgery was 21.1 ± 4.7 years. Mean follow-up time was 3.2 ± 2.1 years. The mean operative duration was 210 ± 44 minutes. There were no conversions to laparotomy. One rectal perforation was recognized during surgery and immediately oversewn without long-term consequences. The mean length of hospitalization was 5.7 ± 1.1 days. One patient died as a result of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive necrotizing fasciitis leading to septic shock, with multiorgan failure. Direct postoperative complications that needed laparoscopic reoperation occurred in three cases (7.1 percent). In seven cases (17.1 percent), long-term complications needed a secondary correction. After 1 year, all patients had a functional neovagina with a mean depth of 16.3 ± 1.5 cm. Total laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty seems to have a similar complication rate as other types of elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Primary total laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty is a feasible gender-confirming surgical technique with good functional outcomes for transgender women with penoscrotal hypoplasia. Therapeutic, IV.
Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Nam Kyu; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Jinae; Noh, Hyun-Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Koo, Bon-Neyo
There has been a rising interest in the possible association between perioperative opioid use and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Continuous surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is a nonopioid analgesic technique that can be used as a postoperative pain management alternative to opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an opioid-based analgesic regimen versus a local anesthetic wound infiltration-based analgesic regimen on immune modulation and short-term cancer recurrence or metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer.Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to either the opioid group or the ON-Q group. For postoperative analgesia during the first 48 hours, the opioid group (n = 30) received fentanyl via IV PCA, whereas the ON-Q group (n = 30) received continuous wound infiltration of 0.5% ropivacaine with an ON-Q pump and tramadol via IV PCA. Pethidine for the opioid group and ketorolac or propacetamol for the ON-Q group were used as rescue analgesics. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. The primary outcome was postoperative immune function assessed by natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and interleukin-2. Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications, cancer recurrence, or metastasis within 1 year after surgery, and postoperative inflammatory responses measured by white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, and C-reactive protein. Immune function and inflammatory responses were measured before surgery and 24 and 48 hours after surgery.Fifty-nine patients completed the study. In the circumstance of similar pain control efficacy between the opioid group and the ON-Q group, postoperative NKCC and interleukin-2 levels did not differ between the 2 groups. The incidence of postoperative complications and recurrence or
Laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery by a colon lifting-up technique that decreases the number of access ports: comparison by propensity scoring of short-term and long-term outcomes with standard multiport laparoscopic surgery.
Fujii, Shoichi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Jun; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Shigeru; Tatsumi, Kenji; Suwa, Hirokazu; Kunisaki, Chikara; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Endo, Itaru
Laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer has become established as a minimally invasive surgical approach. However, many disposable instruments are required, and there is an associated disadvantage of cost. We have developed a new technique, which uses a suture string to lift up the colon. This method is expected to reduce the number of access ports required without compromising the radical cure. A suture string piercing the abdominal wall is passed through the mesocolon. The colon is retracted anteriorly and is fixed at the abdominal wall. The main mesenteric vessels are under tension, and lymph node dissection is performed easily by a medial approach. The working space is more stable because the colon is fixed to the abdominal wall. This study examined the short-term and long-term surgical outcomes of laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer using our colon lifting-up technique (CLT), compared with the standard multiport technique. The study design was a case-matched control by propensity scoring. Analyzed variables were sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, cancer in a different organ, multiple colorectal cancer, operator, operative year, tumor location, operative procedure, adjuvant chemotherapy, and International Union Against Cancer TNM stage. From 2000 to 2010, 301 patients underwent CLT and 436 standard multiport technique, 148 patients were matched by propensity score and analyzed. Regarding short-term outcomes, there was no difference between the 2 groups. The mean number of ports needed was 3.37±0.48 for CLT (93 with 3 ports, 55 with 4). There were no differences in recurrence-free survival and overall survival in long-term follow-up results for each stage. There were neither recurrences nor complications due to CLT. The CLT facilitated laparoscopic colectomy without compromising cure rates. It is a useful method to keep a stable view and to conserve medical resources.
Târcoveanu, E; Moldovanu, R; Bradea, C; Dimofte, G; Lupaşcu, C; Georgescu, St; Andronic, D; Lotz, J C; Vlad, N; Vasilescu, A
The classic apprenticeship model for surgical training takes place into the operating theater under the strict coordination of a senior surgeon. During the time and especially after the introduction of minimally invasive techniques as gold standard treatment for many diseases, other methods were developed to successful fulfill the well known three stages of training: skill-based behavior, rule-based behavior and knowledge-based behavior. The skills needed for minimally invasive surgery aren't easily obtained using classical apprenticeship model due to ethical, medico-legal and economic considerations. In this way several types of simulators have been developed. Nowadays simulators are worldwide accepted for laparoscopic surgical training and provide formative feedback which allows an improvement of the performances of the young surgeons. The simulators currently used allow assimilating only skill based behavior and rule-based behavior. However, the training using animal models as well as new virtual reality simulators and augmented reality offer the possibility to achieve knowledge-based behavior. However it isn't a worldwide accepted laparoscopic training curriculum. We present our experience with different types of simulators and teaching methods used along the time in our surgical unit. We also performed a review of the literature data.
Cahill, R A; Mortensen, N J
Advances in imaging quality and capability have been the major driver of the laparoscopic revolution that has dramatically impacted upon operative strategies and surgical patient care in recent years. Increasingly now the technological capacity is becoming available to supraselect or extend the useful clinical range of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond visible or white light. This has markedly broadened the intraprocedural optical information available at intraluminal endoscopy and there is likely to be considerable similar benefit for laparoscopy. Rather than narrow band or ultraviolet imaging however, it is the near infrared (NIR) spectrum that seems of most potential to exploit during intra-abdominal endoscopy in particular as this energy range is capable of penetrating relatively deeply into tissues such as the mesentery and bowel wall without inducing thermal damage due to heat dissipation or indeed the intracellular effects associated with higher energy, shorter wavelength energies. By incorporating the NIR spectrum alongside more conventional laparoscopic imaging, a greater appreciation of tissue architecture, character and quality is possible in particular with respect to lymphatic and vascular channel anatomy and flow dynamics and also real-time optical histology (by NIR optical coherence tomography). Such a facility may significantly aid critical intraoperative decision making during colorectal operations by informing the surgeon regarding the most biologically relevant lymphatic basin and lymph nodes for any target area of interest (especially important if considering tailored operative extent for colorectal neoplasia), the sufficiency and quality of arterial supply (and hence inform re the perfusion of stapled intestinal ends prior to reanastomosis) and perhaps even in situ pathological assessment. This article provides a state of art overview of the fascinating potential of this emergent technological capability.
Ruiz, Eloy; Celis, Juan; Berrospi, Francisco; Payet, Eduardo
OBJECTIVE: In the absence of extra hepatic disease, the hepatic resection is the treatment of choice for liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma, but a no treatment attitude or the use of chemotherapy still persists in some health centers. This study was done to evaluate the peri operative morbi-mortality and survival after resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer in our institution.METHODS: Clinical, pathologic and outcome data of patients undergoing liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer at the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas de Lima Peru between January 1986 and July 2000 was examined.RESULTS: Of 300 liver resections, 24 were performed in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer; 17 patients were men and 7 women, who ranged in age from 21 to 79 years ( a mean of 52.66 years), the site of primary disease was the rectum in 7 and colon in 17, 20 patients were Dukes C and 4 Dukes B.Synchronous secondary disease were found in 9 patients and metachronous lesions were found in 15 patients Forty nine metastases were resected (Mean size 4.5 cm, range 1.5 cm 24 cm)Seven patients underwent right hepatectomy, one right hepatectomy plus non anatomic wedge resection, two right trisegmentectomy, 4 left lobectomy and ten a non anatomical resection.The overall post operative morbidity was 8% and the 30 day post operative mortality rate was 0% Estimated three and five year survival rates using Kaplan-Meier method was 50 % and 20% respectively.CONCLUSION: Hepatic resection for a secondary malignant liver growth from colorectal cancer is relatively safe with low morbidity and mortality rates, an remains the only potentially curative treatment. We continue to recommend an aggressive surgical approach to hepatic metastases of colorectal origin in the abscense of extra hepatic disease.
Matsuda, Tadashi; Yoshida, Kenji; Habuchi, Tomonori; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Terachi, Toshiro
To improve surgical education, objective and scientific skill assessments are required. There are two types of skill evaluations: assessments of basic surgical skills and assessments of overall surgical performance. To establish a reliable assessment method for surgical dissection, we measured the force applied on the tip of a surgical instrument during dissection of the renal vessels of pigs. The experiments revealed that, during surgical dissection, expert laparoscopic surgeons applied vertical force at the beginning of the stroke and then horizontal force, with minimum vertical force, at the end of the stroke. As an assessment of overall surgical performance, the Endoscopic Surgical Qualification system was developed and has been used for 12 years in Japan. More than 3700 surgeons, including urologists, were determined to have appropriate laparoscopic surgical skills after assessments of unedited videos by referees.
Ma, Cong-Chao; Li, Ping; Wang, Liu-Hua; Xia, Zhao-Yun; Wu, Sheng-Wen; Wang, Shao-Jun; Lu, Chun-Ming
Recently, single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) for colorectal malignancy is rapidly becoming the central issue for explorers of minimally invasive surgery worldwide. The aim of this systematic review was to establish the safety and efficacy of SILC for colorectal malignancy when implemented by experienced surgeons. PubMed, WHO international trial register and Embase were searched for publications concerning SILC and MLC from 2000 to 2013, with the last search on September 10, 2013. Only pure single-incision laparoscopic colonic surgery for malignant disease was included. Primary outcomes were the early postoperative complication profiles of SILC. Secondary outcomes were duration of operation time, blood loss, lymph node yields, conversion rate, distal margin of the resected tumor, and duration of hospital stay. Eight studies involving 547 patients met the inclusion criteria. Compared with multiport laparoscopic colectomy (MLC), SILC has less postoperative complication and bleeding. The conversion, the median lymph node retrieval, proximal margin of the resected tumor and distal margin of the resected tumor for malignant disease achieved with SILC was acceptable. There was no significant reduction in length of hospital stay with SILC. SILC is a technically reliable and realistic approach with short-term results similar to those obtained with the MLC procedure.
Kim, Say-June; Choi, Byung-Jo; Lee, Sang Chul
Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is implemented through a tailored minimal single incision through which a number of laparoscopic instruments access. Introduction of operation-customized port system, utilization of a camera without a separate external light, and instruments with different lengths has brought the favorable environment for SPLS. However, performing SPLS still creates several hardships compared to multiport laparoscopic surgery; a single-port system inevitably leads to clashing of surgical instruments due to crowding. To overcome such difficulties, investigators has developed novel concepts and maneuvers, including the concept of inverse triangulation and the maneuvers of pivoting, spreading out dissection, hanging suture, and transluminal traction. The final destination of SPLS is expected to be a completely seamless operation, maximizing the minimal invasiveness. Specimen extraction through the umbilicus can undermine cosmesis by inducing a larger incision. Therefore, hybrid laparoscopic technique, which combined laparoscopic surgical technique with natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE)--i.e., transvaginal or transanal route-, has been developed. SPLS and NOSE seemed to be the best combination in pursuit of minimal invasiveness. In the near future, robotic SPLS with natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery's way of specimen extraction seems to be pursued. It is expected to provide a completely or nearly complete seamless operation regardless of location of the lesion in the abdomen.
Chand, Manish; Siddiqui, Muhammed RS; Gupta, Ashish; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Tekkis, Paris; Parvaiz, Amjad; Mirnezami, Alex H; Qureshi, Tahseen
Laparoscopic surgery has become well established in the management of both and malignant colorectal disease. The last decade has seen increasing numbers of surgeons trained to a high standard in minimally-invasive surgery. However there has not been the same enthusiasm for the use of laparoscopy in emergency colorectal surgery. There is a perception that emergent surgery is technically more difficult and may lead to worse outcomes. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical appraisal of the available literature on the use of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) in the emergency setting. The literature is broadly divided by the underlying pathology; that is, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis and malignant obstruction. There were no randomized trials and the majority of the studies were case-matched series or comparative studies. The overall trend was that LCS is associated with shorter hospital stay, par or fewer complications but an increased operating time.Emergency LCS can be safely undertaken for both benign and malignant disease providing there is appropriate patient selection, the surgeon is adequately experienced and there are sufficient resources to allow for a potentially more complex operation. PMID:25493008
Lavy, Daniel; Dinallo, Anthony; Otero, Javier; Roding, Annelie; Hanos, Dustin; Dressner, Roy; Arvanitis, Michael
Background Ureteral injuries during colorectal surgery are a rare event, ranging in the literature from 0.28–7.6%. Debate surrounds the use of prophylactic lighted ureteral stents to help protect the ureter during laparoscopic surgery. It has been suggested that they help to identify injuries but do not prevent them. The authors look to challenge this. Methods Over 66 months, every laparoscopic or colectomy involving ureteral stents was recorded. Researchers documented any injury to the ureter intraoperatively. The chart was also reviewed for the complications of urinary tract infection (UTI) and urinary retention post-operatively. Results During the 66 months, 402 laparoscopic colon resections were done. There were no ureteral injuries. The lighted ureteral stent was identified during every case in the effort to prevent injury during dissection and resection. No catheter associated UTIs were identified, while 14 (3.5%) suffered from post-operative urinary retention. Conclusions The authors of this study present a large series of colon resections with no intraoperative ureteral injuries. In addition, these catheters were not associated with any UTIs and a rate of urinary retention similar to that of the at large data. This series provides compelling data to use lighted ureteral stents during laparoscopic colon surgery. PMID:28251123
Kothari, Shanu N; Cogbill, Thomas H; O'Heron, Colette T; Mathiason, Michelle A
Concern has been voiced that general surgery residents who train at institutions that also offer advanced laparoscopic fellowships may receive inadequate advanced laparoscopic operative experience. The purpose of our study was to compare the operative experience of general surgery residents who graduated from our institution before initiation of an advanced laparoscopic fellowship with the experience of those who graduated after the fellowship began. Operative case logs of surgery residents who graduated from 2000 through 2007 and of advanced laparoscopic fellows from 2004 through 2007 were reviewed. Surgery resident experience with basic and nonbariatric advanced laparoscopic cases during the 4 years before the fellowship was compared with the experience during the 4 years after the fellowship began. Residents who graduated before 2004 performed a mean of 140.5 +/- 19.4 basic and 77.0 +/- 17.8 advanced laparoscopic cases during their 5-year residency, compared with 193.3 +/- 34.5 basic (p = 0.003) and 113.3 +/- 23.5 advanced cases (p = 0.005) performed by those who graduated in 2004 or later. The number of nonbariatric advanced laparoscopic cases performed by each graduating surgical resident during the chief year ranged from 26 to 47 cases from 2000 to 2003 and from 36 to 69 cases from 2004 to 2007. Fellows reported from 40 to 85 nonbariatric advanced laparoscopic cases annually. General surgery residents did not experience a reduction in the total number of basic and nonbariatric advanced laparoscopic cases with the addition of an advanced laparoscopic fellowship, nor did they perform fewer cases during the chief year. As the result of a cooperative venture between the surgery residency and fellowship directors as well as an expansion of the total number of laparoscopic cases performed at our institution because of changes in clinical practice, surgery residents reported an increase in the number of laparoscopic cases while a successful fellowship was
Murray, A; Lourenco, T; de Verteuil, R; Hernandez, R; Fraser, C; McKinley, A; Krukowski, Z; Vale, L; Grant, A
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic, laparoscopically assisted (hereafter together described as laparoscopic surgery) and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) in comparison with open surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Electronic databases were searched from 2000 to May 2005. A review of economic evaluations was undertaken by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in 2001. This review was updated from 2000 until July 2005. Data from selected studies were extracted and assessed. Dichotomous outcome data from individual trials were combined using the relative risk method and continuous outcomes were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted mean difference method. Summaries of the results from individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses were also presented. An economic evaluation was also carried out using a Markov model incorporating the data from the systematic review. The results were first presented as a balance sheet for comparison of the surgical techniques. It was then used to estimate cost-effectiveness measured in terms of incremental cost per life-year gained and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for a time horizon up to 25 years. Forty-six reports on 20 studies [19 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one IPD meta-analysis] were included in the review of clinical effectiveness. The RCTs were of generally moderate quality with the number of participants varying between 16 and 1082, with 10 having less than 100 participants. The total numbers of trial participants who underwent laparoscopic or open surgery were 2429 and 2139, respectively. A systematic review of four papers suggested that laparoscopic surgery is more costly than open surgery. However, the data they provided on effectiveness was poorer than the evidence from the review of effectiveness. The estimates from the systematic review of clinical effectiveness were
Windsor, John A; Diener, Scott; Zoha, Farah
People learn in different ways, and training techniques and technologies should accommodate individual learning needs. This pilot study looks at the relationship between learning style, as measured with the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS), laparoscopic surgery experience and psychomotor skill performance using the MIST VR surgical simulator. Five groups of volunteer subjects were selected from undergraduate tertiary students, medical students, novice surgical trainees, advanced surgical trainees and experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Each group was administered the MIDAS followed by two simulated surgical tasks on the MIST VR simulator. There was a striking homogeny of learning styles amongst experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Significant differences in the distribution of primary learning styles were found (P < .01) between subjects with minimal surgical training and those with considerable experience. A bodily-kinesthetic learning style, irrespective of experience, was associated with the best performance of the laparoscopic tasks. This is the first study to highlight the relationship between learning style, psychomotor skill and laparoscopic surgical experience with implications for surgeon selection, training and credentialling.
Scott, S I; Farid, S; Mann, C; Jones, R; Kang, P; Evans, J
INTRODUCTION Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard for colorectal cancer resection in the UK but it can be technically challenging in patients who are obese. Patients whose body fat is mainly inside the abdominal cavity are more challenging than those whose fat is mainly outside the abdominal cavity. Abdominal fat ratio (AFR) is a simple parameter proposed by the authors to aid identification of this subgroup. MATERIALS AND METHODS All 195 patients who underwent elective, laparoscopic colorectal cancer resections from March 2010 to November 2013 were included in the study. For patients who were obese (body mass index greater than 30), preoperative staging computed tomography was used to determine AFR. This was assessed by two different, blinded observers and compared with conversion rate. RESULTS Of the 195 patients, 58 (29.7%) fell into the obese group and 137 (70.3%) into the non-obese group. The median AFR of the obese group that were converted to open surgery was significantly higher at 5.9 compared with those completed laparoscopically (3.3, P = 0.0001, Mann-Whitney). There was no significant difference in conversion rate when looking at body mass index, tumour site or size. DISCUSSION Previous studies have found body mass index, age, gender, previous abdominal surgery, site and locally advanced tumours to be associated with an increased risk of conversion. This study adds AFR to the list of risk factors. CONCLUSION AFR is a simple, reproducible parameter which can help to predict conversion risk in obese patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection.
Laparoscopic colectomy is now widely applied to cases of malignancy, supported by early data from several large randomized controlled trials. Long-term follow-up is now available from those trials, supporting equivalency of cancer-free and overall survival for open and laparoscopic resections. This promising data has inspired further exploration of other applications of laparoscopic techniques, including use of single incision laparoscopy. This article reviews recent reports of long-term data for colorectal cancer resection from four randomized, prospective international trials. PMID:22846394
Hayashi, Yuichiro; Misawa, Kazunari; Oda, Masahiro; Hawkes, David J; Mori, Kensaku
Knowledge of the specific anatomical information of a patient is important when planning and undertaking laparoscopic surgery due to the restricted field of view and lack of tactile feedback compared to open surgery. To assist this type of surgery, we have developed a surgical navigation system that presents the patient's anatomical information synchronized with the laparoscope position. This paper presents the surgical navigation system and its clinical application to laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The proposed surgical navigation system generates virtual laparoscopic views corresponding to the laparoscope position recorded with a three-dimensional (3D) positional tracker. The virtual laparoscopic views are generated from preoperative CT images. A point-based registration aligns coordinate systems between the patient's anatomy and image coordinates. The proposed navigation system is able to display the virtual laparoscopic views using the registration result during surgery. We performed surgical navigation during laparoscopic gastrectomy in 23 cases. The navigation system was able to present the virtual laparoscopic views in synchronization with the laparoscopic position. The fiducial registration error was calculated in all 23 cases, and the average was 14.0 mm (range 6.1-29.8). The proposed surgical navigation system can provide CT-derived patient anatomy aligned to the laparoscopic view in real time during surgery. This system enables accurate identification of vascular anatomy as a guide to vessel clamping prior to total or partial gastrectomy.
Phatak, Uma R; Pedroza, Claudia; Millas, Stefanos G; Chang, George J; Lally, Kevin P; Kao, Lillian S
To evaluate the evidence for interventions to decrease surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal operations using Bayesian meta-analysis. Interventions other than appropriate administration of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent SSIs have not been adopted widely, in part because of lack of recommendations for these interventions based on traditional meta-analyses. Bayesian methods can provide probabilities of specific thresholds of benefit, which may be more useful in guiding clinical decision making. We hypothesized that Bayesian meta-analytic methods would complement the interpretation of traditional analyses regarding the effectiveness of interventions to decrease SSIs. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane database for reviews of interventions to decrease SSIs after colorectal surgery other than prophylactic antibiotics. Traditional and Bayesian meta-analyses were performed using RevMan (Nordic Cochrane Center, Copenhagen, Denmark) and WinBUGS (MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK). Bayesian posterior probabilities of any benefit, defined as a relative risk of <1, were calculated using skeptical, neutral, and enthusiastic prior probabilities. Probabilities were also calculated that interventions decreased SSIs by ≥10%, and ≥20% using neutral prior probability distributions. A total of 9 Cochrane reviews met the search criteria. Using traditional meta-analysis methods, only laparoscopic colorectal surgery resulted in a significant reduction in SSIs and a recommendation for use of the intervention. Using Bayesian analysis, several interventions that did not result in "significant" decreases in SSIs using traditional analytic methods had a >85% probability of benefit. Also, nonuse of 2 interventions (mechanical bowel preparation and adhesive drapes) had a high probability of decreasing SSIs compared with their use. Bayesian probabilities and traditional point estimates of treatment effect yield similar information in terms of potential
Conaghan, P J; Maxwell-Armstrong, C A; Garrioch, M V; Hong, L; Acheson, A G
Intra-operative localization of small cancers and polyps during laparoscopic colorectal surgery is difficult due to reduced tactile feedback. The consequences of failing to identify the lesion for resection can result in open conversion or removal of the wrong segment of bowel. Data were collected from a prospectively-kept database over a 12-month period from April 2008 to March 2009 and analysed retrospectively. Details concerning the documentation, visibility and accuracy of tattoos were recorded. Eighty-five patients (88 lesions) underwent laparoscopic resection for a benign or malignant colorectal tumour during 1 year from April 2008. Eighty-one patients underwent endoscopic visualization of the tumour as a first or second procedure. Of these 81 patients, 83 lesions were visualized endoscopically and 54 (65.1%) were tattooed in 52 patients. In the 52 patients, 36 (69%) of the tattoos were carried out on the first endoscopy. At operation the tattoo was judged to be visible and accurate in 70%, visible but inaccurate in 7% and not visible in 15%. It was significantly easier to see the tattoo in women (19/21 women vs 21/29 men; P=0.03) but there was no relationship between tattoo visibility and BMI. An accurate tattoo did not reduce the conversion rate (P=0.71). No tattoo-related complications were encountered. The practice of tattooing colorectal cancers is variable in frequency, technique and accuracy. We advocate that all colonic lesions suspicious for cancer should be tattooed during endoscopy at a defined distance below the tumour, adhering to a departmental protocol in case surgery is required. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Kim, Yong-Wook; Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Tea-Eung; Ro, Duck-Yeong
This study investigates the safety and feasibility of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic salpingectomy (SPLS) using conventional laparoscopic instruments compared to conventional multi-port laparoscopic salpingectomy (MPLS) for surgical treatment of tubal pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 63 patients with tubal pregnancy who underwent SPLS and 71 patients who underwent conventional MPLS between January 2008 and December 2010. All patients in the SPLS group had a drainage tube placed through the umbilicus, and, in the MPLS group, through a 5-mm trocar site in one side of the lower abdomen. No significance difference was discovered between the groups with regard to adjusted hemoglobin values (SPLS, 1.9 ± 1.0 g/dL versus MPLS, 1.7 ± 1.0 g/dL, P = 0.335). Additionally, there was also no significant difference in clinical characteristics, intraoperative findings, or operative outcomes. Our study demonstrated that transumbilical SPLS using conventional laparoscopic instruments has operative outcomes comparable to MPLS for the surgical treatment of tubal pregnancy. Transumbilical SPLS may therefore be offered as a feasible alternative to MPLS.
Kim, Yong-Wook; Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Tea-Eung; Ro, Duck-Yeong
BackgroundThis study investigates the safety and feasibility of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic salpingectomy (SPLS) using conventional laparoscopic instruments compared to conventional multi-port laparoscopic salpingectomy (MPLS) for surgical treatment of tubal pregnancy. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 63 patients with tubal pregnancy who underwent SPLS and 71 patients who underwent conventional MPLS between January 2008 and December 2010. All patients in the SPLS group had a drainage tube placed through the umbilicus, and, in the MPLS group, through a 5-mm trocar site in one side of the lower abdomen. Results No significance difference was discovered between the groups with regard to adjusted hemoglobin values (SPLS, 1.9 ± 1.0 g/dL versus MPLS, 1.7 ± 1.0 g/dL, P = 0.335). Additionally, there was also no significant difference in clinical characteristics, intraoperative findings, or operative outcomes. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that transumbilical SPLS using conventional laparoscopic instruments has operative outcomes comparable to MPLS for the surgical treatment of tubal pregnancy. Transumbilical SPLS may therefore be offered as a feasible alternative to MPLS. PMID:23801896
Billingham, M J; Basterfield, S J
The laparoscopic treatment of pediatric populations remains controversial. This review was conducted to compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of laparoscopic and open surgical approaches for a variety of surgical indications in pediatric populations. A computerized comprehensive search supplemented by a manual review of the literature was performed for all peer-reviewed publications comparing laparoscopic and open appendectomy, fundoplication and hernia repair cohorts. Outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS), operating room (OR) time, complication rates and total hospital costs; aggregation of outcome rates was performed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. A total of 24 articles were identified that met the search and inclusion criteria. LOS was found to be significantly reduced in favor of the laparoscopic approach, with a weighted mean difference of -1.44 days, although the OR time was significantly increased, with a weighted mean difference of +12.8 min. Laparoscopic intervention was associated with a significantly reduced complication rate compared to the open approach (10.6 vs. 15.6%). Total hospital costs of the laparoscopic approaches were found to be insignificantly increased compared to the open techniques. This review further supports the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric populations, demonstrating that the three types laparoscopic procedures reviewed resulted in better patient outcomes compared to open procedures, in the form of reduced LOS and overall complication rates. Increased utilization of this approach may prove beneficial to pediatric patients.
Leven, Joshua; Burschka, Darius; Kumar, Rajesh; Zhang, Gary; Blumenkranz, Steve; Dai, Xiangtian Donald; Awad, Mike; Hager, Gregory D; Marohn, Mike; Choti, Mike; Hasser, Chris; Taylor, Russell H
We present daVinci Canvas: a telerobotic surgical system with integrated robot-assisted laparoscopic ultrasound capability. DaVinci Canvas consists of the integration of a rigid laparoscopic ultrasound probe with the daVinci robot, video tracking of ultrasound probe motions, endoscope and ultrasound calibration and registration, autonomous robot motions, and the display of registered 2D and 3D ultrasound images. Although we used laparoscopic liver cancer surgery as a focusing application, our broader aim was the development of a versatile system that would be useful for many procedures.
Martel, Guillaume; Crawford, Alyson; Barkun, Jeffrey S.; Boushey, Robin P.; Ramsay, Craig R.; Fergusson, Dean A.
Background This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence. Study Design A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters) on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores. Results A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews). In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031) and open (n = 2,751) colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09). Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002–2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002–2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence. PMID:22532846
Doorly, M; Choi, J; Floyd, A; Senagore, A
Surgical site infections (SSI) are costly complications that may cause significant morbidity and increase the cost of care, particularly in colorectal surgery. Microbial sealants (MS) are a new class of wound barriers aimed at decreasing SSI; however, there is only evidence of benefit in clean class 1 procedures. Based on its success in class 1 procedures, we hypothesized that a microbial sealant could reduce the rate of SSI by half for clean-contaminated colorectal procedures (class 2). This was a single institution, multihospital, prospective, randomized study approved by the institutional review board. The primary objective was to determine the rate of SSI when microbial sealant (InteguSeal© Kimberly-Clark) is used compared to control (no microbial sealant). Data collected included: open versus laparoscopy, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and morbidity [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class], hospital readmission, reoperation and wound dehiscence. Enrolled subjects received the same preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics, operative skin preparation (Chloraprep), Surgical Care Improvement Project guidelines implementation), and postoperative care glycemic control for diabetics. A total of 100 subjects were recruited over 15 months (MS-50; no MS-50). The overall incidence of SSI was 12 %, 14 % (7/50) in the MS versus 10 % (5/50) in the no MS group (p = 0.545). SSI incidence with and without microbial sealant was not significantly different in either the open or the laparoscopic subgroup. Laparoscopy decreased absolute risk of SSI by 16 %. Secondary data (age, BMI, diabetes, ASA) and tertiary data (readmission, reoperation, wound dehiscence) were positively correlated with SSI. Microbial sealant as employed in this study did not appear to offer any benefit in a class 2 (clean contaminated) operative procedure when perioperative care is standardized. The relative benefit of laparoscopy was also confirmed but unaffected by
Freund, U; Mayo, A; Schwartz, I; Neufeld, D; Paran, H
The first 1,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in our department were reviewed. There was no operative mortality; conversion to open cholecystectomy was necessary in 2%. In the last 600 cases the rate of conversion had decreased to 0.5%. There was common bile duct injury in 0.3%, with the injuries identified during primary surgery. This clinical experience is consistent with previous studies, which proved that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and should replace open operation as the procedure of choice.
Wang, Wen; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yu; Yu, Li; Li, Dazhou; Huang, Sheng; Ma, Jun; Lin, Nan; Yang, Weijin; Chen, Xin; Liu, Bin; Lv, Ren; Liao, Lianming
The efficiency and safety of charcoal nanoparticle tattooing in localizing unpalpable colonic small lesions for later laparoscopy is described. Twenty six patients were enrolled for this prospective study. Tumor sites were localized with charcoal nanoparticles during colonoscopy for later laparoscopic colorectal operations. In all patients, the entire colon was examined preoperatively by colonoscopy and 0.5 ml (5 mg) of charcoal nanoparticle was injected submucosally near lesions or polypectomy sites. During laparoscopic colorectal operations for these biopsy-proven tumors, tumors were easily identified. The mean resection margin was 3.13 +/- 2.01 cm. The mean length of resected intestinal segment was 12.69 +/- 4.39 cm. No tumor was found at the resection line as indicated by postoperative pathological examination. Most importantly, no wrong segment was resected. Thus we show that easy identification of tumor can be achieved by preoperative tattooing with charcoal nanoparticles. Further studies regarding the long-term tattooing of tumor with charcoal nanoparticles are warranted.
Hwang, Duk Yeon; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, In Gyu; Kim, Jun Ki; Oh, Seung Taek
Purpose We aimed to examine the effect of gum chewing after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine. We divided the patients into 2 groups: group A consisted of 67 patients who did not chew gum; group B consisted of 65 patients who chewed gum. We analyzed the short-term clinical outcomes between the two groups to evaluate the effect of gum chewing. Results The first passage of gas was slightly earlier in group B, but the difference was not significant. However, the length of hospital stay was 6.7 days in group B, which was significantly shorter than that in group A (7.3 days, P = 0.018). Conclusion This study showed that length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the gum-chewing group. In future studies, we expect to elucidate the effect of gum chewing on the postoperative recovery more clearly. PMID:24466540
Boyce, Stephen Alexander; Harris, Craig; Stevenson, Andrew; Lumley, John; Clark, David
Anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery increases postoperative mortality, cancer recurrence, permanent stoma formation, and poor bowel function. Anastomosis between the colon and rectum is a particularly high risk. Traditional management mandates laparotomy, disassembly of the anastomosis, and formation of an often-permanent stoma. After laparoscopic colorectal surgery it may be possible to manage anastomotic failure with laparoscopy, thus avoiding laparotomy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the laparoscopic management of failed low colorectal anastomoses. This was a single-institute case series. A total of 555 laparoscopic patients undergoing anterior resection with primary anastomosis within 10 cm of the anus in the period 2000-2012 were included. Anastomotic failure, defined as any clinical or radiological demonstrable defect in the anastomosis; complications using the Clavien-Dindo system; mortality within 30 days; and patient demographics and risk factors, as defined by the Charlson index, were measured. Leakage occurred in 44 (7.9%) of 555 patients, 16 patients with a diverting ileostomy and 28 with no diverting ileostomy. Leakage was more common in those with anastomoses <5 cm form the anus, male patients, and those with a colonic J-pouch and rectal cancer. Diverting ileostomy was not protective of anastomotic leakage. In those patients with anastomotic leakage and a primary diverting ileostomy, recourse to the peritoneal cavity was required in 4 of 16 patients versus 24 of 28 without a diverting ileostomy (p = 0.0002). In 74% of those cases, access to the peritoneal cavity was achieved through laparoscopy. Permanent stoma rates were very low, including 14 (2.5%) of 555 total patients or 8 (18.0%) of 44 patients with anastomotic leakage. Thirty-day mortality was rare (0.6%). This study was limited by the lack of a cohort of open cases for comparison. Laparoscopic anterior resection is associated with low levels of
Millard, Heather A Towle; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J
To determine the relationships among traditional and laparoscopic surgical skills, spatial analysis skills, and video gaming proficiency of third-year veterinary students. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. A convenience sample of 29 third-year veterinary students. The students had completed basic surgical skills training with inanimate objects but had no experience with soft tissue, orthopedic, or laparoscopic surgery; the spatial analysis test; or the video games that were used in the study. Scores for traditional surgical, laparoscopic, spatial analysis, and video gaming skills were determined, and associations among these were analyzed by means of Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (rs). A significant positive association (rs = 0.40) was detected between summary scores for video game performance and laparoscopic skills, but not between video game performance and traditional surgical skills scores. Spatial analysis scores were positively (rs = 0.30) associated with video game performance scores; however, that result was not significant. Spatial analysis scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic surgical skills scores. Traditional surgical skills scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic skills or spatial analysis scores. Results of this study indicated video game performance of third-year veterinary students was predictive of laparoscopic but not traditional surgical skills, suggesting that laparoscopic performance may be improved with video gaming experience. Additional studies would be required to identify methods for improvement of traditional surgical skills.
Ugolini, Giampaolo; Ghignone, Federico; Zattoni, Davide; Veronese, Giacomo; Montroni, Isacco
Colorectal cancer (CRC) in the elderly is extremely common but only a few clinicians are familiar with the complexity of issues which present in the geriatric population. In this phase of the life cycle, treatment is frequently suboptimal. Despite the fact that, nowadays, older people tend to be healthier than in previous generations, surgical undertreatment is frequently encountered. On the other hand, surgical overtreatment in the vulnerable or frail patient can lead to unacceptable postoperative outcomes with high mortality or persistent disability. Unfortunately, due to the geriatric patient being traditionally excluded from randomized controlled trials for a variety of factors (heterogeneity, frailty, etc.), there is a dearth of evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of these patients. The objective of this review was to summarize the most relevant clinical studies available in order to assist clinicians in the management of CRC in the elderly. More than in any other patient group, both surgical and non-surgical management strategies should be carefully individualized in the elderly population affected by CRC. Although cure and sphincter preservation are the primary goals, many other variables need to be taken into account, such as maintenance of cognitive status, independence, life expectancy and quality of life. PMID:24833841
Background Robotic-assisted laparoscopy is popularly performed for colorectal disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted colorectal surgery (RCS) and laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) for colorectal disease based on randomized controlled trial studies. Methods Literature searches of electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) were performed to identify randomized controlled trial studies that compared the clinical or oncologic outcomes of RCS and LCS. This meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.2) that is provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. The data used were mean differences and odds ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were adopted according to heterogeneity. Results Four randomized controlled trial studies were identified for this meta-analysis. In total, 110 patients underwent RCS, and 116 patients underwent LCS. The results revealed that estimated blood losses (EBLs), conversion rates and times to the recovery of bowel function were significantly reduced following RCS compared with LCS. There were no significant differences in complication rates, lengths of hospital stays, proximal margins, distal margins or harvested lymph nodes between the two techniques. Conclusions RCS is a promising technique and is a safe and effective alternative to LCS for colorectal surgery. The advantages of RCS include reduced EBLs, lower conversion rates and shorter times to the recovery of bowel function. Further studies are required to define the financial effects of RCS and the effects of RCS on long-term oncologic outcomes. PMID:24767102
Hotouras, A; Ribas, Y; Zakeri, S A; Nunes, Q M; Murphy, J; Bhan, C; Wexner, S D
The relationship between obesity, body mass index (BMI) and laparoscopic colorectal resection is unclear. Our object was to assess systematically the available evidence to establish the influence of obesity and BMI on the outcome of laparoscopic colorectal resection. A search of PubMed/Medline databases was performed in May 2015 to identify all studies investigating the impact of BMI and obesity on elective laparoscopic colorectal resection performed for benign or malignant bowel disease. Clinical end-points examined included operation time, conversion rate to open surgery, postoperative complications including anastomotic leakage, length of hospital stay, readmission rate, reoperation rate and mortality. For patients who underwent an operation for cancer, the harvested number of lymph nodes and long-term oncological data were also examined. Forty-five studies were analysed, the majority of which were level IV with only four level III (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine 2011) case-controlled studies. Thirty comparative studies containing 23 649 patients including 17 895 non-obese and 5754 obese showed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to intra-operative blood loss, overall postoperative morbidity, anastomotic leakage, reoperation rate, mortality and the number of retrieved lymph nodes in patients operated on for malignancy. Most studies, including 15 non-comparative studies, reported a longer operation time in patients who underwent a laparoscopic procedure with the BMI being an independent predictor in multivariate analyses for the operation time. Laparoscopic colorectal resection is safe and technically and oncologically feasible in obese patients. These results, however, may vary outside of high volume centres of expertise. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Witowski, Jan Sylwester; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Budzyński, Andrzej
Three-dimensional (3D) printing for preoperative planning has been intensively developed in the recent years. However, the implementation of these solutions in hospitals is still difficult due to high costs, extremely expensive industrial-grade printers, and software that is difficult to obtain and learn along with a lack of a defined process. This paper presents a cost-effective technique of preparing 3D-printed liver models that preserves the shape and all of the structures, including the vessels and the tumor, which in the present case is colorectal liver metastasis. The patient's computed tomography scans were used for the separation and visualization of virtual 3D anatomical structures. Those elements were transformed into stereolithographic files and subsequently printed on a desktop 3D printer. The multipart structure was assembled and filled with silicone. The patient underwent subsequent laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy. The entire process is described step-by-step, and only free-to-use and mostly open-source software was used. As a result, a transparent, full-sized liver model with visible vessels and colorectal metastasis was created for under $150, which-taking into account 3D printer prices-is much cheaper than models presented in previous research papers. The increased accessibility of 3D models for physicians before complex laparoscopic surgical procedures such as hepatic resections could lead to beneficial breakthroughs in these sophisticated surgeries, as many reports show that these models reduce operative time and improve short term outcomes.
Nikkels, C; Vervoort, Anke J M W; Mol, Ben Willem; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K; Huirne, Judith A F; Brölmann, Hans A M
The research objective of the current systematic literature review is to classify the laparoscopic niche repair according to the IDEAL framework of 'innovation stages' and to recommend the required research setting to facilitate safe and properly timed implementation of the technique. In doing so, we are also able to evaluate the practical applicability of the IDEAL framework. A systematic search of the available literature on laparoscopic niche repair was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Wiley/Cochrane library. Articles were classified according to the IDEAL framework and recommendations were given on additional required research before the technique can be safely implemented. Practical applicability of the IDEAL framework was also evaluated. Introduction of laparoscopic niche repair matches Idea (1) and Development (2a), according to the stages of IDEAL framework, although most studies are retrospective and complications have not been registered structurally in a considerable number of the articles. As feasibility and safety have been more or less established and surgery has been further developed we enter stage 2b (Exploration) and need prospective trials preferably comparing the effectiveness of laparoscopic niche repair to expectant management, the current standard care. Available studies were classified with the use of the IDEAL framework, achieving an overall IDEAL stage to be 2a Development. As clinical outcomes, though poorly registered, have been substantially improved, laparoscopic niche repair needs to be carried forward by more advanced study designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Byoung Chul; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jihun; Lee, Jong Lyul; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, In Ja; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon
Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the clinicopathological features of synchronous cancers and treatment options according to their locations. Records of 8368 patients with colorectal cancer treated at our center between July 2003 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. All synchronous colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment were included. Synchronous cancers were identified in 217 patients (2.6%). Seventy-nine patients underwent either total colectomy, subtotal colectomy, or total proctocolectomy; 116 underwent 1 regional resection, including local excision; and 22 underwent 2 regional resections. The mean age was 62 years, slightly higher than that for the single-cancer patients. Synchronous cancers were more common in male patients, more frequently located in the left colon, had more microsatellite instability-high status, and showed more advanced stage than single cancer. Extensive resection was mainly performed for synchronous cancers located in both the right and left colon. Two regional resections were performed for cancers in the right colon and rectum. There were no differences in complication rates or the occurrence of metachronous cancer between the 2-region resection and extensive resection groups. Eight years postoperatively, the mean number of daily bowel movements for these 2 groups were 1.9 and 4.3, respectively. We found that synchronous cancer was different from single cancer in terms of age, gender, location, and pathologic features. Synchronous colorectal cancer requires different treatment strategy according to the distribution of lesions. Comparison between the 2 regional resections and extensive resection approaches suggests that 2 regional resections are preferable. PMID:28248880
Villamere, James; Gebhart, Alana; Vu, Stephen; Nguyen, Ninh T
Robotic-assisted general and bariatric surgery is gaining popularity among surgeons. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization and outcome of laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques for common elective general and bariatric surgical procedures performed at Academic Medical Centers. We analyzed data from University HealthSystem Consortium clinical database from October 2010 to February 2014 for all patients who underwent laparoscopic versus robotic techniques for eight common elective general and bariatric surgical procedures: gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric band, antireflux surgery, Heller myotomy (HM), cholecystectomy (LC), colectomy, rectal resection (RR). Utilization and outcome measures including demographics, in-hospital mortality, major complications, 30-day readmission, length of stay (LOS), and costs were compared between techniques. 96,694 laparoscopic and robotic procedures were analyzed. Utilization of the robotic approach was the highest for RR (21.4%), followed by HM (9.1%). There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality or major complications between laparoscopic versus robotic techniques for all procedures. Only two procedures had improved outcome associated with the robotic approach: robotic HM and robotic LC had a shorter LOS compared to the laparoscopic approach (2.8 ± 3.6 vs. 2.3 ± 2.1; respectively, p < 0.05 for HM and 2.9 ± 2.4 vs. 2.3 ± 1.7; respectively, p < 0.05 for LC). Costs were significantly higher (21%) in the robotic group for all procedures. A subset analysis of patients with minor/moderate severity of illness showed similar results. This national analysis of academic centers showed a low utilization of robotic-assisted laparoscopic elective general and bariatric surgical procedures with the highest utilization for rectal resection. Compared to conventional laparoscopy, there were no observed clinical benefits associated with the robotic approach, but there was a
Schlachta, C M; Mamazza, J; Grégoire, R; Burpee, S E; Pace, K T; Poulin, E C
Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has clear advantages over open surgery; however, the effectiveness of the approach depends on the conversion rate. The objective of this work was to prospectively validate a model that would predict conversion in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. A simple clinical model for predicting conversion in laparoscopic colorectal surgery was previously developed based on a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 367 procedures. This model was applied prospectively to a follow-up group of 248 procedures by the same team, including 54 procedures performed by one new fellowship-trained surgeon. Patients in the follow-up group were more likely to have cancer (56% vs 44%, p = 0.007) and were more obese (median, 71.0 vs 66.0 kg; p < 0.001). The rate of conversion in the follow-up group was unchanged (8.9% vs 9.0%, p > 0.05). Despite expected trends toward increasing risk of conversion with weight level (<60 kg, 6.8%; 60-<90 kg, 9.0%; >90 kg, 12.1%; p > 0.05) and malignancy (10.1% vs 7.3%, p > 0.05), the model did not distinguish well between groups at risk for conversion. Contrary to the model, however, the fellowship-trained surgeon had a conversion rate that was not higher than that of the other, more experienced surgeons (7.3% vs 9.3%, p > 0.05) even though he was less experienced, and operating on patients who were more obese (median, 75.0 vs 70 kg; p = 0.02) and more likely to have cancer (59% vs 55%, p > 0.05). Recalculated conversion scores that excluded the inexperience point for the fellowship-trained surgeon showed a good fit for the model. Considering the original and follow-up experience together (615 cases), the model clearly stratifies patients into low (0 points), medium (1-2 points), and high risk (3-4 points) for conversion, with respective rates of 2.9%, 8.1%, and 20% ( p = 0.001). This model appears to be a valid predictor of conversion to open surgery. Fellowship training may provide sufficient experience so that learning
Garcia-Vallejo, Luis; Couto-Gonzalez, Ivan; Concheiro-Coello, Pablo; Brea-Garcia, Beatriz; Taboada-Suarez, Antonio
In an attempt to find the ideal surgical technique for mesh fixation during laparoscopic total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair, we evaluate the use of a synthetic surgical glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate-Glubran 2) in an effort to reduce postoperative pain and the complications associated with the use of staples. We have prospectively evaluated 61 consecutive patients (73 hernias) with a minimum follow-up period of 18 months and an average of 29.7 months, without any significant complications present. The majority (59%) only required low dosages of painkillers during the first 24 hours after surgery and have not experienced any cases of chronic pain or recurring hernias in the time period described. On the basis of this initial experience, the use of the surgical glue used to repair inguinal hernias with the laparoscopic total extraperitoneal technique has been proved to be a simple and effective surgical method for mesh fixation.
