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Sample records for large aperture laser

  1. Large aperture adaptive optics for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, François; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-05-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed a range of large aperture electro-mechanical deformable mirrors (DM) suitable for ultra short pulsed intense lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations thanks to electromechanical actuators driven by stepper motors. DM design and assembly method have been adapted to large aperture beams and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm at 45° angle of incidence. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Simulations were correlated with measurements on optical bench and the design has been validated by calculation for very large aperture (up to Ø550mm). Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for actual MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The MD-AME mirrors can be adapted to circular, square or elliptical beams and they are compatible with all dielectric or metallic coatings.

  2. Large aperture laser beam alignment system based on far field sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Liu, D. Z.; Ouyang, X. P.; Kang, J.; Xie, X. L.; Zhou, J.; Gong, L.; Zhu, B. Q.

    2016-11-01

    Laser beam alignment is very important for high-power laser facility. Long laser path and large-aperture lens for alignment are generally used, while the proposed alignment system with a wedge by far-field sampling technique reduces both space and cost requirements. General alignment system for large-aperture laser beam is long in distance and large in volum because of taking near-field sampling technique. With the development of laser fusion facilities, the space for alignment system is limited. A new alignment system for large-aperture laser beam is designed to save space and reduce operating costs. The new alignment for large-aperture laser beam with a wedge is based on far-field sampling technique. The wedge is placed behind the spatial filter to reflect some laser beam as signal light for alignment. Therefore, laser beam diameter in alignment system is small, which can save space for the laser facility. Comparing to general alignment system for large-aperture laser beam, large-aperture lenses for near-field and far-field sampling, long distance laser path are unnecessary for proposed alignment system, which saves cost and space greatly. This alignment system for large-aperture laser beam has been demonstrated well on the Muliti-PW Facility which uses the 7th beam of the SG-Ⅱ Facility as pump source. The experimental results indicate that the average near-field alignment error is less than 1% of reference, and the average far-filed alignment error is less than 5% of spatial filter pinhole diameter, which meet the alignment system requirements for laser beam of Multi-PW Facility.

  3. Off-axis multipass amplifier as a large aperture driver stage for fusion lasers.

    PubMed

    Murray, J E; Downs, D C; Hunt, J T; Hermes, G L; Warren, W E

    1981-03-01

    A multipass amplifier configuration is described which has potential as a large aperture, high gain driver stage for fusion laser systems. We avoid the present limitations of large aperture switches by using an off-angle geometry that does not require an optical switch. The saturated gain characteristics of this multipass amplifier are optimized numerically. Three potential problems are investigated experimentally, self-lasing, output beam quality, and amplified spontaneous emission output. The results indicate comparable cost for comparable performance to a linear chain, with some operational advantage for the multipass driver stage.

  4. Partial feedback unstable resonator on small scale supersonic large aperture chemical laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Rui; Li, Lei

    2015-05-01

    There is always a challenge on large aperture medium power laser's resonator design, stable resonator would supports significant higher order transverse modes, folded and telescope stable resonator are too complex and not preferred by engineers, unstable resonator need rather large round trip gain to compensate its high geometric out-coupling, which is difficult for this kind of laser since its gain length is limited due to the power level and large aperture. Partial feedback unstable resonator had been proposed to tackle this difficulty since the early days of laser development, however, the debates of its effect never stopped even with those distinguished optical resonator scientists such as Siegman, Anan'ev, and Weber. Recently integrated partial feedback unstable resonator design had been successfully demonstrated on a medium size chemical oxygen iodine laser. In this paper, we carry this resonator configuration on a small scale discharge driven supersonic nozzle array Hydrogen Fluoride chemical laser, a typical large aperture short gain length device. With magnification equals 4/3, we successfully get ten Watts level ring beam output.

  5. Low-stress mounting configuration design for large aperture laser transport mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Yao, Chao; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    TM1-6S1 large aperture laser transport mirror is a crucial optical unit of high power solid-state laser in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facility. This article focuses on the low-stress and precise mounting method of large-aperture mirror. Based on the engineering practice of SG-III, the state-of-the-art and key problems of current mounting configuration are clarified firstly. Subsequently, a brand new low-stress mounting configuration with flexure supports is proposed. Opto-mechanical model of the mirror under mounting force is built up with elastic mechanics theory. Further, numerical methods and field tests are employed to verify the favorable load uniform capacity and load adjust capacity of flexure supports. With FEM, the relation between the mounting force from new configuration and the mirror surface distortion (wavefront error) is clarified. The novel mounting method of large aperture optics could be not only used on this laser transport mirror, but also on the other transmission optics and large crystals in ICF facilities.

  6. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  7. Optomechanical analysis of the flexure mounting configuration of large-aperture laser transport mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianye; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong; Rong, Yiming

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by the demand to minimize the mount-induced wavefront aberration of the large-aperture laser transport mirror, a low-stress flexure mounting configuration is proposed. Specific optomechanical analyses, including theoretical modeling, numerical analysis and field experiment, are presented. The mechanical properties of the flexure support were studied specifically. Besides, the relation between the mounting forces and the root-mean-square of the gradients (GRMS) value of the mirror surface is studied. Then, the appropriate value of the bolt preload is set to 500N, with which the GRMS value is just 5.35 nm/cm. The results indicate that the flexure mounting configuration is indeed a feasible and promising method to solve the mount-induced distortion problem of large-aperture optics.

  8. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    DOEpatents

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  9. Large field distributed aperture laser semiactive angle measurement system design with imaging fiber bundles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunyun; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Jing, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    A type of laser semiactive angle measurement system is designed for target detecting and tracking. Only one detector is used to detect target location from four distributed aperture optical systems through a 4×1 imaging fiber bundle. A telecentric optical system in image space is designed to increase the efficiency of imaging fiber bundles. According to the working principle of a four-quadrant (4Q) detector, fiber diamond alignment is adopted between an optical system and a 4Q detector. The structure of the laser semiactive angle measurement system is, we believe, novel. Tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits of manufacture and installation errors of the optical system. The performance of the proposed method is identified by computer simulations and experiments. It is demonstrated that the linear region of the system is ±12°, with measurement error of better than 0.2°. In general, this new system can be used with large field of view and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable, and fast method for angle measurement in practical situations.

  10. Developing Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) Technology for the Manufacture of Large-Aperture Optics in Megajoule Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A

    2010-10-27

    Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large-aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture large-aperture damage resistant optics.

  11. MRF Applications: On the Road to Making Large-Aperture Ultraviolet Laser Resistant Continuous Phase Plates for High-Power Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A; Xin, K

    2006-10-26

    Over the past two years we have developed MRF tools and procedures to manufacture large-aperture (430 X 430 mm) continuous phase plates (CPPs) that are capable of operating in the infrared portion (1053 nm) of high-power laser systems. This is accomplished by polishing prescribed patterns of continuously varying topographical features onto finished plano optics using MRF imprinting techniques. We have been successful in making, testing, and using large-aperture CPPs whose topography possesses spatial periods as low as 4 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 8.6 {micro}m. Combining this application of MRF technology with advanced MRF finishing techniques that focus on ultraviolet laser damage resistance makes it potentially feasible to manufacture large-aperture CPPs that can operate in the ultraviolet (351 nm) without sustaining laser-induced damage. In this paper, we will discuss the CPP manufacturing process and the results of 351-nm/3-nsec equivalent laser performance experiments conducted on large-aperture CPPs manufactured using advanced MRF protocols.

  12. Repetitively pulsed regime of Nd : glass large-aperture laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmin, A A; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaykin, A A

    2012-04-30

    A repetitively pulsed operation regime of neodymium glass rod laser amplifiers with apertures of 4.5, 6, 8.5, and 10 cm is analysed using experimental data. The limits of an increase in the pulse repetition rates are determined. Universal dependences are obtained, which help finding a compromise between increasing the repetition rate and enhancing the gain for each particular case. In particular, it is shown that an amplifier 4.5-cm in diameter exhibits a five-fold safety factor with respect to a thermo-mechanical breakdown at a repetition rate of 1 pulse min{sup -1} and stored energy of above 100 J. A strong thermally induced birefringence in two such amplifiers is experimentally reduced to a 'cold' level by employing a 90 Degree-Sign optical rotator.

  13. A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. Q.; Ma, J. L.; Yan, C. L.; Liu, G. J.; Ma, X. H.; Gong, J. F.; Feng, Y.; Wei, Z. P.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. J.

    2013-05-01

    A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is experimentally demonstrated. The VCSEL has a circular output-beam which makes it easier for it to be directly coupled to a Nd:GdVO4 microcrystal. In our research, a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL, with a multi-ring-shaped aperture (MRSA) and an almost Gaussian-shaped far-field profile, is used as the pumping source. Experimental results for the Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by the VCSEL are presented. The maximum output peak power of 0.754 W is obtained under a pump peak power of 1.3 W, and the corresponding opto-optic conversion efficiency is 58.1%. The average slope efficiency is 65.8% from the threshold pump power of 0.2 W to the pump power of 1.3 W. The laser beam quality factors are measured to be {M}x2=1.2 0 and {M}y2=1.1 5.

  14. HI-CLASS on AEOS: A Large Aperture Laser Radar for Space Surveillance/ Situational Awareness Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    the ALVA (Applications of Lidars for Vehicles with Analysis) program installed in late 2000 a wideband, 12J, 15Hz CO2 laser radar (ladar) on the 3.67...representative data, and current status of pulsed high-power coherent CO2 laser radar systems at MSSS. The paper reviews the first generation kilowatt...Chemical-biological detection, such as Doppler Shift Scanning Differential Absorption Lidar (DSS DIAL) and remote sensing data 6) Field Ladar tactical

  15. Thermo-optical simulation and experiment for the assessment of single, hollow, and large aperture retroreflector for lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Hiroshi; Kashima, Shingo; Noda, Hirotomo; Kunimori, Hiroo; Chiba, Kouta; Mashiko, Hitomi; Kato, Hiromasa; Otsubo, Toshimichi; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Hanada, Hideo; Yasuda, Susumu; Utsunomiya, Shin; Takino, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    A single aperture and hollow retroreflector [corner-cube mirror (CCM)] that in principle has no internal optical path difference is a key instrument for achieving lunar laser ranging one order or more accurate than the current level (~2 cm). We are developing CCM whose aperture is 20 cm with optimized dihedral angles. The 20-cm CCM yields two times peak height for returned laser pulse compared with Apollo 15's retroreflector. Two investigations were conducted to confirm the feasibility of the 20-cm aperture CCM. The first is thermo-optical simulation and evaluation of the 20-cm CCM in the lunar thermal environment. Through this simulation, it has turned out for the first time that 20-cm aperture CCM made of single-crystal Si or "ultra-low expansion glass-ceramics" such as CCZ-EX® (OHARA Inc.) can be used for CCM with no thermal control, if the perfectly fixed point of CCM is limited to one. The second is annealing and shear loading experiments of single-crystal silicon (Si) samples. Through these experiments, high-temperature annealing from 100 to 1000 °C is confirmed to be effective for the enhancement of the adhesive strength between optically contacted surfaces with no optical damage in roughness and accuracy, indicating that this annealing process would enhance the rigidity of CCM fabricated by the optically contacted plates.

  16. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  17. Large Aperture Scintillometer Intercomparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Gomez, J.; Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Rahn, T.; Defoor, W. L.

    2008-07-01

    Two field studies with six large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were performed using horizontal and slant paths. The accuracy of this novel and increasingly popular technique for measuring sensible heat fluxes was quantified by comparing measurements from different instruments over nearly identical transects. Random errors in LAS measurements were small, since correlation coefficients between adjacent measurements were greater than 0.995. However, for an ideal set-up differences in linear regression slopes of up to 21% were observed with typical inter-instrument differences of 6%. Differences of 10% are typical in more realistic measurement scenarios over homogeneous natural vegetation and different transect heights and locations. Inaccuracies in the optics, which affect the effective aperture diameter, are the most likely explanation for the observed differences.

  18. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  19. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

  20. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  1. Fabrication and applications of large aperture diffractive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S; Britten, J B; Hyde, R; Rushford, M; Summers, L; Toeppen, J

    2002-02-19

    Large aperture diffractive optics are needed in high power laser applications to protect against laser damage during operation and in space applications to increase the light gathering power and consequently the signal to noise. We describe the facilities we have built for fabricating meter scale diffractive optics and discuss several examples of these.

  2. Very large aperture optics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, T. G.; Smith, J. P.; Johnson, M. T.

    1994-09-01

    A new type of space optics technology is presented which promises the realization of very large apertures (tens of meters), while packagable into lightweight, small volume containers compatible with conventional launch vehicles. This technology makes use of thin foils of circular shape which are uniformly mass loaded around the perimeter. Once unfurled and set into rapid rotation about the transversal axis, the foil is stretched into a perfectly flat plane by the centrifugal forces acting on the peripheral masses. The simplest applications of this novel technology are optically flat reflectors, using metallized foils of Mylar, Kevlar, or Kapton. Other more complex optical components can be realized by use of binary optics techniques, such as depositing holograms by selective local microscale removal of the reflective surface. Electrostatic techniques, in conjunction with an auxiliary foil, under local, distributed real-time control of the optical parameters, allow implementation of functions like beam steering and focal length adjustments. Gas pressurization allows stronger curvatures and thus smaller focal ratios for non-imaging applications. Limits on aperture are imposed primarily by manufacturing capabilities. Applications of such large optics in space are numerous. They range from military, such as space based lasers, to the civilian ones of power beaming, solar energy collection, and astronomy. This paper examines this simple and innovative concept in detail, discusses deployment and attitude control issues and presents approaches for realization.

  3. Sub-aperture stitching test of a cylindrical mirror with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuai; Chen, Shanyong; Shi, Feng; Lu, Jinfeng

    2016-09-01

    Cylindrical mirrors are key optics of high-end equipment of national defense and scientific research such as high energy laser weapons, synchrotron radiation system, etc. However, its surface error test technology develops slowly. As a result, its optical processing quality can not meet the requirements, and the developing of the associated equipment is hindered. Computer Generated-Hologram (CGH) is commonly utilized as null for testing cylindrical optics. However, since the fabrication process of CGH with large aperture is not sophisticated yet, the null test of cylindrical optics with large aperture is limited by the aperture of the CGH. Hence CGH null test combined with sub-aperture stitching method is proposed to break the limit of the aperture of CGH for testing cylindrical optics, and the design of CGH for testing cylindrical surfaces is analyzed. Besides, the misalignment aberration of cylindrical surfaces is different from that of the rotational symmetric surfaces since the special shape of cylindrical surfaces, and the existing stitching algorithm of rotational symmetric surfaces can not meet the requirements of stitching cylindrical surfaces. We therefore analyze the misalignment aberrations of cylindrical surfaces, and study the stitching algorithm for measuring cylindrical optics with large aperture. Finally we test a cylindrical mirror with large aperture to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  4. Distributed Apertures in Laminar Flow Laser Turrets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    t r by Oe" Vmbat) High Energy Lasers Aperture Arrays Laser Turrets Aero-Optics 20. Aeft*ACT (CieOuu en revere siea of 400arind OE#1 by.*f Week.1a...ciation to Mom and Dad for their love and resolve which encourages the author to fulfill his potential. 11 I. INTRODUCTION Propagation of laser energy ...is the true measure of the "goodness" of a system of one or more apertures. PIB FPIB A (11) Power projected is found by use of the relation for the on

  5. Highly uniform parallel microfabrication using a large numerical aperture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Chu; Hu, Yan-Lei; Wang, Chao-Wei; Li, Jia-Wen; Su, Ya-Hui; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we report an improved algorithm to produce accurate phase patterns for generating highly uniform diffraction-limited multifocal arrays in a large numerical aperture objective system. It is shown that based on the original diffraction integral, the uniformity of the diffraction-limited focal arrays can be improved from ˜75% to >97%, owing to the critical consideration of the aperture function and apodization effect associated with a large numerical aperture objective. The experimental results, e.g., 3 × 3 arrays of square and triangle, seven microlens arrays with high uniformity, further verify the advantage of the improved algorithm. This algorithm enables the laser parallel processing technology to realize uniform microstructures and functional devices in the microfabrication system with a large numerical aperture objective.

  6. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage.

  7. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25{endash}100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope{close_quote}s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope{close_quote}s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{approximately}0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  8. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  9. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, Deven; Farr, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    supported by new technology in the area of quality control inspection, in which state of the art photogrammetry and laser CMM inspection methods will be used to qualify parts and assemblies, and in which the recently-developed Absorber Reflection Method will enable in-line quality control inspection of modules produced by the new high-rate production line.

  10. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ν has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  11. Large aperture Stark modulated retroreflector at 10.8 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M. B.; Sipman, R. H.

    1980-12-01

    The Stark effect was used to construct a longitudinal field amplitude modulator with a large aperture and a wide field of view. Important features of the modulator are its insensitivity to polarization and its incorporation of multiple interaction regions to increase the modulation depth. The Stark interaction which was employed makes use of a (C-13)O2 laser source (so that atmospheric absorption should be low) and a molecule (NH3) with a particularly large absorption cross section. The modulator is mounted directly on a corner cube reflector, which allows the remote modulation of a beacon laser. The device has an aperture of 5.5 cm, a field of view of 38 deg, and a measured modulation depth of 25% at 1.4 MHz.

  12. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  13. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.; Mitchell, Kenneth B.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  14. U-turn alternative to the large aperture switch

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1994-03-09

    The primary alternative laser architecture is the U-turn design. The U-turn has significantly different cost and performance risks than the full-aperture switch, which makes it a highly desirable alternative. The U-turn was conceived at LLNL in 1992. A similar concept, the L-turn had already been discovered by the French at CEL-V. Both concepts are based on the multipass glass amplifier design, but the full-aperture Pockels cell and polarizer are replaced with smaller and less expensive optics. Eliminating the large switch and polarizer not only reduces component costs, it also provides options for shortening the laser which, in turn, could reduce the size and cost of the laser building. Efficient use of the amplifier aperture (small vignetting allowance) requires that the U-turn have a long transport spatial filter; however, this is not a disadvantage if a long spatial filter is already required for image relaying to the frequency converter. Given a long spatial filter, the U-turn is potentially more efficient because losses in the switch and polarizer are avoided.

  15. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of the previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, the authors discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet.

  16. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  17. Saturation of the Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohsiek, W.; Meijninger, W. M. L.; Debruin, H. A. R.; Beyrich, F.

    2006-10-01

    The saturation aspects of a large aperture (0.3 m) scintillometer operating over a 10-km path were investigated. Measurements were made over mainly forested, hilly terrain with typical maximum sensible heat fluxes of 300-400 W m -2, and over flat terrain with mainly grass, and typical maximum heat fluxes of 100-150 W m-2. Scintillometer-based fluxes were compared with eddy-correlation observations. Two different schemes for calculating the reduction of scintillation caused by saturation were applied: one based on the work of Hill and Clifford, the other based on Frehlich and Ochs. Without saturation correction, the scintillation fluxes were lower than the eddy-correlation fluxes; the saturation correction according to Frehlich and Ochs increased the scintillometer fluxes to an unrealistic level. Correcting the fluxes after the theory of the Hill and Clifford gave satisfying results

  18. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  19. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal.

  20. Diffraction from oxide confinement apertures in vertical-cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, P.A.; Carlsten, J.L.; Kilper, D.C.; Lear, K.L.

    1999-08-01

    Direct measurement of scattered fields from oxide confinement apertures in vertical-cavity lasers is presented. Diffraction fringes associated with each transverse lasing mode are detected in the far field from devices with varying oxide aperture dimensions and with quantum efficiencies as high as 48{percent}. The diffracted pattern symmetries match the rectangular symmetry of the oxide apertures present in the devices and fringe locations are compared to Fraunhofer theory. The fraction of power diffracted from the lasing mode remains roughly constant as a function of relative pump rate, but is shown to depend on both transverse mode order and oxide aperture size. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Soft apertures for lasers emitting visible radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolerov, A. N.; Arzumanyan, Sh O.; Chirkina, K. P.; Gritsaĭ, I. I.

    1988-12-01

    It was found that an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal grown by the Verneuil method can be used in the fabrication of "soft" apertures for lasers emitting in the blue-green range. The experimental results indicated equalization of the intensity of the radiation across the laser beam and also "polychromatic" lasing when apertures made of Al2O3:Ti3+ were placed inside the resonator cavity.

  2. High power 808 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser with multi-ring-shaped-aperture structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. Q.; Shang, C. Y.; Feng, Y.; Yan, C. L.; Zhao, Y. J.; Wang, Y. X.; Wang, X. H.; Liu, G. J.

    2011-02-01

    The carrier conglomeration effect has been one of the main problems in developing electrically pumped high power vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with large aperture. We demonstrate a high power 808 nm VCSEL with multi-ring-shaped-aperture (MRSA) to weaken the carrier conglomeration effect. Compared with typical VCSEL with single large aperture (SLA), the 300-μm-diameter VCSEL with MRSA has more uniform near field and far field patterns. Moreover, MRSA laser exhibits maximal CW light output power 0.3 W which is about 3 times that of SLA laser. And the maximal wall-plug efficiency of 17.4% is achieved, higher than that of SLA laser by 10%.

  3. Large aperture compound lenses made of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, M. A.; Beguiristain, H. R.; Gary, C. K.; Pantell, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    We have measured the intensity profile and transmission of x rays focused by a series of biconcave parabolic unit lenses fabricated in lithium. For specified focal length and photon energy lithium compound refractive lenses (CRL) have a larger transmission, aperture size, and gain compared to aluminum, kapton, and beryllium CRLs. The lithium compound refractive lens was composed of 335 biconcave, parabolic unit lenses each with an on-axis radius of curvature of 0.95 mm. Two-dimensional focusing was obtained at 8.0 keV with a focal length of 95 cm. The effective aperture of the CRL was measured to be 1030 μm with on-axis (peak) transmissions of 27% and an on-axis intensity gain of 18.9.

  4. Eyeglass: A Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Dixit, S; Weisberg, A; Rushford, M

    2002-07-29

    Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100 meter) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope's large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently fieldable (lightweight and flat, hence packagable and deployable) and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight, surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope's eyepiece. The Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band, multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. Broadband diffractive telescopes have been built at LLNL and have demonstrated diffraction-limited performance over a 40% spectral bandwidth (0.48-0.72 {micro}m). As one approach to package a large aperture for launch, a foldable lens has been built and demonstrated. A 75 cm aperture diffractive lens was constructed from 6 panels of 1 m thick silica; it achieved diffraction-limited performance both before and after folding. This multiple panel, folding lens, approach is currently being scaled-up at LLNL. We are building a 5 meter aperture foldable lens, involving 72 panels of 700 {micro}m thick glass sheets, diffractively patterned to operate as coherent f/50 lens.

  5. Diffraction patterns from multiple tilted laser apertures: numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Anton V.; Polyakov, Vadim M.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a Rayleigh-Sommerfeld based method for numerical calculation of multiple tilted apertures near and far field diffraction patterns. Method is based on iterative procedure of fast Fourier transform based circular convolution of the initial field complex amplitudes distribution and impulse response function modified in order to account aperture and observation planes mutual tilt. The method is computationally efficient and has good accordance with the results of experimental diffraction patterns and can be applied for analysis of spatial noises occurring in master oscillator power amplifier laser systems. The example of diffraction simulation for a Phobos-Ground laser rangefinder amplifier is demonstrated.

  6. Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

  7. Characterization of localized transverse structures in wide-aperture lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosanov, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fedorov, S. V.; Khodova, G. V.

    The problem of characterization of spatio-temporal patterns is discussed for the case of wide-aperture lasers with nonlinear losses where variety of such patterns is especially rich. Laser autosolitons (LASs)-localized transverse structures representing “islands of lasing” on a background of the nonlasing mode on the laser aperture-are studied. Existence of stable single LASs which are motionless or moving in the transverse direction with constant linear velocity is shown. Described are also LASs with regular wavefronts, those with screw dislocations (defects) of wavefronts with different topological indices, and those with axially symmetric and asymmetric intensity distributions rotating with constant angular velocity around the LAS center. An approach is given for qualitative and quantitative characterization of a single LAS by its linear and angular velocities and frequency shift, based on a combination of analytical methods and computer simulations. Results of investigations of weak and strong interactions among the LASs are presented.

  8. Millimeter Wave Applications of Large Aperture Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    unit step impulse ................. 89 5-8 Truss/tower model. Joints identification numbers ............... 91 5-9 z-displacement (m) histories for the...tip joint 801 displacements for 1 cycle steady-state response to harmonic excitation (15 N at 10 Hz) ................ 101 6-1 Elliptic torus 30 x 60 m...freedom (DOF) -o a reasonable level, the large platform was modelled with axial members whereby only three DOF’s are present nat each joint . Although

  9. Adaptive Techniques for Large Space Apertures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    GP Anitern, 200l de or,~,’rn, receiner/ proceso 1"’ - requires enternal !titude deter- minationr such as a star tracker Increased mechanizatio’ Sensor...control systems into one unit; namely, a fine pointing control using the gimbal rates as the control variables while maintaining constant rotor speeds...CMG mode), and a coarse control for large maneuvers using the rotor speeds as the control variables and locking the gimbals (RW mode). The simultaneous

  10. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array.

  11. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; DelCastillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array

  12. Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Bartelson, L.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Crisp, J.; DiMarco, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Johnson, D.; Kashikhin, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. [1] Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40{pi} to 60{pi} mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets. Details can be found in Ref [2].

  13. Self-Referencing Hartmann Test for Large-Aperture Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, Robert P.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for end-to-end, full aperture testing of large-aperture telescopes using an innovative variation of a Hartmann mask. This technique is practical for telescopes with primary mirrors tens of meters in diameter and of any design. Furthermore, it is applicable to the entire optical band (near IR, visible, ultraviolet), relatively insensitive to environmental perturbations, and is suitable for ambient laboratory as well as thermal-vacuum environments. The only restriction is that the telescope optical axis must be parallel to the local gravity vector during testing. The standard Hartmann test utilizes an array of pencil beams that are cut out of a well-corrected wavefront using a mask. The pencil beam array is expanded to fill the full aperture of the telescope. The detector plane of the telescope is translated back and forth along the optical axis in the vicinity of the nominal focal plane, and the centroid of each pencil beam image is recorded. Standard analytical techniques are then used to reconstruct the telescope wavefront from the centroid data. The expansion of the array of pencil beams is usually accomplished by double passing the beams through the telescope under test. However, this requires a well-corrected, autocollimation flat, the diameter or which is approximately equal to that of the telescope aperture. Thus, the standard Hartmann method does not scale well because of the difficulty and expense of building and mounting a well-corrected, large aperture flat. The innovation in the testing method proposed here is to replace the large aperture, well-corrected, monolithic autocollimation flat with an array of small-aperture mirrors. In addition to eliminating the need for a large optic, the surface figure requirement for the small mirrors is relaxed compared to that required of the large autocollimation flat. The key point that allows this method to work is that the small mirrors need to operate as a monolithic flat only with regard to

  14. Wide-aperture electric-discharge XeCl lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Ivan; Losev, Valery F.; Liu, Jingry; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2004-05-01

    Experimental results of long-pulse generation in X-ray preionized XeCl lasers with the 9x7 cm2 and 5.4x3 cm2 apertures are described. The lasers operate in the Ne-Xe-HCl mixture with the pressure up to 4 atm. Paper-oil pulse forming lines and a rail-gap switch for the discharge pumping were used. A 3.5 and 10 J output with the optical pulse duration of 250-300 ns (FWHM) has been extracted.

  15. Propagation properties of apertured laser beams with amplitude modulations and phase fluctuations through atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, X.; Li, X.

    2011-07-01

    The propagation properties of apertured laser beams with amplitude modulations (AMs) and phase fluctuations (PFs) through atmospheric turbulence are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, power in the bucket ( PIB) and Strehl ratio ( S R ) of apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs propagating through atmospheric turbulence are derived. It is found that the worse the phase fluctuation and the higher the amplitude modulation are, the less laser beams are affected by turbulence. Furthermore, apertured Gaussian beams are more sensitive to turbulence than apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs. The average intensity of apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs may be even larger than that of apertured Gaussian beams due to turbulence. In particular, the influence of turbulence on the average maximum intensity of apertured laser beams with PFs and AMs may become serious if an unsuitable truncated parameter is chosen, which should be avoided in practice.

  16. Mission definition for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An Earth-observation measurements mission is defined for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft. This mission is defined without regard to any particular spacecraft design concept. Space data application needs, the measurement selection rationale, and broad spacecraft design requirements and constraints are described. The effects of orbital parameters and image quality requirements on the spacecraft and mission performance are discussed. Over the land the primary measurand is soil moisture; over the coastal zones and the oceans important measurands are salinity, surface temperature, surface winds, oil spill dimensions and ice boundaries; and specific measurement requirements have been selected for each. Near-all-weather operation and good spatial resolution are assured by operating at low microwave frequencies using an extremely large aperture antenna in a low-Earth-orbit contiguous mapping mode.

  17. Large aperture millimeter/submillimeter telescope: which is more cost-effective, aperture synthesis telescope versus large single dish telescope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) consists of 66 antennas with the aperture equivalent to a 91-m diameter antenna. The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest, 100-m diameter telescope in the wavelength range of 3 mm to 30 cm. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) will be the world's largest, 50-m diameter, steerable millimeter-wavelength telescope. The Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will be the world's largest, 25-m diameter, submillimeter-wavelength telescope. We will investigate advantages and disadvantages of both the aperture synthesis telescope and the large single-dish telescope taking the cost effectiveness into consideration, and will propose the design of antenna structure for a future telescope project at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

  18. Comparison of large aperture telescopes with parabolic and spherical primaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1986-01-01

    Quasi-Cassegrain-type four-mirror telescopes are compared to conventional two-mirror Cassegrain telescopes for use as high performance, very large aperture space telescopes. Spherical and parabolic primaries with continuous as well as segmented surfaces are considered. Imaging characteristics and misalignment sensitivities serve as the principal criteria of comparison. The evaluation shows that parabolic primaries yield superior wide-field performance, whereas spherical primaries hold distinct advantages regarding manufacturability and regarding certain alignment aspects in the case of segmentation.

  19. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 [times] 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V[sub x] ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V[sub x], the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90[degree]. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 [times] 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  20. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 {times} 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V{sub x} ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V{sub x}, the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90{degree}. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 {times} 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  1. Lyot coronagraph design study for large, segmented space telescope apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Neil T.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; St. Laurent, Kathryn E.; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Stark, Christopher C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, Stuart; Carlotti, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Recent efforts combining the optimization techniques of apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs (APLC) and shaped pupils have demonstrated the viability of a binary-transmission mask architecture for extremely high contrast (10-10) exoplanet imaging. We are now building on those innovations to carry out a survey of Lyot coronagraph performance for large, segmented telescope apertures. These apertures are of the same kind under considera- tion for NASA's Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) observatory concept. To map the multi-dimensional design parameter space, we have developed a software toolkit to manage large sets of mask optimization programs and execute them on a computing cluster. Here we summarize a preliminary survey of 500 APLC solutions for 4 reference hexagonal telescope apertures. Several promising designs produce annular, 10-10 contrast dark zones down to inner working angle 4λ0=D over a 15% bandpass, while delivering a half-max PSF core throughput of 18%. We also report our progress on devising solutions to the challenges of Lyot stop alignment/fabrication tolerance that arise in this contrast regime.

  2. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  3. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  4. The modular design of large-aperture zoom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Jiang, Kai; Yan, Peipei; Shan, Qiu-sha; Duan, Jing; Li, Gang

    2016-10-01

    According to the large aperture, long focal length zoom system design, the structure of the optical system based on the modular concept is proposed. The structure is constituted of an afocal compression telescope and a zoom system. The parts of each other are individually designed. The aberrations of them are independently. Because of this, the alignment of the system and the difficulty of test are greatly reduced. It is easily replaced by changing the zoom system parts, which can achieve other different focal length and ratio. Using afocal compression telescope greatly reduces the radial aperture of the zoom group, simplifies the system structure and reduces the cost. Meanwhile, the variable stop is placed in the vicinity of the primary mirror. It is instead of the zoom system used in floating variable stop. In addition, the problem about large aperture zoom system pupil matching is solved perfectly. In this article, four methods of pupil matching are given and the advantages and disadvantages of them are analyzed. Using this optical structure, a zoom system is designed, which is working in the visible wavelength band with variable focal length between 900mm and 4500mm, 500mm maximum aperture. The axial dimension of the system is less than 650mm. The maximum diameter of zoom system parts is less than 40 mm. Moreover, the distances of the zoom group and compensating group are all less than 60 mm. Besides, the motion curves of each other are given in the article. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) values of the system are greater than 0.3 at 48lp/mm across different focal length and field pointing on the axis. The design results show that the imaging quality is excellent, the structure is compact, and the alignment and test are easy. The imaging requirements of zoom system are all satisfied.

  5. Research on 2x1 plasma electrode electro-optical switch with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong Jun; Zheng, Kui Xing; Feng, B.; Wu, D. S.; Lu, J. P.; Tian, X. L.; Jin, F.; Sui, Zhan; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2005-01-01

    In conceptual design of the prototype for SG-III facility, a full aperture electro-optical switch was placed between the cavity mirror and the main amplifier to isolate the reflected beams. The beam on the cavity mirror is 240mm×240mm square. Pockells cells of conversional design with coaxial ring electrodes can not scale to such large square aperture. In the 1980s, a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) concept was invented at LLNL. It uses transparent plasma electrode formed through gas discharge as the electrodes to apply the voltage across switching crystal to rotate the polarization of a transmitted laser beam. And it can be scaled to large aperture with thin crystal. So the switch which would be used in SG-III is based on this technology. The technical integration line as a prototype of SG-III laser is actually a 4×2 beam bundle. And the full aperture optical switch is mechanically designed four apertures as a removable unit, and electrically two 2×1 PEPC putting together. So we built a 2×1 PEPC to develop the technology first. The 2×1 PEPC is a sandwich structure made of an insulating mid plane between a pair of plasma chambers. The frame of both plasma chambers are machining in duralumin. Each chamber is installed with a planar magnetic cathode and four segments spherical anodes made from stainless steel. The cathode and anode are insulated from the housing with a special shell made from plastic, and plasma is insulated from the housing by an 80-μm-thick anodic coating on the duralumin. The two plasma chambers are separated by a mid plane of glass frame with two square holes. The two holes are filled by two electro-optical crystals with a 240-mm square aperture. With the optimized operating pressure and the electrical parameters, a very good homogeneity and low resistivity plasma electrode is obtained. Finally we tested its switching performance to simulate the case that it will be used in the SG-III prototype facility. It works with a quarter wave

  6. Autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging with large curvilinear apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleszynski, E.; Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.

    2013-05-01

    An approach to autofocusing for large curved synthetic aperture radar (SAR) apertures is presented. Its essential feature is that phase corrections are being extracted not directly from SAR images, but rather from reconstructed SAR phase-history data representing windowed patches of the scene, of sizes sufficiently small to allow the linearization of the forward- and back-projection formulae. The algorithm processes data associated with each patch independently and in two steps. The first step employs a phase-gradient-type method in which phase correction compensating (possibly rapid) trajectory perturbations are estimated from the reconstructed phase history for the dominant scattering point on the patch. The second step uses phase-gradient-corrected data and extracts the absolute phase value, removing in this way phase ambiguities and reducing possible imperfections of the first stage, and providing the distances between the sensor and the scattering point with accuracy comparable to the wavelength. The features of the proposed autofocusing method are illustrated in its applications to intentionally corrupted small-scene 2006 Gotcha data. The examples include the extraction of absolute phases (ranges) for selected prominent point targets. They are then used to focus the scene and determine relative target-target distances.

  7. Research and validation of key measurement technologies of large aperture optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Renhui; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhou, Binbin; Song, Le

    2015-07-01

    A lot of optical components with large aperture are employed in high-power solid-state laser driver. These optical components are with high requirement on the surface shape, optical homogeneity and stress distribution. In order to test these parameters, different types of interferometers, surface profilers and stress meters from different manufacturers are needed. But the problem is the products from different manufacturers may provide different test results. To solve the problem, the research and verification of the key measurement technologies of large aperture optical components are carried out in this paper. The absolute flatness and optical homogeneity measurement methods are analyzed. And the test results of different interferometric software are compared. The test results from different surface profilers and stress meters are also compared. The consistency and reliability of different test software are obtained with the comparing results, which will guide users to select a suitable product.

  8. Limitations of synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging.

    PubMed

    Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Lacot, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we study the origin and the effect of amplitude and phase noise on laser optical feedback imaging associated with a synthetic aperture (SA) imaging system. Amplitude noise corresponds to photon noise and acts as an additive noise; it can be reduced by increasing the global measurement time. Phase noise can be divided in three families: random, sinusoidal, and drift phase noise; we show that it acts as a multiplicative noise. We explain how we can reduce phase noise by making oversampling or multiple measurements depending on its type. This work can easily be extended to all SA systems (radar, laser, or terahertz), especially when raw holograms are acquired point by point.

  9. Laser aperture diagnostics system for gain and wavefront measurements on NIF/LMJ amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, L. E., LLNL

    1996-12-17

    We are in the midst of constructing an amplifier laboratory (Arnplab) that will be the physics and engineering proving ground for fill sized segmented glass amplifiers of designs that will outfit the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Megajoule (LMJ) projects. Amplab will demonstrate the cornerstone mechanical, electrical and optical concepts that support the NW and LMJ amplifier schemes. Here we address the optical diagnostics that will be used to characterize optical performance of the amplifiers. We describe, the apparatus that will be used in pulsed measurements of gain distribution and wave-front distortions. The large aperture diagnostic system or LADS, is now being built through a collaborative effort between CEL-V and LLNL. The LADS will provide measurements of gain and wave front distortions over the fill extracting aperture of the NIF and LMJ prototype amplifiers. The LADS will be able to address each of eight apertures via motorized stages and following semi-automated alignment, take data on the aperture of interest. The LADS should be operational in mid-1997 at LLNL and will be used to characterize the optical performance of the very first fill scale prototype 4 x 2 NIF and LMJ amplifiers. It will be transported to Bordeaux, France to make similar measurements during activation of the first 8-aperture LMJ-like facility (LIL) that is planned to start in the near future.

  10. Large-aperture interferometer using local reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    A large-aperture interferometer was devised by adding a local-reference-beam-generating optical system to a schlieren system. Two versions of the interferometer are demonstrated, one employing 12.7 cm (5 in.) diameter schlieren optics, the other employing 30.48 cm (12 in.) diameter parabolic mirrors in an off-axis system. In the latter configuration a cylindrical lens is introduced near the light source to correct for astigmatism. A zone plate is a satisfactory decollimating element in the reference-beam arm of the interferometer. Attempts to increase the flux and uniformity of irradiance in the reference beam by using a diffuser are discussed.

  11. Terahertz near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures and a quantum cascade laser source.

    PubMed

    Baragwanath, Adam J; Freeman, Joshua R; Gallant, Andrew J; Zeitler, J Axel; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Chamberlain, J Martyn

    2011-07-01

    The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures with a terahertz quantum cascade laser source is presented. "Bull's-eye" apertures, featuring subwavelength circular apertures flanked by periodic annular corrugations were created using a novel fabrication method. A fivefold increase in intensity was observed for plasmonic apertures over plain apertures of the same diameter. Detailed studies of the transmitted beam profiles were undertaken for apertures with both planarized and corrugated exit facets, with the former producing spatially uniform intensity profiles and subwavelength spatial resolution. Finally, a proof-of-concept imaging experiment is presented, where an inhomogeneous pharmaceutical drug coating is investigated.

  12. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  13. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  14. Fabrication of large aperture SiC brazing mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Wang, Peipei; Dong, Huiwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The SiC brazing mirror is the mirror whose blank is made by assembling together smaller SiC pieces with brazing technique. Using such kinds of joining techniques, people can manufacture large and complex SiC assemblies. The key technologies of fabricating and testing SiC brazing flat mirror especially for large aperture were studied. The SiC brazing flat mirror was ground by smart ultrasonic-milling machine, and then it was lapped by the lapping smart robot and measured by Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). After the PV of the surface below 4um, we did classic coarse polishing to the surface and studied the shape of the polishing tool which directly effects removal amount distribution. Finally, it was figured by the polishing smart robot and measured by Fizeau interferometer. We also studied the influence of machining path and removal functions of smart robots on the manufacturing results and discussed the use of abrasive in this process. At last, an example for fabricating and measuring a similar SiC brazing flat mirror with the aperture of 600 mm made by Shanghai Institute of Ceramics was given. The mirror blank consists of 6 SiC sectors and the surface was finally processed to a result of the Peak-to-Valley (PV) 150nm and Root Mean Square (RMS) 12nm.

  15. Towards laser guide stars for multi-aperture interferometry: an application to the hypertelescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Paul D.; Labeyrie, Antoine; Riaud, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Optical interferometry has been successful at achieving milliarcsecond resolution on bright stars. Imaging performance can improve greatly by increasing the number of baselines, which has motivated proposals to build large (˜100 m) optical interferometers with tens to hundreds of telescopes. It is also desirable to adaptively correct atmospheric turbulence to obtain direct phased images of astrophysical sources. When a natural guide star is not available, we investigate the feasibility of using a modified laser-guide-star technique that is suitable for large diluted apertures. The method consists of using subsets of apertures to create an array of artificial stars in the sodium layer and collecting back-scattered light with the same subapertures. We present some numerical and laboratory simulations that quantify the requirements and sensitivity of the technique.

  16. Synthetic aperture ladar based on a MOPAW laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Bergeron, Alain; Desbiens, Louis; Paradis, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Long range land surveillance is a critical need in numerous military and civilian security applications, such as threat detection, terrain mapping and disaster prevention. A key technology for land surveillance, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) continues to provide high resolution radar images in all weather conditions from remote distances. State of the art SAR systems based on dual-use satellites are capable of providing ground resolutions of one meter; while their airborne counterparts obtain resolutions of 10 cm. Certain land surveillance applications such as subsidence monitoring, landslide hazard prediction and tactical target tracking could benefit from improved resolution. The ultimate limitation to the achievable resolution of any imaging system is its wavelength. State-of-the-art SAR systems are approaching this limit. The natural extension to improve resolution is to thus decrease the wavelength, i.e. design a synthetic aperture system in a different wavelength regime. One such system offering the potential for vastly improved resolution is Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL). This system operates at infrared wavelengths, ten thousand times smaller radar wavelengths. This paper presents a SAL platform based on the INO Master Oscillator with Programmable Amplitude Waveform (MOPAW) laser that has a wavelength sweep of Δλ=1.22 nm, a pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz and up to 200 μJ per pulse. The results for SAL 2D imagery at a range of 10 m are presented, indicating a reflectance sensibility of 8 %, ground-range and azimuth resolution of 1.7 mm and 0.84 mm respectively.

  17. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  18. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for

  19. Development of an efficient large-aperture high damage-threshold sol-gel diffraction grating.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Carol S.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Branson, Eric D.; Smith, Ian Craig; Johnson, William Arthur; Reed, Scott T.; Cook, Adam W.

    2005-03-01

    In order to develop the next generation of high peak intensity lasers, new grating technology providing higher damage thresholds and large apertures is required. The current assumption is that this technical innovation will be multilayer dielectric gratings, wherein the uppermost layer of a thin film mirror is etched to create the desired binary phase grating. A variant of this is explored with the upper grating layer being a lower density gelatin-based volume phase grating in either sol-gel or dichromated gelatin. One key benefit is the elimination of the etching step.