Cavalini, Worens Luiz Pereira; Claus, Christiano Marlo Paggi; Dimbarre, Daniellson; Cury, Antonio Moris; Bonin, Eduardo Aimoré; Loureiro, Marcelo de Paula; Salvalaggio, Paolo
Objective To assess the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills of Medical students trained on a surgical simulator. Methods First- and second-year Medical students participated on a laparoscopic training program on simulators. None of the students had previous classes of surgical technique, exposure to surgical practice nor training prior to the enrollment in to the study. Students´ time were collected before and after the 150-minute training. Skill acquisition was measured comparing time and scores of students and senior instructors of laparoscopic surgery Results Sixty-eight students participated of the study, with a mean age of 20.4 years, with a predominance of first-year students (62%). All students improved performance in score and time, after training (p<0,001). Score improvement in the exercises ranged from 294.1 to 823%. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified that second-year Medical students have achieved higher performance after training. Conclusions Medical students who had never been exposed to surgical techniques can acquire basic laparoscopic skills after training in simulators. Second-year undergraduates had better performance than first-year students. PMID:25628198
Angioli, Roberto; Terranova, Corrado; Plotti, Francesco; Cafà, Ester Valentina; Gennari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Roberto; Aloisi, Alessia; Miranda, Andrea; Montera, Roberto; De Cicco Nardone, Carlo
Studies on the influence of CO₂ pneumoperitoneum on the abdominal cavity during robotic procedures are lacking. This is the first study to evaluate surgical field modifications related to CO₂ pressure, during laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Consecutive patients scheduled for laparoscopic or robotic hysterectomy were enrolled in the study. To evaluate the level of operative field visualization, a dedicated form has been designed based on the evaluation of four different areas: Douglas space, vesico-uterine fold and, bilaterally, the broad ligament. During the initial inspection, an assistant randomly set the CO₂ pressure at 15, 10 and 5 mmHg, and the surgeon, not aware of the CO₂ values, was asked to give an evaluation of the four areas for each set pressure. In laparoscopic group, CO₂ pressure significantly influenced the surgical field visualization in all four areas analyzed. The surgeon had a good visualization only at 15 mmHg CO₂ pressure; visualization decreased with a statistically significant difference from 15 to 5, 15-10 and 10-5 mmHg. In robotic group, influence of CO₂ pressure on surgical areas visualization was not straightforward; operative field visualization remained stable at any pressure value with no significant difference. Pneumoperitoneum pressure significantly affects the visualization of the abdomino-pelvic cavity in laparoscopic procedures. Otherwise, CO₂ pressure does not affect the visualization of surgical field during robotic surgery. These findings are particularly significant especially at low CO₂ pressure with potential implications on peritoneal environment and the subsequent post-operative patient recovery.
Kim, Min Gyu; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Kap Choong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Hee Sung; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Byung Sik
The aim of this study is to estimate the impact of obesity on surgical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Between January 2005 and January 2010, 1100 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer were reviewed to evaluate the impact of obesity. The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the World Health Organization classification, as normal weight [body mass index (BMI) 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m], overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m), and obese patients (BMI ≥30 kg/m). The postoperative complication rates for normal weight, overweight, and obese patients were 5.7%, 10.0%, 15.4%, respectively. Overweight and obese patients had a significantly prolonged operation time, increased intraoperative blood loss, prolonged first flatus, day of commencement of soft diet, increased number of administration of analgesics, and prolonged hospital stay. Overweight and obesity were associated with poor early surgical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy. This study suggested that greater cautions and improved surgical techniques were required to improve early surgical outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy for overweight and obese patients.
LeBlanc, Fabien; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Delaney, Conor P
The aim of this study was to compare the human cadaver model with an augmented reality simulator for straight laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition. Thirty-five sigmoid colectomies were performed on a cadaver (n = 7) or an augmented reality simulator (n = 28) during a laparoscopic training course. Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Objective structured technical skills assessment forms were completed by trainers and trainees independently. Groups were compared according to technical skills and events scores and satisfaction with training model. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both groups. For trainers and trainees, technical skills scores were considerably better on the simulator than on the cadaver. For trainers, generic events score was also considerably better on the simulator than on the cadaver. The main generic event occurring on both models was errors in the use of retraction. The main specific event occurring on both models was bowel perforation. Global satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p < 0.001). The human cadaver model was more difficult but better appreciated than the simulator for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy training. Simulator training followed by cadaver training can appropriately integrate simulators into the learning curve and maintain the benefits of both training methodologies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chai, Young Jun; Kwon, Hyungju; Yu, Hyeong Won; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, June Young; Lee, Kyu Eun; Youn, Yeo-Kyu
Background. Laparoscopic lateral transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LTA) has been the standard method for resecting benign adrenal gland tumors. Recently, however, laparoscopic posterior retroperitoneal adrenalectomy (PRA) has been more popular as an alternative method. This systematic review evaluates current evidence on adrenalectomy techniques, comparing laparoscopic LTA with PRA and laparoscopic adrenalectomy with robotic adrenalectomy. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched systematically for studies comparing surgical outcomes of laparoscopic LTA versus PRA and laparoscopic versus robotic adrenalectomy. The studies were evaluated according to the PRISMA statement. Results. Eight studies comparing laparoscopic PRA and LTA showed that laparoscopic PRA was superior or at least comparable to laparoscopic LTA in operation time, blood loss, pain score, hospital stay, and return to normal activity. Conversion rates and complication rates were similar. Six studies comparing robotic and laparoscopic adrenalectomy found that outcomes and complications were similar. Conclusion. Laparoscopic PRA was more effective than LTA, especially in reducing operation time and hospital stay, but there was no evidence showing that robotic adrenalectomy was superior to laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Cost reductions and further technical advances are needed for wider application of robotic adrenalectomy. PMID:25587275
Sehgal, Rishabh; Cahill, Ronan A
Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease is an evolving, dynamic subject undergoing constant adaptation. Hence there are significant ongoing advances in technique and technology as has been seen with the emergence of single port and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic operations with already considerable ramifications for many aspects of minimal access surgery. Most recently single port technologies and expertise have synergized with Transanal Endoscopic (TEM/TEO) experience to allow their convergence out of their respective niches so that pelvic surgery can be laparoendoscopically performed from both its abdominal and perineal aspects. Distinct from wound-related benefits, such capacity for high resolution and multi-dimensional imaging relates significant benefit to the operating team and patient. This state of the art review demonstrates the crucial perspective that advanced practices and performance capabilities are intrinsically complimentary rather than competitive. All surgeons need therefore to participate in adapting their practice styles to allow technical step-advance across the discipline.
Stetler, Jamil L; Gill, Sujata; Patel, Ankit; Davis, S Scott; Lin, Edward
Nissen fundoplication is the current gold standard for surgical management of gastroesophageal reflux disease; however, a magnetic antireflux device is now an alternative surgical procedure. The early literature shows good reflux control with minimal complications, and therefore placement of these devices is growing in popularity. As more of these devices are placed, there will be cases in which they will need to be removed. A laparoscopic method for removing the device is presented here. We present a case of a 42-year-old female with history of gastroesophageal reflux who underwent a laparoscopic placement of a magnetic lower esophageal sphincter augmentation device and repair of a small hiatal hernia. She had a complicated postoperative course before presenting to our institution with a 2-year history of persistent dysphagia and requesting the device be removed. Laparoscopic removal of the device was performed. After laparoscopic removal of the patient's magnetic lower esophageal sphincter augmentation device, she had subjective improvement in her dysphagia but is now being medically managed for gastroesophageal reflux and for delayed gastric emptying. Laparoscopic removal of magnetic lower esophageal sphincter augmentation devices will sometimes be necessary and may be challenging if the surgeon encounters significant scar tissue around the gastroesophageal junction. Postoperative complications are similar to those encountered with foregut surgeries and include postoperative delayed gastric emptying.
Nugent, Emmeline; Hseino, Hazem; Boyle, Emily; Mehigan, Brian; Ryan, Kieran; Traynor, Oscar; Neary, Paul
The surgeons of the future will need to have advanced laparoscopic skills. The current challenge in surgical education is to teach these skills and to identify factors that may have a positive influence on training curriculums. The primary aim of this study was to determine if fundamental aptitude impacts on ability to perform a laparoscopic colectomy. A practical laparoscopic colectomy course was held by the National Surgical Training Centre at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. The course consisted of didactics, warm-up and the performance of a laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on thesimulator. Objective metrics such as time and motion analysis were recorded. Each candidate had their psychomotor and visual spatial aptitude assessed. The colectomy trays were assessed by blinded experts post procedure for errors. Ten trainee surgeons that were novices with respect to advanced laparoscopic procedures attended the course. A significant correlation was found between psychomotor and visual spatial aptitude and performance on both the warm-up session and laparoscopic colectomy (r > 0.7, p < 0.05). Performance on the warm-up session correlated with performance of the laparoscopic colectomy (r = 0.8, p = 0.04). There was also a significant correlation between the number of tray errors and time taken to perform the laparoscopic colectomy (r = 0.83, p = 0.001). The results have demonstrated that there is a relationship between aptitude and ability to perform both basic laparoscopic tasks and laparoscopic colectomy on a simulator. The findings suggest that there may be a role for the consideration of an individual's inherent baseline ability when trying to design and optimise technical teaching curricula for advanced laparoscopic procedures.
Allaix, Marco E; Furnée, Edgar J B; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Arezzo, Alberto; Morino, Mario
Laparoscopic resection for colon and rectal cancer is associated with quicker return of bowel function, reduced postoperative morbidity rates and shorter length of hospital stay compared to open surgery, with no differences in long-term survival. Conversion to open surgery is reported in up to 30% of patients enrolled in randomized control trials comparing open and laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer. In this review, reasons for conversion are anatomical-related factors, disease-related-factors and surgeon-related factors. Body mass index, local tumour extension and co-morbidities are independent predictors of conversion. The current evidence has shown that patients with converted resection for colon cancer have similar outcomes compared to patients undergoing a laparoscopic completed or open resection. The few studies that have assessed the outcomes after conversion of laparoscopic rectal resection reported significantly higher rates of complications and longer length of hospital stay in converted patients compared to laparoscopically treated patients. No definitive conclusions can be drawn when converted and open rectal resections are compared. Early and pre-emptive conversion appears to have more favourable outcomes than reactive conversion; however, further large studies are needed to better define the optimal timing of conversion. With regard to long-term oncologic outcome, overall and disease-free survival in the case of conversion in laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery seems to be worse than those achieved in patients in whom resection was successfully completed by laparoscopy. Although a worse long-term oncologic outcome has been suggested, it remains difficult to draw a proper conclusion due to the heterogeneity of the long-term outcomes as well as the inclusion of both colon and rectal cancer patients in most of the studies. Therefore, we discuss the currently available evidence of the impact of conversion in laparoscopic resection for colon
Kanters, Arielle; Mullard, Andrew J; Arambula, Jennifer; Fasbinder, Laurie; Krapohl, Greta; Wong, Sandra L; Campbell, Darrell A; Hendren, Samantha
Surgery remains the cornerstone therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assesses CRC quality measures for surgical cases in Michigan. In this retrospective cohort study, processes of care and outcomes for CRC resection cases were abstracted in 30 hospitals in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (2014-2015). Measures were case-mix and reliability adjusted, using logistic regression models. For 871 cases (640 colon cancer, 231 rectal cancer), adjusted morbidity (27.4%) and mortality rates (1.5%) were low. Adjusted process measures showed gaps in quality of care. Mesorectal excision was documented in 59.4% of rectal cancer (RC) cases, 65% of RC cases had sphincter preserving surgery, 18.7% of cases had < 12 lymph nodes examined, 7.9% had a positive margin, 52.1% of stage II/III RC cases had neoadjuvant therapy, and 36% of ostomy cases had site marking. This study finds gaps in quality of care measures for CRC, suggesting opportunity for regional quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hedrick, Traci L; Sawyer, Robert G; Hennessy, Sara A; Turrentine, Florence E; Friel, Charles M
Increasingly, surgical site infection (SSI) is being tied to quality of care. The incidence of SSI after colorectal surgery differs widely. We hypothesize that it is difficult to define SSI reliably and reproducibly when adhering to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Elective intra-abdominal colorectal procedures via a clean-contaminated incision performed at a single institution between January 1 and May 1, 2011 were queried. Three attending surgeons examined all patients' records retrospectively for documentation of SSI. These data were compared with the institutional National Surgeon Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data with regard to deep and superficial incisional SSI. Seventy-one cases met the inclusion criteria. There were six SSIs identified by NSQIP, representing 8.4% of cases. Review of the three attending surgeons demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of SSI, at 27%, 38%, and 23% (p=0.002). The percent of overall agreement between all reviewers was 82.16 with a kappa of 0.64, indicating only modest inter-rater agreement. Lack of attending surgeon documentation and subjective differences in chart interpretation accounted for most discrepancies between the surgeon and NSQIP SSI capture rates. This study highlights the difficulty in defining SSI in colon and rectal surgery, which oftentimes is subjective and difficult to discern from the medical record. According to these preliminary data from our institution, there is poor reliability between clinical reviewers in defining SSI on the basis of the CDC criteria, which has serious implications. The interpretation of clinical trials may be jeopardized if we cannot define SSI accurately. Furthermore, according to current CDC definitions and infection tracking strategies, these data suggest that the institutional incidence of SSI may not be a reliable measure by which to compare institutions. Better methods for defining SSI should be implemented if these data are
Huang, Chun-Kai; Head, Michael J; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
The objective of this study was to compare three different surgical skills practice environments while performing a virtual laparoscopic surgical training task using a multi-degree of freedom joystick, a commercial manipulator or a training box. Nine subjects performed a virtual peg transfer task and their upper extremity muscle effort and fatigue were measured. The results demonstrated a similar muscle effort and fatigue of the upper extremity among the three training environments. Subjects with medical backgrounds used significantly higher muscle effort when they performed the training task using the joystick than the manipulator, but used similar muscle effort between the joystick and the training box. This study suggests that the multi-degree of freedom joystick could provide more options to practice virtual laparoscopic surgical training tasks with muscle effort and fatigue similar to other traditional training boxes.
Burnell, Phillippa; Coates, Rachael; Dixon, Steven; Grant, Lucy; Grey, Matthew; Griffiths, Ben; Jones, Mike; Madhavan, Anantha; McCallum, Iain; McClean, Ross; Naru, Karen; Newton, Lydia; O'Loughlin, Paul; Shaban, Fadlo; Sukha, Anisha; Somnath, Sameer; Shumon, Syed; Harji, Deena
Introduction Laparoscopic surgery combined with enhanced recovery programmes has become the gold standard in the elective management of colorectal disease. However, there is no consensus with regard to the optimal perioperative analgesic regime in this cohort of patients, with a number of options available, including thoracic epidural spinal analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, subcutaneous and/or intraperitoneal local anaesthetics, local anaesthetic wound infiltration catheters and transversus abdominis plane blocks. This study aims to explore any differences in analgesic strategies employed across the North East of England and to assess whether any variation in practice has an impact on clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis All North East Colorectal units will be recruited for participation by the Northern Surgical Trainees Research Association (NoSTRA). Data will be collected over a consecutive 2-month period. Outcome measures will include postoperative pain score, postoperative opioid analgesic use and side effects, length of stay, 30-day complication rates, 30-day reoperative rates and 30-day readmission rates. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for this study has been granted by the National Research Ethics Service. The protocol will be disseminated through NoSTRA. Individual unit data will be presented at local meetings. Overall collective data will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant surgical meetings. PMID:27601484
Giuliani, Antonio; Bianco, Paolo; Guerra, Germano; Rocca, Aldo; Calise, Fulvio
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a congenital condition consisting of a mirror image of transposition of the abdominal and thoracic organs occurring in about 1:5000 to 1:10 000 adults. We report on a 60-year-old male with a single colorectal liver metastasis in the Segment 7. The patients underwent a totally laparoscopic sub-segmentectomy. Intraoperative approach on a reverse posterior segment was difficult because of left-sided position of the liver. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged after 5 days. To our knowledge, only a few cases of open liver resections in patients with SIT have been published. This is, therefore, the first case of laparoscopic liver resection for colorectal liver metastasis in a patient with SIT. We provide the readers with useful tips to perform minimally invasive liver surgery in such patients. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017.
Kunisaki, Chikara; Makino, Hirochika; Yamaguchi, Naotaka; Izumisawa, Yusuke; Miyamato, Hiroshi; Sato, Kei; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Sugano, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuburaya, Akira; Kimura, Jun; Takagawa, Ryo; Kosaka, Takashi; Ono, Hidetaka Andrew; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Endo, Itaru
Although a few studies have reported the use of reduced-port laparoscopic gastrectomy (RPG) in gastric cancer patients, the feasibility of routinely using this technique remains unclear. It is therefore important to evaluate the surgical advantages of this technique in this patient group. Between August 2010 and July 2015, 165 patients underwent RPGs at our hospital, performed by a single surgeon. Of these patients, 88 underwent reduced-port laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (RPLDG) and 77 underwent reduced-port laparoscopic total gastrectomy (RPLTG). In addition to short-term surgical outcomes after RPG, survival times and the surgical learning curve were also evaluated. Blood losses during lymph node dissection in the RPLDG and RPLTG groups were not significantly different (p = 0.160). Conversion to open surgery was necessary in only two patients. Postoperative morbidities were observed in 14.8 % of the RPLDG group and 14.3 % of the RPLTG group, but there were no deaths. Most patients expressed high cosmetic satisfaction in both groups. In the RPLDG group, operation time during reconstruction decreased over the first 50 cases and then plateaued, as the surgeon's experience of the technique increased. In contrast, in the RPLTG group, operation times dropped with surgical experience for both lymph node dissection, plateauing after 40 cases, and for reconstruction, plateauing after 30 cases. Only three patients died of gastric cancer in the follow-up period and three patients died of other diseases. Five-year overall survival and 5-year disease-specific survival were 95.6 and 98.0 %, respectively. We have shown that reduced-port gastrectomy (RPG) could be an acceptable and satisfactory procedure for treating gastric cancer for an experienced laparoscopic gastric surgeon who has sufficient previous experience of conventional laparoscopic gastrectomies.
Goto, Saori; Hasegawa, Suguru; Hata, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Hida, Koya; Nishitai, Ryuta; Yamanokuchi, Satoshi; Nomura, Akinari; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Sakai, Yoshiharu
The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) is reportedly lower in laparoscopic colorectal surgery than in open surgery, but data on the difference in SSI incidence between colon and rectal laparoscopic surgeries are limited. The incidence and risk factors for SSI, and the effect of oral antibiotics in colon and rectal laparoscopic surgeries, were investigated as a sub-analysis of the JMTO-PREV-07-01 (a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of oral/parenteral vs. parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery). A total of 582 elective laparoscopic colorectal resections, comprising 376 colon surgeries and 206 rectal surgeries, were registered. The incidence of SSI in rectal surgery was significantly higher than in colon surgery (14 vs. 8.2 %, P = 0.041). Although the incidence of incisional SSI was almost identical (7 %) between the surgeries, the incidence of organ/space SSI in rectal surgery was significantly higher than in colon surgery (6.3 vs. 1.1 %, P = 0.0006). The lack of oral antibiotics was significantly associated with the development of SSI in colon surgery. Male sex, stage IV cancer, and abdominoperineal resection were significantly associated with SSI in rectal surgery. The combination of oral and parenteral antibiotics significantly reduced the overall incidence of SSI in colon surgery (relative risk 0.41, 95 % confidence interval 0.19-0.86). The incidence of SSI in laparoscopic rectal surgery was higher than in colon surgery because of the higher incidence of organ/space SSI in rectal surgery. The risk factors for SSIs and the effect of oral antibiotics differed between these two procedures.
Nagata, Jun; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Nagayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ueno, Masashi
Accurate identification of the location of colorectal lesions is crucial during laparoscopic surgery. Endoscopic marking has been used as an effective preoperative marker for tumor identification. We investigated the feasibility and safety of an imaging method using near-infrared, light-emitting, diode-activated indocyanine green fluorescence in colorectal laparoscopic surgery. This was a single-institution, prospective study. This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery. Indocyanine green and India ink were injected into the same patients undergoing preoperative colonoscopy for colon cancer. During subsequent laparoscopic resection of colorectal tumors, the colon was first observed with white light. Then, indocyanine green was activated with a light-emitting diode at 760 nm as the light source. Near-infrared-induced fluorescence showed tumor location clearly and accurately in all 24 of the patients. All of the patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery after marking had positive indocyanine green staining at the time of surgery. Perioperative complications attributed to dye use were not observed. This study is limited by the cost of indocyanine green detection, the timing of the colonoscopy and tattooing in relation to the operation and identification with indocyanine green, and the small size of the series. These data suggest that our novel method for colonic marking with fluorescence imaging of near-infrared, light-emitting, diode-activated indocyanine green is feasible and safe. This method is useful, has no adverse effects, and can be used for perioperative identification of tumor location. Near-infrared, light-emitting, diode-activated indocyanine green has potential use as a colonic marking agent.
Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Choi, Gi Hong; Choi, Jin Sub
Backgrounds/Aims Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases. PMID:27621747
McIntyre, Benjamin C; Lobb, David; Navarro, Fernando; Nottingham, James
The omental flap is a well described pedicled flap for surgical reconstruction of multiple body locations. As a laparoscopically harvested free flap, the omentum offers a minimally invasive solution to many reconstructive problems including extremity and head and neck wounds. This video article highlights the operative technique involved in flap harvest and inset for a cranial defect. An illustrative case involving a 23-year-old female's traumatic scalp degloving injury that was resurfaced by free omental flap and split-thickness skin graft is presented. This patient had stable long-term wound coverage for a very severe injury. Through video media we demonstrate that the laparoscopically harvested free omental flap is a minimally invasive, 2-team operation that provides soft tissue coverage of severe, remote wounds. This video demonstrates a safe operative technique and nuances specific to laparoscopic harvest of this flap.
Wang, Q; Suo, J; Jiang, J; Wang, C; Zhao, Y-Q; Cao, X
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-track rehabilitation in elderly patients over 65 years of age, following laparoscopic surgery to remove colorectal cancer. A total of 78 elderly patients with colorectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection were randomly assigned to receive either the fast-track care programme (n = 40) or the conventional perioperative care protocol (control group, n = 38). Medical personnel conducting the study were blinded to patients' clinical outcomes prior to statistical analysis. The fast-track protocol included no preoperative mechanical bowel irrigation, immediate oral alimentation and earlier postoperative ambulation exercise. The length of postoperative hospital stay, the length of time to regain bowel function and the rate of postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The length of time to regain bowel function, including the passage of flatus[31 (26-40) h vs 38 (32-51) h, P = 0.001], to the first bowel movement [55 (48-63) h vs 64 (48-71) h, P = 0.009] and to start a liquid diet (12 [11-16] h vs 47 [35-50] h, P = 0.000) were significantly shorter in patients receiving the fast-track care protocol compared with those receiving the conventional care protocol. A shorter duration of postoperative hospital stay was recorded in patients receiving the fast-track program than in those receiving conventional care (P = 0.0001). A reduced percentage of patients who developed general complications was also observed in the fast-track group (5.0%vs 21.1%, P = 0.045). This randomized controlled trial has shown that in the elderly undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery, the fast-track recovery programme resulted in a more rapid postoperative recovery, earlier discharge from hospital and fewer general complications compared with a conventional postoperative protocol. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and
Arita, Nestor A.; Nguyen, Mylan T.; Nguyen, Duyen H.; Berger, Rachel L.; Lew, Debbie F.; Suliburk, James T.; Askenasy, Erik P.; Kao, Lillian S.; Liang, Mike K.
Background The role of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias remains incompletely defined. We hypothesize that laparoscopy, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases surgical site infection (SSI) for all ventral hernia types. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were reviewed to identify studies evaluating outcomes of laparoscopic versus open repair with mesh of ventral hernias and divided into groups (primary or incisional). Studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Primary outcomes of interest were recurrence and SSI. Fixed effects model was used unless significant heterogeneity, assessed with the Higgins I-square (I2), was encountered. Results There were five and fifteen studies for primary and incisional cohorts. No difference was seen in recurrence between laparoscopic and open repair in the two hernia groups. SSI was more common with open repair in both hernia groups: primary (OR 4.17, 95%CI [2.03–8.55]) and incisional (OR 5.16, 95%CI [2.79–9.57]). Conclusions Laparoscopic repair, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases rates of SSI in all types of ventral hernias with no difference in recurrence. This data suggests that laparoscopic approach may be the treatment of choice for all types of ventral hernias. PMID:25294541
Quality assurance in surgical oncology is a field of growing importance. National, regional and local systems have been built up in many countries. Often the quality assurance projects are linked to different registers. The advantage of such a link is the possibility of obtaining population-based data from unselected health care institutions. Few discussions of results from such projects have been published. Quality assurance of colorectal cancer surgery implies the development and use of systems for improvement all the way from detection of the cancer to the outcome as survival and patient satisfaction. To achieve this we must know what methods are being used and the outcome of our treatments. Designing processes for improvement necessitates careful planning, including decisions about end-points. Some crucial issues are discussed step-by-step in the present paper. In addition to auditing and providing collegial feedback, quality assurance is a tool for closing the gap between clinical practice and evidence based medicine and for creating new evidences as well as monitoring the introduction of new techniques and their effects.
Goderstad, Jeanne Mette; Sandvik, Leiv; Fosse, Erik; Lieng, Marit
To develop a procedure-specific rating scale for laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH), and to compare the construct validity and reliability with a general rating scale in laparoscopic surgery, global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills (GOALS). Prospective interobserver study. In collaboration with an expert group, we developed the procedure-specific rating scale, competence assessment tool for laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (CAT-LSH). LSH was performed by gynecologists with different levels of surgical competence levels (13 procedures were performed by inexperienced trainees, 13 by intermediate experienced, and 15 by laparoscopic experts). All procedures were video-recorded. Surgical performance was evaluated in all procedures using both CAT-LSH and GOALS by the surgical assistant, as well as by 2 blinded observers evaluating the video recordings. University teaching hospital. Laparoscopic experts, consultants and gynecological registrars from the Department of Gynecology. There were significant differences between the 3 proficiency groups in both the rating scales. Mean GOALS score evaluated by the operating assistant and the 2 observers were for inexperienced surgeons 16.4 vs. 13.6 (p < 0.01), for surgeons with intermediate experienced 22.6 vs. 19.5 (p < 0.05) and for expert surgeons 26.1 vs. 22.4 (p < 0.01), respectively. Corresponding results for the CAT-LSH scores were 41.0/34.6 (p < 0.01), 49.2/43.1 (p < 0.01), and 58.7/51.1 (p < 0.01), respectively. The interrater reliability measured by the interclass correlation coefficient between the surgical assistant and the 2 blinded observers for GOALS and CAT-LSH were 0.71 and 0.75, respectively. The GOALS and CAT-LSH appear to have construct validity and high interrater reliability. Assessment of surgical competence during LSH is feasible in daily practice with objective rating scales like CAT-LSH and GOALS. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Nagai, Kentaro; Kemmochi, Akira; Inagawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi
We performed three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to investigate the vascular anatomy, including the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), left colic artery (LCA), and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV), for laparoscope-assisted left-side colorectal surgery. Furthermore, we also examined the distances from the root of the IMA to the bifurcation of the LCA and to the IMV using 3D imaging. We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients who underwent laparoscope-assisted left-side colorectal surgery via 3D surgical reconstruction at Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital. The branching patterns among the IMA, LCA, and sigmoidal colic artery (SCA) in colon cancer could be classified into three groups (types A, B, and C): type A, in which both arteries (LCA and SCA) branch off from the same point of the IMA; type B, in which the common trunk of the LCA and SCA branches off from the IMA; and type C, in which the LCA and SCA branch off separately from the IMA. The shortest length from the root of the IMA to bifurcation of the LCA and SCA branches (D mm) or to the IMV (d mm) was measured by 3D imaging. The mean D mm and d mm for all cases were 39.4 ± 11.2 and 27.9 ± 9.21 mm, respectively. The D mm from the IMA root to the LCA or SCA branch in types A, B, and C was 37.8 ± 9.21, 40.5 ± 12.7, and 38.6 ± 10.2 mm, respectively. Similarly, the d mm from the IMA root to the IMV in types A, B, and C was 30.2 ± 11.3, 29.9 ± 7.27, and 25.2 ± 10.3 mm, respectively. The present 3D reconstruction technique was useful for determining the 3D vascular anatomical pattern including the relative positions of the IMA, SCA, and IMV during laparoscope-assisted left-side colorectal surgery.
Fretland, Asmund Avdem; Sokolov, Andrey; Postriganova, Nadya; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Pischke, Soren E; Nilsson, Per H; Rognes, Ingrid Nygren; Bjornbeth, Bjorn Atle; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Edwin, Bjorn
Laparoscopic and open liver resection have not been compared in randomized trials. The aim of the current study was to compare the inflammatory response after laparoscopic and open resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in a randomized controlled trial.This was a predefined exploratory substudy within the Oslo CoMet-study. Forty-five patients with CLM were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 23) or open (n = 22) resection. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-plasma samples were collected preoperatively and at defined time points during and after surgery and snap frozen at -80 C. A total of 25 markers were examined using luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques: high-mobility box group 1(HMGB-1), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), cytokines, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex complement activation.Eight inflammatory markers increased significantly from baseline: HMGB-1, cfDNA, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, monocyte chemotactic protein -1, IL-10, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex. Peak levels were reached at the end of or shortly after surgery. Five markers, HMGB-1, cfDNA, IL-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, showed significantly higher levels in the open surgery group compared with the laparoscopic surgery group.Laparoscopic resection of CLM reduced the inflammatory response compared with open resection. The lower level of HMGB-1 is interesting because of the known association with oncogenesis.
Chen, Yang; Liu, Bao-Lin; Shang, Bin; Chen, Ai-Shan; Liu, Shi-Qing; Sun, Wei; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Yin, Jian-Qiao; Su, Qi
AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed. RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection. CONCLUSION: Appropriate
ZOU, LIAO-NAN; HE, YAO-BIN; LI, HONG-MING; DIAO, DE-CHANG; MO, DE-LONG; WANG, WEI; WAN, JIN
The aim of the present study was to inquire into the feasibility, surgical skills required and short-term effect of a laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis and lymph node scavenging with radical gastrectomy. In this study, the clinical data of 18 patients who received a laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis with radical gastrectomy in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Guangdong Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) during the period between January 2012 and January 2014. A retrospective analysis was performed and the surgical duration, bursa omentalis resection time, amount of bleeding during the surgery, post-operative complications associated with the surgery, length of hospital stay, number of lymph nodes scavenged and short-term follow-up results were assessed. The results indicated that all of these 18 patients successfully received a resection of the bursa omentalis and no one required conversion to open surgery. The mean surgical duration was 289.3±30.3 min, the bursa omentalis resection time was 46.1±18.6 min and the amount of bleeding was recorded as 35.5±6.5 ml in these patients. No patients suffered from post-operative complications, such as pancreatic fistulae, anastomotic fistulae, intestinal obstructions or succumbing to the surgery, and no patients succumbed within a 6-month follow-up period. In conclusion, for advanced gastric carcinoma, laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis and lymph node scavenging with radical gastrectomy is feasible. In addition to meeting the requirement that the operator should be skilled and experienced in open bursa omentalis resection, and have well-knit basic skills in using a laparoscope, attention must also be paid to the construction of the surgical team. PMID:26170983
Chadi, Sami A; Vogt, Kelly N; Knowles, Sarah; Murphy, Patrick B; Van Koughnett, Julie Ann; Brackstone, Muriel; Ott, Michael C
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the second most common form of nosocomial infection. Colorectal resections have high rates of SSIs secondary to the inherently contaminated intraluminal environment. Negative pressure wound therapy dressings have been used on primarily closed incisions to reduce surgical site infections in other surgical disciplines. No randomized control trials exist to support the use of negative pressure wound therapy following elective open colorectal resection to reduce surgical site infection. In this single-center, superiority designed prospective randomized open blinded endpoint controlled trial, patients scheduled for a colorectal resection via a laparotomy will be considered eligible. Patients undergoing laparoscopic resection will be enrolled but only randomized and included if the operation is converted to an open procedure. Exclusion criteria are patients receiving an abdominoperineal resection or a palliative procedure, as well as pregnant patients and those with an adhesive allergy. After informed consent, 300 patients will be randomized to the use of a standard adhesive gauze dressing or to a negative pressure wound device. Patients will be followed in hospital and reassessed on post-operative day 30. The primary outcome measure is SSI within the first 30 post-operative days. Secondary outcomes include the length of hospital stay, the number of return visits related to a potential or actual SSI, cost, and the need for homecare. The primary endpoint analysis follows the intention-to-treat principle. NEPTUNE is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of incisional negative pressure wound therapy in decreasing the rates of surgical site infections in the abdominal incisions of patients following an elective, open colorectal resection. This low-risk intervention may help decrease the morbidity and costs associated with the development of an SSI in our patients. NCT02007018--clinicaltrials.gov; 5 December 2013.
Miskovic, Danilo; Ni, Melody; Wyles, Susannah M; Tekkis, Paris; Hanna, George B
The learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal surgery has not been conclusively analyzed. No reliable framework for case selection during training is available. The aim of this study was to analyze the length of the learning curve of laparoscopic colorectal surgeons and to recommend a case selection framework at the early stage of independent practice. Medline (1988-2010, October week 4) and Embase (1988-2010) were used for the literature review, databases were retrieved from the authors, and expert opinion was surveyed. Studies describing the learning curve of laparoscopic or laparoscopically assisted colorectal surgery were selected. No interventions were performed. Learning curves were analyzed by using risk-adjusted, bootstrapped cumulative sum curves. Conversions and complications were independent variables in a multilevel random-effects regression model. Recommendations are based on analysis of ORs and a structured expert opinion gauging process. Twenty-three studies were identified, showing great disparity on the length of the learning curve. Seven studies, representing 4852 cases (19 surgeons), were analyzed. Risk-adjusted cumulative sum charts demonstrated the length of the learning curves to be 152 cases for conversions, 143 for complications, 96 for operating time, 87 for blood loss, and 103 for length of stay. Body mass index and pelvic dissection (rectum), especially in male patients, independently increased the risk of complication and conversion. The expert survey revealed that increasing T stage and complicated inflammatory disease are likely to increase the complexity of the case. Based on this evidence, a framework for case selection in training was proposed. The generalizability of the study results maybe reduced because of inconsistent data quality and individual variations in the length of the learning curve This multicenter database suggests a length of the learning curve of 88 to 152 cases. The use of the suggested framework may prevent high
Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jung Keun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook
Double-J stent insertion has been generally performed during laparoscopic upper urinary tract (UUT) surgical procedures to prevent transient urinary tract obstruction and postoperative flank pain from ureteral edema and blood clots. Several restrictive conditions that make this procedure difficult and time consuming, however, include the coiled distal ends of the flexible Double-J stent and the limited bending angle of the laparoscopic instruments. To overcome these limitations, we devised a Double-J stent insertion method using the new J-tube technique. Between July 2011 and May 2013, Double-J stents were inserted using the J-tube technique in 33 patients who underwent a laparoscopic UUT surgical procedure by a single surgeon. The mean stent placement time was 4.8±2.7 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. In conclusion, the J-tube technique is a safe and time-saving method for Double-J stent insertion during laparoscopic surgical procedures.
Untereiner, Xavier; Cagniet, Audrey; Memeo, Riccardo; Tzedakis, Stylianos; Piardi, Tullio; Severac, François; Mutter, Didier; Kianmanesh, Reza; Marescaux, Jacques; Sommacale, Daniele
Background The objective of this study was to compare the results of laparoscopic hepatectomy with those of open hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases (CCLM) using a propensity score matching (PSM) in two university hospital settings. Methods A patient in the laparoscopic approach (LA) surgery group was randomly matched with another patient in the open approach (OA) group using a 1:1 allocated ratio with the nearest estimated propensity score. No patients of the LA group were excluded for the matching. Matching criteria included age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American society anesthesiologists score, potential co-morbidities, hepatopathies, synchronous or metachronous lesions, size and number of CCLM, preoperative chemotherapy, minor or major liver resections. Intraoperative, postoperative data, and survival were compared in both groups. Results From January 2012 to January 2015, a total of 242 hepatectomies were consecutively performed, of which 119 for CCLM, namely 101 in the OA group (84.9%) and 18 in the LA group (15.1%). The conversion rate was 5.6% (n=1). The mortality rate was 1% in the OA group and 0% in the LA group. Prior to PSM, there was a statistically significant difference favorable to the LA group regarding operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay and the rate of medical complications. After PSM, there was no difference regarding operative time or length of hospital stay. However, there was a trend towards less blood loss (P=0.066) and fewer medical complications (44.4% vs.16.7%, P=0.07). The R0 resection rate was 94.4% (n=17) in the two groups. In addition, there was no difference regarding overall survival (P=0.358) and recurrence-free survival [HR =0.99 (0.1–12.7); P=0.99]. Conclusions Laparoscopic liver resections for CCLM seem to yield short- and long-term results, which are similar to open hepatectomies, and could well be considered an alternative to open surgery and become the gold standard in carefully selected
Korkmaz, Mehmet; Adıgüzel, Ünal; Şanal, Bekir; Zeren, Sezgin; Ekici, Mehmet Fatih
Bile duct injury is a commonly seen complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) approach, which can even lead to a life-threatening condition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first-line choice in treatment. Beside this, it can be concluded that percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and balloon dilatation methods may also constitute a reasonable selection with non-invasive, feasible and effective aspects prior to open surgery. In the present case, we report the management of a bile duct obstruction due to surgical clips following LC, treated with PTC and balloon dilatation instead of surgical procedure in a child patient.
Maggiori, L; Bretagnol, F; Ferron, M; Chevalier, Y; Panis, Y
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of a new cost-effective circular stapler for colorectal anastomosis, the Chex(®) CS. From 2007 to 2009, a case-control study was conducted of 54 patients who underwent left colectomy with stapled anastomosis using the Chex stapler. The patients were matched to 64 patients in whom the anastomoses were performed using the CDH(®) stapler or the EEA(®) stapler. The following criteria were matched: sex, age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiology grade, diagnosis, formation of a temporary stoma and surgical approach. Primary end-points were postoperative mortality and morbidity. The surgeon was asked to fill out a questionnaire to assess the ergonomics of the device using an analogue visual scale. A cost analysis was performed to compare the cost of the different devices. There were no postoperative deaths. Morbidity, including anastomotic leakage (9%vs 8%, P = 1.000), was similar in the two groups. The surgeon's overall appreciation was scored at 8.1/10 (3-9.5), including the best score for stapler removal (9.5). No major device failure was observed during the study. Mean surgical costs were significantly lower in the Chex group: € 903 ± 73 (885-1192) vs the control group € 971 ± 61 (956-1263) (P < 0.0001). This study suggests that colorectal anastomosis using the Chex circular stapler is safe and does not increase overall morbidity. In particular, this device did not have a higher rate of anastomotic leakage in our patients than more expensive models currently used in our hospital. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Colling, Kristin P; Glover, James K; Statz, Catherine A; Geller, Melissa A; Beilman, Greg J
Hysterectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States. New techniques utilizing laparoscopic and robotic technology are becoming increasingly common. It is unknown if these minimally invasive surgical techniques alter the risk of surgical site infections (SSI). We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy at our institution between January 2011 and June 2013. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth edition (ICD-9) codes and chart review were used to identify patients undergoing hysterectomy by open, laparoscopic, or robotic approach and to identify patients who developed SSI subsequently. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify univariate risk factors and logistic regression was used to perform multivariable analysis. During this time period, 986 patients were identified who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy, with 433 receiving open technique (44%), 116 laparoscopic (12%), 407 robotic (41%), and 30 cases that were converted from minimally invasive to open (3%). Patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy were significantly younger and had lower body mass index (BMI) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores than those undergoing open or robotic hysterectomy. There were no significant differences between patients undergoing open versus robotic hysterectomy. The post-operative hospital stay was significantly longer for open procedures compared with those using laparoscopic or robotic techniques (5.1, 1.7, and 1.6 d, respectively; p<0.0001). The overall rate of SSI after all hysterectomy procedures was 4.2%. More SSI occurred in open cases (6.5%) than laparoscopic (0%) or robotic (2.2%) (p<0.0001). Cases converted to open also had an increased rate of SSI (13.3%). In both univariate and multivariable analyses, open technique, wound class of III/IV, age greater than 75 y, and morbid obesity were all associated with increased risk of
Katsavelis, Dimitrios; Siu, Ka-Chun; Brown-Clerk, Bernadette; Lee, Irene H; Lee, Yong Kwon; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Stergiou, Nick
A robotic virtual-reality (VR) simulator has been developed to improve robot-assisted training for laparoscopic surgery and to enhance surgical performance in laparoscopic skills. The simulated VR training environment provides an effective approach to evaluate and improve surgical performance. This study presents our findings of the VR training environment for robotic laparoscopy. Eight volunteers performed two inanimate tasks in both the VR and the actual training environment. The tasks were bimanual carrying (BC) and needle passing (NP). For the BC task, the volunteers simultaneously transferred two plastic pieces in opposite directions five times consecutively. The same volunteers passed a surgical needle through six pairs of holes in the NP task. Both tasks require significant bimanual coordination that mimics actual laparoscopic skills. Data analysis included time to task completion, speed and distance traveled of the instrument tip, as well as range of motion of the subject's wrist and elbow of the right arm. Electromyography of the right wrist flexor and extensor were also analyzed. Paired t-tests and Pearson's r were used to explore the differences and correlations between the two environments. There were no significant differences between the actual and the simulated VR environment with respect to the BC task, while there were significant differences in almost all dependent parameters for the NP task. Moderate to high correlations for most dependent parameters were revealed for both tasks. Our data shows that the VR environment adequately simulated the BC task. The significant differences found for the NP task may be attributed to an oversimplification in the VR environment. However, they do point to the need for improvements in the complexity of our VR simulation. Further research work is needed to develop effective and reliable VR environments for robotic laparoscopic training.
Kim, Fernando J; Sehrt, David; Pompeo, Alexandre; Molina, Wilson R
To characterize laparoscopic ultrasonic dissector surgical plume emission (laminar or turbulent) and investigate plume settlement time between curved and straight blades. A straight and a curved blade laparoscopic ultrasonic dissector were activated on tissue and in a liquid environment to evaluate plume emission. Plume emission was characterized as either laminar or turbulent and the plume settlement times were compared. Devices were then placed in liquid to observed consistency in the fluid disruption. Two types of plume emission were identified generating different directions of plume: laminar flow causes minimal visual obstruction by directing the aerosol downwards, while turbulent flow directs plume erratically across the cavity. Laminar plume dissipates immediately while turbulent plume reaches a second maximum obstruction approximately 0.3 s after activation and clears after 2 s. Turbulent plume was observed with the straight blade in 10 % of activations, and from the curved blade in 47 % of activations. The straight blade emitted less obstructive plume. Turbulent flow is disruptive to laparoscopic visibility with greater field obstruction and requires longer settling than laminar plume. Ultrasonic dissectors with straight blades have more consistent oscillations and generate more laminar flow compared with curved blades. Surgeons may avoid laparoscope smearing from maximum plume generation depending on blade geometry.
Herrera-Almario, Gabriel E.; Kirk, Katherine; Guerrero, Veronica T.; Jeong, Kwonho; Kim, Sara; Hamad, Giselle G.