  20. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  1. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Harvey F.; Patterson, William R.; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m×8 m×3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  2. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma processing machine tool for large aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing; Wu, Yangong; Zhang, Peng; Xin, Qiang; Wang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, major projects, such as National Ignition Facility and Laser Mégajoule, have generated great demands for large aperture optics with high surface accuracy and low Subsurface Damage (SSD) at the mean time. In order to remove SSD and improve surface quality, optics is fabricated by sub-aperture polishing. However, the efficiency of the sub-aperture polishing has been a bottleneck step for the optics manufacturing. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing (APPP) as an alternate method offers high potential for speeding up the polishing process. This technique is based on chemical etching, hence there is no physical contact and no damage is induced. In this paper, a fast polishing machine tool is presented which is designed for fast polishing of the large aperture optics using APPP. This machine tool employs 3PRS-XY hybrid structure as its framework. There is a platform in the 3PRS parallel module to support the plasma generating system. And the large work piece is placed on the XY stage. In order to realize the complex motion trajectory for polishing the freeform optics, five axis of the tool operate simultaneously. To overcome the complexity of inverse kinematics calculation, a dedicated motion control system is also designed for speeding up the motion response. For high removal rate, the individual influence of several key processing parameters is investigated. And under specific production condition, this machine tool offers a high material over 30mm3/min for fused silica substrates. This results shows that APPP machine tool has a strong potential for fast polishing large optics without introducing SSD.

  3. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2017-03-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  4. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2016-11-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  5. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupolemagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich,Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman,Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-04-14

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed.

  6. Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Optics Adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at Marshall's Adaptive Optics Lab demonstrate the Wave Front Sensor alignment using the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) optics adjustment. The primary objective of the PAMELA project is to develop methods for aligning and controlling adaptive optics segmented mirror systems. These systems can be used to acquire or project light energy. The Next Generation Space Telescope is an example of an energy acquisition system that will employ segmented mirrors. Light projection systems can also be used for power beaming and orbital debris removal. All segmented optical systems must be adjusted to provide maximum performance. PAMELA is an on going project that NASA is utilizing to investigate various methods for maximizing system performance.

  7. Analysis of temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xinglong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Haidong; Yang, Qingwei; Kang, Jun; Guo, Ailin; Gao, Qi

    2014-11-01

    In extremely intense laser system used for plasma physics experiments, temporal contrast is an important property of the ultra-short pulse. In this paper, we theoretically study the temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system. Two-step focusing fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the coordinate transform based on Fresnel approximation in space domain and Fourier integral transform method in time domain were used to simulate the focusing process spatially and temporally, in which the spatial distribution of ultra-short pulse temporal contrast characteristics at the focal spot is related to the wave front in large aperture off-axis parabolic mirror focusing optical system. Firstly, temporal contrast degradation due to wave front noise with higher spatial frequency is analyzed and appropriate evaluation parameter for large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system is put forward from the perspective of temporal contrast. Secondly, the influence of wave front distortion with lower spatial frequency on temporal contrast is revealed comparing different degradation characteristics of various aberrations. At last, a method by controlling and optimizing the wave front to prevent temporal contrast degradation in large aperture ultra-short laser system is proposed, which is of great significance for high temporal contrast petawatt laser facilities.

  8. Research on new-style flexure supports method for large-aperture transport mirror mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Xusong; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Zhao; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    In high-power solid-state laser facility (SG-III), focusing laser beams into the target center with precision better than 50 microns (RMS) is dependent on the stringent specifications of thousands of large-aperture transport mirror units and is a huge challenge on the surface aberration control of mirrors. The current mirror's mounting techniques with screw fastening loads has several engineering conundrums - low control precision for loads (higher scatter even +/-30%), and low assembly-rectification efficiency ( 100 screws). To improve the current screw-fastening method, a new-style flexure supports method, which has a wonderful performance on uniform control of the external loads and only uses 30 screws, is proposed to mount the mirror (size: 610mm×440mm×85mm). With theoretical modeling and FEM analysis, the impacts of mounting loads on mirror's surface aberrations are analyzed and discussed in detail, and the flexure supports system is designed. Finally, with experimental research and case studies, the proposed flexure supports method shows a powerful performance on even control precision of external loads with scatter even less than +/-10%, which is a promising mounting process to replace the threaded fasteners mounting the large-aperture optics. These improvements can lay a foundation for mounting process consistency, robustness, and assembly-rectification efficiency of large optical component.

  9. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  10. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite

  11. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  12. APPLICATION OF LARGE APERTURE EMATS TO WELD INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W.

    2008-02-28

    One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90 deg. to 90 deg. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60 deg. beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45 deg. to 70 deg. beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

  13. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-21

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  14. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  15. Bandpass filtering of moving-object laser heterodyne-signals by finite apertures.

    PubMed

    Leader, J C

    1978-04-15

    Expressions for the frequency power spectral density and power spectral density SNR of a heterodyne detection system are derived assuming the signal radiation field results from a laser illuminated, moving rough object. The calculated spectral density is attenuated at large spectral spread frequencies (resulting from target rotation) by averaging of the high spatial frequency speckle pattern by the finite extent (aperture) of the local oscillator field. Optimum signal detection is obtained only at the Doppler shifted frequency. Spatial anisotropy of the radiation field mutual coherence function precludes exact calculations for arbitrary local oscillator field distributions.

  16. Structural-optical integrated analysis on the large aperture mirror with active mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Jianqiang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    Deformation of the large aperture mirror caused by the external environment load seriously affects the optical performance of the optical system, and there is a limit to develop the shape quality of large aperture mirror with traditional mounting method. It is effective way to reduce the optical mirror distortion with active support method, and the structural-optical integrated method is the effective means to assess the merits of the mounting for large aperture mirror. Firstly, we proposes a new support scheme that uses specific boundary constraints on the large lens edges and imposes flexible torque to resist deformation induced by gravity to improve surface quantity of large aperture mirror. We calculate distortion of the large aperture mirror at the edges of the flexible torque respectively with the finite element method; secondly, we extract distortion value within clear aperture of the mirror with MATLAB, solve the corresponding Zernike polynomial coefficients; lastly, we obtain the peak-valley value (PV) and root mean square value (RMS) with optical-structural integrated analysis . The results for the 690x400x100mm mirror show that PV and RMS values within the clear aperture with 0.4MPa torques than the case without applying a flexible torque reduces 82.7% and 72.9% respectively. The active mounting on the edge of the large aperture mirror can greatly improve the surface quality of the large aperture mirror.

  17. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Steven M; Buck, Joseph R; Buell, Walter F; Dickinson, Richard P; Kozlowski, David A; Marechal, Nicholas J; Wright, Timothy J

    2005-12-10

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  18. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Steven M.; Buck, Joseph R.; Buell, Walter F.; Dickinson, Richard P.; Kozlowski, David A.; Marechal, Nicholas J.; Wright, Timothy J.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  19. BLAST: A balloon-borne, large-aperture, submillimetre telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Donald Victor

    BLAST is a balloon-borne large-aperture, submillimetre telescope, which makes large area (1--200 square degree) surveys of Galactic and extragalactic targets. Since BLAST observes in the stratosphere, it is able to make broad-band observations between 200 mum and 550 mum which are difficult or impossible to perform from the ground. BLAST has been designed to probe star formation both in the local Galaxy and in the high redshift (z = 1--4) universe. Because BLAST is flown on an unmanned stratospheric balloon platform, it has been designed to be able to operate autonomously, without needing operator intervention to perform its scientific goals. This thesis includes an overview of the design of the BLAST platform, with emphasis on the command and control systems used to operate the telescope. BLAST has been flown on two long-duration balloon flights. The first of these, from Esrange, Sweden in June of 2005, acquired ˜70 hours of primarily Galactic data. During the second flight, from Willy Field, Antarctica in December of 2006, BLAST acquired ˜225 hours of both Galactic and extragalactic data. Operational performance of the platform during these two flights is reviewed, with the goal of providing insight on how future flights can be improved. Reduction of the data acquired by these large-format bolometer arrays is a challenging procedure, and techniques developed for BLAST data reduction are reviewed. The ultimate goal of this reduction is the generation of high quality astronomical maps which can be used for subsequent portions of data analysis. This thesis treats, in detail, the iterative, maximum likelihood map maker developed for BLAST. Results of simulations performed on the map maker to characterise its ability to reconstruct astronomical signals are presented. Finally, astronomical maps produced by this map maker using real data acquired by BLAST are presented, with a discussion on non-physical map pathologies resulting from the data reduction pipeline and

  20. Ultrasonic material characterization using large-aperture PVDF receivers.

    PubMed

    Adamowski, J C; Buiochi, F; Higuti, R T

    2010-02-01

    This work describes the use of a large-aperture PVDF receiver in the measurement of liquid density and composite material elastic constants. The density measurement of several liquids is obtained with accuracy of 0.2% using a conventional NDE emitter transducer and a 70-mm-diameter, 52-microm P(VDF-TrFE) membrane with gold electrodes. The determination of the elastic constants is based on the phase velocity measurement. Diffraction can lead to errors around 1% in velocity measurement when using alternatively the conventional pair of ultrasonic transducers (1-MHz frequency and 19-mm-diameter) operating in through-transmission mode, separated by a distance of 100 mm. This effect is negligible when using a pair of 10-MHz, 19-mm-diameter transducers. Nevertheless, the dispersion at 10 MHz can result in errors of about 0.5%, when measuring the velocity in composite materials. The use of an 80-mm diameter, 52-microm-thick PVDF membrane receiver practically eliminates the diffraction effects in phase velocity measurement. The elastic constants of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer were determined and compared with the values obtained by a tensile test.

  1. Error analysis of large aperture static interference imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Large Aperture Static Interference Imaging Spectrometer is a new type of spectrometer with light structure, high spectral linearity, high luminous flux and wide spectral range, etc ,which overcomes the contradiction between high flux and high stability so that enables important values in science studies and applications. However, there're different error laws in imaging process of LASIS due to its different imaging style from traditional imaging spectrometers, correspondingly, its data processing is complicated. In order to improve accuracy of spectrum detection and serve for quantitative analysis and monitoring of topographical surface feature, the error law of LASIS imaging is supposed to be learned. In this paper, the LASIS errors are classified as interferogram error, radiometric correction error and spectral inversion error, and each type of error is analyzed and studied. Finally, a case study of Yaogan-14 is proposed, in which the interferogram error of LASIS by time and space combined modulation is mainly experimented and analyzed, as well as the errors from process of radiometric correction and spectral inversion.

  2. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, C.

    1995-04-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed.

  3. Development and testing of an actively controlled large-aperture Cassegrain Telescope for spacecraft deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Bradley G.; Bruzzi, Jonathan R.; Kluga, Bernard E.; Rogala, Eric W.; Hale, R. D.; Chen, Peter C.

    2004-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning future deep space missions requiring space-based imaging reconnaissance of planets and recovery of imagery from these missions via optical communications. Both applications have similar requirements that can be met by a common aperture. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in collaboration with commercial and academic partners is developing a new approach to deploying and controlling large aperture (meter-class) optical telescopes on spacecraft that can be rapidly launched and deployed. The deployment mechanism uses flexible longeron struts to deploy the secondary. The active control system uses a fiber-coupled laser array near the focal plane that reflects four collimated laser beams off of the periphery of the secondary to four equally-disposed quad cell sensors at the periphery of the primary to correct secondary-to-primary misalignments and enable motion compensation. We describe a compensation technique that uses tip/tilt and piston actuators for quasi-static bias correction and dynamic motion compensation. We also describe preliminary optical tests using a commercial Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope in lieu of an ultra-lightweight composite Cassegrain, which is under development by Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. Finite element and ray trace modeling results for a 40 cm composite telescope design will also be described.

  4. Terahertz Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) Imaging With a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) imaging with a quantum cascade laser transmitter Andriy A. Danylov1,*, Thomas M. Goyette1...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) imaging with a quantum cascade laser...band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 5095, 66-74 (2003). 10. M. J. Coulombe, T. Horgan, J

  5. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  6. Large-pitch steerable synthetic transmit aperture imaging (LPSSTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kolios, Michael C.; Xu, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    A linear ultrasound array system usually has a larger pitch and is less costly than a phased array system, but loses the ability to fully steer the ultrasound beam. In this paper, we propose a system whose hardware is similar to a large-pitch linear array system, but whose ability to steer the beam is similar to a phased array system. The motivation is to reduce the total number of measurement channels M (the product of the number of transmissions, nT, and the number of the receive channels in each transmission, nR), while maintaining reasonable image quality. We combined adjacent elements (with proper delays introduced) into groups that would be used in both the transmit and receive processes of synthetic transmit aperture imaging. After the M channels of RF data were acquired, a pseudo-inversion was applied to estimate the equivalent signal in traditional STA to reconstruct a STA image. Even with the similar M, different choices of nT and nR will produce different image quality. The images produced with M=N2/15 in the selected regions of interest (ROI) were demonstrated to be comparable with a full phased array, where N is the number of the array elements. The disadvantage of the proposed system is that its field of view in one delay-configuration is smaller than a standard full phased array. However, by adjusting the delay for each element within each group, the beam can be steered to cover the same field of view as the standard fully-filled phased array. The LPSSTA system might be useful for 3D ultrasound imaging.

  7. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry.

  8. Large-aperture Dove prism for a rotational shearing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ivan; Paez, Gonzalo; Garcia-Marquez, Jorge; Strojnik, Marija

    2002-12-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the tilt introduced into a wave front by a Dove prism with manufacturing errors: error in the base angles and in the pyramidal angle. We found that the tilt decreases when the base angles are increased above the values of traditional design. The increase in the length-aperture ratio of a prism is detrimental to its performance. However, a Dove prism with a widened aperture increases throughput and keeps prism weight manageable for implementation in the rotational shearing interferometer. Thus, we propose a Dove prism designed with a widened aperture to increase throughput in the rotational shearing interferometer and with larger base angles to minimize the wave-front tilt introduced due to manufacturing errors.

  9. A low-cost large-aperture optical receiver for remote sensing and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanes, Stephen A.

    2003-03-01

    An inexpensive large aperture (10 m class) receiver for optical wavelength imaging and remote sensing applications is discussed. The design was developed for active (laser illumination) imaging of remote objects using pupil plane measurement techniques, where relatively low optical quality collecting elements can be used. The approach is also well suited for conventional imaging at lower resolutions when light collection capability is of primary importance. The approach relies on a large aperture heliostat consisting of an array of flat mirror segments, like those used in solar collector systems, to collect light from the region of interest. The heliostat segments are tilted in a manner to concentrate the light, by making the light from all segments overlap at a common point, resulting in a region of higher intensity about the size of a segment at the heliostat "focus". A smaller secondary collector, consisting of a concave mirror located at the overlap point, further concentrates the light and forms a pupil image of the heliostat. Additional optics near the pupil image collimate the light for efficient transmission though a narrow band interference filter used to reduce sky background, and focus the light onto a PMT, or other sensor, for detection. Several design approaches for the collimating optics are discussed as well as system performance and limitations.

  10. Design quadrilateral apertures in binary computer-generated holograms of large space bandwidth product.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Sheng, Yunlong

    2016-09-20

    A new approach for designing the binary computer-generated hologram (CGH) of a very large number of pixels is proposed. Diffraction of the CGH apertures is computed by the analytical Abbe transform and by considering the aperture edges as the basic diffracting elements. The computation cost is independent of the CGH size. The arbitrary-shaped polygonal apertures in the CGH consist of quadrilateral apertures, which are designed by assigning the binary phases using the parallel genetic algorithm with a local search, followed by optimizing the locations of the co-vertices with a direct search. The design results in high performance with low image reconstruction error.

  11. Experimental instrumentation system for the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive optics are used in telescopes for both viewing objects with minimum distortion and for transmitting laser beams with minimum beam divergence and dance. In order to test concepts on a smaller scale, NASA MSFC is in the process of setting up an adaptive optics test facility with precision (fraction of wavelengths) measurement equipment. The initial system under test is the adaptive optical telescope called PAMELA (Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture). Goals of this test are: assessment of test hardware specifications for PAMELA application and the determination of the sensitivities of instruments for measuring PAMELA (and other adaptive optical telescopes) imperfections; evaluation of the PAMELA system integration effort and test progress and recommended actions to enhance these activities; and development of concepts and prototypes of experimental apparatuses for PAMELA.

  12. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J. T. Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  13. In-situ monitoring of surface post-processing in large aperture fused silica optics with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, G M; Bass, I l; Hackel, R P; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during post-processing via CO{sub 2} laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5-cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

  14. Time-gated ballistic imaging using a large aperture switching beam.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Florian; Reddemann, Manuel A; Palmer, Johannes; Kneer, Reinhold

    2014-03-24

    Ballistic imaging commonly denotes the formation of line-of-sight shadowgraphs through turbid media by suppression of multiply scattered photons. The technique relies on a femtosecond laser acting as light source for the images and as switch for an optical Kerr gate that separates ballistic photons from multiply scattered ones. The achievable image resolution is one major limitation for the investigation of small objects. In this study, practical influences on the optical Kerr gate and image quality are discussed theoretically and experimentally applying a switching beam with large aperture (D = 19 mm). It is shown how switching pulse energy and synchronization of switching and imaging pulse in the Kerr cell influence the gate's transmission. Image quality of ballistic imaging and standard shadowgraphy is evaluated and compared, showing that the present ballistic imaging setup is advantageous for optical densities in the range of 8 < OD < 13. Owing to the spatial transmission characteristics of the optical Kerr gate, a rectangular aperture stop is formed, which leads to different resolution limits for vertical and horizontal structures in the object. Furthermore, it is reported how to convert the ballistic imaging setup into a schlieren-type system with an optical schlieren edge.

  15. Wide-aperture laser diode array in the external V-shaped cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Svetikov, V V; Nurligareev, D Kh

    2014-09-30

    The operation of a wide-aperture laser diode array with the radiation wavelength 980 nm in external V-shaped symmetric and asymmetric cavities is experimentally studied. The regimes of stable oscillation are studied as functions of the feedback beam direction. The spectra and the intensity distribution of radiation in the far zone are presented for the laser diode in symmetric and asymmetric cavities. Tuning of the radiation wavelength is demonstrated using the Littman geometry in the asymmetric cavity. (lasers)

  16. Fabrication of large-aperture, high efficiency, Fresnel diffractive membrane optic for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Mengjuan; Yin, Ganghua; Jiao, Jianchao; Liu, Zhengkun; Xu, Xiangdong; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive optical system can be a favorable choice for large-aperture space telescope to reduce the mass and size of image system. To meet the demand of large-aperture, high efficiency, lightweight diffractive optic for high resolution remote sensing, a 200 mm diameter, 20 μmthick, 4-level diffractive membrane fabricated is shown to have over 62% diffraction efficiency into the +1 order, with 0.051 efficiency RMS. Over 66% diffraction efficiency is achieved for a 100 mm aperture membrane, with 0.023 efficiency RMS. The membrane thickness uniformity control is discussed and 8 nm wave front error RMS is achieved in 100 mm diameter.

  17. Large Aperture Scanning Lidar Based on Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Guerra, David V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lidar remote sensing instruments can make a significant contribution to satisfying many of the required measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters for future spaceborne platforms, including topographic altimeters, atmospheric profiles of, wind, humidity, temperature, trace molecules, aerosols, and clouds. It is highly desirable to have wide measurement swaths for rapid coverage rather than just the narrow ribbon of data that is obtained with a nadir only observation. For most applications global coverage is required, and for wind measurements scanning or pointing is required in order to retrieve the full 3-D wind vector from multiple line-of-sight Doppler measurements. Conventional lidar receivers make up a substantial portion of the instrument's size and weight. Wide angle scanning typically requires a large scanning mirror in front of the receiver telescope, or pointing the entire telescope and aft optics assembly, Either of these methods entails the use of large bearings, motors, gearing and their associated electronics. Spaceborne instruments also need reaction wheels to counter the torque applied to the spacecraft by these motions. NASA has developed simplified conical scanning telescopes using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to reduce the size, mass, angular momentum, and cost of scanning lidar systems. NASA has developed two operating lidar systems based on 40 cm diameter HOEs. The first such system, named Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS) was a joint development between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland College Park. PHASERS is based on a reflection HOE for use at the doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 532 nm and has recently undergone a number of design changes in a collaborative effort between GSFC and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. The next step was to develop IR transmission HOEs for use with the Nd:YAG fundamental in the Holographic Airborne

  18. The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Belle, Gerard T.; Meinel, Aden Baker; Meinel, Marjorie Pettit

    2004-01-01

    Cost data for ground-based telescopes of the last century are analyzed for trends in the relationship between aperture size and cost. We find that for apertures built prior to 1980, costs scaled as aperture size to the 2.8 power, which is consistent with the precious finding of Meinel (1978). After 1980, 'traditional' monolithic mirror telescope costs have scaled as aperture to the 2.5 power. The large multiple mirror telescopes built or in construction during this time period (Keck, LBT, GTC) appear to deviate from this relationship with significant cost savings as a result, although it is unclear what power law such structures follow. We discuss the implications of the current cost-aperture size data on the proposed large telescope projects of the next ten to twenty years. Structures that naturally tend towards the 2.0 power in the cost-aperture relationship will be the favorable choice for future extremely large apertures; out expectation is that space-based structures will ultimately gain economic advantage over ground-based ones.

  19. CAMERA: a compact, automated, laser adaptive optics system for small aperture telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Matthew; Velur, Viswa; Law, Nick; Choi, Philip; Penprase, Bryan E.

    2008-07-01

    CAMERA is an autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics system designed for small aperture telescopes. This system is intended to be mounted permanently on such a telescope to provide large amounts of flexibly scheduled observing time, delivering high angular resolution imagery in the visible and near infrared. The design employs a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor, a 12x12 actuator MEMS device for high order wavefront compensation, and a solid state 355nm ND:YAG laser to generate a guide star. Commercial CCD and InGaAs detectors provide coverage in the visible and near infrared. CAMERA operates by selecting targets from a queue populated by users and executing these observations autonomously. This robotic system is targeted towards applications that are diffcult to address using classical observing strategies: surveys of very large target lists, recurrently scheduled observations, and rapid response followup of transient objects. This system has been designed and costed, and a lab testbed has been developed to evaluate key components and validate autonomous operations.

  20. Reflective Schmidt-Cassegrain system for large-aperture telescopes.

    PubMed

    Brychikhin, M N; Chkhalo, N I; Eikhorn, Ya O; Malyshev, I V; Pestov, A E; Plastinin, Yu A; Polkovnikov, V N; Rizvanov, A A; Salashchenko, N N; Strulya, I L; Toropov, M N

    2016-06-01

    A reflective modification of the Schmidt-Cassegrain system was built and tested. Ultraviolet (UV) and soft x-ray applications are discussed. The system consists of a planoid mirror with an aspheric profile and prime concave and secondary convex spherical mirrors. Spherical aberration in a wide field of view and astigmatism are compensated by the aspheric profile of the planoid. The main parameters of the scheme are as follows: an entrance aperture of 180 mm, a focal ratio F/3.2, an angular resolution better than 3'' (corresponding to a pixel size of a back-side illuminated CCD), a field of view of ±1.5° (2ω=3°) and a flat image field with a diameter of 30.4 mm. Due to the absence of chromatic aberrations and wide field of view, the scheme is of considerable interest for hyperspectral instruments. In particular, the operating range of the instruments can be expanded into vacuum UV and UV regions.

  1. Two-dimensional synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging using galvanometric scanning.

    PubMed

    Witomski, Arnaud; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier

    2008-02-20

    We have improved the resolution of our laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) setup by using a synthetic aperture (SA) process. We report a two-dimensional (2D) SA LOFI experiment where the unprocessed image (i.e., the classical LOFI image) is obtained point by point, line after line using full 2D galvanometric scanning. The 2D superresolved image is then obtained by successively computing two angular SA operations while a one-dimensional angular synthesis is preceded by a frequency synthesis to obtain a 2D superresolved image conventionally in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) method and their corresponding laser method called synthetic aperture ladar. The numerical and experimental results are compared.

  2. The spectrum and competition of autowaves in a wide-aperture laser with a saturable filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikin, A P

    2000-11-30

    The lasing dynamics of a wide-aperture laser with an intracavity saturable absorber is theoretically studied. The saturable absorber inserting gives rise to an autowave profile of the optical field. The characteristic equation for the perturbations of the laser field is derived and solved. The spatial spectrum of autowaves is determined. The relevant set of equations was numerically solved for two types of resonant boundary conditions: total reflection of light from the side boundaries of the cavity and a coaxial laser geometry. (lasers, active media)

  3. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  4. Technology gap assessment for a future large-aperture ultraviolet-optical-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl M.; Thronson, Harley

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team identified five key technology areas to enable candidate architectures for a future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technology areas are internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescope systems, detectors, and mirror coatings. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current technology readiness level (TRL), thus identifying the current technology gap. We also report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  5. The measurement and analysis of wavefront structure from large aperture ICF optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.

    1995-05-30

    This paper discusses the techniques, developed over the past year, for high spatial resolution measurement and analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wavefront of large aperture ICF optical components. Parts up to 400 mm {times} 750 mm have been measured and include: laser slabs, windows, KDP crystals and lenses. The measurements were performed using state-of-the-art commercial phase shifting interferometers at a wavelength of 633 {mu}m. Both 1 and 2-D Fourier analysis have been used to characterize the wavefront; specifically the Power Spectral Density, (PSD), function was calculated. The PSDs of several precision optical components will be shown. The PSD(V) is proportional to the (amplitude){sup 2} of components of the Fourier frequency spectrum. The PSD describes the scattered intensity and direction as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront. The capability of commercial software is limited to 1-D Fourier analysis only. We are developing our own 2-D analysis capability in support of work to revise specifications for NIF optics. 2-D analysis uses the entire wavefront phase map to construct 2D PSD functions. We have been able to increase the signal-to-noise relative to 1-D and can observe very subtle wavefront structure.

  6. Synthesis of a large communications aperture using small antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, George M.; Cwik, T. W.; Jamnejad, V.; Logan, R. T.; Miller, R. B.; Rogstad, Dave H.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we compare the cost of an array of small antennas to that of a single large antenna assuming both the array and single large antenna have equal performance and availability. The single large antenna is taken to be one of the 70-m antennas of the Deep Space Network. The cost of the array is estimated as a function of the array element diameter for three different values of system noise temperature corresponding to three different packaging schemes for the first amplifier. Array elements are taken to be fully steerable paraboloids and their cost estimates were obtained from commercial vendors. Array loss mechanisms and calibration problems are discussed. For array elements in the range 3 - 35 m there is no minimum in the cost versus diameter curve for the three system temperatures that were studied.

  7. Quantitative comparison of terahertz emission from (100) InAs surfaces and a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch at high fluences.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2005-01-01

    InAs has previously been reported to be an efficient emitter of terahertz radiation at low excitation fluences by use of femtosecond laser pulses. The scaling and saturation of terahertz emission from a (100) InAs surface as a function of excitation fluence is measured and quantitatively compared with the emission from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch. We find that, although the instantaneous peak radiated terahertz field from (100) InAs exceeds the peak radiated signals from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch biased at 1.6 kV/cm, the pulse duration is shorter. For the InAs source the total energy radiated is less than can be obtained from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch.

  8. Study on fine annealing process of the large-aperture K9 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Wang; Bin, Liu Yi; Zheng, Li Li; Hui, Zhang; Lei, Xie; Min, Qiu Fu; Ping, Ma; Yao, Yan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Study on fine annealing process of the large-aperture K9 glasses was carried out in the report. The process parameters of glass placed way, fan speed and design of the cavity for keeping temperature uniformity were attained. By the fine annealing experiment, the stress distribution was improved evidently. The stress changed from Irregular distribution to consistency symmetric distribution and the stress max was reduced. The surface profile accuracy of the large-aperture K9 glasses was controlled steadily during CNC polishing.

  9. Zinc selenide-based large aperture photo-controlled deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Quintavalla, Martino; Bonora, Stefano; Natali, Dario; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Realization of large aperture deformable mirrors with a large density of actuators is important in many applications, and photo-controlled deformable mirrors (PCDMs) represent an innovation. Herein we show that PCDMs are scalable realizing a 2-inch aperture device based on a polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) as the photoconductive substrate and a thin polymeric reflective membrane. ZnSe is electrically characterized and analyzed through a model that we previously introduced. The PCDM is then optically tested, demonstrating its capabilities in adaptive optics.

  10. Feasibility study of synthetic aperture infrared laser radar techniques for imaging of static and moving objects.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, S; Aruga, T

    1998-08-20

    Techniques for two types of 10-mum band synthetic aperture infrared laser radar using a hypothetical reference point target (RPT) are presented. One is for imaging static objects with a single two-dimensional scanning aperture. Through the simple manipulation of a reference wave phase, a desired image can be obtained merely by the two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the correlator output between the intermediate frequency signals of the reference and object waves. The other, with a one-dimensional aperture array, is for moving objects that pass across the array direction without attitude change. We performed imaging by using a two-dimensional RPT correlation method. We demonstrate the capability of these methods for imaging and evaluate the necessary conditions for signal-to-noise ratio and random phase errors in signal reception through numerical simulations in terms of feasibility.

  11. Advances in Mechanical Architectures of Large Precision Space Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datashvili, Leri; Maghaldadze, Nikoloz; Endler, Stephan; Pauw, Julian; He, Peng; Baier, Horst; Ihle, Alexander; Santiago Prowlad, Julian

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in development of mechanical architectures of large deployable reflectors (LDRs) through the projects of the European Space Agency are addressed in this paper. Two different directions of LDR architectures are being investigated and developed at LSS and LLB. These are LDRs with knitted metal mesh and with flexible shell-membrane reflecting surfaces. The first direction is matured and required advancing of the novel architecture of the supporting structure that provides deployment and final shape accuracy of the metal mesh is underway. The second direction is rather new and its current development stage is focused on investigations of dimensional stability of the flexible shell-membrane reflecting surface. In both directions 5 m diameter functional models will be built to demonstrate achieved performances, which shall prepare the basis for further improvement of their technology readiness levels.

  12. A six-junction GaAs laser power converter with different sizes of active aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-run; Dong, Jian-rong; He, Yang; Zhao, Yong-ming; Yu, Shu-zhen; Xue, Ji-ping; Xue, Chi; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yun-qing; Ding, Yan-wen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a novel GaAs-based laser power converters (LPCs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), which uses a single monolithic structure with six junctions connected by tunnel junctions to obtain a high output voltage. The LPCs with diameters of active aperture of 2 mm and 4 mm were fabricated and tested. The test results show that under an 808 nm laser, two LPCs both show an open circuit voltage of above 6.5 V. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 50.2% is obtained by 2 mm sample with laser power of 0.256 W, and an output electric power of 1.9 W with laser power of 4.85 W is obtained by 4 mm sample. The performances of the LPCs are deteriorated under illumination of high flux, and the 4 mm sample shows a higher laser power tolerance.

  13. Simulation of Locking Space Truss Deployments for a Large Deployable Sparse Aperture Reflector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    solar cells , there exists the potential to increase the signal gain by using a larger antenna reflector aperture. However, the use of large reflectors, or...and Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Assumptions and Limitations ...69 Initial Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 First Cell Lockout Event

  14. High numerical aperture large-core photonic crystal fiber for a broadband infrared transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pniewski, J.; Stepniewski, G.; Kasztelanic, R.; Siwicki, B.; Pierscinska, D.; Pierscinski, K.; Pysz, D.; Borzycki, K.; Stepien, R.; Bugajski, M.; Buczynski, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a large mode area photonic crystal fiber made of the heavy metal oxide glass CS-740, dedicated for a broadband light guidance in the visible, near- and mid-infrared regions of wavelengths from 0.4 to 4.7 μm. The fiber is effectively multi-mode in the considered wavelength range. It is composed of a ring of air-holes surrounding the core, with a high linear filling factor of 0.97. The fiber was made using a standard stack-and-draw technique. Each hole has a size of approx. 2.5 × 3.0 μm and diameter of core is 80 μm. Fiber attenuation is below 3 dB/m in the 0.9-1.7 μm wavelength range, while at 4.4 μm (mid-IR) it is approx. 5 dB/cm. Bending loss at the 1.55 μm wavelength is 0.45 dB per loop of 8 mm radius. Fiber numerical aperture is 0.53 at 1.55 μm. The effective mode area of the fundamental mode is approx. 2400 μm2 in the wavelength range of 0.8-1.7 μm. We present a proof-of-concept demonstration that our large core photonic crystal fiber is able to efficiently collect light directly from a mid-IR quantum cascade laser without use of additional optics and can be used for pigtailing mid-IR sources and detectors.

  15. Large Metasurface Aperture for Millimeter Wave Computational Imaging at the Human-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollub, J. N.; Yurduseven, O.; Trofatter, K. P.; Arnitz, D.; F. Imani, M.; Sleasman, T.; Boyarsky, M.; Rose, A.; Pedross-Engel, A.; Odabasi, H.; Zvolensky, T.; Lipworth, G.; Brady, D.; Marks, D. L.; Reynolds, M. S.; Smith, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a low-profile holographic imaging system at millimeter wavelengths based on an aperture composed of frequency-diverse metasurfaces. Utilizing measurements of spatially-diverse field patterns, diffraction-limited images of human-sized subjects are reconstructed. The system is driven by a single microwave source swept over a band of frequencies (17.5–26.5 GHz) and switched between a collection of transmit and receive metasurface panels. High fidelity image reconstruction requires a precise model for each field pattern generated by the aperture, as well as the manner in which the field scatters from objects in the scene. This constraint makes scaling of computational imaging systems inherently challenging for electrically large, coherent apertures. To meet the demanding requirements, we introduce computational methods and calibration approaches that enable rapid and accurate imaging performance.

  16. Large Metasurface Aperture for Millimeter Wave Computational Imaging at the Human-Scale.

    PubMed

    Gollub, J N; Yurduseven, O; Trofatter, K P; Arnitz, D; F Imani, M; Sleasman, T; Boyarsky, M; Rose, A; Pedross-Engel, A; Odabasi, H; Zvolensky, T; Lipworth, G; Brady, D; Marks, D L; Reynolds, M S; Smith, D R

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate a low-profile holographic imaging system at millimeter wavelengths based on an aperture composed of frequency-diverse metasurfaces. Utilizing measurements of spatially-diverse field patterns, diffraction-limited images of human-sized subjects are reconstructed. The system is driven by a single microwave source swept over a band of frequencies (17.5-26.5 GHz) and switched between a collection of transmit and receive metasurface panels. High fidelity image reconstruction requires a precise model for each field pattern generated by the aperture, as well as the manner in which the field scatters from objects in the scene. This constraint makes scaling of computational imaging systems inherently challenging for electrically large, coherent apertures. To meet the demanding requirements, we introduce computational methods and calibration approaches that enable rapid and accurate imaging performance.

  17. Large Metasurface Aperture for Millimeter Wave Computational Imaging at the Human-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, J. N.; Yurduseven, O.; Trofatter, K. P.; Arnitz, D.; F. Imani, M.; Sleasman, T.; Boyarsky, M.; Rose, A.; Pedross-Engel, A.; Odabasi, H.; Zvolensky, T.; Lipworth, G.; Brady, D.; Marks, D. L.; Reynolds, M. S.; Smith, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-profile holographic imaging system at millimeter wavelengths based on an aperture composed of frequency-diverse metasurfaces. Utilizing measurements of spatially-diverse field patterns, diffraction-limited images of human-sized subjects are reconstructed. The system is driven by a single microwave source swept over a band of frequencies (17.5–26.5 GHz) and switched between a collection of transmit and receive metasurface panels. High fidelity image reconstruction requires a precise model for each field pattern generated by the aperture, as well as the manner in which the field scatters from objects in the scene. This constraint makes scaling of computational imaging systems inherently challenging for electrically large, coherent apertures. To meet the demanding requirements, we introduce computational methods and calibration approaches that enable rapid and accurate imaging performance. PMID:28218254

  18. Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Lui, H S; Taimre, T; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Lachab, M; Valavanis, A; Indjin, D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Rakić, A D

    2014-05-01

    We propose a terahertz (THz)-frequency synthetic aperture radar imaging technique based on self-mixing (SM) interferometry, using a quantum cascade laser. A signal processing method is employed which extracts and exploits the radar-related information contained in the SM signals, enabling the creation of THz images with improved spatial resolution. We demonstrate this by imaging a standard resolution test target, achieving resolution beyond the diffraction limit.

  19. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building, and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 34 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers, and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  20. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.

    2004-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 3 - 4 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  1. Algorithms for finely adjusting etch depths to improve the diffraction efficiency uniformity of large-aperture BSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Liu, Ying; Fu, Shaojun

    2015-03-01

    Beam sampling gratings (BSGs) employed in high-power laser systems usually have large aperture so that the adequate uniformity of diffraction efficiency is difficult to obtain. We proposed a deterministic method using controllable non-uniform etch to improve the efficiency uniformity of large-aperture BSGs. During the ion beam etching (IBE) process, etch depths are finely adjusted by the dynamic leaf. The motion trajectory of the dynamic leaf is calculated using the fine adjustment algorithm. Simulations are conducted on the basis of a typical example. The simulation predictions show that the cumulative error is 0.067 nm and about 99.1% of depth differences are in the range of the required etch depth tolerance, which suggests that the diffraction efficiency uniformity of BSG is expected to be effectively improved and thus can meet the requirement of a RMS of 5%. As a cost-effective solution, it also has a broad prospect in many optical fabrication fields, especially for the fabrication of large optics.

  2. Fabrication and test of a concave oblate ellipsoid with large relative aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-xin; Yuan, Li-yin; Hao, Pei-ming

    2010-10-01

    Fabrication and test of the concave oblate ellipsoid becomes more difficult as the mirror relative aperture gets larger. The concave oblate ellipsoid discussed in this paper, has a very large relative aperture. Two processing methods are introduced. One is drilling sub-mirror from the mother mirror, the other is processing sub-mirror merely. A novel method to calculate aspheric grinding amount of the latter method is proposed. As the clear aperture and aperture decenter of the concave oblate ellipsoid in this paper are not large, the former processing method is finally adopted. Two online processing testing methods are proposed. One is reflective auto-collimating test; the other is refractive auto-collimating test. As for the former, a negative power lens is applied to compensate the positive spherical aberration of the concave oblate ellipsoid. The compensator has a negative - negative - positive configuration. As for the latter, the back surface of the spherical is designed to be an auxiliary spherical one. Its compensator is negative- positive- positive compensator. Besides, a high-precision plane is used to realize auto-collimating test. And the form test is selected for its online processing testing. By optical design of the compensator and gradual aberration optimization of its alignment, the test accuracy of the oblate ellipsoid shape can be achieved 1/10λ (632.8nm).

  3. Annular sub-aperture stitching interferometry testing for large-caliber aspheric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pengfei; Yang, Shuming; Sun, Lin; Zhao, Pu; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-09-01

    An annular sub-aperture stitching interferometry testing is proposed for large-caliber aspheric lens testing, expanding the dynamic range of the interferometer, broadening the scope of the measurement, and reducing the cost of the measurement to a large extent without the use of compensating elements. The large-caliber aspheric is divided into several annular sub-apertures, and there are some overlapping areas between each two adjacent sub-apertures. When testing, the test aspheric is moved along the optical axis according to path planning so that the reference spherical shape and the test aspheric interest at points of common tangency to reduce the fringe density of the sub-aperture. However, in the process of moving the test optic, six DOF (degrees of freedom) misalignment errors will occur. According to the rigid body kinematics theory, the misalignment error separation model is established so that the misalignment factors can be calculated by the information of each overlapping regions. Then all sub-apertures are unified to the same reference with proper algorithm, and subsequently, misalignment error of the reference is removed by Zernike polynomial fitting, and the whole surface error is recovered. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the method we developed. By analyzing the influence of the six DOF on the stitching result, the most important factor is obtained, and some measures are taken, that is, a measurement system combining two interferometers is designed, one of which is to measure the departures between the reference and the aspheric, and another to test the piston errors to be transmitted to the control system to improve the accuracy.

  4. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  5. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  6. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  7. Initial technology assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  8. A Large Aperture Lidar Observatory for Exploring the Interaction of Our Atmosphere with Space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Gardner, C. S.; Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    The mesopause region has been the subject of intensive study during the past decade because it is recognized as a critical region connecting our sensible atmosphere to the near-space environment. Processes in this region include a host of wave dynamics, heat and constituent transport, turbulence, polar mesospheric cloud formation, and the influx of meteoric material. Moreover, the neutral gas properties above the mesopause from 100 - 200 km altitude are poorly characterized and are influenced by additional processes that include solar EUV absorption / ionization, eddy to molecular diffusion, neutral wind dynamo action, and geomagnetic activity. Thus, this altitude region is a complex confluence of space and atmosphere processes that ultimately determine its properties. Fundamentally these processes are operating in any planetary atmosphere and must be understood in order to advance understanding of habitability and sustainability of a planetary system. While observational and modeling capabilities are evolving, progress in characterizing neutral properties and related processes in the mesopause region and above has been inhibited because they cannot be observed in sufficient detail and at high enough altitudes with existing instrumentation. This is especially true of the neutral atmosphere from 50 - 1000 km, where observations of its properties, dynamics and thermal structure are either sparse or nonexistent. A Large-Aperture Lidar Observatory (LALO) would enable significant progress by providing critical measurements of atmospheric constituents and parameters at greatly enhanced resolution and at much higher altitudes than is possible today. A large telescope in combination with modern high-power lasers, would enable observations of the neutral atmosphere to 1000 km altitude with a sensitivity and resolution approximately 1000 times better than can be achieved with the most powerful lidar systems in operation today. There are no technology barriers to realizing

  9. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  10. Large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating based fiber CPA system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kai-Hsiu; Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Flecher, Emilie; Smirnov, Vadim I; Glebov, Leonid B; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-04-16

    A fiber chirped pulse amplification system at 1558 nm was demonstrated using a large-aperture volume Bragg grating stretcher and compressor made of Photo-Thermal-Refractive (PTR) glass. Such PTR glass based gratings represent a new type of pulse stretching and compressing devices which are compact, monolithic and optically efficient. Furthermore, since PTR glass technology enables volume gratings with transverse apertures which are large, homogeneous and scalable, it also enables high pulse energies and powers far exceeding those achievable with other existing compact pulse-compression technologies. Additionally, reciprocity of chirped gratings with respect to stretching and compression also enables to address a long-standing problem in CPA system design of stretcher-compressor dispersion mismatch.

  11. Large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating based fiber CPA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai-Hsiu; Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Flecher, Emilie; Smirnov, Vadim I.; Glebov, Leonid B.; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2007-04-01

    A fiber chirped pulse amplification system at 1558nm was demonstrated using a large-aperture volume Bragg grating stretcher and compressor made of Photo-Thermal-Refractive (PTR) glass. Such PTR glass based gratings represent a new type of pulse stretching and compressing devices which are compact, monolithic and optically efficient. Furthermore, since PTR glass technology enables volume gratings with transverse apertures which are large, homogeneous and scalable, it also enables high pulse energies and powers far exceeding those achievable with other existing compact pulse-compression technologies. Additionally, reciprocity of chirped gratings with respect to stretching and compression also enables to address a long-standing problem in CPA system design of stretcher-compressor dispersion mismatch.