Background Video review of surgical skills is an educational modality that allows trainees to reflect on self-performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resident and attending assessments of a resident’s laparoscopic performance differ and whether video review changes assessments. Methods Third-year surgery residents were invited to participate. Elective laparoscopic procedures were video-recorded. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills evaluation was completed immediately after the procedure and again 7–10 days later by both resident and attending. Scores were compared using t- tests. Results Nine residents participated and 76 video reviews were completed. Residents scored themselves significantly lower than the faculty scores both prior to and after video review. Resident scores did not change significantly after video review. Conclusions Attending and resident self-assessment of laparoscopic skills differ and subsequent video review doesn’t significantly affect GOALS scores. Further studies should evaluate the impact of video review combined with verbal feedback on skill acquisition and assessment. PMID:26590043
Granderath, Frank Alexander; Kamolz, Thomas; Schweiger, Ursula Maria; Pointner, Rudolph
Laparoscopic antireflux surgery has in recent years become the standard procedure for treating severe gastroesophageal reflux disease. Both laparoscopic antireflux surgery and open surgery cause failures which lead to repeat surgery in 3-6% of cases. We evaluated prospectively quality of life and surgical outcome following laparoscopic refundoplication for failed initial antireflux surgery. We prospectively studied 51 patients undergoing laparoscopic refundoplication for primary failed antireflux surgery, with complete follow-up 1 year after surgery. In 20 cases the initial surgery used the open technique; four had surgery twice previously. In 31 cases primary procedure was performed laparoscopically. Indication for repeat surgery were recurrent reflux ( n=29), dysphagia ( n=12), and a combination of the two ( n=10). Preoperative and postoperative data including 24-h pH monitoring, esophageal manometry, and quality of life (Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index) were used to assess outcome. Forty-nine procedures (96%) were completed by the laparoscopic technique. Conversion was necessary in two cases with primary open procedure, in one patient because of injury to the gastric wall and in one severe bleeding of the spleen. Postoperatively two patients (3.9%) suffered from dysphagia and required pneumatic dilatation within the first postoperative year. Average operating time was 245 min after an initial open procedure and 80 min after an initial laparoscopic procedure. The lower esophageal sphincter pressure increased significantly from preoperatively 2.8+/-1.8 mmHg at 3 months (12.8+/-4.1 mmHg) and 1 year (12.3+/-3.9 mmHg) after repeat surgery. In these cases the DeMeester score decreased significantly from preoperative 67.9+/-10.3 to 15.5+/-9.4 at 3 months and 13.1+/-8.1 at 1 year after surgery. Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index increased from 86.7 points preoperatively to 121.6 points at 3 months and 123.8 points at 1 year and was comparable to that of
Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred; Mulier, Jan P; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Woo, Tiffany; Li, Michael K; Grobara, Peter; Assaid, Christopher A; Fennema, Hein; Szegedi, Armin
Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We further assessed whether use of low insufflation pressure improves patient pain scores after surgery. This randomized, controlled, blinded study (NCT01728584) compared use of deep (1-2 post-tetanic-counts) or moderate (train-of-four ratio 10%) NMB, and lower (8 mmHg) or higher (12 mmHg; 'standard') insufflation pressure in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Primary endpoint was surgeon's overall satisfaction with surgical conditions, rated at end of surgery using an 11-point numerical scale. Post-operative pain scores were also evaluated. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Of 127 randomized patients, 120 had evaluable data for the primary endpoint. Surgeon's score of overall satisfaction with surgical conditions was significantly higher with deep versus moderate NMB indicated by a least-square mean difference of 1.1 points (95% confidence interval 0.1-2.0; P = 0.026). Furthermore, strong evidence of an effect was observed for standard versus low pressure: least-square mean difference of 3.0 points (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.0; P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in average pain scores within 24 h post-surgery for low versus standard pressure [0.17 (95% confidence interval -0.67 to +0.33); P = 0.494]. Although associated with significantly improved surgical conditions, deep NMB alone was insufficient to promote use of low insufflation pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Furthermore, low insufflation pressure did not result in reduced pain, compared with standard pressure. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01728584. Merck Sharp and Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
Choi, Ji-Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Won; Park, Jung-Bo; Lee, Gyu-Hong
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intravenous (IV) fluid warming in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to receive either IV fluids at room temperature (control group) or warmed IV fluids (warm fluids group). Each patient received a standardized goal-directed fluid regimen based on stroke volume variances. Oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 min intervals for 2 h after induction of anaesthesia. A total of 52 patients were enrolled in the study. The drop in core temperature in the warm fluids group was significantly less than in the control group 2 h after the induction of anaesthesia. This significant difference was seen from 30 min after induction. IV fluid warming was associated with a smaller drop in core temperature than room temperature IV fluids in laparoscopic colorectal surgery incorporating goal-directed fluid therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Chua, Terence C; Liauw, Winston; Koong, Heng-Nung; Esquivel, Jesus
Metastatic colorectal cancer has evolved from a paradigm that was previously centered upon the use of systemic chemotherapy to one of multimodality therapy. Hepatectomy, pulmonary metastasectomy, and cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy are surgical procedures that are now routinely performed in specialized institutions treating patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that in selected patients, these procedures are safe and may be beneficial in contributing to long-term survival.
Batra, G. S.; Molyneux, J.; Scott, N. A.
INTRODUCTION: Surgical high dependency unit (SHDU) care is becoming an integral feature of colorectal surgical practice. Routine ECG monitoring is a feature of surgical care in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and outcome of cardiac arrhythmias detected in an SHDU population of colorectal patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 226 patients over a 12 month period were admitted to a 6-bedded SHDU under the care of 3 colorectal surgeons. A total of 29 patients (13%) had significant arrhythmias on ECG monitoring (median age 74 years, range 35-88 years). Pre-existing ischaemic heart disease was present in 9 patients--colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease accounted for the underlying problem in the majority of these patients. RESULTS: Equal numbers of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias were detected--atrial fibrillation being the most commonly detected abnormality. Therapeutic intervention (electrolyte correction and anti-arrhythmic agents) was required in 23 patients. One patient required DC shock for ventricular fibrillation. Seven patients were transferred to the heart care unit or intensive care unit to manage their cardiac problems. Two patients died as a result of their cardiac problem, 27 were discharged home alive--3 on long-term anti-arrhythmic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative environment of colorectal patients has been radically altered by the introduction of the SHDU. If colorectal surgeons are to remain central to the postoperative care of their patients, all surgical staff will require training in the recognition and protocol prevention and management of cardiac arrhythmias. Certification of colorectal surgeons in advanced life support is more relevant to colorectal surgery than certification in trauma care. Images Figure 1 PMID:11432135
van Weelden, W J; Gordon, B B M; Roovers, E A; Kraayenbrink, A A; Aalders, C I M; Hartog, F; Dijkhuizen, F P H L J
To evaluate surgical outcome in a consecutive series of patients with conventional and robot assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. A retrospective cohort study was performed among patients with benign and malignant indications for a laparoscopic hysterectomy. Main surgical outcomes were operation room time and skin to skin operating time, complications, conversions, rehospitalisation and reoperation, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay. A total of 294 patients were evaluated: 123 in the conventional total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) group and 171 in the robot TLH group. After correction for differences in basic demographics with a multivariate linear regression analysis, the skin to skin operating time was a significant 18 minutes shorter in robot assisted TLH compared to conventional TLH (robot assisted TLH 92m, conventional TLH 110m, p0.001). The presence or absence of previous abdominal surgery had a significant influence on the skin to skin operating time as did the body mass index and the weight of the uterus. Complications were not significantly different. The robot TLH group had significantly less blood loss and lower rehospitalisation and reoperation rates. This study compares conventional TLH with robot assisted TLH and shows shorter operating times, less blood loss and lower rehospitalisation and reoperation rates in the robot TLH group.
Rosenthal, R; Gantert, W A; Scheidegger, D; Oertli, D
A number of studies have investigated several aspects of feasibility and validity of performance assessments with virtual reality surgical simulators. However, the validity of performance assessments is limited by the reliability of such measurements, and some issues of reliability still need to be addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that test subjects show logarithmic performance curves on repetitive trials for a component task of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a virtual reality simulator, and that interindividual differences in performance after considerable training are significant. According to kinesiologic theory, logarithmic performance curves are expected and an individual's learning capacity for a specific task can be extrapolated, allowing quantification of a person's innate ability to develop task-specific skills. In this study, 20 medical students at the University of Basel Medical School performed five trials of a standardized task on the LS 500 virtual reality simulator for laparoscopic surgery. Task completion time, number of errors, economy of instrument movements, and maximum speed of instrument movements were measured. The hypothesis was confirmed by the fact that the performance curves for some of the simulator measurements were very close to logarithmic curves, and there were significant interindividual differences in performance at the end of the repetitive trials. Assessment of perceptual motor skills and the innate ability of an individual with no prior experience in laparoscopic surgery to develop such skills using the LS 500 VR surgical simulator is feasible and reliable.
Yoo, So-Eun; So, Kyeong A; Kim, Seon-Ah; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and obstetrical outcomes of patients with early cervical cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods We analyzed data from women who underwent laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy between July 2000 and October 2014. Results Of a total of 12 patients, 91.7% were FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stages IA2 and IB1. Seven patients (58.3%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 1.87 cm (range, focal to 4.6 cm) and two patients (16.7%) had a tumor lager than 2 cm. Lymphovascular space invasion in the tumor lesion was reported in six patients (50%). The following surgical complications were observed: neurogenic bladder (one patient), hemoperitoneum (one patient), and infection (one patient). A total of 33.3% had attempted to conceive, resulting in two pregnancies and two healthy babies. All pregnancies were achieved by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Each woman underwent cesarean delivery because of premature pre-labor rupture of membranes at gestational weeks 27.3 and 33.3. After a median follow-up time of 4.4 years (range, 1 to 8 years), there were no recurrences or deaths. Conclusion Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy should be offered as an alternative treatment for women with early stage cervical cancer who want to preserve their fertility. PMID:27668200
Russell, K M; Broderick, T J; Demaria, E J; Kothari, S N; Merrell, R C
Laparoscopy has advanced surgery by allowing the surgeon to operate within a patient's abdominal and pelvic cavity with minimal trauma and scarring. The coupling of a video camera to the laparoscopic telescope has had the secondary effect of allowing others to view the surgical field either on color video monitors or by watching the video feed over the Internet at a remote location. These advancements have allowed better teaching and mentoring of operations. Open procedures can benefit from this technology as well but have suffered in the past from inadequate methods to depict the open surgical field. We used the Alpha Port and Aesop robot to position a sterile laparoscopic telescope near the surgical field to view open cholecystectomies performed on five pigs and to send the video feed over the Internet to remote physicians. Viewing the video on the monitor, the surgeons performed the operation in a comfortable ergonomic upright position. Both the surgeons and the remote physicians found the quality of the video to be excellent, and the remote physicians felt comfortable learning and mentoring surgical procedures using this technique.
Turini, Giuseppe; Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco
The trend of surgical robotics is to follow the evolution of laparoscopy, which is now moving towards single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The main drawback of this approach is the limited maneuverability of the surgical tools. Promising solutions to improve the surgeon's dexterity are based on bimanual robots. However, since both robot arms are completely inserted into the patient's body, issues related to possible unwanted collisions with structures adjacent to the target organ may arise. This paper presents a simulator based on patient-specific data for the positioning and workspace evaluation of bimanual surgical robots in the pre-operative planning of single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The simulator, designed for the pre-operative planning of robotic laparoscopic interventions, was tested by five expert surgeons who evaluated its main functionalities and provided an overall rating for the system. The proposed system demonstrated good performance and usability, and was designed to integrate both present and future bimanual surgical robots.
Brydges, R; Carnahan, H; Dubrowski, A
During laparoscopic surgery video images are used to guide the movements of the hand and instruments, and objects in the operating field often obscure these images. Thus, surgeons often rely heavily on tactile information (sense of touch) to help guide their movements. It is important to understand how tactile perception is affected when using laparoscopic instruments, since many surgical judgements are based on how a tissue 'feels' to the surgeon, particularly in situations where visual inputs are degraded. Twelve naïve participants used either their index finger or a laparoscopic instrument to explore sandpaper surfaces of various grits (60, 100, 150 and 220). These movements were generated with either vision or no vision. Participants were asked to estimate the roughness of the surfaces they explored. The normal and tangential forces of either the finger or instrument on the sandpaper surfaces were measured. Results showed that participants were able to judge the roughness of the sandpaper surfaces when using both the finger and the instrument. However, post hoc comparisons showed that perceptual judgements of surface texture were altered in the no vision condition compared to the vision condition. This was also the case when using the instrument, compared to the judgements provided when exploring with the finger. This highlights the importance of the completeness of the video images during laparoscopic surgery. More normal and tangential force was used when exploring the surfaces with the finger as opposed to the instrument. This was probably an attempt to increase the contact area of the fingertip to maximize tactile input. With the instrument, texture was probably sensed through vibrations of the instrument in the hand. Applications of the findings lie in the field of laparoscopic surgery simulation techniques and tactile perception.
Crane, Nicole J.; McHone, Ben; Hawksworth, Jason; Pearl, Jonathan P.; Denobile, John; Tadaki, Doug; Pinto, Peter A.; Levin, Ira W.; Elster, Eric A.
Background Inherent to minimally invasive procedures are loss of tactile feedback and loss of three dimensional assessment. Tasks such as vessel identification and dissection are not trivial for the inexperienced laparoscopic surgeon. Advanced surgical imaging, such as 3-CCD (charge-coupled device) image enhancement, can be used to assist with these more challenging tasks and, in addition, offers a method to non-invasively monitor tissue oxygenation during surgery. Study Design In this study, 3-CCD image enhancement is used for the identification of vessels in 25 laparoscopic donor and partial nephrectomy cases. The algorithm is then applied to two laparoscopic nephrectomy cases involving multiple renal arteries. We also utilize the 3-CCD camera to qualitatively monitor renal parenchymal oxygenation during 10 laparoscopic donor nephrectomies (LDNs). Results The mean ROI (region of interest) intensity values obtained for the renal artery and vein (68.40 ± 8.44 and 45.96 ± 8.65, respectively) are used to calculate a threshold intensity value (59.00) that allows for objective vessel differentiation. In addition, we examined the renal parenchyma during LDNs. Mean ROI intensity values were calculated for the renal parenchyma at two distinct time points, prior to vessel stapling (non-ischemic) and just before extraction from the abdomen (ischemic). The non-ischemic mean ROI intensity values are statistically different from the ischemic mean ROI intensity values (p < 0.05), even with short ischemia times. Conclusions We have developed a technique, 3-CCD image enhancement, for the identification of vasculature and for the monitoring of parenchymal oxygenation. This technique requires no additional laparoscopic operating room equipment and has real-time video capability. PMID:18501814
Huri, Emre; Ezer, Mehmet; Chan, Eddie
Laparoscopic surgery is routinely used to treat many urological conditions and it is the gold standard treatment option for many surgeries such as radical nephrectomy. Due to the difficulty of learning, laparoscopic training should start outside the operating room. Although it is a very different model of laparoscopic training; the aim of this review is to show the value of human cadaveric model for laparoscopic training and present our experience in this area. Fresh frozen cadaveric model in laparoscopic training, dry lab, cadaveric model, animal models and computer based simulators are the most commonly used models for laparoscopic training. Cadaveric models mimic the live setting better than animal models. Also, it is the best way in demonstrating important anatomic landmarks like prostate, bladder, and pelvic lymph nodes templates. However, cadaveric training is expensive, and should be used by multiple disciplines for higher efficiency. The laparosopic cadaveric training starts with didactic lectures with introduction of pelvic surgical anatomy. It is followed by hands-on dissection. A typical pelvic dissection part can be completed in 6 hours. Surgical robot and some laparoscopy platforms are equipped with 3-D vision. In recent years, we have use the stereoscopic laparoscopy system for training purposes to show exact anatomic landmarks. Cadavers are removed from their containers 3 to 5 days prior to training session to allow enough time for thawing. Intracorporeal suturing is an important part of laparoscopic training. We believe that suturing must be practiced in the dry lab, which is significantly cheaper than cadaveric models. Cadaveric training model should focus on the anatomic dissection instead. In conclusion, fresh-frozen cadaveric sample is one of the best 3D simulation models for laparoscopic training purposes. Major aim of cadaveric training is not only mimicking the surgical technique but also teaching true anatomy. Lack of availability and higher
Shaikh, I; Willder, J M; Kumar, S
The aims of this study were to compare same day discharges and early complications after open and laparoscopic primary paraumbilical hernia (PUH) repair, including the procedures performed by surgical trainees (STs). All patients who had open (suture or mesh) and laparoscopic repair of primary PUH in the Day Surgery Unit (DSU) between January 2007 and June 2009 were identified from the hospital database. The database was questioned regarding the grade of operating surgeon, type of surgical repair, day of admission and discharge from the DSU, and a patient's return to surgical services. Data were stored in Microsoft Excel(®) (TM 2007). Statistical significance was determined using Fisher's exact test. PUH was repaired in 337 patients: 252/337 (74.8 %) had open and 85/337 (25.2 %) had laparoscopic repair. Significantly, more patients were discharged home on the day of surgery after an open repair compared to the laparoscopic repair: open repair 187/252 (74.2 %), laparoscopic repair 35/85 (41.17 %), P = 0.0001. Overall early complications such as wound complications and hospital re-visits were similar in both groups: open repair 6.3 % (16/252), laparoscopic repair 11.7 % (10/85), P = 0.1554. STs performed 142/337 (42.1 %) of the PUH repairs with similar same day discharges from the DSU: STs 64.7 % (92/142), consultant surgeons 66.7 % (130/195), P = 0.7285. The difference in hernia recurrence between open repair 7/252 (2.78 %) and laparoscopic group 0/85 was not significant (P = 0.1985). Patients with PUH repair were more likely to go home on the day of surgery after open than after laparoscopic repair. This was not affected by the grade of the operating surgeon. Early complications were similar following open and laparoscopic repair of primary PUH.
Huri, Emre; Ezer, Mehmet; Chan, Eddie
Laparoscopic surgery is routinely used to treat many urological conditions and it is the gold standard treatment option for many surgeries such as radical nephrectomy. Due to the difficulty of learning, laparoscopic training should start outside the operating room. Although it is a very different model of laparoscopic training; the aim of this review is to show the value of human cadaveric model for laparoscopic training and present our experience in this area. Fresh frozen cadaveric model in laparoscopic training, dry lab, cadaveric model, animal models and computer based simulators are the most commonly used models for laparoscopic training. Cadaveric models mimic the live setting better than animal models. Also, it is the best way in demonstrating important anatomic landmarks like prostate, bladder, and pelvic lymph nodes templates. However, cadaveric training is expensive, and should be used by multiple disciplines for higher efficiency. The laparosopic cadaveric training starts with didactic lectures with introduction of pelvic surgical anatomy. It is followed by hands-on dissection. A typical pelvic dissection part can be completed in 6 hours. Surgical robot and some laparoscopy platforms are equipped with 3-D vision. In recent years, we have use the stereoscopic laparoscopy system for training purposes to show exact anatomic landmarks. Cadavers are removed from their containers 3 to 5 days prior to training session to allow enough time for thawing. Intracorporeal suturing is an important part of laparoscopic training. We believe that suturing must be practiced in the dry lab, which is significantly cheaper than cadaveric models. Cadaveric training model should focus on the anatomic dissection instead. In conclusion, fresh-frozen cadaveric sample is one of the best 3D simulation models for laparoscopic training purposes. Major aim of cadaveric training is not only mimicking the surgical technique but also teaching true anatomy. Lack of availability and higher
Mackenzie, Hugh; Cuming, Tamzin; Miskovic, Danilo; Wyles, Susannah M; Langsford, Laura; Anderson, John; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Valori, Roland; Hanna, George B; Coleman, Mark G; Francis, Nader
To validate the delivery and efficacy of the national laparoscopic colorectal surgery "training the trainer" (Lapco TT) curriculum. The National Training Programme in Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery designed the Lapco TT curriculum to improve, standardize, and benchmark the quality of training. Evidence for such courses rarely extends beyond subjective feedback. The Lapco TT curriculum tailors key teaching skills for laparoscopic colorectal surgery: training structure, skills deconstruction, trainer intervention, and performance enhancing feedback. Ten Lapco TT courses were delivered to 65 national Lapco trainers since 2010. The course was validated at Kirkpatrick's 4 levels of evaluation: (i) pre- and post-course interviews reflecting initial reaction; (ii) training quality assessment on simulated scenarios using the Structured Training Trainer Assessment Report (STTAR) tool; (iii) follow-up interviews at 4 to 6 months; and (iv) delegate performance ratings, by their trainees, using the mini-STTAR and the delegates' trainees learning curves before and after the course. There were significant improvements in training in the post-course simulated scenario, especially in the "set" (P < 0.001). Delegates described improved framework and structure in their native training environment, which aided difficult training situations. Findings mirrored in performance ratings by their trainees: overall (4.37 vs 4.46, P = 0.040), agreed learning points (3.65 vs 4.00, P = 0.042), encouraged self-reflection (3.67 vs 3.94, P = 0.046), and encouraged team awareness (3.53 vs 4.05, P = 0.045). The learning curve of delegates' trainees improved after the course. The Lapco TT curriculum improved training performance in the short- and long-term, provided a structured training framework, and enhanced the learning curve of delegates' trainees.
Gómez-Izquierdo, Juan C; Trainito, Alessandro; Mirzakandov, David; Stein, Barry L; Liberman, Sender; Charlebois, Patrick; Pecorelli, Nicolò; Feldman, Liane S; Carli, Franco; Baldini, Gabriele
Inadequate perioperative fluid therapy impairs gastrointestinal function. Studies primarily evaluating the impact of goal-directed fluid therapy on primary postoperative ileus are missing. The objective of this study was to determine whether goal-directed fluid therapy reduces the incidence of primary postoperative ileus after laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program. Randomized patient and assessor-blind controlled trial conducted in adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program. Patients were assigned randomly to receive intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (goal-directed fluid therapy group) or fluid therapy based on traditional principles (control group). Primary postoperative ileus was the primary outcome. One hundred twenty-eight patients were included and analyzed (goal-directed fluid therapy group: n = 64; control group: n = 64). The incidence of primary postoperative ileus was 22% in the goal-directed fluid therapy and 22% in the control group (relative risk, 1; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.9; P = 1.00). Intraoperatively, patients in the goal-directed fluid therapy group received less intravenous fluids (mainly less crystalloids) but a greater volume of colloids. The increase of stroke volume and cardiac output was more pronounced and sustained in the goal-directed fluid therapy group. Length of hospital stay, 30-day postoperative morbidity, and mortality were not different. Intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy compared with fluid therapy based on traditional principles does not reduce primary postoperative ileus in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the context of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program. Its previously demonstrated benefits might have been offset by advancements in perioperative care.
Xu, Dong; Li, Jun; Song, Yongmao; Zhou, Jiaojiao; Sun, Fangfang; Wang, Jianwei; Duan, Yin; Hu, Yeting; Liu, Yue; Wang, Xiaochen; Sun, Lifeng; Wu, Linshan; Ding, Kefeng
Many clinical trials had repeatedly shown that fast-track perioperative care and laparoscopic surgery are both preferred in the treatment of colorectal cancer. But few studies were designed to explore the diverse biochemical impacts of the two counterparts on human immunologic and nutritional status. Ninety-two cases of colorectal cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomized to four groups: laparoscopy with fast-track treatment (LAFT); open surgery with fast-track treatment (OSFT); laparoscopy with conventional treatment (LAC); open surgery with conventional treatment (OSC). Peripheral blood tests including nutritional factors (albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin), humoral immunologic factors (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and cellular immunologic factors (T and NK cells) were evaluated. Blood samples were collected preoperatively (baseline) and 12 and 96 h after surgery (indicated as POH12 and POH96, respectively). Albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, and IgG levels were the highest in the LAFT group for both POH12 and POH96 time intervals. Repeated measures (two-way ANOVA) indicated that the difference of albumin, transferrin, and IgG level were attributed to surgery type (P < 0.05) and not perioperative treatment (P > 0.05). Only in the laparoscopy-included groups, the relative albumin and IgG levels of POH96 were obviously higher than that of POH12. Laparoscopic surgery accelerated postoperative nutrition and immune levels rising again while fast-track treatment retarded the drop of postoperative nutrition and immune levels. Laparoscopic surgery might play a more important role than fast-track treatment in the earlier postoperative recovery of nutritional and immunologic status. Combined laparoscopic surgery with fast-track treatment provided best postoperative recovery of nutrition and immune status. These results should be further compared with the clinical outcomes of our FTMDT trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01080547).
Mikhail, Emad; Scott, Lauren; Miladinovic, Branko; Imudia, Anthony N; Hart, Stuart
Study Objective. To compare surgical volume and techniques including laparoscopic suturing among members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) according to fellowship training status. Design. A web-based survey was designed using Qualtrics and sent to AAGL members. Results. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) trained surgeons were more likely to perform more than 8 major conventional laparoscopic cases per month (63% versus 38%, P < 0.001, OR [95% CI] = 2.78 [1.54-5.06]) and were more likely to perform laparoscopic suturing during these cases (32% versus 16%, P < 0.004, OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.25-4.71]). The non-fellowship trained (NFT) surgeons in private practice were less likely to perform over 8 conventional laparoscopic cases (34% versus 51%, P = 0.03, OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25-0.99]) and laparoscopic suturing during these cases (13% versus 27%, P = 0.01, OR [95% CI] = 0.39 [0.17-0.92]) compared to NFT surgeons in academic practice. Conclusion. The surgical volume and utilization of laparoscopic suturing of FMIGS trained surgeons are significantly increased compared to NFT surgeons. Academic practice setting had a positive impact on surgical volume of NFT surgeons but not on FMIGS trained surgeons.
Scott, Lauren; Miladinovic, Branko; Imudia, Anthony N.; Hart, Stuart
Study Objective. To compare surgical volume and techniques including laparoscopic suturing among members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) according to fellowship training status. Design. A web-based survey was designed using Qualtrics and sent to AAGL members. Results. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) trained surgeons were more likely to perform more than 8 major conventional laparoscopic cases per month (63% versus 38%, P < 0.001, OR [95% CI] = 2.78 [1.54–5.06]) and were more likely to perform laparoscopic suturing during these cases (32% versus 16%, P < 0.004, OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.25–4.71]). The non-fellowship trained (NFT) surgeons in private practice were less likely to perform over 8 conventional laparoscopic cases (34% versus 51%, P = 0.03, OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25–0.99]) and laparoscopic suturing during these cases (13% versus 27%, P = 0.01, OR [95% CI] = 0.39 [0.17–0.92]) compared to NFT surgeons in academic practice. Conclusion. The surgical volume and utilization of laparoscopic suturing of FMIGS trained surgeons are significantly increased compared to NFT surgeons. Academic practice setting had a positive impact on surgical volume of NFT surgeons but not on FMIGS trained surgeons. PMID:26885389
Cannon, Jamie A; Altom, Laura K; Deierhoi, Rhiannon J; Morris, Melanie; Richman, Joshua S; Vick, Catherine C; Itani, Kamal M F; Hawn, Mary T
Surgical site infection is a major cause of morbidity after colorectal resections. Despite evidence that preoperative oral antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation reduce surgical site infection rates, the use of oral antibiotics is decreasing. Currently, the administration of oral antibiotics is controversial and considered ineffective without mechanical bowel preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the use of mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics and their relationship to surgical site infection rates in a colorectal Surgical Care Improvement Project cohort. This retrospective study used Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program preoperative risk and surgical site infection outcome data linked to Veterans Affairs Surgical Care Improvement Project and Pharmacy Benefits Management data. Univariate and multivariable models were performed to identify factors associated with surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery. This study was conducted in 112 Veterans Affairs hospitals. Included were 9940 patients who underwent elective colorectal resections from 2005 to 2009. The primary outcome measured was the incidence of surgical site infection. Patients receiving oral antibiotics had significantly lower surgical site infection rates. Those receiving no bowel preparation had similar surgical site infection rates to those who had mechanical bowel preparation only (18.1% vs 20%). Those receiving oral antibiotics alone had an surgical site infection rate of 8.3%, and those receiving oral antibiotics plus mechanical bowel preparation had a rate of 9.2%. In adjusted analysis, the use of oral antibiotics alone was associated with a 67% decrease in surgical site infection occurrence (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.21-0.50). Oral antibiotics plus mechanical bowel preparation was associated with a 57% decrease in surgical site infection occurrence (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.34-0.55). Timely administration of parenteral antibiotics (Surgical Care Improvement
Pędziwiatr, M; Pisarska, M; Major, P; Grochowska, A; Matłok, M; Przęczek, K; Stefura, T; Budzyński, A; Kłęk, S
Progressive skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia) is a negative prognostic factor in patients treated for colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, the clinical impact of those changes in body composition has been analyzed only in patients undergoing open resections. The aim of the study was to assess whether laparoscopy may eliminate the deleterious prognostic impact of sarcopenia and whether the combination with enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol may improve postoperative recovery also in sarcopenic patients. The study included 124 (73M/51F, mean age 65.9 years) patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer. In all of them 16-item ERAS protocol was applied. The L3 skeletal muscle area identified on a preoperative CT scan was used to calculate skeletal muscle index and assess for sarcopenia and myosteatosis. The entire study group was divided into groups regarding the presence of sarcopenia or myosteatosis. The outcome measures were: length of hospital stay, complication rate and functional recovery parameters. The prevalence of sarcopenia and myosteatosis was 27.4% and 38.7%, respectively. There was no association between the presence of sarcopenia or myosteatosis and postoperative complications. There were also no differences in the length of stay or readmission rates. Functional recovery (time to first flatus, oral diet tolerance and mobilization) was similar regardless of the presence of muscle depletion. In contrary to traditional surgical approach, laparoscopy can reduce the negative impact of sarcopenia and myosteatosis on treatment results. ERAS protocol does not affect negatively the surgical outcomes in sarcopenic patients, compared to patients without changes in body skeletal mass. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Arden, Deborah; Dodge, Laura E.; Zheng, Bin; Ricciotti, Hope A.
Objective: To describe our experience with the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program as a teaching and assessment tool for basic laparoscopic competency among gynecology residents. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at a single academic institution. Before the FLS program was introduced, baseline FLS testing was offered to residents and gynecology division directors. Test scores were analyzed by training level and self-reported surgical experience. After implementing a minimally invasive gynecologic surgical curriculum, third-year residents were retested. Results: The pass rates for baseline FLS skills testing were 0% for first-year residents, 50% for second-year residents, and 75% for third- and fourth-year residents. The pass rates for baseline cognitive testing were 60% for first- and second-year residents, 67% for third-year residents, and 40% for fourth-year residents. When comparing junior and senior residents, there was a significant difference in pass rates for the skills test (P=.007) but not the cognitive test (P=.068). Self-reported surgical experience strongly correlated with skills scores (r-value=0.97, P=.0048), but not cognitive scores (r-value=0.20, P=.6265). After implementing a curriculum, 100% of the third-year residents passed the skills test, and 92% passed the cognitive examination. Conclusions: The FLS skills test may be a valuable assessment tool for gynecology residents. The cognitive test may need further adaptation for applicability to gynecologists. PMID:21902937
Zelhart, Matthew; Kaiser, Andreas M
Analysis of various parameters related to the patient, the disease, and the needed surgical maneuvers to develop guidance for preoperative selection of the appropriate and the best approach for a given patient. Rapid advances in minimally invasive surgical technology are fascinating and challenging alike. It can be difficult for surgeons to keep up with new modalities that come on to the market place and to assess their true value, i.e., distinguish between fashionable trends versus scientific evidence. Laparoscopy established minimally invasive surgery and has revolutionized surgical concepts and approaches to diseases since its advent in the early 1990s. Now, with robotic surgery rapidly gaining traction in this high-tech surgical landscape, it remains to be seen how the long-term surgical landscape will be affected. Review of the surgical evolution, published data and cost factors to reflect on advantages and disadvantages in order to develop a broader perspective on the role of various technology platforms. Advocates for robotic technology tout its advantages of 3D views, articulating wrists, lack of hand tremor, and surgeon comfort, which may extend the scope of minimally invasive surgery by allowing for operations in places that are more difficult to access for laparoscopic surgery (e.g., the deep pelvis), for complex tasks (e.g., intracorporeal suturing), and by decreasing the learning curve. But conventional laparoscopy has also evolved and offers high-definition 3D vision to all team members. It remains to be seen whether all together the robot features outweigh the downsides of higher cost, operative times, lack of tactile feedback, possibly unusual complications, inability to move the operative table with ease, and the difficulty to work in different quadrants. While technical and design developments will likely address some shortcomings, the value-based impact of the various approaches will have to be examined in general and on a case-by-case basis
Ganni, Sandeep; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Goossens, Richard H M; Jakimowicz, Jack J
The concept of self-assessment has been widely acclaimed for its role in the professional development cycle and self-regulation. In the field of medical education, self-assessment has been most used to evaluate the cognitive knowledge of students. The complexity of training and evaluation in laparoscopic surgery has previously acted as a barrier in determining the benefits self-assessment has to offer in comparison with other fields of medical education. Thirty-five surgical residents who attended the 2-day Laparoscopic Surgical Skills Grade 1 Level 1 curriculum were invited to participate from The Netherlands, India and Romania. The competency assessment tool (CAT) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was used for self- and expert-assessment and the resulting distributions assessed. A comparison between the expert- and self-assessed aggregates of scores from the CAT agreed with previous studies. Uniquely to this study, the aggregates of individual sub-categories-'use of instruments'; 'tissue handling'; and errors 'within the component tasks' and the 'end product' from both self- and expert-assessments-were investigated. There was strong positive correlation (r s > 0.5; p < 0.001) between the expert- and self-assessment in all categories with only the 'tissue handling' having a weaker correlation (r s = 0.3; p = 0.04). The distribution of the mean of the differences between self-assessment and expert-assessment suggested no significant difference between the scores of experts and the residents in all categories except the 'end product' evaluation where the difference was significant (W = 119, p = 0.03). Self-assessment using the CAT form gives results that are consistently not different from expert-assessment when assessing one's proficiency in surgical skills. Areas where there was less agreement could be explained by variations in the level of training and understanding of the assessment criteria.
Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Go Eun; Kim, Hee Cheol; Jun, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jin Young; Shin, Byung-Seop; Yoo, Heejin; Jung, Sin-Ho; Kim, Joungyoun; Lee, Seung Hyeon; Yo, Deok Kyu; Na, Yu Ri
Background There is a need for investigating the analgesic method as part of early recovery after surgery tailored for laparoscopic colorectal cancer (LCRC) surgery. In this randomized trial, we aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of an inverse ‘v’ shaped bilateral, subfascial ropivacaine continuous infusion in LCRC surgery. Methods Forty two patients undergoing elective LCRC surgery were randomly allocated to one of two groups to receive either 0.5% ropivacaine continuous infusion at the subfascial plane (n = 20, R group) or fentanyl intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV PCA) (n = 22, F group) for postoperative 72 hours. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scores (VAS) when coughing at postoperative 24 hours. Secondary end points were the VAS at 1, 6, 48, and 72 hours, time to first flatus, time to first rescue meperidine requirement, rescue meperidine consumption, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting, sedation, hypotension, dizziness, headache, and wound complications. Results The VAS at rest and when coughing were similar between the groups throughout the study. The time to first gas passage and time to first rescue meperidine at ward were significantly shorter in the R group compared to the F group (P = 0.010). Rescue meperidine was administered less in the R group; however, without statistical significance. Other study parameters were not different between the groups. Conclusions Ropivacaine continuous infusion with an inverse ‘v ’ shaped bilateral, subfascial catheter placement showed significantly enhanced bowel recovery and analgesic efficacy was not different from IV PCA in LCRC surgery. PMID:27924202
Sáez-López, Pilar; Filipovich Vegas, Elena; Martinez Peromingo, Javier; Jimenez Mola, Sonia
Age is the biggest risk factor for colorectal cancer, with 70% of the cases in patients over 70 years old. For this reason, a review is presented on the surgical treatment and chemotherapy of cancer of colon and rectum in the elderly. A search was performed in PubMed, including words such as elderly, surgery, colorectal cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and oncogeriatrics, and review articles and originals on treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly were selected. A narrative form was developed from the latest evidence with the results obtained on the treatment of this pathology. Although the treatment of colorectal cancer is standardised, a prior comprehensive geriatric assessment is required in the case of the elderly, before deciding the type of treatment in order to offer these robust elderly-standardised guidelines for the robust elderly and adapt them for use in fragile patients. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Ce; Ding, Zi-Hai; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yu, Jiang; Wang, Ya-Nan; Hu, Yan-Feng; Li, Guo-Xin
To explore the regional anatomy of the fasciae and spaces around the right-side colon from laparoscopic perspective, we observed the location, extension, and boundaries of the spaces around the right-side colon in seven cadavers and in 49 patients undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for cancer, and reviewed computed tomography images from patients and healthy individuals. Between the ascending mesocolon and prerenal fascia (PRF), there was a right retrocolic space (RRCS), which extended in all directions. The anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, cranial, and caudal boundaries of the RRCS were the ascending mesocolon, PRF, superior mesenteric vein, right paracolic sulcus, inferior margin of the duodenum, and inferior margin of the mesentery radix, respectively. Between the transverse mesocolon and the pancreas and duodenum, there was a transverse retrocolic space, which was enclosed cranially by the radix of the transverse mesocolon. In CT images, healthy PRF was noted as slender line of middle density, continuing to the transverse fascia. The retrocolic spaces was unidentifiable, unless they were filled with retroperitoneal lesions. The RRCS and transverse retrocolic space are natural surgical planes for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for cancer. The boundaries of these fusion fascial spaces are the best access, and the PRF is the best guide.
Parés, David; Shamali, Awad; Flashman, Karen; O'Leary, Daniel; Senapati, Asha; Conti, John; Parvaiz, Amjad; Khan, Jim
The aim of our study was to analyse the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for a no medical responding ileocolic Cohn's disease in a single centre according to the presence of obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed including all consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic resection for ileocecal Crohn's disease from November 2006 to November 2015. Patients were divided according to body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) in order to study influence of obesity in the short-term outcomes. The following variables were studied: characteristics of patients, surgical technique and postoperative results (complications, reintervention, readmission and mortality) during first 30 postoperative days. A total of 100 patients were included (42 males) with a mean age of 39.7±15.2 years (range 18-83). The overall complication rate was 20% and only 3 patients had an anastomotic leak. Seven patients needed reoperation in the first 30 days postop (7%). The median postoperative length of hospitalization was 5.0 days. Operative time was significantly longer in patients with obesity (130 vs. 165minutes, P=.007) but there were no significant differences among the postoperative results in patients with and without obesity. This study confirmed that laparoscopic approach for ileocecal Cohn's disease is a safety and feasible technique in patients with obesity. In this last group of patients we only have to expect a longer operative time. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rosenblatt, Peter L.; Apostolis, Costas A.; Hacker, Michele R.; DiSciullo, Anthony
The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a new laparoscopic technique for the treatment of uterovaginal prolapse using a transcervical access port to minimize the laparoscopic incision. From February 2008 through August 2010, symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in 43 patients was evaluated and surgically treated using this novel procedure. Preoperative assessment included pelvic examination, the pelvic organ prolapse quantification scoring system (POP-Q), and complex urodynamic testing with prolapse reduction to evaluate for symptomatic or occult stress urinary incontinence. The surgical procedure consisted of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with transcervical morcellation and laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy with anterior and posterior mesh extension. Concomitant procedures were performed as indicated. All procedures were completed laparoscopically using only 5-mm abdominal port sites, with no intraoperative complications. Patients were followed up postoperatively for pelvic examination and POP-Q at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The median (interquartile range) preoperative POP-Q values for point Aa was 0 (−1.0 to 1.0), and for point C was −1.0 (−3.0 to 2.0). Postoperatively, median points Aa and C were significantly improved at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months (all p < .001). One patient was found to have a mesh/suture exposure from the sacrocervicopexy, which was managed conservatively without surgery. We conclude that laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with transcervical morcellation and laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy is a safe and feasible surgical approach to treatment of uterovaginal prolapse, with excellent anatomic results at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Potential advantages of the procedure include minimizing laparoscopic port site size, decreasing the rate of mesh exposure compared with other published data, and reducing the rate of postoperative cyclic bleeding in
Becher-Deichsel, Anja; Aurich, Jörg E; Schrammel, Nadine; Dupré, Gilles
The objective of the study was to describe the feasibility of a glove port technique for laparoscopic-assisted surgical treatment of canine pyometra. In this retrospective case series, a total of 10 female dogs (median age 7 years, range 5.5-10.5 years; median weight 37.0 kg, range 12.9-64.0 kg) with pyometra were included. A multiaccess port was created from a surgical glove attached to an Alexis wound retractor and placed in the ventral midline between the middle and caudal third of the distance between umbilicus and pubic rim. A vessel sealing device was used for transection of the ovarian pedicle. The port size was selected on the basis of maximum uterine diameter determined by ultrasound. Median incision length was 5.0 cm (range 3.1-7.7 cm) for a maximum uterine diameter of 4.0 cm (range 2.0-7.0 cm). Median surgical time was 57 minutes (range 48-65 minutes). No case had to be converted to open celiotomy. Complications included one case of minor, self-limiting splenic trauma by the endoscope. In eight dogs, the distended uterine horns endangered safe access to the ovarian pedicle, and the vessel sealing device was inserted through a second cannula placed periumbilically. Extension of the original incision was necessary to exteriorize organs in two dogs. All dogs recovered quickly and were discharged either on the day of surgery or 1 day thereafter. In conclusion, a surgical glove port technique in combination with an Alexis wound retractor is feasible for surgical laparoscopic treatment of canine pyometra up to a diameter of 7 cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Newmark, Jordan; Dandolu, Vani; Milner, Richard; Grewal, Harsh; Harbison, Sean; Hernandez, Enrique
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation in the assessment of laparoscopic surgical skills in medical students with the use of a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer and a low-fidelity video box trainer with comparative tasks. Third-year medical students were asked to perform 3 basic skills set modules on LapSim (Surgical Science, Gothenburg, Sweden): coordination, grasping and lifting, and handling the intestines. Each task was set at the easiest level, and each student was allowed a maximum of 10 attempts to complete each task. Similar-appearing tasks were chosen for comparison with the use of a standard video box trainer: pegboard, cup drop and rope pass, respectively. Laparoscopic skills were evaluated with the use of both trainers during 1 session. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to compare paired data on each student using statistical software. Forty-seven of 65 medical students were assigned to clinical clerkships on-campus at Temple University School of Medicine participated in the study. All 47 students participated in the video box trainer tasks; 34 students completed both the video box trainer and LapSim skills set. Observations that were obtained on the LapSim virtual reality system and video box trainer simulator demonstrated several correlations. The time to completion for the LapSim coordination task and the pegboard task were correlated (r = 0.507; P = .006), as were the grasping and lifting task completion time on LapSim and the comparative box trainer cup drop task completion time (r = 0.404; P = .022). When accounting for errors, the LapSim coordination task tissue damage score was correlated with the sum of all box trainer errors (r = 0.353; P = .040); the average grasping and lifting tissue damage was correlated with the total number of errors during all box trainer tasks (r = 0.374; P = .035). Overall, in evaluating laparoscopic skills, the LapSim and video box trainer were correlated positively with one another
Hamabe, Atsushi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Hata, Taishi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki
The use of reduced port surgery (RPS) is increasing in the field of colorectal surgery. It is considered to offer advantages over conventional multiport surgery (MPS) in terms of decreased invasiveness and superior cosmesis. However, to date there has been no study that evaluates patient satisfaction after undergoing RPS for colorectal diseases. Herein, we present a questionnaire-based study to address this issue. Questionnaires were sent by mail to 216 patients who underwent RPS and 145 who underwent MPS. Patient's satisfaction with cosmesis and body image after colorectal surgery was assessed using a validated Body Image Questionnaire (BIQ) and Photo Series Questionnaire (PSQ). A total of 76.9 % (166/216) of the RPS patients and 70.3 % (102/145) of the MPS patients returned the questionnaires. BIQ scores gradually improved after surgery, and were more positive overall in the RPS group compared to the MPS group. RPS patients marked significantly better PSQ scores than MPS patients (P < 0.05). In RPS subset analysis, patients with single port surgery (SPS) rated better PSQ scores than patients with SPS with additional port insertion (P < 0.05). We find that RPS, especially SPS, enhances patient satisfaction by reducing abdominal wall trauma. This new advantage of RPS may prove valuable in its consideration as an option in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Gallotta, Valerio; Petrillo, Marco; Conte, Carmine; Vizzielli, Giuseppe; Fagotti, Anna; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Fanfani, Francesco; Costantini, Barbara; Carbone, Vittoria; Scambia, Giovanni
To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (eOC) managed by laparoscopy or laparotomy in a single high-volume gynecologic cancer center. Retrospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Catholic University of the Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy. Data of consecutive women with eOC undergoing comprehensive laparoscopic staging between 2007 and 2013 were matched with a cohort of patients undergoing open surgery between 2000 and 2011. Four-year survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixty women undergoing staging via laparoscopy were compared with a cohort of 120 patients undergoing open surgery. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Seventy percent of patients underwent adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy without differences between the 2 groups. Operative time (p = .01), estimated blood loss (p = .032), and median hospital stay (p = .001) were higher in patients submitted to laparotomic versus laparoscopic staging. As of October 2015, median duration of follow-up was 38 months (range, 24 -48), recurrent disease was documented in 16 patients (13.3%) in the laparotomic group and in 5 patients (8.3%) in the laparoscopic group (p = .651), without differences in the pattern of recurrence presentation. Four-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 89% and 92% in the laparoscopic group, respectively, and 81% and 91% in the laparotomic group, without any statistical significant difference between the groups (4-year PFS p = .651; 4-year OS p = .719). The findings of the present study suggests that in the surgical treatment of FIGO stage I ovarian cancer, laparoscopy is associated with equivalent oncologic outcome compared with a conventional abdominal approach. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Win, Gunter; Van Bruwaene, Siska; Kulkarni, Jyotsna; Van Calster, Ben; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Allen, Christopher; Lissens, Ann; De Ridder, Dirk; Miserez, Marc
Surgical simulation is becoming increasingly important in surgical education. However, the method of simulation to be incorporated into a surgical curriculum is unclear. We compared the effectiveness of a proficiency-based preclinical simulation training in laparoscopy with conventional surgical training and conventional surgical training interspersed with standard simulation sessions. In this prospective single-blinded trial, 30 final-year medical students were randomized into three groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training. The control group received only clinical training during residency, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The Center for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Program (CST PTP) group received a proficiency-based preclinical simulation course during the final year of medical school but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residency. After 6 months of surgical residency, the influence on the learning curve while performing five consecutive human laparoscopic cholecystectomies was evaluated with motion tracking, time, Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills, and number of adverse events (perforation of gall bladder, bleeding, and damage to liver tissue). The odds of adverse events were 4.5 (95% confidence interval 1.3-15.3) and 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.5-9.7) times lower for the CST PTP group compared with the control and interval groups. For raw time, corrected time, movements, path length, and Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills, the CST PTP trainees nearly always started at a better level and were never outperformed by the other trainees. Proficiency-based preclinical training has a positive impact on the learning curve of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and diminishes adverse events.