  12. A Large-Aperture Acoustic Array to Observe Oceanic Density Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Subtitle) ._,,, , , : A ^ARGE-APERTURb ^ COUSTIC ARRAY TO ^OBSERVE OCEANIC DENSITY STRUCTURE t 7. AUTHORfj; G. Thomas/Kaye READ INSTRUCTIONS...o CO (M MARINE PHYSICAL LABORATORY of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography San Diego, California 92132 A LARGE APERTURE ACOUSTIC ARRAY TO...Contracts Contract Effective Date: Contract Expiration Date; Amount of Contract: Layered Inhomogeneities N00014-69- A -0200-6038 \\ 1 April 1972 Jiß

  13. The laser linewidth effect on the image quality of phase coded synthetic aperture ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guangyu; Hou, Peipei; Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ning; Li, Guangyuan; Zhang, Guo; Liu, Liren

    2015-12-01

    The phase coded (PC) waveform in synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) outperforms linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal in lower side lobe, shorter pulse duration and making the rigid control of the chirp starting point in every pulse unnecessary. Inherited from radar PC waveform and strip map SAL, the backscattered signal of a point target in PC SAL was listed and the two dimensional match filtering algorithm was introduced to focus a point image. As an inherent property of laser, linewidth is always detrimental to coherent ladar imaging. With the widely adopted laser linewidth model, the effect of laser linewidth on SAL image quality was theoretically analyzed and examined via Monte Carlo simulation. The research gives us a clear view of how to select linewidth parameters in the future PC SAL systems.

  14. Fabrication of Efficient, Large Aperture Transmission Diffraction Gratings by Ion-Beam Etching

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H T; Bryan, S R; Britten, J A; Perry, M D

    2000-09-14

    The utilization of high-power short pulse laser employing chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) for material processing and inertial confinement research is widely increasing. The performance of these high-power CPA laser system continues to be limited by the ability of the pulse compression gratings to hold up to the high-average-power or high-peak-power of the laser. Pulse compression gratings used in transmission and fabricated out of bulk fused silica have intrinsically the highest laser damage threshold when compared with metal or multilayer dielectric gratings that work in reflection. LLNL has developed processing capability to produce high efficiency fused silica transmission gratings at sizes useful to future Petawatt-class systems, and has demonstrated high efficiency at smaller aperture. This report shows that fused silica diffraction exhibiting >95% efficiency into the -1 diffraction order in transmission (90{sup o} deflection of the incident light, at an incidence angle of 45{sup o} to the grating face). The microstructure of this grating consisted of grooves ion-beam etched to a depth of 1.6 microns with a pitch of 0.75 microns, using a holographically produced photoresist mask that was subsequently stripped away in significance to the fabrication of the small scale high efficiency grating was the development of the processing technology and infrastructure for production of such gratings at up to 65 cm diameter. LLNL is the currently the only location in the world with the ability to coat, interferometrically expose, and ion etch diffractive optics at this aperture. Below, we describe the design, fabrication, performance and, the scaleup process for a producing a high-efficiency transmission grating on a 65 cm fused silica substrate.

  15. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  16. Performance analysis of adaptive fiber laser array propagating in atmosphere with correction of high order aberrations in sub-aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Geng, Chao; Li, Xinyang; Qiu, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Recently developed adaptive fiber laser array technique provides a promising way incorporating aberrations correction with laser beams transmission. Existing researches are focused on sub-aperture low order aberrations (pistons and tips/tilts) compensation and got excellent correction results for weak and moderate turbulence in short range. While such results are not adequate for future laser applications which face longer range and stronger turbulence. So sub-aperture high aberrations compensation is necessary. Relationship between corrigible orders of sub-aperture aberrations and far-field metrics as power-in-the-bucket (PIB) and Strehl ratio is investigated with numeric simulation in this paper. Numerical investigation results shows that increment in array number won't result in effective improvement of the far-field metric if sub-aperture size is fixed. Low order aberrations compensation in sub-apertures gets its best performances only when turbulence strength is weak. Pistons compensation becomes invalid and higher order aberrations compensation is necessary when turbulence gets strong enough. Cost functions of the adaptive fiber laser array with high order aberrations correction in sub-apertures are defined and the optimum corrigible orders are discussed. Results shows that high order (less than first ten Zernike orders) compensation is acceptable where balance between increment of the far-field metric and the cost and complexity of the system could be reached.

  17. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible

  18. Effect of the cross-relaxation rate on the transverse radiation dynamics of a wide-aperture laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikin, A P; Molevich, N E

    2004-08-31

    The effect of a finite polarisation relaxation time on the transverse structure of the optical field of a wide-aperture laser is considered. The conditions are found for the emergence of periodic autowaves for positive and negative frequency detuning. These conditions are shown to depend strongly on the cross-relaxation rate. It is established that the dynamics of finite-aperture lasers at high cross-relaxation rates is satisfactorily described by simplified models in which the polarisation is adiabatically eliminated. (lasers)

  19. Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Montgomery, Edward E.; Lindner, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  20. Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include in improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  1. Development of Large-Aperture, Light-Weight Fresnel Lenses for Gossamer Space Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, D; Hyde, R; Weisberg, A; Early, J; Rushford, M; Britten, J

    2002-04-29

    In order to examine more distant astronomical objects, with higher resolution, future space telescopes require objectives with significantly larger aperture than presently available. NASA has identified a progression in size from the 2.4m aperture objective currently used in the HUBBLE space telescope[l,2], to 25m and greater in order to observe, e.g., extra-solar planets. Since weight is a crucial factor for any object sent into space, the relative weight of large optics over a given area must be reduced[3]. The areal mass density of the primary mirror for the Hubble space telescope is {approx}200 kg/m{sup 2}. This is expected to be reduced to around 15 kg/m{sup 2} for the successor to Hubble--the next generation space telescope (NGST)[4]. For future very large aperture telescopes needed for extra-solar planet detection, the areal mass density must be reduced even further. For example, the areal mass density goal for the Gossamer space telescopes is < 1 kg/m{sup 2}. The production of lightweight focusing optics at >10m size is also an enabling technology for many other applications such as Earth observation, power beaming, and optical communications.

  2. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  3. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  4. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  5. Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Dawn N; Adams, Daniel E; Johnson, Adrea; Tsai, Philbert S; Backus, Sterling; Durfee, Charles G; Kleinfeld, David; Squier, Jeffrey A

    2010-08-16

    Temporal focusing of spatially chirped femtosecond laser pulses overcomes previous limitations for ablating high aspect ratio features with low numerical aperture (NA) beams. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing reduces nonlinear interactions, such as self-focusing, prior to the focal plane so that deep (approximately 1 mm) features with parallel sidewalls are ablated at high material removal rates (25 microm(3) per 80 microJ pulse) at 0.04-0.05 NA. This technique is applied to the fabrication of microfluidic devices by ablation through the back surface of thick (6 mm) fused silica substrates. It is also used to ablate bone under aqueous immersion to produce craniotomies.

  6. Detection of and compensation for blocked elements using large coherent apertures: ex vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovljevic, Marko; Bottenus, Nick; Kuo, Lily; Kumar, Shalki; Dahl, Jeremy; Trahey, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    When imaging with ultrasound through the chest wall, it is not uncommon for parts of the array to get blocked by ribs, which can limit the acoustic window and significantly impede visualization of the structures of interest. With the development of large-aperture, high-element-count, 2-D arrays and their potential use in transthoracic imaging, detecting and compensating for the blocked elements is becoming increasingly important. We synthesized large coherent 2-D apertures and used them to image a point target through excised samples of canine chest wall. Blocked elements are detected based on low amplitude of their signals. As a part of compensation, blocked elements are turned off on transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx), and point-target images are created using: coherent summation of the remaining channels, compounding of intercostal apertures, and adaptive weighting of the available Tx/Rx channel-pairs to recover the desired k-space response. The adaptive compensation method also includes a phase aberration correction to ensure that the non-blocked Tx/Rx channel pairs are summed coherently. To evaluate the methods, we compare the point-spread functions (PSFs) and near-field clutter levels for the transcostal and control acquisitions. Specifically, applying k-space compensation to the sparse aperture data created from the control acquisition reduces sidelobes from -6.6 dB to -12 dB. When applied to the transcostal data in combination with phase-aberration correction, the same method reduces sidelobes only by 3 dB, likely due to significant tissue induced acoustic noise. For the transcostal acquisition, turning off blocked elements and applying uniform weighting results in maximum clutter reduction of 5 dB on average, while the PSF stays intact. Compounding reduces clutter by about 3 dB while the k-space compensation increases clutter magnitude to the non-compensated levels.

  7. Large Coded Aperture Mask for Spaceflight Hard X-ray Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigneau, Danielle N.; Robinson, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The 2.6 square meter coded aperture mask is a vital part of the Burst Alert Telescope on the Swift mission. A random, but known pattern of more than 50,000 lead tiles, each 5 mm square, was bonded to a large honeycomb panel which projects a shadow on the detector array during a gamma ray burst. A two-year development process was necessary to explore ideas, apply techniques, and finalize procedures to meet the strict requirements for the coded aperture mask. Challenges included finding a honeycomb substrate with minimal gamma ray attenuation, selecting an adhesive with adequate bond strength to hold the tiles in place but soft enough to allow the tiles to expand and contract without distorting the panel under large temperature gradients, and eliminating excess adhesive from all untiled areas. The largest challenge was to find an efficient way to bond the > 50,000 lead tiles to the panel with positional tolerances measured in microns. In order to generate the desired bondline, adhesive was applied and allowed to cure to each tile. The pre-cured tiles were located in a tool to maintain positional accuracy, wet adhesive was applied to the panel, and it was lowered to the tile surface with synchronized actuators. Using this procedure, the entire tile pattern was transferred to the large honeycomb panel in a single bond. The pressure for the bond was achieved by enclosing the entire system in a vacuum bag. Thermal vacuum and acoustic tests validated this approach. This paper discusses the methods, materials, and techniques used to fabricate this very large and unique coded aperture mask for the Swift mission.

  8. Advances in deployable structures and surfaces for large apertures in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Prowald, J.; Baier, H.

    2013-12-01

    Large apertures in space have applications for telecommunications, Earth observation and scientific missions. This paper reviews advances in mechanical architectures and technologies for large deployable apertures for space antennas and telescopes. Two complementary approaches are described to address this challenge: the deployment of structures based on quasi-rigid members and highly flexible structures. Regarding the first approach, deployable articulated structures are classified in terms of their kinematics as 3D or planar linkages in multiple variants, resulting in different architectures of radial, peripheral or modular constructions. A dedicated discussion on the number of degrees of freedom and constraints addresses the deployment reliability and thermo-elastic stability of large elastic structures in the presence of thermal gradients. This aspect has been identified as a design driver for new developments of peripheral ring and modular structures. Meanwhile, other design drivers are maintained, such as the optimization of mass and stiffness, overall accuracy and stability, and pragmatic aspects including controlled industrial development and a commitment to operators' needs. Furthermore, reflecting surface technologies and concepts are addressed with a view to the future, presenting advances in technical solutions for increasing apertures and reducing areal mass densities to affordable levels for future missions. Highly flexible materials capable of producing ultra-stable shells are described with reference to the state of the art and new developments. These concepts may enable large deployable surfaces for antennas and telescopes, as well as innovative optical concepts such as photon sieves. Shape adjustment and shape control of these surfaces are described in terms of available technologies and future needs, particularly for the reconfiguration of telecommunications antennas. In summary, the two complementary approaches described and reviewed cover the

  9. Spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture quantum-dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Jayanta; McInerney, John G.

    2009-05-15

    We present a systematic theoretical study of spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture semiconductor quantum-dot lasers within the Maxwell-Bloch formalism. Our opto-electro-thermal model self-consistently captures the essential dynamical coupling between field, polarization, and carrier density in both thermal and nonthermal regimes, providing detailed description of the complex spatiotemporal modal intensity structure and spectra in these novel devices and broad area edge-emitting lasers in general. Using linear stability analysis and high resolution adaptive-grid finite element numerical simulation, we show that in the nonthermal regime, the presence of inhomogeneous broadening in quantum-dot active media leads to suppressed filamentation and enhanced spatial coherence compared to conventional quantum well devices with comparable phase-amplitude coupling (alpha parameter). Increasing the degree of inhomogeneous broadening in the active medium leads to further improvement in spatial coherence. In the thermal regime, there is further suppression of filamentation in the inhomogeneously broadened quantum-dot active medium; however, the spatial coherence aided by inhomogeneous broadening is partly lost due to the effect of temperature on cavity detuning. We propose that device designs based on optimized inhomogeneous broadening of quantum-dot gain medium could ultimately lead to diffraction-limited outputs in the quasi-cw regime which are still very difficult to achieve in conventional wide-aperture designs.

  10. Focal aberrations of large-aperture HOPG von-Hàmos x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Brown, C. R. D.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Lee, H. J.; Marschner, H.; Toleikis, S.; Wehrhan, O.; Förster, E.

    2012-09-01

    Focal aberrations of large-aperture highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals in von-Hàmos geometry are investigated by experimental and computational methods. A mosaic HOPG crystal film of 100 μm thickness diffracts 8 keV x-rays. This thickness is smaller than the absorption depth of the symmetric 004-reflection, which amounts to 257 μm. Cylindrically bent crystals with 110mm radius of curvature and up to 100 mm collection width produce a X-shaped halo around the focus. This feature vanishes when the collection aperture is reduced, but axial spectral profiles show that the resolution is not affected. X-ray topography reveals significant inhomogeneous crystallite domains of 2±1mm diameter along the entire crystal. Rocking curves shift by about ±20arcmin between domains, while their full width at half-maximum varies between 30 and 50 arcmin. These inhomogeneities are not imprinted at the focal spot, since the monochromatically reflecting area of the crystal is large compared to inhomogeneities. Ray-tracing calculations using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm developed for mosaic crystals reproduce the X-shaped halo in the focal plane, stemming from the mosaic defocussing in the non-dispersive direction in combination with large apertures. The best achievable resolution is found by analyzing a diversity of rocking curve widths, source sizes and crystal thicknesses for 8 keV x-rays to be ΔE/E ~ 10-4. Finally a general analytic expression for the shape of the aberration is derived.

  11. Large-aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer for miniaturized spectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Anna; Langner, Andreas; Viherkanto, Kai; Mannila, Rami

    2015-02-01

    VTT's optical MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) are tunable optical filters, which enable miniaturization of spectral imagers into small, mass producible hand-held sensors with versatile optical measurement capabilities. FPI technology has also created a basis for various hyperspectral imaging instruments, ranging from nanosatellites, environmental sensing and precision agriculture with UAVs to instruments for skin cancer detection. Until now, these application demonstrations have been mostly realized with piezo-actuated FPIs fabricated by non-monolithical assembly method, suitable for achieving very large optical apertures and with capacity to small-to-medium volumes; however large-volume production of MEMS manufacturing supports the potential for emerging spectral imaging applications also in large-volume applications, such as in consumer/mobile products. Previously reported optical apertures of MEMS FPIs in the visible range have been up to 2 mm in size; this paper presents the design, successful fabrication and characterization of MEMS FPIs for central wavelengths of λ = 500 nm and λ = 650 nm with optical apertures up to 4 mm in diameter. The mirror membranes of the FPI structures consist of ALD (atomic layer deposited) TiO2-Al2O3 λ/4- thin film Bragg reflectors, with the air gap formed by sacrificial polymer etching in O2 plasma. The entire fabrication process is conducted below 150 °C, which makes it possible to monolithically integrate the filter structures on other ICdevices such as detectors. The realized MEMS devices are aimed for nanosatellite space application as breadboard hyperspectral imager demonstrators.

  12. Efficiently parallelized modeling of tightly focused, large bandwidth laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Joey; Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Lefebvre, Catherine; Gagnon, Denis; MacLean, Steve

    2017-02-01

    The Stratton–Chu integral representation of electromagnetic fields is used to study the spatio-temporal properties of large bandwidth laser pulses focused by high numerical aperture mirrors. We review the formal aspects of the derivation of diffraction integrals from the Stratton–Chu representation and discuss the use of the Hadamard finite part in the derivation of the physical optics approximation. By analyzing the formulation we show that, for the specific case of a parabolic mirror, the integrands involved in the description of the reflected field near the focal spot do not possess the strong oscillations characteristic of diffraction integrals. Consequently, the integrals can be evaluated with simple and efficient quadrature methods rather than with specialized, more costly approaches. We report on the development of an efficiently parallelized algorithm that evaluates the Stratton–Chu diffraction integrals for incident fields of arbitrary temporal and spatial dependence. This method has the advantage that its input is the unfocused field coming from the laser chain, which is experimentally known with high accuracy. We use our method to show that the reflection of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam of femtosecond duration off a high numerical aperture parabolic mirror induces ellipticity in the dominant field components and generates strong longitudinal components. We also estimate that future high-power laser facilities may reach intensities of {10}24 {{W}} {{cm}}-2.

  13. Large aperture interferometer with phase-conjugate self-reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    A large aperture self-referencing interferometer consisting of a Twyman-Green interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator in series with test section optics is described and experimentally demonstrated. This interferometer provides twice the fringe shift of a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer for a given optical phase change induced within the test section. It also provides greater irradiance in the reference beam than does a similar series setup utilizing a M-Z interferometer incorporating a local reference beam. Whereas the ordinary interferometer records instantaneous conditions, the new one records overage conditions if a BaTiO3 crystal is used as the phase conjugator.

  14. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  15. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  16. Compact large-aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer modules for gas spectroscopy at mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantojärvi, Uula; Varpula, Aapo; Antila, Tapani; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Rissanen, Anna; Antila, Jarkko; Disch, Rolf J.; Waldmann, Torsten A.

    2014-03-01

    VTT has developed Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for visible and infrared wavelengths since 90's. Here we present two new platforms for mid-infrared gas spectroscopy having a large optical aperture to provide high optical throughput but still enabling miniaturized instrument size. First platform is a tunable filter that replaces a traditional filter wheel, which operates between wavelengths of 4-5 um. Second platform is for correlation spectroscopy where the interferometer provides a comb-like transmission pattern mimicking absorption of diatomic molecules at the wavelength range of 4.7-4.8 um. The Bragg mirrors have 2-4 thin layers of polysilicon and silicon oxide.

  17. A conceptual design of a large aperture microwave radiometer geostationary platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garn, Paul A.; Garrison, James L.; Jasinski, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Platform has been developed and technology areas essential to the design and on-orbit viability of the platform have been defined. Those technologies that must be developed to the requirement stated here for the LAMR mission to be viable include: advanced radiation resistant solar cells, integrated complex structures, large segmented reflector panels, sub 3 kg/m(exp 2) areal density large antennas, and electric propulsion systems. Technology areas that require further development to enhance the capabilities of the LAMR platform (but are not essential for viability) include: electrical power storage, on-orbit assembly, and on-orbit systems checkout and correction.

  18. Designs for a large-aperture telescope to map the CMB 10× faster.

    PubMed

    Niemack, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Current large-aperture cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes have nearly maximized the number of detectors that can be illuminated while maintaining diffraction-limited image quality. The polarization-sensitive detector arrays being deployed in these telescopes in the next few years will have roughly 10⁴ detectors. Increasing the mapping speed of future instruments by at least an order of magnitude is important to enable precise probes of the inflationary paradigm in the first fraction of a second after the big bang and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. The CMB community has begun planning a next generation "Stage IV" CMB project that will be comprised of multiple telescopes with between 10⁵-10⁶ detectors to pursue these goals. This paper introduces the new crossed Dragone telescope and receiver optics designs that increase the usable diffraction-limited field-of-view, and therefore the mapping speed, by an order of magnitude compared to the upcoming generation of large-aperture instruments. Polarization systematics and engineering considerations are presented, including a preliminary receiver model to demonstrate that these designs will enable high efficiency illumination of >10⁵ detectors in a next generation CMB telescope.

  19. Study on supporting force sensing and control during large aperture space mirror test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Hu, Wenqi; Zheng, Liehua; Hao, Peiming

    2016-10-01

    During the machining of large aperture lightweight space mirror, the mirror figure consistency between ground test and space mission is a problem. In order to effectively control the supporting deformation effect on test results in gravity environment, in view of a 1.2-m space mirror with back blind holes, a supporting method for optical axis horizontal test is proposed, with this method, mirror under test is positioned by three center hole surfaces and supported by six external hole surfaces. The effect of deformation caused by different supporting force value, area and position is analyzed by finite element method, the simulation results show that this supporting method can control the mirror supporting deformation within PV0.035λ rms0.005λ. The actual supporting system uses soft expansion mandrel to control the mirror position and pneumatic lever to realize the floating support. In order to ensure that the support force can evenly distribute on the contact surface, a pressure mapping system is adopted to measure the interface pressure between the mirror blind holes and the soft supporting pads for the first time. This method can meet the test requirements of rms=1/40λ mirror and provides a technical support for high precision test of large aperture space mirror with back blind holes.

  20. Diffractive imaging analysis of large-aperture segmented telescope based on partial Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bing; Qin, Shun; Hu, Xinqi

    2013-09-01

    Large-aperture segmented primary mirror will be widely used in next-generation space-based and ground-based telescopes. The effects of intersegment gaps, obstructions, position and figure errors of segments, which are all involved in the pupil plane, on the image quality metric should be analyzed using diffractive imaging theory. Traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method is very time-consuming and costs a lot of memory especially in dealing with large pupil-sampling matrix. A Partial Fourier Transform (PFT) method is first proposed to substantially speed up the computation and reduce memory usage for diffractive imaging analysis. Diffraction effects of a 6-meter segmented mirror including 18 hexagonal segments are simulated and analyzed using PFT method. The influence of intersegment gaps and position errors of segments on Strehl ratio is quantitatively analyzed by computing the Point Spread Function (PSF). By comparing simulation results with theoretical results, the correctness and feasibility of PFT method is confirmed.

  1. Synthetic aperture compression scheme for a multipetawatt high-energy laser.

    PubMed

    Blanchot, N; Marre, G; Néauport, J; Sibé, E; Rouyer, C; Montant, S; Cotel, A; Le Blanc, C; Sauteret, C

    2006-08-10

    High-energy petawatt lasers using the chirped-pulse amplification technique require meter-sized gratings to limit the beam fluence on the surface of the grating. An alternative, studied by many groups, is a mosaic grating consisting of smaller, coherently added gratings. We propose what we believe to be a new compression scheme consisting of beam phasing instead of grating mosaic phasing. This synthetic aperture compression scheme allows us to control the beam thanks to a unique segmented mirror equipped with three degrees of freedom. With this configuration, the beam is divided into small subapertures adapted to the classical grating size. After compression, these subapertures are coherently added before the focusing stage. Therefore the alignment processes are simplified.

  2. Dual FOV infrared lens design with the laser common aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Xuan-zhi; Luan, Ya-dong; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    With the demand of autonomous precision guidance of air defense missile, the system scheme of the IR imaging/Ladar dual-mode seeker with a common aperture was proposed, and the optical system used in was designed. The system had a common receiving aperture, and its structure was very compact, so it could meet the requirement for the miniaturization of the seeker. Besides, it also could meet the demands of a wide field of view for searching target, and the demands for accurately recognizing and tracking the target at the same time. In order to increase the narrow FOV tracking performance, the dual FOV infrared optical used the zooming mode which some components flip in or out the optical system to firm the target signal. The dual FOV optics are divided into the zooming part, with dual variable focal length, and the reimaging part which was chosen in such a way to minimize the objective lens while maintaining 100% cold shield efficiency. The final infrared optics including 4°×3°(NFOV) and 16°×12°(WFOV) was designed. The NFOV lens composed of two common IR/Ladar lens, three relay lens, a beam splitter and two reflective fold mirrors, while WFOV lens increased two lens such as Germanium and Silicon. The common IR/Ladar lens ZnS and ZnSe could refractive the IR optics and Laser optics. The beam splitter which refractived IR optics and reflected Laser optics was located in the middle of Germanium and Silicon. The designed optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system.

  3. Extremely large telescope: a twenty-five meter aperture for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Frank N.; Sebring, Thomas A.; Ray, Frank B.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1997-03-01

    The 10-meter class Hobby-Eberly telescope (HET), now nearing completion, provides technology for optical Arecibo-type telescopes which can be extrapolated to even larger apertures. Utilizing a fixed elevation angle and a spherical segmented primary mirror provides cost effective and pragmatic solutions to mirror mounting and fabrication. Arecibo-type tracking implies a greatly reduced tracking mass and no change to the gravity vector for the primary mirror. Such a telescope can address 70 percent of the available sky and exhibit optical quality easily sufficient for effective spectroscopy and photometry. The extremely large telescope takes advantage of several key engineering approaches demonstrated by the HET project to achieve a cost comparable to similarly-sized radio rather than optical telescopes. These engineering approaches include: bolted pre-manufactured primary mirror truss, factory manufactured geodesic enclosure dome, air bearing rotation of primary mirror, tracker, and dome systems directly on concrete piers, and tracking via a hexapod system. Current estimates put the cost of the ELT at $200 million for a 25-meter aperture utilizing a 33-meter primary mirror array. Construction of the ELT would provide the astronomy community with an optical telescope nearly an order of magnitude larger than even the largest telescopes in operation or under construction today.

  4. Laser crystallization for large-area electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    Laser crystallization is reviewed for the purpose of fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (poly-Si TFTs). Laser-induced rapid heating is important for formation of crystalline films with a low thermal budget. Reduction of electrically active defects located at grain boundaries is essential for improving electrical properties of poly-Si films and achieving poly-Si TFTs with high performances. The internal film stress is attractive to increase the carrier mobility. Recent developments in laser crystallization methods with pulsed and continuous-wave lasers are also reviewed. Control of heat flow results in crystalline grain growth in the lateral direction, which is important for fabrication of large crystalline grains. We also report an annealing method using a high-power infrared semiconductor laser. High-power lasers will be attractive for rapid formation of crystalline films over a large area and activation of silicon with impurity atoms.

  5. A CLOSE COMPANION SEARCH AROUND L DWARFS USING APERTURE MASKING INTERFEROMETRY AND PALOMAR LASER GUIDE STAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, David; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Cromer, John L.; Dekany, Richard G.; Moore, Anna M.; Ireland, Michael; Tuthill, Peter; Martinache, Frantz; Angione, John; Burruss, Rick S.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Henning, John R.; Hickey, Jeff; Kibblewhite, Edward; McKenna, Daniel L.; Petrie, Harold L.; Roberts, Jennifer; Shelton, J. Chris; Thicksten, Robert P.; Trinh, Thang

    2010-06-01

    We present a close companion search around 16 known early L dwarfs using aperture masking interferometry with Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO). The use of aperture masking allows the detection of close binaries, corresponding to projected physical separations of 0.6-10.0 AU for the targets of our survey. This survey achieved median contrast limits of {Delta}K {approx} 2.3 for separations between 1.2 {lambda}/D-4{lambda}/D and {Delta}K {approx} 1.4 at 2/3 {lambda}/D. We present four candidate binaries detected with moderate-to-high confidence (90%-98%). Two have projected physical separations less than 1.5 AU. This may indicate that tight-separation binaries contribute more significantly to the binary fraction than currently assumed, consistent with spectroscopic and photometric overluminosity studies. Ten targets of this survey have previously been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of companion searches. We use the increased resolution of aperture masking to search for close or dim companions that would be obscured by full aperture imaging, finding two candidate binaries. This survey is the first application of aperture masking with LGS AO at Palomar. Several new techniques for the analysis of aperture masking data in the low signal-to-noise regime are explored.

  6. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  7. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  8. A New Technique Producing Double-Sided Spherical Fresnel Lens Segments Assembled to Large Aperture Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Uehara, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Ueno, Y.; Hillman, L. W.; Zuccaro, A.; EUSO Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    A new technique of molding of lens segments has been developed to produce a large, double-sided, curved Fresnel lenses for refractive telescopes. The molding process involves two steps of spherically curved plate formation and lens gro ove transfer onto the curved plate. These molding process have been carried out with two sides of the diamond-cut dies set in the hydraulic press machine at elevated temperatures to the lens material that is a transparent UV-acrylic of Mitsubishi. Ultra-precision dies were made of oxygen-free copp er, which were cut by diamond to ols to make Fresnel facets. A four-axis ultra-precision cutting machine has been developed first to manufacture ultra-precision mold dies. Double-sided, curved Fresnel lens segments will be used as circumference petals of lenses of 2500mm aperture surrounding a 1500mm diameter central lens.

  9. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Glavallsco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near Infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 micron wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 sq m, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 micron, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

  10. Interference data correction methods for lunar observation with a large-aperture static imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng; Wang, Shuang; Li, Libo; Hu, Xiuqing; Hu, Bingliang

    2016-11-01

    The lunar spectrum has been used in radiometric calibration and sensor stability monitoring for spaceborne optical sensors. A ground-based large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS) can be used to acquire the lunar spectral image for lunar radiance model improvement when the moon orbits over its viewing field. The lunar orbiting behavior is not consistent with the desired scanning speed and direction of LASIS. To correctly extract interferograms from the obtained data, a translation correction method based on image correlation is proposed. This method registers the frames to a reference frame to reduce accumulative errors. Furthermore, we propose a circle-matching-based approach to achieve even higher accuracy during observation of the full moon. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches, experiments are run on true lunar observation data. The results show that the proposed approaches outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

  11. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) and BLASTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, Enzo; Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Balloon observations from Antarctica have proven an effective and efficient way to address open Cosmological questions as well as problems in Galactic astronomy. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital mapping experiment which uses 270 bolometric detectors to image the sky in three wavebands centred at 250, 350 and 500 μm with a 1.8 m telescope. In the years before Herschel launched, BLAST provided data of unprecedented angular and spectral coverage in frequency bands close to the peak of dust emission in star forming regions in our Galaxy, and in galaxies at cosmological distances. More recently, BLASTPol was obtained by reconfiguring the BLAST focal plane as a submillimetric polarimeter to study the role that Galactic magnetic fields have in regulating the processes of star-formation. The first and successful BLASTPol flight from Antarctica in 2010 is followed by a second flight, currently scheduled for the end of 2012.

  12. Horizon: A Proposal for Large Aperture, Active Optics in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Jenstrom, Del

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, NASA's New Millennium Program called for proposals to validate new technology in high-earth orbit for the Earth Observing-3 (NMP EO3) mission to fly in 2003. In response, we proposed to test a large aperture, active optics telescope in geosynchronous orbit. This would flight-qualify new technologies for both Earth and Space science: 1) a future instrument with LANDSAT image resolution and radiometric quality watching continuously from geosynchronous station, and 2) the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for deep space imaging. Six enabling technologies were to be flight-qualified: 1) a 3-meter, lightweight segmented primary mirror, 2) mirror actuators and mechanisms, 3) a deformable mirror, 4) coarse phasing techniques, 5) phase retrieval for wavefront control during stellar viewing, and 6) phase diversity for wavefront control during Earth viewing. Three enhancing technologies were to be flight- validated: 1) mirror deployment and latching mechanisms, 2) an advanced microcontroller, and 3) GPS at GEO. In particular, two wavefront sensing algorithms, phase retrieval by JPL and phase diversity by ERIM International, were to sense optical system alignment and focus errors, and to correct them using high-precision mirror mechanisms. Active corrections based on Earth scenes are challenging because phase diversity images must be collected from extended, dynamically changing scenes. In addition, an Earth-facing telescope in GEO orbit is subject to a powerful diurnal thermal and radiometric cycle not experienced by deep-space astronomy. The Horizon proposal was a bare-bones design for a lightweight large-aperture, active optical system that is a practical blend of science requirements, emerging technologies, budget constraints, launch vehicle considerations, orbital mechanics, optical hardware, phase-determination algorithms, communication strategy, computational burdens, and first-rate cooperation among earth and space scientists, engineers and managers

  13. OASIS 1.0: Very Large-Aperture High-Power Lidar for Exploring Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Smith, J. A.; Chen, C.; Zhao, J.; Yu, Z.; Gardner, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A new initiative, namely OASIS (the Observatory for Atmosphere Space Interaction Studies), has called for a very large-aperture high-power (VLAHP) lidar as its first step forward to acquire the unprecedented measurement capabilities for exploring the space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR). Currently, there exists a serious observational gap of the Earth's neutral atmosphere above 100 km. Information on neutral winds and temperatures and on the plasma-neutral coupling in the SAIR, especially between 100 and 200 km, is either sparse or nonexistent. Fully exploring the SAIR requires measurements of the neutral atmosphere to complement radar observations of the plasma. Lidar measurements of neutral winds, temperatures and species can enable these explorations. Many of these topics will be addressed with the VLAHP lidar. Discoveries of thermospheric neutral Fe, Na and K layers up to nearly 200 km at McMurdo, Antarctica and other locations on Earth, have opened a new door to observing the neutral thermosphere with ground-based instruments. These neutral metal layers provide the tracers for resonance Doppler lidars to directly measure the neutral temperatures and winds in the thermosphere, thus enabling the VLAHP lidar dream! Because the thermospheric densities of these metal atoms are many times smaller than the layer peak densities near 90 km, high power-aperture product lidars, like the VLAHP lidar, are required to derive scientifically useful measurements. Furthermore, several key technical challenges for VLAHP lidar have been largely resolved in the last a few years through the successful development of Fe and Na Doppler lidars at Boulder. By combining Rayleigh and Raman with resonance lidar techniques and strategically operating the VLAHP lidar next to incoherent scatter radar and other complementary instruments, the VLAHP lidar will enable new cutting-edge exploration of the geospace. These new concepts and progresses will be introduced in this paper.

  14. Topology optimization-based lightweight primary mirror design of a large-aperture space telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shutian; Hu, Rui; Li, Quhao; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Zhigang; Kang, Renke

    2014-12-10

    For the large-aperture space telescope, the lightweight primary mirror design with a high-quality optical surface is a critical and challenging issue. This work presents a topology optimization-based design procedure for a lightweight primary mirror and a new mirror configuration of a large-aperture space telescope is obtained through the presented design procedure. Inspired by the topology optimization method considering cast constraints, an optimization model for the configuration design of the mirror back is proposed, through which the distribution and the heights of the stiffeners on the mirror back can be optimized simultaneously. For the purpose of minimizing the optical surface deviation due to self-weight and polishing pressure loadings, the objective function is selected as to maximize the mirror structural stiffness, which can be achieved by minimizing the structural compliance. The total mass of the primary mirror is assigned as the constraint. In the application example, results of the optimized design topology for two kinds of mass constraints are presented. Executing the design procedure for specific requirements and postprocessing the topology obtained of the structure, a new mirror configuration with tree-like stiffeners and a multiple-arch back in double directions is proposed. A verification model is constructed to evaluate the design results and the finite element method is used to calculate the displacement of the mirror surface. Then the RMS deviation can be obtained after fitting the deformed surface by Zernike polynomials. The proposed mirror is compared with two classical mirrors in the optical performance, and the comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the new mirror configuration.

  15. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, N.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  16. Construction and Characterization of a Large Aperture Blackbody for Infrared Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chul-Woung; Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Bong-Hak; Chun, Sejong; Park, Seung-Nam

    2011-08-01

    A large aperture blackbody (LABB) with a diameter of 1 m has been successfully constructed for calibrating radiation thermometers and infrared radiometers with a wide field of view in the temperature range between 10 °C and 90 °C. The blackbody is a 1 m long cylindro-conical cavity with a diameter of 1.1 m. Its conical bottom has an apex angle of 120°. To achieve good temperature stability and uniformity, the cavity is integrated to a water-bath to which the pressurized water is supplied from a reservoir. To reduce the convection heat loss from the cavity to the ambient, the cavity is purged of the dried air that passes through a coiled tube immersed in the reservoir. For an uncertainty evaluation of the LABB, its temperature stability was measured by using a reference radiation thermometer (RRT) and a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT), and its radiance temperature distributions on the aperture plane were measured by using a thermal camera. Measuring the spectral emissivity of the coating material, the effective emissivity of the blackbody was calculated to be 0.9955 from 1 μm to 15 μm. The expanded uncertainty of the radiance temperature scale was evaluated based on the PRT readings, which vary from 0.3 °C to 0.5 °C ( k = 2) in the temperature range. The temperature scale is validated by comparing with the RRT of which the temperature scale is realized by a multiple fixed-point calibration.

  17. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Mirror for Lightweight, Large-Aperture, and Cryogenic Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Brian; Moore, James; Hackenberger, Wesley; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    A lightweight, cryogenically capable, scalable, deformable mirror has been developed for space telescopes. This innovation makes use of polymer-based membrane mirror technology to enable large-aperture mirrors that can be easily launched and deployed. The key component of this innovation is a lightweight, large-stroke, cryogenic actuator array that combines the high degree of mirror figure control needed with a large actuator influence function. The latter aspect of the innovation allows membrane mirror figure correction with a relatively low actuator density, preserving the lightweight attributes of the system. The principal components of this technology are lightweight, low-profile, high-stroke, cryogenic-capable piezoelectric actuators based on PMN-PT (piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) single-crystal configured in a flextensional actuator format; high-quality, low-thermal-expansion polymer membrane mirror materials developed by NeXolve; and electrostatic coupling between the membrane mirror and the piezoelectric actuator assembly to minimize problems such as actuator print-through.

  18. Analysis of mode stability in a concave mirror vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an oxide aperture.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Gu

    2005-05-16

    We applied the Fox-Li resonator theory to analyze the mode stability of concave mirror surface-emitting lasers. The numerical modeling incorporates the oxide aperture in the simple classical cavity by adding a non-uniform phase shifting layer to the flat mirror side. The calculation shows that there is a modal loss difference between the fundamental mode and the competing modes. The amount of loss difference depends upon cavity length and the thickness of the oxide aperture. In addition to loss difference, modal gain difference plays a key role in discriminating between the fundamental mode and the higher order transverse modes. The modal gain difference heavily depends upon the size of the oxide aperture and the field intensity distribution. To summarize, the geometry of the concave cavity affects the mode profile and the unique field profile of each transverse mode makes a difference in both modal loss and gain. Finally, this leads to a side-mode suppression.

  19. A method on error analysis for large-aperture optical telescope control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanrui; Wang, Qiang; Yan, Fabao; Liu, Xiang; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    For large-aperture optical telescope, compared with the performance of azimuth in the control system, arc second-level jitters exist in elevation under different speeds' working mode, especially low-speed working mode in the process of its acquisition, tracking and pointing. The jitters are closely related to the working speed of the elevation, resulting in the reduction of accuracy and low-speed stability of the telescope. By collecting a large number of measured data to the elevation, we do analysis on jitters in the time domain, frequency domain and space domain respectively. And the relation between jitter points and the leading speed of elevation and the corresponding space angle is concluded that the jitters perform as periodic disturbance in space domain and the period of the corresponding space angle of the jitter points is 79.1″ approximately. Then we did simulation, analysis and comparison to the influence of the disturbance sources, like PWM power level output disturbance, torque (acceleration) disturbance, speed feedback disturbance and position feedback disturbance on the elevation to find that the space periodic disturbance still exist in the elevation performance. It leads us to infer that the problems maybe exist in angle measurement unit. The telescope employs a 24-bit photoelectric encoder and we can calculate the encoder grating angular resolution as 79.1016'', which is as the corresponding angle value in the whole encoder system of one period of the subdivision signal. The value is approximately equal to the space frequency of the jitters. Therefore, the working elevation of the telescope is affected by subdivision errors and the period of the subdivision error is identical to the period of encoder grating angular. Through comprehensive consideration and mathematical analysis, that DC subdivision error of subdivision error sources causes the jitters is determined, which is verified in the practical engineering. The method that analyze error

  20. Metrological characterization of a large aperture Fizeau for x-ray mirrors measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.61025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth). Due to the very short wavelength and very high pulse energy, all the mirrors need to have high quality surface, to be very long, and at the same time to implement an effective cooling system. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mounts, we equipped a Metrology Laboratory with a Large Aperture Fizeau. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been done in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. In this report, we show the preparation of the instrument, the calibration and the performance characterization, together with some preliminary results. We also describe the approach that we want to follow for the x-rays mirrors measurements. The final goal will be to characterize very long mirrors, almost 1 meter long, with nanometer accuracy.

  1. Large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture, seismic profiling on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarchow, Craig M.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Lutter, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Clear subsurface seismic images have been obtained at low cost on the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The Columbia Plateau is perhaps the most notorious of all 'bad-data' areas because large impedance contrasts in surface flood basalts severely degrade the seismic wavefield. This degradation was mitigated in this study via a large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture shooting method.The shooting method emphasizes the wide-angle portion of the wavefield, where Fermat's principle guarantees reverberation will not interfere with the seismic manifestations of crucial geologic interfaces. The basalt diving wave, normally discarded in standard common midpoint (CMP) seismic profiling, can be used to image basalt velocity structure via traveltime inversion. Maximum depth-penetration of the diving wave tightly constrains basalt-sediment interface depth. An arrival observed only at shot-receiver offsets greater than 15 km can be used to determine the velocity and geometry of basement via simultaneous inversion.The results from this study suggest that previous geologic hypotheses and hydrocarbon play concepts for the Columbia Plateau may have been in error.

  2. Determination of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux over a Coastal Maritime Area Using a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Scintillometers have been widely used in estimating the surface-layer sensible heat flux (Q_H) over natural and urban surfaces, but their application over water bodies is rare. Here, a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was deployed over a coastal maritime area (`a beach') with an optical path distance of 1 km to investigate LAS capability in estimating the sensible heat fluxes. The measurements were conducted for clear days in the cold season, characterized by a warmer sea surface than the overlying air throughout the studied days. The LAS-derived Q_H showed a significant diurnal variability of 10-150 W m^{-2} at the coastal site, and it was found that local thermal advection and tidal change at the site largely influenced the diurnal variability. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the uncertainty in the LAS-derived Q_H was less than 11 %, except when De Bruin's similarity function was used. The overall results demonstrate that the LAS system can detect the magnitude and variability of the turbulent heat exchange at the coastal site with high temporal resolution, suggesting its usefulness for estimating Q_H in the coastal maritime environment.

  3. Development of PIAA Complex Mask Coronagraphs for large aperture ground-based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin; Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is an architecture for directly observing extra-solar planets, and can achieve performance near the theoretical limits for any direct-detection instrument. The PIAACMC architecture includes aspheric PIAA optics, and a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask that provides a pi phase shift to a portion of the on-axis starlight. The phase-shifted starlight is forced to interfere destructively with the un-shifted starlight, causing the starlight to be eliminated, and allowing a region for high-contrast imaging near the star. The PIAACMC architecture can be designed for segmented and obscured apertures, so it is particularly well suited for ground-based observing with the next generation of large telescopes. There will be unique scientific opportunities for directly observing Earth-like planets around nearby low-mass stars. We will discuss design strategies for adapting PIAACMC for the next generation of large ground-based telescopes, and present progress on the development of the focal plane mask technology. We also present simulations of wave-front control with PIAACMC, and suggest directions to apply the coronagraph architecture to future telescopes.