De Win, Gunter; Van Bruwaene, Siska; Kulkarni, Jyotsna; Van Calster, Ben; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Allen, Christopher; Lissens, Ann; De Ridder, Dirk; Miserez, Marc
Background Surgical simulation is becoming increasingly important in surgical education. However, the method of simulation to be incorporated into a surgical curriculum is unclear. We compared the effectiveness of a proficiency-based preclinical simulation training in laparoscopy with conventional surgical training and conventional surgical training interspersed with standard simulation sessions. Materials and methods In this prospective single-blinded trial, 30 final-year medical students were randomized into three groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training. The control group received only clinical training during residency, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The Center for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Program (CST PTP) group received a proficiency-based preclinical simulation course during the final year of medical school but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residency. After 6 months of surgical residency, the influence on the learning curve while performing five consecutive human laparoscopic cholecystectomies was evaluated with motion tracking, time, Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills, and number of adverse events (perforation of gall bladder, bleeding, and damage to liver tissue). Results The odds of adverse events were 4.5 (95% confidence interval 1.3–15.3) and 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.5–9.7) times lower for the CST PTP group compared with the control and interval groups. For raw time, corrected time, movements, path length, and Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills, the CST PTP trainees nearly always started at a better level and were never outperformed by the other trainees. Conclusion Proficiency-based preclinical training has a positive impact on the learning curve of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and diminishes adverse events. PMID:27512343
Igwe, Elena; Hernandez, Enrique; Rose, Stephen; Uppal, Shitanshu
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resident involvement on morbidity after total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease. We performed a retrospective review of a National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database of total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease that was performed with resident involvement vs attending alone between Jan. 1, 2008, and Dec. 31, 2011. Surgical operative times and morbidity and mortality rates were compared. Binary logistic regression was used to control for covariates that were significant on univariate analysis (P < .05). A total of 3441 patients were identified as having undergone a total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease. The mean age of patients was 47.4 ± 11.1 years; the mean body mass index was 30.6 ± 7.9 kg/m(2). A resident participated in 1591 of cases (46.2%); 1850 of the procedures (53.8%) were done by an attending physician alone. Cases with resident involvement had higher mean age, Charlson morbidity scoring, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification and were more likely to be inpatient cases. With resident involvement, the mean operative time was increased (179.29 vs 135.46 minutes; P < .0001). There were no differences in the rates of experiencing at least 1 complication (6.8% for resident involvement vs 5.4% for attending alone; P = .5), composite severe morbidity (1.3% resident vs 1.0% attending alone), or 30-day mortality rate (0% resident vs 0.1% attending alone). Additionally, there were no differences between groups in the infectious, wound, neurorenal, thromboembolic, septic, and cardiopulmonary complications. Cases with resident involvement had significantly increased rates of postoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells (2% vs 0.4%; P < .0001), reoperation (2.2% vs 1.3%; P = .048), and a 30-day readmission (5.5% vs 2.9%; P = .015). In models that were adjusted for factors that differed between the 2 groups, cases with resident involvement had
Kneist, W; Huber, T; Paschold, M; Lang, H
The use of three-dimensional imaging in laparoscopy is a growing issue and has led to 3D systems in laparoscopic simulation. Studies on box trainers have shown differing results concerning the benefit of 3D imaging. There are currently no studies analysing 3D imaging in virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL). Five surgical fellows, 10 surgical residents and 29 undergraduate medical students performed abstract and procedural tasks on a VRL simulator using conventional 2D and 3D imaging in a randomised order. No significant differences between the two imaging systems were shown for students or medical professionals. Participants who preferred three-dimensional imaging showed significantly better results in 2D as wells as in 3D imaging. First results on three-dimensional imaging on box trainers showed different results. Some studies resulted in an advantage of 3D imaging for laparoscopic novices. This study did not confirm the superiority of 3D imaging over conventional 2D imaging in a VRL simulator. In the present study on 3D imaging on a VRL simulator there was no significant advantage for 3D imaging compared to conventional 2D imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Piccolboni, P; Settembre, A; Angelini, P; Esposito, F; Palladino, S; Corcione, F
Advanced laparoscopy for pancreatic cancer surgery should include laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS), in order to accurately evaluate resectability and rule out the presence of undetected metastases and/or vascular infiltration. LUS should be done as a preliminary step whenever pre-operative imaging casts doubts on resectability. We hereby report our experience of 18 consecutive patients, aged 43-76, coming to our attention during a six months period (Jan-Jun 2013), with a diagnosis of pancreas head or body cancer. LUS allowed to rule out undetected metastases or mesenteric vessels infiltration in 11 patients (61.1%), who were submitted, as previously scheduled, to radical duodeno-pancreatectomy (9 cases) and spleno-caudal pancreatectomy (2 cases). Among the remaining patients, three had been correctly evaluated as non resectable radically at pre-operative work out, and confirmed at LUS, while LUS detected non resectable disease in further 4 patients (22.2%), who underwent palliative procedures. In 2 patients of this group liver micro-metastases were found, while 2 were excluded because of mesenteric vessels infiltration. LUS provided a higher level of diagnostic accuracy, allowing in our experience to exclude 4 patients from radical surgery (22.2%). The evaluation of surgical resectability is an issue of crucial importance to decide surgical strategy in pancreas tumor surgery. In our opinion LUS should be considered a mandatory step in laparoscopic approach to pancreatic tumors, to better define disease staging and evaluate resectability.
Mahdi, Ben Dhaou; Mohamed, Jallouli; Hayet, Zitouni; Riadh, Mhiri
Purpose We review the literature and describe our technique for laparoendoscopic single-site orchidopexy using a glove port and rigid instruments. We assessed the feasibility and outcomes of this procedure. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the case records of all children who had undergone laparoendoscopic single-site orchidopexy by use of a surgical glove port and conventional rigid instruments for a nonpalpable intraabdominal testis between January 2013 and September 2014. Results Data from a total of 20 patients were collected. The patients' mean age was 18 months. All cases had a nonpalpable unilateral undescended testis. Fourteen patients (70%) had an undescended testis on the right side and six patients (30%) had an undescended testis on the left side. Seventeen patients underwent primary orchidopexy. Three patients underwent single-port laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchidopexy for the first and the second stage. Average operating time was 57 minutes (range, 40 to 80 minutes). No patient was lost to follow-up. At follow-up, 2 testes were found to have retracted out of the scrotum and these were successfully dealt with in a second operation. One testis was hypoplastic in the scrotal pouch. There were no signs of umbilical hernia. Conclusions Single-port laparoscopic orchidopexy using a glove port and rigid instruments is technically feasible and safe for various nonpalpable intraabdominal testes. However, surgical experience and long-term follow-up are needed to confirm the superiority of this technique. PMID:26568797
Ma, Bin; Huang, Xuan-Zhang; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Jun-Hua; Song, Yong-Xi; Sun, Jing-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Zhen-Ning
We wished to determine the effects of laparoscopic resection using natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) for patients with colorectal disease through a meta-analysis. A study search was undertaken in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for eligible studies until December 2014. Duration of hospital stay, operation time, time to first flatus, pain score, cosmetic result, postoperative complications, and disease-free survival (DFS) were the main endpoints. The results were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Nine clinical studies involving 837 patients were included for final analyses. Laparoscopic resection with NOSE had a shorter duration of hospital stay (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.62 days, 95 % confidence interval (CI) [-0.95, -0.28], p < 0.01) and time to first flatus (WMD = -0.59 days, 95 % CI [-0.78, -0.41], p < 0.01), less postoperative pain (WMD = -1.43, 95 % CI [-1.95, -0.90], p < 0.01), and postoperative complications (odds ratio (OR) = 0.51, 95 % CI [0.36, 0.74], p < 0.01) with better cosmetic result (WMD = 1.37, 95 % CI [0.59, 2.14], p < 0.01). However, the operation time was significantly longer in the NOSE group (WMD = 20.97 min, 95 % CI [4.33, 37.62], p = 0.01). No significant difference was observed in DFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88, 95 % CI [0.49, 1.57], p = 0.67). Our meta-analysis supported the notion that laparoscopic resection with NOSE for colorectal disease can significantly reduce the duration of hospital stay, accelerate postoperative recovery with better cosmetic results, and in particular, result in less postoperative pain and fewer complications.
Chen, Yan; Dong, Leng; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles
Laparoscopic surgery is a difficult perceptual-motor task and effective and efficient training in the technique is important. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is a possible available training technique for surgeons to increase their knowledge of such minimal access surgery (MAS). It is not well known whether this is a useful technique, how effective it is or what effect it has on the surgeon watching the recorded video. As part of an on-going series of studies into laparoscopic surgery, an experiment was conducted to examine whether surgical skill level has an effect on the visual search behaviour of individuals of different surgical experience when they examine such imagery. Medically naive observers, medical students, junior surgeons and experienced surgeons viewed a laparoscopic recording of a recent operation. Initial examination of the recorded eye movement data indicated commonalities between all observers, largely irrespective of surgical experience. This, it is argued, is due to visual search in this situation largely being driven by the dynamic nature of the images. The data were then examined in terms of surgical steps and also in terms of interventions when differences were found related to surgical experience. Consequently, it is argued that monitoring the eye movements of trainee surgeons whilst they watch pre-recorded operations is a potential useful adjunct to existing training regimes.
Bergenfeldt, Magnus; Jensen, Benny Vittrup
Isolated colorectal liver metastases should be referred for multispecialist management at a liver centre. Long-time survival is possible after resection and adjuvant therapy. If unresectable, newer chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, irinitecan, bevacizumab and cetuximab may result in a median survival > 20 months. Selected patients may be down-staged and resected with good long-time survival. Bilateral, multiple and large metastases can also be treated by complex combinations of portal vein embolization/ligature, staged resections and local (radiofrequency) ablation.
Koullouros, Michalis; Khan, Nadir; Aly, Emad H
Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery. The secondary aim was to explore any potential benefit in the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in relation to SSI in elective colorectal surgery. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies after 1980, which investigated the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and/or MBP in preventing SSIs in elective colorectal surgery were included. Twenty-three RCTs and eight cohorts were included. The results indicate a statistically significant advantage in preventing SSIs with the combined usage of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, our analysis of the cohort studies shows no benefits in the use of MBP in prevention of SSIs. The addition of oral antibiotics to systemic antibiotics could potentially reduce the risk of SSIs in elective colorectal surgery. Additionally, MBP does not seem to provide a clear benefit with regard to SSI prevention.
Ata, Ashar; Valerian, Brian T; Lee, Edward C; Bestle, Sharon L; Elmendorf, Sarah L; Stain, Steven C
Patients undergoing colorectal surgery (CRS) are known to be at increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI). We assessed the effect of diabetes and other risk factors on SSI in patients undergoing CRS and patients undergoing general surgery (GS). American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data File from 2005 to 2006 was used. Chi2 tests, t tests, and logistic regression were used to assess the risk factors. Of the 129,909 study patients 10.1 per cent were patients undergoing CRS. The incidence of SSI in patients undergoing CRS was 3.8 times higher (95% CI, 3.6-4.1) than in patients undergoing GS. The incidence of SSI was higher in diabetics than nondiabetics in patients undergoing CRS (15.4 vs. 11.0%, P < 0.001) and patients undergoing GS (5.3 vs. 3.1%, P < 0.001). The significant univariate predictors of SSI for patients undergoing GS and patients undergoing CRS were: males, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, diabetes emergency surgery, operation time, and greater than 2 units of intraoperative red blood cell transfusion. For patients undergoing GS, increasing age was also significant. After multivariate adjustment, significant predictors of SSI for patients undergoing GS and patients undergoing CRS were: male gender, diabetes, ASA class, emergency surgery, and operation time. For patients undergoing GS, age also remained significant. Among patients undergoing CRS, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were 1.32 (P < 0.05) times more likely than nondiabetics to develop SSI. Among patients undergoing GS, only IDDM (OR, 1.39; P < 0.001) were at increased risk. In this large hospital-based study, patients undergoing CRS were three times more likely to get SSI than patients undergoing GS. Diabetic patients with CRS (IDDM and NIDDM) and patients undergoing GS (IDDM) were at increased risk of SSI compared with nondiabetics. More intense glycemic
Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Kaufman, Derrick; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F
Surgical site infection (SSI) after ventral incisional hernia repair (VIH) can result in serious consequences. We sought to identify patient, procedure, and/or hernia characteristics that are associated with SSI in VIH. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were randomized in four Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed SSI within eight weeks postoperatively were compared to those who did not. A bivariate analysis for each factor and a multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to determine factors associated with SSI. The variables studied included patient characteristics and co-morbidities (e.g., age, gender, race, ethnicity, body mass index, ASA classification, diabetes, steroid use), hernia characteristics (e.g., size, duration, number of previous incisions), procedure characteristics (e.g., open versus laparoscopic, blood loss, use of postoperative drains, operating room temperature) and surgeons' experience (resident training level, number of open VIH previously performed by the attending surgeon). Antibiotic prophylaxis, anticoagulation protocols, preparation of the skin, draping of the wound, body temperature control, and closure of the surgical site were all standardized and monitored throughout the study period. Out of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 21 developed a SSI (14.5%). Patients who underwent open VIH had significantly more SSIs than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (22.1% versus 3.4%; P = 0.002). Among patients who underwent open VIH, those who developed SSI had a recorded intraoperative blood loss greater than 25 mL (68.4% versus 40.3%; P = 0.030), were more likely to have a drain placed (79.0% versus 49.3%; P = 0.021) and were more likey to be operated on by surgeons with less than 75 open VIH case experience (52.6% versus 28.4%; P = 0.048). Patient and hernia characteristics were similar between the two groups. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the open surgical technique was
Chen, Junhua; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Fei; Li, Bo; Wei, Yonggang
Abstract Although the number of laparoscopic liver resections (LRRs) has increased, studies of surgical outcomes in comparison with the conventional open approach are limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical outcomes (safety and efficacy) of LLR versus open liver resection (OLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We collected data on all patients who received liver resection for HCC between April 2015 and September 2016 in our institution, and retrospectively investigated the demographic and perioperative data, and also surgical outcomes. Laparoscopic liver resection was performed in 225 patients and OLR in 291. In patients who underwent minor hepatectomy, LLR associated with a shorter duration of operation time (200 vs 220 minutes; P < 0.001), less blood loss (100 vs 225 mL; P < 0.001), lower transfusion rate (3.0% vs 12.0%; P = 0.012), and shorter postoperative hospital stay (6 vs 7 days; P < 0.001) compared with OLR. Dietary recovery was relatively fast in the group of LLR, but there were no significant differences in hepatic inflow occlusion rate, complication rate, and transfusion volume. Patients who received major hepatectomy had a longer duration of operation (240 vs 230 minutes; P < 0.001), less blood loss (200 vs 400 mL; P < 0.001), lower transfusion rate (4.8% vs 16.5%; P = 0.002), lower hepatic inflow occlusion rate (68.3% vs 91.7%; P < 0.001), and shorter postoperative hospital stay (6 vs 8 days; P < 0.001). Complication rate (P = 0.366) and transfusion volume (P = 0.308) did not differ between groups. Laparoscopic liver resection is a feasible and safe alternative to OLR for HCC when performed by a surgeon experienced with the relevant surgical techniques, associated with less blood loss, lower transfusion rate, a rapid return to a normal diet, and shorter postoperative hospital stay with no compromise in complications. Further, long-term follow-up should be acquired for
Will, Matthew A; Marsh, Courtney A; Smorgick, Noam; Smith, Yolanda R; Quint, Elisabeth H
Females with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome may require surgical removal of uterine remnant(s) which can be accomplished with a laparoscopic approach, described in this case series. Nine females with MRKH and pelvic pain were treated with laparoscopic resection of uterine remnants without major complication. The following management recommendations are offered: (1) preoperative evaluation for urinary tract anomalies and postoperative cystoscopy; (2) medial traction of the remnant to allow adequate exposure of the pelvic sidewall; (3) awareness of possible anomalous vascular supply to uterine remnant; (4) individualized management of associated endometriosis; (5) careful use of surgical terminology, avoiding use of the word hysterectomy. Laparoscopic removal of uterine remnant(s) is safe and effective. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan; Panis, Yves
To perform a systematic review focusing on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal open surgery (PAOS). A broad literature search was performed with the terms "colorectal", "colectomy", "PAOS", "previous surgery" and "PAOS". Studies were included if their topic was laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with PAOS, whether descriptive or comparative. Endpoints of interest were conversion rates, inadvertent enterotomy and morbidity. Analysis of articles was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. From a total of 394 citations, 13 full-texts achieved selection criteria to be included in the study. Twelve of them compared patients with and without PAOS. All studies were retrospective and comparative and two were case-matched. The selected studies comprised a total of 5005 patients, 1865 with PAOS. Among the later, only 294 (16%) had history of a midline incision for previous gastrointestinal surgery. Conversion rates were significantly higher in 3 of 12 studies and inadvertent enterotomy during laparoscopy was more prevalent in 3 of 5 studies that disclosed this event. Morbidity was similar in the majority of studies. A quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the studies. Conversion rates were slightly higher in PAOS groups, although not statistical significant in most studies. History of PAOS did not implicate in higher morbidity rates.
Patel, Nima R; Makai, Gretchen E; Sloan, Nancy L; Della Badia, Carl R
To evaluate the effectiveness of the porcine training model for obstetrics-gynecology (OB/GYN) residents in laparoscopic salpingectomy. Randomized, controlled single-blinded trial. Canadian Task Force Classification I. A large community-based teaching hospital. All postgraduate year 1 through year 4 OB/GYN residents were enrolled (n = 22). All participants underwent a preintervention objective skills assessment test (OSAT), in which the participant performed live human laparoscopic salpingectomy. Residents were randomly assigned (using a computer-generated randomization table, in blocks of 2, stratified by ranked baseline OSAT scores) to the intervention or control group. The intervention group consisted of 1 educational session with presession assigned reading, a 40-min didactic lecture, viewing of a procedural video, and simulation and practice of laparoscopic salpingectomy on a porcine cadaver. The control group received traditional training per routine residency rotations. Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed on live patients by study participants pre- and postintervention. These procedures were video recorded, and then scored by a single blinded evaluator of the OSATs. Nine pre- and postintervention OSAT indicators, reflecting provider knowledge and skill, were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were the changes in 10 subjective measures of comfort, assessed by a pre- and postintervention survey. The outcomes were assessed using 5-point Likert scales (for OSATs 1 = lowest score; for the subjective survey 1 = highest score). The control group OSAT scores did not change (pre: 26.6 ± 10.8, post: 26.2 ± 10.1; p = .65). There were significant improvements in 2-handed surgery (pre: 2.8 ± 1.6, post: 3.5 ± 1.3; p = .004) and use of energy (pre: 2.9 ± 1.3, post: 3.6 ± 1.0; p = .01) in the intervention group, contributing to an overall score change (pre: 26.7 ± 10.6, post: 29.9 ± 9.8; p ≤ .001). The control group had no change in comfort
Cirocchi, R; Di Saverio, S; Weber, D G; Taboła, R; Abraha, I; Randolph, J; Arezzo, A; Binda, G A
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates current evidence on the therapeutic role of laparoscopic lavage in the management of diverticular peritonitis. A systematic review of the literature was performed on PubMed until June 2016, according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. All randomised controlled trials comparing laparoscopic lavage with surgical resection, irrespective of anastomosis or stoma formation, were analysed. After assessment of titles and full text, 3 randomised trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall the quality of evidence was low because of serious concerns regarding the risk of bias and imprecision. In the laparoscopic lavage group, there was a statistically significant higher rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess (RR 2.54, 95% CI 1.34-4.83), a lower rate of postoperative wound infection (RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.51), and a shorter length of postoperative hospital stay during index admission (WMD = -2.03, 95% CI -2.59 to -1.47). There were no statistically significant differences in terms of postoperative mortality at index admission or within 30 days from intervention in all Hinchey stages and in Hinchey stage III, postoperative mortality at 12 months, surgical reintervention at index admission or within 30-90 days from index intervention, stoma rate at 12 months, or adverse events within 90 days of any Clavien-Dindo grade. The surgical reintervention rate at 12 months from index intervention was significantly lower in the laparoscopic lavage group (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.86), but these data included emergency reintervention and planned intervention (stoma reversal). This systematic review and meta-analysis did not demonstrate any significant difference between laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and traditional surgical resection in patients with peritonitis from perforated diverticular disease, in terms of postoperative mortality and early reoperation rate
Anvari, Mehran; McKinley, Craig; Stein, Harvey
To establish a telerobotic surgical service between a teaching hospital and a rural hospital for provision of telerobotic surgery and assistance to aid rural surgeons in providing a variety of advanced laparoscopic surgery to their community patients. The above service was established between St. Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton and North Bay General Hospital 400 km north of Hamilton on February 28, 2003. The service uses an IP-VPN (15 Mbps of bandwidth) commercially available network to connect the robotic console in Hamilton with 3 arms of the Zeus-TS surgical system in North Bay. To date, 21 telerobotic laparoscopic surgeries have taken place between North Bay and Hamilton, including 13 fundoplications, 3 sigmoid resections, 2 right hemicolectomies, 1 anterior resection, and 2 inguinal hernia repairs. The 2 surgeons were able to operate together using the same surgical footprint and interchange roles seamlessly when desired. There have been no serious intraoperative complications and no cases have had to be converted to open surgeries. The mean hospital stays were equivalent to mean laparoscopic LOS in the tertiary institution. Telerobotic remote surgery is now in routine use, providing high-quality laparoscopic surgical services to patients in a rural community and providing a superior degree of collaboration between surgeons in teaching hospitals and rural hospitals. Further refinement of the robotic and telecommunication technology should ensure its wider application in the near future.
Lee, Lawrence; Abou-Khalil, Maria; Liberman, Sender; Boutros, Marylise; Fried, Gerald M; Feldman, Liane S
The incidence of incisional hernia(IH) may be affected by the choice of specimen extraction incision. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the incidence of IH after midline and off-midline incisions in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. A systematic search was performed according to PRISMA guidelines to identify all comparative studies from January 1991-August 2016 on the incidence of IH after midline and off-midline(transverse or Pfannenstiel) incisions in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Case series and studies reporting the IH after stoma site extraction, SILS, or NOTES were excluded. The MINORS instrument was used for quality assessment for observational studies. Weighted estimates were calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 17 articles were identified and included for meta-analysis, 16 of which were observational studies and 1 was an RCT. The mean MINORS score for observational studies was 12.9 (SD 3.2, range 7-17). Sample sizes in the midline (mean 185, range 20-995) and off-midline(mean 184, range 20-903) groups were similar. Follow-up ranged from 17.3 to 42 months. The pooled incidence of IH was 10.6% (338/3177) in midline, 3.7% (48/1314) in transverse, and 0.9% (9/956) in Pfannenstiel incisions. IH was significantly higher in the midline compared to off-midline groups (weighted OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.0-8.3, I (2) = 79.7%, p for heterogeneity <0.001). Midline incisions were also at higher risk of IH versus transverse (weighted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.7, I (2) = 72.7%, p for heterogeneity <0.001) and Pfannenstiel (weighted OR 8.6, 95% CI 3.0-24.6, I (2) = 43.5%, p for heterogeneity = 0.101) incisions. There was no publication bias according the funnel plot or statistically (Egger's p = 0.336). Midline incisions for specimen extraction in laparoscopic colorectal surgery are at significantly higher risk of IH compared to off-midline (transverse or
Louridas, M; Bonrath, E M; Sinclair, D A; Dedy, N J; Grantcharov, T P
Mental practice, the cognitive rehearsal of a task without physical movement, is known to enhance performance in sports and music. Investigation of this technique in surgery has been limited to basic operations. The purpose of this study was to develop mental practice scripts, and to assess their effect on advanced laparoscopic skills and surgeon stress levels in a crisis scenario. Twenty senior surgical trainees were randomized to either conventional training or mental practice groups, the latter being trained by an expert performance psychologist. Participants' skills were assessed while performing a porcine laparoscopic jejunojejunostomy as part of a crisis scenario in a simulated operating room, using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) and bariatric OSATS (BOSATS) instruments. Objective and subjective stress parameters were measured, as well as non-technical skills using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons rating tool. An improvement in OSATS (P = 0.003) and BOSATS (P = 0.003) scores was seen in the mental practice group compared with the conventional training group. Seven of ten trainees improved their technical performance during the crisis scenario, whereas four of the ten conventionally trained participants deteriorated. Mental imagery ability improved significantly following mental practice training (P = 0.011), but not in the conventional group (P = 0.083). No differences in objective or subjective stress levels or non-technical skills were evident. Mental practice improves technical performance for advanced laparoscopic tasks in the simulated operating room, and allows trainees to maintain or improve their performance despite added stress. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chiappa, Antonio; Zbar, Andrew P; Bertani, Emilio; Biffi, Roberto; Luca, Fabrizio; Pace, Ugo; Viale, Giuseppe; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Orecchia, Roberto; Lazzari, Roberta; Biella, Francesca; Grassi, Carmine; Zampino, Giulia; Fazio, Nicola; Della Vigna, Paolo; Andreoni, Luca; Andreoni, Bruno
The aim of the study was to compare the short and long-term outcomes of older and younger colorectal cancer patients with advanced disease resected with a curative intent. Six hundred and ninety-two patients were analysed. Four hundred and seventy-nine patients were younger than 70 years (Group 1), and 213 were 70 years of age or above (Group 2). The overall perioperative mortality rate in the younger group was 0.8% (n = 7), as against 1.4% (n = 3) in the elderly group (p = NS). The morbidity rates were 35% and 42%, respectively (p = NS). At univariate analysis, the elderly patients had a worse overall survival compared to the younger group, when only patients undergoing postoperative chemo-radiotherapy were considered (54% vs 67% overall survival at 5 years; p = 0.03). Using logistic regression analysis, tumour stage (p < 0.0001) and radicality of surgery (p < 0.0001) correlated significantly with overall survival rates in the elderly. Colorectal surgery for malignancy can be performed safely in the elderly with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates and long-term survival.
Jin, Longxue; Inoue, Norio; Sato, Naoki; Matsumoto, Susumu; Kanno, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Sato, Kinya; Sato, Shun; Kaneko, Katsutoshi
AIM: To compare the outcome of surgical treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma in elderly and younger patients. METHODS: The outcomes of 122 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical treatment between January 2004 and June 2009 were analyzed. The clinicopathological and blood biochemistry data of the younger group (< 75 years) and the elderly group (≥ 75 years) were compared. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, time to resumption of oral intake, or morbidity. The elderly group had a significantly higher rate of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The perioperative serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the elderly than in the younger group. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was lower in the elderly than in the younger group, and there was a significant decreasing trend after the operation in the elderly group. CONCLUSION: The short-term outcomes of surgical treatment in elderly patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma were acceptable. Surgical treatment in elderly patients was considered a selectively effective approach. PMID:21472132
Yasui, Masayoshi; Ikeda, Masataka; Miyake, Masakazu; Ide, Yoshihito; Okuyama, Masaki; Shingai, Tatsushi; Kitani, Kotaro; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Hasegawa, Junichi; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Murata, Kohei; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Nezu, Riichiro; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki
Venous thromboembolism is the most common preventable cause of hospital death. The objective of this study was to clarify risk factors for postoperative bleeding related to thromboprophylaxis after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. The study was conducted at 23 Japanese institutions and included patients with colorectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open surgery followed by fondaparinux treatment. We performed a retrospective analysis from a prospectively maintained database. We used multivariate analyses to evaluate clinical risk factors for prophylaxis-related bleeding events. After multivariate analysis, male gender, intraoperative blood loss of less than 25 mL, and a preoperative platelet count below 15 × 10(4)/μL were found to be independent risk factors in the laparoscopic surgery group. Only the preoperative platelet count was an independent risk factor in the open surgery group. Different prophylactic treatments for postoperative venous thromboembolism may be necessary in laparoscopic vs open surgery for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yi-Xuan; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Jin-Feng; Wang, Li
The safety of laparoscopic surgery during the second trimester of pregnancy remains a controversial subject. To compare the safety of laparoscopic surgery and laparotomy for suspected adnexal mass during the second trimester. Articles published in any language prior to April 31, 2016, were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, EMBSCO, and the Cochrane Library using keywords including pregnant, adnexal mass, laparoscopy, laparotomy, pregnancy outcomes, and surgical outcomes. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials reporting at least one obstetric or surgical outcome were included if they compared laparoscopic surgery and laparotomy for adnexal masses during the second trimester. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers. Homogeneous data were pooled using a fixed effects model and heterogeneous data were qualitatively analyzed. Four comparative effectiveness studies including a total of 240 patients were identified. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with a reduced risk of post-operative adverse events (relative risk 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.72); no difference was recorded in the risk of post-operative spontaneous abortion (P=0.26) or threatened spontaneous abortion (P=0.13). Laparoscopic surgery could be preferable to laparotomy for suspected adnexal mass during the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Bruintjes, M H; van Helden, E V; Braat, A E; Dahan, A; Scheffer, G J; van Laarhoven, C J; Warlé, M C
Neuromuscular block (NMB) is frequently used in abdominal surgery to improve surgical conditions by relaxation of the abdominal wall and prevention of sudden muscle contractions. The evidence supporting routine use of deep NMB is still under debate. We aimed to provide evidence for the superiority of routine use of deep NMB during laparoscopic surgery. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the influence of deep vs moderate NMB during laparoscopic procedures on surgical space conditions and clinical outcomes. Trials were identified from Medline, Embase, and Central databases from inception to December 2016. We included randomized trials, crossover studies, and cohort studies. Our search yielded 12 studies on the effect of deep NMB on the surgical space conditions. Deep NMB during laparoscopic surgeries improves the surgical space conditions when compared with moderate NMB, with a mean difference of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.83) on a scale of 1-5, and it facilitates the use of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum. Furthermore, deep NMB reduces postoperative pain scores in the postanaesthesia care unit, with a mean difference of - 0.52 (95% CI: -0.71 to - 0.32). Deep NMB improves surgical space conditions during laparoscopic surgery and reduces postoperative pain scores in the postanaesthesia care unit. Whether this leads to fewer intraoperative complications, an improved quality of recovery, or both after laparoscopic surgery should be pursued in future studies. The review methodology was specified in advance and registered at Prospero on July 27, 2016, registration number CRD42016042144. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Zhou, Min-Wei; Gu, Xiao-Dong; Xiang, Jian-Bin; Chen, Zong-You
This study was performed to compare the clinical safety and outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for primary tumors in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. Pertinent studies were selected from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases; references from published articles; and reviews. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included for the meta-analysis. Clinical outcomes included safety, complications, mortality, and survival. Six trials involving 1802 patients were included. The operative time was longer for laparoscopic than for open surgery (mean difference (MD) = 44.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.31-71.09, Z = 3.22, P = 0.001). Laparoscopic surgery was also associated with fewer postoperative complications (odds ratio 0.53, 95 % CI 0.37-0.78, Z = 3.29, P = 0.001) and less operative blood loss (MD = -65.40, 95 % CI -102.37 to -28.42, Z = 3.47, P = 0.0005). Median survival ranged from 11.4 to 30.1 months. The total hospital stay was 1.68 days shorter for laparoscopic than for open surgery (95 % CI -1.83 to -1.53, Z = 21.64, P < 0.00001). Laparoscopic surgery for palliative resection of stage IV colorectal cancer is associated with better perioperative outcomes than open surgery.
Jeong, Shinseok; Park, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seong Ho
Purpose Surgical resection of isolated hepatic or pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer is an established procedure, with a 5-year survival rate of about 50%. However, the role of surgical resections in patients with both hepatic and pulmonary metastases is not well established. We aimed to analyze overall survival of these patients and associated factors. Methods Data retrospectively collected from 66 patients who underwent both hepatic and pulmonary metastasectomy after colorectal cancer surgery from August 2002 through August 2013 were analyzed. In univariate analysis, the log-rank test compared patient survival between groups. P < 0.1 was considered indicative of significance. Multivariate analysis of the significance data using a Cox proportional hazard model identified factors associated with overall survival. The synchronous group (n = 57) was defined as patients who had metastasectomy within 3 months from primary colorectal cancer surgery. The remaining nine patients constituted the metachronous group. Results Median follow-up was 126 months from the primary colorectal cancer surgery. The 5-year survival was 73.4%. There was no difference in overall survival between the synchronous and metachronous groups, consistent with previous studies. Distribution (involving one hemiliver or both, P = 0.010 in multivariate analysis) of liver metastases and multiplicity of the pulmonary metastasis (P = 0.039) were predictors of poor prognosis. Conclusion Sequential or simultaneous resection of both hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer resulted in good long-term survival in selected patients. Thus, an aggressive surgical approach and multidisciplinary decision making with surgeons seems to be justified. PMID:28203555
Ghaderi, Iman; Vaillancourt, Marilou; Sroka, Gideon; Kaneva, Pepa A; Vassiliou, Melina C; Choy, Ian; Okrainec, Allan; Seagull, F Jacob; Sutton, Erica; George, Ivan; Park, Adrian; Brintzenhoff, Rita; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Fried, Gerald M; Feldman, Liane S
Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair (LIHR) is a common procedure requiring advanced laparoscopic skills. This study aimed to develop a procedure-specific tool to assess the performance of LIHR and to evaluate its reliability and validity. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills-Incisional Hernia (GOALS-IH) is a 7-item global rating scale developed by experts to evaluate the steps of LIHR (placement of trocars, adhesiolysis, estimation of mesh size and shape, mesh orientation and positioning, mesh fixation, knowledge and autonomy in use of instruments, overall competence), each rated on a 5-point Likert scale. During LIHR, 13 attending surgeons and fellows experienced in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and 19 novice surgeons (postgraduate years [PGYs], 3-5) were evaluated at four teaching hospitals by the attending surgeon, a trained observer, and self-assessment using GOALS-IH, and by a previously validated 5-item general laparoscopic rating scale (GOALS). Interrater reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), and internal consistency of rating items was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Known-groups construct validity was assessed by using the t-test and by correlating of the number of self-reported LIHR cases with the total score. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlating the GOALS-IH score with the GOALS general rating scale. Data are presented as mean and 95% confidence interval (CI). Interrater reliability for the total GOALS-IH score was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.60-0.89) between observers and attending surgeons, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.58-0.92) between participants and attending surgeons, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96) between participants and observers. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha, 0.93). Experienced surgeons performed significantly better than novices as assessed by GOALS-IH (31; 95% CI, 29-33 vs. 21; 95% CI, 19-24; p < 0.01). Very good correlation was found between GOALS-IH and previous LIHR experience (r = 0.82; p < 0
Rawal, Krishn Kant
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is currently the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. Associated complications include bile duct injury, retained common bile duct (CBD) stones, and migration of surgical clips. Clip migration into the CBD can present with recurrent cholangitis over a period of time. Retained CBD stones can be another cause of recurrent cholangitis. A case of two surgical clips migrating into the common bile duct with few retained stones following LC is reported here. The patient had repeated episodes of fever, pain at epigastrium, jaundice, and pruritus 3 months after LC. Liver function tests revealed features of obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed dilated CBD with few stones. In view of acute cholangitis, an urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was done, which demonstrated few filling defects and 2 linear metallic densities in the CBD. A few retained stones along with 2 surgical clips were removed successfully from the CBD by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after papillotomy using a Dormia basket. The patient improved dramatically following the procedure. PMID:28203125
Short-term outcomes of laparoscopic intersphincteric resection from a phase II trial to evaluate laparoscopic surgery for stage 0/I rectal cancer: Japan Society of Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery Lap RC.
Fujii, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ito, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kokuba, Yukihito; Okuda, Junji; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Watanabe, Masahiko
Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (Lap ISR) is not yet an established technique and its safety and feasibility are unclear. Our aim was to clarify the safety and feasibility of Lap ISR for clinical stage 0/I rectal cancer (Lap RC) in a prospective multicenter study of laparoscopic surgery in Japan. To examine the technical and oncological feasibility of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, we conducted a confirmatory phase II trial to evaluate laparoscopic surgery for preoperative clinical stage 0/I rectal cancer. Eligibility criteria included histologically proven carcinoma, size ≤ 8 cm, age 20-75 years, no bowel obstruction, and no prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Between February 2008 and September 2010, 495 patients with rectal cancer underwent laparoscopic surgery at 43 institutions. Patients' background characteristics and operative and postoperative outcomes were recorded prospectively. Seventy-seven patients (15.6 %) underwent Lap ISR. A diverting stoma was created in 69 patients (89.6 %). Conversion to open surgery occurred in 4 patients (5.2 %): 2 patients were converted because of uncontrollable bleeding, and the other 2 patients because of the need for pelvic side wall lymphadenectomy. There was no mortality. Median operative time was 345 min (range = 198-565), median amount of blood loss was 100 ml (range = 0-1760), and three patients (3.9 %) were transfused intraoperatively. The median number of dissected lymph nodes was 14 (range = 3-33), and all (proximal, distal, and vertical) pathological cut margins were negative. Postoperative complications of grade 2 or more were detected in 17 patients (22.1 %), including anastomotic leakage in 5 (6.4 %), bowel obstruction in 5 (6.5 %), and surgical site infection in 2 (2.6 %). Abdominal drainage and diverting stoma were necessary in two patients (2.6 %) due to anastomotic leakage. Median length of postoperative hospital stay was 13 days (range = 7-167). Lap ISR was feasible and safe for clinical
Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Bogani, Giorgio; Gasparri, Maria L; Di Donato, Violante; Zanaboni, Flavia; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco
To investigate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic approach in the management patients undergoing modified radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Consecutive data of 157 women who had class II radical hysterectomy, for stage IA2 and stage IB1 <2 cm cervical cancer, were prospectively collected. Data of patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy (LRH) were compared with those undergoing open surgical operations (RAH). A propensity-matched comparison (1:1) was carried out to minimize as possible selection biases. Post-operative complications were graded per the Clavien-Dindo classification. Five-year survival outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier model. After the exclusion of 37 (23.5%) patients on the basis of propensity-matching, 60 patients undergoing LRH were compared with 60 patients undergoing RAH. No between-group differences in baseline, disease and pathological variables were observed (p > 0.05). Patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy experienced longer operative time than patients undergoing RAH; while LRH correlated whit shorter length of hospitalization and lower blood loss in comparison to RAH. Intra- and post-operative complication rate was similar between groups (p = 1.00). The execution of LRH or RAH did not influence site of recurrence (p > 0.2) as well as survival outcomes, in term of 5-year disease-free (p = 0.29, log-rank test) and overall survivals (p = 0.50, log-rank test). Laparoscopic approach is a safe procedure, upholds the results of RAH, reducing invasiveness of open surgical operations. Further large prospective investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A randomized double-blind clinical trial of a continuous 96-hour levobupivacaine infiltration after open or laparoscopic colorectal surgery for postoperative pain management--including clinically important changes in protein binding.
Krishnan, Sumithra; Morris, Raymond G; Hewett, Peter J; Field, John; Karatassas, Alex; Tou, Samson; Westley, Ian S; Wicks, Fiona A; Tonkin, Julie A
Continuous local anesthetic infiltration has been used for pain management after open colorectal surgery. However, its application to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery has not been examined. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to study the use of a commercial infiltration device in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic colorectal surgery, along with plasma concentrations of levobupivacaine, its acute-phase binding protein (alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, AAG), and the stress marker, cortisol. Eligible patients were randomized (2:1) to receive a continuous infiltration of either levobupivacaine or placebo using a commercial device (ON-Q PainBuster) inserted in the preperitoneal layer at the end of surgery. Blood was sampled for determination of levobupivacaine and AAG and cortisol concentrations. Other outcomes measured were pain scores, morbidity and mortality, time to bowel movement, mobilization, and length of hospitalization. In patients having open surgery, the levobupivacaine treatment showed a trend toward reduced total opioid consumption. No patients reported adverse effects attributable to levobupivacaine, despite 11 patients having concentrations at some time(s) during the 96-hour infiltration of up to 5.5 mg/L exceeding a putative toxicity threshold of 2.7 mg/L. AAG concentrations measured postsurgery increased by a mean of 55% (P < 0.001) at 48 hours. Cortisol concentrations also increased significantly by a mean of 191% at 1 hour. Continuous local anesthetic infiltration may be more beneficial in open surgery. The threshold for adverse effects from highly bound local anesthetic drugs established in healthy volunteers is of limited usefulness in clinical scenarios in which AAG concentration increases in response to surgical stress. Hence, there is scope to adopt higher doses to enhance therapeutic benefit.
Farid, Shahid G; Morley, Lara; Roberts, Keith J; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Smith, Andrew M
Colorectal pancreatic metastases (CRPM) are uncommon, thus the role of surgical resection is unclear. We present our experience of management outcomes of patients with CRPM in a regional pancreatic unit. Electronic records of all patients with colorectal cancer (n = 8,228) held by the cancer network were searched for evidence of CRPM. Retrospective analysis of each case was undertaken in relation to diagnosis, management and outcome of CRPM. Four cases of CRPM underwent resection (operative group). The interval between diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma and CRPM was 1, 6, 7 and 7 years. CRPM were identified on routine CT surveillance in asymptomatic patients. An additional 5 patients were managed palliatively (non-operative group). In the surgical cohort, median survival was 4 years. One patient remains disease free 4 years 3 months post-surgery. Of 3 patients with recurrent disease, 1 is alive with progressive disease 3 years 11 months post-operatively and 2 passed away at 18 months and 5 years 1 month respectively. Median survival in the palliative group from diagnosis of CRPM was 11 months. In selected patients with CRPM surgical resection does confer survival benefit. CRPM arise late in the disease course, with extra-pancreatic metastases frequently diagnosed in the interim. Surgeons outside of pancreatic units should refer cases to their local pancreatic multi-disciplinary team meeting for consideration of resection.
Matsuda, Tadashi; McDougall, Elspeth M; Ono, Yoshinari; Hattori, Ryohei; Baba, Shiro; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Terachi, Toshiro; Naito, Seiji; Clayman, Ralph V
We studied the construct validity of the LapMentor, a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator, and the correlation between the data collected on the LapMentor and the results of video assessment of real laparoscopic surgeries. Ninety-two urologists were tested on basic skill tasks No. 3 (SK3) to No. 8 (SK8) on the LapMentor. They were divided into three groups: Group A (n=25) had no experience with laparoscopic surgeries as a chief surgeon; group B (n=33) had <35 experiences; and group C (n=34) had ≥35 experiences. Group scores on the accuracy, efficacy, and time of the tasks were compared. Forty physicians with ≥20 experiences supplied unedited videotapes showing a laparoscopic nephrectomy or an adrenalectomy in its entirety, and the videos were assessed in a blinded fashion by expert referees. Correlations between the videotape score (VS) and the performances on the LapMentor were analyzed. Group C showed significantly better outcomes than group A in the accuracy (SK5) (P=0.013), efficacy (SK8) (P=0.014), or speed (SKs 3 and 8) (P=0.009 and P=0.002, respectively) of the performances of LapMentor. Group B showed significantly better outcomes than group A in the speed and efficacy of the performances in SK8 (P=0.011 and P=0.029, respectively). Analyses of motion analysis data of LapMentor demonstrated that smooth and ideal movement of instruments is more important than speed of the movement of instruments to achieve accurate performances in each task. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the average score of the accuracy in SK4, 5, and 8 had significant positive correlation with VS (P=0.01). This study demonstrated the construct and predictive validity of the LapMentor basic skill tasks, supporting their possible usefulness for the preclinical evaluation of laparoscopic skills.
McDougall, Elspeth M.; Ono, Yoshinari; Hattori, Ryohei; Baba, Shiro; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Terachi, Toshiro; Naito, Seiji; Clayman, Ralph V.
Abstract Purpose We studied the construct validity of the LapMentor, a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator, and the correlation between the data collected on the LapMentor and the results of video assessment of real laparoscopic surgeries. Materials and Methods Ninety-two urologists were tested on basic skill tasks No. 3 (SK3) to No. 8 (SK8) on the LapMentor. They were divided into three groups: Group A (n=25) had no experience with laparoscopic surgeries as a chief surgeon; group B (n=33) had <35 experiences; and group C (n=34) had ≥35 experiences. Group scores on the accuracy, efficacy, and time of the tasks were compared. Forty physicians with ≥20 experiences supplied unedited videotapes showing a laparoscopic nephrectomy or an adrenalectomy in its entirety, and the videos were assessed in a blinded fashion by expert referees. Correlations between the videotape score (VS) and the performances on the LapMentor were analyzed. Results Group C showed significantly better outcomes than group A in the accuracy (SK5) (P=0.013), efficacy (SK8) (P=0.014), or speed (SKs 3 and 8) (P=0.009 and P=0.002, respectively) of the performances of LapMentor. Group B showed significantly better outcomes than group A in the speed and efficacy of the performances in SK8 (P=0.011 and P=0.029, respectively). Analyses of motion analysis data of LapMentor demonstrated that smooth and ideal movement of instruments is more important than speed of the movement of instruments to achieve accurate performances in each task. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the average score of the accuracy in SK4, 5, and 8 had significant positive correlation with VS (P=0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated the construct and predictive validity of the LapMentor basic skill tasks, supporting their possible usefulness for the preclinical evaluation of laparoscopic skills. PMID:22642549
Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe and has survival outcomes similar to those of open surgery in elderly patients with a poor performance status: subanalysis of a large multicenter case-control study in Japan.
Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hinoi, Takao; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Ohdan, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Suzuka, Ichio; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Endo, Shungo; Tagami, Soichi; Idani, Hitoshi; Ichihara, Takao; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Watanabe, Masahiko
It remains controversial whether open or laparoscopic surgery should be indicated for elderly patients with colorectal cancer and a poor performance status. In those patients aged 80 years or older with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or greater who received elective surgery for stage 0 to stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma and had no concomitant malignancies and who were enrolled in a multicenter case-control study entitled "Retrospective study of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for elderly patients" that was conducted in Japan between 2003 and 2007, background characteristics and short-term and long-term outcomes for open surgery and laparoscopic surgery were compared. Of the 398 patients included, 295 underwent open surgery and 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between open surgery and laparoscopic surgery patients, except for previous abdominal surgery and TNM stage. The median operation duration was shorter with open surgery (open surgery, 153 min; laparoscopic surgery, 202 min; P < 0.001), and less blood loss occurred with laparoscopic surgery (median open surgery, 109 g; median laparoscopic surgery, 30 g; P < 0.001). An operation duration of 180 min or more (odds ratio, 1.97; 95 % confidence interval, 1.17-3.37; P = 0.011) and selection of laparoscopic surgery (odds ratio, 0.41; 95 % confidence interval, 0.22-0.75; P = 0.003) were statistically significant in the multivariate analysis for postoperative morbidity. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery did not result in an inferior overall survival rate compared with open surgery (log-rank test P = 0.289, 0.278, 0.346, 0.199, for all-stage, stage 0-I, stage II, and stage III disease, respectively). Laparoscopic surgery in elderly colorectal cancer patients with a poor performance status is safe and not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival.
Shetty, Shohan; Zevin, Boris; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Roberts, Kurt E; Duffy, Andrew J
Simulation training for surgical residents can shorten learning curves, improve technical skills, and expedite competency. Several studies have shown that skills learned in the simulated environment are transferable to the operating room. Residency programs are trying to incorporate simulation into the resident training curriculum to supplement the hands-on experience gained in the operating room. Despite the availability and proven utility of surgical simulators and simulation laboratories, they are still widely underutilized by surgical trainees. Studies have shown that voluntary use leads to minimal participation in a training curriculum. Although there are several simulation tools, there is no clear evidence of the superiority of one tool over the other in skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to explore resident perceptions, training experiences, and preferences regarding laparoscopic simulation training. Our goal was to profile resident participation in surgical skills simulation, recognize potential barriers to voluntary simulator use, and identify simulation tools and tasks preferred by residents. Furthermore, this study may help to inform whether mandatory/protected training time, as part of the residents' curriculum is essential to enhance participation in the simulation laboratory. A cross-sectional study on general surgery residents (postgraduate years 1-5) at Yale University School of Medicine and the University of Toronto via an online questionnaire was conducted. Overall, 67 residents completed the survey. The institutional review board approved the methods of the study. Overall, 95.5% of the participants believed that simulation training improved their laparoscopic skills. Most respondents (92.5%) perceived that skills learned during simulation training were transferrable to the operating room. Overall, 56.7% of participants agreed that proficiency in a simulation curriculum should be mandatory before operating room experience. The
Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan; Panis, Yves
AIM: To perform a systematic review focusing on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal open surgery (PAOS). METHODS: A broad literature search was performed with the terms “colorectal”, “colectomy”, “PAOS”, “previous surgery” and “PAOS”. Studies were included if their topic was laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with PAOS, whether descriptive or comparative. Endpoints of interest were conversion rates, inadvertent enterotomy and morbidity. Analysis of articles was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. RESULTS: From a total of 394 citations, 13 full-texts achieved selection criteria to be included in the study. Twelve of them compared patients with and without PAOS. All studies were retrospective and comparative and two were case-matched. The selected studies comprised a total of 5005 patients, 1865 with PAOS. Among the later, only 294 (16%) had history of a midline incision for previous gastrointestinal surgery. Conversion rates were significantly higher in 3 of 12 studies and inadvertent enterotomy during laparoscopy was more prevalent in 3 of 5 studies that disclosed this event. Morbidity was similar in the majority of studies. A quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSION: Conversion rates were slightly higher in PAOS groups, although not statistical significant in most studies. History of PAOS did not implicate in higher morbidity rates. PMID:27462396
Feng, Chuan; Rozenblit, Jerzy W; Hamilton, Allan J
Surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery have strong biases regarding the quality and nature of the laparoscopic video monitor display. In a comparative study, we used a unique computerized sensing and analysis system to evaluate the various types of monitors employed in laparoscopic surgery. We compared the impact of different types of monitor displays on an individual's performance of a laparoscopic training task which required the subject to move the instrument to a set of targets. Participants (varying from no laparoscopic experience to board-certified surgeons) were asked to perform the assigned task while using all three display systems, which were randomly assigned: a conventional laparoscopic monitor system (2D), a high-definition monitor system (HD), and a stereoscopic display (3D). The effects of monitor system on various performance parameters (total time consumed to finish the task, average speed, and movement economy) were analyzed by computer. Each of the subjects filled out a subjective questionnaire at the end of their training session. A total of 27 participants completed our study. Performance with the HD monitor was significantly slower than with either the 3D or 2D monitor (p < 0.0001). Movement economy with the HD monitor was significantly reduced compared with the 3D (p < 0.0004) or 2D (p < 0.0001) monitor. In terms of average time required to complete the task, performance with the 3D monitor was significantly faster than with the HD (p < 0.0001) or 2D (p < 0.0086) monitor. However, the HD system was the overwhelming favorite according to subjective evaluation. Computerized sensing and analysis is capable of quantitatively assessing the seemingly minor effect of monitor display on surgical training performance. The study demonstrates that, while users expressed a decided preference for HD systems, actual quantitative analysis indicates that HD monitors offer no statistically significant advantage and may even worsen performance compared with
Watanabe, Jun; Tatsumi, Kenji; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Suwa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Akira; Ishibe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Morita, Satoshi; Endo, Itaru
Although obesity is considered as a risk factor for postoperative morbidity in abdominal surgery, its effect on the outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) is still unclear. The technical difficulty and risk factor for postoperative complication in LAC are thought to be influenced by visceral obesity. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of visceral fat on the surgical outcomes of LAC. Between April 2005 and December 2010, consecutive patients with preoperatively diagnosed colon cancer, excluding medium and low rectal cancer, who underwent LAC, were enrolled. Their visceral fat area (VFA) and body mass index (BMI) were prospectively collected. The VFA was assessed by Fat Scan software. The patients were classified into two groups as follows: VFA nonobese with VFA <100 cm(2) (VNO) and VFA obese with VFA ≧100 cm(2) (VO). The predictive factors for surgical complications of LAC were evaluated by univariate and logistic regression analyses. A total of 338 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Of the 338 patients, 194 (57.4 %) and 138 (42.6 %) were classified into the VNO and VO groups, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that high BMI (≧25 kg/m(2)) and VO independently predicted the incidence of overall postoperative complications (p = 0.040 and 0.007, respectively). VO was more highly related to the incidence of overall postoperative complications, anastomotic leakage (p = 0.021), and surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.013) than high BMI. VFA is a more useful parameter than BMI in predicting surgical outcomes after LAC.
Lim, Myong Cheol; Bae, Jaeman; Park, Jeong-Yoel; Lim, Soyi; Kang, Sokbom; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Yong; Rho, Ju-Won
Objective To prospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety, and survival of laparoscopic surgical staging in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods From Oct 2001 to Jul 2006, a total of 83 consecutive patients were eligible for inclusion and underwent laparoscopic surgical staging. Results Three patients with intraoperative great vessel injury and 1 patient in whom the colpotomizer was unable to be inserted were excluded. Laparoscopic surgical staging was feasible in 95.2% (79/83). Immediate postoperative complications were noted in 12 (15.2%) patients. Prolonged complications directly related to operative procedures numbered 2 (2.5%), and were trocar site metastases. The mean time from surgery to the start of radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was 11 (5-35) days. All patients tolerated the treatment well and completed scheduled RT or CCRT without disruption of treatment and additional admission. The rate of modification of the radiation field after surgical staging was 8.9% (7/79). Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 79% and 89%, respectively. The OS of patients with microscopic lymph node metastases, which were fully resected, were comparable to those of patients without lymph node metastasis. However, the OS of patients with macroscopic lymph node metastases that were fully resected were poorer compared with those of patients without lymph node metastasis. Conclusion Pretreatment laparoscopic surgical staging is a feasible and safe treatment modality. However the survival benefit of debulking lymph nodes or full lymph node dissection is not clear. PMID:19471562
Ryu, J H; Koo, B W; Kim, B G; Oh, A Y; Kim, H H; Park, D J; Lee, C M; Kim, S T; Do, S H
The degree of neuromuscular blockade is one of the important factors that determine the condition of surgical space during laparoscopic surgery. Magnesium sulfate potentiates the actions of neuromuscular blocking agent, and we hypothesized that intraoperative magnesium sulfate infusion may improve surgical space condition during laparoscopic surgery. Eighty-four patients undergoing elective laparoscopic gastrectomy were randomized to receive isotonic saline (group C) or magnesium sulfate (group M, loading dose with 50 mg/kg over 10 min and then 15 mg/kg/h by continuous infusion) to maintain the moderate neuromuscular blockade using rocuronium. Two experienced surgeons scored the quality of surgical space condition using a 5-point surgical rating scale (SRS). The secondary outcomes included recovery profiles, postoperative pain and adverse events. The SRS in group M was higher than that of group C. The proportion of patients with a SRS of 5 (optimal) was 2.7 % in the group C and 40.5 % in the group M (P < 0.0001) although a lower amount of rocuronium was required in group M than group C [24.2 (6.5) mg/h for group M vs. 27.5 (6) mg/h for group C; P = 0.017]. Pain after operation site was less severe in group M than in group C at postoperative 24 h (P = 0.009). Recovery profiles and adverse events were similar between the two groups. Intraoperative administration of magnesium sulfate improved the quality of surgical space conditions and decreased neuromuscular blocking agent requirement and postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy.
Marais, Hendrik J; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Zuba, Jeffery R; Penning, Mark; Siegal-Willott, Jess; Hardy, Christine
Several small, enclosed reserves in southern Africa are experiencing significant elephant population growth, which has resulted in associated environmental damage and changes in biodiversity. Although several techniques exist to control elephant populations, e.g., culling, relocation, and immunocontraception, the technique of laparoscopic vasectomy of free-ranging bull elephants was investigated. Bilateral vasectomies were performed in 45 elephants. Of these elephants, one died within 24 hr of recovery and two had complications during surgery but recovered uneventfully. Histologic examination confirmed the resected tissue as ductus deferens in all the bulls. Most animals recovered uneventfully and showed no abnormal behavior after surgery. Complications recorded included incisional dehiscence, 1 full-thickness and 2 partial-thickness lacerations of the large intestine, and initial sling-associated complications, for example, deep radial nerve paresis. One bull was found dead 6 weeks after surgery without showing any prior abnormal signs. Vasectomy in free-ranging African bull elephants may be effectively performed in their normal environment. The surgical procedure can be used as a realistic population management tool in free-ranging elephants without major anesthetic, surgical, or postoperative complications.
Masoni, Luigi; Mari, Francesco Saverio; Nigri, Giuseppe; Favi, Francesco; Pindozzi, Fioralba; Dall'Oglio, Anna; Pancaldi, Alessandra; Brescia, Antonio
Hartmann's procedure is still performed in those cases in which colorectal anastomosis might be unsafe. Reversal of Hartmann's procedure (HR) is considered a major surgical procedure with a high morbidity (55 to 60%) and mortality rate (0 to 4%). To decrease these rates, laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal procedure was successfully experienced. We report our totally laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal technique. Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 27 HRs with a totally laparoscopic approach. The efficacy and safety of this technique were demonstrated evaluating the operative data, postoperative complications, and the outcome of the patients. There were no open conversions or major intraoperative complications. Anastomotic leaking occurred in one patient requiring an ileostomy; one patient needed a blood transfusion and one had a nosocomial pneumonia. The mean postoperative hospitalization was 5.7 days. Laparoscopic HR is a feasible and safe procedure and can be considered a valid alternative to open HR.
Hashimoto, Daniel A.; Gomez, Ernest D.; Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Khajuria, Ankur; Williams, Noel N.; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh
Background Serious games have demonstrated efficacy in improving participation in surgical training activities, but studies have not yet demonstrated the effect of serious gaming on performance. This study investigated whether competitive training affects laparoscopic surgical performance. Methods Twenty novices were recruited, and 18 (2 drop-outs) were randomized into control or competitive (CT) groups to perform 10 virtual reality (VR) laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC). Competitiveness of each participant was assessed. The CT group was informed they were competing to outperform one another for a prize; performance ranking was shown prior to each session. The control group did not compete. Performance was assessed on time, movements, and instrument path length. Quality of performance was assessed with a global rating score (GRS). Results There were no significant intergroup differences in baseline skill or measured competitiveness. Time and GRS, at final LC, were not significantly different between groups; however, the CT group was significantly more dexterous than control and had significantly lower variance in number of movements and instrument path length at the final LC (p=0.019). Contentiousness was inversely related to time in the CT group. Conclusion This was the first randomized controlled trial to investigate if competitive training can enhance performance in laparoscopic surgery. Competitive training may lead to improved dexterity in laparoscopic surgery but yields otherwise similar performance to standard training in novices. Competition may have different effects on novices versus experienced surgeons, and subsequent research should investigate competitive training in experienced surgeons as well. PMID:26169566
Singapogu, Ravikiran B; DuBose, Sarah; Long, Lindsay O; Smith, Dane E; Burg, Timothy C; Pagano, Christopher C; Burg, Karen J L
There is an increasing need for efficient training simulators to teach advanced laparoscopic skills beyond those imparted by a box trainer. In particular, force-based or haptic skills must be addressed in simulators, especially because a large percentage of surgical errors are caused by the over-application of force. In this work, the efficacy of a novel, salient haptic skills simulator is tested as a training tool for force-based laparoscopic skills. Thirty novices with no previous laparoscopic experience trained on the simulator using a pre-test-feedback-post-test experiment model. Ten participants were randomly assigned to each of the three salient haptic skills-grasping, probing, and sweeping-on the simulator. Performance was assessed by comparing force performance metrics before and after training on the simulator. Data analysis indicated that absolute error decreased significantly for all three salient skills after training. Participants also generally decreased applied forces after training, especially at lower force levels. Overall, standard deviations also decreased after training, suggesting that participants improved their variability of applied forces. The novel, salient haptic skills simulator improved the precision and accuracy of participants when applying forces with the simulator. These results suggest that the simulator may be a viable tool for laparoscopic force skill training. However, further work must be undertaken to establish full validity. Nevertheless, this work presents important results toward addressing simulator-based force-skills training specifically and surgical skills training in general.
McConnell, Yarrow J; Johnson, Paul M; Porter, Geoff A
Postoperative glycemic control reduces sternal infections following cardiac surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between postoperative glycemic control and surgical site infections (SSI) in patients with DM undergoing colorectal resection. A cohort of patients with DM who underwent colorectal resection (April 2001-May 2006) at our institution were reviewed. SSI were defined by Centers for Disease Control criteria. From a study cohort of 149 patients, 24% had poor postoperative glycemic control (defined as a mean 48-h postoperative capillary glucose (MCG) >11.0 mmol/L or 200 mg/dL), and these patients developed SSI at a significantly higher rate than those with a 48-h MCG < or =11.0 mmol/L (29.7% vs. 14.3%; odds ratio (OR) 2.5, p = 0.03). On multivariate logistic regression, 48-h MCG >11.0 mmol/L was significantly associated with SSI (OR 3.6, p = 0.02), independent of the dose and regimen of postoperative insulin administration. In conclusion, 48-h MCG >11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) was independently associated with increased SSI following colorectal resection in patients with DM. Prospective studies are required to validate this relationship, address the role of preoperative glycemic control, and examine strategies to improve glycemic control following colorectal resection.
Hao, Min; Wang, Zhilian; Wei, Fang; Wang, Jingfang; Wang, Wei; Ping, Yi
Objective Pelvic autonomic nerve preservation during radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer has become a priority in recent years. This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate laparoscopic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (L-NSRH) using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) in women with cervical cancer. Methods Patients with stage IB1 or IIA1 cervical cancer underwent L-NSRH with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The patients were randomly assigned to receive L-NSRH using a CUSA (CUSA group; n = 24) or using other techniques (non-CUSA group; n = 21). Recovery of bladder function (indwelling catheter time and time to spontaneous voiding) blood loss, duration of hospital stay, lymph node harvesting, and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups. Patients were followed for up to 3 years to determine the maintenance of effect. Results All patients underwent L-NSRH successfully. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less in the CUSA than in the non-CUSA group (P = 0.005). Length of hospital stay (P = 0.006) and indwelling catheter time (P = 0.008) were both significantly reduced in the CUSA group compared with that in the non-CUSA group. The spontaneous voiding rate 10 days postoperatively was 95.8% with CUSA and 85.7% with non-CUSA techniques. Two patients developed postoperative complications in the CUSA group as did 3 patients in the non-CUSA group. These were cases of lymphocyst formation or urinary tract infection. Conclusions Laparoscopic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy using CUSA was safe and feasible in patients with cervical cancer. Our results provide initial evidence that L-NSRH using CUSA preserves pelvic autonomic nerve function. PMID:26807637
Del Rio, Paolo; Bertocchi, Elisa; Madoni, Cristiana; Viani, Lorenzo; Dell'Abate, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario
Laparoscopic surgery developed continuously over the past years becoming the gold standard for some surgical interventions. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is well established as a safe and feasible procedure to treat benign and malignant pathologies. In this paper we studied in deep the role of laparoscopic right colectomy analysing the indications to this surgical procedure and the factors related to the conversion from laparoscopy to open surgery. We described the different surgical techniques of laparoscopic right colectomy comparing extra to intracorporeal anastomosis and we pointed out the different ways to access to the abdomen (multiport VS single incision). The indications for laparoscopic right colectomy are benign (inflammatory bowel disease and rare right colonic diverticulitis) and malignant diseases (right colon cancer and appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasm): we described the good outcomes of laparoscopic right colectomy in all these illnesses. Laparoscopic conversion rates in right colectomy are reported as 12-16%; we described the different type of risk factors related to open conversion: patient-related, disease-related and surgeon-related factors, procedural factors and intraoperative complications. We conclude that laparoscopic right colectomy is considered superior to open surgery in the shortterm outcomes without difference in long-term outcomes.
Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo
Surgical site infection (SSI), particularly organ/space SSI, remains a clinically important issue even after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to identify specific clinical and surgical factors associated with organ/space SSI after LG. This was a retrospective study of 407 patients who underwent LG for clinical stage I GC. SSI was defined according to the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. The incidence and treatment outcomes of either incisional or organ/space SSI after LG were examined, and the risk factors for each type of SSI were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Organ/space SSI was observed in 21 patients (5.2 %), while incisional SSI was detected in 18 patients (4.4 %). Although no mortality was observed, the occurrence of either incisional or organ/space SSI significantly prolonged postoperative hospital stays (p = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively); however, organ/space SSI required more re-operations and re-admissions, and eventually longer total hospital stays than incisional SSI (p = 0.036). Intra-abdominal abscess around the pancreas was the main cause of organ/space SSI, while no anastomotic leakage was observed. Multivariate analyses identified male gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.385; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.073-15.07, p = 0.037), chronic liver disease (OR 8.897; 95 % CI 2.502-28.99, p = 0.001), and total gastrectomy (TG) (OR 3.817; 95 % CI 1.380-10.24, p = 0.011) as independent risk factors for organ/space SSI, while TG (OR 3.130; 95 % CI 1.102-8.768, p = 0.033) and operation time ≥320 min (OR 3.732; 95 % CI 1.109-16.98, p = 0.033) were independently associated with incisional SSI. Male gender, chronic liver disease, and TG are independent risk factors for organ/space SSI after LG for GC; thus, meticulous surgical procedures need to be performed among patients with these specific risk factors.
Zimkowski, Michael M.
About 600,000 hernia repair surgeries are performed each year. The use of laparoscopic minimally invasive techniques has become increasingly popular in these operations. Use of surgical mesh in hernia repair has shown lower recurrence rates compared to other repair methods. However in many procedures, placement of surgical mesh can be challenging and even complicate the procedure, potentially leading to lengthy operating times. Various techniques have been attempted to improve mesh placement, including use of specialized systems to orient the mesh into a specific shape, with limited success and acceptance. In this work, a programmed novel Shape Memory Polymer (SMP) was integrated into commercially available polyester surgical meshes to add automatic unrolling and tissue conforming functionalities, while preserving the intrinsic structural properties of the original surgical mesh. Tensile testing and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was performed on four different SMP formulas to identify appropriate mechanical properties for surgical mesh integration. In vitro testing involved monitoring the time required for a modified surgical mesh to deploy in a 37°C water bath. An acute porcine model was used to test the in vivo unrolling of SMP integrated surgical meshes. The SMP-integrated surgical meshes produced an automated, temperature activated, controlled deployment of surgical mesh on the order of several seconds, via laparoscopy in the animal model. A 30 day chronic rat model was used to test initial in vivo subcutaneous biocompatibility. To produce large more clinical relevant sizes of mesh, a mold was developed to facilitate manufacturing of SMP-integrated surgical mesh. The mold is capable of manufacturing mesh up to 361 cm2, which is believed to accommodate the majority of clinical cases. Results indicate surgical mesh modified with SMP is capable of laparoscopic deployment in vivo, activated by body temperature, and possesses the necessary strength and
Gostlow, Hannah; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy
To examine and report on evidence relating to surgical trainees' voluntary participation in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. Specifically, the underlying motivators, enablers, and barriers faced by surgical trainees with regard to attending training sessions on a regular basis. A systematic search of the literature (PubMed; CINAHL; EMBASE; Cochrane Collaboration) was conducted between May and July 2015. Studies were included on whether they reported on surgical trainee attendance at voluntary, simulation-based laparoscopic skills training sessions, in addition to qualitative data regarding participant's perceived barriers and motivators influencing their decision to attend such training. Factors affecting a trainee's motivation were categorized as either intrinsic (internal) or extrinsic (external). Two randomised control trials and 7 case series' met our inclusion criteria. Included studies were small and generally poor quality. Overall, voluntary simulation-based laparoscopic skills training was not well attended. Intrinsic motivators included clearly defined personal performance goals and relevance to clinical practice. Extrinsic motivators included clinical responsibilities and available free time, simulator location close to clinical training, and setting obligatory assessments or mandated training sessions. The effect of each of these factors was variable, and largely dependent on the individual trainee. The greatest reported barrier to attending voluntary training was the lack of available free time. Although data quality is limited, it can be seen that providing unrestricted access to simulator equipment is not effective in motivating surgical trainees to voluntarily participate in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. To successfully encourage participation, consideration needs to be given to the factors influencing motivation to attend training. Further research, including better designed randomised control trials and large
Lombardo, Sarah; Baum, Kerry; Filho, Jorge DeAmorim; Nirula, Ram
Celiotomy is the most common approach for refractory small bowel obstruction (SBO). Small reviews suggest that a laparoscopic approach is associated with shorter stay and less morbidity. Given the limitations of previous studies, we sought to evaluate outcomes of laparoscopic (L) compared with open (O) adhesiolysis for SBO, using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. Patients from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005 to 2009 database who underwent surgery for SBO were stratified based on surgical approach. A propensity score to undergo L instead of O was calculated based on demographics, comorbidities, physiology, and laboratory values. Logistic regression was then used to determine differences in outcomes between those propensity score-matched patients who actually underwent L compared with O surgery. There were 6,762 patients who underwent adhesiolysis. The propensity score-matching process created 222 matched patients in L and O groups. Laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower rates of any complication (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.60), including superficial site infections (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.49), intraoperative transfusion (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.90), and shorter hospital stay (4 days vs. 10 days; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in operative time, rates of reoperation within 30 days, or mortality. Laparoscopic treatment of SBO is associated with lower rates of postoperative morbidity compared with laparotomy as well as shorter hospital stay. Laparoscopic treatment of surgical SBO is not associated with higher rates of early reoperation and seems to be associated with lower resource use. Therapeutic study, level IV.
Koishi, Takeshi; Ushiki, Suguru; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Hayashi, Hideki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi
We propose a new projector-based augmented reality (PBAR) system which can project the image of forceps and a surgical target simultaneously for support of laparoscopic surgery. A compensation method of an error arisen from motion of a body is also proposed to improve the quality of the projection images. It is shown that the system is significant for the forceps insertion by the experiments using the dry-box.
Connolly, T M; Foppa, C; Kazi, E; Denoya, P I; Bergamaschi, R
This study was performed to determine the impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) reduction strategy on SSI rates following colorectal resection. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data from 2006-14 were utilized and supplemented by institutional review board-approved chart review. The primary end-point was superficial and deep incisional SSI. The inclusion criterion was colorectal resection. The SSI reduction strategy consisted of preoperative (blood glucose, bowel preparation, shower, hair removal), intra-operative (prophylactic antibiotics, antimicrobial incisional drape, wound protector, wound closure technique) and postoperative (wound dressing technique) components. The SSI reduction strategy was prospectively implemented and compared with historical controls (pre-SSI strategy arm). Statistical analysis included Pearson's chi-square test, and Student's t-test performed with spss software. Of 1018 patients, 379 were in the pre-SSI strategy arm, 311 in the SSI strategy arm and 328 were included to test durability. The study arms were comparable for all measured parameters. Preoperative wound class, operation time, resection type and stoma creation did not differ significantly. The SSI strategy arm demonstrated a significant decrease in overall SSI rates (32.19% vs 18.97%) and superficial SSI rates (23.48% vs 8.04%). Deep SSI and organ space rates did not differ. A review of patients testing durability demonstrated continued improvement in overall SSI rates (8.23%). The implementation of an SSI reduction strategy resulted in a 41% decrease in SSI rates following colorectal resection over its initial 3 years, and its durability as demonstrated by continuing improvement was seen over an additional 2 years. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Essadi, Ismail; Sbitti, Yassir; Fetohi, Mohamed; Slimani, Khaoula Alaoui; Essadi, Meryam; Tazi, Elmehdi; Ichou, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan
Background The management of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer can be understood only as part of a multidisciplinary strategy. Progress experienced by medical treatment, surgical techniques and ways of imaging, has improved the prognosis of patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancers. This work displays the experience of Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, 60 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer, synchronous or metachronous were supported in the Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Results Liver metastases were synchronous in 41 (68%) patients and metachronous in 19 (32%). Patients were classified into 3 categories according to their resectability: 14 (22%) were resectable at the outset, 28 (47%) were unresectable and 18 (31%) were considered uncertain resectability. Thirty-five patients (58%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgical gesture, 25 (42%) received chemotherapy after resection of primary tumor. This chemotherapy enabled the resection of liver metastases in 5 patients initially deemed uncertain resectability. The average objective responses to chemotherapy were in the range of 59% with 4 complete responses and one confirmed histologically. Twenty-three patients (38%) underwent surgery including 15 liver resections with R0 (25%). The median progression-free survival in this series was 15.5 months. Some minor side effects were noted, which have not entered the prognosis of patients. Conclusions Hepatic resection remains the only potentially curative treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancers. Perioperative chemotherapy is a promising standard, which has improved the prognosis of patients historically associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:27942326
A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial to assess the safety, ease of use, and reliability of hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose powder adhesion barrier versus no barrier in colorectal laparoscopic surgery.
Berdah, Stéphane V; Mariette, Christophe; Denet, Christine; Panis, Yves; Laurent, Christophe; Cotte, Eddy; Huten, Nöel; Le Peillet Feuillet, Eliane; Duron, Jean-Jacques
Intra-peritoneal adhesions are frequent following abdominal surgery and are the most common cause of small bowel obstructions. A hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) film adhesion barrier has been shown to reduce adhesion formation in abdominal surgery. An HA/CMC powder formulation was developed for application during laparoscopic procedures. This was an exploratory, prospective, randomised, single-blind, parallel-group, Phase IIIb, multicentre study conducted at 15 hospitals in France to assess the safety of HA/CMC powder versus no adhesion barrier following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Subjects ≥18 years of age who were scheduled for colorectal laparoscopy (Mangram contamination class I‒III) within 8 weeks of selection were eligible, regardless of aetiology. Participants were randomised 1:1 to the HA/CMC powder or no adhesion barrier group using a centralised randomisation list. Patients assigned to HA/CMC powder received a single application of 1 to 10 g on adhesion-prone areas. In the no adhesion barrier group, no adhesion barrier or placebo was applied. The primary safety assessments were the incidence of adverse events, serious adverse events, and surgical site infections (SSIs) for 30 days following surgery. Between-group comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test. Of those randomised to the HA/CMC powder (n = 105) or no adhesion barrier (n = 104) groups, one patient in each group discontinued prior to the study end (one death in each group). Adverse events were more frequent in the HA/CMC powder group versus the no adhesion barrier group (63% vs. 39%; P <0.001), as were serious adverse events (28% vs. 11%; P <0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the HA/CMC powder group and the no adhesion barrier group in SSIs (21% vs. 14%; P = 0.216) and serious SSIs (12% vs. 9%; P = 0.38), or in the most frequent serious SSIs of pelvic abscess (5% and 2%; significance not tested), anastomotic fistula (3% and 4%), and
Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Okumura, Motohiro; Ishizone, Satoshi; Suga, Tomoaki; Miyagawa, Shinichi
The existence of other primary tumors during the treatment and management of gastric cancer (GC) is an important issue. The present study investigated the prevalence and management of synchronous colorectal neoplasms (CRN) in surgically treated GC patients. Of 381 surgically treated GC patients, 332 (87.1%) underwent colonoscopy to detect CRN before surgery or within a year after surgery. CRN were synchronously observed in 140 patients (42.2%). Adenoma was observed in 131 patients (39.4%). Endoscopic resection was done in 18 patients with adenoma. Colorectal cancer (CRC) was observed in 16 patients (4.8%), superficial CRC in 13 and advanced CRC in three patients. Endoscopic resection of superficial CRC was carried out in seven patients, whereas simultaneous surgical resection of CRC was done in nine patients. CRN were more frequently observed in men. CRC was more frequently observed in GC patients with distant metastasis, albeit without significance. The overall survival of GC patients with CRN or CRC was poorer than that of patients without CRN or CRC. Synchronous CRN were commonly associated with GC and screening colonoscopy should be offered to patients with GC. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Wiseman, Michael C
The Mozart Effect is a phenomenon whereby certain pieces of music induce temporary enhancement in "spatial temporal reasoning." To determine whether the Mozart Effect can improve surgical performance, 55 male volunteers (mean age = 20.6 years, range = 16-27), novice to surgery, were timed as they completed an activity course on a laparoscopic simulator. Subjects were then randomized for exposure to 1 of 2 musical pieces by Mozart (n = 21) and Dream Theater (n = 19), after which they repeated the course. Following a 15-minute exposure to a nonmusical piece, subjects were exposed to one of the pieces and performed the activity course a third time. An additional group (n = 15) that was not corandomized performed the tasks without any exposure to music. The percent improvements in completion time between 3 successive trials were calculated for each subject and group means compared. In 2 of the tasks, subjects exposed to the Dream Theater piece achieved approximately 30% more improvement (26.7 ± 8.3%) than those exposed to the Mozart piece (20.2 ± 7.8%, P = .021) or to no music (20.4 ± 9.1%, P = .049). Distinct patterns of covariance between baseline performance and subsequent improvement were observed for the different musical conditions and tasks. The data confirm the existence of a Mozart Effect and demonstrate for the first time its practical applicability. Prior exposure to certain pieces may enhance performance in practical skills requiring spatial temporal reasoning.
Carracedo, D; López-Fando, L; Sánchez, M D; Jiménez, M Á; Gómez, J M; Laso, I; Rodríguez, M Á; Burgos, F J
The objective of this study is to compare direct costs of repairing pelvic organ prolapse by laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LS) against vaginal mesh (VM). Our hypothesis is the correction of pelvic organ prolapse by LS has a similar cost per procedure compared to VM. We made a retrospective comparative analysis of medium cost per procedure of first 69 consecutive LS versus first 69 consecutive VM surgeries. We calculate direct cost for each procedure: structural outlays, personal, operating room occupation, hospital stay, perishable or inventory material and prosthetic material. Medium cost per procedure were calculated for each group, with a 95% confidence interval. LS group has a higher cost related to a longer length of surgery, higher operating room occupation and anesthesia; VM group has a higher cost due to longer hospital stay and more expensive prosthetic material. Globally, LS has a lower medium cost per procedure in comparison to VM (5,985.7 €±1,550.8 € vs. 6,534.3 €±1,015.5 €), although it did not achieve statistical signification. In our midst, pelvic organ prolapse surgical correction by LS has at least similar cost per procedure compared to VM. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ruangsin, Sakchai; Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Mahattanobon, Somrit
A prophylactic antibiotic is recommended in open cholecystectomy surgeries, but in laparoscopic cholecystectomies such prophylaxis is controversial. Recent reviews have not found conclusive evidence that routine prophylaxis, especially in low risk patients, is effective. This clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of cefazolin in reducing surgical site infection SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomies in a sample not screened for high or low risk patients. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in a single university hospital. Scheduled cholecystectomy patients without selection for patient risk factors were randomized into two groups. Pre-operatively, group A patients received a placebo of 10 ml isotonic sodium chloride, and group B patients received 1 g of cefazolin as a prophylactic antibiotic. All patients underwent a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and were followed up for at least 30 days. Two hundred ninety-nine patients were randomized (149 in group A and 150 in group B). SSI occurred in seven patients (2.34 %), five (1.67 %) in the placebo group, and two (0.67 %) in the prophylactic antibiotic group. The difference was not statistically significant (p value = 0.512), and no specific risk factors for post-operative infection were identified. A single dose of preoperative prophylactic cefazolin has no significant benefit in reducing the incidence of SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Whether or not to use a prophylactic depends on the individual patient, and the consideration of the attending surgeon.
Garcia-Segui, A; Angulo, J C
Open adenomectomy (OA) is the surgery of choice for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia, and laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) represents a minimally invasive alternative. We present a long-term, prospective study comparing both techniques. The study consecutively included 199 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate volumes>80g who were followed for more than 12 months. The patients underwent OA (n=97) or LA (n=102). We recorded and compared demographic and perioperative data, functional results and complications using a descriptive statistical analysis. The mean age was 69.2±7.7 years (range 42-87), and the mean prostate volume (measured by TRUS) was 112.1±32.7mL (range 78-260). There were no baseline differences among the groups in terms of age, ASA scale, prostate volume, PSA levels, Qmax, IPSS, QoL or treatments prior to the surgery. The surgical time (P<.0001) and catheter time (P<.0002) were longer in the LA group. Operative bleeding (P<.0001), transfusion rate (P=.0015) and mean stay (P<.0001) were significantly lower in the LA group. The LA group had a lower rate of complications (P=.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of major complications (Clavien score≥3) (P=.13) or in the rate of late complications (at one year) (P=.66). There were also no differences between the groups in the functional postoperative results: IPSS (P=.17), QoL (P=.3) and Qmax (P=.17). LA is a reasonable, safe and effective alternative that results in less bleeding, fewer transfusions, shorter hospital stays and lower morbidity than OA. LA has similar functional results to OA, at the expense of longer surgical times and longer catheter times. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Albanese, Alice; Prevedello, Luca; Verdi, Daunia; Nitti, Donato; Vettor, Roberto
Introduction: Laparoscopic gastric plication (LGCP) reduces gastric volume without resecting or implanting a foreign body. Although still considered investigational, it could be appropriate for young patients with a low body mass index (BMI) and for those unwilling to undergo sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, or bypass. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the mid-term results (2 years) of LGCP in terms of safety and efficacy. Methods: A total of 56 obese patients (47 female; mean age=30.5±11.7 years; mean BMI=40.31±4.7 kg/m2) were candidates for LGCP from January 2011 to October 2013. Early and late complications, BMI, and excess BMI loss (EBL) were prospectively recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months follow-up. Results: Mean operative time was 72.4±15.6 minutes. No conversion was required. Mean hospital stay was 3 days. Mean %EBL was 34.3±18.40%, 40.1±24.5%, 47.4±30.2%, 46.5±34.6%, 47.8±43.2%, and 55.3±53.6% at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. The overall complication rate was 32.14%. Perioperative mortality was zero. Surgical revision was needed in 30 patients: 12 for unsatisfactory weight loss and 18 for gastric prolapse (one acute within 30 days), respectively. Conclusion: LGCP showed high complication rates requiring surgical revision. PMID:26421246
Bokhari, S; Walsh, U; Qurashi, K; Liasis, L; Watfah, J; Sen, M; Gould, S
Introduction Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for 50% of the surgical workload, and yet outcomes are variable and poorly recorded. The management of acute cholecystitis (AC) at a dedicated emergency surgical unit (ESU) was assessed as a performance target for EGS. Methods The outcomes for AC admissions were compared one year before and after inception of the ESU. The impact on cost and compliance with national guidance recommending early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) within seven days of diagnosis was assessed. Results The overall ELC rate increased from 26% for the 126 patients admitted in the pre-ESU period to 45% for the 152 patients admitted in the post-ESU period (p=0.001). With those unsuitable for ELC excluded, the ELC rate increased from 34% to 82% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients precluded from ELC for avoidable reasons, particularly owing to ‘surgeon preference/skill’, was reduced from 69% to 18% (p<0.001). The mean total length of stay (LOS) and postoperative LOS fell by 1.7 days (from 8.3 to 6.6 days, p=0.040) and 2 days (from 5.6 to 3.6 days, p=0.020) respectively. The higher ELC rate and the reduction in LOS produced additional tariff income (£111,930) and estimated savings in bed day (£90,440) and readmission (£27,252) costs. Conclusions A dedicated ESU incorporating national recommendations for EGS improves alignment of best practice with best evidence and can also result in financial rewards for a busy district general hospital. PMID:26673047
Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Prieto-Puga Arjona, Tatiana; García-Albiach, Beatriz; Montiel-Casado, María Custodia; González-Sánchez, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Titos-García, Alberto; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio
To compare the incidence and profile of surgical site infection (SSI) after laparoscopic (LA) or open (OA) appendicectomy. Observational and analytical study was conducted on patients older than 14years-old with suspected acute appendicitis operated on within a 4-year period (2007-2010) at a third level hospital (n=868). They were divided in two groups according to the type of appendicectomy (LA, study group, 135; OA, control group, 733). The primary endpoint was a surgical site infection (SSI), and to determine the overall rate and types (incisional/organ-space). The risk of SSI was stratified by: i)National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) index (low risk: 0E, 0 and 1; high risk: 2 and 3); ii)status on presentation (low risk: normal or phlegmonous; high risk: gangrenous or perforated). The statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS. The main result and stratified analysis was determined with χ(2), and the risk parameters using OR and Mantel-Haenszel OR with 95%CI, accepting statistical significance with P<.05. Age, gender, ASA index and incidence of advanced cases were similar in both groups. The overall SSI rate was 13.4% (more than a half of them detected during follow-up after discharge). Type of SSI: OA, 13% (superficial 9%, deep 2%, organ-space 2%); AL, 14% (superficial 5%, deep 1%, organ-space 8%) (overall: not significant; distribution: P<.000). Stratified analysis showed that there is an association between incisional SSI/OA and organ-space SSI/LA, and is particularly stronger in those patients with high risk of postoperative SSI (high risk NNIS or gangrenous-perforated presentation). OA and LA are associated with a higher rate of incisional and organ-space SSI respectively. This is particularly evident in patients with high risk of SSI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Fedelini, Paolo; Verze, Paolo; Meccariello, Clemente; Arcaniolo, Davide; Taglialatela, Domenico; Mirone, Vincenzo G
To describe and analyze a single surgical team's experience with intraoperative and postoperative complications arising from the Anderson-Hynes transperitoneal laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) procedure in the treatment of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). There were 236 consecutive patients who underwent transperitoneal LP over a period of 8 years (2004-2012). These patients' records were retrospectively analyzed for intraoperative and postoperative complications. Of the 236 patients, 111 (47.0%) were males and 125 (53%) were females. In 226 patients, surgical indication was primary UPJO, and in 10 patients, recurrent obstruction. Two hundred and eleven patients (89.4%) were symptomatic. Mean operative time was 96.5 minutes (range 45-360 min). The mean blood loss was 20 mL (range 5-500 mL), and no blood transfusions were necessary. The overall success rate was 97% (229 patients) with a mean follow-up of 38 months (range 6-84 mos). In 86 of the 94 patients who presented with a crossing vessel (91.5%), the anomalous crossing vessel was transposed to the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) dorsally because of evident obstruction. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.2 days (range 3-14 days). All 211 preoperative symptomatic patients reported a complete resolution of symptoms after the procedure. Intraoperative incidents occurred in nine (3.8%) patients, while postoperative complications occurred in 32 (13.5%) patients. Our retrospective analysis confirms that LP is an efficacious and safe procedure resulting in a reported success rate of 97% and a concomitant low level of intraoperative (3.8%) and postoperative complications (13.6%). Major complications necessitating active management occur in a low percentage of cases (5.9% of patients). The most frequent and severe intraoperative complications are related to the Double-J stent insertion. The most common postoperative complication is urine leakage.
Ganni, Sandeep; Botden, Sanne M B I; Schaap, Dennis P; Verhoeven, Bas H; Goossens, Richard H M; Jakimowicz, Jack J
To establish whether a systematized approach to self-assessment in a laparoscopic surgical skills course improves accordance between expert- and self-assessment. A systematic training course in self-assessment using Competency Assessment Tool was introduced into the normal course of evaluation within a Laparoscopic Surgical Skills training course for the test group (n = 30). Differences between these and a control group (n = 30) who did not receive the additional training were assessed. Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (n = 27), and GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, India (n = 33). Sixty postgraduate year 2 and 3 surgical residents who attended the 2-day Laparoscopic Surgical Skills grade 1 level 1 curriculum were invited to participate. The test group (n = 30) showed better accordance between expert- and self-assessment (difference of 1.5, standard deviation [SD] = 0.2 versus 3.83, SD = 0.6, p = 0.009) as well as half the number (7 versus 14) of cases of overreporting. Furthermore, the test group also showed higher overall mean performance (mean = 38.1, SD = 0.7 versus mean = 31.8, SD = 1.0, p < 0.001) than the control group (n = 30). The systematic approach to self-assessment can be viewed as responsible for this and can be seen as "reflection-before-practice" within the framework of reflective practice as defined by Donald Schon. Our results suggest that "reflection-before-practice" in implementing self-assessment is an important step in the development of surgical skills, yielding both better understanding of one's strengths and weaknesses and also improving overall performance. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in SurgeryThe Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cope, Daron H; Fenton-Lee, Douglas
Selection for surgical training in Australia is currently based on assessment of a structured curriculum vitae, referral reports from selected clinicians and an interview. The formal assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skill and ability to attain skills is not currently a prerequisite for selection. The aim of this study was to assess the innate psychomotor skills of interns and also to compare interns with an interest in pursuing a surgical career to interns with those with no interest in pursuing a surgical career. Twenty-two interns were given the opportunity to carry out tasks on the Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice, Gothenburg, Sweden) Simulator. The candidates were required to complete six tasks, repeated six times each. Scores for each task were calculated objectively by the simulator software. Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Although some candidates who were interested in pursuing a surgical career performed poorly on the simulator, there was no significant difference when comparing the two groups. The Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice) Simulator provides an objective and comparable assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills. We can conclude that interns have varying inherent ability as judged by the simulator and this does not seem to have an influence on their career selection. There was no significant difference in the scores between the two groups. Interns with and without inherent abilities have aspirations to pursue surgical careers and their aptitude does not seem to influence this decision. Surgical colleges could use psychomotor ability assessments to recruit candidates to pursue a career in surgery. Trainees needing closer monitoring and additional training could be identified early and guided to achieve competency.