  4. Large-Aperture Wide-Bandwidth Anti-Reflection-Coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, E. J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, M. A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for sub-millimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n = 3.4, low loss, and relatively high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes, but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coffecient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating. We have fabricated and coated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with coatings optimized for use between 125-165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30 deg. with low cross-polarization. We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  5. Large-aperture Wide-bandwidth Antireflection-coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for submillimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n 3.4, low loss, and high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three-axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating.We have fabricated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with micromachined layers optimized for use between 125 and 165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30deg with low cross polarization.We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  6. Large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture, seismic profiling on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Jarchow, C.M. . Dept. of Geophysics); Catchings, R.D.; Lutter, W.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Clear subsurface seismic images have been obtained at low cost on the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The Columbia Plateau is perhaps the most notorious of all bad-data'' areas because large impedance contrasts in surface flood basalts severely degrade the seismic wavefield. This degradation was mitigated in this study via a large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture shooting method. The shooting method emphasizes the wide-angle portion of the wavefield, where Fermat's principle guarantees reverberation will not interfere with the seismic manifestations of crucial geologic interfaces. The basalt diving wave, normally discarded in standard common midpoint (CMP) seismic profiling, can be used to image basalt velocity structure via travel-time inversion. Maximum depth-penetration of the diving wave tightly constrains basalt-sediment interface depth. An arrival observed only at shot-receiver offsets greater than 15 km can be used to determine the velocity and geometry of basement via simultaneous inversion. The results from this study suggest that previous geologic hypotheses and hydrocarbon play concepts for the Columbia Plateau may have been in error.

  7. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  8. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  9. Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

  10. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  11. Large-aperture high-resolution x-ray collimator for the Solar Maximum Mission.

    PubMed

    Nobles, R A; Acton, L W; Joki, E G; Leibacher, J W; Peterson, R C

    1980-09-01

    A description is presented of a flight-qualified large-aperture 12 x 12-sec of arc angular resolution multigrid x-ray collimator developed for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) flat crystal spectrometer. This collimator, designed for the 1.4-22.4-A wavelength range, utilizes an optical bench/metering structure to align and support prealigned grid subassemblies. One advantage of this scheme is to provide ready access to the grid subassemblies for inspection and/or servicing. The optical bench is a lightweight, rigid, and stable aluminum honeycomb structure. Aluminum is a viable material choice in this application because of the good thermal control expected in the SMM instrument package. The grids are of a compound and bimetallic design, having 63.5-microm square holes on an 88.9-microm spacing in 8-microm thick gold, which is in turn supported by a 76-microm thick Invar grid having 600-microm square holes on a 739-microm spacing. The small apertures in the gold provide the 12-sec of arc collimation with the Invar grids providing wide angle off-axis blocking out to an ~35-min of arc view angle. The collimator has seven individual channels, four of a 5.1- x 10-cm area and three of a 1.3- x 10-cm area. Laboratory measurements gave an average angular resolution of 12.5-sec of arc FWHM with 0.259 transmission for the large area channels and 12.0 sec of arc and 0.200 transmission for the small area channels. A hypothetical perfectly aligned collimator would have 12.5-sec of arc resolution and 0.300 transmission. A thermal filter composed of two layers of ~1000-A thick aluminum prevents solar heating of the front collimator grids by absorbing longer wavelength radiation while passing most of the x radiation in the band of interest. The filter was flight qualified by passing a protoflight acoustic test environment of 147-dB total sound level, 20-microN/M(2) reference, for 1-min duration.

  12. Full-aperture tilt measurement technique with a laser guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail S.

    1995-06-01

    A technique for measuring a full aperture tilt (FAT) with a laser guide star (LGS) is proposed. It is shown that information about a FAT is lost in a conventional LGS scheme because of the reciprocity of propagation paths. As a consequence neither the conventional LGS scheme nor its modifications with the receiver coaxial with the transmitter can be used to sense the FAT. A bistatic scheme that permits us to overcome the above difficulty is considered. This scheme permits us to single out the tilt component corresponding to the transmitting beam which is highly correlated with the FAT for a natural star. The tilt component corresponding to the reflected wave can be averaged out by averaging a LGS image motion over its angular extent. Such an averaging, however, does not affect the tilt component corresponding to the transmitting beam. This tilt conservation effect occurs due to the fact that a random motion of the transmitting beam causes a displacement of the LGS as a whole. The accuracy of measuring a FAT with a LGS is determined and the requirements for the measurement scheme are discussed.

  13. The next generation balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope (BLAST-TNG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dober, Bradley Jerald

    Large areas of astrophysics, such as precision cosmology, have benefited greatly from large maps and datasets, yielded by telescopes of ever-increasing number and ability. However, due to the unique challenges posed by submillimeter polarimetry, the study of molecular cloud dynamics and star formation remain stunted. Previously, polarimetry data was limited to a few vectors on only the brightest areas of molecular clouds. This made drawing statistically-driven conclusions a daunting task. However, the successful flight of the Balloon-born Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) generated maps with thousands of independent polarization measurements of molecular clouds, and ushered in a new era of empirical modeling of molecular cloud dynamics. Now that the potential benefits from large-scale maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds had been identified, a successor that would truly unlock the secrets must be born. The Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST-TNG), the successor to BLASTPol, has the ability to make larger and more detailed maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds. It will push the field of star formation into a statistics-driven, empirical realm. With these large, detailed datasets, astronomers will be able to find new relationships between the dust dynamics and the magnetic fields. The field will surge to a new level of understanding. One of the key enabling technologies of BLAST-TNG is its three arrays of polarization-sensitive Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting RLC circuits with a resonant frequency that shifts proportionally to the amount of incident radiation. The key feature of MKIDs is that thousands of detectors, each with their own unique resonant frequency, can be coupled to the same readout line. This technology will be able to drive the production of large-scale monolithic arrays, containing tens or hundreds of thousands of detectors

  14. A New Type of X-ray Condenser Lenses with Large Apertures Fabricated by Rolling of Structured Films

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Reznikova, E.; Nazmov, V.; Grund, T.; Last, A.

    2010-04-06

    In order to meet the demand for X-ray lenses with large apertures and, hence, photon flux, a new type of X-ray lenses has been developed: Rolled prismatic X-ray lenses feature a vast number of refracting surfaces to increase transparency and aperture, respectively. Prototypes of such lenses have been fabricated by molding and rolling of a structured polyimide film. In this work, rolled prismatic X-ray lenses are pictured, and results of first tests performed at the ANKA storage ring in Karlsruhe are presented.

  15. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  16. Study on the method to test large-aperture hyperboloid convex mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaohui; Dong, Huiwen; Guo, Wen; Wang, Huijun

    2014-08-01

    There are numerous reflecting optical system designs that call for large-aperture convex surfaces, such as secondary mirror in on-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA). Several methods to test high accuracy hyperboloid convex surfaces are introduced separately in this paper. A kind of arrangement is chosen to test a surface with diameter of 420mm, radius of 1371mm, and conic K -2.1229. The CGH compensator for testing is designed, which is made up of illumination lens and hologram test plate with designed residual wavefront aberration less than 0.001λ (RMS). The second transmitted method that is equipped with a technical flat surface coating by Ag film in the bottom of surface mirror under test, which form an auto-collimation optical system to eliminate the aberration. The Hindle-Simpson test that requires a larger meniscus lens to compensate the optical aberration, and the designed result of optical test system is less than 0.0016λ. Contrasting the CGH compensator and the second transmitted method, the Hindle-Simpson testing method has the advantage of it is easily to manufacture and adjust; meanwhile the test result is stable and has been less affected by the environment. It has been found that the method is rational and reliable, and it can fulfill the requirement of manufacturing and testing process for hyperboloid convex mirrors.

  17. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  18. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, M. D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100 hr flight from northern Sweden in 2005 June (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W75N, and Mrk 231. One additional source, Arp 220, was observed and used as our primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST05 calibration procedure are discussed here. The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. The 250, 350, and 500 μm BLAST data can provide useful constraints to the amplitude and slope of the submillimeter continuum, which in turn may be useful for the improved calibration of other submillimeter instruments.

  19. Distribution-dependent total exoplanet yield for a large aperture space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Evan; Schiminovich, David

    2017-01-01

    A major scientific goal for future large aperture space telescopes is the discovery and characterization of habitable earth-like planets around FGK+M stars out to 10-20 pc. Using the design and observing plan for such a mission, we calculated the total exoplanet yield of a direct imaging survey, with detections including but not limited to potential earth analogs. In light of uncertainty of exoplanet occurrence rates, we used several of the best available exoplanetary distribution functions and assumed architectures to produce a Monte Carlo simulation of nearby planetary systems and observational parameters, and assessed detectability across the sample. Our calculations show a range of yields depending on the assumed distribution functions. We also compare our predictions to those of other detection methods in order to identify areas of parameter space (e.g. radius, period) uniquely constrained by direct imaging. In general, our calculations suggest that a higher completeness can be achieved with direct imaging, which will allow for calculation of a more accurate occurrence rate in local space.

  20. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  1. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Tu, Juan E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-03-21

    Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30°. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72 MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

  2. A procedure for combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Oliver; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    The rotating search coil is a precise and widely used tool for measuring the magnetic field harmonics of accelerator magnets. This paper deals with combining several such multipole measurements, in order to cover magnet apertures largely exceeding the diameter of the available search coil. The method relies on the scaling laws for multipole coefficients and on the method of analytic continuation along zero-homotopic paths. By acquiring several measurements of the integrated magnetic flux density at different transverse positions within the bore of the accelerator magnet, the uncertainty on the field harmonics can be reduced at the expense of tight tolerances on the positioning. These positioning tolerances can be kept under control by mounting the rotating coil and its motor-drive unit on precision alignment stages. Therefore, the proposed technique is able to yield even more precise results for the higher-order field components than a dedicated rotating search coil of larger diameter. Moreover, the versatility of the measurement bench is enhanced by avoiding the construction of rotating search coils of different measurement radii.

  3. APERTURE: a precise extremely large reflective telescope using re-configurable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Coverstone, V. L.; Cao, J.; Chung, Y.-W.; Corbineau, M.-C.; Case, A.; Murchison, B.; Lorenz, C.; Luo, G.; Pekosh, J.; Sepulveda, J.; Schneider, A.; Yan, X.; Ye, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the pressing needs for the UV-Vis is a design to allow even larger mirrors than the JWST primary at an affordable cost. We report here the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts phase 1 study. Our project is called A Precise Extremely large Reflective Telescope Using Reconfigurable Elements (APERTURE). The idea is to deploy a continuous membrane-like mirror. The mirror figure will be corrected after deployment to bring it into better or equal lambda/20 deviations from the prescribed mirror shape. The basic concept is not new. What is new is to use a different approach from the classical piezoelectric-patch technology. Instead, our concept is based on a contiguous coating of a so called magnetic smart material (MSM). After deployment a magnetic write head will move on the non-reflecting side of the mirror and will generate a magnetic field that will produce a stress in the MSM that will correct the mirror deviations from the prescribed shape.

  4. Switch-zoom optical system design of large aperture ground-based photoelectric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peipei; Liu, Kai; Duan, Jing; Jiang, Kai; Shan, Qiusha

    2016-10-01

    Binary optics can be used to increase optical performances, decrease size and weight, and decrease systems costs in numerous applications. By means of hybrid diffractive-refractive, a switch-zoom optical system of catadioptric large aperture ground-based photoelectric detection is designed. The characteristic of the system is that it is a compact optical system without moving parts which can get two focal lengths. And the quality of image approaches the diffraction limited. Ritchey-Chrétien (R-C) mirror and a field lens are common for long-focus system and short-focus system. Two refract groups transmitting optical system are used for zooming. In order to satisfy the demand of energy regulation, it is designed afocal beam between field lens and later refract optical system. Filter and variable density plate are placed in it to guarantee the imaging quality. The focal length is 3750mm and F number is 7.5 for the long-focus system, and the focal length is 1850mm and F number is 3.75 for the short-focus system. Former part and later lens of the system are both perfect imaging. They can be fabricated and detected independently. So the design demand can be satisfied better and the imaging quality can be improved.

  5. Tracking marine mammals and ships with small and large-aperture hydrophone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Martin

    Techniques for passive acoustic tracking in all three spatial dimensions of marine mammals and ships were developed for long-term acoustic datasets recorded continuously over months using custom-designed arrays of underwater microphones (hydrophones) with spacing ranging from meters to kilometers. From the three-dimensional tracks, the acoustical properties of toothed whales and ships, such as sound intensity and directionality, were estimated as they are needed for the passive acoustic abundance estimation of toothed whales and for a quantitative description of the contribution of ships to the underwater soundscape. In addition, the tracks of the toothed whales reveal their underwater movements and demonstrate the potential of the developed tracking techniques to investigate their natural behavior and responses to sound generated by human activity, such as from ships or military SONAR. To track the periodically emitted echolocation sounds of toothed whales in an acoustically refractive environment in the upper ocean, a propagation-model based technique was developed for a hydrophone array consisting of one vertical and two L-shaped subarrays deployed from the floating instrument platform R/P FLIP. The technique is illustrated by tracking a group of five shallow-diving killer whales showing coordinated behavior. The challenge of tracking the highly directional echolocation sounds of deep-diving (< 1 km) toothed whales, in particular Cuvier's beaked whales, was addressed by embedding volumetric small-aperture (≈ 1 m element spacing) arrays into a large-aperture (≈ 1 km element spacing) seafloor array to reduce the minimum number of required receivers from five to two. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by tracking several groups of up to three individuals over time periods from 10 min to 33 min within an area of 20 km2 in the Southern California Bight. To track and measure the underwater radiated sound of ships, a frequency domain beamformer was

  6. Characterizing the divergence properties of the laser diode beams propagation through collimator and aperture ABCD optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Hedayati Rad, M.; Kashani, F. D.; Eftekhari, M. M.; Reza Mahzoun, M.

    2010-11-01

    The propagation properties of Gaussian laser beams through a complete optical path including free space and the optics of transmitter and receiver containing a collimator, an aperture and a lens is studied. Based on the Collins integral and using the second order moment method, analytical formulas for intensity distribution and Power In Bucket (PIB) along the propagation path are derived. The effects of initial beam divergence, collimator-source separation distance and beam width deviation on laser beams properties are investigated. Obtained results are confirmed and illustrated with numerical examples and resulted graphs.

  7. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with selectively etched thin apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feezell, Daniel F.

    Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in the 1300--1600nm wavelength window are attractive light sources for short to mid-range optical fiber communications. These devices target low-loss and low-dispersion minima in standard optical fibers and are expected to provide a low-cost alternative to the existing edge-emitting infrastructure. With low-power consumption, on wafer testing; simple packaging, and high fiber-coupling efficiency, VCSELs are ideal transmitters for CWDM, metro, local area, and storage area networks. Recently, much attention has been devoted to a rich variety of approaches to long-wavelength VCSELs. One underlying problem, however, has been the need to match a reliable high-gain active region with high-index-contrast distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) over the full 1300--1600nm wavelength range. One solution to this problem is to utilize well-established InAlGaAs active-region technology coupled with AlGaAsSb DBRs. This combination facilitates monolithic all-epitaxial InP-based devices spanning the entire 1300--1600nm wavelength range. Previously, Dr. Shigeru Nakagawa and Dr. Eric Hall have demonstrated long-wavelength VCSELs with Sb-based technology operating at 1550nm. This dissertation demonstrates the first high-performance InP-based VCSELs with Sb-based DBRs operating at 1310nm, thus solidifying Sb-based technology as a wavelength flexible platform for long-wavelength devices. Also developed is a novel and efficient tunnel-junction aperturing technology for generating extremely low-loss optical and electrical confinement. Lastly, it is shown that the benefits from such an aperturing scheme produce marked improvements in device operation versus previously demonstrated Sb-based VCSELs. The devices from this research generated over 1.6mW single-mode continuous-wave (CW) output power at room temperature (>2mW multi-mode), displayed threshold currents down to 1mA, and operated CW up to 90°C. Furthermore, world

  8. BLAST-TNG: A Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Campbell Ashton, Peter; Austermann, Jason Edward; Billings, Tashalee; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cunningham, Maria R.; Davis, Kristina; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; gao, jiansong; Gordon, Sam; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Hannes; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Paul; Klein, Jeffrey; li, dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; lourie, nathan; Lowe, Ian; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; McKenney, Christopher; Nati, Federico; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; pisano, giampaolo; Pereira Santos, Fábio; Scott, Douglas; Sinclair, Adrian; Diego Diego Soler, Juan; tucker, carole; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael; Williams, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of polarized thermal dust emission can be used to map magnetic fields in the interstellar medium. Recently, BLASTPol, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry, has published the most detailed map ever made of a giant molecular cloud forming high-mass stars. I will present an overview of The Next Generation BLAST polarimeter (BLAST-TNG), the successor telescope to BLASTPol, which maps linearly polarized dust emission at 250, 350 and 500 μm. BLAST-TNG utilizes a 2.5-meter carbon-fiber primary mirror that illuminates focal plane arrays containing over 3,000 microwave kinetic inductance detectors. This new polarimeter has an order of magnitude increase in mapping speed and resolution compared to BLASTPol and we expect to make over 500,000 measurements of magnetic field orientation per flight. BLAST-TNG will have the sensitivity to map entire molecular cloud complexes as well as regions of diffuse high Galactic latitude dust. It also has the resolution (FWHM = 25’’ at 250 μm) necessary to trace magnetic fields in prestellar cores and dense filaments. BLAST-TNG will thus provide a crucial link between the low resolution Planck all-sky maps and the detailed but narrow field of view polarimetry capabilities of ALMA. For our first Antarctic flight in December 2017 we are putting out a call for shared-risk proposals to fill 25% of the available science time. In addition, BLAST-TNG data will be publicly released within a year of the publication of our first look papers, leaving a large legacy data set for the study of the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process and the properties of interstellar dust.

  9. Short-range verification experiment of a trial one-dimensional synthetic aperture infrared laser radar operated in the 10-microm band.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, S; Aruga, T

    2000-03-20

    A trial one-dimensional (1-D) synthetic aperture infrared laser radar (SAILR) system for imaging static objects, with two CO(2) lasers as a transmitter and a local oscillator for heterodyne detection, was constructed. It has a single receiving aperture mounted on a linearly movable stage with a length of 1 m and a position accuracy of 1 microm. In an indoor short-range experiment to confirm the fundamental functions of the system and demonstrate its unique imaging process we succeeded in obtaining 1-D synthetic aperture images of close specular point targets with theoretically expected resolution.

  10. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

    2011-03-02

    Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to <1 nm absolute accuracy and used to mount and measure 450 mm long flats for the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments

  11. Determining suitability of Large Aperture Scintillometer for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, G.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Basu, S.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Marek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scintillation method is a relatively new technique for measuring the sensible heat and water fluxes over land surfaces. Path integrating capabilities of scintillometer over heterogeneous landscapes make it a potential tool for comparing the energy fluxes derived from remote sensing based energy balance algorithms. For this reason, scintillometer-derived evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes are being used to evaluate remote sensing based energy balance algorithms for their ability to estimate ET fluxes. However, LAS' (Large Aperture Scintillometer) ability to derive ET fluxes is not thoroughly tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate LAS- and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)-derived fluxes against lysimetric data to determine LAS' suitability for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) maps. The study was conducted during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment - 2008 (BEAREX-08) at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL), Bushland, Texas. SEBS was coded in a GIS environment to retrieve ET fluxes from the high resolution imageries acquired using airborne multispectral sensors. The CPRL has four large weighing lysimeters (3 m long x 3 m wide x 2.4 m deep), each located in the middle of approximately 5 ha fields, arranged in a block pattern. The two lysimeter fields located on the east (NE and SE) were managed under irrigated conditions, and the other two lysimeters on the west (NW and SW) were under dryland management. Each lysimeter field was equipped with an automated weather station that provided measurements for net radiation (Rn), Ts, soil heat flux (Go), Ta, relative humidity, and wind speed. During BEAREX08, the NE and SE fields were planted to cotton on May 21, and the NW and SW dryland lysimeters fields were planted to cotton on June 5. One LAS each was deployed across two large dryland lysimeter fields (NW and SW) and two large irrigated lysimeter fields (NE and SE). The

  12. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  13. High Energy, Narrow Linewidth 1572nm Eryb-Fiber Based MOPA for a Multi-Aperture CO2 Trace-Gas Laser Space Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Cao, He; Fouron, Jean-Luc; Storm, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Accurate global measurements of tropospheric CO2 mixing ratios are needed to study CO2 emissions and CO2 exchange with the land and oceans. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a pulsed lidar approach for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar to allow global measurements of atmospheric CO2 column densities from space. Our group has developed, and successfully flown, an airborne pulsed lidar instrument that uses two tunable pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, absorption of an O2 line pair in the oxygen A-band (765 nm), range, and atmospheric backscatter profiles in the same path. Both lasers are pulsed at 10 kHz, and the two absorption line regions are sampled at typically a 300 Hz rate. A space-based version of this lidar must have a much larger lidar power-area product due to the x40 longer range and faster along track velocity compared to airborne instrument. Initial link budget analysis indicated that for a 400 km orbit, a 1.5 m diameter telescope and a 10 second integration time, a 2 mJ laser energy is required to attain the precision needed for each measurement. To meet this energy requirement, we have pursued parallel power scaling efforts to enable space-based lidar measurement of CO2 concentrations. These included a multiple aperture approach consists of multi-element large mode area fiber amplifiers and a single-aperture approach consists of a multi-pass Er:Yb:Phosphate glass based planar waveguide amplifier (PWA). In this paper we will present our laser amplifier design approaches and preliminary results.

  14. A Field Cancellation Algorithm for Constructing Economical Planar Permanent Magnet (PM) Multipoles With Large High Quality Field Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    In recent years studies have been initiated on a new class of multipole field generators consisting of cuboid planar permanent magnet (PM) pieces arranged in biplanar arrays of 2-fold rotational symmetry. These structures, first introduced for Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications, are based on reducing the rotational symmetry of conventional N-pole field generators from N-fold to 2-fold. One consequence of this reduction is a large higher-multipole content in a planar PM multipole's field at distances relatively close to the structure's axis, making it generally unsuitable for applications requiring a large high-quality field aperture. In this paper we outline an economical field-cancellation algorithm that can substantially decrease the harmonic content of a planar PM's field without breaking its biplanar geometry or 2-fold rotational symmetry. An economical field-cancellation algorithm has been described which will allow the fabrication of bi-planar quadrupoles and sextupoles with high-quality fields using a manageably small number of PM pieces. For higher order N-poles the number of pieces required to cancel a given number of successively-higher multipole components will also increase linearly; nevertheless, the practicability of fabricating octupoles and higher N-poles of this type should be considered a subject of continuing r&d. Since the removal of a large number of successive multipole components essentially increases the transverse region over which the N-pole's field is dominated by its leading N-pole field component, the fabrication of quadrupoles and sextupoles of the type described in this paper should lead to their introduction in storage ring applications. One potentially important application in this area is as distributed focusing elements installed into very-short-period, small-gap undulators (e.g., as a FODO lattice). The installation is rendered feasible by the very small vertical height of the biplanar N-poles (on the order of a millimeter

  15. Alternatives for Ground-Based, Large-Aperture Optical Space Surveillance Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    exposures per location are required. Research teams looking for near- earth objects such as asteroids generally acquire four images at each location, but...design for the NASA-funded Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) [31]. This is a 500-mm aperture Schmidt Camera and is therefore

  16. Long-period fibre grating writing with a slit-apertured femtosecond laser beam (λ = 1026 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Dostovalov, A V; Wolf, A A; Babin, S A

    2015-03-31

    We report on long-period grating (LPG) writing in a standard telecom fibre, SMF-28e+, via refractive index modification by femtosecond pulses. A method is proposed for grating writing with a slit-apertured beam, which enables one to produce LPGs with reduced background losses and a resonance peak markedly stronger than that in the case of grating writing with a Gaussian beam. The method can be used to fabricate LPGs for use as spectral filters of fibre lasers and sensing elements of sensor systems. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)

  17. NPT: a large-aperture telescope for high dynamic range astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Robert D.; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Coulter, Roy; Ftaclas, Christo; Graves, J. Elon; Hull, Charles L.; Jewitt, D.; Mickey, Donald L.; Moretto, Gilberto; Neill, Doug; Northcott, Malcolm J.; Roddier, Claude A.; Roddier, Francois J.; Siegmund, Walter A.; Owen, Tobias C.

    2000-06-01

    All existing night-time astronomical telescopes, regardless of aperture, are blind to an important part of the universe - the region around bright objects. Technology now exist to build an unobscured 6.5 m aperture telescope which will attain coronagraphic sensitivity heretofore unachieved. A working group hosted by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy has developed plans for a New Planetary Telescope which will permit astronomical observations which have never before ben possible. In its narrow-field mode the off-axis optical design, combined with adaptive optics, provides superb coronagraphic capabilities, and a very low thermal IR background. These make it ideal for studies of extra-solar planets and circumstellar discs, as well as for general IR astronomy. In its wide-field mode the NPT provides a 2 degree diameter field for surveys of Kuiper Belt Objects and Near-Earth Objects, surveys central to current intellectual interests in solar system astronomy.

  18. Effect of Internal Aperture Variability on Tracer Transport in Large Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makedonska, N.; Painter, S. L.; Hyman, J.; Karra, S.; Gable, C. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Aperture variability within individual fractures is usually neglected in modeling flow and transport through fractured media. Typically, individual fractures are assumed to be homogeneous. However, in reality, individual fractures are heterogeneous, which may affect flow and transport in fractured media. The relative importance of including in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling has been under debate for a long time. Previous studies have shown flow channeling on an individual fracture with internal variability, where the fracture is considered isolated from the rest of the fracture network. Although these studies yield some clear insights into the process, the boundary conditions are impractical for field-scale networks, where the realistic boundary conditions are determined by fracture connections in the network. Therefore, flow in a single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. In order to address the question of the importance of in-fracture variability, the internal heterogeneity of every individual fracture is incorporated into a three-dimensional fracture network, represented by a composition of intersecting fractures. The new DFN simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate a kilometer scale DFNs similar to the Forsmark, Sweden site. In our DFN model, the in-fracture aperture variability is scattered over each cell of the computational mesh along the fracture, representing by a stationary Gaussian random field with various correlation lengths. The Lagrangian particle tracking is conducted in multiple DFN realizations and the flow-dependent Lagrangian parameters, non-reacting travel time, τ, and cumulative reactivity parameter, β, are obtained along particles streamlines. It is shown that early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture aperture variability than tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the aperture variations and spatial

  19. A Large Aperture Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter Based On Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matt; Mott, Brent; Powell, Dan; Barclay, Rich; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2002-01-01

    A research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) is focused on applying Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems (MOEMS) technology to create a miniature Fabry-Perot tunable etalon for space and ground-based near infrared imaging spectrometer applications. Unlike previous devices developed for small-aperture telecommunications systems, the GSFC research is directed toward a novel 12 - 40 mm aperture for astrophysical studies, including emission line imaging of galaxies and nebulae, and multi-spectral redshift surveys in the 1.1 - 2.3 micron wavelength region. The MOEMS design features integrated electrostatic scanning of the 11-micron optical gap, and capacitance micrometry for closed loop control of parallelism within a 10-nm tolerance. The low thermal mass and inertia inherent in MOEMS devices allows for rapid cooling to the proposed 30 K operating temperature, and high frequency response. Achieving the proposed 6-nm aperture flatness (with an effective finesse of 50) represents the primary technical challenge in the current 12-mm prototype.

  20. A Large Sparse Aperture Densified Pupil Hypertelescope Concept for Ground Based Detection of Extra-Solar Earth-Like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D.; Lyon, R.; Woodruff, R.; Labeyrie, A.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A concept is presented for a large (10 - 30 meter) sparse aperture hyper telescope to image extrasolar earth-like planets from the ground in the presence of atmospheric seeing. The telescope achieves high dynamic range very close to bright stellar sources with good image quality using pupil densification techniques. Active correction of the perturbed wavefront is simplified by using 36 small flat mirrors arranged in a parabolic steerable array structure, eliminating the need for large delat lines and operating at near-infrared (1 - 3 Micron) wavelengths with flats comparable in size to the seeing cells.

  1. DM/LCWFC based adaptive optics system for large aperture telescopes imaging from visible to infrared waveband.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Caihua; Zhang, Xingyun; Liu, Yong; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2016-11-28

    Almost all the deformable mirror (DM) based adaptive optics systems (AOSs) used on large aperture telescopes work at the infrared waveband due to the limitation of the number of actuators. To extend the imaging waveband to the visible, we propose a DM and Liquid crystal wavefront corrector (DM/LCWFC) combination AOS. The LCWFC is used to correct the high frequency aberration corresponding to the visible waveband and the aberrations of the infrared are corrected by the DM. The calculated results show that, to a 10 m telescope, DM/LCWFC AOS which contains a 1538 actuators DM and a 404 × 404 pixels LCWFC is equivalent to a DM based AOS with 4057 actuators. It indicates that the DM/LCWFC AOS is possible to work from visible to infrared for larger aperture telescopes. The simulations and laboratory experiment are performed for a 2 m telescope. The experimental results show that, after correction, near diffraction limited resolution USAF target images are obtained at the wavebands of 0.7-0.9 μm, 0.9-1.5 μm and 1.5-1.7 μm respectively. Therefore, the DM/LCWFC AOS may be used to extend imaging waveband of larger aperture telescope to the visible. It is very appropriate for the observation of spatial objects and the scientific research in astronomy.

  2. The Dobsonian telescope. A practical manual for building large aperture telescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriege, D.; Berry, R.

    This book tells how you can build a state-of-the-art Dobsonian telescope using readily available materials and supplies. Every step of construction is detailed in photographs and diagrams, and the underlying ideas are carefully explained. As a result of a three-year collaboration between the authors, experienced and well-known telescope makers, one now has the opportunity to build a high-performance telescope with a 14-inch to 40-inch aperture based on the thoroughly tested designs described in this book.

  3. Engineering of optical modes in vertical-cavity microresonators by aperture placement: applications to single-mode and near-field lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kropp, J.-R.; Steinle, G.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Choquette, K. D.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.

    2015-03-01

    Oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) are inherently leaky structures, despite the fact that the oxidized periphery region surrounding the all-semiconductor core has a lower refractive index. The reason is that the VCSEL modes in the non-oxidized core region can be coupled to tilted modes in the selectively oxidized periphery as the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Engineered VCSEL designs show that the overlap between the VCSEL mode of the core and the tilted mode in the periphery can reach >30% resulting in significant leakage. Three-dimensional modeling confirms that the leakage losses are much stronger for high order transverse modes which have a higher field intensity close to the oxidized region. Single mode lasing in the fundamental mode can thus proceed up to large aperture diameters. A 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSEL based on this concept is designed, modeled and fabricated, showing single-mode lasing with aperture diameters up to 5 μm. Side mode suppression ratio >20dB is realized at the current density of 10kA/cm2 in devices with the series resistance of 90 Ω.

  4. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianghui; Wu, Junjie; Li, Wenchao; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Jianyu; Yang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS), which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR) provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP) is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD) based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP) is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application. PMID:27472341

  5. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianghui; Wu, Junjie; Li, Wenchao; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Jianyu; Yang, Haiguang

    2016-07-27

    Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS), which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR) provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP) is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD) based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP) is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application.

  6. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  7. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  8. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound field generated from a transmitter with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tingbo; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Jimin; Zhang, Yichuan; Zhang, Dong

    2017-03-01

    A combined experiment and simulation method was utilized to characterize the acoustic field generated from a strong focused HIFU transmitter. The nonlinear sound propagation was described by the spheroidal beam equation (SBE). The relationship between the source pressure amplitude and excitation voltage was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; then the acoustic pressure field generated by the strong focused transducer was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a half aperture angle of 30°. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results show that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field.

  9. Alternative Beam Efficiency Calculations for a Large-aperture Multiple-frequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The fundamental definition of beam efficiency, given in terms of a far field radiation pattern, was used to develop alternative definitions which improve accuracy, reduce the amount of calculation required, and isolate the separate factors composing beam efficiency. Well-known definitions of aperture efficiency were introduced successively to simplify the denominator of the fundamental definition. The superposition of complex vector spillover and backscattered fields was examined, and beam efficiency analysis in terms of power patterns was carried out. An extension from single to dual reflector geometries was included. It is noted that the alternative definitions are advantageous in the mathematical simulation of a radiometer system, and are not intended for the measurements discipline where fields have merged and therefore lost their identity.

  10. Development of a high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array with ion-implanted current apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Aoki, Yuta; Higuchi, Akira; Torii, Kousuke; Nagakura, Takehito; Morita, Takenori; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2013-03-01

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are very attractive to high power light sources owing to the advantageous configuration of two-dimensional arrays and being free from catastrophic optical damage. Although oxideconfined VCSELs have been employed in most of applications with VCSELs, ion-implanted VCSELs have a potential to be the better light sources for high power applications. In spite of the fact, the detailed characteristics of the ionimplanted VCSELs had been researched only in ten milliwatt-class output power. Here we report on a high power VCSEL-array with proton-implanted current apertures. A peak output power of over 40 W under short-pulse operation has been achieved. This is the first demonstration of ten watt-class output power for ion-implanted VCSELs.

  11. Effect of therapeutic femtosecond laser pulse energy, repetition rate, and numerical aperture on laser-induced second and third harmonic generation in corneal tissue.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, William R; Ilev, Ilko K

    2015-05-01

    Clinical therapy incorporating femtosecond laser (FSL) devices is a quickly growing field in modern biomedical technology due to their precision and ability to generate therapeutic effects with substantially less laser pulse energy. FSLs have the potential to produce nonlinear optical effects such as harmonic generation (HG), especially in tissues with significant nonlinear susceptibilities such as the cornea. HG in corneal tissue has been demonstrated in nonlinear harmonic microscopy using low-power FSLs. Furthermore, the wavelength ranges of harmonic spectral emissions generated in corneal tissues are known to be phototoxic above certain intensities. We have investigated how the critical FSL parameters pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and numerical aperture influence both second (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in corneal tissue. Experimental results demonstrated corresponding increases in HG intensity with increasing repetition rate and numerical aperture. HG duration decreased with increasing repetition rate and pulse energy. The data also demonstrated a significant difference in HG between FSL parameters representing the two most common classes of FSL therapeutic devices.

  12. Turbulent chimeras in large semiconductor laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shena, J.; Hizanidis, J.; Kovanis, V.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor laser arrays have been investigated experimentally and theoretically from the viewpoint of temporal and spatial coherence for the past forty years. In this work, we are focusing on a rather novel complex collective behavior, namely chimera states, where synchronized clusters of emitters coexist with unsynchronized ones. For the first time, we find such states exist in large diode arrays based on quantum well gain media with nearest-neighbor interactions. The crucial parameters are the evanescent coupling strength and the relative optical frequency detuning between the emitters of the array. By employing a recently proposed figure of merit for classifying chimera states, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence for the observed dynamics. The corresponding chimeras are identified as turbulent according to the irregular temporal behavior of the classification measure.

  13. Turbulent chimeras in large semiconductor laser arrays

    PubMed Central

    Shena, J.; Hizanidis, J.; Kovanis, V.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor laser arrays have been investigated experimentally and theoretically from the viewpoint of temporal and spatial coherence for the past forty years. In this work, we are focusing on a rather novel complex collective behavior, namely chimera states, where synchronized clusters of emitters coexist with unsynchronized ones. For the first time, we find such states exist in large diode arrays based on quantum well gain media with nearest-neighbor interactions. The crucial parameters are the evanescent coupling strength and the relative optical frequency detuning between the emitters of the array. By employing a recently proposed figure of merit for classifying chimera states, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence for the observed dynamics. The corresponding chimeras are identified as turbulent according to the irregular temporal behavior of the classification measure. PMID:28165053

  14. Turbulent chimeras in large semiconductor laser arrays.

    PubMed

    Shena, J; Hizanidis, J; Kovanis, V; Tsironis, G P

    2017-02-06

    Semiconductor laser arrays have been investigated experimentally and theoretically from the viewpoint of temporal and spatial coherence for the past forty years. In this work, we are focusing on a rather novel complex collective behavior, namely chimera states, where synchronized clusters of emitters coexist with unsynchronized ones. For the first time, we find such states exist in large diode arrays based on quantum well gain media with nearest-neighbor interactions. The crucial parameters are the evanescent coupling strength and the relative optical frequency detuning between the emitters of the array. By employing a recently proposed figure of merit for classifying chimera states, we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence for the observed dynamics. The corresponding chimeras are identified as turbulent according to the irregular temporal behavior of the classification measure.

  15. Case for segmentation of the primary mirror of large-aperture space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Zeiders, Glenn W.

    1998-08-01

    The hypothesis is tested: space telescopes with apertures larger than a few meters will have lower mass and cost and better optical performance if the primary mirror is aggressively segmented. Optical performance variations are considered from several factors including the gap between regular hexagonal mirror segments, the relative ability of different size to be manufactured with low wavefront error, and expected mirror deformations. A mass variation is derived to relate diameter and thickness of the mirror segments to satisfy mirror deflections and thermally induced stress. Mass estimation includes support structures, actuators, cabling, electronics, hinges, and latches. Cost is evaluated from several models previously proposed to address multiple mirror systems. The analyses conclude that there is a relatively-small optimum segment size that is independent of the dimensions of the overall array but which does depend upon the state of technology. It is further shown that a significant mass penalty will be incurred for segments that are either smaller or larger than the optimum size. Minimum mirror thickness is constrained, but engineering design principles for structural deflections and model frequencies otherwise dictate the design.

  16. Large-field-of-view laser-scanning OR-PAM using a fibre optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. J.; Zhang, E.; Beard, P. C.

    2015-03-01

    Laser-Scanning-Optical-Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (LSOR-PAM) requires an ultrasound detector with a low noise equivalent pressure (NEP) and a large angular detection aperture in order to image a large field of view (FOV). It is however challenging to meet these requirements when using piezoelectric receivers since using a small sensing element size (<100μm) in order to achieve a large angular detection aperture will inevitability reduce the sensitivity of the detector as it scales with decreasing element size. Fibre optic ultrasound sensors based on a Fabry Perot cavity do not suffer from this limitation and can provide high detection sensitivity (NEP<0.1kPa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth) with a large angular detection aperture due to their small active element size (~10μm). A LSOR-PAM system was developed and combined with this type of fibre optic ultrasound sensor. A set of phantom studies were undertaken. The first study demonstrated that a high resolution image over a large field of view (Ø11mm) could be obtained with a sampledetector separation of only 1.6mm. In the second study, a 12μm diameter tube filled with methylene blue whose absorption coefficient was similar to that of blood was visualised demonstrating that the fibre optic sensor could provide sufficient SNR for in-vivo microvascular OR-PAM imaging. These preliminary results suggest that the fibre optic sensor has the potential to outperform piezoelectric detectors for Laser-Scanning Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (LSOR-PAM).

  17. Optomechanical analysis of the mounting performance of large laser transport mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Cao, Tingfen; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Zheng; Ma, Guohui

    2015-03-01

    In the high-power laser facility (SG-III), focusing 48 laser beams into the target center better than 50 microns (RMS) within a few picoseconds is dependent on the stringent specifications of thousands of large optics and also puts huge challenges on the engineering characteristics of the design and mounting. A parametric optomechanical method is proposed to evaluate the performance of a 400 mm large-aperture transport mirror. With theoretical modeling and numerical analysis, the impacts of assembly structure, manufacturing errors, mounting loads, and gravity on the mirror surface aberrations are calculated and discussed in detail. With field experiments and case studies, the proposed method shows a powerful performance on the mirror surface aberrations' evaluation, and negative impacts of currently used mounting techniques for the mirror are found. Finally, a new assembly design is presented based on a discussion of its advantages.

  18. Large aperture CCD x ray detector for protein crystallography using a fiberoptic taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, M. G.; Westbrook, E. M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T. A.; Westbrook, M. L.; Travis, D. J.; Sweet, R. M.; Pflugrath, J. W.

    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for x-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested on a beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a beam intensity greater than 10(exp 9) x-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512 x 512 pixels. A detective quantum efficiency (DOE) of 0.36 was obtained by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the detector output. The dynamic range of a 4 x 4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10(exp 4). The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel on the detector face is 160 microns. A complete data set, consisting of forty-five 1 deg rotation frames, was obtained in just 36 s of x-ray exposure to a crystal of chicken egg-white lysozyme. In a separate experiment, a lysozyme data set consisting of 495 0.1 deg frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program, yielding symmetry R-factors for the data of 3.2 to 3.5 percent. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a = 275 A) were also recorded. The Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were resolved but were not sufficiently separated to process these data. Changes in the detector design which will improve the DOE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for x-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources.

  19. Concept study of an Extremely Large Hyper Telescope (ELHyT) with 1200m sparse aperture for direct imaging at 100 micro-arcsecond resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Mourard, Denis; Allouche, Fatmé; Chakraborthy, Rijuparna; Dejonghe, Julien; Surya, Arun; Bresson, Yves; Aime, Claude; Mary, David; Carlotti, Alexis

    2012-07-01

    The hypertelescope construction initiated in the Southern Alps (Labeyrie et al., this conference) has provided some preliminary operating experience indicating that larger versions, up to perhaps 1200m, are probably feasible at suitable sites. The Arecibo-like architecture of such instruments does not require the large mount and dome which dominate the cost of a 40m ELT. For the same cost, an "Extremely Large Hyper Telescope” ( ELHyT) may therefore have a larger collecting area. It may thus in principle reach higher limiting magnitudes, both for seeing-limited and, if equipped with a Laser Guide Star and adaptive phasing, for high-resolution imaging with gain as the size ratio, i.e. about 30 with respect to a 40m ELT. Like the radio arrays of antennas, such instruments can be grown progressively. Also, they can be up-graded with several focal gondolas, independently tracking different sources. Candidate sites have been identified in the Himalaya and the Andes. We describe several design options and compare the science achievable for both instruments, ELTs and ELHyTs. The broad science addressed by an ELHyT covers stellar chromospheres, transiting exoplanets and those requiring a high dynamic range, achieved by array apodization or coronagraphy. With a Laser Guide Star, it extends to faint compact sources beyond the limits of telescopes having a smaller collecting area, supernovae, active galactic nuclei, gamma ray bursts. The sparse content of remote galaxies seen in the Hubble Deep Field appears compatible with the crowding limitations of an ELHyT having 1000 apertures.

  20. A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Sean; Ade, Peter; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven; Bihary, Richard; Bock, James; Bond, J. Richard; Chiang, H. Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo; Crill, Brendan; Dore, Olivier; Elder, Benjamin; Filippini, Jeffrey; Fraisse, Aurelien; Gambrel, Anne; Gandilo, Natalie; Gudmundsson, Jon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Holmes, Warren; Hristov, Viktor; Irwin, Kent; Jones, William; Kermish, Zigmund; Lawrie, Craig; MacTavish, Carrie; Mason, Peter; Megerian, Krikor; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Montroy, Thomas; Morford, Tracy; Nagy, Johanna; Netterfield, C. Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S.; Reintsema, Carl; Riley, Daniel C.; Ruhl, John; Runyan, Marcus; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, Donald; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of ±0.1∘. The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight.

  1. Research on precision grinding processing and compensation finishing experiment for mid-large- aperture square aspheric optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fengming; Li, Zhanguo; Wang, Dasen; Zhang, Guangping; Guo, Chengjun; Pei, Ning; Li, Yupeng

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyzes dot-line envelope grinding principle, which is applicable to mid-large- aperture square aspheric optical element, determines the mathematical process control model based on X/Y/C three-axis aspheric grinding machine, We develop the appropriate high-precision aspheric grinding manufacturing and measurement systems software, using the plane grinding wheel to do the grinding experiments and the repeated compensation processing experiment. The experiments show that: high-precision aspheric grinding manufacturing and measurement systems software can be realized axisymmetric aspheric high-precision machining control and measurement; using compensation processing of the X/Y/C three-axis aspheric grinding machine which can effectively improve the precision PV value, surface error from the initial processing of the PV value :12 μm to the compensation processing of the PV value :3 μm .

  2. Multilayer coated grazing incidence condenser for large numerical aperture objective at wavelength of 4.5 nm.

    PubMed

    Ejima, T; Hatano, T; Ohno, K; Fukayama, T; Aihara, S; Yanagihara, M; Tsuru, T

    2014-10-10

    A grazing incidence condenser is developed for objectives with large numerical aperture working in Carbon-window wavelength region (λ=4.4-5.0  nm) with the use of a point light source. The condenser is composed of four pieces of toroidal mirrors and a piece of the mirror was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the mirror. The radii of the toroidal mirror are determined by ray-trace calculation, and each radius of the mirror substrate and the roughness of the polished surface were evaluated to satisfy the designed parameter. A Co/C reflection multilayer is also designed to reflect soft x-ray light at 4.5 nm wavelength, and the reflection multilayer was deposited on the mirror surface. Measured reflectance of the toroidal mirror with the reflection multilayer is higher than 0.32 at 4.5 nm wavelength.

  3. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers, Technology Developments, and Synergies with Other Future Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  4. A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Sean; Ade, Peter; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven; Bihary, Richard; Bock, James; Bond, J Richard; Chiang, H Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo; Crill, Brendan; Dore, Olivier; Elder, Benjamin; Filippini, Jeffrey; Fraisse, Aurelien; Gambrel, Anne; Gandilo, Natalie; Gudmundsson, Jon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Holmes, Warren; Hristov, Viktor; Irwin, Kent; Jones, William; Kermish, Zigmund; Lawrie, Craig; MacTavish, Carrie; Mason, Peter; Megerian, Krikor; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Montroy, Thomas; Morford, Tracy; Nagy, Johanna; Netterfield, C Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Reintsema, Carl; Riley, Daniel C; Ruhl, John; Runyan, Marcus; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, Donald; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of ±0.1(∘). The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight.

  5. Comparison of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux Determined by Large-Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance over Urban and Suburban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sensible heat fluxes were obtained by eddy-covariance (EC) systems and large-aperture scintillometers (LASs). The results indicated that (1) the sensible heat flux obtained by LAS was less noisy and slightly larger than that obtained by EC over both urban and suburban surfaces; (2) the values of were higher when the correlation coefficient of vertical wind speed and temperature () was smaller. Lower values of were due to low-frequency trends. The urban values of were smaller than suburban values at low values; (3) the sensible heat flux determined by LAS was improved by use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory of the temperature structure parameter over urban and suburban areas, and the improvement is more significant over urban surface areas.

  6. Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging with a quantum cascade laser transmitter.

    PubMed

    Danylov, Andriy A; Goyette, Thomas M; Waldman, Jerry; Coulombe, Michael J; Gatesman, Andrew J; Giles, Robert H; Qian, Xifeng; Chandrayan, Neelima; Vangala, Shivashankar; Termkoa, Krongtip; Goodhue, William D; Nixon, William E

    2010-07-19

    A coherent transceiver using a THz quantum cascade (TQCL) laser as the transmitter and an optically pumped molecular laser as the local oscillator has been used, with a pair of Schottky diode mixers in the receiver and reference channels, to acquire high-resolution images of fully illuminated targets, including scale models and concealed objects. Phase stability of the received signal, sufficient to allow coherent image processing of the rotating target (in azimuth and elevation), was obtained by frequency-locking the TQCL to the free-running, highly stable optically pumped molecular laser. While the range to the target was limited by the available TQCL power (several hundred microwatts) and reasonably strong indoor atmospheric attenuation at 2.408 THz, the coherence length of the TQCL transmitter will allow coherent imaging over distances up to several hundred meters. Image data obtained with the system is presented.

  7. The study on servo-control system in the large aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Zhenchao, Zhang; Daxing, Wang

    2008-08-01

    Large astronomical telescope or extremely enormous astronomical telescope servo tracking technique will be one of crucial technology that must be solved in researching and manufacturing. To control technique feature of large astronomical telescope or extremely enormous astronomical telescope, this paper design a sort of large astronomical telescope servo tracking control system. This system composes a principal and subordinate distributed control system, host computer sends steering instruction and receive slave computer functional mode, slave computer accomplish control algorithm and execute real-time control. Large astronomical telescope servo control use direct drive machine, and adopt DSP technology to complete direct torque control algorithm, Such design can not only increase control system performance, but also greatly reduced volume and costs of control system, which has a significant occurrence. The system design scheme can be proved reasonably by calculating and simulating. This system can be applied to large astronomical telescope.

  8. Surface error modeling of mounted large optics in high power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The surface form of mounted large optics has a very important impact on the laser beam performance in high power laser system. To make the surface form to the minimized distortion and keep with the design specifications is always a difficult challenge in China's SG-III laser system which is made up of thousands meter-sized large optical units and requires to focus all 48 laser beams into nearly 600 μm-diameter spot better than 50 μm (RMS) within a few picoseconds. In this paper, a methodology integrated both 3D finite elements modeling method and nanometer-level precision metrology is proposed to evaluate the surface performance. According to various spatial frequencies, the wavefront characters of large aperture optical component are measured and provided to analyze its mounted surface characters. Assembly and mounting process will be adjusted to meet for the surface wavefront requirements both of with the data both of measured when pre-alignment and predicted for installation. By a case study of large transport mirror, the proposed approach has shown a good performance on obtaining precise surface features and guiding the optical mounting.

  9. Measurement of wavefront structure from large aperture optical components by phase shifting interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Kellam, M.; Maney, R.T.; Demiris, A.

    1995-05-12

    This paper discusses the results of high spatial resolution measurement of the transmitted or reflected wavefront of optical components using phase shifting interferometry with a wavelength of 6328 {angstrom}. The optical components studied range in size from approximately 50 mm {times} 100 mm to 400 mm {times} 750 mm. Wavefront data, in the form of 3-D phase maps, have been obtained for three regimes of scale length: ``micro roughness``, ``mid-spatial scale``, and ``optical figure/curvature.`` Repetitive wavefront structure has been observed with scale lengths from 10 mm to 100 mm. The amplitude of this structure is typically {lambda}/100 to {lambda}/20. Previously unobserved structure has been detected in optical materials and on the surfaces of components. We are using this data to assist in optimizing laser system design, to qualify optical components and fabrication processes under study in our component development program.

  10. Approaches to the Processing of Data from Large Aperture Acoustic Vertical Line Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    50 3.4 GSM eigenrays across the very large vertical line array .............. 51 3.5 Conventional beam form er output...54 3.10 GSM eigenrays across the large vertical line array .................. 55 3.11 Conventional beam form er...GSM eigenrays at 162 km and at the sound axis .................... 80 4.8 ATLAS transmission loss versus range at 20 m depth ................ 81 4.9

  11. Experimental demonstration of a synthetic aperture compression scheme for multi-Petawatt high-energy lasers.

    PubMed

    Blanchot, N; Bar, E; Behar, G; Bellet, C; Bigourd, D; Boubault, F; Chappuis, C; Coïc, H; Damiens-Dupont, C; Flour, O; Hartmann, O; Hilsz, L; Hugonnot, E; Lavastre, E; Luce, J; Mazataud, E; Neauport, J; Noailles, S; Remy, B; Sautarel, F; Sautet, M; Rouyer, C

    2010-05-10

    We present the experimental demonstration of a subaperture compression scheme achieved in the PETAL (PETawatt Aquitaine Laser) facility. We evidence that by dividing the beam into small subapertures fitting the available grating size, the sub-beam can be individually compressed below 1 ps, synchronized below 50 fs and then coherently added thanks to a segmented mirror.

  12. Deposition of high quality YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films over large areas by pulsed laser ablation with substrate scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. F.; Wosik, J.; Forster, K.; Deshmukh, S. C.; Rampersad, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes thin films deposited in a system where substrates are scanned over areas up to 3.5 x 3.5 cm through the stationary plume of an ablated material defined by an aperture. These YBCO films are deposited on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates with the thickness of 90 and 160 nm. Attention is focused on the main features of the deposition system: line focusing of the laser beam on the target; an aperture defining the area of the plume; computerized stepper motor-driven X-Y stage translating the heated sampler holder behind the plume-defining aperture in programmed patterns; and substrate mounting block with uniform heating at high temperatures over large areas. It is noted that the high degree of uniformity of the properties in each film batch illustrates that the technique of pulsed laser deposition can be applied to produce large YBCO films of high quality.

  13. Laser measuring system for large machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, L. E.; Brazys, D.

    1982-08-01

    With development of the Laser Interferometer, it was envisioned that older existing machine tools could be up-graded by retrofitting them with laser Interferometer Measuring Systems. The Laser Interferometer provides the machine tool industry with a high accuracy length standard. The accuracy of the Interferometer is determined by the laser wave length which is known within 0.5 parts per million. This degree of accuracy is more than adequate for most machine tool measuring, calibration and inspection requirements. In conclusion, the Laser Measuring System presently available is not recommended for general implementation at this time. Results of this work indicate that the equipment and installation cost are very high and pay back would be very slow. Also, the reliability of the electronic components is in need of improvement. The system requires frequent realignment and maintenance due to it's lack of toleration to "Shop Floor' conditions.

  14. New technologies for the actuation and controls of large aperture lightweight quality mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S. S.; Yang, E. H.; Gullapalli, S. N.; Flood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a set of candidate components: MEMS based large stroke (>100 microns) ultra lightweight (0.01 gm) discrete inch worm actuator technology, and a distributed actuator technology, in the context of a novel lightweight active flexure-hinged substrate concept that uses the nanolaminate face sheet.

  15. Large aperture cube corner interferometer with a resolution of 0.001 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, J; Horneman, V M

    1991-06-20

    The interferometer of the Fourier transform spectrometer at the University of Oulu has been modified so that the maximum instrumental resolution is better than 10(-3) cm(-1). The resolution of the previous interferometer was 4.5 x 10(-3) cm(-1). The present interferometer consists of large cube corner mirrors and a large Mylar beam splitter. Each corner mirror has been made with three flat mirrors on an adjustable supporting frame. The interferometer was already in practical use in 1985. The first spectra (H(2)O, CO(2), N(2)O, OCS) recorded on this interferometer have been presented in HANDBOOK OF INFRARED STANDARDS WITH SPECTRAL MAPS AND TRANSITION ASSIGNMENTS BETWEEN 3 AND 2600 microm, G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1986).

  16. Study of mechanical architectures of large deployable space antenna apertures: from design to tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datashvili, L.; Endler, S.; Wei, B.; Baier, H.; Langer, H.; Friemel, M.; Tsignadze, N.; Santiago-Prowald, J.

    2013-12-01

    The technical assessment of large deployable reflector structures covering a diameter range from 4 to 50 m and RF frequencies up to Ka-Band is presented from the conceptual designs to the tests. Parametric FEM analysis tools of the concepts have been developed to study their static, modal and buckling behaviors. According to the selected conceptual design and acquired analysis results two complete breadboards with diameters of 1.6 m and 4 m based on a peripheral ring structure have been designed, manufactured and tested. Test results of both breadboards fulfilling the requirements on deployment repeatability and accuracy as well as scalability demonstrate the successful selection of a deployable ring design and large deployable antenna concept in whole.

  17. What limits the achievable areal densities of large aperture space telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Lee D.; Hinkle, Jason D.

    2005-08-01

    This paper examines requirements trades involving areal density for large space telescope mirrors. A segmented mirror architecture is used to define a quantitative example that leads to relevant insight about the trades. In this architecture, the mirror consists of segments of non-structural optical elements held in place by a structural truss that rests behind the segments. An analysis is presented of the driving design requirements for typical on-orbit loads and ground-test loads. It is shown that the driving on-orbit load would be the resonance of the lowest mode of the mirror by a reaction wheel static unbalance. The driving ground-test load would be dynamics due to ground-induced random vibration. Two general conclusions are derived from these results. First, the areal density that can be allocated to the segments depends on the depth allocated to the structure. More depth in the structure allows the allocation of more mass to the segments. This, however, leads to large structural depth that might be a significant development challenge. Second, the requirement for ground-test-ability results in an order of magnitude or more depth in the structure than is required by the on-orbit loads. This leads to the proposition that avoiding ground test as a driving requirement should be a fundamental technology on par with the provision of deployable depth. Both are important structural challenges for these future systems.

  18. Study on key techniques for synthetic aperture ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changqing; Zeng, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhejun; Zhang, Wenrui; Su, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging LADAR system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope aperture. The purpose of this work is to investigate Synthetic Aperture Imaging LADAR (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. Because of many advantages, LADAR based on synthetic aperture theory is becoming research hotspot and practicality. Synthetic Aperture LADAR (SAL) technology satisfies the critical need for reliable, long-range battlefield awareness. An image that takes radar tens of seconds to produce can be produced in a few thousands of a second at optical frequencies. While radar waves respond to macroscopic features such as corners, edges, and facets, laser waves interact with microscopic surface characteristics, which results in imagery that appears more familiar and is more easily interpreted. SAL could provide high resolution optical/infrared imaging. In the present paper we have tried to answer three questions: (1) the process of collecting the samples over the large "synthetic" aperture; (2) differences between SAR and SAL; (3) the key techniques for SAL system. The principle and progress of SAL are introduced and a typical SAL system is described. Beam stabilization, chirp laser, and heterodyne detection, which are among the most challenging aspects of SAL, are discussed in detail.

  19. Optimization of Deposition Uniformity for Large Aperture NIF Substrates in a Planetary Rotation System

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.B.; Talbot, D.

    2003-05-06

    Multilayer coatings on large substrates with increasingly complex spectral requirements are essential for a number of optical systems, placing stringent requirements on the error tolerances of individual layers. Each layer must be deposited quite uniformly over the entire substrate surface since any nonuniformity will add to the layer-thickness error level achieved. A deposition system containing a planetary rotation system with stationary uniformity masking is modeled, with refinements of the planetary gearing, source placement, and uniformity mask shape being utilized to achieve an optimal configuration. The impact of improper planetary gearing is demonstrated theoretically, as well as experimentally, providing more comprehensive requirements than simply avoiding repetition of previous paths through the vapor plume, until all possible combinations of gear teeth have been used. Deposition efficiency and the impact on the uniformity achieved are used to validate improved source placement.

  20. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S

    2007-01-25

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 {micro}m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 {micro}m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to {+-} 3D of defocus and {+-} 3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.

  1. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  2. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

    2005-02-07

    We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

  3. Processing method and process modeling of large aperture transparent magnesium aluminate spinel domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; McWilliams, Brandon; Kilczewski, Steven; Gilde, Gary; Lidie, Ashley; Sands, James

    2009-05-01

    Polycrystalline spinel serves as an alternative to materials such as sapphire and magnesium fluoride that are currently being used in electromagnetic window applications such as missile domes, where high strength, high hardness and high transmittance in the visible and infrared spectra are required. The cubic crystal lattice of spinel imparts an isotropy to the bulk optical property, which eliminates optical distortion due to birefringence that occurs in sapphire and other non-cubic materials. The current study is to find a reliable manufacturing process to produce large magnesium aluminate spinel domes from powder consolidation efficiently. A binder-less dry ball milling process was used to deflocculate the spinel powder to increase its fluidity in an effort to ease the shape-forming. Dry ball milling time trials were conducted at several intervals to determine the appropriate level of time required to break up both the hard and soft agglomerates associated with the virgin spinel powder. The common problems encountered in dry powder shape-forming are crack growth and delamination of the green body during cold isostatic pressing (CIPing). The cracking and the delamination are due to the buildup of stress gradients on the green body that are created by the frictional force between the powder and the die wall or mold wall. To understand the stresses during the CIPing process, a finite element analysis of stresses on the green body was conducted. The simulation was used to evaluate the effect of die tooling and process characteristics on the development of stress gradients in the green body dome. Additionally, the effect of friction between the die wall and powder was examined by the simulation. It was found that by mitigating the frictional forces, cracking and delamination on the green body could be eliminated. A stepped-pressure CIPing technique was developed to reduce stress gradient build-up during CIPing. Also, oleic acid lubricant was applied to the die wall to

  4. Parametric instabilities in large nonuniform laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baldis, H.A.; Montgomery, D.S.; Moody, J.D.; Estabrook, K.G.; Berger, R.L.; Kruer, W.L.; Labaune, C.; Batha, S.H.

    1992-09-01

    The study of parametric instabilities in laser plasmas is of vital importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The long scale-length plasma encountered in the corona of an ICF target provides ideal conditions for the growth of instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and filamentation. These instabilities can have detrimental effects in ICF and their characterization and understanding is of importance. Scattering instabilities are driven through a feedback loop by which the beating between the electromagnetic EM fields of the laser and the scattered light matches the frequency of a local longitudinal mode of the plasma. Any process which interferes with the coherence of this mechanism can substantially alter the behavior of the instability. Of particular interest is the study of laser beam smoothing techniques on parametric instabilities. These techniques are used to improve irradiation uniformity which can suppress hydrodynamic instabilities. Laser beam smoothing techniques have the potential to control the scattering level from parametric instabilities since they provide not only a smoother laser intensity distribution, but also reduced coherence. Beam smoothing techniques that affect the growth of parametric instabilities include spatial smoothing and temporal smoothing by laser bandwidth. Spatial smoothing modifies the phase fronts and temporal distribution of intensities in the focal volume. The transverse intensity spectrum is shifted towards higher spatial wavenumber and can significantly limit the growth of filamentation. Temporal smoothing reduces the coherence time and consequently limits the growth time. Laser bandwidth is required for most smoothing techniques, and can have an independent effect on the instabilities as well.

  5. From monolithics to tethers to freeflyers: the spectrum of large aperture sensing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Jesse; Quinn, Dave; Matsumura, Mark M.

    2003-02-01

    As part of The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) endeavor to push the envelope and go where we have never been before, the Space Science Enterprise has laid out a vision which includes several missions that revolutionize the collection of scientific data from space. Many of the missions designed to meet the objectives of these programs depend heavily on the ability to perform space-based interferometry, which has recently become a rapidly growing field of investigation for both the scientific and engineering communities. While scientists are faced with the challenges of designing high fidelity optical systems capable of making detailed observations, engineers wrestle with the problem of providing space-based platforms that can permit this data gathering to occur. Observational data gathering is desired at a variety of spectral wavelengths and resolutions, calling for interferometers with a range of baseline requirements. Approaches to configuration design are as varied as the missions themselves from large monolithic spacecraft to multiple free-flying small spacecraft and everything in between. As will be discussed, no one approach provides a ?panacea? of solutions rather each has its place in terms of the mission requirements. The purpose here is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches, to discuss the driving factors in design selection and determine the relative range of applicability of each design approach.

  6. Performance evaluation of large aperture "polished panel" optical receivers based on experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    Recent interest in the development of hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the installation of a “ polished-panel” optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex1. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via real-time tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both “ on-source” and “ off-source” data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  7. Laboratory demonstration of a primary active mirror for space with the LATT: large aperture telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vettore, Christian; d'Amato, Francesco; Xompero, Marco; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Patauner, Christian; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Duò, Fabrizio; Pucci, Mauro; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Maresi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The LATT project is an ESA contract under TRP programme to demonstrate the scalability of the technology from ground-based adaptive mirrors to space active primary mirrors. A prototype spherical mirror based on a 40 cm diameter 1 mm thin glass shell with 19 contactless, voice-coil actuators and co-located position sensors have been manufactured and integrated into a final unit with an areal density lower than 20 kg/m2. Laboratory tests demonstrated the controllability with very low power budget and the survival of the fragile glass shell exposed to launch accelerations, thanks to an electrostatic locking mechanism; such achievements pushes the technology readiness level toward 5. With this prototype, the LATT project explored the feasibility of using an active and lightweight primary for space telescopes. The concept is attractive for large segmented telescopes, with surface active control to shape and co-phase them once in flight. In this paper we will describe the findings of the technological advances and the results of the environmental and optical tests.

  8. From Monolithics to Tethers to Freeflyers: The Spectrum of Large Aperture Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jesse; Quinn, David; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA's endeavor to push the envelope and go where we have never been before, the Space Science Enterprise has laid out a vision which includes several missions that revolutionize the collection of scientific data from space. Many of the missions designed to meet the objectives of these programs depend heavily on the ability to perform space-based interferometry, which has recently become a rapidly growing field of investigation for both the scientific and engineering communities. While scientists are faced with the challenges of designing high fidelity optical systems capable of making detailed observations, engineers wrestle with the problem of providing s-pace-based platforms that can permit this data gathering to occur. Observational data gathering is desired at's variety of spectral wavelengths and resolutions, calling for interferometers with a range of baseline requirements. Approaches to configuration design are as varied as the missions themselves from large monolithic spacecraft to multiple free-flying small spacecraft and everything in between. As will be discussed, no one approach provides a 'panacea' of solutions rather each has its place in terms of the mission requirements. The purpose here is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches, to discuss the driving factors in design selection and determine the relative range of applicability of each design approach.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Large Aperture 'Polished Panel' Optical Receivers Based on Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the development and installation of a "polished-panel" optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via realtime tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both "on-source" and "off-source" data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats with photon-counting detection, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance for these modulations. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  10. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-15

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  11. Constraining lowermost mantle structure with PcP/P amplitude ratios from large aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of weak short-period teleseismic body waves help to resolve lowermost mantle structure at short wavelengths, which is essential for understanding mantle dynamics and the interactions between the mantle and core. Their limited amount and uneven distribution are however major obstacles to solve for volumetric structure of the D" region, topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and D" discontinuity, and the trade-offs among them. While PcP-P differential travel times provide important information, there are trade-offs between velocity structure and core-mantle boundary topography, which PcP/P amplitude ratios can help resolve, as long as lateral variations in attenuation and biases due to focusing are small or can be corrected for. Dense broadband seismic networks help to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target phases and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of other mantle phases when the slowness difference is large enough. To improve SIR and SNR of teleseismic PcP data, we have introduced the slant-stacklet transform to define coherent-guided filters able to separate and enhance signals according to their slowness, time of arrival and frequency content. We thus obtain optimal PcP/P amplitude ratios in the least-square sense using two short sliding windows to match the P signal with a candidate PcP signal. This method allows us to dramatically increase the amount of high-quality observations of short-period PcP/P amplitude ratios by allowing for smaller events and wider epicentral distance and depth ranges.We present the results of measurement of PcP/P amplitude ratios, sampling regions around the Pacific using dense arrays in North America and Japan. We observe that short-period P waves traveling through slabs are strongly affected by focusing, in agreement with the bias we have observed and corrected for due to mantle heterogeneities on PcP-P travel time differences. In Central America, this bias is by far the stronger anomaly we observe

  12. OpTIIX: An ISS-Based Testbed Paving the Roadmap Toward a Next Generation Large Aperture UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Etemad, Shar; Seery, Bernard D.; Thronson, Harley; Burdick, Gary M.; Coulter, Dan; Goullioud, Renaud; Green, Joseph J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Postman, Marc; Sparks, Williams

    2012-01-01

    The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is adopted for their design and construction. The conventional approach is to use monolithic or preassembled segmented mirrors requiring complicated and risky deployments and relying on future heavy-lift vehicles, large fairings and complex geometry. The new paradigm is to launch component modules on relatively small vehicles and then perform in-orbit robotic assembly of those modules. The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) is designed to demonstrate, at low cost by leveraging the infrastructure provided by ISS, telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies. The use of ISS as a testbed permits the concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with robotically integrating the components. These include laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) systems, an imaging instrument, lightweight, low-cost deformable primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror. These elements are then aligned to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems like the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation, as well as repair.

  13. Transverse Mode Structure and Pattern Formation in Oxide Confined Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hegarty, S.P.; Hou, H.Q.; Huyet, G.; McInerney, J.G.; Porta, P.

    1999-07-06

    We analyze the transverse profiles of oxide-confined vertical cavity laser diodes as a function of aperture size. For small apertures we demonstrate that thermal lensing can be the dominant effect in determining the transverse resonator properties. We also analyze pattern formation in lasers with large apertures where we observe the appearance of tilted waves.

  14. Large volume multiple-path nuclear pumped laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.; Deyoung, R. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Large volumes of gas are excited by using internal high reflectance mirrors that are arranged so that the optical path crosses back and forth through the excited gaseous medium. By adjusting the external dielectric mirrors of the laser, the number of paths through the laser cavity can be varied. Output powers were obtained that are substantially higher than the output powers of previous nuclear laser systems.

  15. Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.; Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D.; Barr, O.C.

    1997-06-01

    Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm {times} 60 cm and a gain length of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high {times} 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a daily basis for laser-target experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Spaceborne Microwave Instrument for High Resolution Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface Using a Large-Aperture Mesh Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E.; Wilson, W.; Yueh, S.; Freeland, R.; Helms, R.; Edelstein, W.; Sadowy, G.; Farra, D.; West, R.; Oxnevad, K.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a two-year study of a large-aperture, lightweight, deployable mesh antenna system for radiometer and radar remote sensing of the Earth from space. The study focused specifically on an instrument to measure ocean salinity and Soil moisture. Measurements of ocean salinity and soil moisture are of critical . importance in improving knowledge and prediction of key ocean and land surface processes, but are not currently obtainable from space. A mission using this instrument would be the first demonstration of deployable mesh antenna technology for remote sensing and could lead to potential applications in other remote sensing disciplines that require high spatial resolution measurements. The study concept features a rotating 6-m-diameter deployable mesh antenna, with radiometer and radar sensors, to measure microwave emission and backscatter from the Earth's surface. The sensors operate at L and S bands, with multiple polarizations and a constant look angle, scanning across a wide swath. The study included detailed analyses of science requirements, reflector and feedhorn design and performance, microwave emissivity measurements of mesh samples, design and test of lightweight radar electronic., launch vehicle accommodations, rotational dynamics simulations, and an analysis of attitude control issues associated with the antenna and spacecraft, The goal of the study was to advance the technology readiness of the overall concept to a level appropriate for an Earth science emission.

  17. The ExaVolt Antenna: A large-aperture, balloon-embedded antenna for ultra-high energy particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Baginski, F. E.; Allison, P.; Liewer, K. M.; Miki, C.; Hill, B.; Varner, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the scientific motivation, experimental basis, design methodology, and simulated performance of the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) mission, and planned ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. EVA will improve over ANITA's integrated totals - the current state-of-the-art in UHE suborbital payloads - by 1-2 orders of magnitude in a single flight. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics which utilizes a super-pressure balloon surface, along with a feed-array mounted on an inner membrane, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. Radio impulses arise via the Askaryan effect when UHE neutrinos interact within the ice, or via geosynchrotron emission when UHE cosmic rays interact in the atmosphere above the continent. EVA's instantaneous antenna aperture is estimated to be several hundred m 2 for detection of these events within a 150-600 MHz band. For standard cosmogenic UHE neutrino models, EVA should detect of order 30 events per flight in the EeV energy regime. For UHE cosmic rays, of order 15,000 geosynchrotron events would be detected in total, several hundred above 10 EeV, and of order 60 above the GZK cutoff energy.

  18. Seasonal variability of turbulent fluxes over a vegetated subtropical coastal wetland measured by large aperture scintillometry and eddy covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, Adrien; Gray, Michael; Riesenkamp, Michiel; Lockington, David; McGowan, Hamish

    2016-04-01

    Subtropical coastal wetlands are particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate variability: their recharge rates strongly depend on rainfall, and the occurrence of prolonged droughts or wet periods have direct consequences for wetland health and bio-diversity. There is therefore a need to close the water budget of these ecosystems and this requires the quantification of rates of evaporation/evapotranspiration. However, few studies have documented land-atmosphere exchanges over wetlands for which water level varies considerably during a typical annual cycle. Here, we present a year of turbulent flux observations over a wetland on the subtropical coast of eastern Australia. Large Aperture Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance are used to derive sensible heat fluxes. Latent heat fluxes are also derived through an energy balance for both instruments' observations and also directly through Eddy Covariance. Careful sensitivity analysis of the instrumental footprints, seasonal variations of land surface parameters such as roughness length and displacement height are examined and subsequent uncertainties in the derived turbulent fluxes are discussed. Finally we show how these observations can also help better understand hydrological processes at the catchment scale.

  19. Propellantless precision formation flying with photonic laser thrusters for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Young K.

    2009-08-01

    One economically and technologically feasible bedrock structure for constructing large (diameter > 10 m) space telescopes is a segmented or sparse aperture system with subcomponents in precision formation flight. For UV/Visible/IR systems, initial targeting and targeting new objects to establish initial fringes requires the positioning precision to nm - μm accuracy, thus the control system should be capable of the required precision positioning and attitude controls without producing contaminations from thruster exhaust plumes. A nanometer accuracy contaminationfree formation architecture, Photon Tether Formation Flight (PTFF), based on Photonic Laser Thrusters (PLTs) and tethers has been proposed to exploit a force equilibrium formed by PLT thrust and tether tension for forming precision persistent 3-D formation structures ideal for the large UV/Visible/IR space telescopes. The range of the PLT force can theoretically extend over several kms. Under previous NASA sponsorship, we have successfully demonstrated a proofof- concept PLT. In addition, the demonstrations of required laser components, optics and tracking technologies developed under military laser applications now support that implementation of PLTs for large space telescopes is one step closer to reality.

  20. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Mayer, S.

    2013-04-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

  1. Large Aperture Acoustic Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    1730 GMT. Several propagation models, encompassing normal mode, parabolic equation, fast field and eigenray approaches, were compared using the array... eigenray ) was chosen as the prediction vehicle due to its robust simplicity in this application where the amplitude is controlled by two dominant paths...to the program as a slant range assuming a homogeneous medium with a sound speed of 1500 in/s. This is not normally the case, and for the Septeller

  2. Laser diode technology and applications V; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 18-20, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Daniel

    Various papers on laser diode technology and its applications are presented. The general topics addressed include: high-power coherent large-aperture sources, vertical-cavity lasers, quantum-well lasers, semiconductor laser reliability, high-power semiconductor lasers, surface-emitting lasers, laser dynamics, and visible and midinfrared semiconductor lasers.

  3. Numerical aperture limits on efficient ball lens coupling of laser diodes to single-mode fibers with defocus to balance spherical aberration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. Gale

    1994-01-01

    The potential capabilities and limitations of single ball lenses for coupling laser diode radiation to single-mode optical fibers have been analyzed; parameters important to optical communications were specifically considered. These parameters included coupling efficiency, effective numerical apertures, lens radius, lens refractive index, wavelength, magnification in imaging the laser diode on the fiber, and defocus to counterbalance spherical aberration of the lens. Limiting numerical apertures in object and image space were determined under the constraint that the lens perform to the Rayleigh criterion of 0.25-wavelength (Strehl ratio = 0.80). The spherical aberration-defocus balance to provide an optical path difference of 0.25 wavelength units was shown to define a constant coupling efficiency (i.e., 0.56). The relative numerical aperture capabilities of the ball lens were determined for a set of wavelengths and associated fiber-core diameters of particular interest for single-mode fiber-optic communication. The results support general continuing efforts in the optical fiber communications industry to improve coupling links within such systems with emphasis on manufacturing simplicity, system packaging flexibility, relaxation of assembly alignment tolerances, cost reduction of opto-electronic components and long term reliability and stability.

  4. Estimation of turbulent sensible heat and momentum fluxes over a heterogeneous urban area using a large aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The accurate determination of surface-layer turbulent fluxes over urban areas is critical to understanding urban boundary layer (UBL) evolution. In this study, a remote-sensing technique using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was investigated to estimate surface-layer turbulent fluxes over a highly heterogeneous urban area. The LAS system, with an optical path length of 2.1 km, was deployed in an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, water body, bare ground, etc.). The turbulent sensible heat ( Q H) and momentum fluxes (τ) were estimated from the scintillation measurements obtained from the LAS system during the cold season. Three-dimensional LAS footprint modeling was introduced to identify the source areas ("footprint") of the estimated turbulent fluxes. The analysis results showed that the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes for the highly heterogeneous urban area revealed reasonable temporal variation during daytime on clear days, in comparison to the land-surface process-resolving numerical modeling. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the overall uncertainty in the LAS-derived daytime Q H was within 20%-30% in terms of the influence of input parameters and the nondimensional similarity function for the temperature structure function parameter, while the estimation errors in τ were less sensitive to the factors of influence, except aerodynamic roughness length. The 3D LAS footprint modeling characterized the source areas of the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes in the heterogeneous urban area, revealing that the representative spatial scales of the LAS system deployed with the 2.1 km optical path distance ranged from 0.2 to 2 km2 (a "micro- a scale"), depending on local meteorological conditions.

  5. Experimental demonstration of tri-aperture Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhilong; Huang, Jianyu; Wu, Shudong; Wang, Kunpeng; Bai, Tao; Dai, Ze; Kong, Xinyi; Wu, Jin

    2017-04-01

    A tri-aperture Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar (DSAL) is demonstrated in laboratory, which is configured by using one common aperture to transmit the illuminating laser and another two along-track receiving apertures to collect back-scattered laser signal for optical heterodyne detection. The image formation theory on this tri-aperture DSAL shows that there are two possible methods to reconstruct the azimuth Phase History Data (PHD) for aperture synthesis by following standard DSAL principle, either method resulting in a different matched filter as well as an azimuth image resolution. The experimental setup of the tri-aperture DSAL adopts a frequency chirped laser of about 40 mW in 1550 nm wavelength range as the illuminating source and an optical isolator composed of a polarizing beam-splitter and a quarter wave plate to virtually line the three apertures in the along-track direction. Various DSAL images up to target distance of 12.9 m are demonstrated using both PHD reconstructing methods.

  6. Large-Area Laser-Lift-Off Processing in Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, R.; Brune, J.

    Laser lift-off is an enabling technology for microelectronics growth markets such as light emitting diodes, densely packaged semiconductor devices, and flexible displays. For example, thin film transistor structures fabricated on top of polymer layers spun on glass carriers must be delaminated from rigid substrates to create lightweight and rugged flexible displays on polymers. Low-thermal-budget processes are generically required to protect adjacent functional films. Excimer lasers provide short UV wavelength and short pulse duration required for highly-localized energy coupling. The high output power of excimer lasers enables a large processing footprint and the high-throughput rates needed in mass manufacturing.

  7. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DOEpatents

    Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    2005-04-12

    A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

  8. Equivalent common path method in large-scale laser comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mingzhao; Li, Jianshuang; Miao, Dongjing

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale laser comparator is main standard device that providing accurate, reliable and traceable measurements for high precision large-scale line and 3D measurement instruments. It mainly composed of guide rail, motion control system, environmental parameters monitoring system and displacement measurement system. In the laser comparator, the main error sources are temperature distribution, straightness of guide rail and pitch and yaw of measuring carriage. To minimize the measurement uncertainty, an equivalent common optical path scheme is proposed and implemented. Three laser interferometers are adjusted to parallel with the guide rail. The displacement in an arbitrary virtual optical path is calculated using three displacements without the knowledge of carriage orientations at start and end positions. The orientation of air floating carriage is calculated with displacements of three optical path and position of three retroreflectors which are precisely measured by Laser Tracker. A 4th laser interferometer is used in the virtual optical path as reference to verify this compensation method. This paper analyzes the effect of rail straightness on the displacement measurement. The proposed method, through experimental verification, can improve the measurement uncertainty of large-scale laser comparator.

  9. Large-Aperture [O I] 6300 A Photometry of Comet Hale-Bopp: Implications for the Photochemistry of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Scherb, Frank; Anderson, Christopher M.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Doane, Nathaniel E.; Combi, Michael R.; Marconi, Maximus L.; Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Large-aperture photometric observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in the forbidden red line of neutral oxygen ([O I] 6300 angstroms) with the 150 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer that comprises the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper and a 50 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce main telescope from 1997 late February to mid April yield a total metastable O((sup 1)D) production rate of (2.3-5.9) x 10(exp 30)/s. Applying the standard H2O and OH photodissociation branching ratios, we derive a water production rate, Q(H2O), of (2.6-6.1) x 10(exp 31)/s, which disagrees with Q(H2O = 1x10(exp 31)/s determined by independent H2O, OH, and H measurements. Furthermore, our own [O I] 6300 observations of the inner coma (< 30,000 km) using the 3.5 m Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO telescope Hydra and Densepak multi-object spectrographs yield Q(H2O) = 1 x 10(exp 31)/s. Using our [O I] 6300 data, which cover spatial scales ranging from 2,000 to 1x10(exp 6) km, and a complementary set of wide-field ground-based OH images, we can constrain the sources of the apparent excess O((sup 1)D) emission to the outer coma, where photodissociation of OH is assumed to be the dominant O((sup 1)D) production mechanism. From production rates of other oxygen-bearing volatiles (e.g., CO and CO2), we can account for at most 30% of the observed excess O((sup 1)D) emission. Since even less O((sup 1)D) should be coming from other sources (e.g., electron excitation of neutral O and distributed nonnuclear sources of H2O), we hypothesize that the bulk of the excess O((sup 1)D) is likely coming from photodissociating OH. Using the experimental OH photo-dissociation cross section of Nee and Lee at Ly-alpha as a guide in modifying the theoretical OH cross sections of van Dishoeck and Dalgarno, we can account for approximately 60% of the observed O((sup 1)D) excess without requiring major modifications to the other OH branching ratios or the total OH photodissociation lifetime.

  10. Estimating Evapotranspiration over Heterogeneously Vegetated Surfaces using Large Aperture Scintillometer, LiDAR, and Airborne Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R. T.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) over heterogeneous areas is challenging especially in water-limited sparsely vegetated environments. New techniques such as airborne full-waveform LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high resolution multispectral and thermal imagery can provide enough detail of sparse canopies to improve energy balance model estimations as well as footprint analysis of scintillometer data. The objectives of this study were to estimate ET over such areas and develop methodologies for the use of these airborne data technologies. Because of the associated heterogeneity, this study was conducted over the Cibola National wildlife refuge, southern California on an area dominated with tamarisk (salt cedar) forest (90%) interspersed with arrowweed and bare soil (10%). A set of two large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were deployed over the area to provide estimates of sensible heat flux (HLAS). The LASs were distributed over the area in a way that allowed capturing different surface spatial heterogeneity. Bowen ratio systems were used to provide hydrometeorological variables and surface energy balance fluxes (SEBF) (i.e. Rn, G, H, and LE) measurements. Scintillometer-based estimates of HLAS were improved by considering the effect of the corresponding 3D footprint and the associated displacement height (d) and the roughness length (z0) following Geli et al. (2011). The LiDAR data were acquired using the LASSI Lidar developed at Utah State University (USU). The data was used to obtain 1-m spatial resolution DEM's and vegetation canopy height to improve the HLAS estimates. The BR measurements of Rn and G were combined with LAS estimates, HLAS, to provide estimates of LELASas a residual of the energy balance equation. A thermal remote sensing model namely the two source energy balance (TSEB) of Norman et al. (1995) was applied to provide spatial estimates of SEBF. Four airborne images at 1-4 meter spatial resolution acquired using the USU airborne

  11. Advanced studies on powerful wide-aperture nonchain HF(DF) lasers with a self-sustained volume discharge to initiate chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.; Belevtsev, A. A.; Firsov, K. N.; Kazantsev, S. Y.; Saifulin, A. V.

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the physics of a self-sustained volume discharge without preionization, self-initiated volume discharge (SIVD), in working mixtures of nonchain HF(DF) lasers. Dynamics of SIVD in discharge gaps of different geometry is thoroughly described. The mechanisms of restricting current density in a diffuse channel in electric discharges in SF6 and SF6 based mixtures determining the possibility of the existence of SIVD were suggested and analyzed using simple models. It is shown that the most probable mechanisms are the electron impact dissociation of SF6 and other mixture components, electron-ion recombination and electron attachment to vibrationally excited SF6 molecules. Starting from a comparison analysis of the rate coefficients of these processes, it was found that the electron-ion recombination is capable of compensating for electron detachment from negative ions by electron impact. It is established that SIVD can be observed not only in SF6, but in other strongly electronegative gases, e.g., in C3F8 and C3HCl3. Analysis is given of the factors determining uniformity of active medium in nonchain HF(DF) lasers. Some special features of operating nonchain HF(DF) lasers with small, 2-6cm, apertures are carefully examined and the results of measuring the nonchain HF(DF) laser divergence are presented. Consideration is given to the problem increasing the aperture and discharge volume of nonchain HF(DF) lasers and, based from the experimental results, the possibility is shown of increasing their energy to a level of ~ 1kJ and above.

  12. Research on the technique of large-aperture off-axis parabolic surface processing using tri-station machine and its applicability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Luo, Xiao; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to process large-aperture aspherical mirrors, we designed and constructed a tri-station machine processing center with a three station device, which bears vectored feed motion of up to 10 axes. Based on this processing center, an aspherical mirror-processing model is proposed, in which each station implements traversal processing of large-aperture aspherical mirrors using only two axes, while the stations are switchable, thus lowering cost and enhancing processing efficiency. The applicability of the tri-station machine is also analyzed. At the same time, a simple and efficient zero-calibration method for processing is proposed. To validate the processing model, using our processing center, we processed an off-axis parabolic SiC mirror with an aperture diameter of 1450 mm. The experimental results indicate that, with a one-step iterative process, the peak to valley (PV) and root mean square (RMS) of the mirror converged from 3.441 and 0.5203 μm to 2.637 and 0.2962 μm, respectively, where the RMS reduced by 43%. The validity and high accuracy of the model are thereby demonstrated.

  13. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A. Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-15

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  14. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  15. Combining Measurements with Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning System and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems for International Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bogard, James S; Hayward, Jason P; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Smith, Stephen E; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Being able to verify the operator's declaration in regards to technical design of nuclear facilities is an important aspect of every safeguards approach. In addition to visual observation, it is relevant to know if nuclear material is present or has been present in piping and ducts not declared. The possibility of combining different measurement techniques into one tool should optimize the inspection effort and increase safeguards effectiveness. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is engaged in a technical collaboration project involving two U.S. Department of Energy foreign partners to investigate combining measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning system and gamma-ray imaging systems. ORNL conducted simultaneous measurements with a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager and the 3D laser scanner in an operational facility with complex configuration and different enrichment levels and quantities of uranium. This paper describes these measurements and their results.

  16. Optimization of deposition uniformity for large-aperture National Ignition Facility substrates in a planetary rotation system.

    PubMed

    Oliver, James B; Talbot, David

    2006-05-01

    Multilayer coatings on large substrates with increasingly complex spectral requirements are essential for a number of optical systems, placing stringent requirements on the error tolerances of individual layers. Each layer must be deposited quite uniformly over the entire substrate surface since any nonuniformity will add to the layer-thickness error level achieved. A deposition system containing a planetary rotation system with stationary uniformity masking is modeled, with refinements of the planetary gearing, source placement, and uniformity mask shape being utilized to achieve an optimal configuration. The impact of improper planetary gearing is demonstrated theoretically, as well as experimentally, providing more comprehensive requirements than simply avoiding repetition of previous paths through the vapor plume, until all possible combinations of gear teeth have been used. Deposition efficiency and the impact of changing vapor plume conditions on the uniformity achieved are used to validate improved source placement. Uniformity measurements performed on a mapping laser photometer demonstrate nonuniformities of less than 0.5% for 0.75 m optics in a 72 in. (1.8 m) coating chamber.

  17. Laser-Induced Production of Large Carbon-Based Toriods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the production of large carbon-based toroids (CBTs) from fullerencs. The process involves two step laser irradiation of a mixed fullcrene target (76% C-60, 22% C-70). Transmission electron microscopy (11M) clearly identifies toroidal-shaped structures as well as Q-shaped constructs. ...