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Shen, Dijian; Ye, Huan; Wang, Yuedong; Ji, Yun; Zhan, Xiaoli; Zhu, Jinhui
Laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP) is a novel restrictive bariatric procedure that can reduce the gastric volume by infolding the gastric greater curvature without gastrectomy. The objective of this study was to describe the surgical technique of LGCP and validate the efficacy and safety of LGCP for the treatment of obesity in obese Chinese patients with a relatively low body mass index (BMI). Twenty-two obese patients (mean age 33.8±6.0 years; mean BMI 37.0±7.0 kg/m(2)) underwent LGCP between September 2011 and September 2012. After dissecting the greater omentum and short gastric vessels, the gastric greater curvature plication with 2 rows of nonabsorbable suture was performed under the guidance of a 32-F bougie. The data were collected during follow-up examinations performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. All procedures were performed laparoscopically. The mean operative time was 84.1 minutes (50-120 min), and the mean length of hospital stay was 3.8 days (2-10 d). There were no deaths or postoperative major complications that needed reoperation. The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was 22.9%±6.9%, 38.6%±9.8%, 51.5%±13.5%, and 61.1%±15.9% at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. At 6 months, type 2 diabetes was in remission in 2 (50%) patients, hypertension in 1 (33.3%) patient, and dyslipidemia in 11 (78.6%) patients. Decreases in the index for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and in insulin and glucose concentrations were observed. The early outcomes of LGCP as a novel treatment for obese Chinese with a relatively low BMI are satisfactory with respect to the effectiveness and low incidence of major complications. Additional long-term follow-up and prospective, comparative trials are still needed. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.
Antal, András; Kovács, Zoltán; Szász, Krisztina
Organ anomalies and organ system transposition may cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. We report a patient with situs inversus totalis and symptomatic cholelithiasis successfully treated via laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a laparoscopic and MR cholangiographic pictures of our patient with gallbladder agenesis.
Munakata, Koji; Uemura, Mamoru; Shimizu, Junzo; Miyake, Masakazu; Hata, Taishi; Ikeda, Kimimasa; Dono, Keizo; Kitada, Masashi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki
Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of single incisional transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy (TULAA). We developed a modified TULAA technique, gasless-TULAA, which involves lifting the abdominal wall with a retractor, without pneumoperitoneum or another incision. We assessed the surgical outcomes of 257 patients treated for appendicitis in our hospital between 2005 and 2013. In a preoperative comprehensive evaluation, appendicitis without abscess was defined as mild appendicitis (mild appendicitis group: MAG), and appendicitis with abscess was defined as severe appendicitis (severe appendicitis group: SAG). The clinical outcomes were compared with those in other published reports. The cost-effectiveness of gasless-TULAA was compared with that of conventional multiport laparoscopic appendectomy (CMLA) in our hospital. In MAG (n = 228), the operation time and postoperative hospital stay were 46.9 ± 22.7 min and 2.6 ± 1.2 days, respectively. The gasless-TULAA was completed without trocars in 91.2 % of patients. The surgical outcomes of SAG were significantly worse than those of MAG (p < 0.001). The surgical cost of gasless-TULAA was significantly lower than that of CMLA (p < 0.001). Gasless-TULAA is a cost-effective, safe, and readily available surgical technique for mild appendicitis, which can obviate the need for specialized equipment.
Harada, Hitoshi; Kanaji, Shingo; Nishi, Masayasu; Otake, Yoshito; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Matsuda, Takeru; Oshikiri, Taro; Sumi, Yasuo; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshinobu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro
Recently to improve depth perception, the performance of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgeries has increased. However, the effects of laparoscopic training using 3D are still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of using a 3D monitor among novices in the early phase of training. Participants were 40 novices who had never performed laparoscopic surgery (20 medical students and 20 junior residents). Three laparoscopic phantom tasks (task 1: touching markers on a flat disk with a rod; task 2: straight rod transfer through a single loop; and task 3: curved rod transfer through two loops) in the training box were performed ten times, respectively. Performances were recorded by an optical position tracker. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: one group performed each task five times initially under a 2D system (2D start group), and the other group performed each task five times under a 3D system (3D start group). Both groups then performed the same task five times. After the trial, we evaluated the performance scores (operative time, path length of forceps, and technical errors) and the learning curves for both groups. Scores for all tasks performed under the 3D system were significantly better than scores for tasks using the 2D system. Scores for each task in the 2D start group improved after switching to the 3D system. However, scores for each task in the 3D start group were worse after switching to the 2D system, especially scores related to technical errors. The stereoscopic vision improved laparoscopic surgical techniques of novices from the early phase of training. However, the performance of novices trained only by 3D worsened by changing to the 2D environment.
Ragupathi, Madhu; Haas, Eric M
Designing a successful robotic colorectal program requires consideration and implementation of several important concepts with continued perseverance through many obstacles that may arise. The ideal strategy is to establish a core group of committed individuals, define the goals and vision of the program, enlist corporate partners, and gain financial support with a sound business, educational, and research plan. Factors such as cost, limited availability, and demanding training are often hindrances to the implementation of a new robotic colorectal program while scheduling conflicts and inadequate resources may present obstacles to developing a colorectal program in institutions with existing robotic surgical programs. In developing a business plan one should consider the potential for increased patient referrals and the benefits of reduced hospital stay, decreased infection and complication rates, and quicker recovery compared with open surgical procedures. The optimal robotics surgical staff will include those most eager to be trained, as they are highly motivated and have the greatest enthusiasm to succeed. The early foundation of accomplishment will be vital to the long-term success of the program. In addition to building the ideal surgical team, patient selection is one of the most crucial considerations in developing a successful robotics program. Initiating a positive impression for robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal procedures will be an important precursor to continued success. Likewise, maintaining a regular schedule of procedures may advance the team's competencies and deter complacency. Proper planning, deliberate implementation, and sustained perseverance are key to the successful initiation of a robotic colorectal program.
Characteristics of positive surgical margins in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, open retropubic radical prostatectomy, and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a comparative histopathologic study from a single academic center.
Albadine, Roula; Hyndman, Matthew E; Chaux, Alcides; Jeong, J Y; Saab, Shahrazad; Tavora, Fabio; Epstein, Jonathan I; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J
Studies detailing differences in positive surgical margin among open retropubic radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are lacking. A retrospective review of all prostatectomies with positive surgical margin performed at our center in 2007 disclosed 99 cases, 6 (5%) of which were reinterpreted cases as having negative margins. Ninety-three cases were, therefore, included, corresponding to 37 retropubic radical prostatectomies, 19 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies, and 37 robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. The relationship of positive surgical margin characteristics to clinicopathologic parameters and biochemical recurrence was assessed. The most commonly found positive surgical margin site was the apex/distal third in all groups (62% retropubic prostatectomies, 79% laparoscopic prostatectomies, 60% robotic-assisted prostatectomies). Total linear length of positive surgical margin sites was significantly correlated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen, preoperative prostate-specific antigen density, pT stage, and tumor volume (P ≤ .001). We found no significant differences among the 3 groups with respect to total linear length, number of foci, laterality, or location of positive surgical margin. The rate of biochemical recurrence was also comparable in the 3 groups. On univariate analyses, biochemical recurrence was significantly associated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen values, preoperative prostate-specific antigen density, Gleason score, number of positive surgical margins, and total linear length of positive surgical margin (P ≤ .02). Only preoperative prostate-specific antigen density and number of positive surgical margin foci were statistically significant (P ≤ .03) independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. We found no significant difference in positive surgical margin characteristics or biochemical recurrence among the 3
Esteban, F; Cerdan, F J; Garcia-Alonso, M; Sanz-Lopez, R; Arroyo, A; Ramirez, J M; Moreno, C; Morales, R; Navarro, A; Fuentes, M
The introduction of multimodal or fast track (FT) rehabilitation and laparoscopy in colorectal surgery has improved patient recovery and shortened hospital stay (HS). This study aimed to determine the influence of laparoscopic or open surgery on the postoperative recovery of colorectal cancer patients having a conventional care (CC) or FT protocol in the postoperative period. A multicentre prospective study was controlled with a retrospective group. The prospective group included 300 patients having elective colorectal resection for cancer. The retrospective control group included 201 patients with the same characteristics who were treated before the introduction of the programme. The patients were divided into four groups including laparoscopy + FT, open surgery + FT, laparoscopy + CC, and open surgery + CC. The primary end-points were HS and morbidity. Secondary end-points included mortality and reoperation rates. The overall median HS was 7 days. The median HS for laparoscopy + FT was 5 days, open + FT 6 days, laparoscopy + CC 9 days and open + CC 10 days (P < 0.001). In the regression model the laparoscopy + FT group had the greatest reduction in HS (P < 0.001). A significant reduction in HS was observed in the laparoscopy + FT group compared with laparoscopy + CC (P < 0.001). The overall patient morbidity was 30.6%. The logistic regression model adjusted for propensity score showed no statistically significant differences between the study groups regarding all other end-points. Colorectal cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery within a multimodal rehabilitation protocol experienced the shortest HS and the lowest morbidity. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Edelman, David A; Mattos, Mark A; Bouwman, David L
Few data are available describing the benefits of initiating fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) training during medical school. We hypothesized that an intense 1-month surgical skills elective that included FLS task training for fourth-year medical students (MS4s) would result in performance levels indistinguishable from graduating chief residents (PGY5) who had received clinical skill training and access to self-guided FLS curriculum. From July 2007 through June 2011, 114 MS4s participated in a 1-month advanced surgical skills elective. The curriculum for the elective included cadaver dissections, patient management presentations, and surgical skill training (open surgical skills and basic laparoscopic skills modules performed on FLS trainers and virtual reality laparoscopic simulators). From June 2009 through June 2011, 21 PGY5s graduated who had never received formalized FLS skills training. These residents were tested on FLS by a certified proctor and the results recorded. The performance outcome measure was task completion time. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare the performance measures for each group. All PGY5s achieved FLS certification on their first attempt and completed enough cases for graduation. The MS4 group showed significantly better performance than the PGY5 group in the peg transfer and circle cut (P < 0.05). No difference was seen in the knot tying tasks between the two groups (P > 0.05) Incorporating FLS training into a 1 month-long medical school surgery elective enabled MS4s to achieve FLS performance similar to, or better than, the performance achieved by PGY5 surgery residents. We support the integration of FLS skills task training as a standard part of the skills training curriculum for medical students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McKenny, M; O'Malley, C; Mehigan, B; McCormick, P; Dowd, N
Morbidity after colorectal surgery can be reduced with intraoperative oesophageal Doppler monitor (ODM) guided fluid therapy. We audited the effect of introducing ODM-guided fluid therapy in enhanced recovery laparoscopic colorectal surgery. ODM group (n = 40) outcomes (toleration of diet, Post Operative Morbidity Survery (POMS) score, complications) were compared to matched patients (n = 40) who had the same surgery using a conventional approach to fluid management. Mean (SD) time to tolerate diet was shorter in the ODM group (2.3 (1.6) days vs 3.8 (2.4) days, p = 0.003). The ODM group had a lower mean (SD) POMS score on post-operative day 1 (2 (1.4) vs 4 (1.1), p = 0.001), fewer postoperative complications (14 patients vs 20, p = 0.009) and a lower rate of unplanned critical care area admission (1 vs 6, p= 0.001). Introduction of intraoperative ODM-guided stroke volume optimization was associated with improved outcomes in patients undergoing enhanced recovery laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Hashimoto, Daniel A; Gomez, Ernest D; Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Khajuria, Ankur; Williams, Noel N; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh
Serious games have demonstrated efficacy in improving participation in surgical training activities, but studies have not yet demonstrated the effect of serious gaming on performance. This study investigated whether competitive training (CT) affects laparoscopic surgical performance. A total of 20 novices were recruited, and 18 (2 dropouts) were randomized into control or CT groups to perform 10 virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs). Competitiveness of each participant was assessed. The CT group members were informed they were competing to outperform one another for a prize; performance ranking was shown before each session. The control group did not compete. Performance was assessed on time, movements, and instrument path length. Quality of performance was assessed with a global rating scale score. There were no significant intergroup differences in baseline skill or measured competitiveness. Time and global rating scale score, at final LC, were not significantly different between groups; however, the CT group was significantly more dexterous than control and had significantly lower variance in number of movements and instrument path length at the final LC (p = 0.019). Contentiousness was inversely related to time in the CT group. This was the first randomized controlled trial to investigate if CT can enhance performance in laparoscopic surgery. CT may lead to improved dexterity in laparoscopic surgery but yields otherwise similar performance to that of standard training in novices. Competition may have different effects on novices vs experienced surgeons, and subsequent research should investigate CT in experienced surgeons as well. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nassour, Ibrahim; Polanco, Patricio M.
Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections. Laparoscopic liver surgery provides equivalent oncological outcomes with better perioperative results compared to open liver surgery. Robotic liver surgery has been introduced as it is believed to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopy. Finally, laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation and microwave coagulation can be used as adjuncts in minimally invasive surgery to complement or replace surgical resection when not possible. PMID:27570500
Nassour, Ibrahim; Polanco, Patricio M
Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections. Laparoscopic liver surgery provides equivalent oncological outcomes with better perioperative results compared to open liver surgery. Robotic liver surgery has been introduced as it is believed to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopy. Finally, laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation and microwave coagulation can be used as adjuncts in minimally invasive surgery to complement or replace surgical resection when not possible.
Hussan, Hisham; Gray, Darrell M; Hinton, Alice; Krishna, Somashekar G; Conwell, Darwin L; Stanich, Peter P
Morbid obesity (Basic Mass Index ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) leads to increased long-term mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Little is known about its effects on peri-operative CRC surgery outcomes. 85,300 discharges for CRC surgery were identified using the redesigned 2012 National Inpatient Sample. Outcomes of interest were mortality, healthcare charges, and surgical outcomes in morbidly obese patients which were compared to those in nonobese patients. There were 4385 (5.14%) morbidly obese patients who underwent CRC surgery during the study period. Morbid obesity was associated with younger age, females, and African Americans in our study (p < 0.05). Morbidly obese patients had higher prevalence of CRC peri-operative co-morbidities, surgical complications, and conversions from laparoscopic to open surgery. On multivariate analysis, morbid obesity led to an increased CRC surgery peri-operative mortality (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.15, 2.97). Mortality remained significant even after adjusting for surgical complications (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.12, 2.88). Morbidly obese patients undergoing CRC also had a prolonged length of hospitalization (1.22 day, 95 % CI 0.67, 1.78), a $15,582 increase in total hospital charges (95 % CI 8419, 22,745), and increased disposition to short-term rehabilitation facilities (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.79, 2.84). Analysis of national level data demonstrates that morbidly obese patients have an increased CRC surgery peri-operative mortality with higher prevalence of co-morbidities, surgical complications, and more health care resource utilization. Future research efforts should concentrate on ameliorating these outcomes in morbidly obese patients.
Shabino, Patrick J; Khoraki, Jad; Elegbede, Anuoluwapo F; Schmocker, Ryan K; Nabozny, Michael J; Funk, Luke M; Greenberg, Jacob A; Campos, Guilherme M
Circular stapled gastrojejunostomy (GJ) is favored by many surgeons during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). However, it has been associated with higher rates of surgical site infection (SSI). To study the impact of introducing standard technical modifications (intervention) on the incidence of SSI after LRYGB with circular stapled GJ. Tertiary academic medical center. Consecutive patients who underwent primary LRYGB between May 2010 and September 2014 were separated into preintervention and postintervention cohorts. The intervention consisted of the use of a stapler cover, wound irrigation, antibiotic application to the wound, and primary wound closure. Predictor variables studied included patient demographic characteristics, the intervention, and other operative and perioperative factors. The primary outcome studied was SSI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine factors independently associated with SSI. Three hundred thirty patients underwent LRYGB (preintervention n = 200, postintervention n = 130). Patients' characteristics were similar in both groups. A 21-mm stapler and chlorhexidine-based skin preparation were more frequently used in the postintervention group. SSI rate decreased from 15% to 3.8% (P<.01) after the intervention. On multivariate analysis, the intervention (OR .28, 95% CI .09-0.86, P = .026), use of chlorhexidine-based prep (OR .37, 95%CI .15-.93, P = .034), and maintenance of patient temperature (OR .47 95%CI .26-0.85, P = .012) were independently associated with reduced SSI rates. Use of a stapler cover, wound irrigation, wound antibiotic application, and primary wound closure were associated with a significantly lower wound infection rate after LRYGB with the circular stapled GJ. The observed SSI rates after our intervention are similar to those reported after hand-sewn and linear stapled techniques. In addition, other factors associated with decreasing the likelihood of developing SSI were use of
Jimbo, Takahiro; Ieiri, Satoshi; Obata, Satoshi; Uemura, Munenori; Souzaki, Ryota; Matsuoka, Noriyuki; Katayama, Tamotsu; Masumoto, Kouji; Hashizume, Makoto; Taguchi, Tomoaki
We developed and validated a specific laparoscopic fundoplication simulator for use with the objective endoscopic surgical skills evaluation system. The aim of this study was to verify the quality of skills of surgeons. We developed a 1-year-old infant body model based on computed tomography data and reproduced pneumoperitoneum model based on the clinical situation. The examinees were divided into three groups: fifteen pediatric surgery experts (PSE), twenty-four pediatric surgery trainees (PSN), and ten general surgeons (GS). They each had to perform three sutures ligatures for construction of Nissen wrap. Evaluate points are time for task, the symmetry of the placement of the sutures, and the uniformity of the interval of suture ligatures in making wrap. And the total path length and velocity of forceps were measured to assess bi-hand coordination. PSE were significantly superior to PSN regarding total time spent (p < 0.01) and total path length (p < 0.01). GS used both forceps faster than the other groups, and PSN used the right forceps faster than the left forceps (p < 0.05). PSE were shorter with regard to the total path length than GS (p < 0.01). PSE showed most excellent results in the symmetry of the wrap among three groups. Our new model was used useful to validate the characteristics between GS and pediatric surgeon. Both PSE and GS have excellent bi-hand coordination and can manipulate both forceps equally and had superior skills compared to PSN. In addition, PSE performed most compact and accurate skills in the conflicted operative space.
Suter, Michel; Donadini, Andrea; Calmes, Jean-Marie; Romy, Sébastien
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is one of the most commonly performed bariatric procedures for morbidly obese patients. It is associated with effective long-term weight loss, but can lead to significant complications, especially at the gastrojejunostomy (GJS). All the patients undergoing laparoscopic RYGBP at one of our two institutions were included in this study. The prospectively collected data were reviewed retrospectively for the purpose of this study, in which we compared two different techniques for the construction of the GJS and their effects on the incidence of complications. In group A, anastomosis was performed on the posterior aspect of the gastric pouch. In group B, it was performed across the staple line used to form the gastric pouch. A 21-mm circular stapler was used in all patients. A total of 1,128 patients were included between June 1999 and September 2009-639 in group A and 488 in group B. Sixty patients developed a total of 65 complications at the GJS, with 14 (1.2%) leaks, 42 (3.7%) strictures, and 9 (0.8%) marginal ulcers. Leaks (0.2% versus 2%, p = 0.005) and strictures (0.8% versus 5.9%, p < 0.0001) were significantly fewer in group B than in group A. Improved surgical technique, as we propose, with the GJS across the staple line used to form the gastric pouch, significantly reduces the rate of anastomotic complications at the GJS. A circular 21-mm stapler can be used with a low complication rate, and especially a low stricture rate. Additional methods to limit complications at the GJS are probably not routinely warranted.
Devassy, Rajesh; Gopalakrishnan, Sreelatha; De Wilde, Rudy Leon
The specialty of laparoscopy has evolved with the advent of new technologies over the last few years. Energy-based devices and Ultrasonic dissectors are used with a lot of factors in play-including ergonomics and economics during surgery. Here an attempt is based to review the surgical efficacy and safety of these dissectors with importance to plume production and lateral thermal damage. The factors contributing to adversities to the dissectors are also to be noted. The strategy adopted was aimed at finding relevant studies from PubMed from 1995 to 2014. The basic principle of plume production and thermal damage are studied in this review. Factors contributing to the same that can lead to adversities during laparoscopic surgeries are identified. Summarizing key points that increase lateral thermal damage and plume production amongst different ultrasonic shears and suggesting a technique to identify the right balance between the existing dissectors was possible. The RF Device and USS are both useful and widely used and are more safer than monopolar devices. RF Device is considerably slower than USS, as it cannot achieve coagulation and cutting at the same time. Although USS definitely improvises dissection and has less thermal injury than RF Device, the clinical implications in balancing dissection efficacy with hemostasis need to be investigated further. The ideal haemostatic energy-based shear device would be one with excellent hemostatic results and visual acuity while allowing none or minimal thermal energy escape at the point of application. In our current setting, a combined use of both RF and USS device usage as applied in the particular situations has potential.
Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Selvaggi, Francesco; Canonico, Silvestro
Surgical site events, including surgical site infections (SSI), represent a major problem in general surgery. SSI are responsible of nuisance for patients, and can lead to important complications and disability, often needing prolonged postoperative stay with specific treatment and recovery in Intensive Care Units. These justify the higher costs due to SSI. Despite the growing body of evidence concerning SSI in general surgery, literature dealing with SSI after colorectal surgery is scarce, reflecting in suboptimal perception of such a relevant issue by colorectal surgeons and health authorities in Italy, though colorectal surgery is associated with higher rates of SSI. The best strategy for reducing the impact of SSI on costs of care and patients quality of life would be the development of a preventive bundle, similar to that adopted in the US through the colorectal section of the National Surgery Quality Improvement Project of the American College of Surgeons (ACS-NSQIP). This policy has been showed to significantly reduce the rates of SSI. In this scenario, incisional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is likely to play a pivotal role. We herein reviewed the literature to report on the current status of preventive NPWT on surgical wounds of patients undergoing colorectal procedures with primary wound closure, suggesting evidence-based measures to reduce the impact of SSI, and to contain the costs associated with conventional NPWT devices by means of newer available technologies. Some explicative real life cases are presented.
Pendlimari, Rajesh; Cima, Robert R; Wolff, Bruce G; Pemberton, John H; Huebner, Marianne
Colorectal surgery is associated with high rates of surgical site infection (SSI). The National Surgery Quality Improvement Program is a validated, risk-adjusted quality-improvement program for surgical patients. Patient stratification and risk adjustment are associated with Current Procedural Terminology codes and primary disease diagnosis is not considered. Our aim was to determine the association between disease diagnosis and SSI rates. Data from all 2009 National Surgery Quality Improvement Program institutions were analyzed. ICD-9 codes were used to differentiate patients into cancer (colon or rectal), ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, diverticular disease, and others. Diagnosis-specific SSI rates were compared with benign neoplasm, which had the lowest rate (8.9%). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, wound type, and relative value unit. There were 24,673 colorectal procedures, with 1,956 superficial incisional (SSSI), 398 deep incisional (DSSI), and 1,096 organ/space (O/SSSI) infections. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals compared with benign neoplasm diagnosis were computed after adjustment for each diagnosis category. In rectal cancer patients, significantly more SSSI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1; p < 0.0001), DSSI (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; p = 0.006), and O/SSSI (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0; p < 0.0001) developed. In diverticular patients, more SSSI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0; p < 0.0001), but not DSSI or O/SSSI, developed. In ulcerative colitis patients, more DSSI (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; p = 0.01), O/SSSI (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1; p = 0.0004), but fewer SSSIs, developed. We found that SSI type is associated with the underlying disease diagnosis. To facilitate colorectal SSI-reduction efforts, the disease process must be considered to design appropriate interventions. In addition, institutional comparisons based on aggregate or stratified SSI rates
Kim, Yuhree; Winner, Megan; Page, Andrew; Tisnado, Diana M; Martinez, Kathryn A; Buettner, Stefan; Ejaz, Aslam; Spolverato, Gaya; Morss Dy, Sydney E; Pawlik, Timothy M
The objective of the current study was to characterize the prevalence of the expectation that surgical resection of lung or colorectal cancer might be curative. The authors sought to assess patient-level, tumor-level, and communication-level factors associated with the perception of cure. Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 3954 patients who underwent cancer-directed surgery for lung (30.3%) or colorectal (69.7%) cancer were identified from a population-based and health system-based survey of participants from multiple US regions. Approximately 80.0% of patients with lung cancer and 89.7% of those with colorectal cancer responded that surgery would cure their cancer. Even 57.4% and 79.8% of patients with stage IV lung and colorectal cancer, respectively, believed surgery was likely to be curative. On multivariable analyses, the odds ratio (OR) of the perception of curative intent was found to be higher among patients with colorectal versus lung cancer (OR, 2.27). Patients who were female, with an advanced tumor stage, unmarried, and having a higher number of comorbidities were less likely to believe that surgery would cure their cancer; educational level, physical function, and insurance status were not found to be associated with perception of cure. Patients who reported optimal physician communication scores (reference score, 0-80; score of 80-100 [OR, 1.40] and score of 100 [OR, 1.89]) and a shared role in decision-making with their physician (OR, 1.16) or family (OR, 1.17) had a higher odds of perceiving surgery would be curative, whereas patients who reported physician-controlled (OR, 0.56) or family-controlled (OR, 0.72) decision-making were less likely to believe surgery would provide a cure. Greater focus on patient-physician engagement, communication, and barriers to discussing goals of care with patients who are diagnosed with cancer is needed. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Takeuchi, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akira; Miyagawa, Shinichi
The existence of other primary tumors during the treatment of esophageal cancer patients has been an important issue. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and management of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 93 patients with esophageal cancer were surgically treated. Seventy-three patients underwent subtotal esophagectomy and 20 underwent lower esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Colonoscopy was available for detecting CRN before and after surgery. Eighty-nine (95.7%) of the 93 patients were screened by colonoscopy preoperatively or within a year from the operation. Thirty-nine patients (43.8%) with CRN were synchronously identified: adenoma in 34 (38.2%) and adenocarcinoma in 5 patients (5.6%). Eleven adenomas with high grade-dysplasia and 8 adenomas with low grade-dysplasia were removed endoscopically. Three superficial adenocarcinomas were endoscopically removed before surgery, and 2 adenocarcinomas were surgically removed. Seventy-four patients (83.1%) were followed using colonoscopy, and 11 subsequent CRN, including 2 superficial adenocarcinomas, were endoscopically detected in 8 patients (10.8%). The size of esophageal cancer was larger in the patients with than without CRN (p = 0.036). The body mass index in esophageal cancer patients with CRN tended to be higher than in those without CRN (p = 0.065). We noted that esophageal cancer is frequently associated with synchronous and/or metachronous colorectal cancer and adenomas. Colonoscopy is useful to detect and manage CRN before and after esophagectomy, although a few limitations exist. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mounzer, Rawad; Das, Ananya; Yen, Roy D; Rastogi, Amit; Bansal, Ajay; Hosford, Lindsay; Wani, Sachin
Long-term population-based data comparing endoscopic therapy (ET) and surgery for management of malignant colorectal polyps (MCPs) are limited. To compare colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific survival with ET and surgery. Population-based study. Patients with stage 0 and stage 1 MCPs were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1998-2009). Demographic characteristics, tumor size, location, treatment modality, and survival were compared. Propensity-score matching and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between treatment and CRC-specific survival. ET and surgery. Mid-term (2.5 years) and long-term (5 years) CRC-free survival rates and independent predictors of CRC-specific mortality. Of 10,403 patients with MCPs, 2688 (26%) underwent ET and 7715 (74%) underwent surgery. Patients undergoing ET were more likely to be older white men with stage 0 disease. Surgical patients had more right-sided lesions, larger MCPs, and stage 1 disease. There was no difference in the 2.5-year and 5-year CRC-free survival rates between the 2 groups in stage 0 disease. Surgical resection led to higher 2.5-year (97.8% vs 93.2%; P < .001) and 5-year (96.6% vs 89.8%; P < .001) CRC-free survival in stage 1 disease. These results were confirmed by propensity-score matching. ET was a significant predictor for CRC-specific mortality in stage 1 disease (hazard ratio 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-3.29; P < .001). Comorbidity index not available, selection bias. ET and surgery had comparable mid- and long-term CRC-free survival rates in stage 0 disease. Surgical resection is the recommended treatment modality for MCPs with submucosal invasion. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Chirag B; Ragupathi, Madhu; Ramos-Valadez, Diego I; Haas, Eric M
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is an emerging modality in the field of minimally invasive colorectal surgery. However, there is a dearth of data comparing outcomes with other minimally invasive techniques. We present a 3-arm (conventional, hand-assisted, and robotic) matched-case analysis of intraoperative and short-term outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive colorectal procedures. Between August 2008 and October 2009, 70 robotic cases of the rectum and rectosigmoid were performed. Thirty of these were organized into triplets with conventional and hand-assisted cases based on the following 6 matching criteria: 1) surgeon; 2) sex; 3) body mass index; 4) operative procedure; 5) pathology; and 6) history of neoadjuvant therapy in malignant cases. Demographics, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Pathological outcomes were analyzed in malignant cases. Data were stratified by postoperative diagnosis and operative procedure. There was no significant difference in intraoperative complications, estimated blood loss (126.1 ± 98.5 mL overall), or postoperative morbidity and mortality among the groups. Robotic technique required longer operative time compared with conventional laparoscopic (P < .01) and hand-assisted (P < .001) techniques; however, this difference was not maintained in cases with low pelvic anastomoses. The overall mean length of stay was 3.3 ± 1.8 days with no significant difference between the groups. Pathological analysis of malignant cases revealed a median lymph node extraction of 17 with no significant difference among the 3 modalities. In this 3-arm case-matched series, the robotic approach results in short-term outcomes comparable to conventional and hand-assisted laparoscopic approaches for benign and malignant diseases of the rectum and rectosigmoid. With 3-dimensional visualization, additional freedom of motion, and improved ergonomics, this enabling technology may play an important role when
Jan, Haider; Waters, Natasha; Haines, Pat; Kent, Andrew
Cyanoacrylate adhesives offer the surgeon and patient an alternative to subcuticular suturing. LiquiBand® Surgical S (LBSS) is a new formulation with a blend of monomeric n-butyl and 2-octyl cyanoacrylates. In this study, the effectiveness, safety, and clinical utility of LBSS was compared to Vicryl(™) sutures for the closure of laparoscopic incisions. This was a prospective randomized study of LBSS skin adhesive versus Vicryl(™) sutures for the topical closure of laparoscopic surgical incisions. Subjects were asked to return at 2 weeks postsurgery to report complications and adverse events. Wounds were evaluated for apposition and cosmesis using a modified Hollander Wound Evaluation Scale (HWES). The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality was done. Independent-samples T test, Mann Whitney U test, and chi-square test were used to compare variables between the two wound closure methods. A total of 114 subjects participated in this trial completing all aspects of the study. Fifty-five subjects received sutures for topical wound closure, with 59 subjects receiving LBSS. Surgeons were found to be satisfied with 100 % of all applications using the LBSS device. One hundred percent of wounds closed with sutures and 98.9 % wounds closed with LBSS achieving an optimal HWES of 0. There was no statistical difference in cosmesis or complications for either method. Closure with LBSS was significantly faster by a mean of 2 min. LiquiBand® Surgical S is as good as sutures for the closure of laparoscopic wounds in terms of cosmesis and complications with the added benefit of being significantly faster.
Shiomi, Akio; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) for lower rectal cancer and for visceral obesity cases, which have been regarded as challenging situations in rectal cancer surgery, comparing their surgical outcomes with those of conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS). Patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer were included in this retrospective study. Surgical outcomes including perioperative, postoperative, and pathological data were compared between the RALS and CLS groups. Patients were stratified into obese and non-obese groups according to visceral fat area (VFA). Obesity was defined by VFA ≥130 cm(2). Two hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled, including 127 cases in the RALS group and 109 cases in the CLA group. A total of 82 (34.7 %) cases were categorized as VFA obese, including 52 cases in the RALS and 30 cases in the CLS groups. RALS for lower rectal cancer was associated with less blood loss (p = 0.007), a lower overall complication rate (9.4 % in RALS vs 23.9 % in CLS, p = 0.003), and shorter postoperative stay (p < 0.01) than CLS, with similar operative time and pathological results. The overall complication rate was significantly lower in the RALS group with VFA obesity; blood loss was significantly less and the postoperative stay was shorter in the RALS group with visceral obesity. The present study demonstrated that RALS has some advantages in terms of surgical outcomes over CLS in challenging situations of rectal cancer surgery, such as lower rectal cancer cases and visceral obesity cases.
Kazama, Keisuke; Aoyama, Toru; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Numata, Masakatsu; Amano, Shinya; Kamiya, Mariko; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Shiozawa, Manabu; Oshima, Takashi; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka
The short-term outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted surgery for colorectal cancer (LAC) have not been fully evaluated in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to compare the short term surgical outcomes of LAC between the patients older than 75 years and those with non-elderly patients. This retrospective multi-institutional study selected patients who underwent LAC between April 2013 and March 2014 at Yokohama City University Hospital and its related general hospitals. The patients were categorized into two groups: elderly patients (>75 years of age: group A) and non-elderly patients (<75 years of age: group B). Surgical outcomes and post operative complications were compared between the two groups. A total of 237 patients were evaluated in the present study. Eighty-four patients were classified into group A, and 153 into group B. Preoperative clinicopathological outcomes demonstrated no significant differences except for the ASA score. When comparing the surgical outcomes between group A and group B, the rate of conversion to open procedure (3.6% vs 5.2%, P = 0.750), median operation time (232 min vs 232 min, P = 0.320), median blood loss (20 ml vs 12 ml, P = 0.350). The differences were not significantly different in the surgical outcomes. The incidences of > grade 2 post operative surgical complications were similar between two groups ((19.0% vs 15.7%, p = 0.587). No mortality was observed in this study. The length of postoperative hospital stay was also similar (10 days vs 10 days, p = 0.350). The present study suggested that LAC is safe and feasible, regardless of the age of the patient, especially for elderly patients who may be candidates for colon cancer surgery.
Arroyo Vázquez, Jorge; Bergström, Maria; Dot, Joan; Abu-Suboh-Abadia, Monder; Fonseca, Carla; Esteves, Marielle; Azadani, Asghar; Armengol, Jordi; Masachs, Miquel; Armengol-Miró, José Ramon; Park, Per-Ola
Investigations indicate that natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures induce a less pronounced postoperative inflammatory response than open or laparoscopic surgery, inflicting less trauma. In NOTES procedures, no skin incision is performed. We compare the inflammatory response added by the type of incision by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumors necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α). Twenty-seven pigs were randomized to open surgical, laparoscopic, or transgastric NOTES abdominal access. After completion of the accesses, no surgery was performed. All accesses were left open for 40 minutes followed by closure, animals were survived for 7 days. Blood samples were drawn at the start of the accesses, at 20 and 40 minutes during the procedure, and at postoperative day (POD) 1, 3, and 7. Analyses of CRP and TNF-α were performed. CRP increased in all animals until POD1. This increase was greater in the open group (P = .006). No significant differences in CRP-levels were found at POD 1, 3, or 7. TNF-α showed a peak during the procedure, at 20 and 40 minutes, with normalization at POD1 for 1/3 of the open and laparoscopic animals, but not for the NOTES animals. Due to variations within the groups, no statistical difference was shown between them. At postmortem, 1/3 of the pigs in the laparoscopic and open groups had wound infections, while no NOTES animals showed infections. This study provides no statistically significant differences in inflammatory response after the different abdominal accesses. However, the lack of a TNF-α-peak in the NOTES group might indicate a less pronounced response, supporting the initial theories.
Comparison of cardiopulmonary responses during sedation with epidural and local anesthesia for laparoscopic-assisted jejunostomy feeding tube placement with cardiopulmonary responses during general anesthesia for laparoscopic-assisted or open surgical jejunostomy feeding tube placement in healthy dogs.
Hewitt, Saundra A; Brisson, Brigitte A; Sinclair, Melissa D; Sears, William C
To evaluate the use of laparoscopic-assisted jejunostomy feeding tube (J-tube) placement in healthy dogs under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia and compare cardiopulmonary responses during this epidural anesthetic protocol with cardiopulmonary responses during general anesthesia for laparoscopic-assisted or open surgical J-tube placement. 15 healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive open surgical J-tube placement under general anesthesia (n = 5 dogs; group 1), laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under general anesthesia (5; group 2), or laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia (5; group 3). Cardiopulmonary responses were measured at baseline (time 0), every 5 minutes during the procedure (times 5 to 30 minutes), and after the procedure (after desufflation [groups 2 and 3] or at the start of abdominal closure [group 1]). Stroke volume, cardiac index, and O(2) delivery were calculated. All group 3 dogs tolerated laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia. Comparison of cardiovascular parameters revealed a significantly higher cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, and O(2) delivery in group 3 dogs, compared with group 1 and 2 dogs. Minimal differences in hemodynamic parameters were found between groups undergoing laparoscopic-assisted and open surgical J-tube placement under general anesthesia (ie, groups 1 and 2); these differences were not considered to be clinically important in healthy research dogs. Sedation with epidural and local anesthesia provided satisfactory conditions for laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement in healthy dogs; this anesthetic protocol caused less cardiopulmonary depression than general anesthesia and may represent a better choice for J-tube placement in critically ill patients.
Lv, Yan-Fei; Wang, Jian; Dong, Feng; Yang, Dian-Hui
Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery is common, and local application of gentamicin for SSIs in the surgery remains controversial. To identify whether local application of gentamicin reduces incidence of SSIs in colorectal surgery. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reference list up to November 2014. Two independent reviewers screened the records from the electronic databases, selected relevant studies, assessed the methodological quality, and extracted the data from included articles. Stata 12.0 was used to conduct a pooled analysis for main outcomes. Eight relevant randomized controlled trials with a total of 1685 patients were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were of moderate to high quality by the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. There was no significant difference being found in the total pooled results for wound infection (relative risk (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.12) and organ space infection (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.59). However, subgroup analysis showed that the significant decrease of wound infection was associated with the population in the Western Europe (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.87) and follow-up periods of 30 days (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.94). Local application of gentamicin significantly reduced incidence of wound infection following colorectal surgery in Western Europe, and it was also associated with lower risk of wound infection during follow-up period of 30 days. However, its effectiveness on prophylaxis of perineal wound infection and organ space infection still lacked evidence.
Angioli, Roberto; De Cicco Nardone, Carlo; Cafà, Ester Valentina; Plotti, Francesco; Muzii, Ludovico; Montera, Roberto; Guzzo, Federica; Luvero, Daniela; Terranova, Corrado
Recto-vaginal endometriosis remains a surgical challenge. We propose a systematic surgical approach combining vaginal and laparoscopic steps for patients affected by deep endometriosis infiltrating the vaginal wall. This is a prospective observational study, performed at Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, University Teaching Hospital. All consecutive patients, from 2008 to 2011, affected by symptomatic deep recto-vaginal endometriosis with full thickness vaginal wall involvement, underwent a systematic surgical approach, based on three consecutive surgical steps: vaginal route, laparoscopic approach and final vaginal excision. All patients included in the study were scheduled for two years' follow-up with pelvic examination, transvaginal ultrasound and visual analog scale (VAS) evaluation of symptoms (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain) at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Thirty-four patients were enrolled. No major complications were registered. Complications included superficial vascular lesions in two cases (5.9%), ureteral stenosis two weeks after surgery in one patient (2.9%), and bowel obstruction for paralytic ileus in one patient (2.9%). A de novo endometrioma was found at 12 months after surgery and a recurrent endometrioma was evident at 24 months. For all symptoms evaluated, there was a significant improvement within 3 months after surgery (p<0.05) and no statistically significant difference during follow-up (at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months). The proposed systematic surgical approach consisting of three consecutive steps could simplify the approach to deep endometriosis while at the same time increasing the quality of endometriosis surgery, with important benefit for the women affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, A Y; Daley, J; Pappas, T N; Henderson, W G; Khuri, S F
OBJECTIVE: To study the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to the 43 tertiary-care university-affiliated Veterans Administration medical centers (VAMCs) participating in the National Veterans Affairs Surgical Risk Study from October 1991 through December 1993. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies in the private sector have documented growth in the number of cholecystectomies and falling clinical thresholds for cholecystectomy with the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: The following were analyzed for changes over time: measures of patient preoperative risk, complexity of surgery, severity of biliary disease, numbers of procedures, postoperative length of stay, and 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates. RESULTS: The number of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased, but the total number of cholecystectomies performed remained stable over time. The proportion of patients with acute cholecystitis, emergent cholecystectomies, and technically complex cholecystectomies did not change or increased slightly over time. Adjusted odds for postoperative general complications were lower for laparoscopic than for open cholecystectomy, but 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates for all cholecystectomies remained constant over time. Postoperative length of stay for all cholecystectomies fell significantly. Implementation rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied widely between hospitals. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was adopted more slowly and used in a lower percentage of cholecystectomies than in non-VA settings. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to non-VA studies showing increases in overall cholecystectomy volume since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, these VAMCs implemented laparoscopic cholecystectomy without growth in cholecystectomies or a change in the clinical threshold for cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with better outcomes, but its
Gravalos, Cristina; García-Sanchez, Lourdes; Hernandez, Marta; Holgado, Esther; Alvarez, Natalia; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Martínez, Joaquín; Robles, Luis
Isolated metastases to the pancreas from colorectal cancer (CRC) are very rare. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with a hereditary nonpolyposis CRC with a solitary metastasis to the pancreas who was treated with right hemicolectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, complete surgical resection of the pancreatic metastasis, and adjuvant chemotherapy. After 12 months of follow-up, the patient remains free of disease. Differential diagnosis of isolated metastasis to the pancreas should be performed with pancreatic primary adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors. Symptoms and signs might be similar in these diseases: pain, weight loss, obstructive jaundice, and duodenal obstruction. Nevertheless, both primary and secondary tumors might be totally asymptomatic. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, or endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography can provide relevant information about pancreatic lesions. However, it remains difficult to distinguish primary from metastatic pancreatic tumors. Although there is currently very limited experience with the surgical resection of isolated pancreatic metastases from CRC, it should be considered in selected patients with low surgical risk in order to prolong progression-free survival and overall survival. Additional chemotherapy is recommended.
Le Roy, Florence; Manfredi, Sylvain; Hamonic, Stéphanie; Piette, Christine; Bouguen, Guillaume; Riou, Françoise; Bretagne, Jean-François
The management of patients with colon polyps who are referred to surgery remains uncharacterized in a population-based setting. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of patients referred for surgical resection of colorectal polyps. All patients who underwent a colonoscopy for positive fecal occult blood test in the setting of a population-based colorectal cancer screening program in France between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients undergoing colorectal surgery for polyps without invasive carcinoma. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors for surgical resection. Among 4251 patients with at least one colorectal polyp, 175 (4.1 %) underwent colorectal surgery. Risk factors for surgery included size, proximal polyp location, advanced histology (villous or high grade dysplasia), the endoscopy center, and colonoscopy performed during the first half of the study period. Subgroup analysis of 3475 colonoscopies performed by 22 endoscopists who performed at least 50 colonoscopies during the study period, identified the endoscopist as an additional risk factor. The adjusted proportions of referrals to surgery ranged from 0 to 46.6 % per endoscopist for polyps ≥ 20 mm (median 20.2 %). Overall, surgical complications occurred in 24.0 %, and one patient died following surgery (0.5 %). None of the 175 patients who underwent surgery were referred to a tertiary endoscopic center prior to surgery. In this population-based study, 4.1 % of patients with nonmalignant polyps were referred for surgical resection. The endoscopist was one important factor that was associated with surgical referral. To further decrease the proportion of inappropriate surgery in patients, endoscopists should refer their patients with large or difficult polyps to expert endoscopists prior to surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ishikawa, Kosuke; Kusumi, Takaya; Hosokawa, Masao; Nishida, Yasunori; Sumikawa, Sosuke; Furukawa, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence and risk factors for incisional surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing elective open surgery for colorectal cancer. We conducted prospective surveillance of incisional SSI after elective colorectal resections performed by a single surgeon for a 1-year period. Variables associated with infection, as identified in the literature, were collected and statistically analyzed for their association with incisional SSI development. A total of 224 patients were identified for evaluation. The mean patient age was 67 years, and 120 (55%) were male. Thirty-three (14.7%) patients were diagnosed with incisional SSI. Multivariate analysis suggested that incisional SSI was independently associated with TNM stages III and IV (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and intraoperative hypotension (OR, 3.4). The incidence of incisional SSI in our cohort was well within values generally reported in the literature. Our data suggest the importance of the maintenance of intraoperative normotension to reduce the development of incisional SSI.
Fu, Jianfei; Wu, Lunpo; Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Li, Dan; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Ting; Du, Jinlin
Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a uniquely separated subgroup in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The aims are to investigate the value of resection in patients with resectable metastatic signet ring cell colorectal cancer. Patients with mCRC who underwent resection in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database during 1998-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and COX models were used to analyze the differences in the survival. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between SRCC and other clinicopathological factors. Among the 3,568 patients, 94 (2.63%) patients had SRCC. The median survival time of patients with SRCC and non-SRCC were 17 and 29 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that SRCC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival. Logistic regression model based on variables identified by univariate analysis indicated that younger age (≤50 years old) (P = 0.005), female (P < 0.001), location in colon (P = 0.012), and N positive status (P = 0.003) were independent variables correlated with the SRCC subgroup. SRCC had a dramatically higher invalid surgical outcome rate than non-SRCC (P = 0.001). SRCC patients might benefit little from the resection of primary and metastatic lesions with a high rate of undergoing invalid operations. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:1004-1008. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Milsom, J W; Trencheva, K; Sonoda, T; Nandakumar, G; Shukla, P J; Lee, S
The aim of this prospective human trial was to evaluate the clinical performance of a novel THUNDERBEAT (TB) energy device in laparoscopic colon surgery. This study reports the first human trial in USA with this combined energy device in colon surgery. This is a prospective pilot study with 30 subjects undergoing left or right laparoscopic colon resection for neoplasm in a single institution. All soft tissue dissections and all vessel ligations were performed using TB. No other energy device was used within the abdomen. Recorded end-points were dissection time (from the start of colon mobilization to specimen removal), surgical procedure time, the number of times TB taken out of the abdominal cavity, intraoperative complications (bleeding at the time of mesenteric dissection or vessel ligation, thermal injury during surgery, injury of other organs), technical device problems, postoperative complications (bleeding, delayed thermal injuries, other complications within 30 days), length of hospital stay, and mortality. Thirty subjects (15 males) were enrolled in the study with median age and range 68.5 (21-86) and BMI kg/m(2) 25.5 (20-35). Twelve subjects underwent right and 18 left laparoscopic hemicolectomy. The mean surgical procedure time was 163 ± 86 min and for dissection using TB device 80.6 ± 35 min. Major vessel ligation was successful in all subjects. The median number of TB applications to seal inferior mesenteric artery was 3 (2-8). TB was taken out of the abdominal cavity during dissection for tip cleaning a medium number of two times/per case. No intraoperative or postoperative complications (bleeding, thermal injuries, etc.) related to use of TB were noted. The TB device demonstrated efficient and successful performance at tissue dissection and vessel ligation in left and right colectomies. TB technology can be employed in complex abdominal surgery and may save time through faster dissection but comparative studies with other energy devices are needed
Trejos, Ana Luisa; Siroen, Karen; Ward, Christopher D W; Hossain, Shahan; Naish, Michael D; Patel, Rajni V; Schlachta, Christopher M
Training surgeons in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires surgical residents to operate under the direction of a consultant. The inability of the instructing surgeon to point at the laparoscopic monitor without releasing the instruments remains a barrier to effective instruction. The wireless hands-free surgical pointer (WHaSP) has been developed to aid instruction during MIS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and likeability of the WHaSP as an instructional tool compared with the conventional methods. Data were successfully collected during 103 laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures, which had been randomized to use or not use the WHaSP as a teaching tool. Audio and video from the surgeries were recorded and analyzed. Instructing surgeons, operating surgeons, and camera assistants provided feedback through a post-operative questionnaire that used a five-level Likert scale. The questionnaire results were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. There were no negative effects on surgery completion time or instruction practice due to the use of the WHaSP. The number of times an instructor surgeon pointed to the laparoscopic screen with their hand was significantly reduced when the WHaSP was utilized (p < 0.001). The questionnaires showed that WHaSP users found it to be comfortable, easy to use, and easy to control. Compared to when the WHaSP was not used, users found that communication was more effective (p = 0.002), locations were easier to communicate (p < 0.001), and instructions were easier to follow (p = 0.005). The WHaSP system was successfully used in surgery. It integrated seamlessly into existing equipment within the operating room and did not affect flow. The positive outcomes of utilizing the WHaSP were improved communication in the OR, improved efficiency and safety of the surgery, easy to use, and comfortable to wear. The surgeons showed a preference for utilizing the WHaSP if given a choice.
Mack, Ian W.; Potts, Stephen; McMenemy, Karen R.; Ferguson, R. S.
The laparoscopic technique for performing abdominal surgery requires a very high degree of skill in the medical practitioner. Much interest has been focused on using computer graphics to provide simulators for training surgeons. Unfortunately, these tend to be complex and have a very high cost, which limits availability and restricts the length of time over which individuals can practice their skills. With computer game technology able to provide the graphics required for a surgical simulator, the cost does not have to be high. However, graphics alone cannot serve as a training simulator. Human interface hardware, the equivalent of the force feedback joystick for a flight simulator game, is required to complete the system. This paper presents a design for a very low cost device to address this vital issue. The design encompasses: the mechanical construction, the electronic interfaces and the software protocols to mimic a laparoscopic surgical set-up. Thus the surgeon has the capability of practicing two-handed procedures with the possibility of force feedback. The force feedback and collision detection algorithms allow surgeons to practice realistic operating theatre procedures with a good degree of authenticity.
Parkin, Edward; Khurshid, Mujahid; Ravi, Srinivasan; Linn, Thu
The rate of stoma reversal after Hartmann procedure is low, principally because of the technically demanding nature of the reversal procedure and preexisting comorbid disease frequently present in this patient group. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure is an attractive alternative that can reduce perioperative morbidity but the feasibility of completing the procedure laparoscopically is often limited by extensive adhesion formation present after the initial open operation. We describe a technique for laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure where the stoma is mobilized externally and a pneumoperitoneum established through this preexisting defect. Results for the first 7 cases show a median operative duration of 132 minutes and length of hospital stay of 6 days with no conversions. Insertion of the operating ports under direct vision and a more limited dissection to facilitate the anastomosis represents an alternative operative strategy that can be performed successfully, even in patients with comorbid disease.
Adrenal pathology requiring surgical intervention is relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, there are a number of conditions that warrant such consideration. Most surgically correctable diseases of the adrenal glands are associated with excess production of adrenal corticosteroids or catecholamines by an adrenal tumor. Classic open approaches toward adrenalectomy in the past have included an anterior, transabdominal, or posterior route. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy offers the advantages of excellent exposure through minimally damaging portals. This results in an expected very benign postoperative course. It has now been almost 4 years since the first reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Since then, numerous small series have been reported and experienced laparoscopic surgeons have proven the merits of a laparoscopic approach to adrenalectomy. This reviews the current state of the art and offers descriptions of selected approaches to both the right and left adrenal glands.
Aggarwal, Sandeep; Yadav, Kunal; Sharma, Aditya P; Sethi, Vrishketan
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is well established for treatment of adrenal lesions. However, bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing syndrome is a challenging and time-consuming operation. We report our experience of laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy for this disease in 19 patients. From September 2009 to August 2012, we have operated 19 patients with Cushing syndrome and performed bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy using the transperitoneal approach; synchronous in 15 patients and staged in 4 patients. In 15 patients, the surgery was carried out sequentially on both the sides in lateral position with intraoperative change in position. Complete adrenalectomy including periadrenal fat was carried out on both the sides. Nineteen patients were referred from Department of Endocrinology for bilateral adrenalectomy for adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome. The indications for surgery were Cushing disease in 15 patients, occult/ectopic source of ACTH in 2 patients, and primary adrenal hyperplasia in 2 patients. Fifteen patients underwent bilateral adrenalectomy during the same operation. Four patients underwent staged procedures. All procedures were completed laparoscopically with no conversions. The mean operating time for simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy was 210 minutes (range, 150 to 240 min). This included the repositioning and reprepping time. There were no major intraoperative complications. The average blood loss was 100 mL (range, 50 to 200 mL). None of the patients required blood transfusions in the postoperative period. The postoperative complications included minor port-site infection in 2 patients. One severely debilitated patient died on the 14th postoperative day because of hospital-acquired pneumonia. The remaining 18 patients have done well in terms of impact on the disease. Laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing syndrome is feasible and safe. It confers all the advantages of minimally invasive
Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas
Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.
Lewin, Joel W.; O'Rourke, Nicholas A.; Chiow, Adrian K.H.; Bryant, Richard; Martin, Ian; Nathanson, Leslie K.; Cavallucci, David J.
Background This study compares long-term outcomes between intention-to-treat laparoscopic and open approaches to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores to control for selection bias. Method Patients undergoing liver resection for CLM by 5 surgeons at 3 institutions from 2000 to early 2014 were analysed. IPTW based on propensity scores were generated and used to assess the marginal treatment effect of the laparoscopic approach via a weighted Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 298 operations were performed in 256 patients. 7 patients with planned two-stage resections were excluded leaving 284 operations in 249 patients for analysis. After IPTW, the population was well balanced. With a median follow up of 36 months, 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the cohort were 59% and 38%. 146 laparoscopic procedures were performed in 140 patients, with weighted 5-year OS and RFS of 54% and 36% respectively. In the open group, 138 procedures were performed in 122 patients, with a weighted 5-year OS and RFS of 63% and 38% respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OS or RFS. Conclusion In the Brisbane experience, after accounting for bias in treatment assignment, long term survival after LLR for CLM is equivalent to outcomes in open surgery. PMID:26902138
Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H
Introduction In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods and analysis Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from
Zoccali, M; Fichera, A
Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery in the management of colorectal disease in the early '90s, minimally invasive techniques have gained popularity. While good quality studies have been published in the literature on laparoscopy for colorectal cancer, evidence supporting the use of minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease is lacking. This patient population represents a challenge to the colorectal surgeon even in conventional open surgery and this has limited the widespread application of minimally invasive techniques especially in Crohn's disease. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection for Crohn's disease is the most performed minimally invasive procedure in the field of inflammatory bowel disease, with promising short-term outcomes but with still some concerns related to prolonged operative times and overall costs. For ulcerative colitis the magnitude of restorative procedures has also restricted the use of minimally invasive approaches to highly specialized tertiary referral centers. The benefits of performing restorative procedures laparoscopically for ulcerative colitis are less obvious based on the limited reports available in the literature with adequate follow-up for assessing long-term outcomes, and controversies still remains about the need for a staged approach in the era of biologic therapy. Nevertheless, surgeons are actively working in an effort to obviate to the current technical limitations of laparoscopy, and to further minimize surgical trauma. In this manuscript we will present the current evidence supporting the use of laparoscopy and minimally invasive techniques in inflammatory bowel disease and present the future direction of development and research.
Feng, Christina; Sidhwa, Feroze; Cameron, Danielle B; Glass, Charity; Rangel, Shawn J
The purpose of this study was to characterize the rates of surgical site infections (SSI) associated with colorectal procedures in children and the relative burden of these events within the scope of pediatric surgical practice. The NSQIP-Pediatric Public Use File was queried for all pediatric surgery procedures captured from 50 hospitals during 2012-2013. Rates of incisional and deep organ/space SSIs (ISSI and OSI, respectively) were calculated for all procedures, and the relative burden of SSIs from the entire dataset attributable to colorectal procedures was determined. Colorectal procedures accounted for 2.5% (2872/114,395) of the NSQIP-P caseload and contributed 7.1% of the SSI burden. The SSI rate for all colorectal procedures was 5.9% (ISSI:3.2%; OSI:2.7%), and the highest rates were associated with total abdominal colectomy (11.4%) partial colectomy (8.3%), and colostomy closure (5.0%). Inflammatory bowel disease contributed the greatest relative burden of SSIs among colorectal diagnoses (24.9%; ISSI:22%; OSI:28.6%), followed by Hirschsprung's Disease (14.2%; ISSI:15.4%; OSI:12.8%) and anorectal malformations (12.4%; ISSI:17.6%; OSI:6.4%). Colorectal procedures are responsible for a disproportionate burden of SSIs within pediatric surgery. The rate and relative burden of SSIs are particularly high for colostomy closure, partial colectomy, and procedures for inflammatory bowel disease. Efforts to reduce SSI burden may be best focused on this cohort of children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Bastab; Wats, Varun
Objective Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) causes detrimental psychosomatic effects on a woman. It is repaired using open abdominal as well as laparoscopic approach. Here we compare a series of open versus laparoscopic VVF repairs done at a single centre. Methods Retrospectively data of patients undergoing VVF repair in our department between January 2011 to December 2014 was analyzed. Patients who had a single, primary, simple VVF following a gynaecological surgery were included in the study. 26 patients met all the criteria. Out of these, thirteen patients had undergone a laparoscopic VVF repair (group 1) while thirteen had undergone an open transabdominal VVF repair (group 2). Results Mean fistula size was 2.14±0.23 cm in group 1 and 2.18±0.30 cm in group 2, which was comparable. Mean blood loss was 58.69±6.48 mL in group 1 and 147.30±19.24 mL in group 2, which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). Mean hospital stay was 4 days in group 1 and 13 days in group 2 which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). The analgesic requirement (diclofenac) was 261.53±29.95 mg in group 1 and 617.30±34.43 mg in group 2, which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). Fistula repair was successful in all the patients in both the groups. Conclusion The present study shows that laparoscopic VVF repair results in reduced patient morbidity and shorter hospital stay without compromising the results. So laparoscopic repair may be a more attractive treatment option for patients with post gynecology surgery VVF. PMID:27896256
Murawski, Maciej; Łosin, Marcin; Królak, Marek; Czauderna, Piotr
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) occur in approximately 1 per 5000 live births. The most commonly used procedure for repair of high ARMs is posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP). This operation is performed entirely through a perineal approach. The first report of laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP) for repair of ARMs was presented by Georgeson in 2000. The aim is presenting early experience with laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through technique in boys with high anorectal malformations. In the last 5 years 7 boys (9 months to 2 years old) with high ARMs were operated on using the LAARP technique. Laparoscopically the rectal pouch was exposed down to the urethral fistula, which was clipped and divided. Externally, the centre of the muscle complex was identified using an electrical stimulator. In the first 4 patients after a midline incision of 2 cm at the planned anoplasty site, a tunnel to the pelvis was created bluntly and dilated with Hegar probes under laparoscopic control. In the last 3 boys a minimal PSARP was done creating a channel into the pelvis. The separated rectum was pulled down and sutured to the perineum. Laparoscopic mobilization of the rectal pouch and fistula division was possible in all cases. There were no intraoperative complications except one ureteral injury. Patients were discharged home on post-operative day 5 to 7. The early results prove that LAARP, an alternative option to PSARP for treatment of imperforate anus, offers many advantages, including excellent visualization of the pelvic anatomical structures, accurate placement of the bowel into the muscle complex and a minimally invasive abdominal and perineal incision. It allows for shorter hospital stay and faster recovery. However, to compare the functional results against the standard procedure (PSARP), longer follow-up of all patients is necessary. PMID:23255974
Fiscon, Valentino; Portale, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Antonio; Migliorini, Giovanni; Frigo, Flavio
Reestablishing continuity after a Hartmann's procedure is considered a major surgical procedure with high morbidity/mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the short-/long-term outcome of laparoscopic restoration of bowel continuity after HP. A prospectively collected database of colorectal laparoscopic procedures (>800) performed between June 2005 and June 2013 was used to identify 20 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure (LHR). Median age was 65.4. Ten patients (50 %) had undergone surgery for perforated diverticulitis, 3 (15 %) for cancer, and 7 (35 %) for other reasons (volvulus, posttraumatic perforation, and sigmoid perforation from foreign body). Previous HP had been performed laparoscopically in only 3 patients. Median operative time was 162.5 min. All the procedures were completed laparoscopically. Intraoperative complication rate was nil. Post-operative mortality and morbidity were respectively 0 and 10 % (1 pneumonia, 1 bowel obstruction from post-anastomotic stenosis which required resection and redo of the anastomosis). Median time to first flatus was 3 days, to normal diet 5 days. Median hospital stay was 9 days without readmissions. We followed up the patients for a median of 44 months: when asked, all 20 (100 %) said they would undergo the operation (LHR) again; 3 (15 %) had been re-operated of laparoscopic mesh repair for incisional hernia. When performed by experienced surgeons, LHR is a feasible, safe, reproducible operation, which allows early return of bowel function, early discharge and fast return to work for the patient. It has a low morbidity rate.
Background An antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver was found effective in reducing surgical-site infection in a preliminary study of colorectal cancer elective surgery. We decided to test this finding in a randomized, double-blind trial. Methods Adults undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery at two university-affiliated hospitals were randomly assigned to have the surgical incision dressed with Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing or a common dressing. To blind the patient and the nursing and medical staff to the nature of the dressing used, scrub nurses covered Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber with a common wound dressing in the experimental arm, whereas a double common dressing was applied to patients of control group. The primary end-point of the study was the occurrence of any surgical-site infection within 30 days of surgery. Results A total of 112 patients (58 in the experimental arm and 54 in the control group) qualified for primary end-point analysis. The characteristics of the patient population and their surgical procedures were similar. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was lower in the experimental group (11.1% center 1, 17.5% center 2; overall 15.5%) than in controls (14.3% center 1, 24.2% center 2, overall 20.4%), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.451), even with respect to surgical-site infection grade 1 (superficial) versus grades 2 and 3, or grade 1 and 2 versus grade 3. Conclusions This randomized trial did not confirm a statistically significant superiority of Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing in reducing surgical-site infection after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00981110 PMID:22621779
Akyuz, Muhammet; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Fung, John
Background Hepatic recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) occurs in 50% of patients during follow-up, with 2.8% to 13.9% presenting with surgical margin recurrence (SMR). The aim of this study is to analyze factors that related to SMR in patients with CLM undergoing hepatectomy. Methods Demographics, clinical and survival data of patients who underwent hepatectomy were identified from a prospectively maintained, institutional review board (IRB)-approved database between 2000 and 2012. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard model. Results There were 85 female and 121 male patients who underwent liver resection for CLM. An R0 resection was performed in 157 (76%) patients and R1 resection in 49. SMR was detected in 32 patients (15.5%) followed up for a median of 29 months (range, 3–121 months). A half of these patients had undergone R1 (n=16) and another half R0 resection (n=16). Tumor size, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level and margin status were associated with SMR on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, a positive surgical margin was the only independent predictor of SMR. The receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy did not affect margin recurrence. SMR was an independent risk factor associated with worse disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Conclusions This study shows that SMR, which can be detected in up to 15.5% of patients after liver resection for CLM, adversely affects DFS and OS. The fact that a positive surgical margin was the only predictive factor for SMR in these patients underscores the importance of achieving negative margins during hepatectomy. PMID:27294032
Park, Jangho; Lee, Soo Young; Kang, Sung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo
Purpose Obtaining a detailed family history through detailed pedigree is essential in recognizing hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. This study was performed to assess the current knowledge and practice patterns of surgery residents regarding familial risk of CRC. Methods A questionnaire survey was performed to evaluate the knowledge and the level of recognition for analyses of family histories and hereditary CRC syndromes in 62 residents of the Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions regarding practice patterns for, knowledge of, and resident education about hereditary CRC syndromes. Results Two-thirds of the residents answered that family history should be investigated at the first interview, but only 37% of them actually obtained pedigree detailed family history at the very beginning in actual clinical practice. Three-quarters of the residents answered that the quality of family history they obtained was poor. Most of them could diagnose hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and recommend an appropriate colonoscopy surveillance schedule; however, only 19% knew that cancer surveillance guidelines differed according to the family history. Most of our residents lacked knowledge of cancer genetics, such as causative genes, and diagnostic methods, including microsatellite instability test, and indicated a desire and need for more education regarding hereditary cancer and genetic testing during residency. Conclusion This study demonstrated that surgical residents' knowledge of hereditary cancer was not sufficient and that the quality of the family histories obtained in current practice has to be improved. More information regarding hereditary cancer should be considered in education programs for surgery residents. PMID:24278856
She, Wong Hoi; Chan, Albert Chi Yan; Poon, Ronnie Tung Ping; Cheung, Tan To; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau
We aimed to assess if simultaneous resection conferred any survival benefit in resection of synchronous colorectal liver metastases. From January 1990 to December 2008, 116 patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases were identified. Among these 116 patients, 88 underwent staged resection (SR), while the remaining 28 patients underwent simultaneous resection (SIMR). Patients' follow-up data were reviewed. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of patient and tumour characteristics. Major hepatectomy was performed in 54 patients (61%) undergoing SR, and 12 patients (43%) undergoing SIMR (P = 0.09). The median blood loss (SR 0.7 L versus SIMR 0.8 L) was similar. Post-operative morbidity rates and hospital mortality rates were not statistically different. The total length of hospital stay was shorter in SIMR patients (18.0 versus 11.5 days, P = 0.009). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival for SR were 90.7%, 47.1% and 33.3%, whilst the corresponding survival rates for SIMR were 75.0%, 25.0% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.003). However, when the disease-free survival (DFS) was stratified according to the number of hepatic metastases, the survival benefit of SR and SIMR for solitary CRM were similar (3-year DFS: 28.3% versus 11.1%, P = 0.089). Our study showed that an operative strategy of SR generally offered better survival outcome than SIMR in the surgical management of CRM. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Ohman, Kerri A; Wan, Leping; Guthrie, Tracey; Johnston, Bonnie; Leinicke, Jennifer A; Glasgow, Sean C; Hunt, Steven R; Mutch, Matthew G; Wise, Paul E; Silviera, Matthew L
Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common complication after colorectal surgery. An infection prevention bundle (IPB) was implemented to improve outcomes. A standardized IPB that included the administration of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative shower with chlorhexidine, hair removal and skin preparation in holding, antibiotic wound irrigation, and a "clean-closure" protocol was implemented in January 2013. Data from the American College of Surgeons NSQIP were analyzed at a single academic institution to compare pre-IPB and post-IPB SSI rates. In January 2014, a prospective database was implemented to determine compliance with individual IPB elements and their effect on outcomes. For the 24 months pre-IPB, the overall SSI rate was 19.7%. During the 30 months after IPB implementation, the SSI rate decreased to 8.2% (p < 0.0001). A subset of 307 patients was identified in both NSQIP and our prospective compliance databases. Elements of IPB associated with decreased SSI rates included preoperative shower with chlorhexidine (4.6% vs 16.2%; p = 0.005), oral antibiotics (3.4% vs 15.4%; p < 0.001), and mechanical bowel preparation (4.4% vs 14.3%; p = 0.008). Patients who received a full bowel preparation of both oral antibiotics and a mechanical bowel preparation had a 2.7% SSI rate compared with 15.8% for all others (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, full bowel preparation was independently associated with significantly fewer SSI (adjusted odds ratio 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.006). Implementation of an IPB was successful in decreasing SSI rates in colorectal surgery patients. The combination of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation was the strongest predictor of decreased SSI. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Millan, Monica; Tegido, Montse; Biondo, Sebastiano; García-Granero, Eduardo
Patients with colorectal cancer who need a stoma should undergo preoperative marking of the stoma site and education by a trained stomatherapist. This study examined the care received by ostomy patients with colorectal cancer in Spanish colorectal surgery units, to assess its quality and to detect areas for improvement. A prospective study was conducted in twelve Spanish colorectal surgery units in Spain including patients visited by the stomatherapist after surgery for colorectal cancer. Each patient answered a questionnaire about their stoma care. Between September 2007 and May 2008, 270 patients were included, (63% colostomies, 37% ileostomies). Of whom; 75% had elective and 25% emergency surgery. Stomatherapist marked the stoma site in 45,6% of patients (0% emergency created stomas and 58,8% elective). However, patients who saw a stoma therapist preoperatively presented significantly lower rates of stoma complications (p < 0.001) and anxiety (p < 0.001) compared to those who did not postoperatively. The study has demonstrated the importance of preoperative stomatherapy assessment.
Liska, V; Sutnar, A; Holubec, L; Vrzalova, J; Treska, V; Skalicky, T; Pesta, M; Kormunda, S; Finek, J; Rousarova, M; Topolcan, O
Classical and proliferative tumour markers and matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors reflect the features of malignancy and are useful in prediction of prognosis in patients with colorectal liver metastases. There is very limited information about their physiological functions during regeneration and healing of liver parenchyma after any type of liver surgery for malignancy. The presented study included the patients, who underwent following surgical procedures for CLM, benign liver lesions and inguinal hernias: Group A: 22 patients with inguinal hernias, Group B: 26 patients with benign liver lesions, Group C: 30 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) who were treated by radiofrequency ablation, Group D: 41 patients with CLM who underwent a radical surgical therapy - resection, and Group E: 22 patients with inoperable CLM who underwent an explorative laparotomy without any surgical procedure. The preoperative and postoperative serum levels of CEA, CA 19-9, TK, TPA, TPS, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were statistically analyzed and compared within the groups to estimate the influence of a surgical procedure type. These results reflect the influence of surgical procedure on the serum levels of studied tumour markers during operation. It was the first description using these types of comparison to all metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and proliferative and classical tumour markers. It could help us to estimate the critical relations of these tumour markers in prognoses of disease free survival or overall survival in patients after a surgical procedure for CLM (Tab. 5, Ref. 26).
Park, Youn Young; Kim, Chang Woo; Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Lee, Jung Joo; Lee, Hye Ok
Purpose This study aimed to identify the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery and to determine whether significantly different SSI rates existed between the short prophylactic antibiotic use group (within 24 hours) and the long prophylactic antibiotic use group (beyond 24 hours). Methods The medical records of 327 patients who underwent colorectal resection due to colorectal cancer from January 2010 to May 2014 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed, and their characteristics as well as the surgical factors known to be risk factors for SSIs, were identified. Results Among the 327 patients, 45 patients (13.8%) developed SSIs. The patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of antibiotic use: group S (within 24 hours) and group L (beyond 24 hours). Of the 327 patients, 114 (34.9%) were in group S, and 213 (65.1%) were in group L. Twelve patients (10.5%) in group S developed SSIs while 33 patients (15.5%) in group L developed SSIs (P = 0.242). History of diabetes mellitus and lung disease, long operation time, and perioperative transfusion were independent risk factors for SSIs. Conclusion This study shows that discontinuation of prophylactic antibiotics within 24 hours after colorectal surgery has no significant influence on the incidence of SSIs. This study also showed that history of diabetes mellitus and lung disease, long operation time, and perioperative transfusion were associated with increased SSI rates. PMID:26817019
Stipa, Francesco; Burza, Antonio; Curinga, Rosanna; Santini, Ettore; Delle Site, Pietro; Avantifiori, Riccardo; Picchio, Marcello
Intracorporeal anastomosis associated to trans-vaginal specimen extraction decreases the extent of colon mobilisation and the number and size of abdominal incisions, improving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in female patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this procedure for colorectal cancer. Between 2009 and 2013, 13 female patients underwent laparoscopic colon and rectal resection for colorectal cancer with intracorporeal anastomosis and trans-vaginal specimen extraction: 2 right colectomies, 1 transverse colon resection, 4 left colectomies and 6 anterior resections were performed. A MEDLINE search of publications on the presented procedure for colon neoplasms was carried out. There were no intraoperative complications and no conversions. Postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score in the pelvis, abdomen and shoulder was moderate. In the postoperative period, we observed two colorectal anastomotic strictures, successfully treated with pneumatic endoscopic dilation. Median length of the specimen was 18.5 cm, with a median tumour size of 5.5 cm in diameter. Median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 12. All circumferential resection margins were negative. During a mean follow-up of 31 months (range, 6-62), there was neither evidence of recurrent disease nor disorders related to the genitourinary system. The aesthetic outcome was considered satisfactory in all patients. Nine studies were identified in the systematic review. Our case series, according to the results of the literature, showed that intracorporeal anastomosis associated to trans-vaginal specimen extraction is feasible and safe in selected female patients.
Teber, Dogu; Guven, Selcuk; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Mathias; Güven, Esref Oguz; Yencilek, Faruk; Gözen, Ali Serdar; Rassweiler, Jens
Use of an augmented reality (AR)-based soft tissue navigation system in urologic laparoscopic surgery is an evolving technique. To evaluate a novel soft tissue navigation system developed to enhance the surgeon's perception and to provide decision-making guidance directly before initiation of kidney resection for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Custom-designed navigation aids, a mobile C-arm capable of cone-beam imaging, and a standard personal computer were used. The feasibility and reproducibility of inside-out tracking principles were evaluated in a porcine model with an artificially created intraparenchymal tumor in vitro. The same algorithm was then incorporated into clinical practice during LPN. Evaluation of a fully automated inside-out tracking system was repeated in exactly the same way for 10 different porcine renal units. Additionally, 10 patients underwent retroperitoneal LPNs under manual AR guidance by one surgeon. The navigation errors and image-acquisition times were determined in vitro. The mean operative time, time to locate the tumor, and positive surgical margin were assessed in vivo. The system was able to navigate and superpose the virtually created images and real-time images with an error margin of only 0.5 mm, and fully automated initial image acquisition took 40 ms. The mean operative time was 165 min (range: 135-195 min), and mean time to locate the tumor was 20 min (range: 13-27 min). None of the cases required conversion to open surgery. Definitive histology revealed tumor-free margins in all 10 cases. This novel AR tracking system proved to be functional with a reasonable margin of error and image-to-image registration time. Mounting the pre- or intraoperative imaging properties on real-time videoendoscopic images in a real-time manner will simplify and increase the precision of laparoscopic procedures.
Daniel, Lorias Espinoza; Tapia, Fernando Montes; Arturo, Minor Martínez; Ricardo, Ordorica Flores
The ability to handle and adapt to the visual perspectives generated by angled laparoscopes is crucial for skilled laparoscopic surgery. However, the control of the visual work space depends on the ability of the operator of the camera, who is often not the most experienced member of the surgical team. Here, we present a simple, low-cost option for surgical training that challenges the learner with static and dynamic visual perspectives at 30 degrees using a system that emulates the angled laparoscope. A system was developed using a low-cost camera and readily available materials to emulate the angled laparoscope. Nine participants undertook 3 tasks to test spatial adaptation to the static and dynamic visual perspectives at 30 degrees. Completing each task to a predefined satisfactory level ensured precision of execution of the tasks. Associated metrics (time and error rate) were recorded, and the performance of participants were determined. A total of 450 repetitions were performed by 9 residents at various stages of training. All the tasks were performed with a visual perspective of 30 degrees using the system. Junior residents were more proficient than senior residents. This system is a viable and low-cost alternative for developing the basic psychomotor skills necessary for the handling and adaptation to visual perspectives of 30 degrees, without depending on a laparoscopic tower, in junior residents. More advanced skills may then be acquired by other means, such as in the operating theater or through clinical experience.
Chang, Victoria C; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Swain, C Paul; Bergs, Richard; Paramo, Juan; Hogg, Deborah C; Fernandez, Raul; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Scott, Daniel J
The influence of endoscopic video camera (VC) image quality on surgical performance has not been studied. Flexible endoscopes are used as substitutes for laparoscopes in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), but their optics are originally designed for intralumenal use. Manipulable wired or wireless independent VCs might offer advantages for NOTES but are still under development. To measure the optical characteristics of 4 VC systems and to compare their impact on the performance of surgical suturing tasks. VC systems included a laparoscope (Storz 10 mm), a flexible endoscope (Olympus GIF 160), and 2 prototype deployable cameras (magnetic anchoring and guidance system [MAGS] Camera and PillCam). In a randomized fashion, the 4 systems were evaluated regarding standardized optical characteristics and surgical manipulations of previously validated ex vivo (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery model) and in vivo (live porcine Nissen model) tasks; objective metrics (time and errors/precision) and combined surgeon (n = 2) performance were recorded. Subtle differences were detected for color tests, and field of view was variable (65°-115°). Suitable resolution was detected up to 10 cm for the laparoscope and MAGS camera but only at closer distances for the endoscope and PillCam. Compared with the laparoscope, surgical suturing performances were modestly lower for the MAGS camera and significantly lower for the endoscope (ex vivo) and PillCam (ex vivo and in vivo). This study documented distinct differences in VC systems that may be used for NOTES in terms of both optical characteristics and surgical performance. Additional work is warranted to optimize cameras for NOTES. Deployable systems may be especially well suited for this purpose.
Chandra, Sourav; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Thondiyath, Asokan
Accuracy of laparoscopic surgery gets affected by the hand tremor of the surgeons. Though cognitive load is inevitable in such activity which promotes tremor, muscle fatigue induced tremor is significant among the most important sources of tremor. Characteristic of fatigue induced hand tremor and its dominant directional properties are reported in this work. For a fixed laparoscopic tool grip with temporally synchronized predefined task protocols, characteristics of fatigue induced tremors have been studied. Dominant component of tremor was found to be in the sagittal plane in case of both static and dynamic tasks. In order to relate it with the muscle fatigue level, spectral properties of surface electromyography (SEMG) were also investigated simultaneously. A study of transient effect on tool positioning was also included, which conjointly advocates the other experimental results on fatigue induced hand tremor as well.
Sabbagh, Raja; Rafiq, Amil; Familua, Oluwamayowa; Donaldson, Brian
Laparoscopic Loop colostomy has been described in the literature as a safe and useful minimally invasive technique. It is indicated in patients with large perineal wounds requiring fecal diversion, obstructing lesions of the distal colon or rectum. The purpose of this article is to describe a modified version of this procedure which was used by 1 surgeon in our institution on a series of 5 patients. In this method, an esophageal retractor and Penrose drain are used to tent up and exteriorize the desired segment of colon to be used for the colostomy site. Results were that all 5 were completed laparoscopically and there were no complications. In conclusion, this variation in the technique has been useful in our institution and others may find it worthwhile to consider.
Takagi, Toshio; Kondo, Tsunenori; Tachibana, Hidekazu; Iizuka, Junpei; Omae, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Kazunari
To compare surgical outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Of 550 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2012 and 2015, 163 patients with T1-2 renal tumors who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , and underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy or open partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. To minimize selection bias between the two surgical methods, patient variables were adjusted by 1:1 propensity score matching. The present study included 75 patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and 88 undergoing open partial nephrectomy. After propensity score matching, 40 patients were included in each operative group. The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . The mean ischemia time was 21 min in robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (warm ischemia) and 35 min in open partial nephrectomy (cold ischemia). Preservation of the estimated glomerular filtration rate 3-6 months postoperatively was not significantly different between robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy (92% vs 91%, P = 0.9348). Estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group than in the open partial nephrectomy group (104 vs 185 mL, P = 0.0025). The postoperative length of hospital stay was shorter in the robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group than in the open partial nephrectomy group (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 complications and a negative surgical margin status were not significantly different between the two groups. In our experience, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy provide similar outcomes in terms of functional preservation and perioperative complications among patients with
BACKGROUND: gastric banding has been performed for morbid obesity, with the last nine patients having a laparoscopic approach. MATERIALS: forty-five patients who had undergone primary operations for morbid obesity between 1986 and 1993 were selected for retrospective analysis. All patients had undergone gastric banding. Average pre-operative BMI was 50.9 (kg m(2)) and average pre-operative weight was 135.1 kg. RESULTS: the 3 year mean post-operative BMI reached 28.7 and the 3 year mean post-operative weight loss was 55.7 kg. Blood pressure significantly decreased from the mean 151/ 96 mmHg to l32/90 mmHg at 1-year follow-up. There were no significant changes noted in the levels of RBC, electrolytes and transaminase. There were post-operative wound-healing complications in 18.1% of the patients, wound discharge in 8.8% and incisional hernia in 8.8% of the patients. In 1993 we commenced laparoscopic gastric banding which enabled us to shorten the hospital stay and decrease post-operative complications. CONCLUSION: we are achieving the same good weight-loss results with the laparoscopic technique as after 'open' laparotomy gastric banding.
Cheung, Carling L; Looi, Thomas; Lendvay, Thomas S; Drake, James M; Farhat, Walid A
Pediatric laparoscopy poses unique training challenges owing to smaller workspaces, finer sutures used, and potentially more delicate tissues that require increased surgical dexterity when compared with adult analogs. We describe the development and face validation of a pediatric pyeloplasty simulator using a low-cost laparoscopic dry-laboratory model developed with 3-dimensional (3D) printing and silicone modeling. The organs (the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter) were created in a 3-step process where molds were created with 3D modeling software, printed with a Spectrum Z510 3D printer, and cast with Dragon Skin 30 silicone rubber. The model was secured in a laparoscopy box trainer. A pilot study was conducted at a Canadian Urological Association meeting. A total of 24 pediatric urology fellows and 3 experienced faculty members then assessed our skills module during a minimally invasive surgery training course. Participants had 60 minutes to perform a right-side pyeloplasty using laparoscopic tools and 5-0 VICRYL suture. Face validity was demonstrated on a 5-point Likert scale. The dry-laboratory model consists of a kidney, a replaceable dilated renal pelvis and ureter with an obstructed ureteropelvic junction, and an overlying peritoneum with an inscribed fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery pattern-cutting exercise. During initial validation at the Canadian Urological Association, participants rated (out of 5) 4.75 ± 0.29 for overall impression, 4.50 ± 0.41 for realism, and 4.38 ± 0.48 for handling. During the minimally invasive surgery course, 22 of 24 fellows and all the faculty members completed the scoring. Usability was rated 4 or 5 by 14 participants (overall, 3.6 ± 1.22 by novices and 3.7 ± 0.58 by experts), indicating that they would use the model in their own training and teaching. Esthetically, the model was rated 3.5 ± 0.74 (novices) and 3.3 ± 0.58 (experts). We developed a pediatric pyeloplasty simulator by applying a low-cost reusable model
Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; Choy, Bonnie; Gordetsky, Jennifer; Izumi, Koji; Wu, Guan; Rashid, Hani; Joseph, Jean V; Miyamoto, Hiroshi
It remains unanswered whether and how intraoperative frozen section analysis contributes to the surgical margin status on radical prostatectomy specimens. We aimed to determine whether frozen section analysis during radical prostatectomy reduces the incidence of positive surgical margins. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive series of patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy performed at our institution between 2004 and 2011. We identified 2608 cases, including 1128 (43.3%) where intraoperative frozen section analysis was performed to assess surgical margins. Of the cases with positive (n = 60; 5.3%)/negative (n = 1029; 91.2%)/atypical or indeterminate (n = 39; 3.5%) frozen section analyses, 22 (36.7%)/83 (8.1%)/4 (10.3%) were found to have positive surgical margins on radical prostatectomy specimens, respectively. Thus, 109 (9.7%) of 1128 cases with frozen section analysis had positive surgical margins, compared with 163 (11.0%) of 1480 cases with no frozen section analysis (P = .264). When the patients were subgrouped by histopathologic characteristics, frozen section analysis led to a considerable reduction in the rate of positive surgical margins in cases with biopsy Gleason score 7 (12.4% → 8.7%; P = .087)/8 (28.6% → 16.3%; P = .048)/≥7 (15.3% → 10.1%; P = .012) tumor or pT3b (36.6% → 23.2%; P = .075)/≥pT3b (38.1% → 25.4%; P = .091) disease. Multivariate analysis further revealed that performing frozen section analysis in biopsy Gleason score 7 or higher tumors was an independent predictor of negative surgical margins (odds ratio, 0.61; P = .018). In addition, frozen section analysis of the distal urethra or apex of the prostate (7.5%, P = .035) as well as multiple negative frozen section analyses (≥2: 6.2%, P = .001; ≥4: 2.2%, P = .007) correlated with significantly lower rates of positive surgical margin, compared with no frozen section analysis. Overall, intraoperative frozen section analysis did not
Liang, Jin-Tung; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang; Huang, Kuo-Chin
To compare the functional and surgical outcomes of colonic J-pouch and straight anastomosis in the context that both reconstruction procedures were performed laparoscopically. The present study was a randomized prospective clinical trial. Patients with lower rectal cancer requiring laparoscopic total mesorectal excision were equally randomized to either laparoscopic-assisted colonic J-pouch reconstruction or laparoscopic straight end-to-end anastomosis. The techniques of the laparoscopic-assisted colonic J-pouch reconstruction are shown in the attached video. The primary end point was the comparison of functional results in both reconstruction methods. The secondary end points included the safety (surgical morbidity and mortality), surgical efficiency, and postoperative recovery. A total of 48 patients were recruited within 2-year periods, in consideration of statistical power of 90% for comparison. There was no marked difference between patient groups undergoing colonic J-pouch surgery (n = 24) and straight anastomosis (n = 24) in various demographic and clinicopathogic parameters. The anorectal function of patients by colonic J-pouch were better than those by straight anastomosis in 3 months after operation, as evaluated by stool frequency (mean +/- standard deviation: 4.0 +/- 2.0 vs. 7.0 +/- 2.4 times/day, P < .001); use of antidiarrheal agents (29.2% [n = 7] vs. 75.0% [n = 18], P = .004); and perineal irritation (45.8% [n = 11] vs. 79.2% [n = 19], P = .037). Because of the relatively better bowel function in immediate postoperative period, patients by colonic J-pouch reconstruction were less disabled after surgery and had quicker return to partial activity (P = .039), full activity (P < .001), and work (P < .001). Both reconstruction methods were performed with similar amounts of blood loss, complication rates, and postoperative recovery. However, the operation time was significantly longer in the colonic J-pouch group (274.4 +/- 34.0 vs. 202.0 +/- 28.0 minutes
Zhang, Xue-Liang; Liu, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Tao
This meta-analysis collected studies with propensity score matching analysis (PSM) and focused on comparing the short-term and oncological outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) who underwent laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) versus open liver resection (OLR), to provide relatively high-level evidence of the additional value of LLR in treating patients with CRLM in comparison with OLR. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Bibliographic citation management software (EndNote X7) was used for literature management. Quality assessment was performed based on a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The data were analyzed using Review Manager (Version 5.1), and sensitivity analysis was performed by omitting one study in each step. Dichotomous data were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and continuous data were calculated by weighed mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 10 studies enrolling 2259 patients with CRLM were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis suggested that LLR was associated with significantly less overall morbidity (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.80; I(2) = 57%; P < 0.001), reduced blood loss (WMD, -124.68; 95% CI, -177.35 to -72.01; I(2) = 83%; P < 0.00001), less transfusion requirement (OR, 0.46; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.62; I(2) = 0%; P < 0.00001), shorter length of hospital stay (WMD, -2.13; 95% CI, -2.68 to -1.58; I(2) = 0%; P < 0.00001), but longer operative time (WMD, 39.48; 95% CI, 23.68 to 55.27; I(2) = 66%; P = 0.04). However, no significant differences were observed in mortality (OR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.2; I(2) = 0%; P = 0.12). For oncological outcomes, no significant differences were observed in negative surgical margins (R0 resection), tumor recurrence, 3-year disease-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, 5-year overall survival between the approaches. Nevertheless, LLR
Schietroma, M; Giuliani, M; Zoccali, G; Carlei, F; Carnei, F; Bianchi, Z; Amiccucci, G; Amicucci, G; Daniloiu, A G
Laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication (LFNF) is an effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The duration of convalescence, after noncomplicated LFNF, may depend on several factors of which pain, fatigue and sociocultural factors are the most important. Nausea and vomiting occur mainly on the day of operation. Glucocorticoids are well known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating and antiemetic effects. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate whether preoperative dexamethasone could improve surgical outcome in patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication. From March 2005 to April 2008, 82 patients were randomized to receive dexamethasone (8 mg) intravenously, 90 min before skin incision or saline (placebo). Patients received a similar standardized anesthetic, surgical and multimodal analgesic treatment. The primary end points were pain and fatigue. Preoperatively and at several times during the first 24 postoperative hours, we measured C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and 1 (IL-6, IL-1), pain scores and nausea, and the number of vomiting episodes were registered. Dexamethasone significantly reduced postoperative levels of CRP (p = 0.01), IL-6 and IL-1 (p < 0.05), fatigue (p = 0.01) and overall pain during the first 24 postoperative hours (p < 0.05) and the total requirement of analgesic (ketorolac) (p < 0.05). Dexamethasone also reduced nausea and vomiting on the day of operation (p < 0.05). Preoperative dexamethasone (8 mg) reduced pain, fatigue, nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing uncomplicated LNF when compared with placebo.
Kim, Se Ik; Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seon; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Yoo, Chong Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Joo-Young; Chung, Seung Hyun; Park, Sang-Yoon
This study investigated the clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with two different strategies. In total, 79 cervical cancer survivors with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB2-IIB were included. Six survivors with stage IB1 and who had been suspicious for lymph node metastasis on pretreatment image also were included. Forty-two patients received radiotherapy after pretreatment laparoscopic surgical staging (Group 1), and 43 patients received primary radiotherapy (Group 2). The patients' medical records and survey results of the Korean version of the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ-K) were analyzed. The incidence of LEE was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (69.0 vs. 11.6 %; P < 0.001). The duration of LEE was longer in Group 1 (mean 77.3 vs. 9.4 months). At the time of survey, 47.6 % of the patients in Group 1 were clinically diagnosed with lymphedema compared with no patients in Group 2. In GCLQ-K, the mean symptom cluster scores for general swelling (0.74 vs. 0.09; P < 0.001), limb swelling (0.22 vs. 0.00; P = 0.006), and heaviness (0.45 vs. 0.23; P = 0.033) were significantly higher in Group 1. One patient in Group 1 developed lymphedema-related angiosarcoma that was diagnosed at 7.8 years after surgery. Patients with cervical cancer who underwent radiotherapy after laparoscopic surgical staging more commonly experienced LEE and related symptoms than patients who underwent primary radiotherapy. As LEE decreases patients' quality of life, it should be considered during patient consultation and surveillance.