  18. A study program on large aperture electronic scanning phased array antennas for the shuttle imaging microwave system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Fundamental phased array theory and performance parameters are discussed in terms of their application to microwave radiometry, and four scanning phased arrays representing current examples of state-of-the-art phased array technology are evaluated for potential use as components of the multispectral antenna system for the space shuttle imaging microwave system (SIMS). A discussion of problem areas, both in performance and fabrication is included, with extrapolations of performance characteristics for phased array antennas of increased sizes up to 20 m by 20 m. The possibility of interlacing two or more phased arrays to achieve a multifrequency aperture is considered, and, finally, a specific antenna system is recommended for use with SIMS.

  19. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.E.; Berggren, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficient short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system: to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to determine the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may bo obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Comparison of CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture integrating sources. I - Using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer. II - Using the SPOT-2 satellite instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, B.; Mclean, J.; Leroy, M.; Henry, P.

    1990-01-01

    CNES spherical and NASA hemispherical large aperture calibration sources are examined using a laboratory transfer spectroradiometer and SPOT-2 instruments. The sources, collected at Matra in France during October 1987, are compared in terms of absolute calibration, linearity, and uniformity. The laboratory transfer spectroradiometer data reveal that the calibration results correspond to within about 7 percent absolute accuracy level and the linearity of the CNES source with lamp level is good. It is observed using the satellite data that both sources have an excellent uniformity over a 4 deg field of view.

  1. Plane-polar Fresnel and far-field computations using the Fresnel-Wilcox and Jacobi-Bessel expansions. [for large aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the computation of the Fresnel fields for large aperture antennas is significant for many applications. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for the effective utilization of the coefficients of the Jacobi-Bessel series for the far-field to obtain an analytically continuous representation of the antenna field which is valid from the Fresnel region into the far field. Attention is given to exact formulations and closed form solutions, Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, aspects of field expansion, the accuracy of the Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, and the Jacobi-Bessel expansion applied to the Fresnel small angle approximation.

  2. Invited review article: Large ring lasers for rotation sensing.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2013-04-01

    Over the last two decades a series of large ring laser gyroscopes have been built having an unparalleled scale factor. These upscaled devices have improved the sensitivity and stability for rotation rate measurements by six orders of magnitude when compared to previous commercial developments. This progress has made possible entirely new applications of ring laser gyroscopes in the fields of geophysics, geodesy, and seismology. Ring lasers are currently the only viable measurement technology, which is directly referenced to the instantaneous rotation axis of the Earth. The sensor technology is rapidly developing. This is evidenced by the first experimentally viable proposals to make terrestrial tests of general relativistic effects such as the frame dragging of the rotating Earth.

  3. Transmission of large amounts of scientific data using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, E. A.; Tarasov, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, the volume of figures generated by different research scientific projects (the Large Hadron Collider (Large Hadron Collider, LHC), The Square Kilometre Array (SKA)), can reach tens of petabytes per day. The only technical solution that allows you to transfer such large amounts of scientific data to the places of their processing is the transfer of information by means of laser technology, using different propagation environment. This article discusses the possibility of data transmission via fiber-optic networks, data transmission using the modulation binary stream of light source by a special LED light source, the neccessity to apply laser technologies for deep space communications, the principle for an unlimited expansion of the capacity of laser data link. Also in this study is shown the need for a substantial increase in data transfer speed via a pre-existing communication networks and via the construction of new channels of communication that will cope with the transfer of very large scale data volumes, taking into account the projected rate of growth.

  4. Large aperture at low cost three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor using scanning micromirrors and synchronous detector switching.

    PubMed

    Bogatscher, Siegwart; Streck, Andreas; Fox, Maik; Meinzer, Sebastian; Heussner, Nico; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-03-10

    In this article the problem of achieving fast scanning of a time-of-flight range sensor with a large optical receiver aperture at low system cost is targeted. The presented approach to solve this problem consists of a micromirror-based transmitter unit and a receiver unit consisting of a large aperture lens system with a small field of view and a detector array. A concept, which is called synchronous detector switching, is applied to the detector array. Thereby electronic steering of the small receiver field of view is possible. The overall approach is compared to alternative approaches, and the underlying concept of synchronous detector switching is demonstrated experimentally in an implementation of a three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor. It is theoretically shown that the presented concept is potentially cheaper than the alternative approaches for applications with a field of view of less than 60×60°. After a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the approach, its effect on broader scientific issues is outlined.

  5. Large-scale and non-contact surface topography measurement using scanning ion conductance microscopy and sub-aperture stitching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jian; Guo, Renfei; Li, Fei; Yu, Dehong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a large-scale and non-contact surface topography measurement method using a non-contact scanning probe microscopy (SPM) technique, scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), combined with the sub-aperture stitching technique. The phase correlation techniques were first applied to the three-dimensional (3D) images measured by the SICM to acquire an initially coarse stitching position. Then the tip-tilt compensated sub-aperture stitching algorithm is utilized to eliminate tilts and translations among adjacent images and expand the lateral measuring range of the existing hopping mode SICM system. This SICM and the stitching based method has been used to measure some large-scale samples (micrometer to millimeter scale) in a non-contact, quantitative and high resolution way. Simulation and experimental results on these samples verify the feasibility of this method and the effectiveness of the stitching algorithm. A measuring range of 1.08 mm  ×  0.55 mm and a lateral resolution of 100 nm or even higher were obtained in these experiments. Compared with atomic force microscopy (AFM), the non-contact feature of the proposed method ensures less damage to the surface topography. The non-optical feature makes the data stitching simpler than the existing optical microscopic methods, which need consider how to compensate the vignetting effect caused by the inhomogeneity of light.

  6. Really Large Scale Computer Graphic Projection Using Lasers and Laser Substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Paul

    1989-07-01

    This paper reflects on past laser projects to display vector scanned computer graphic images onto very large and irregular surfaces. Since the availability of microprocessors and high powered visible lasers, very large scale computer graphics projection have become a reality. Due to the independence from a focusing lens, lasers easily project onto distant and irregular surfaces and have been used for amusement parks, theatrical performances, concert performances, industrial trade shows and dance clubs. Lasers have been used to project onto mountains, buildings, 360° globes, clouds of smoke and water. These methods have proven successful in installations at: Epcot Theme Park in Florida; Stone Mountain Park in Georgia; 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles; hundreds of Corporate trade shows and thousands of musical performances. Using new ColorRayTM technology, the use of costly and fragile lasers is no longer necessary. Utilizing fiber optic technology, the functionality of lasers can be duplicated for new and exciting projection possibilities. The use of ColorRayTM technology has enjoyed worldwide recognition in conjunction with Pink Floyd and George Michaels' world wide tours.

  7. Laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.; Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Indirect-drive targets planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser consist of spherical fuel capsules enclosed in cylindrical Au hohlraums. Laser beams, arranged in cylindrical rings, heat the inside of the Au wall to produce x rays that in turn heat and implode the capsule to produce fusion conditions in the fuel. Detailed calculations show that adequate implosion symmetry can be maintained by filling the hohlraum interior with low-density, low-Z gases. The plasma produced from the heated gas provides sufficient pressure to keep the radiating Au surface from expanding excessively. As the laser heats this gas, the gas becomes a relatively uniform plasma with small gradients in velocity and density. Such long-scale-length plasmas can be ideal mediums for stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). SBS can reflect a large fraction of the incident laser light before it is absorbed by the hohlraum; therefore, it is undesirable in an inertial confinement fusion target. To examine the importance of SBS in NIF targets, the authors used Nova to measure SBS from hohlraums with plasma conditions similar to those predicted for high-gain NIF targets. The plasmas differ from the more familiar exploding foil or solid targets as follows: they are hot (3 keV); they have high electron densities (n{sub e}=10{sup 21}cm{sup {minus}3}); and they are nearly stationary, confined within an Au cylinder, and uniform over large distances (>2 mm). These hohlraums have <3% peak SBS backscatter for an interaction beam with intensities of 1-4 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, a laser wavelength of 0.351{micro}m, f/4 or f/8 focusing optics, and a variety of beam smoothing implementations. Based on these conditions the authors conclude that SBS does not appear to be a problem for NIF targets.

  8. Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, D G; Gross, S; Fuerbach, A; Heidepriem, H Ebendorff; Monro, T M; Withford, M J

    2012-12-03

    We report performance characteristics of a thulium doped ZBLAN waveguide laser that supports the largest fundamental modes reported in a rare-earth doped planar waveguide laser (to the best of our knowledge). The high mode quality of waveguides up to 45 um diameter (~1075 μm(2) mode-field area) is validated by a measured beam quality of M(2)~1.1 ± 0.1. Benefits of these large mode-areas are demonstrated by achieving 1.9 kW peak-power output Q-switched pulses. The 1.89 μm free-running cw laser produces 205 mW and achieves a 67% internal slope efficiency corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 161%. The 9 mm long planar chip developed for concept demonstration is rapidly fabricated by single-step optical processing, contains 15 depressed-cladding waveguides, and can operate in semi-monolithic or external cavity laser configurations.

  9. Early laser operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian; Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Ziegleder, Julian; Borelli, José L.; Gässler, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    ARGOS is the GLAO (Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics) Rayleigh-based LGS (Laser Guide Star) facility for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO). It is dedicated for observations with LUCI1 and LUCI2, LBTO's pair of NIR imagers and multi-object spectrographs. The system projects three laser beams from the back of each of the two secondary mirror units, which create two constellations circumscribed on circles of 2 arcmin radius with 120 degree spacing. Each of the six Nd:YAG lasers provides a beam of green (532nm) pulses at a rate of 10kHz with a power of 14W to 18W. We achieved first on-sky propagation on the night of November 5, 2013, and commissioning of the full system will take place during 2014. We present the initial results of laser operations at the observatory, including safety procedures and the required coordination with external agencies (FAA, Space Command, and Military Airspace Manager). We also describe our operational procedures and report on our experiences with aircraft spotters. Future plans for safer and more efficient aircraft monitoring and detection are discussed.

  10. Research on sub-surface damage and its stress deformation in the process of large aperture and high diameter-to-thickness ratio TMT M3MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-xiang; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Hai-fei; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Xue-jun

    2016-10-01

    Large flat mirrors play important roles in large aperture telescopes. However, they also introduce unpredictable problems. The surface errors created during manufacturing, testing, and supporting are all combined during measurement, thus making understanding difficult for diagnosis and treatment. Examining a high diameter-to-thickness ratio flat mirror, TMT M3MP, and its unexpected deformation during processing, we proposed a strain model of subsurface damage to explain the observed phenomenon. We designed a set of experiment, and checked the validity of our diagnosis. On that basis, we theoretical predicted the trend of this strain and its scale effect on Zerodur®, and checked the validity on another piece experimentally. This work guided the grinding-polishing process of M3MP, and will be used as reference for M3M processing as well.

  11. Large-aperture CCD x-ray detector for protein crystallography using a fiber-optic taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Michael G.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Naday, Istvan; Coleman, T. A.; Westbrook, Mary L.; Travis, D. J.; Sweet, Robert M.; Pflugrath, J. W.; Stanton, Martin J.

    1991-07-01

    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for x-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested on a beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a beam intensity greater than 10(superscript 9) x-ray photons/s. A fiber-optic taper, an image intensifier, and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512 X 512 pixels. A detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of 0.36 was obtained by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the detector output. The dynamic range of a 4 X 4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10 (superscript 4). The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel on the detector face is 160 micrometers . A complete data set, consisting of forty-five 1 degree(s) rotation frames, was obtained in just 36 s of x-ray exposure to a crystal of chicken egg-white lysozyme. In a separate experiment, a lysozyme data set consisting of 495 0.1 degree(s) frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program, yielding symmetry R-factors for the data of 3.2- 3.5%. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a equals 275 angstroms) were also recorded. The Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were resolved but were not sufficiently separated to process these data. Changes in the detector design which will improve the DQE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for x-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources.

  12. Outpatient Transurethral Cystolithotripsy of Large Bladder Stones by Holmium Laser

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Hosein; Razaghi, Mohammad Reza; Javanmard, Babak; Yaghoob, Mohammad; Hasanzadeh Hadad, Amin; Amani, Maryam; Golmohammadi Taklimi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To assessment of the efficacy and safety of transurethral cystolithotripsy of large bladder stones by holmium laser in the outpatient setting. Methods: In a prospective study, 48 consecutive adult patients with large bladder stones, were enrolled for transurethral cystolithotripsy. Patients older than 18 years, with bladder stones larger than 2 cm were enrolled. Urethral stricture, active urinary infection, and any anesthetic contraindications for operation, were the exclusion criteria. Demographic characteristics of patients, outcomes and complications related to operation and post operation period, were recorded. Results: Patients mean age was 46 ± 7.3 years. Male to female ratio was 45/3. Mean body mass index of patients was 28.5 ± 3.5. Mean stone size was 3.7 ± 1.6 cm. Mean operation time was 43.5 ± 15.5 minutes. Nearly complete stone clearance (98.5%) was achieved in all patients. Mean hospital stay was 6.5 ± 1.3 hours. No major complications were seen. Mean visual analog pain score (VAS) was 4.2 ± 2.1 and 1.4 ± 0.6, during and 1 hour after operation, respectively. During follow up of 22.4 ± 12.5 months, recurrence of bladder stone was not seen. No case of urethral stricture was detected. Conclusion: Transurethral holmium laser lithotripsy is an effective and safe alternative in selected patients with large bladder stones. This procedure can be easily performed in the outpatient setting. PMID:27330691

  13. Diffraction smoothing aperture for an optical beam

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O'Dean P.; Suydam, Bergen R.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an aperture for an optical beam having an irregular periphery or having perturbations imposed upon the periphery to decrease the diffraction effect caused by the beam passing through the aperture. Such apertures are particularly useful with high power solid state laser systems in that they minimize the problem of self-focusing which frequently destroys expensive components in such systems.

  14. Picosecond laser fabrication of micro cutting tool geometries on polycrystalline diamond composites using a high-numerical aperture micro scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Gregory; Dold, Claus; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    The generation of microsized components found in LEDs, watches, molds as well as other types of micromechanics and microelectronics require a corresponding micro cutting tool in order to be manufactured, typically by milling or turning. Micro cutting tools are made of cemented tungsten carbide and are conventionally fabricated either by electrical discharge machining (EDM) or by grinding. An alternative method is proposed through a laser-based solution operating in the picosecond pulse duration whereby the beam is deflected using a modified galvanometer-driven micro scanning system exhibiting a high numerical aperture. A micro cutting tool material which cannot be easily processed using conventional methods is investigated, which is a fine grain polycrystalline diamond composite (PCD). The generation of various micro cutting tool relevant geometries, such as chip breakers and cutting edges, are demonstrated. The generated geometries are subsequently evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quality is measured in terms of surface roughness and cutting edge sharpness. Additionally, two processing strategies in which the laser beam processes tangentially and orthogonally are compared in terms of quality.

  15. Combining Measurements with Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning System and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging System for International Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bogard, James S; Hayward, Jason P; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Smith, Steven E; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Being able to verify the operator's declaration in regard to the technical design of nuclear facilities is an important aspect of every safeguards approach. In addition to visual observation, it is necessary to know if nuclear material is present or has been present in undeclared piping and ducts. The possibility of combining the results from different measurement techniques into one easily interpreted product should optimize the inspection effort and increase safeguards effectiveness. A collaborative effort to investigate the possibility of combining measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning system and gamma-ray imaging systems is under way. The feasibility of the concept has been previously proven with different laboratory prototypes of gamma-ray imaging systems. Recently, simultaneous measurements were conducted with a new highly portable, mechanically cooled, High Purity Germanium (HPGe), coded-aperture gamma-ray imager and a 3D laser scanner in an operational facility with complex configuration and different enrichment levels and quantities of uranium. With specially designed software, data from both instruments were combined and a 3D model of the facility was generated that also identified locations of radioactive sources. This paper provides an overview of the technology, describes the measurements, discusses the various safeguards scenarios addressed, and presents results of experiments.

  16. Unsupervised polarimetric synthetic aperture radar classification of large-scale landslides caused by Wenchuan earthquake in hue-saturation-intensity color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Robert; Deng, Yunkai; Liu, Yabo; Li, Bochen; Wang, Chunle; Balz, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A simple and effective approach for unsupervised classification of large-scale landslides caused by the Wenchuan earthquake is developed. The data sets used were obtained by a high-resolution fully polarimetric airborne synthetic aperture radar system working at X-band. In the proposed approach, Pauli decomposition false-color RGB imagery is first transformed to the hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color space. Then, a good combination of k-means clustering and HSI imagery in different channels is used stage-by-stage for automatic landslides extraction. Two typical case studies are presented to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Our approach is an important contribution to the rapid assessment of landslide hazards.

  17. Development and Testing of a Power Trough System Using a Structurally-Efficient, High-Performance, Large-Aperture Concentrator with Thin Glass Reflector and Focal Point Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    May, E. K.; Forristall, R.

    2005-11-01

    Industrial Solar Technology has assembled a team of experts to develop a large-aperture parabolic trough for the electric power market that moves beyond cost and operating limitations of 1980's designs based on sagged glass reflectors. IST's structurally efficient space frame design will require nearly 50% less material per square meter than a Solel LS-2 concentrator and the new trough will rotate around the focal point. This feature eliminates flexhoses that increase pump power, installation and maintenance costs. IST aims to deliver a concentrator module costing less than $100 per square meter that can produce temperatures up to 400 C. The IST concentrator is ideally suited for application of front surface film reflectors and ensures that US corporations will manufacture major components, except for the high temperature receivers.

  18. Physical stability and aerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novel micropump device with large mesh apertures.

    PubMed

    Elhissi, A M A; Faizi, M; Naji, W F; Gill, H S; Taylor, K M G

    2007-04-04

    The aerosol properties of liposomes and their physical stability to aerosolization were evaluated using an air-jet nebulizer (Pari LC Plus) and a customized large aperture vibrating-mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Pro-8microm). Soya phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol (1:1 mole ratio) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) entrapping salbutamol sulfate were nebulized directly, or after being reduced in size by extrusion through 1 or 0.4microm polycarbonate membrane filters. MLVs were very unstable to jet nebulization and stability was not markedly enhanced when vesicles were extruded before nebulization, such that drug losses from delivered liposomes using the Pari nebulizer were up to 88% (i.e. only 12% retained in liposomes). The Aeroneb Pro-8microm nebulizer was less disruptive to liposomes, completed nebulization in a much shorter time, and produced greater mass output rate than the Pari nebulizer. However, aerosol droplets were larger, total drug and mass outputs were lower and aerosolization performance was dependent on formulation. Vibrating-mesh nebulization was less disruptive to liposomes extruded through the 1microm membranes compared with the non-extruded MLVs, so that the retained entrapment of the drug in the nebulized vesicles was 56% and 37%, respectively. However, extrusion of liposomes to 0.4microm resulted in reduced stability of liposomes to vibrating-mesh nebulization (retained entrapment=41%) which was attributed to the reduced liposome lamellarity and subsequent reduced resistance to nebulization-induced shearing. This study has shown that vibrating-mesh nebulization using the customized large aperture mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Pro-8microm) had a less disruptive effect on liposomes and produced a higher output rate compared with the Pari LC Plus air-jet nebulizer. On the other hand, the air-jet nebulizer produced higher total mass and drug outputs and smaller aerosol droplets.

  19. Time-resolved spatial profile of TEA CO2 laser pulses: influence of the gas mixture and intracavity apertures.

    PubMed

    Encinas-Sanz, F; Serna, J; Martínez-Herrero, R; Mejías, P M

    2001-07-01

    The evolution of the intensity profile of transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser pulses is investigated within the intensity moment formalism. The beam quality factor M2 is used to study the mode evolution. Attention is focused on the influence of both the gas mixture (N2 :CO2 :He) and the diameter of an intracavity diaphragm placed to attenuate higher-order modes. The degree of accuracy that can be attained by approximating the laser field amplitude by means of the lower-order terms of a Hermite-Gauss expansion is also analyzed. In particular, a bound for the truncation error is given in terms of two time-resolved spatial parameters, namely the beam width and the M2 parameter.

  20. Cleanliness improvements of NIF (National Ignition Facility) amplifiers as compared to previous large-scale lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J

    2004-06-09

    Prior to the recent commissioning of the first NIF (National Ignition Facility) beamline, full-scale laser-amplifier-glass cleanliness experiments were performed. Aerosol measurements and obscuration data acquired using a modified flatbed scanner compare favorably to historical large-scale lasers and indicate that NIF is the cleanest large-scale laser built to date.

  1. Effect of the photon lifetime on the characteristics of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with fully doped distributed Bragg reflectors and an oxide current aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, M. A.; Blokhin, S. A. Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Maleev, N. A.; Blokhin, A. A.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Nikitina, E. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of the photon lifetime in an optical microcavity on the characteristics of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with fully doped distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and an oxide current aperture is studied. The photon lifetime in the microcavity is controlled by varying the upper DBR reflectance. It is found that the speed of VCSELs with a current-aperture diameter of 10 μm is mainly limited by the self-heating effect, despite an increase in the relaxation-oscillation damping coefficient with increasing photon lifetime in the microcavity. At the same time, the higher level of internal optical loss in lasers with a current-aperture diameter of 1.5 μm leads to dominance of the effect of relaxation-oscillation damping independently of the radiation output loss. In the case of devices with a current-aperture diameter of 5.5 μm, both mechanisms limiting the speed operate, which allow an increase in the VCSEL effective modulation frequency from 21 to 24 GHz as the photon lifetime decreases from 3.7 to 0.8 ps.

  2. Study of a wide-aperture combined deformable mirror for high-power pulsed phosphate glass lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Samarkin, V V; Aleksandrov, A G; Romanov, P N; Rukosuev, A L; Kudryashov, A V; Jitsuno, T

    2015-12-31

    A deformable mirror with the size of 410 × 468 mm controlled by bimorph piezoceramic plates and multilayer piezo stacks is developed. The response functions of individual actuators and the measurements of the flatness of the deformable mirror surface are presented. The study of mirrors with an interferometer and a wavefront sensor has shown that it is possible to improve the surface flatness down to a residual roughness of 0.033 μm (RMS). The possibility of correction of beam aberrations in an ultra-high-power laser using the created bimorph mirror is demonstrated. (letters)

  3. Precision large field scanning system for high numerical aperture lenses and application to femtosecond micromachining of ophthalmic materials.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Brown, N S; Savage, D E; Wang, C; Knox, W H; Ellis, J D

    2014-06-01

    A precision, large stroke (nearly 1 cm) scanning system was designed, built, and calibrated for micromachining of ophthalmic materials including hydrogels and cornea (excised and in vivo). This system comprises a flexure stage with an attached objective on stacked vertical and horizontal translation stages. This paper outlines the design process leading to our most current version including the specifications that were used in the design and the drawbacks of other methods that were previously used. Initial measurements of the current version are also given. The current flexure was measured to have a 27 Hz natural frequency with no load.

  4. Imaging Laser Altimetry in the Amazon: Mapping Large Areas of Topography, Vegetation Height and Structure, and Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Nelson, B.; dosSantos, J.; Valeriano, D.; Houghton, R.; Hofton, M.; Lutchke, S.; Sun, Q.

    2002-01-01

    A flight mission of NASA GSFC's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is planned for June-August 2003 in the Amazon region of Brazil. The goal of this flight mission is to map the vegetation height and structure and ground topography of a large area of the Amazon. This data will be used to produce maps of true ground topography, vegetation height, and estimated above-ground biomass and for comparison with and potential calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Approximately 15,000 sq. km covering various regions of the Amazon will be mapped. The LVIS sensor has the unique ability to accurately sense the ground topography beneath even the densest of forest canopies. This is achieved by using a high signal-to-noise laser altimeter to detect the very weak reflection from the ground that is available only through small gaps in between leaves and between tree canopies. Often the amount of ground signal is 1% or less of the total returned echo. Once the ground elevation is identified, that is used as the reference surface from which we measure the vertical height and structure of the vegetation. Test data over tropical forests have shown excellent correlation between LVIS measurements and biomass, basal area, stem density, ground topography, and canopy height. Examples of laser altimetry data over forests and the relationships to biophysical parameters will be shown. Also, recent advances in the LVIS instrument will be discussed.

  5. Large Deformation Change in Iridium Isotopes from Laser Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D. Verney; L. Cabaret; J. Crawford; H.T. Duong; J. Genevey; G. Hubert; F. Ibrahim; M. Krieg; F. Le Blanc; J.K.P. Lee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; J. Obert; J. Oms; J. Pinard; J.C. Putaux; B. Roussiere; J. Sauvage; V. Sebastian

    1999-12-31

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron-deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields}5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} have been studied for the {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 191,193}Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the hyperfine splitting measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the isotope shift measurements. A large deformation change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir and between {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} has been observed.

  6. Lasers for coherent optical satellite links with large dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Nicola; Djerroud, Khelifa; Acef, Ouali; Clairon, André; Wolf, Peter

    2013-10-20

    We present the experimental realization of a laser system for ground-to-satellite optical Doppler ranging at the atmospheric turbulence limit. Such a system needs to display good frequency stability (a few parts in 10-14) while allowing large and well-controlled frequency sweeps of ±12  GHz at rates exceeding 100  MHz/s. Furthermore it needs to be sufficiently compact and robust for transportation to different astronomical observation sites, where it is to be interfaced with satellite ranging telescopes. We demonstrate that our system fulfills those requirements and should therefore allow operation of ground to low Earth orbit satellite coherent optical links limited only by atmospheric turbulence.

  7. Optimization of deposition uniformity for large-aperture National Ignition Facility substrates in a planetary rotation system

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.B.; Talbot, D.

    2006-05-17

    Multilayer coatings on large substrates with increasingly complex spectral requirements are essential for a number of optical systems, placing stringent requirements on the error tolerances of individual layers. Each layer must be deposited quite uniformly over the entire substate surface since any nonuniformity will add to the layer-thickness error level achieved. A deposition system containing a planetary rotation system with stationary uniformity masking is modeled, with refinements of the planetary gearing, source placement, and uniformity mask shape being utilized to achieve an optimal configuration. The impact of improper planetary gearing is demonstrated theoretically, as well as experimentally, providing more comprehensive requirements than simply avoiding repetition of previous paths through the vapor plume, until all possible combinations of gear teeth have been used. Deposition efficiency and the impact of changing vapor plume conditions on the uniformity achieved are used to validate improved source placement.

  8. Dissipative soliton evolution in ultra-large normal-cavity-dispersion fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueming

    2009-06-08

    Dissipative soliton (DS) evolution in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with ultra-large net-normal-dispersion (as large as 1 ps(2)) is investigated. The proposed DS laser operates on three statuses with respect to the pump power. The DS laser works on a status that is similar to an all-normal-dispersion laser when the pump power is low, whereas it creates a new type of pulses exhibited as the trapezoid-spectrum profile when the pump power is large. The laser cavity emits the unstable pulses between the above two statuses. The cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation can serve to qualitatively explain our experimental observations.

  9. Characterization and Mitigation of Resistive Losses in a Large Area Laser Power Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    CHARACTERIZATION AND MITIGATION OF RESISTIVE LOSSES IN A LARGE AREA LASER POWER CONVERTER THESIS Eli A. Garduño, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENP-14...LOSSES IN A LARGE AREA LASER POWER CONVERTER THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of Engineering and...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-14-M-09 CHARACTERIZATION AND MITIGATION OF RESISTIVE LOSSES IN A LARGE AREA LASER POWER CONVERTER Eli A. Garduño, BS

  10. A network of heterodyne laser interferometers for monitoring and control of large ring-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donazzan, Alberto; Naletto, Giampiero; Pelizzo, Maria G.; Cuccato, Davide; Beghi, Alessandro; Ortolan, Antonello; Belfi, Jacopo; Bosi, Filippo; Simonelli, Andreino; Beverini, Nicolò; Carelli, Giorgio; Maccioni, Enrico; Santagata, Rosa; Porzio, Alberto; Tartaglia, Angelo; Di Virgilio, Angela

    2016-08-01

    The sensitivity achieved by large ring-laser gyroscopes will make it possible to detect faint relativistic effects related to the rotation of the Earth's mass. This task requires a strict control of the ring cavity geometry (shape and orientation), which can be performed by a novel network of portable heterodyne interferometers, capable of measuring the absolute distance betweeen two retro-reflectors with a nominal accuracy better than 1nm. First steps have been taken towards the realization of this device and a starting prototype of distance gauge is under development and test.

  11. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars. The paper uses numerous trade studies created during the software development phase of the Arnold Mirror Modeler to illustrate the influences of system specifications on the design space. The future telescopes will require better performance, stability and documented feasibility to meet the hurdles of today's budget and schedules realities. AMTD is developing the tools, but the basic system planning mentality also has to adopt to the requirements of these very large and complex physical structures.

  12. Next Generation Large Mode Area Fiber Technologies for High Power Fiber Laser Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    REPORT Next Generation Large Mode Area Fiber Technologies for High Power Fiber Laser Arrays 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This program...monolithically-integrated building blocks (individual laser channels) of high power beam-combined fiber laser arrays. Robust single-mode performance...of CCC fibers with core sizes of up to ~60?m has been rigorously demonstrated. Various CCC fiber based high power lasers have been also

  13. Montana Large Aperture Seismic Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-28

    described by Matk ins (1976) provide an efficient means of data playout for event anal- ysis and for event data retention at the LDC. For the one—year...Controls (C2) 0 Controls (C3) 0 Operation Decode 2 Interrupts 0 Gen . Purpose Register Stack 2 Console (El) 0 Console (E2) 2 High Speed Multiplexer I...Since our signal gen - erator ’s (203A) maximum output of 3OVp-p will not check the LP seismometers at the high end of their amplitude range, a driver

  14. Continuous series of catchment-averaged sensible heat flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: efficient estimation of stability conditions and importance of fluxes under stable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lathauwer, E.; Samain, B.; Defloor, W.; Pauwels, V. R.

    2011-12-01

    A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path averaged sensible heat flux, H. This sensible heat flux can then easily be inverted into evapotranspiration rates using the surface energy balance. In this prestentation, two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H from LAS-data are investigated and the importance of nighttime H -fluxes is assessed. Firstly, as a LAS is unable to determine the sign of H, the transition from unstable to stable conditions is evaluated in order to make continuous H-series. Therefore, different algorithms to judge the atmospheric stability for a LAS installed over a distance of 9.5km have been tested. The algorithm based on the diurnal cycle of the refractive index structure parameter, CN2, has been found to be very suitable and operationally the most appropriate. A second issue is the humidity correction for LAS-data, which is performed by using the Bowen ratio (β). As β is taken from ground-based measurements with data gaps, the number of resulting H -values is reduced. Not including this humidity correction results in a marginal error in H, but increases the completeness of the resulting H -series. Applying these conclusions to the two-year time series of the LAS, results in an almost continuous H -time series. As the majority of the time steps has been found to be under stable conditions, there is a clear impact of Hstable on H24h, the 24h average of H. For stable conditions, Hstable -values are mostly negative, and hence lower than the H = 0 assumption as is mostly adopted. For months where stable conditions prevail (Winter), H24h is overestimated using this assumption, and calculation of Hstable is recommended.

  15. Continuous series of catchment-averaged sensible heat flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: efficient estimation of stability conditions and importance of fluxes under stable conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samain, B.; Defloor, W.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2012-04-01

    A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path averaged sensible heat flux, H. Two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H from LAS-data are investigated and the importance of nighttime H -fluxes is assessed. Firstly, as a LAS is unable to determine the sign of H, the transition from unstable to stable conditions is evaluated in order to make continuous H -series. Therefore, different algorithms to judge the atmospheric stability for a LAS installed over a distance of 9.5 km have been tested. The diurnal cycle of the refractive index structure parameter, CN2, results in the best suitable, operational algorithm. A second issue is the humidity correction for LAS-data, which is performed by using the Bowen ratio (β). As β is taken from ground-based measurements with data gaps, the number of resulting H -values is reduced. Not including this humidity correction results in a marginal error in H, but increases the completeness of the resulting H -series. Applying these conclusions to the two-year time series of the LAS, results in an almost continuous H -time series. As the majority of the time steps has been found to be under stable conditions, there is a clear impact of Hstable on H24h ,the 24h average of H. For stable conditions, Hstable -values are mostly negative, and hence lower than the H = 0 W/m2 assumption as is mostly adopted. For months where stable conditions prevail (Winter), H24h is overestimated using this assumption, and calculation of Hstable is recommended.

  16. Divided-aperture differential confocal fast-imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Xiangye; Zhao, Weiqian

    2017-03-01

    A new method, laser divided-aperture differential confocal microscopy (DDCM), is proposed to achieve high-resolution 3D imaging of microstructures of large-scale sample surfaces. This method uses a divided-aperture confocal structure to significantly improve the axial resolution of confocal microscopy and keep a long working distance simultaneously; uses two radically offset point detectors to achieve differential detection to further improve the axial response sensitivity and realize fast imaging of a large-scale sample surface with a big axial scan-step interval. Theoretical analyses and experimental results show that the DDCM can reach an axial resolution of 5 nm with a 3.1 mm working distance with a 3 times imaging speed of a confocal system with the same resolution.

  17. Aperture synthesis in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucherre, Michel; Greenaway, A. H.; Merkle, F.; Noordam, J. E.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    1989-09-01

    The principles of optical aperture synthesis (OAS), which can yield images of much higher resolution than current ground observations, are essentially those of radio astronomy, and may be used in either space- or ground-based studies of the stellar envelopes around Be stars, the internal dynamics of active galaxies, etc. An account is presently given of possible OAS instrument configurations; it is shown that a large field of view can be achieved, so that the instrument may be calibrated on bright stars during the observation of faint sources. Mission concepts for a 'monostructure' OAS instrument of about 30-m size are examined.

  18. Source locations of teleseismic P, SV, and SH waves observed in microseisms recorded by a large aperture seismic array in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaoxia; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; Ni, Sidao; Wang, Fuyun; Zou, Changqiao; Wei, Yunhao; Gal, Martin; Reading, Anya M.

    2016-09-01

    Transversely polarized seismic waves are routinely observed in ambient seismic energy across a wide range of periods, however their origin is poorly understood because the corresponding source regions are either undefined or weakly constrained, and nearly all models of microseism generation incorporate a vertically oriented single force as the excitation mechanism. To better understand the origin of transversely polarized energy in the ambient seismic wavefield we make the first systematic attempt to locate the source regions of teleseismic SH waves observed in microseismic (2.5-20 s) noise. We focus on body waves instead of surface waves because the source regions can be constrained in both azimuth and distance using conventional array techniques. To locate microseismic sources of SH waves (as well as SV and P waves) we continuously backproject the vertical, radial, and transverse components of the ambient seismic wavefield recorded by a large-aperture array deployed in China during 2013-2014. As expected, persistent P wave sources are observed in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans, mainly at periods of 2.5-10 s, in regions with the strong ocean wave interactions needed to produce secondary microseisms. SV waves are commonly observed to originate from locations indistinguishable from the P wave sources, but with smaller signal-to-noise ratios. We also observe SH waves with about half or less the signal-to-noise ratio of SV waves. SH source regions are definitively located in deep water portions of the Pacific, away from the sloping continental shelves that are thought to be important for the generation of microseismic Love waves, but nearby regions that routinely generate teleseismic P waves. The excitation mechanism for the observed SH waves may therefore be related to the interaction of P waves with small-wavelength bathymetric features, such as seamounts and basins, through some sort of scattering process.

  19. Stability design considerations for mirror support systems in ICF lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Sommer, S.C.

    1996-10-01

    Some of the major components of laser systems used for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are the large aperture mirrors which direct the path of the laser. These mirrors are typically supported by systems which consist of mirror mounts, mirror enclosures, superstructures, and foundations. Stability design considerations for the support systems of large aperture mirrors have been developed based on the experience of designing and evaluating similar systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Examples of the systems developed at LLNL include Nova, the Petawatt laser, Beamlet, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The structural design of support systems of large aperture mirrors has typically been controlled by stability considerations in order for the large laser system to meet its performance requirements for alignment and positioning. This paper will discuss the influence of stability considerations and will provide guidance on the structural design and evaluation of mirror support systems in ICF lasers so that this information can be used on similar systems.

  20. Continuous Earth Rotation Monitoring with the large Ring Laser G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Holdaway, John; Gebauer, André; Kluegel, Thomas; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, ring lasers have found their way back into the research laboratories. By scaling them up in size, they have gained several orders of magnitude over their commercial counterparts, both in sensitivity and stability. Unlike the established space geodetic techniques SLR/LLR and VLBI, ring lasers can be operated autonomous and continuously. While a single ring laser component already provides direct access to the instantaneous axis of rotation of the Earth, it is also susceptible to local perturbations both with respect to platform rotation and instrumental tilt caused by local wind load for example. These instrumental coupling issues are addressed in more detail in a separate paper (Gebauer et al.) in this conference. Currently the laser gyro G at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell (Germany) can resolve rotation rates as small as 1 pico-rad/s requiring an integration time of less than 2 hours. This opens the door for the research of high frequency variations in Earth rotation. Over the last year we have improved the ring laser technology by as much as a factor of 3 in sensitivity, which makes the domain of ∆Omega/Omega ≈ 10e-9 of Earth rotation accessible to a local rotation sensor. Currently it appears that the micro-seismic background activity of the Earth causes the major part from the observed deviation of the sensor performance with respect to the computed shot noise limit. Recent efforts concentrated on the improvement of the sensor stability against drift effects caused by the aging of the laser gas, scale factor instabilities induced by atmospheric pressure variations and the corresponding temperature changes from adiabatic expansion and compression of the local air around the instrument. Over the last year have introduced a pressure stabilizing vessel enclosing the entire ring laser structure. By monitoring the optical frequency in the ring laser cavity continuously and stabilizing the scale factor in a closed loop system, it became

  1. HI-CLASS on AEOS: A Large Aperture Laser Radar for Space Surveillance/Situational Awareness Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    346 348 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 time - minutes A z i m u t h - a r c m i n Residuals 342 344 346 348 -0.5 0 0.5 1 time - minutes E l e v a t i o n - a r c...m i n Residuals meas file rrd2144.92998 meas file rrd2144.92998 meas file rrd2144.92998 meas file rrd2144.92998 SENSOR Range Range-rate Angles meters

  2. Study of laser-induced damage to large core silica fiber by Nd:YAG and Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoguang; Li, Jie; Hokansson, Adam; Whelan, Dan; Clancy, Michael

    2009-02-01

    As a continuation of our earlier study at 2.1 μm wavelength, we have investigated the laser damage to several types of step-index, large core (1500 μm) silica fibers at two new wavelengths by high power long pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and Alexandrite (755 nm) lasers. It was observed that fibers with different designs showed a significant difference in performance at these wavelengths. We will also report a correlation of damage to the fibers between the two laser wavelengths. The performance analyses of different fiber types under the given test conditions will enable optimization of fiber design for specific applications.

  3. 80-W green KTP laser used in photoselective laser vaporization of the prostrate by frequency doubling of Yb 3+ -doped large-mode area fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongxing; Li, Zhengjia

    2007-05-01

    Photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is the most promising method for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but KTP lasers used in PVP with lamp-pumped are low efficient .To increase the efficiency , we develop a 80-W, 400kHz, linearly polarized green laser based on a frequency-doubled fiber laser. A polarization-maintaining large-mode area (LMA) fiber amplifier generate polarized 1064nm fundamental wave by amplifying the seed signal from a composite Cr 4+:YAG-Nd 3+:YAG crystal fiber laser. The fundamental wave is injected into a KTP crystal with confined temperature management to achieve second harmonic generation (SHG). The overall electrical efficiency to the green portion of the spectrum is 10%.80-W maintenance-free long-lifetime KTP laser obtained can well satisfy the need of PVP.

  4. Application of laser velocimetry to unsteady flows in large scale high speed tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Flowfield measurements obtained in several large scale, high speed facilities are presented. Sampling bias and seeding problems are addressed and solutions are outlined. The laser velocimeter systems and data reduction procedures which were used in the experiments are also described. The work demonstrated the potential of the laser velocimeter for applications in other than closely controlled, smallscale laboratory situations.

  5. The laser interferometer system for the large optics diamond turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, E D; Donaldson, R R; Patterson, S R

    1999-06-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the Laser Interferometer System designed for the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM). To better understand the laser interferometer system, it is useful to begin with an overview of the LODTM metrology system.

  6. Calculate waveguide aperture susceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.-K.; Ishii, T. K.

    1982-12-01

    A method is developed for calculating aperture susceptance which makes use of the distribution of an aperture's local fields. This method can be applied to the computation of the aperture susceptance of irises, as well as the calculation of the susceptances of waveguide filters, aperture antennas, waveguide cavity coupling, waveguide junctions, and heterogeneous boundaries such as inputs to ferrite or dielectric loaded waveguides. This method assumes a local field determined by transverse components of the incident wave in the local surface of the cross section in the discontinuity plane which lies at the aperture. The aperture susceptance is calculated by the use of the local fields, the law of energy conservation, and the principles of continuity of the fields. This method requires that the thickness of the aperture structure be zero, but this does not limit the practical usefulness of this local-field method.

  7. Large-aperture fast multilevel Fresnel zone lenses in glass and ultrathin polymer films for visible and near-infrared imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Britten, Jerald A; Dixit, Shamusundar N; DeBruyckere, Michael; Steadfast, Daniel; Hackett, James; Farmer, Brandon; Poe, Garrett; Patrick, Brian; Atcheson, Paul D; Domber, Jeanette L; Seltzer, Aaron

    2014-04-10

    The ability to fabricate 4-level diffractive structures with 1 µm critical dimensions has been demonstrated for the creation of fast (∼f/3.1 at 633 nm) Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) with >60% diffraction efficiency into the -1 focusing order and nearly complete suppression of 0 and +1 orders. This is done using tooling capable of producing optics with 800 mm apertures. A 4-level grating fabricated in glass at 300 mm aperture is shown to have <15  nm rms holographic phase error. Glass FZLs have also been used as mandrels for casting zero-thermal-expansion, 20 µm thick polymer films created with the 4-level structure as a route to mass replication of efficient diffractive membranes for ultralight segmented space-based telescope applications.

  8. Design of the polar neutron-imaging aperture for use at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatherley, V. E.; Barker, D. A.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Hibbard, R. L.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Schmidt, D. W.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.

    2016-11-01

    The installation of a neutron imaging diagnostic with a polar view at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) required design of a new aperture, an extended pinhole array (PHA). This PHA is different from the pinhole array for the existing equatorial system due to significant changes in the alignment and recording systems. The complex set of component requirements, as well as significant space constraints in its intended location, makes the design of this aperture challenging. In addition, lessons learned from development of prior apertures mandate careful aperture metrology prior to first use. This paper discusses the PHA requirements, constraints, and the final design. The PHA design is complex due to size constraints, machining precision, assembly tolerances, and design requirements. When fully assembled, the aperture is a 15 mm × 15 mm × 200 mm tungsten and gold assembly. The PHA body is made from 2 layers of tungsten and 11 layers of gold. The gold layers include 4 layers containing penumbral openings, 4 layers containing pinholes and 3 spacer layers. In total, there are 64 individual, triangular pinholes with a field of view (FOV) of 200 μm and 6 penumbral apertures. Each pinhole is pointed to a slightly different location in the target plane, making the effective FOV of this PHA a 700 μm square in the target plane. The large FOV of the PHA reduces the alignment requirements both for the PHA and the target, allowing for alignment with a laser tracking system at NIF.