Elhage, Oussama; Challacombe, Ben; Shortland, Adam; Dasgupta, Prokar
To evaluate, in a simulated suturing task, individual surgeons’ performance using three surgical approaches: open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted. subjects and methods: Six urological surgeons made an in vitro simulated vesico-urethral anastomosis. All surgeons performed the simulated suturing task using all three surgical approaches (open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted). The time taken to perform each task was recorded. Participants were evaluated for perceived discomfort using the self-reporting Borg scale. Errors made by surgeons were quantified by studying the video recording of the tasks. Anastomosis quality was quantified using scores for knot security, symmetry of suture, position of suture and apposition of anastomosis. The time taken to complete the task by the laparoscopic approach was on average 221 s, compared with 55 s for the open approach and 116 s for the robot-assisted approach (anova, P < 0.005). The number of errors and the level of self-reported discomfort were highest for the laparoscopic approach (anova, P < 0.005). Limitations of the present study include the small sample size and variation in prior surgical experience of the participants. In an in vitro model of anastomosis surgery, robot-assisted surgery combines the accuracy of open surgery while causing lesser surgeon discomfort than laparoscopy and maintaining minimal access.
Dobrogowski, Miłosz; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Kucharska, Małgorzata; Sapota, Andrzej; Pomorski, Lech Sylwester
The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of patients to organic substances produced and identified in surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Identification of these substances in surgical smoke was performed by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The selected biomarkers of exposure to surgical smoke included benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their concentrations in the urine samples collected from each patient before and after the surgery were determined by SPME-GC/MS. Qualitative analysis of the smoke produced during laparoscopic procedures revealed the presence of a wide variety of potentially toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dioxins and other substances. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene in the urine of the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in contrast to the other determined compounds, were significantly higher after the surgery than before it, which indicates that they were absorbed. The source of the compounds produced in the abdominal cavity during the surgery is tissue pyrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide atmosphere. All patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at risk of absorbing and excreting smoke by-products. Exposure of the patient to emerging chemical compounds is usually a one-time and short-term incident, yet concentrations of benzene and toluene found in the urine were significantly higher after the surgery than before it.
Sohn, Sunghwan; Larson, David W; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Naessens, James M; Alabbad, Jasim Y; Liu, Hongfang
Despite extensive efforts to monitor and prevent surgical site infections (SSIs), real-time surveillance of clinical practice has been sparse and expensive or nonexistent. However, natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (i.e., Bayesian network analysis) may provide the methodology necessary to approach this issue in a new way. We investigated the ability to identify SSIs after colorectal surgery (CRS) through an automated detection system using a Bayesian network. Patients who underwent CRS from 2010 to 2012 and were captured in our institutional American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) comprised our cohort. A Bayesian network was applied to detect SSIs using risk factors from ACS-NSQIP data and keywords extracted from clinical notes by NLP. Two surgeons provided expertise informing the Bayesian network to identify clinically meaningful SSIs (CM-SSIs) occurring within 30 d after surgery. We used data from 751 CRS cases experiencing 67 (8.9%) SSIs and 78 (10.4%) CM-SSIs. Our Bayesian network detected ACS-NSQIP-captured SSIs with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.827, but this value increased to 0.892 when using surgeon-identified CM-SSIs. A Bayesian network coupled with NLP has the potential to be used in real-time SSI surveillance. Moreover, surgeons identified CM-SSI not captured under current NSQIP definitions. Future efforts to expand CM-SSI identification may lead to improved and potentially automated approaches to survey for postoperative SSI in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donato, N; Dario, C; Giovanni, S; Virgilio, B; Paolo, D P; Roberto, L; Gianfranco, P; Mario, L; Daniela, P; Angelo, T
As a means of defining the role of chemotherapy after radical resection of colorectal liver metastases, a follow-up study of consecutive cases referred to three different surgical clinics, between June 1977 and December 1990 was performed. Data were collected from medical records and recorded on standardized forms. Analysis focused on the impact of treatment on survival of the study population by Cox multivariate analysis. One hundred and twenty-four primary colon cancer cases were reviewed and 102 were fully evaluable. Forty of the 102 were given 5FU based chemotherapy. According to multivariate survival analysis, time to hepatic metastasis (synchronous vs metachronous, RR = 0.41, 95%, C.I. = 0.21-0.78; P = 0.007) and sex (female vs male, RR = 0.48, 95% C.I. = 0.25-0.93; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with better survival. The relative risk of dying associated with treatment was 0.53 (95% C.I. = 0.27-1.05; P = 0.0675). This study suggests that chemotherapy may have an impact on survival, although the size of the effect is not precise. Multicentric randomized clinical trials are required to define the risk/benefit profile of adjuvant chemotherapy.
Küper, Markus Alexander; Eisner, Friederike; Königsrainer, Alfred; Glatzle, Jörg
The laparoscopic technique was introduced in gastrointestinal surgery in the mid 1980s. Since then, the development of this technique has been extraordinary. Triggered by technical innovations (stapling devices or coagulation/dissecting devices), nowadays any type of gastrointestinal resection has been successfully performed laparoscopically and can be performed laparoscopically dependent on the patient's condition. This summary gives an overview over 30 years of laparoscopic surgery with focus on today's indications and evidence. Main indications remain the more common procedures, e.g., appendectomy, cholecystectomy, bariatric procedures or colorectal resections. For all these indications, the laparoscopic approach has become the gold standard with less perioperative morbidity. Regarding oncological outcome there have been several high-quality randomized controlled trials which demonstrated equivalency between laparoscopic and open colorectal resections. Less common procedures like esophagectomy, oncological gastrectomy, liver and pancreatic resections can be performed successfully as well by an experienced surgeon. However, the evidence for these special indications is poor and a general recommendation cannot be given. In conclusion, laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized the field of gastrointestinal surgery by reducing perioperative morbidity without disregarding surgical principles especially in oncological surgery.
Verbo, Alessandro; Petito, Luigi; Pedretti, Giorgio; Lurati, Massimo; D'Alba, Pierfrancesco; Coco, Claudio
We present the results of our first 44 laparoscopic incisional hernia repairs. This study examines the effectiveness of this technique in patients presenting with a first-time or recurrent incisional hernia. From October 2001 to November 2002, a total of 45 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic incisional hernia repair with a new form of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) mesh. Patient data, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative records, were recorded and analyzed. Mean defect size was 84 cm2, mean mesh size was 311 cm2, mean surgical time was 65 minutes, and mean hospital stay was 2.25 days. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients (9.1%). The laparoscopic approach is a safe, effective, and relatively complication-free option in the management of first-time and recurrent incisional hernias. The use of modified ePTFE mesh with a dual surface in incisional hernia repair enables early tissue attachment, reduces adhesions, and could reduce the incidence of recurrences.
Parisi, Amilcare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Petrina, Adolfo; Trastulli, Stefano; Grassi, Veronica; Sani, Marco; Pironi, Daniele; Santoro, Alberto
Introduction Over the years various therapeutic techniques for diverticulitis have been developed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) appears to be a safe and useful treatment, and it could be an effective alternative to colonic resection in emergency surgery. Aim This prospective observational study aims to assess the safety and benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Material and methods We surgically treated 70 patients urgently for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy (Hartmann technique); 21 (30%) patients underwent peritoneal laparoscopic lavage; 4 (5.7%) patients underwent colostomy by the Mikulicz technique; and the remaining 13 (18.6%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colorectal anastomosis with a protective ileostomy. Results The 66 patients examined were divided into 3 groups: 32 patients were treated with urgent surgery according to the Hartmann procedure; 13 patients were treated with resection and colorectal anastomosis; 21 patients were treated urgently with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. We had no intraoperative complications. The overall mortality was 4.3% (3 patients). In the LPL group the morbidity rate was 33.3%. Conclusions Currently it cannot be said that LPL is better in terms of mortality and morbidity than colonic resection. These data may, however, be proven wrong by greater attention in the selection of patients to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. PMID:27458487
Giglio, Mariano Cesare; Celentano, Valerio; Tarquini, Rachele; Luglio, Gaetano; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Bucci, Luigi
Several studies compared the outcomes of laparoscopically completed colorectal resections (LCR) to those requiring conversion to open surgery (COS). However, a comparative analysis between COS patients and patients undergoing planned open surgery (POS) would be useful to clarify if the conversion can be considered a simple drawback or a complication, being cause of additional postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of current evidences comparing postoperative outcomes of COS patients to POS patients. A systematic search of Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus was performed to identify studies reporting short-term outcomes of COS and POS patients. Primary outcomes were 30-day overall morbidity and length of postoperative hospital stay. Data were analyzed with fixed-effect modeling, and sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Twenty studies involving 30,656 patients undergoing POS and 1935 COS patients were selected. The mean conversion rate was 0.17. Similar 30-day overall morbidity and length of postoperative hospital stay were found in COS and POS patients. Wound infection (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.83, p < 0.01) was higher in the COS group. Other results were robust. Outcomes were comparable for patients undergoing resection for different natures of the disease (benign vs. malignant) and at different sites (colon vs. rectum). Conversions from laparoscopic to open procedure during colorectal resection are not associated with a poorer postoperative outcome compared to patients undergoing planned open surgery, except for a higher risk of wound infection.
Terzi, Hasan; Biler, Alper; Demirtas, Omer; Guler, Omer Tolga; Peker, Nuri; Kale, Ahmet
To assess the learning curve for total laparoscopic hysterectomy. This study was a retrospective analysis of the learning curve for two surgeons during their first 257 consecutive cases of total laparoscopic hysterectomy at a teaching hospital. Patients were divided sequentially into groups comprising the first 75 patients, the next 75, and the final 107 patients. Age, body mass index, gestational parity, indications for laparoscopic hysterectomy, previous pelvic surgery, operating time, haemoglobin decline, complications, need for transfusion, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. The mean operating time for total laparoscopic hysterectomy reduced significantly from 76.2 min to 68.9 min (p = 0.001) between the first and second 75-patient groups. Linear regression analysis showed a plateau was reached on the learning curve after 71-80 cases. The rate of all complications started at 8% in the first group of 75 patients, reduced to 6.7% in the next group, and decreased further in the final group to 4.7%. The decline was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The difference in the need for transfusion was statistically significant between the first 75 patients and the second group of 75 (p = 0.04). Conversion from laparoscopy to laparotomy was required in five patients, four in the early group and one in the final group. Age, body mass index, parity, previous pelvic surgery, decline in haemoglobin, and length of hospital stay were similar among the three groups. A plateau in the learning curve for TLH was reached after the first 75 cases. We can infer that there is a learning curve for TLH as confirmed by the decrease in operating time (accompanied by no change in complications) correlated to gain in experience. On the other hand, one should not disregard the fact that laparoscopy is not a complication-free surgery and achievement of the learning curve does not exclude complications. Gynaecological surgeons can perform TLH securely during the learning
Nardo, Bruno; Serafini, Simone; Ruggiero, Michele; Grande, Raffaele; Fugetto, Francesco; Zullo, Alessandra; Novello, Matteo; Rizzuto, Antonia; Bonaiuto, Elisabetta; Vaccarisi, Sebastiano; Cavallari, Giuseppe; Serra, Raffaele; Cannistrà, Marco; Sacco, Rosario
Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) may develop liver metastases. Surgical resection remains the best treatment of choice for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) according to resectability criteria, with a long-term survival of 25% up to 41% after 5 years. Advanced age is associated with a higher incidence and co-morbidity, particularly cardiovascular disease, as well as deteriorating physiological reserves. The aim of this study was to analyse the overall and disease-free survival for patients with CRLM according to their chronological age. Patients with CRLM were enrolled in the study. Data on gender, age, co-morbidity, metastasis characteristics (number, size and total metastatic volume (TMV)), use of perioperative chemotherapy and operative and post-operative complications were collected. Then, according to recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the patients were grouped by age. Statistical analysis was performed using the software R (ver. 2.14.1). Hepatic resection was performed in 149 patients (21 patients in the very elderly group, 79 in the elderly group and 49 in the younger group). The three groups were comparable in terms of operative duration, transfusion rate, length of high-dependency unit (HDU) stay and post-operative hospital stay. The very elderly group showed a non-significant increase in post-operative morbidity. The 30-day and 60-day/inpatient mortality rates increased with age without any significant statistically difference between the three groups (very elderly group 4.8% and 4.8%; elderly group: 2.5% and 3.8%; and younger group 0% and 2%). At 5 years, the overall survival was 28.6% for very elderly patients (≥75 years), 33.3% for elderly patients (≥65 to <75 years) and 43.5% for younger patients (≤65 years). The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival was similar across the groups. Liver resection for CRLM in carefully selected patients above the age of 75 can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates
Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Llavero, Carolina; Arroyo, Antonio; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Calero, Alicia; Diez, María; Zubiaga, Lorea; Calpena, Rafael
Surgical procedures on obese patients are expected to have a high incidence of surgical site infection (SSI). The identification of pre-operative or early post-operative risk factors for SSI may help the surgeon to identify subjects in risk and adequately optimize their status. We conducted a study of the association of comorbidities and pre- and post-operative analytical variables with SSI following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of morbid obesity. We performed a prospective study of all morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as a bariatric procedure between 2007 and 2011. An association of clinical and analytical variables with SSI was investigated. The study included 40 patients with a mean pre-operative body mass index (BMI) of 51.2±7.9 kg/m(2). Surgical site infections appeared in three patients (7.5%), of whom two had an intra-abdominal abscess located in the left hypochondrium and the third had a superficial incisional SSI. Pre-operatively, a BMI >45 kg/m(2) (OR 8.7; p=0.008), restrictive disorders identified by pulmonary function tests (OR 10.0; p=0.012), a serum total protein concentration <5.3 g/dL (OR 13; p=0.003), a plasma cortisol >30 mcg/dL (OR 13.0; p=0.003), and a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <82 fL (OR 1.6; p=0.04) were associated with post-operative SSI. Post-operatively, a serum glucose >128 mg/dL (OR 4.7; p=0.012) and hemoglobin <11g/dL (OR 7.5; p=0.002) were associated with SSI. The study supports the role of restrictive lung disorders and the values specified above for preoperative BMI, serum total protein and cortisol concentrations, and MCV, and of post-operative anemia and hyperglycemia as risk factors for SSI. In these situations, the surgeon must be aware of and seek to control these risk factors.
Tsuda, Shawn; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Gould, Jon; Azagury, Dan; Sandler, Bryan; Hutter, Matthew; Ross, Sharona; Haas, Eric; Brody, Fred; Satava, Richard
The da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a computer-assisted (robotic) surgical system designed to enable and enhance minimally invasive surgery. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared computer-assisted surgical systems for use by trained physicians in an operating room environment for laparoscopic surgical procedures in general, cardiac, colorectal, gynecologic, head and neck, thoracic and urologic surgical procedures. There are substantial numbers of peer-reviewed papers regarding the da Vinci(®) Surgical System, and a thoughtful assessment of evidence framed by clinical opinion is warranted. The SAGES da Vinci(®) TAVAC sub-committee performed a literature review of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System regarding gastrointestinal surgery. Conclusions by the sub-committee were vetted by the SAGES TAVAC Committee and SAGES Executive Board. Following revisions, the document was evaluated by the TAVAC Committee and Executive Board again for final approval. Several conclusions were drawn based on expert opinion organized by safety, efficacy, and cost for robotic foregut, bariatric, hepatobiliary/pancreatic, colorectal surgery, and single-incision cholecystectomy. Gastrointestinal surgery with the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is safe and comparable, but not superior to standard laparoscopic approaches. Although clinically acceptable, its use may be costly for select gastrointestinal procedures. Current data are limited to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System; further analyses are needed.
David, Kerstin A; Unger, Florian T; Uhlig, Philipp; Juhl, Hartmut; Moore, Helen M; Compton, Carolyn; Nashan, Björn; Dörner, Arnulf; de Weerth, Andreas; Zornig, Carsten
An understanding of tissue data variability in relation to processing techniques during and postsurgery would be desirable when testing surgical specimens for clinical diagnostics, drug development, or identification of predictive biomarkers. Specimens of normal and colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues removed during colon and liver resection surgery were obtained at the beginning of surgery and postsurgically, tissue was fixed at 10, 20, and 45 minutes. Specimens were analyzed from 50 patients with primary CRC and 43 with intrahepatic metastasis of CRC using a whole genome gene expression array. Additionally, we focused on the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and quantified proteins and their phosphorylation status in relation to tissue processing timepoints. Gene and protein expression data obtained from colorectal and liver specimens were influenced by tissue handling during surgery and by postsurgical processing time. To obtain reliable expression data, tissue processing for research and diagnostic purposes needs to be highly standardized.
Salem, Leon; Devlin, Allison; Sullivan, Sean D.; Flum, David R.
Setting Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures. While both procedures likely reduce healthcare expenditures related to the resolution of comorbid conditions, they have different rates of perioperative risks and differential rates of associated weight loss. Objective We designed a model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of these procedures compared to non-operative weight loss interventions and to each other. Methods Deterministic, payer-perspective model comparing the lifetime expected costs and outcomes of LAGB, LRYGB and non-surgical treatment. The major endpoints were survival, health related quality of life and weight loss. Life expectancy and lifetime medical costs were calculated across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) strata using previously published data. Results For both men and women LRYGB and LAGB were cost-effective at less than $25,000/QALY even when evaluating the full range of baseline BMI and estimates of adverse outcomes, weight loss and costs. For base-case scenarios in men (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $11,604 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $18,543 per QALY for LRYGB. For base-case scenarios in women (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $8,878 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $14,680 per QALY for LRYGB. Conclusions Modeled cost-effectiveness analysis showed that both operative interventions for morbid obesity, LAGB and RYGB, were cost-effective at less than $25,000, and LAGB was more cost-effective than RYGB for all the base-case scenarios. PMID:18069075
Fukuda, H; Morikane, K; Kuroki, M; Kawai, S; Hayashi, K; Ieiri, Y; Matsukawa, H; Okada, K; Sakamoto, F; Shinzato, T; Taniguchi, S
To estimate the impact of surgical site infection (SSI) on postoperative resource consumption for colon and rectal open and laparoscopic surgeries after accounting for infection depth and patient characteristics, and to compare these estimates among institutions. We collected administrative and SSI-related data from eight Japanese hospitals, and used generalized linear models to estimate excess postoperative length of stay (LOS) and charges attributable to SSI. Covariates included wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation time, emergency, colostomy, trauma, implant, and comorbidities. We examined 1,108 colon surgery (CS) and 477 rectal surgery (RS) patients. For open surgery, the postoperative LOS in non-SSI patients was 13.5 (CS) and 15.9 days (RS). Compared with non-SSI patients, the postoperative LOS increased by 4.5 (CS) and 2.8 days (RS) for superficial SSI, 6.8 (CS) and 8.5 days (RS) for deep SSI, and 7.8 and 9.5 days for space/organ SSI. For laparoscopic surgery, the postoperative LOS was 9.8 (CS) and 14.6 days (RS). SSI was significantly associated with increased postoperative LOS for superficial SSI [by 4.8 (CS) and 3.6 days (RS)], deep SSI [by 10.3 (CS) and 23.9 days (RS)], and space/organ SSI [by 8.9 days (RS)]. The postoperative LOS among hospitals was 3.8-10.4 days (CS) and 1.3-12.2 days (RS). Postoperative SSI-attributable charges ranged from $386 to $2,873, depending on organ, procedure, and infection depth. This study quantified the impact of SSIs on resource consumption and confirmed significant cost variations among hospitals. These variations could not be explained by patient characteristics or infection type.
Lorenzon, Laura; La Torre, Marco; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Montebelli, Francesco; Mercantini, Paolo; Balducci, Genoveffa; Ferri, Mario
AIM: To report a meta-analysis of the studies that compared the laparoscopic with the open approach for colon cancer resection. METHODS: Forty-seven manuscripts were reviewed, 33 of which employed for meta-analysis according to the PRISMA guidelines. The results were differentiated according to the study design (prospective randomized trials vs case-control series) and according to the tumor’s location. Outcome measures included: (1) short-term results (operating times, blood losses, bowel function recovery, post-operative pain, return to the oral intake, complications and hospital stay); (2) oncological adequateness (number of nodes harvested in the surgical specimens); and (3) long-term results (including the survivals’ rates and incidence of incisional hernias) and (4) costs. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of trials provided evidences in support of the laparoscopic procedures for a several short-term outcomes including: a lower blood loss, an earlier recovery of the bowel function, an earlier return to the oral intake, a shorter hospital stay and a lower morbidity rate. Opposite the operating time has been confirmed shorter in open surgery. The same trend has been reported investigating case-control series and cancer by sites, even though there are some concerns regarding the power of the studies in this latter field due to the small number of trials and the small sample of patients enrolled. The two approaches were comparable regarding the mean number of nodes harvested and long-term results, even though these variables were documented reviewing the literature but were not computable for meta-analysis. The analysis of the costs documented lower costs for the open surgery, however just few studies investigated the incidence of post-operative hernias. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy is superior for the majority of short-term results. Future studies should better differentiate these approaches on the basis of tumors’ location and the post-operative hernias. PMID:24707154
Mayo, Skye C; Pulitano, Carlo; Marques, Hugo; Lamelas, Jorge; Wolfgang, Christopher L; de Saussure, Wassila; Choti, Michael A; Gindrat, Isabelle; Aldrighetti, Luca; Barrosso, Eduardo; Mentha, Gilles; Pawlik, Timothy M
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to investigate the surgical management and outcomes of patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastasis (sCRLM). STUDY DESIGN Using a multi-institutional database, we identified 1,004 patients treated for sCRLM between 1982 and 2011. Clinicopathologic and outcomes data were evaluated with uni- and multivariable analyses. RESULTS A simultaneous CRC and liver operation was performed in 329 (33%) patients; 675 (67%) underwent a staged approach (“classic” staged approach, n = 647; liver-first strategy, n = 28). Patients managed with the liver-first approach had more hepatic lesions and were more likely to have bilateral disease than those in the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). The use of staged operative strategies increased over the time of the study from 58% to 75% (p < 0.001). Liver-directed therapy included hepatectomy (90%) or combined resection + ablation (10%). A major resection (>3 segments) was more common with a staged approach (39% vs 24%; p < 0.001). Overall, 509 patients (50%) received chemotherapy in either the preoperative (22%) or adjuvant (28%) settings, with 11% of patients having both. There were 197 patients (20%) who had a complication in the postoperative period, with no difference in morbidity between staged and simultaneous groups or major vs minor hepatectomies (p > 0.05). Ninety-day postoperative mortality was 3.0%, with no difference between simultaneous and staged approaches (p = 0.94). The overall median and 5-year survivals were 50.9 months and 44%, respectively; long-term survival was the same regardless of the operative approach (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous and staged resections for sCRLM can be performed with comparable morbidity, mortality, and long-term oncologic outcomes. PMID:23433970
Yoshinare, Kentaro; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Wada, Norihito; Nishibori, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitajima, Masaki; Takechi, Teiji; Fukushima, Masakazu
To predict the sensitivity of colorectal cancer to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we compared the gene expression of surgically obtained colorectal cancer specimens with chemosensitivity to 5-FU as detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Eighty-eight patients with advanced and/or metastatic colorectal cancer provided written informed consent and entered the trial from September 2000 to October 2001. Fresh surgical specimens were used for the MTT assay, and sensitivity to 5-FU was evaluated at a cutoff concentration of 50 microg/ml and 48-h incubation time. Frozen samples were stored at - 80 degrees C until mRNA analysis of thymidylate synthetase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), es-nucleoside transporter (NT), and E2F1 by real-time RT-PCR. The correlations between the variables were analyzed, and the predictive value of these mRNAs was assessed statistically using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. NT and DPD, TP and DPD, and TP and NT mRNA expression levels correlated significantly, while TS and E2F1 showed no correlations. High NT expression was associated with low sensitivity to 5-FU (P < 0.013), as were high DPD and E2F1 expression (P < 0.022 for both). High TP mRNA expression correlated with low sensitivity to 5-FU (P < 0.034), although high TS mRNA expression did not. ROC curves indicated that DPD and NT mRNAs were possible predictors of sensitivity to 5-FU, with cutoff values of 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. The sensitivity of colorectal cancer to 5-FU may be regulated by DPD, the rate-limiting enzyme of catabolism, and NT, an important transmembrane transporter of nucleosides.
Hsu, Chao-Wen; Wang, Jui-Ho; Kung, Ya-Hsin; Chang, Min-Chi
Colorectal perforations are a serious condition associated with a high mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and identify predictors for the surgical mortality in adult patients with colorectal perforation, thereby achieving better outcomes. A retrospective study of adult patients diagnosed with colorectal perforation operated was performed. The clinical variables that might influence the surgical mortality were first analyzed, and the significant variables were then analyzed using a logistic regression model. A total of 423 patients were identified, and the surgical mortality rate was 36.9 %. The most common etiology was diverticulitis (38.2 %). The highest etiology-specific mortality was for colorectal cancer (61.5 %) and ischemic proctocolitis (59.8 %). In a logistic analysis, the significant predictors for the surgical mortality were ≥3 comorbidities (p = 0.034), preoperation American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥4 (p = 0.025), preoperative sepsis or septic shock (p < 0.001), colorectal cancer or ischemic proctocolitis (p = 0.035), reoperation (p = 0.041), and Hinchey classification grade IV (p = 0.024). We demonstrated that ≥3 comorbidities, a preoperation American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥4, preoperative sepsis or septic shock, colorectal cancer or ischemic proctocolitis, reoperation, and Hinchey classification grade IV are predictors for the surgical mortality in the adult cases of colorectal perforation. These predictors should be taken into consideration to prevent surgical mortality and to reduce potentially unnecessary medical expenses.
Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H
In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from Institutional Review Boards at the participating institutions
Giavarini, Luisa; Boni, Luigi; Cortellezzi, Camillo Claudio; Segato, Sergio; Cassinotti, Elisa; Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Marzorati, Alessandro; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Sambucci, Daniele; Dionigi, Renzo
Cancer is a potential evolution of adenomatous polyps, that is why nowadays screening programs for colorectal cancer are widely diffused. Colonoscopy is the gold standard procedure for identifying and resecting polyps; however, for some polyps resection during colonoscopy is not possible. The aim of the present study is to identify a fast and safe procedure for endoscopically resecting unresectable polyps. Patients with endoscopically unresectable polyps were scheduled for laparoscopic wedge resection under colonoscopic assistance. From November 2010 to November 2012 we treated 15 patients with endoscopically unresectable adenomatous polyps. All patients underwent a laparoscopic caecal wedge resection with intraoperative endoscopic assistance. All procedures were completed without complications and in all cases complete resection of the polyps was achieved. Laparoscopic wedge caecal resection with intraoperative colonoscopy is a fast and safe procedure that can be performed for large polyps that could not be treated endoscopically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kehlet, H; Kennedy, R H
Laparoscopic colonic resection may facilitate early postoperative recovery due to reduced surgical stress, pain and ileus. However, large randomised studies have only shown marginal improvements in outcome compared with open surgery, reporting a median hospital stay of about 5-7 days. Concomitant with these developments multimodal rehabilitation, which involves a revision of general postoperative care principles, improved pain relief with epidural analgesia and early oral nutrition and mobilization, has demonstrated greater improvements in recovery after open surgery, resulting in a median hospital stay of about 2-4 days. Recent single centre, randomised studies where laparoscopic and open colonic resection are combined with multimodal rehabilitation have not resolved the debate regarding which is the optimal operative technique. Therefore, new strategies are required to integrate laparoscopy with multimodal rehabilitation in order to establish its advantages, cost effectiveness and indications in specific groups of patients or colorectal procedures, thus justifying widespread application of the laparoscopic technique.
Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Hatano, Tadashi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ozu, Choichiro; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yonov, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki; Patel, Vipul R
In Japan, as of September 2007, prostatectomy is conducted with open surgical procedures in more than 90% of the cases. Following the first reported robotic prostatectomy by Binder, et al. in 2000, a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) using the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) has been extensively used as a standard procedure with gratifying results in the United States. In the Asian region, in contrast, RALP is still in an introductory phase. Recently, we introduced RALP in Japan. A total of 24 patients received robotic surgery within a year since August 2006. RALP was completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery, except for the first patient in whom a restriction to a 2-hour operation had been imposed by the Ethical Committee. The mean operative time using the daVinci device and the mean estimated blood loss were 232.0 (range; 136-405) minutes and 313.0 (range; 10-1,000) ml, respectively. The training program we recently developed proved remarkably effective in reducing the learning curve of robotic surgery in Japan, where there is no person with expertise in this operating procedure. In particular, the intraoperative guidance given by the expert was useful after relevant problematic points were delineated by operators who received comprehensive video-based image training and actually performed robot surgery in several cases. With direct intraoperative guidance by the mentor during cases 13 and 14, both the operation time and estimated blood loss was markedly reduced.
Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a prevalent condition leading to poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with refractory symptoms. Laparoscopic antireflux (LAR) surgery has been shown to improve QOL, and I sought to examine the surgical and QOL outcomes associated with LAR surgery over a 3-year period at a regional hospital. Methods Patients were given GERD–health related quality of life (GERD-HRQL) and SF-36 questionnaires preoperatively, at 6 months and at 12 or more months after surgery. I collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes. Results Of the 342 patients referred for GERD or dysphagia, 26 received LAR surgery during the study period. All 26 patients had symptoms refractory to medications; 19 had atypical symptoms and 8 had some form of chronic pain syndrome (CPS). The mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes. There were no conversions, complications, 30-day readmissions or deaths. Three patients stayed 2 days in hospital and 23 stayed overnight. One patient required esophageal dilation for persistent dysphagia. Two patients resumed medication for recurrent symptoms and 24 remained medication free. There were significant improvements in GERD–HRQL scores in all patients. Patients with CPS had no improvements in SF-36 scores, whereas patients without CPS showed significant improvement. Conclusion Excellent surgical outcomes in LAR surgery can be obtained with careful patient selection at a nonacademic regional hospital. Although GERD-HRQL improved in all patients, patients with CPS showed no improvement in general health QOL scores after LAR surgery. Careful patient counselling should be employed when offering LAR surgery to patients with CPS. PMID:22269301
Di Lorenzo, N; Camperchioli, I; Gaspari, A L
We illustrate our experience with a new class of instruments, the mechanical manipulators (MM), whose main features are an improved mobility, and ergonomy and a modular structure. A specific MM, the Radius Surgical System (RADIUS), has been used both for educational purposes as well as in clinical studies, demonstrating that it can represent an efficient tool to support surgeons performing surgical complex procedures, with a short learning curve for the postural attitude.
Schumann, Sandra; Bühligen, Ulf; Neumuth, Thomas
The effective and efficient assessment, management, and evolution of surgical processes are intrinsic to excellent patient care. Hence, in addition to economic interests, the quality of the outcome is of great importance. Process benchmarking examines the compliance of an intraoperative surgical process to another process that is considered as best practice. The objective of this work is to assess the relationship between the course and the outcome of surgical processes of the study. By assessing 450 skill practices on rapid prototyping models in minimally invasive surgery training, we extracted descriptions of surgical processes and examined the hypothesis that a significant relationship exists between the course of a surgical process and the quality of its outcome. The results showed a significant correlation with Person correlation coefficients >0.05 between the quality of process outcome and process compliance for simple and complex suturing tasks in the study. We conclude that high process compliance supports good quality outcomes and, therefore, excellent patient care. We also showed that a deviation from best training processes led to a decreased outcome quality. This is relevant for identifying requirements for surgical processes, for generating feedback for the surgeon with regard to human factors and for inducing changes in the workflow in order to improve the outcome quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ohki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Miyata, Hiroaki; Sato, Yasuto; Saida, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Hirata, Koichi
Colorectal perforation has a high rate of mortality. We compared the incidence and fatality rates of colorectal perforation among different hospitals in Japan using data from the nationwide surgical database.Patients were registered in the National Clinical Database (NCD) between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013. Patients with colorectal perforation were identified from surgery records by examining if acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP) and diseases associated with a high probability of colorectal perforation were noted. The primary outcome measures included the 30-day postsurgery mortality and surgical mortality of colorectal perforation. We analyzed differences in the observed-to-expected mortality (O/E) ratio between the two groups of hospitals, that is, specialized and non-specialized, using the logistic regression analysis forward selection method.There were 10,090 cases of disease-induced colorectal perforation during the study period. The annual average postoperative fatality rate was 11.36%. There were 3884 patients in the specialized hospital group and 6206 in the non-specialized hospital group. The O/E ratio (0.9106) was significantly lower in the specialized hospital group than in the non-specialized hospital group (1.0704). The experience level of hospitals in treating cases of colorectal perforation negatively correlated with the O/E ratio.We conducted the first study investigating differences among hospitals with respect to their fatality rate of colorectal perforation on the basis of data from a nationwide database. Our data suggest that patients with colorectal perforation should choose to be treated at a specialized hospital or a hospital that treats five or more cases of colorectal perforation per year. The results of this study indicate that specialized hospitals may provide higher quality medical care, which in turn proves that government policy on healthcare is effective at improving the medical system in Japan.
Ohki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Miyata, Hiroaki; Sato, Yasuto; Saida, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Hirata, Koichi
Abstract Colorectal perforation has a high rate of mortality. We compared the incidence and fatality rates of colorectal perforation among different hospitals in Japan using data from the nationwide surgical database. Patients were registered in the National Clinical Database (NCD) between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013. Patients with colorectal perforation were identified from surgery records by examining if acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP) and diseases associated with a high probability of colorectal perforation were noted. The primary outcome measures included the 30-day postsurgery mortality and surgical mortality of colorectal perforation. We analyzed differences in the observed-to-expected mortality (O/E) ratio between the two groups of hospitals, that is, specialized and non-specialized, using the logistic regression analysis forward selection method. There were 10,090 cases of disease-induced colorectal perforation during the study period. The annual average postoperative fatality rate was 11.36%. There were 3884 patients in the specialized hospital group and 6206 in the non-specialized hospital group. The O/E ratio (0.9106) was significantly lower in the specialized hospital group than in the non-specialized hospital group (1.0704). The experience level of hospitals in treating cases of colorectal perforation negatively correlated with the O/E ratio. We conducted the first study investigating differences among hospitals with respect to their fatality rate of colorectal perforation on the basis of data from a nationwide database. Our data suggest that patients with colorectal perforation should choose to be treated at a specialized hospital or a hospital that treats five or more cases of colorectal perforation per year. The results of this study indicate that specialized hospitals may provide higher quality medical care, which in turn proves that government policy on healthcare is effective at improving the medical system in Japan. PMID:28079809
Zoucas, Evita; Lydrup, Marie-Louise
Postoperative complications contribute to morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the impact of surgical complications on healthcare resource utilization for patients undergoing elective colorectal procedures. Data were obtained on 530 consecutive colorectal operations performed from January 2010 to January 2011. Patient demographics, type of procedure, surgical complications classified as Clavien 1-5, length of stay, 60-day readmission rate, and hospital costs were recorded. Seventy-five percent of the operations were associated with malignancy, and 26% were pelvic procedures. Thirty-five percent of the patients developed at least one complication, 21% of the complications did not require intervention. The readmission rate was 7.4%. Nine patients died during 60-day post discharge follow up.Median length of stay was 9 (3-34) days in uncomplicated and 16 (4-205) days in complicated cases. Occurrence of any complication at index admission increased total hospital costs 2.1-fold (EUR 25,680 vs. EUR 12,405), with the largest cost differential attributed to wound dehiscence and/or suture line failure requiring reoperation. These increases were primarily due to prolonged hospitalization and ICU expenditures. Readmission resulted in a further increase to an average cost of EUR 12,585 per re-admitted patient.Multivariate analysis showed that BMI > 25, obesity, operation complexity and surgeon significantly affected the risk for complication. Also, hospital costs were significantly increased by any postoperative complications, reoperations, high complexity of surgical procedures and high comorbidity index. Reducing morbidity after colorectal procedures improves quality of care and patient safety, and may also substantially reduce hospital costs and increase the efficiency of resource utilization.
Metser, Ur; Halankar, Jaydeep; Langer, Deanna; Mohan, Ravi; Hussey, Douglas; Hadas, Moshonov; Tamir, Shlomit
The largest randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effect of FDG-PET on surgical management for metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma to liver ("PET-CAM") reported only a modest change in surgical management (8%).
Su, Xiangqian; Yang, Hong
With process optimization and technical innovation, laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery has evolved dramatically over the last two decades and provided important improvement in the contemporary surgical practice and patients' recovery. With the emergence of many new minimally invasive technologies, including total laparoscopic surgery, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, and natural orifice specimen extraction, patents with gastrointestinal carcinomas may experience less pain and have lower perioperative complications, but the exact efficacy remains to be proven. Large-scale international multi-centre randomized controlled trial data have revealed that laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe both in terms of short-term perioperative outcomes and long-term oncological efficacy. However, the question whether there is an equivalent oncological outcome compared to the open approach in gastric cancer is still unanswered by now and needs to be proven by future studies.
Malinowski, Andrzej; Majchrzak-Baczmańska, Dominika; Pogoda, Krzysztof; Maciołek-Blewniewska, Grazyna; Antosiak, Beata
The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy feasibility and safety of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with lymphadenectomy in the treatment of endometrial cancer The retrospective study included 31 patients with endometrial cancer who underwent TLH with lymphadenectomy and 42 patients with endometrial cancer who were operated by laparotomy. In both groups the following parameters were analyzed: age, BMI, accompanying diseases, previous surgeries, parity duration of the surgery blood loss (complete blood count before and after the operation was compared), necessity of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay uterine volume, grade, stage of endometrial cancer (FIGO), and intra/ postoperative complications. Mean age of patients was lower in the laparoscopic group than in women operated by laparotomy: 54 and 64, respectively (p = 0.0001). There were no significant differences between both groups in BMI, uterine volume, grade, staging (FIGO), and parity The percentage of patients with accompanying chronic diseases in the TLH group was lower than in the laparotomy group: 48.39% and 83.34%, respectively (p = 0,032). There were no significant differences between both group in the history of previous laparotomies (p = 0.704). Mean duration of surgery was shorter in the case of laparotomy than in case of laparoscopy: 130.6 and 151.77, respectively (p = 0.003). Laparotomy was associated with greater blood loss during surgery Statistically significantly higher decrease in the Hb concentration and Hct values was noted in the group operated by laparotomy when compared to laparoscopy (mean values.: Hb-1.1 7 g/dl, Hct-3.49% for the TLH technique and Hb-7.8 g/dl Hct-5.47% for laparotomy; p = 0.011-Hb; p = 0.003-Hct). Mean hospital stay after laparoscopy was shorter than after laparotomy--4 and 9 days, respectively (p = 0,0001). The influence of the operational technique on the number of pelvic lymph nodes taken for histopathological examination was evaluated. No
Tebala, Giovanni Domenico
Colorectal surgery has its roots in the early civilisations and its development followed a complex pathway never disjoined from the social and cultural environment where it took place. The most relevant historical sources have been evaluated. A comprehensive review of the history of colorectal surgery is presented, from the ancient Egyptian culture to the modern achievements. The development of surgery of colon, rectum and anus is reported with particular reference to the social environment and history; as the development of colorectal surgery parallels the occurrence of human historical events, the study of the former cannot be disjoined from the latter. Study and knowledge of the history of medicine--and, in particular, of colorectal surgery for those interested in this particular subject--is a privileged way to understand who we are nowadays and where we come from.
Li, Hui; Zhu, Hong-Lan; Chang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yi; Wang, Yue; Guan, Jing; Cui, Heng
Background: The association between the previous history of endometriosis and obstetric outcomes is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of previous history of operatively diagnosed endometriosis on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A total of 98 primiparous women who had been diagnosed with endometriosis by previous laparoscopic surgery were included in this retrospective cohort study. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between these women (study group) who had a live birth and 300 women without endometriosis (control group) who had a live birth. In the study group, the pregnancy outcomes of 74 women who conceived naturally (no assisted reproductive technology [ART] subgroup) were simultaneously compared with 24 women who conceived by ART (ART subgroup). Results: Miscarriage was observed in 23 of 98 women with endometriosis (23.5%). There were 75 women who had a live birth after laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis in the study group eventually. On multivariate analysis, the postpartum hemorrhage rate increased significantly in the study group when compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio: 2.265, 95% confidence interval: 1.062, 4.872; P = 0.034). There was an upward tendency of developing other pregnancy-related complications, such as preterm birth, placental abruption, placenta previa, cesarean section, fetal distress/anemia, and others in the study group than in the control group. However, the differences showed no statistical significance. Within the study group, the occurrence rate of postpartum hemorrhage and preterm birth was both higher in the ART subgroup than in the no ART subgroup. The differences both had statistical significance (44.4% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.024 and 27.8% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.010, respectively). At the same time, median (interquartile range) for gestational age at delivery in the ART subgroup was significantly shorter than that in the no ART subgroup (38 weeks [36–39 weeks] vs. 39 weeks [38–40 weeks]; P = 0
Gill, T S; Karantana, A; Rees, J; Pandey, S; Dixon, A R
The aim of the study was to analyse the outcome of restorative proctocolectomy carried out by laparoscopic surgery. A prospectively collected electronic database of all colorectal laparoscopic procedures performed between April 2001 and July 2003 has been used to identify surgical outcomes in 14 consecutive patients who have undergone laparoscopic RPC. Fourteen patients (5 male), median BMI 24 kg/m(2) have undergone restorative laparoscopic proctocolectomy over a two year period: 13 (ulcerative colitis, one with cancer) and 1 (FAP). The median operation time was 260 min; time has not decreased with experience. There were no intra-operative surgical complications or deaths. Patient controlled analgesia continued for a median of 36 h. The median time to diet was 48 h and median hospital stay 7 days; three patients required nasogastric aspiration for delayed gastric emptying. Eighteen regional lymph nodes were retrieved local to the carcinoma. There was one anastomotic leak. All covering stomas were closed by 6 months (12 by eight weeks). All 14 patients are fully continent, able to suppress urgency and have a median pouch frequency of 4/24 h. None admit to having problems with potency, orgasm sensation, ejaculation, micturition. One lady reports dysparunia. All are highly satisfied with functional outcome and cosmesis. We are encouraged to continue to offer our patients the option of a laparoscopic resection.
Kiran, Ravi Pokala; Murray, Alice C A; Chiuzan, Cody; Estrada, David; Forde, Kenneth
To clarify whether bowel preparation use or its individual components [mechanical bowel preparation (MBP)/oral antibiotics] impact specific outcomes after colorectal surgery. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-targeted colectomy data initiated in 2012 capture information on the use/type of bowel preparation and colorectal-specific complications. For patients undergoing elective colorectal resection, the impact of preoperative MBP and antibiotics (MBP+/ABX+), MBP alone (MBP+/ABX-), and no bowel preparation (no-prep) on outcomes, particularly anastomotic leak, surgical site infection (SSI), and ileus, were evaluated using unadjusted/adjusted logistic regression analysis. Of 8442 patients, 2296 (27.2%) had no-prep, 3822 (45.3%) MBP+/ABX-, and 2324 (27.5%) MBP+/ABX+. Baseline characteristics were similar; however, there were marginally more patients with prior sepsis, ascites, steroid use, bleeding disorders, and disseminated cancer in no-prep. MBP with or without antibiotics was associated with reduced ileus [MBP+/ABX+: odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.68; MBP+/ABX-: OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68-0.91] and SSI [MBP+/ABX+: OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32-0.48; MBP+/ABX-: OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.93] versus no-prep. MBP+/ABX+ was also associated with lower anastomotic leak rate than no-prep [OR = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.32-0.64)]. On multivariable analysis, MBP with antibiotics, but not without, was independently associated with reduced anastomotic leak (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35-0.94), SSI (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31-0.53), and postoperative ileus (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.90). These data clarify the near 50-year debate whether bowel preparation improves outcomes after colorectal resection. MBP with oral antibiotics reduces by nearly half, SSI, anastomotic leak, and ileus, the most common and troublesome complications after colorectal surgery.
Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Eom, Bang-Wool; Yoon, Hong-Man; Kim, Yong-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Yeul; Kim, Young-Woo
Purpose Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in early gastric cancer causes an artificial gastric ulcer and local inflammation that has a negative intraprocedural impact on additional laparoscopic gastrectomy in patients with noncurative ESD. In this study, we analyzed the effect of ESD on short-term surgical outcomes and evaluated the risk factors. Materials and Methods From January 2003 to January 2013, 1,704 patients of the National Cancer Center underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph node dissection because of preoperative stage Ia or Ib gastric cancer. They were divided into 2 groups: (1) with preoperative ESD or (2) without preoperative ESD. Clinicopathologic factors and short-t