  9. Role of the aperture in Z-scan experiments: A parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidian Vaziri, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    In close-aperture Z-scan experiments, a small aperture is conventionally located in the far-field thereby enabling the detection of slight changes in the laser beam profile due to the Kerr-lensing effect. In this work, by numerically solving the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integrals, the amount of transmitted power through apertures has been evaluated and a parametric study on the role of the various parameters that can influence this transmitted power has been done. In order to perform a comprehensive analysis, we have used a nonlinear phase shift optimized for nonlocal nonlinear media in our calculations. Our results show that apertures will result in the formation of symmetrical fluctuations on the wings of Z-scan transmittance curves. It is further shown that the appearance of these fluctuations can be ascribed to the natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam as it propagates up to the aperture plane. Our calculations reveal that the nonlocal parameter variations can shift the position of fluctuations along the optical axis, whereas their magnitude depends on the largeness of the induced nonlinear phase shift. It is concluded that since the mentioned fluctuations are produced by the natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam itself, one must take care not to mistakenly interpret them as noise and should not expect to eliminate them from experimental Z-scan transmittance curves by using apertures with different sizes.

  10. Design of the polar neutron-imaging aperture for use at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Fatherley, V E; Barker, D A; Fittinghoff, D N; Hibbard, R L; Martinez, J I; Merrill, F E; Oertel, J A; Schmidt, D W; Volegov, P L; Wilde, C H

    2016-11-01

    The installation of a neutron imaging diagnostic with a polar view at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) required design of a new aperture, an extended pinhole array (PHA). This PHA is different from the pinhole array for the existing equatorial system due to significant changes in the alignment and recording systems. The complex set of component requirements, as well as significant space constraints in its intended location, makes the design of this aperture challenging. In addition, lessons learned from development of prior apertures mandate careful aperture metrology prior to first use. This paper discusses the PHA requirements, constraints, and the final design. The PHA design is complex due to size constraints, machining precision, assembly tolerances, and design requirements. When fully assembled, the aperture is a 15 mm × 15 mm × 200 mm tungsten and gold assembly. The PHA body is made from 2 layers of tungsten and 11 layers of gold. The gold layers include 4 layers containing penumbral openings, 4 layers containing pinholes and 3 spacer layers. In total, there are 64 individual, triangular pinholes with a field of view (FOV) of 200 μm and 6 penumbral apertures. Each pinhole is pointed to a slightly different location in the target plane, making the effective FOV of this PHA a 700 μm square in the target plane. The large FOV of the PHA reduces the alignment requirements both for the PHA and the target, allowing for alignment with a laser tracking system at NIF.

  11. A laser velocimeter system for large-scale aerodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, M. S.; Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique laser velocimeter was developed that is capable of sensing two orthogonal velocity components from a variable remote distance of 2.6 to 10 m for use in the 40- by 80-Foot and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at Ames Research Center. The system hardware, positioning instrumentation, and data acquisition equipment are described in detail; system capabilities and limitations are discussed; and expressions for systematic and statistical accuracy are developed. Direct and coupled laboratory measurements taken with the system are compared with measurements taken with a laser velocimeter of higher spatial resolution, and sample data taken in the open circuit exhaust flow of a 1/50-scale model of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented.

  12. Laser velocimeter measurements in a large transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. F.; Couch, L. M.; Feller, W. V.; Walsh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A two-component fringe type laser velocimeter operated in the backscatter mode was used to measure the free-stream velocity in an undisturbed flow field in a wind-tunnel test section from Mach 0.2 to Mach 1.0 and to measure the velocity along the stagnating streamline of a hemisphere model from Mach 0.2 to Mach 0.8. Burst signals from the laser velocimeter were processed by high-speed burst counters, and histograms of the number of occurrences of a particular counter output were collected by means of a pulse height analyzer. Arithmetic means of the histograms were calculated, and the results were compared with predicted local gas velocities with allowance for the lag of the scattering particles with respect to the gas flow. The free-stream measurements were accurate to within 2% of the calibration measurements. The stagnation streamline measurements show trends similar to theoretical predictions.

  13. Large Mode Area Yb-Doped Photonic Bandgap Fiber Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-08

    ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: All-solid photonic bandgap fibers (PBGF) can be spectrally tailored to suppress amplified spontaneous emission...ASE) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Furthermore, this type of fiber is attractive for realizing high-power narrow-linewidth amplifiers as...area Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber lasers Report Title All-solid photonic bandgap fibers (PBGF) can be spectrally tailored to suppress amplified

  14. Laser Plasma Particle Accelerators: Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, Eric H.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Leemans, Wim P.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Ben; Durant, Marc; Hamill, Paul; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nieter, Chet; Paul, Kevin; Shasharina, Svetlana; Veitzer, Seth; Weber, Gunther; Rubel, Oliver; Ushizima, Daniela; Bethel, Wes; Wu, John

    2009-03-20

    Compared to conventional particle accelerators, plasmas can sustain accelerating fields that are thousands of times higher. To exploit this ability, massively parallel SciDAC particle simulations provide physical insight into the development of next-generation accelerators that use laser-driven plasma waves. These plasma-based accelerators offer a path to more compact, ultra-fast particle and radiation sources for probing the subatomic world, for studying new materials and new technologies, and for medical applications.

  15. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincuzzi, G.; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-01

    Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm-2). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s-1 to 25 m s-1. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s-1 and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  16. Continuous Earth Rotation Monitoring with the large Ring Laser G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, K. U.; Klügel, T.; Wells, J. P.; Holdaway, J.; Gebauer, A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade, ring lasers have found their way back into the research laboratories. By scaling them up in size, they have gained several orders of magnitude over their commercial counterparts, both in sensitivity and stability. Unlike the established space geodetic techniques SLR/LLR and VLBI, ring lasers can be operated autonomous and continuously. Furthermore laser gyros reach a resolution of 1 pico-rad/s already after an integration time of less than 2 hours. This opens the door for the research of high frequency variations in Earth rotation. Over the last year we have improved the sensor sensitivity by as much as a factor of 3 in order to reach the shot noise limit at 2.1x10-11 rad/s/sqrt(Hz). So the regime of ΔΩ/Ω ≈ 10-9 of Earth rotation becomes accessible to a local rotation sensor. Recent efforts concentrate on the reduction of scale factor instability by controlling the drift induced by atmospheric pressure variations and the corresponding temperature changes from adiabatic expansion and compression of the local air as well as a new approach to the modeling of the behavior of the sensor location. This talk outlines recent progress in Sagnac interferometry.

  17. Experimental and numerical studies of mode-locked fiber laser with large normal and anomalous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; El-Damak, A R; Feng, Yan; Gu, Xijia

    2013-05-20

    An ytterbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was demonstrated with a chirped fiber Bragg grating for dispersion management. The cavity net dispersion could be changed from large normal dispersion (2.4 ps(2)) to large anomalous dispersion (-2.0 ps(2)), depending on the direction of the chirped Bragg grating in laser cavity. The proposed fiber lasers with large normal dispersion generated stable pulses with a pulse width of <1.1 ns and a pulse energy of 1.5 nJ. The laser with large anomalous dispersion generated wavelength-tunable soliton with a pulse width of 2.7 ps and pulse energy of 0.13 nJ. A theoretical model was established and used to verify the experimental observations.

  18. Development of laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H.; Brase, J.M.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.; Morris, J.R.; Olivier, S.S.; Rapp, D.; Salmon, J.T.; Waltjen, K.

    1992-06-29

    We describe a feasibility experiment to demonstrate high-order adaptive optics using a sodium-layer laser guide star. We use the copper-vapor-pumped dye lasers developed for LLNL`s atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program to create the laser guide star. Closed-loop adaptive corrections will be accomplished using a 69-subaperture adaptive optics system on a one-meter telescope at LLNL. The laser bream is projected upwards from a beam director approximately 5 meters away from the main telescope, and is expected to form a spot 1-2 meters in diameter at the atmospheric sodium layer (95 km altitude). We describe the overall system architecture and adaptive optics components, and analyze the expected performance. Our long-term goal is to develop sodium-layer laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes. We discuss preliminary design trade-offs for the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea.

  19. Development of laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H.; Brase, J.M.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.; Morris, J.R.; Olivier, S.S.; Rapp, D.; Salmon, J.T.; Waltjen, K.

    1992-06-29

    We describe a feasibility experiment to demonstrate high-order adaptive optics using a sodium-layer laser guide star. We use the copper-vapor-pumped dye lasers developed for LLNL's atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program to create the laser guide star. Closed-loop adaptive corrections will be accomplished using a 69-subaperture adaptive optics system on a one-meter telescope at LLNL. The laser bream is projected upwards from a beam director approximately 5 meters away from the main telescope, and is expected to form a spot 1-2 meters in diameter at the atmospheric sodium layer (95 km altitude). We describe the overall system architecture and adaptive optics components, and analyze the expected performance. Our long-term goal is to develop sodium-layer laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes. We discuss preliminary design trade-offs for the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea.

  20. Synthesis of Few-Layer, Large Area Hexagonal-Boron Nitride by Pulsed Laser Deposition (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0050 SYNTHESIS OF FEW-LAYER, LARGE AREA HEXAGONAL-BORON NITRIDE BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION (POSTPRINT) Nicholas R Glavin...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYNTHESIS OF FEW-LAYER, LARGE AREA HEXAGONAL- BORON NITRIDE BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...deposition (PLD) has been investigated as a technique for synthesis of ultra-thin, few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (ɦ-BN) thin films on crystalline

  1. Elimination of Abbe error method of large-scale laser comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianshuang; Zhang, Manshan; He, Mingzhao; Miao, Dongjing; Deng, Xiangrui; Li, Lianfu

    2015-02-01

    Abbe error is the inherent systematic error in all large-scale laser comparators because the standard laser axis is not in line with measured optical axis. Any angular error of the moving platform will result in the offset from the measured optical axis to the standard laser axis. This paper describes to an algorithm which could be used to calculate the displacement of an equivalent standard laser interferometer and to eliminate an Abbe error. The algorithm could also be used to reduce the Abbe error of a large-scale laser comparator. Experimental results indicated that the uncertainty of displacement measurement due to Abbe error could be effectively reduced when the position error of the measured optical axis was taken into account.

  2. Retrograde diurnal motion of the instantaneous rotation axis observed by a large ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.

    2017-01-01

    Ring laser gyroscope technique directly senses the Earth's instantaneous rotation pole (IRP), whose polar motion contains strong retrograde diurnal components induced by external torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. The first direct measurement of this retrograde diurnal motion with three large ring lasers was reported by Schreiber et al. (J Geophys Res 109(B18):B06405, significant increase in precision and stability of ring laser gyroscopes; however, precise determination of amplitude and phase at main partial waves has not been given in the literature. In this paper, I will report on determination of the retrograde diurnal motion of the IRP at main partial waves (Oo_1, J_1, K_1, M_1, O_1, Q_1) by the ring laser "G", located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  3. FDTD method for laser absorption in metals for large scale problems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun; Ki, Hyungson

    2013-10-21

    The FDTD method has been successfully used for many electromagnetic problems, but its application to laser material processing has been limited because even a several-millimeter domain requires a prohibitively large number of grids. In this article, we present a novel FDTD method for simulating large-scale laser beam absorption problems, especially for metals, by enlarging laser wavelength while maintaining the material's reflection characteristics. For validation purposes, the proposed method has been tested with in-house FDTD codes to simulate p-, s-, and circularly polarized 1.06 μm irradiation on Fe and Sn targets, and the simulation results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  4. Experimental investigations of 3 mm aperture PPLN structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, D.; Pronyushkina, A.; Boyko, A.; Kostyukova, N.; Trashkeev, S.; Nuyshkov, B.; Shur, V.

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting about investigation of domestic 3 mm aperture periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) structures for cascaded mid-IR OPO. Wide aperture periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures at multigrating, fan-out and multi fan-out configuration were prepared at “Labfer LTD”. Laser source based on such structures can be used for special applications. Four different PPLN structures were investigated and effective aperture for effective pumping was defined.

  5. Laser desorption studies using laser-induced fluorescence of large aromatic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. P.; Krancevic, B.; Huestis, D. L.; Oser, H.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed laser desorption of non-volatile organic dye molecules paraterphenyl and tetra-t-butyl-p-quinquephenyl (QUI) was studied using gas phase ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence, following heating of a steel substrate by a pulsed 1.06- µm Nd:YAG laser. The fluorescence signal intensity is linear in concentration up to at least 30 monolayers and shows infrared power threshold behavior, as expected for evaporation, at ˜0.2 J/cm2. Similar signal levels were also observed in air, with 532-nm heating, and using other metallic or dark black surfaces.

  6. Experimental laser anastomosis of the large bowel: conclusive results and future prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Masaki; Kuramoto, Shu; Ryan, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Completely sutureless end-to-end large bowel anastomoses were successfully performed in New Zealand white rabbits by using 1064 nm, 0.4-W power pulsating Nd:YAG laser to produce welding. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the results of our whole experimental data and summarize our experimental work on laser colon anastomosis. Methods: This experimental study investigated integrity of anastomosis, degree of narrowing, macroscopic appearance, microscopic findings, animal body weight change, and collagen concentration of laser colon anastomoses, compared with those of conventional sutured anastomoses up to ninety postoperative days. Results: Bursting pressures of laser anastomoses were at first low and came to be equivalent at seven days, but the laser group exhibited a consistent narrowing tendency. However, laser anastomoses demonstrated fewer and milder adhesions, and animals showed a better recovery of body weight. Histologically, laser anastomoses showed better layer-to-layer reconstitution without foreign body response and with less fibrosis. Difference in collagen concentration did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The technique of laser anastomosis presents a promising alternative to suturing in reconstitution of the large bowel.

  7. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-06-01

    To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications.

  8. Infrared interferometer with a scanned aperture.

    PubMed

    Edwin, R P

    1975-08-01

    A Twyman-Green interferometer operating at a 3.39-microm wavelength has been built in which the collimator aperture was scanned by a laser beam. The scanning was produced by reflecting the laser beam from a mirror supported by four piezoelectric elements and oscillated about two orthogonal axes. The radiation transmitted by the interferometer was measured by a stationary detector of small area. The complete system offers a cheap and efficient alternative to conventional ir interferometers.

  9. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  10. Gold-film coating assisted femtosecond laser fabrication of large-area, uniform periodic surface structures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pin; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xin; Rong, Wenlong; Zhang, Kaihu; Cao, Qiang

    2015-02-20

    A simple, repeatable approach is proposed to fabricate large-area, uniform periodic surface structures by a femtosecond laser. 20 nm gold films are coated on semiconductor surfaces on which large-area, uniform structures are fabricated. In the case study of silicon, cross-links and broken structures of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) are significantly reduced on Au-coated silicon. The good consistency between the scanning lines facilitates the formation of large-area, uniform LIPSSs. The diffusion of hot electrons in the Au films increases the interfacial carrier densities, which significantly enhances interfacial electron-phonon coupling. High and uniform electron density suppresses the influence of defects on the silicon and further makes the coupling field more uniform and thus reduces the impact of laser energy fluctuations, which homogenizes and stabilizes large-area LIPSSs.

  11. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

  12. Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S; Wise, Frank

    2014-02-15

    We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair.

  13. Accuracy improvement in laser stripe extraction for large-scale triangulation scanning measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Fan; Gao, Peng; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale triangulation scanning measurement systems are widely used to measure the three-dimensional profile of large-scale components and parts. The accuracy and speed of the laser stripe center extraction are essential for guaranteeing the accuracy and efficiency of the measuring system. However, in the process of large-scale measurement, multiple factors can cause deviation of the laser stripe center, including the spatial light intensity distribution, material reflectivity characteristics, and spatial transmission characteristics. A center extraction method is proposed for improving the accuracy of the laser stripe center extraction based on image evaluation of Gaussian fitting structural similarity and analysis of the multiple source factors. First, according to the features of the gray distribution of the laser stripe, evaluation of the Gaussian fitting structural similarity is estimated to provide a threshold value for center compensation. Then using the relationships between the gray distribution of the laser stripe and the multiple source factors, a compensation method of center extraction is presented. Finally, measurement experiments for a large-scale aviation composite component are carried out. The experimental results for this specific implementation verify the feasibility of the proposed center extraction method and the improved accuracy for large-scale triangulation scanning measurements.

  14. Rotating Aperture System

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  15. Large-angle Programmable Direct Laser Interference Patterning with Ultrafast Laser Using Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Fabian; Uyttendaele, Andreas; Stauch, Julian; Schechtel, Florian; Reg, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Maik

    Direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) facilitates the creation of periodic micro- and nanostructures for numerous applications such as anti-reflective moth-eye structures, security features (holograms) or for surface topology modification. For high quality applications the use of ultrafast laser sources is demanded. However, this puts high requirements on laser system technology as the short pulses imply very short spatial interaction lengths. Furthermore flexible adjustment of the patterns to be generated is preferable which is difficult with most opto-mechanical setups. We present an approach using a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the creation of flexibly programmable DLIP-patterns. With our optical setup we are able to overcome the limitations the SLM poses at the current state of the art, thus achieving 45°-90° interference angles of two-, three- and four-beam interference patterns. We show regular structure sizes of ≈1 μm inscribed on the surface of polished metallic substrates with a 12 picosecond laser source at a wavelength of 1064 nm.

  16. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space-Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as

  17. Evolving design criteria for very large aperture space-based telescopes and their influence on the need for intergrated tools in the optimization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William R.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as

  18. Optica aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Avoort, Casper

    2006-05-01

    aperture mask, these optical paths are stated to be homothetic. In short, these two types will be addressed as the Michelson or the Homothetic type. The other two types are addressed as Densified and Staircase. The first one is short for densified pupil imaging, an imaging technique very similar to the Homothetic type, be it that the natural course of light after the aperture mask is altered. However, the combination of the beams of light is again in focus. The Staircase method is an alternative to the co-axial Michelson method and lends its name from the fact that a staircase-shaped mirror is placed in an intermediate focal plane after each telescope in the array, before combining the beams of light co-axially. This addition allows stellar imaging as with the Michelson type, with the advantage of covering a large field-of-view. The details of these methods will intensively be discussed in this thesis, but the introduction of them at this point allows a short list of results, found by comparing them for equal imaging tasks. Homothetic imagers are best suited for covering a wide field-of-view, considering the information content of the interferometric signals these arrays produce. The large number of detectors does not seem to limit the imaging performance in the presence of noise, due to the high ratio of coherent versus incoherent information in the detector signal. The imaging efficiency of a Michelson type array is also high, although -considering only polychromatic wide-field imaging tasks- the ratio of coherent versus incoherent information in the detected signals is very low. This results in very large observation times needed to produce images comparable to those obtained with a Homothetic array. A detailed presentation of the characteristics of the detected signals in a co-axial Michelson array reveal that such signals, obtained by polychromatic observation of extended sources, have fringe envelope functions that do not allow Fourier-spectroscopy to obtain high

  19. Recommendations for the design and the installation of large laser scanning microscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, P. Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has since the inventions of the Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CLSM) and the Multi Photon Laser Scanning Microscope (MPLSM) developed into an essential tool in contemporary life science and material science. The market provides an increasing number of turn-key and hands-off commercial LSM systems, un-problematic to purchase, set up and integrate even into minor research groups. However, the successful definition, financing, acquisition, installation and effective use of one or more large laser scanning microscopy systems, possibly of core facility character, often requires major efforts by senior staff members of large academic or industrial units. Here, a set of recommendations is presented, which are helpful during the process of establishing large systems for confocal or non-linear laser scanning microscopy as an effective operational resource in the scientific or industrial production process. Besides the description of technical difficulties and possible pitfalls, the article also illuminates some seemingly "less scientific" processes, i.e. the definition of specific laboratory demands, advertisement of the intention to purchase one or more large systems, evaluation of quotations, establishment of contracts and preparation of the local environment and laboratory infrastructure.

  20. Demonstration of synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, W.; Marechal, N.; Buck, J.; Dickinson, R.; Kozlowski, D.; Wright, T.; Beck, S.

    2005-05-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging LADAR system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope aperture. The purpose of this work is to investigate Synthetic Aperture Imaging LADAR (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. This paper details our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal processing techniques, and image results. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown including both retro-reflecting and diffuse scattering targets. A general digital signal processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data-driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system. These techniques perform well on waveform errors, but not on external phase errors such as turbulence or vibration. As a first step towards mitigating phase errors of this type, we have developed a balanced, quadrature phase, laser vibrometer to work in conjunction with our SAIL system to measure and compensate for relative line of sight motion between the target and transceiver. We describe this system and present a comparison of the vibrometer-measured phase error with the phase error inferred from the SAIL data.

  1. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  2. Heat transfer and thermal lensing in large-mode high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Paddy K. L.; Pipe, Kevin P.; Plant, Jason J.; Swint, Reuel B.; Juodawlkis, Paul W.

    2007-02-01

    In semiconductor lasers, key parameters such as threshold current, efficiency, wavelength, and lifetime are closely related to temperature. These dependencies are especially important for high-power lasers, in which device heating is the main cause of decreased performance and failure. Heat sources such as non-radiative recombination in the active region typically cause the temperature to be highly peaked within the device, potentially leading to large refractive index variation with bias. Here we apply high-resolution charge-coupled device (CCD) thermoreflectance to generate two dimensional (2D) maps of the facet temperatures of a high power laser with 500 nm spatial resolution. The device under test is a slab-coupled optical waveguide laser (SCOWL) which has a large single mode and high power output. These characteristics favor direct butt-coupling the light generated from the laser diode into a single mode optical fiber. From the high spatial resolution temperature map, we can calculate the non-radiative recombination power and the optical mode size by thermal circuit and finite-element model (FEM) respectively. Due to the thermal lensing effect at high bias, the size of the optical mode will decrease and hence the coupling efficiency between the laser diode and the single mode fiber increases. At I=10I th, we found that the optical mode size has 20% decrease and the coupling efficiency has 10% increase when comparing to I=2I th. This suggests SCOWL is very suitable fr optical communication system.

  3. Enhanced Performance of Large 3(omega) Optics Using UV and IR Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, R R; Bruere, J; Peterson, J; Halpin, J; Borden, M; Hackel, R P

    2003-11-01

    We have developed techniques using small-beam raster scanning to laser-condition fused silica optics to increase their damage threshold. Further, we showed that CO{sub 2} lasers could be used to mitigate and stabilize damage sites while still on the order of a few tens of microns in size, thereby greatly increasing the lifetime of an optic. We recently activated the Phoenix pre-production facility to condition and mitigate optics as large as 43 cm x 43 cm. Several full-scale optics have been processed in Phoenix. The optics were first photographed using a damage mapping system to identify scratches, digs, or other potential sites for initiation of laser damage. We then condition the optic, raster scanning with the excimer laser. The first scan is performed at a low fluence. A damage map is then acquired and any new damage sites or any sites that have grown in size are mitigated using the CO{sub 2} laser. The process is repeated at successively higher fluences until a factor of 1.7 above the nominal operating fluence is reached. After conditioning, optics were tested in a large beam 3{omega} laser and showed no damage at fluences of 8 J/cm{sup 2} average.

  4. Large area laser surface treatment of aluminium alloys for pitting corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, P. H.; Liu, Z.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G. E.

    2003-03-01

    Laser surface treatment has been recognised as a useful method for corrosion protection of surfaces as a result of improved microstructure/phase formation and compositions. In large area applications, overlapping of individual tracks corresponding to the width of the laser beam is often necessary. This involves re-melting and re-heating of a portion of the previous track and results in microstructural changes, such as precipitate coarsening and microsegregation, which may influence localised corrosion at the overlapped regions. The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of overlapped regions on corrosion behaviour of laser-melted aluminium 2014-T6 alloy. Laser melting was carried out using a 3 kW CW Nd:YAG laser with a line beam profile. The microstructures of the central part and the overlapped region of the melt pool were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Pitting corrosion resistance was evaluated using potentiodynamic anodic polarisation in 1 M NaCl solution. The work revealed enhancement of the pitting potential by 170 mV compared with that of the untreated alloy, similar to that achieved by laser surface melting with a CO 2 laser in a Gaussian mode. The line beam profile results in elimination of the planar front zones at the treated surface, but this benefit was offset by a coarser microstructure.

  5. Sub-Aperture Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sub-aperture interferometers -- also called wavefront-split interferometers -- have been developed for simultaneously measuring displacements of multiple targets. The terms "sub-aperture" and "wavefront-split" signify that the original measurement light beam in an interferometer is split into multiple sub-beams derived from non-overlapping portions of the original measurement-beam aperture. Each measurement sub-beam is aimed at a retroreflector mounted on one of the targets. The splitting of the measurement beam is accomplished by use of truncated mirrors and masks, as shown in the example below

  6. Distributed aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabb, David; Jameson, Douglas; Stokes, Andrew; Stafford, Jason

    2010-05-10

    Distributed aperture synthesis is an exciting technique for recovering high-resolution images from an array of small telescopes. Such a system requires optical field values measured at individual apertures to be phased together so that a single, high-resolution image can be synthesized. This paper describes the application of sharpness metrics to the process of phasing multiple coherent imaging systems into a single high-resolution system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss hardware and present the results of simulations and experiments which will illustrate how aperture synthesis is performed.

  7. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc.

  8. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF IGNITION PROCESSES IN LARGE NATURAL GAS ENGINES USING LASER SPARK IGNITION

    SciTech Connect

    Azer Yalin; Morgan Defoort; Bryan Willson

    2005-01-01

    The current report details project progress made during the first quarterly reporting period of the DOE sponsored project ''Fundamental studies of ignition processes in large natural gas engines using laser spark ignition''. The goal of the overall research effort is to develop a laser ignition system for natural gas engines, with a particular focus on using fiber optic delivery methods. In this report we present our successful demonstration of spark formation using fiber delivery made possible though the use of novel coated hollow fibers. We present results of (high power) experimental characterizations of light propagation using hollow fibers using both a high power research grade laser as well as a more compact laser. Finally, we present initial designs of the system we are developing for future on-engine testing using the hollow fibers.

  9. OSNR enhancement utilizing large effective area fiber in a multiwavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonee Shargh, R.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Anas, S. B. A.; Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a simple Brillouin-Raman multi-channel fiber laser with supportive Rayleigh scattering in a linear cavity without employing any feedback mirrors at the end of cavity. Brillouin and the consequences of Rayleigh scattering work as virtual mirrors. We employ a section of large effective area fiber in addition to a section of dispersion compensating fiber to enhance the optical signal-to-noise ratio of multi-channel Brillouin-Raman comb fiber laser. We able to produce a flat comb fiber laser with 37 nm bandwidth from 1539 to 1576 nm built-in 460 Stokes lines with 0.08 nm spacing. Furthermore, this Brillouin-Raman comb fiber laser has acceptable optical signal-to-noise ratio value of 16.8 dB for the entire bandwidth with excellent flatness and low discrepancies in power levels of about 2.3 dB between odd and even channels.

  10. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc. PMID:26727551

  11. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-04

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~ 200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc.

  12. Optical aperture area determination for accurate illuminance and luminous efficacy measurements of LED lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönsberg, Timo; Mäntynen, Henrik; Ikonen, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    The measurement uncertainty of illuminance and, consequently, luminous flux and luminous efficacy of LED lamps can be reduced with a recently introduced method based on the predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED). One of the most critical factors affecting the measurement uncertainty with the PQED method is the determination of the aperture area. This paper describes an upgrade to an optical method for direct determination of aperture area where superposition of equally spaced Gaussian laser beams is used to form a uniform irradiance distribution. In practice, this is accomplished by scanning the aperture in front of an intensity-stabilized laser beam. In the upgraded method, the aperture is attached to the PQED and the whole package is transversely scanned relative to the laser beam. This has the benefit of having identical geometry in the laser scanning of the aperture area and in the actual photometric measurement. Further, the aperture and detector assembly does not have to be dismantled for the aperture calibration. However, due to small acceptance angle of the PQED, differences between the diffraction effects of an overfilling plane wave and of a combination of Gaussian laser beams at the circular aperture need to be taken into account. A numerical calculation method for studying these effects is discussed in this paper. The calculation utilizes the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, which is applied to the geometry of the PQED and the aperture. Calculation results for various aperture diameters and two different aperture-to-detector distances are presented.

  13. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

    2013-07-01

    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

  14. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Teplow, William J.; Warren, Ian

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  15. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  16. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  17. Active aperture phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, R. P.

    1989-04-01

    Developments towards the realization of active aperture phased arrays are reviewed. The technology and cost aspects of the power amplifier and phase shifter subsystems are discussed. Consideration is given to research concerning T/R modules, MESFETs, side lobe control, beam steering, optical control techniques, and printed circuit antennas. Methods for configuring the array are examined, focusing on the tile and brick configurations. It is found that there is no technological impediment for introducing active aperture phased arrays.

  18. Investigation of standing-wave formation in a human skull for a clinical prototype of a large-aperture, transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) phased array: an experimental and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Song, Junho; Pulkkinen, Aki; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-02-01

    Standing-wave formation in an ex vivo human skull was investigated using a clinical prototype of a 30-cm diameter with 15-cm radius of curvature, low-frequency (230 kHz), hemispherical transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound phased array. Experimental and simulation studies were conducted with changing aperture size and f -number configurations of the phased array and qualitatively and quantitatively examined the acoustic pressure variation at the focus due to standing waves. The results demonstrated that the nodes and antinodes of standing wave produced by the small-aperture array were clearly seen at approximately every 3 mm. The effect of the standing wave became more pronounced as the focus was moved closer to skull base. However, a sharp focus was seen for the full array, and there was no such standing-wave pattern in the acoustic plane or near the skull base. This study showed that the fluctuation pressure amplitude would be greatly reduced by using a large-scale, hemispherical phased array with a low f-number.

  19. Investigation of standing wave formation in a human skull for a clinical prototype of a large-aperture, transcranial MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) phased array: An experimental and simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Junho; Pulkkinen, Aki; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    Standing wave formation in an ex vivo human skull was investigated using a clinical prototype of a 30 cm diameter with 15 cm radius of curvature, low frequency (230 kHz), hemispherical transcranial Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) phased-array. Experimental and simulation studies were conducted with changing aperture size and f-number configurations of the phased array, and qualitatively and quantitatively examined the acoustic pressure variation at the focus due to standing waves. The results demonstrated that the nodes and anti-nodes of standing wave produced by the small aperture array were clearly seen at approximately every 3 mm. The effect of the standing wave became more pronounced as the focus was moved closer to skull base. However, a sharp focus was seen for the full array, and there was no such standing wave pattern in the acoustic plane or near the skull base. This study showed that the fluctuation pressure amplitude would be greatly reduced by using a large-scale, hemispherical phased array with a low f-number. PMID:22049360

  20. High-speed energy efficient selective removal of large area copper layer by laser induced delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetec, Blaž; Kovačič, Drago; Možina, Janez; Podobnik, Boštjan

    2009-07-01

    An indirect laser-induced method for selective removal of large copper areas from a printed circuit board is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The results show that the threshold condition for the process involves phase transition of the epoxy-based substrate resin. Optimal parameters for maximizing process speed are found and discussed.

  1. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  2. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  3. High-power picosecond laser with 400W average power for large scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Keming; Brüning, Stephan; Gillner, Arnold

    2012-03-01

    Laser processing is generally known for low thermal influence, precise energy processing and the possibility to ablate every type of material independent on hardness and vaporisation temperature. The use of ultra-short pulsed lasers offers new possibilities in the manufacturing of high end products with extra high processing qualities. For achieving a sufficient and economical processing speed, high average power is needed. To scale the power for industrial uses the picosecond laser system has been developed, which consists of a seeder, a preamplifier and an end amplifier. With the oscillator/amplifier system more than 400W average power and maximum pulse energy 1mJ was obtained. For study of high speed processing of large embossing metal roller two different ps laser systems have been integrated into a cylinder engraving machine. One of the ps lasers has an average power of 80W while the other has 300W. With this high power ps laser fluencies of up to 30 J/cm2 at pulse repetition rates in the multi MHz range have been achieved. Different materials (Cu, Ni, Al, steel) have been explored for parameters like ablation rate per pulse, ablation geometry, surface roughness, influence of pulse overlap and number of loops. An enhanced ablation quality and an effective ablation rate of 4mm3/min have been achieved by using different scanning systems and an optimized processing strategy. The max. achieved volume rate is 20mm3/min.

  4. Radius of Curvature Measurement of Large Optics Using Interferometry and Laser Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Connelly, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The determination of radius of curvature (ROC) of optics typically uses either a phase measuring interferometer on an adjustable stage to determine the position of the ROC and the optics surface under test. Alternatively, a spherometer or a profilometer are used for this measurement. The difficulty of this approach is that for large optics, translation of the interferometer or optic under test is problematic because of the distance of translation required and the mass of the optic. Profilometry and spherometry are alternative techniques that can work, but require a profilometer or a measurement of subapertures of the optic. The proposed approach allows a measurement of the optic figure simultaneous with the full aperture radius of curvature.

  5. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J L; Hackel, R P; Lungershausen, A W

    2003-08-03

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed.

  6. 20W continuous wave reliable operation of 980nm broad-area single emitter diode lasers with an aperture of 96μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, P.; Blume, G.; Paschke, K.; Staske, R.; Pietrzak, A.; Zeimer, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Ginolas, A.; Bugge, F.; Häusler, K.; Ressel, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.

    2009-02-01

    High power broad area diode lasers provide the optical energy for all high performance solid state and fiber laser systems. The maximum achievable power density from such systems is limited at source by the performance of the diode lasers. A crucial metric is the reliable continuous wave optical output power from a single broad area laser diode, typically for stripe widths in the 90-100 μm range, which is especially important for users relying on fibered multi-mode pumps. We present the results of a study investigating the reliable power limits of such 980nm sources. We find that 96μm stripe single emitters lasers at 20°C operate under continuous wave power of 20W per emitter for over 4000 hours (to date) without failure, with 60μm stripe devices operating reliably at 10W per stripe. Maximum power testing under 10Hz, 200μs QCW drive conditions shows that 96μm stripes reach 30W and 60μm stripes 21W per emitter, significantly above the reliable operation point. Results are also presented on step-stress-studies, where the current is step-wise increased until failure is observed, in order to clarify the remaining reliability limits. Finally, we detail the barriers to increased peak power and discuss how these can be overcome.

  7. Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppuluri, Sreemanth M. V.

    needed to bring an array of bowtie apertures into intimate contact with the photoresist surface we present an optical interference based alignment system that aligns the mask and photoresist surfaces to within 0.1 mrad of parallelism. In this work we show that bowtie apertures can be used to produce patterns in the photoresist of dimensions in the order of 85-90 nm. We also demonstrate parallel optical nanolithography using an array of bowtie apertures that opens up the possibility of using arrays of bowtie apertures to produce a large number of nanoscale light spots for parallel nano-manufacturing.

  8. Controle modal des diodes laser a large fenetre d'emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Jean-Francois

    Les diodes laser a large fenetre d'emission (BA) constituent des sources permettant d'obtenir des puissances elevees a faible cout. Leur emission est cependant composee de nombreux modes lateraux et longitudinaux, reduisant la qualite du faisceau emis. Nous considerons l'utilisation, en cavite externe, de reseaux possedant un profil spatial de reflectivite, afin de controler les modes de ces lasers. Le chapitre 1 presente d'abord une introduction aux lasers a semi-conducteurs, ainsi qu'un rappel des principales methodes de controle des modes abordees dans la litterature. Le chapitre 2 decrit la fabrication et l'utilisation de reseaux holographiques apodisants dans le but d'obtenir une emission monomode laterale et longitudinale. Nous etudions d'abord les effets d'un profil spatial de reflectivite en cavite externe sur la discrimination envers les modes lateraux. Nous voyons ensuite la modelisation, la fabrication, puis la caracterisation des reseaux holographiques apodisants. Nous presentons finalement les resultats obtenus par l'operation d'une diode laser BA avec les reseaux fabriques. Ces resultats sont compares avec ceux obtenus en utilisant d'autres types de coupleurs externes. Le chapitre 3 traite de la fabrication et de l'usage de reseaux holographiques a double pas, dans le but d'obtenir une emission laser sur deux modes longitudinaux. La theorie et les procedures experimentales relatives a la fabrication de ces reseaux sont d'abord exposees. Nous procedons ensuite a une analyse des proprietes diffractives de ces elements. Le chapitre se termine par une presentation des resultats experimentaux obtenus en utilisant ces coupleurs en cavite externe avec une diode laser. Le chapitre 4 presente une analyse de la stabilite du systeme laser obtenu au chapitre 3. Nous rappelons d'abord la theorie relative a la competition modale dans les lasers et nous voyons, de facon analytique, l'effet de la saturation spatiale sur la saturation mutuelle des modes, dans le cas d

  9. Polarisation splitting of laser beams by large angles with minimal reflection losses

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, B L

    2006-05-31

    New crystal anisotropic prisms for splitting orthogonally polarised components of laser radiation by large angles with minimal reflection losses caused by the Brewster refraction and total internal reflection of polarised waves from the crystal-air interface are considered and the method for their calculation is described. It is shown that, by assembling glue-free combinations of two or three prisms, thermally stable beamsplitters can be fabricated, which are free from the beam astigmatism and the wave dispersion of the output angles of the beams. The parameters and properties of new beamsplitters are presented in a convenient form in figures and tables. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Breaking and Moving Hotspots in a Large Grain Nb Cavity with a Laser Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, G.; Cheng, G.; Flood, R. J.; Jordan, K.; Kneisel, P.; Morrone, M. L.; Turlington, L.; Wilson, K. M.; Zhang, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Gurevich, A. V.; Nemes, G.; Baldwin, C.

    2011-07-25

    Magnetic vortices pinned near the inner surface of SRF Nb cavities are a possible source of RF hotspots, frequently observed by temperature mapping of the cavities outer surface at RF surface magnetic fields of about 100 mT. Theoretically, we expect that the thermal gradient provided by a 10 W green laser shining on the inner cavity surface at the RF hotspot locations can move pinned vortices to different pinning locations. The experimental apparatus to send the beam onto the inner surface of a photoinjector-type large-grain Nb cavity is described. Preliminary results on the changes in thermal maps observed after applying the laser heating are also reported.

  11. Filled aperture concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2003-02-01

    Filled aperture telescopes can deliver a real, high Strehl image which is well suited for discrimination of faint planets in the vicinity of bright stars and against an extended exo-zodiacal light. A filled aperture offers a rich variety of PSF control and diffraction suppression techniques. Filled apertures are under consideration for a wide spectral range, including visible and thermal-IR, each of which offers a significant selection of biomarker molecular bands. A filled aperture visible TPF may be simpler in several respects than a thermal-IR nuller. The required aperture size (or baseline) is much smaller, and no cryogenic systems are required. A filled aperture TPF would look and act like a normal telescope - vendors and users alike would be comfortable with its design and operation. Filled aperture telescopes pose significant challenges in production of large primary mirrors, and in very stringent wavefront requirements. Stability of the wavefront control, and hence of the PSF, is a major issue for filled aperture systems. Several groups have concluded that these and other issues can be resolved, and that filled aperture options are competitive for a TPF precursor and/or for the full TPF mission. Ball, Boeing-SVS and TRW have recently returned architecture reviews on filled aperture TPF concepts. In this paper, I will review some of the major considerations underlying these filled aperture concepts, and suggest key issues in a TPF Buyers Guide.

  12. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Adam B; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L; Stone, Jon M; Krantz, Patrick W; Royston, John M; Zeller, Ryan M; Mapes, Meghan R; Roland, Paul J; Dorogi, Mark D; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T; Ellingson, Randy J; Heben, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm(2)) can be produced in a ∼40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm(2)) to full modules (1 m(2)). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  13. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  14. Frequency chirped light at large detuning with an injection-locked diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, K.; Disla, M.; Dellatto, J.; Limani, A.; Kaufman, B.; Wright, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    We have developed a laser system to generate frequency-chirped light at rapid modulation speeds (∼100 MHz) with a large frequency offset. Light from an external cavity diode laser with its frequency locked to an atomic resonance is passed through a lithium niobate electro-optical phase modulator. The phase modulator is driven by a ∼6 GHz signal whose frequency is itself modulated with a RF MHz signal (<200 MHz). A second injection locked diode laser is used to filter out all of the light except the frequency-chirped ±1 order by more than 30 dB. Using this system, it is possible to generate a 1 GHz frequency chirp in 5 ns.

  15. Removal of an Extra-large Irritation Fibroma With a Combination of Diode Laser and Scalpel

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Taheri, Jamileh Bigom; Sehhatpour, Marziye; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Attarbashi Moghadam, Saaedeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Irritation fibroma is the most common tumor like and sub mucosal reactive lesion in the oral cavity. Usually it is measured less than 1.5 cm in diameter; however in rare case it has more than 3 cm in diameter. Different kind of treatment for soft tissue lesions include scalpel excision, electrical surgery, and laser surgery. The diode laser can be more effective than conventional surgery, electrosurgery and cryosurgery in reduction of bleeding and pain. Case Report: We reported a very large irritation fibroma in right lingual side of retromolar pad which was less prone to be traumatized under local irritation, in a woman wearing maxillary complete denture and use of both diode laser and scalpel for its excision. PMID:26705465

  16. Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chongzhao; Jin, Yuan; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2017-02-01

    A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which the refractive-index of the laser's surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as the refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of ˜57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which is demonstrated at a much more practical temperature of 78 K . The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (silicon-dioxide) on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning range compared to previously reported results for terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. The key enabling mechanism for tuning is a recently developed antenna-feedback scheme for plasmonic lasers, which leads to the generation of hybrid surface-plasmon-polaritons propagating outside the cavity of the laser with a large spatial extent. The effect of dielectric deposition on QCL's characteristics is investigated in detail including that on maximum operating temperature, peak output power, and far-field radiation patterns. Single-lobed beam with low divergence (<7° ) is maintained through the tuning range. The antenna-feedback scheme is ideally suited for modulation of plasmonic lasers and their sensing applications due to the sensitive dependence of spectral and radiative properties of the laser on its surrounding medium.

  17. Mobile large scale 3D coordinate measuring system based on network of rotating laser automatic theodolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Zhongzheng; Wu, Jianwei; Xu, Yaozhong

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a mobile 3D coordinate measuring system for large scale metrology. This system is composed of a network of rotating laser automatic theodolites (N-RLATs) and a portable touch probe. In the N-RLAT system, each RLAT consists of two laser fans which rotate about its own Z axis at a constant speed and scan the whole metrology space. The optical sensors mounted on the portable touch probe receive the sweeping laser fans and generate the corresponding pulse signals, which establish a relationship between rotating angle of laser fan and time, and then the space angle measurement is converted into the corresponding peak time precision measurement of pulse signal. The rotating laser fans are modeled mathematically as a time varying parametrical vector in its local framework. A two steps on-site calibration method for solving the parameters of each RLAT and coordinate transformation among the N-RLATs. The portable probe is composed of optical sensors array with specified geometrical features and a touch point, on which the coordinates of optical sensors is determined by the N-RLATs and the touch point is estimated by solving a non-linear system. A prototype mobile 3D coordinate measuring system is developed and experiment results show its validity.

  18. ROMY - The First Large 3D Ring Laser Structure for Seismology and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Lin, Chin-Jen; Gebauer, André; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Large ring laser gyroscopes have matured to the point that they can routinely observe rotational motions from geophysical processes that can be used in geodesy and seismology. The ring lasers used for this purpose enclose areas between 16 and 800 square meters and have in common that they can only measure rotations around the vertical axis because the structures are horizontally placed on the floor. With the ROMY project we have embarked on the construction of a full 3-dimensional rotation sensor. The actual apparatus consists of four individual triangular ring lasers arranged in the shape of a tetrahedron with 12 m of length on each side. At each corner of the tetrahedron three of the ring lasers are rigidly tied together to the same mechanical reference. The overall size of the installation provides a promising compromise between sensor stability on one side and sensor resolution on the other side. This talk introduces the technical concept of the ROMY ring laser installation and will also briefly outline the requirements for applications in space geodesy.

  19. Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Laser Treatment of Large Preterm Infants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Haidong; Ni, Yinqing; Xue, Kang; Yu, Jia; Huang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its laser treatment outcomes in premature infants with birth weight > 1250 g in Eastern China. Methods A retrospective review of 3175 ROP records was conducted at Shanghai Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. The records were collected at the ROP clinic from 2006 to 2014, including their demographic and medical information such as gestational age, birth weight, supplemental oxygen therapy, systemic complications, ROP stage, location, presence of plus disease. All infants were examined by RetCam fundus camera. Those with Type 1 ROP were also examined by indirect ophthalmoscope before undergoing transpupillary laser treatment. Results A total of 12 infants (24 eyes) with Type 1 ROP and birth weight > 1250 g were enrolled. All infants enrolled had plus disease and ROP in zone II retina. Specifically, 16 eyes (67%) had stage 2 ROP. 8 eyes (33%) had stage 3 ROP. ROP regressed in 23 eyes (96%) following laser treatment. Partial retinal detachment developed in one eye (4%). No severe involution sequelaes or laser-related complications were recorded. Mean follow-up was 30±6 weeks. Conclusion Type 1 ROP may occur in large premature infants who have undergone supplemental oxygen therapy. This Type 1 ROP is mainly located in zone II retina. Laser treatment is a safe and effective intervention for these infants. PMID:26674190

  20. Preliminary Report On Combined Surgical- And Laser-Treatment Of Large Hemangiomas And Tattoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsbach, G.

    1981-05-01

    As most hemangiomas and tattoos require many sessions to be cured completely by argon-laser or conventional therapy I developed a new combined surgical and laser-therapy method for large hemangiomas and tattoos. This is a three step method. First: The skin lesion is treated by argon-laser with the point by point method, developed by ourself. Second: Under local or general anaesthesia a) the hemangioma is partially excised and undermined letting only the skin which is already treated by argon-laser-beams. Than the hemangioma is exstirpated in toto, the wound closed by running intradermal sutures and a pressure bandage applied, b) the tattoo is abraded as deep as possible, draped by lyofoam. Then a pressure bandage is applied. Third: The hemangioma as well as the tattoo are treated by argon-laser-beams after the operation. This method is safe and effective, gives good results, minimal scars in the case of hemangiomas and tattoos. In this paper the method is described and some cases are illustrated by pre- and postoperational photographs.

  1. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  2. Z-Beamlet: a multikilojoule, terawatt-class laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Hurst, Michael J.; Speas, C. Shane; Adams, Richard G.; Garcia, Antonio J.; Dawson, Ellis; Thurston, Benjamin D.; Wakefield, Colleen; Kellogg, Jeff W.; Slattery, Michael J.; Ives III, Harry C.; Broyles, Robin S.; Caird, John A.; Erlandson, Alvin C.; Murray, James E.; Behrendt, William C.; Neilsen, Norman D.; Narduzzi, Joseph M

    2005-04-20

    A large-aperture (30-cm) kilojoule-class Nd:glass laser system known as Z-Beamlet has been constructed to perform x-ray radiography of high-energy-density science experiments conducted on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The laser, operating with typical pulse durations from 0.3 to 1.5 ns, employs a sequence of successively larger multipass amplifiers to achieve up to 3-kJ energy at 1054 nm. Large-aperture frequency conversion and long-distance beam transport can provide on-target energies of up to 1.5 kJ at 527 nm.

  3. Large field-of-view range-gated laser imaging based on image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pengdao; Wang, Xinwei; Sun, Liang; You, Ruirong; Lei, Pingshun; Zhou, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Laser range-gated imaging has great potentials in remote night surveillance with far detection distance and high resolution, even if under bad weather conditions such as fog, snow and rain. However, the field of view (FOV) is smaller than large objects like buildings, towers and mountains, thus only parts of targets are observed in one single frame, so that it is difficult for targets identification. Apparently, large FOV is beneficial to solve the problem, but the detection range is not available due to low illumination density in a large field of illumination matching with the FOV. Therefore, a large field-of-view range-gated laser imaging is proposed based on image fusion in this paper. Especially an image fusion algorithm has been developed for low contrast images. First of all, an infrared laser range-gated system is established to acquire gate images with small FOV for three different scenarios at night. Then the proposed image fusion algorithm is used for generating panoramas for the three groups of images respectively. Compared with raw images directly obtained by the imaging system, the fused images have a larger FOV with more detail target information. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image fusion algorithm is effective to expand the FOV of range-gated imaging.

  4. 3D modelling of facade features on large sites acquired by vehicle based laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulaassal, H.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2011-12-01

    Mobile mapping laser scanning systems have become more and more widespread for the acquisition of millions of 3D points on large and geometrically complex urban sites. Vehicle-based Laser Scanning (VLS) systems travel many kilometers while acquiring raw point clouds which are registered in real time in a common coordinate system. Improvements of the acquisition steps as well as the automatic processing of the collected point clouds are still a conundrum for researchers. This paper shows some results obtained by application, on mobile laser scanner data, of segmentation and reconstruction algorithms intended initially to generate individual vector facade models using stationary Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data. The operating algorithms are adapted so as to take into account characteristics of VLS data. The intrinsic geometry of a point cloud as well as the relative geometry between registered point clouds are different from that obtained by a static TLS. The amount of data provided by this acquisition technique is another issue. Such particularities should be taken into consideration while processing this type of point clouds. The segmentation of VLS data is carried out based on an adaptation of RANSAC algorithm. Edge points of each element are extracted by applying a second algorithm. Afterwards, the vector models of each facade element are reconstructed. In order to validate the results, large samples with different characteristics have been introduced in the developed processing chain. The limitations as well as the capabilities of each process will be emphasized in terms of geometry and processing time.

  5. Laser guide star wavefront sensing for ground-layer adaptive optics on extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Clare, Richard M; Le Louarn, Miska; Béchet, Clementine

    2011-02-01

    We propose ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) to improve the seeing on the 42 m European Extremely Large Telescope. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFSs) with laser guide stars (LGSs) will experience significant spot elongation due to off-axis observation. This spot elongation influences the design of the laser launch location, laser power, WFS detector, and centroiding algorithm for LGS GLAO on an extremely large telescope. We show, using end-to-end numerical simulations, that with a noise-weighted matrix-vector-multiply reconstructor, the performance in terms of 50% ensquared energy (EE) of the side and central launch of the lasers is equivalent, the matched filter and weighted center of gravity centroiding algorithms are the most promising, and approximately 10×10 undersampled pixels are optimal. Significant improvement in the 50% EE can be observed with a few tens of photons/subaperture/frame, and no significant gain is seen by adding more than 200 photons/subaperture/frame. The LGS GLAO is not particularly sensitive to the sodium profile present in the mesosphere nor to a short-timescale (less than 100 s) evolution of the sodium profile. The performance of LGS GLAO is, however, sensitive to the atmospheric turbulence profile.

  6. A large-field polarisation-resolved laser scanning microscope: applications to CARS imaging.

    PubMed

    DE Vito, G; Canta, A; Marmiroli, P; Piazza, V

    2015-11-01

    Laser-scanning imaging techniques are frequently used to probe the molecule spatial orientation in a sample of interest by exploiting selection rules depending on the polarisation of the excitation light. For the successful implementation of these techniques the precise control of the polarisation at the sample level is of fundamental importance. Polarisation distortions induced by the optical elements are often the main limitation factor for the maximum size of the field-of-view in polarisation-resolved (PR) laser-scanning microscopy, since for large scanning angles the polarisation distortions may mask the real sample structure. Here we shall demonstrate the implementation of large-field-of-view PR microscopy and show PR CARS imaging of mouse spinal cord thanks to a careful design of the laser-beam optical path. We shall show that this design leads to strongly suppressed distortions and quantify their effects on the final images. Although the focus of this work is on CARS imaging, we stress that the approaches described here can be successfully applied to a wide range of PR laser-scanning techniques.

  7. Non-contact large-scale separated surfaces flatness measurement by using laser beam and laser distance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Fan, Bo; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie

    2015-07-01

    Large-scale separated surface is very common in modern manufacturing industry. The measurement of the flatness of such surfaces is one of the most important procedures when evaluating the manufacturing quality. Usually, the measurement needs to be accomplished in an in-situ and non-contact way. Although there are many conventional approaches such as autocollimator, capacitance displacement sensor and even CMM, they can not meet the needs from the separated surfaces measurement either because of their contact-nature or inapplicable to separated surfaces. A non-contact large-scale separated surfaces flatness measurement device utilizing laser beam and laser distance sensor (LDS) is proposed. The laser beam is rotated to form an optical reference plane. The LDS is used to measure the distance between the surface and the sensor accurately. A Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is mounted with the LDS firmly to determine the distance between the LDS and the reference plane and then the distance between the surface and the reference plane can be obtained by subtracting the two distances. The device can be easily mounted on a machine-tool spindle and is moved to measure all the separated surfaces. Then all the data collected are used to evaluate the flatness of these separated surfaces. The accuracy analysis, the corresponding flatness evaluation algorithm, the prototype construction and experiments are also discussed. The proposed approach and device feature as high accuracy, in-situ usage and the higher degree of automatic measurement, and can be used in the areas that call for non-contact and separated surfaces measurement.

  8. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  9. Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.

  10. Large-scale three-dimensional measurement via combining 3D scanner and laser rangefinder.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinlong; Sun, Zhengxing; Bai, Suqin

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) measurement method of large-scale objects by integrating a 3D scanner and a laser rangefinder. The 3D scanner, used to perform partial section measurement, is fixed on a robotic arm which can slide on a guide rail. The laser rangefinder, used to compute poses of the 3D scanner, is rigidly connected to the 3D scanner. During large-scale measurement, after measuring a partial section, the 3D scanner is straightly moved forward along the guide rail to measure another section. Meanwhile, the poses of the 3D scanner are estimated according to its moved distance for different partial section alignments. The performance and effectiveness are evaluated by experiments.

  11. Development of large-scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficini, Gaelle; Campbell, Jack H.

    1996-08-01

    Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for inertial confinement fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and a t relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future megajoule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology.

  12. JPL self pulsed laser surface measurement system development. [large space deployed antenna structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, M.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a self pulsed laser system for accurately describing the surface shape of large space deployed antenna structures was evaluated. Tests with a breadboard system verified functional operation with short time resolution on the order of .2 mm, nonambiguous ranging, and a maximum range capability on the order of 150 m. The projected capability of the system is resolution of less than .1 mm over a reasonable time period and a range extension to over 300 m.

  13. Large tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chongzhao; Jin, Yuan; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-12-19

    A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which the refractive-index of the laser’s surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as the refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of ~57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which is demonstrated at a much more practical temperature of 78 K. The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (silicon-dioxide) on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning rangemore » compared to previously reported results for terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. The key enabling mechanism for tuning is a recently developed antenna-feedback scheme for plasmonic lasers, which leads to the generation of hybrid surface-plasmon-polaritons propagating outside the cavity of the laser with a large spatial extent. The effect of dielectric deposition on QCL’s characteristics is investigated in detail including that on maximum operating temperature, peak output power, and far-field radiation patterns. Single-lobed beam with low divergence (<7°) is maintained through the tuning range. The antenna-feedback scheme is ideally suited for modulation of plasmonic lasers and their sensing applications due to the sensitive dependence of spectral and radiative properties of the laser on its surrounding medium.« less

  14. Large tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chongzhao; Jin, Yuan; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-12-19

    A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which the refractive-index of the laser’s surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as the refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of ~57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which is demonstrated at a much more practical temperature of 78 K. The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (silicon-dioxide) on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning range compared to previously reported results for terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. The key enabling mechanism for tuning is a recently developed antenna-feedback scheme for plasmonic lasers, which leads to the generation of hybrid surface-plasmon-polaritons propagating outside the cavity of the laser with a large spatial extent. The effect of dielectric deposition on QCL’s characteristics is investigated in detail including that on maximum operating temperature, peak output power, and far-field radiation patterns. Single-lobed beam with low divergence (<7°) is maintained through the tuning range. The antenna-feedback scheme is ideally suited for modulation of plasmonic lasers and their sensing applications due to the sensitive dependence of spectral and radiative properties of the laser on its surrounding medium.

  15. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  16. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  17. Transurethral holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy for large symptomatic prostatic calculi: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2013-08-01

    Symptomatic prostatic calculi are a rare clinical entity with wide range of management options, however, there is no agreement about the preferred method for treating these symptomatic calculi. In this study we describe our experience of transurethral management of symptomatic prostatic calculi using holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy. Patients with large, symptomatic prostatic stones managed by transurethral lithotripsy using holmium-YAG laser over 3-year duration were included in this retrospective study. Patients were evaluated for any underlying pathological condition and calculus load was determined by preoperative X-ray KUB film/CT scan. Urethrocystoscopy was performed using 30° cystoscope in lithotomy position under spinal anesthesia, followed by transurethral lithotripsy of prostatic calculi using a 550 μm laser fiber. Stone fragments were disintegrated using 100 W laser generators (VersaPulse PowerSuite 100 W, LUMENIS Surgical, CA). Larger stone fragments were retreived using Ellik's evacuator while smaller fragments got flushed under continuous irrigation. Five patients (median age 42 years) with large symptomatic prostatic calculi were operated using the described technique. Three patients had idiopathic stones while rest two had bulbar urethral stricture and neurogenic bladder, respectively. Median operative time was 62 min. All the patients were stone free at the end of procedure. Median duration of catheterization was 2 days. Significant improvement was observed in symptoms score and peak urinary flow and none of the patient had any complication. Transurethral management using holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy is a safe and highly effective, minimally invasive technique for managing symptomatic prostatic calculi of all sizes with no associated morbidity.

  18. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  19. A New Approach for Structural Monitoring of Large Dams with a Three-Dimensional Laser Scanner.

    PubMed

    González-Aguilera, Diego; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Sánchez, José

    2008-09-24

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of great importance, due to the impact these structures have on the whole landscape where they are built. The main goal of this paper is to show the relevance and novelty of the laserscanning methodology developed, which incorporates different statistical and modelling approaches not considered until now. As a result, the methods proposed in this paper have provided the measurement and monitoring of the large "Las Cogotas" dam (Avila, Spain).

  20. Development of a laser synthetic wavelength interferometer for large displacement measurement with nanometer accuracy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Benyong; Yan, Liping; Yao, Xiguo; Yang, Tao; Li, Dacheng; Dong, Wenjun; Li, Chaorong; Tang, Weihua

    2010-02-01

    A laser synthetic wavelength interferometer that is capable of achieving large displacement measurement with nanometer accuracy is developed. The principle and the signal processing method of the interferometer are introduced. The displacement measurement experiments and the comparisons with a commercial interferometer both in small and large ranges are performed in order to verify the performance of the interferometer. Experimental results show that the average errors and standard deviations of the interferometer are in accordance with those obtained from the commercial interferometer. The resolution and the nonlinearity of the interferometer are also discussed in detail. These results show that the development of the interferometer is reasonable and feasible.

  1. Observations of large-scale fluid transport by laser-guided plankton aggregationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Dabiri, John O.

    2014-10-01

    Diel vertical migration of plankton has been proposed to affect global ocean circulation to a degree comparable to winds and tides. This biomixing process has never been directly observed, however, due to the inability to predict its occurrence in situ or to reproduce it in a laboratory setting. Furthermore, it has been argued that the energy imparted to the ocean by plankton migrations occurs at the scale of individual organisms, which is too small to impact ocean mixing. We describe the development of a multi-laser guidance system that leverages the phototactic abilities of plankton to achieve controllable vertical migrations concurrently with laser velocimetry of the surrounding flow. Measurements in unstratified fluid show that the hydrodynamic interactions between neighboring swimmers establish an alternate energy transfer route from the small scales of individually migrating plankton to significantly larger scales. Observations of laser-induced vertical migrations of Artemia salina reveal the appearance of a downward jet, which triggers a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that results in the generation of eddy-like structures with characteristic length scales much larger than the organisms. The measured energy spectrum is consistent with these findings and indicates energy input at large scales, despite the small individual size of the organisms. These results motivate the study of biomixing in the presence of stratification to assess the contribution of migrating zooplankton to local and global ocean dynamics. The laser control methodology developed here enables systematic study of the relevant processes.

  2. Sequential nonadiabatic excitation of large molecules and ions driven by strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Ivanov, Misha Yu.

    2004-01-01

    Electronic processes leading to dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in strong laser fields are investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Using time-of-flight ion mass spectroscopy, we study the dependence of fragmentation on laser intensity for a series of related molecules and report regular trends in this dependence on the size, symmetry, and electronic structure of a molecule. Based on these data, we develop a model of dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields. The model is built on three elements: (i) nonadiabatic population transfer from the ground electronic state to the excited-state manifold via a doorway (charge-transfer) transition; (ii) exponential enhancement of this transition by collective dynamic polarization of all electrons, and (iii) sequential energy deposition in both neutral molecules and resulting molecular ions. The sequential nonadiabatic excitation is accelerated by a counterintuitive increase of a large molecule's polarizability following its ionization. The generic theory of sequential nonadiabatic excitation forms a basis for quantitative description of various nonlinear processes in polyatomic molecules and ions in strong laser fields.

  3. Transurethral Cystolithotripsy of Large Bladder Stones by Holmium Laser as a Day Care Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Naorem, Salinita; Faridi, M.S.; Akoijam, Kaku Singh; Sinam, Rajendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bladder stones constitute around 5% of bladder stones in the developed countries. Holmium laser lithotripsy has revolutionised the treatment of urinary lithiasis. Aim The aim of this study was to report the outcome of transurethral cystolithotripsy with Holmium Laser under Local Anaesthesia (LA) as a day care procedure in patients with bladder stones. Materials and Methods Patients with bladder stone greater than 1.5cm attending urology Outpatient Department underwent transurethral cystolithotripsy with Holmium Laser under LA as day care procedure. The results were analysed on aspects of peri-operative pain, completion of procedure, stone clearance, hospital stay, complications and patient compliance. Results A total of 85 patients with bladder stone ≥1.5cm underwent transurethral cystolithotripsy LA. The mean age of the patient was 52±7 years. There were 80 males. The mean size of stone was 3±1.2cm. Mean operation time was 40±10 minutes. Complete stone clearance was achieved in all the patients. None of the patients required hospital stay following the procedure. Conclusion Transurethral holmium laser lithotripsy is an effective and safe procedure for large bladder stones. This procedure can be easily performed as a day care procedure. PMID:28208921

  4. Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Marchesini, S.; Parkinson, D. Y.

    2014-06-15

    We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6–25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples.

  5. Laser-Damage-Resistant Photoalignment Layers for High-Peak-Power Liquid Crystal Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, K.L.; Gan, J.; Mitchell, G.; Papernov, S.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-10-23

    Large-aperture liquid crystal (LC) devices have been in continuous use since 1995 as polarization control devices in the 40-TW, 351-nm, 60-beam OMEGA Nd:glass laser system at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The feasibility of using a noncontacting alignment method for high-peak-power LC laser optics by irradiation of a linearly photopolymerizable polymer with polarized UV light was recently investigated. These materials were found to have surprisingly large laser-damage thresholds at 1054 nm, approaching that of bare fused silica (30 to 60 J/cm^2). Their remarkable laser-damage resistance and ease in scalability to large apertures of these photoalignment materials, along with the ability to produce multiple alignment states by photolithographic patterning, opens new doorways for their application in LC devices for optics, photonics, and high-peak-power laser applications.

  6. Large-Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of Shock-Train Development in a Coil-Laser Diffuser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-06

    train formation and reactant mixing in a model Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) unit. The configuration consists of a converging-diverging nozzle, a...appear to influence the mixing process in the lasing cavity significantly. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Large-eddy simulation, chemical oxygen iodine lasers...model Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) unit. The configuration consists of a converging-diverging nozzle, a lasing cavity, and a diffuser. The

  7. Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.

    PubMed

    Tong, Siyu; Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2014-11-17

    Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 μm² on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm². Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated.

  8. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  9. Beam quality after propagation of Nd:YAG laser light through large-core optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Blewett, I J; Hand, D P; Jones, J D

    2000-12-20

    Laser beam characteristics are altered during propagation through large-core optical fibers. The distribution of modes excited by the input laser beam is modified by means of mode coupling on transmission through the fiber, leading to spatial dispersion of the profile and, ultimately and unavoidably, to degradation in the quality of the delivered beam unless the beam is spatially filtered with consequent power loss. Furthermore, a mismatch between the intensity profile of a typical focused high-power laser beam and the profile of the step-index fiber gives rise to additional beam-quality degradation. Modern materials processing applications demand ever higher delivered beam qualities (as measured by a parameter such as M(2)) to achieve greater machining precision and efficiency, a demand that is currently in conflict with the desire to utilize the convenience and flexibility of large-core fiber-optic beam delivery. We present a detailed experimental investigation of the principal beam-quality degradation effects associated with fiber-optic beam delivery and use numerical modeling to aid an initial discussion of the causes of such degradation.

  10. Large spectral tuning of a water-glycerol microdroplet by a focused laser: characterization and modeling.

    PubMed

    Kiraz, A; Karadağ, Y; Muradoğlu, M

    2008-11-14

    Large spectral tuning of a water-glycerol microdroplet standing on a superhydrophobic surface by local heating with a focused infrared laser is studied both experimentally by optical spectroscopy and computationally using a lumped system formulation of the mass and heat transfer between the microdroplet and the chamber. The effects of optical scattering force, chamber humidity, size of microdroplet and laser power on the tuning mechanism are examined. The reversibility of the tuning mechanism is also studied. In spite of its negligibly small volatility compared to that of water, irreversibility is found to be mainly caused by evaporation of glycerol. It is also found that reversibility increases dramatically with the relative water and glycerol humidities, and spectral tuning can be made almost fully reversible when the chamber is saturated with glycerol vapor and the relative water humidity approaches unity. Some hysteresis effects are observed, especially in large microdroplets, and this behavior is attributed to the whispering-gallery mode resonances in laser absorption. The time response of the tuning mechanism is also analyzed both experimentally and computationally. The technique presented can find applications in optical communication systems, and can be used in fundamental studies in cavity quantum electrodynamics and in characterizing liquid aerosols on a surface.

  11. Utility of large spot binocular indirect laser delivery for peripheral photocoagulation therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Saranya C; Mohney, Brian G; Bang, Genie M; Link, Thomas P; Pulido, Jose S

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the utility of the large spot size (LSS) setting using a binocular laser indirect delivery system for peripheral ablation in children. One patient with bilateral retinopathy of prematurity received photocoagulation with standard spot size burns placed adjacently to LSS burns. Using a pixel analysis program called Image J on the Retcam picture, the areas of each retinal spot size were determined in units of pixels, giving a standard spot range of 805 to 1294 pixels and LSS range of 1699 to 2311 pixels. Additionally, fluence was calculated using theoretical retinal areas produced by each spot size: the standard spot setting was 462 mJ/mm2 and the LSS setting was 104 mJ/mm2. For eyes with retinopathy of prematurity, our study shows that LSS laser indirect delivery halves the number of spots required for treatment and reduces fluence by almost one-quarter, producing more uniform spots.

  12. Effect of misalignments on phase-locking in a large area discharge CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggen; Wang, Shijian; Du, Quan; Ma, Zairu; Ji, Yupin; Li, Yude

    2015-08-01

    The line deviations and angle deviations of the injected beam at the resonator mirrors in the large area discharge CO2 laser (LADCL) are changed when the output mirror and the phase-locking mirror (PLM) are misaligned. The equiphase surfaces excited by the injected beam are different in the laser resonator and the effect of phase-locking will be influenced. It is shown that the misalignment of PLM is the main cause of phase-locking range reduction. The misalignment of the output mirror will mainly result in the deviation of the output beam, and the misalignment of the PLM will mainly cause decrease of the light intensity. And the maximum misaligned angle should not exceed 20 s in order to obtain the ideal effect of phase-locking. The calculated results can provide references for studying deeply the misalignment of LADCL.

  13. Asymmetric dihedral angle offsets for large-size lunar laser ranging retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masato

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of two-dimensional velocity aberration is off-centered by 5 to 6 microradians in lunar laser ranging, due to the stable measurement geometry in the motion of the Earth and the Moon. The optical responses of hollow-type retroreflectors are investigated through numerical simulations, especially focusing on large-size, single-reflector targets that can ultimately minimize the systematic error in future lunar laser ranging. An asymmetric dihedral angle offset, i.e. setting unequal angles between the three back faces, is found to be effective for retroreflectors that are larger than 100 mm in diameter. Our numerical simulation results reveal that the optimized return energy increases approximately 3.5 times more than symmetric dihedral angle cases, and the optimized dihedral angle offsets are 0.65-0.8 arcseconds for one angle, and zeroes for the other two angles.

  14. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold and large power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Jianxin; Qi, Aiyi; Liu, Lei; Fu, Feiya; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-03-01

    The Bragg diffraction condition of surface-emitting lasing action is analyzed and Γ2-1 mode is chosen for lasing. Two types of lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (LC-PCSELs) based on the PhC band edge mode lateral resonance and vertical emission to achieve electrically driven surface emitting laser without distributed Bragg reflectors in the long wavelength optical communication band are designed and fabricated. Deep etching techniques, which rely on the active layer being or not etched through, are adopted to realize the LC-PCSELs on the commercial AlGaInAs/InP multi-quantum-well (MQW) epitaxial wafer. 1553.8 nm with ultralow threshold of 667 A/cm2 and 1575 nm with large power of 1.8 mW surface emitting lasing actions are observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production with low cost of electrically driven PCSELs.

  15. Broadly tunable multiwavelength fiber laser with bismuth-oxide EDF using large effective area fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzia Salem, A. M.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Hizam, H.; Mohd Noor, S. B.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    A multiwavelength laser comb using 2.49 m Bismuth-oxide erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with different lengths of large effective area fiber (LEAF) in a ring cavity configuration is realized. The Bi-EDF is used as the linear gain medium and LEAF is used as the non-linear gain medium for stimulated Brillouin scattering. Out of the four different lengths, the longest length of 25 km LEAF exhibits the widest tuning range of 44 nm (1576 to 1620 nm) in the L-band at 264 mW pump power and 5 mW Brillouin pump power. In addition, a total of 15 output channels are achieved with total average output power of -8 dBm from this laser structure. All Brillouin Stokes signals exhibit high peak power of above -20 dBm per signal and their optical signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 15 dB.

  16. Large-area sol-gel multilayer laser reflectors applied by meniscus coating

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Thomas, I.M.

    1992-03-19

    A meniscus coating method to produce multilayer laser reflectors on 30+ cm substrates is described. These high-laser damage threshold (LDT) dielectric coatings are deposited from colloidal suspensions of silica and alumina nanometer-scale particles. The deposition process involves forcing a slow suspension flow through a porous applicator tube, forming a falling film on the tube. A substrate contacts this film to form a meniscus, and then moves relative to the applicator to entrain a film upon itself, which thins to optical dimensions upon solvent evaporation. The fluid dynamics of meniscus coating are briefly described, and optically measured dried film thicknesses are compared to theoretical predictions. Deviations from the theory are traced to non-Newtonian rheology of one of the suspensions used. Preliminary multilayer coating results which focus on large-scale uniformity and LDT are presented.

  17. The slant-stacklet transform and its application to teleseismic PcP-P data recorded at large aperture seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In most high-resolution studies of the Earth's Deep Interior, the limited amount and uneven distribution of high-quality observations of short-period teleseismic body waves are major obstacles. Dense broadband seismic networks help to overcome major challenges of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target phases and of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of other (often stronger) mantle phases when the slowness difference is large enough. Intuitive delay-and-sum (i.e. slant-stack) approaches are routinely applied to combine data of many spatially close stations to improve data quality. Alternative methods developed in the context of image processing, such as Radon transform-based methods, have proven useful in exploration seismology to facilitate enhancement and separation of signals according to their slowness and time of arrival. In this spirit, we have introduced the slant-stacklet transform to define coherency-guided filters able to exploit signals that would have been otherwise rejected because of low SNR or SIR. As an illustration, this method allows us to dramatically increase the amount of high-quality PcP observations using dense arrays in North America and Japan, sampling Central America, the western Pacific and Alaska/western Canada with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. After mantle corrections, the main signal left in these regions is relatively long wavelength in these regions of fast velocities around the Pacific, except at the western border of the Pacific large-low shear-velocity province (LLSVP) where we observe a rapid reduction of Vp velocity over a distance of about 10˚. This is just one step to further increase lowermost mantle imaging using P waves, much more information from PcP and other complementary signals (e.g. PdP) around the globe are needed to resolve volumetric structure, topography of the core-mantle boundary and D" discontinuity, and the trade-offs between them, in order to improve our understanding of the interaction

  18. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  19. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  20. Aperture center energy showcase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  1. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1996-08-09

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

  2. Large-area sol-gel optical coatings for the Megajoule Laser prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegon, Philippe M.; Germain, Chantal V.; Rorato, Yannick R.; Belleville, Philippe F.; Lavastre, Eric

    2004-02-01

    In the field of thin film coatings, sol-gel (SG) process is an alternative to the conventional Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques. Sol-gel process is particularly competitive on large-area or fragile substates by taking advantage of various liquid phase deposition techniques performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, coupled with the versatility of organo-metallic chemistry. Developed by the French Commission for Atomic Energy (CEA) since 1985 for its former high-power lasers generation, optimized sol-gel coatings proved also very resistant to laser energy. In 1998, THALES Angenieux (TAGX) was selected by CEA to provide all the sol-gel coatings dedicated to the French Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) prototype, named Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL). In cooperation with Saint-Etienne Pole Optique et Vision (POV), TAGX initiated the building of a sol-gel technological platform (SGPF) aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of production of optical and functional coatings on large area substrates. A technology transfer was performed by CEA (Le Ripault) to TAGX focusing on the manufacture mainly of single-layer antireflective coatings (SLAR), but also of multi-layer AR-coatings and of multi-layered highly reflective (HR)-coatings. Since beginning of 2001 and using SGPF equipments, TAGX successfully coated within specificaitons and schedule most of the 300 optics required for LIL activation. After this 2 years 1/2 production campaign in pre-industrial conditions, we can now analyse the advantages of each deposition technique used, the repeatability of the several processes, and the performance of the various coatings.

  3. Novel Adaptive Optics concepts : wavefront sensing with sodium laser guide stars at Extemely Large Telescopes and simultaneous differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, Stephan Albert

    2005-12-01

    Since more than 15 years, Adaptive Optics (AO) is a proven concept to reach diffraction limited imaging at modern astronomical telescopes. In the case of next generation telescopes (Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs)) with aperture diameters of up to 100m, sodium laser guide star based multi-conjugated-AO systems will be a basic requirement to exploit their full capability in terms of resolution and light concentration. A drawback of such an approach emerges in the finite distance and vertical extent of the sodium beacon in the mesosphere with respect to the telescope. This induces effects such as perspective elongation, where conventional wavefront sensing mechanisms will fail. Although several engineering concepts are under development to counteract these constraints at the cost of overall light efficiency and increased system complexity, this thesis proposes a novel kind of wavefront sensing technique to overcome the imposed limitations in a more natural way. The sensing technique is composed of two independently working sensors, a reflective rod and a mask with circular slits, each a representative of a novel wavefront sensor class, the so called z-invariant and Inverse Bessel Beam technique. Both are discussed in this thesis with a focus on the Inverse Bessel Beam technique. The latter is compared to alternative concepts such as temporal gating, with respect to the photon efficiency. Furthermore, the reflective rod was tested for its feasibility in laboratory conditions and in a more realistic environment at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma. With this test run its sensing principle has been verified. A novel technique already intensively used at 8m class telescopes is Simultaneous Differential Imaging. The direct detection of giant extra-solar planets is and will be a major science driver for galactic astronomy in the coming years. Modern telescope facilities such as the VLT reach, by means of adaptive optics, potentially the capability in terms

  4. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  5. Adaptive aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. M.; Zhang, S.; Mudassar, A.; Love, G. D.; Greenaway, A. H.

    2005-12-01

    High-resolution imaging can be achieved by optical aperture synthesis (OAS). Such an imaging process is subject to aberrations introduced by instrumental defects and/or turbulent media. Redundant spacings calibration (RSC) is a snapshot calibration technique that can be used to calibrate OAS arrays without use of assumptions about the object being imaged. Here we investigate the analogies between RSC and adaptive optics in passive imaging applications.

  6. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes.

  7. 47 CFR 25.134 - Licensing provisions for Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... network using a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique, N is the maximum number of co-frequency... Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. 25.134 Section 25.134 Telecommunication...) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. (a)(1) [Reserved] (2) Large Networks of...

  8. Class of near-perfect coded apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, T. M.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging of gamma ray sources has long promised an improvement in the sensitivity of various detector systems. The promise has remained largely unfulfilled, however, for either one of two reasons. First, the encoding/decoding method produces artifacts, which even in the absence of quantum noise, restrict the quality of the reconstructed image. This is true of most correlation-type methods. Second, if the decoding procedure is of the deconvolution variety, small terms in the transfer function of the aperture can lead to excessive noise in the reconstructed image. It is proposed to circumvent both of these problems by use of a uniformly redundant array (URA) as the coded aperture in conjunction with a special correlation decoding method.

  9. Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the seeing profile of the atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude are crucial for solar astronomical site characterization, as well as the optimized design and performance estimation of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). Knowledge of the seeing distribution, up to 30 km, with a potential new solar observation site, is required for future solar MCAO developments. Current optical seeing profile measurement techniques are limited by the need to use a large facility solar telescope for such seeing profile measurements, which is a serious limitation on characterizing a site's seeing conditions in terms of the seeing profile. Based on our previous work, we propose a compact solar seeing profiler called the Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profile (A-MASP). A-MASP consists of two small telescopes, each with a 100 mm aperture. The two small telescopes can be installed on a commercial computerized tripod to track solar granule structures for seeing profile measurement. A-MASP is extreme simple and portable, which makes it an ideal system to bring to a potential new site for seeing profile measurements.

  10. High energy, narrow linewidth 1572nm ErYb-fiber based MOPA for a multi-aperture CO2 trace-gas laser space transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Cao, He; Fouron, Jean-Luc; Storm, Mark

    2016-03-01

    A cladding-pumped, LMA ErYb fiber-based, amplifier is presented for use in a LIDAR transmitter for remote sensing of atmospheric CO2 from space. The amplifier is optimized for high peak power, high efficiency, and narrow linewidth operation at 1572.3nm. Using highly reliable COTS components, the amplifier achieves 0.5kW peak power (440uJ pulse energy), 3.3W average power with transform limited (TL) linewidth and M2<1.3. The power amplifier supports a 30% increase in pulse energy when linewidth is increased to 100MHz. A preliminary conductively cooled laser optical module (LOM) concept has size 9x10x1.25 in (113 in3) and estimated weight of 7.2lb (3.2 kg). Energy scaling with pulse width up to 645uJ, 1.5usec is demonstrated. A novel doubleclad ErYb LMA fiber (30/250um) with high pump absorption (6 dB/m at 915nm) was designed, fabricated, and characterized for power scaling. The upgraded power amplifier achieves 0.8kW peak power (720uJ pulse energy) 5.4W average power with TL linewidth and M2<1.5.

  11. Laser Guide Stars for Hypertelescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñ; ez, Paul; Labeyrie, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    Optical interferometry has allowed us to achieve milli-arc-second resolution in an increasing number of science cases using aperture synthesis with a limited number of apertures. A hypertelescope with a spherical (Carlina) architecture has been proposed in order to simultaneously use several (~100) mirrors in a (~100m) interferometric array. Provided that phasing is possible, such an instrument may in principle provide us with snap-shot images of smaller and fainter sources than planned monolithic telescopes. A modified laser guide star technique, suitable for large diluted apertures, has been proposed in order to achieve adaptive phasing. Although still in a simulation stage, recent laboratory and numerical efforts have provided evidence for the feasibility of such a technique.

  12. Exploiting multi-scale parallelism for large scale numerical modelling of laser wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. A.; Vieira, J.; Fiuza, F.; Davidson, A.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Silva, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    A new generation of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA), supported by the extreme accelerating fields generated in the interaction of PW-Class lasers and underdense targets, promises the production of high quality electron beams in short distances for multiple applications. Achieving this goal will rely heavily on numerical modelling to further understand the underlying physics and identify optimal regimes, but large scale modelling of these scenarios is computationally heavy and requires the efficient use of state-of-the-art petascale supercomputing systems. We discuss the main difficulties involved in running these simulations and the new developments implemented in the OSIRIS framework to address these issues, ranging from multi-dimensional dynamic load balancing and hybrid distributed/shared memory parallelism to the vectorization of the PIC algorithm. We present the results of the OASCR Joule Metric program on the issue of large scale modelling of LWFA, demonstrating speedups of over 1 order of magnitude on the same hardware. Finally, scalability to over ˜106 cores and sustained performance over ˜2 P Flops is demonstrated, opening the way for large scale modelling of LWFA scenarios.

  13. Impurity-free quantum well intermixing for large optical cavity high-power laser diode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, Abdullah; Gür, Emre; Aydınlı, Atilla

    2016-08-01

    We report on the correlation of atomic concentration profiles of diffusing species with the blueshift of the quantum well luminescence from both as-grown and impurity free quantum wells intermixed on actual large optical cavity high power laser diode structures. Because it is critical to suppress catastrophic optical mirror damage, sputtered SiO2 and thermally evaporated SrF2 were used both to enhance and suppress quantum well intermixing, respectively, in these (Al)GaAs large optical cavity structures. A luminescence blueshift of 55 nm (130 meV) was obtained for samples with 400 nm thick sputtered SiO2. These layers were used to generate point defects by annealing the samples at 950 °C for 3 min. The ensuing Ga diffusion observed as a shifting front towards the surface at the interface of the GaAs cap and AlGaAs cladding, as well as Al diffusion into the GaAs cap layer, correlates well with the observed luminescence blue shift, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Although this technique is well-known, the correlation between the photoluminescence peak blue shift and diffusion of Ga and Al during impurity free quantum well intermixing on actual large optical cavity laser diode structures was demonstrated with both x ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy, for the first time.

  14. Laser fabrication of large-scale nanoparticle arrays for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Gonçalves, Manuel R; Reinhardt, Carsten; Koroleva, Anastasia; Arnedillo, Maria Luisa; Kiyan, Roman; Marti, Othmar; Chichkov, Boris N

    2011-06-28

    A novel method for high-speed fabrication of large scale periodic arrays of nanoparticles (diameters 40-200 nm) is developed. This method is based on a combination of nanosphere lithography and laser-induced transfer. Fabricated spherical nanoparticles are partially embedded into a polymer substrate. They are arranged into a hexagonal array and can be used for sensing applications. An optical sensor with the sensitivity of 365 nm/RIU and the figure of merit of 21.5 in the visible spectral range is demonstrated.

  15. Large-Spot Material Interactions with a High-Power Solid-State Laser Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Fochs, S N; Rubenchik, A M

    2008-08-06

    We study the material interactions produced by the beam of a 25-kW solid-state laser, in experiments characterized by relatively large spot sizes ({approx}3 cm) and the presence of airflow. The targets are iron or aluminum slabs, of thickness 1 cm. In the experiments with iron, we show that combustion plays an important role in heating the material. In the experiments with aluminum, we observe a sharp transition from no melting to complete melt-through as the intensity on target increases. A layer of paint greatly reduces the requirements for melt-through. We explain these effects and incorporate them into an overall computational model.

  16. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera.

  17. Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Negres, Raluca A.; Carr, Christopher W.; Laurence, Ted A.; ...

    2016-08-01

    Here, we describe a damage testing system and its use in investigating laser-induced optical damage initiated by both intrinsic and extrinsic precursors on multilayer dielectric coatings suitable for use in high-energy, large-aperture petawatt-class lasers. We employ small-area damage test methodologies to evaluate the intrinsic damage resistance of various coatings as a function of deposition methods and coating materials under simulated use conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that damage initiation by raster scanning at lower fluences and growth threshold testing are required to probe the density of extrinsic defects, which will limit large-aperture optics performance.

  18. Laser two-photon polymerization micro- and nanostructuring over a large area on various substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Žukauskas, A.; Bickauskaite, G.; Gertus, T.; Danilevicius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Rutkauskas, M.; Gilbergs, H.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskis, L.; Širmenis, R.; Bukelskiene, V.; Gadonas, R.; Sirvydis, V.; Piskarskas, A.

    2010-04-01

    A tightly focused ultrafast pulsed laser beam is guided into the volume of the photosensitive material and induces nonlinear photomodification. By translating the sample, the position of the focus is changed relatively, thus point-by-point complex 3D structures can be written inside the bulk. In this report, we present a Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) setup for three-dimensional micro/nanostructuring for applications in photonics, microoptics, micromechanics, microfluidics and biomedicine. This system enables fabrication of functional devices over a large area (up to several cm in lateral size) with reproducible sub-micrometer resolution (up to 200 nm). In our experiments a Yb:KGW active media laser oscillator (75 fs, 200 kW, 515 nm frequency doubled, 80 MHz) was used as an irradiation source. The sample was mounted on XYZ wide range linear motor driven positioning stages having 10 nm positioning resolution. These stages enable an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support a linear scanning speed of up to 300 mm/s. Control of all the equipment was automated via custom made computer software "3D-Poli" specially designed for LTPP applications. The model of the structure can be imported as CAD file, this enables rapid and flexible structuring out of various photopolymers like ORMOCERs, ORMOSILs, acrylates and PEGDAs which are commonly used in conventional UV mask, nanoimprint and μ-stereolithographies. In this paper, we demonstrate polymeric microstructures fabricated over a large area on glass, plastic and metal substrates. This opens a way to produce functional devices like photonic crystals, microlenses, micromechanic and microfluidic components and artificial scaffolds as templates for cell growth. Additionally, results of primary myogenic stem cells expanding on microfabricated polymeric scaffolds are provided. Cell proliferation tests show the material and structure to be biocompatible for the

  19. Large Aperture Multiplexed Diffractive Lidar Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallison, Richard D.; Schwemmer, Geary K. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We have delivered only 2 or 3 UV Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) thus far and have fallen short of the intended goal in size and in dual wavelength function. Looking back, it has been fortuitous that we even made anything work in the UV region. It was our good fortune to discover that the material we work with daily was adequate for use at 355 nm, if well rinsed during processing. If we had stuck to our original plan of etching in small pieces of fused silica, we would still be trying to make the first small section in our ion mill, which is not yet operational. The original plan was far too ambitious and would take another 2 years to complete beginning where we left off this time. In order to make a HOE for the IR as well as the UV we will likely have to learn to sensitize some film to the 1064 line and we have obtained sensitizer that is reported to work in that region already. That work would also take an additional year to complete.

  20. Large Aperture Systems: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies for next generation astronomical telescopes and detectors. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.