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Sample records for large commercial feedlots

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous variances in average daily weight gain of commercial feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

    2013-06-01

    Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ∼12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that

  2. A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against Escherichia coli O157:H7 type III secreted proteins reduced environmental transmission of the agent in a large-scale commercial beef feedlot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Moxley, Rodney A; Peterson, Robert E; Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Clowser, Sharon L

    2008-10-01

    A clinical vaccine trial of commercially fed cattle tested the effect of a two-dose regimen of a vaccine product against type III secreted proteins of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the probability of detecting the organism on environmental sampling devices. Within commercial feedlots, pens of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle were matched by reprocessing schedule and time of sampling. Vaccine was administered to all cattle within treated pens at arrival processing and again at re-implant processing. Pens of cattle were sampled 1 week after the second dose of vaccine and every 3 weeks for four test periods. Pair-matched pens of cattle were sampled concurrently. Test samples were seven ropes per pen hung overnight from the feed-bunk neck-rail (ROPES). Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from at least one rope classified pens ROPES-positive. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The probability for pens of cattle to test ROPES-positive was modeled using multilevel logistic regression with variance adjustment for clustering by matched pens and repeated measures. We studied 140 pens of cattle representing 20,556 cattle in 19 feedlots February through October 2004. Vaccinated pens of cattle were less likely to test ROPES-positive (OR = 0.59, p = 0.004). Because ROPES testing identifies organisms in the mouth of cattle, and the outcome is both associated with presence of the organism in the pen environment and correlated with the prevalence of fecal shedding, we conclude the two-dose vaccine regimen reduces the probability for environmental transmission of E. coli O157:H7 within commercial cattle feeding systems.

  3. Concentrations of particulate matter emitted from large cattle feedlots in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Razote, Edna B; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L

    2011-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emitted from cattle feedlots are thought to affect air quality in rural communities, yet little is known about factors controlling their emissions. The concentrations of PM (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulates or TSP) upwind and downwind at two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas were measured with gravimetric samplers from May 2006 to October 2009 (at KS1) and from September 2007 to April 2008 (at KS2). The mean downwind and net (i.e., downwind - upwind) mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP varied seasonally, indicating the need for multiple-day, seasonal sampling. The downwind and net concentrations were closely related to the moisture content of the pen surface. The PM2.5/PM10 and PM2.5/TSP ratios at the downwind sampling location were also related to the moisture content of the pen surface, humidity, and temperature. Measurement of the particle size distribution downwind of the feedlot with a cascade impactor showed geometric mean diameter ranging from 7 to 18 microm, indicating that particles that were emitted from the feedlots were generally large in size.

  4. Sorption of atmospheric ammonia by soil and perennial grass downwind from two large cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Chang, Chi; Janzen, H Henry; Clayton, George; Hill, Brett R

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manure in feedlots releases ammonia (NH3), which can be sorbed by nearby soil and plants. Ammonia sorption by soil and its effects on soil and perennial grass N contents downwind from two large cattle feedlots in Alberta, Canada were investigated from June to October 2002. Atmospheric NH3 sorption was measured weekly by exposing air-dried soil at sampling points downwind along 1700-m transects. The amount of NH3 sorbed by soil was 2.60 to 3.16 kg N ha(-1) wk(-1) near the source, declining to about 0.25 kg N ha(-1) wk(-1) 1700 m downwind, reflecting diminishing atmospheric NH3 concentrations. Ammonia sorption at a control site away from NH3 sources was much lower: 0.085 kg N ha(-1) wk(-1). Based on these rates, about 19% of emitted NH3 is sorbed by soil within 1700 m downwind of feedlots. Field soil and grass samples from the transect lines were analyzed for total N (TN) and KCl-extractable N content (soil only). Nitrate N content in field soil followed a trend similar to that of atmospheric NH3 sorption. Soil TN contents, because of high background levels, showed no clear pattern. The TN content of grass, downwind of the newer feedlot, followed a pattern similar to that of NH3 sorption; downwind of the older feedlot, grass TN was correlated to soil TN. Our results suggest that atmospheric NH3 from livestock operations can contribute N to local soil and vegetation, and may need to be considered when determining fertilizer rates and assessing environmental impact.

  5. Effects of body weight loss during transit from sale barns to commercial feedlots on health and performance in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Renter, D G; Babcock, A H; Kelly, L; Slattery, R

    2012-06-01

    Body weight loss during transport or shrink (SHK) is a common occurrence in feeder cattle that results from a physiological, complex process. Previous studies have assessed the effects of environmental and dietary stressors on transport-associated BW loss; however, data on associations between shrink and subsequent health and performance parameters in feeder cattle are limited. Operational data from 13 U.S. commercial feedlots (n = 16,590 cattle cohorts) were used to quantify how SHK was associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity and overall mortality risks, HCW and ADG in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots during 2000 to 2008. Multivariable mixed-effects negative binomial and linear regression models were employed to determine these associations while accounting for other cohort-level demographic variables. The median SHK among the study cohorts was 3.0% with a mean (± SEM) of 2.4 ± 0.02%. The mean (± SEM) cumulative BRD morbidity was 10.0% ± 0.09% (median = 5.8%; range 0 to 100%) and the mean (± SEM) overall cumulative mortality was 1.3% ± 0.01% (median = 0.9%; range: 0 to 25.6%). The mean and median number of days on feed of cohorts experiencing initial BRD cases was 143 and 150 d (range = 23 to 288 d). The effects of SHK were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BRD morbidity, overall mortality, HCW and ADG, and these effects were significantly (P < 0.05) modified by gender, season and mean arrival BW of the cohort. Combining data on BW loss during transport with cohort demographics could allow a more precise prediction of health and performance of feedlot cattle.

  6. Nitrous oxide fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming an environmental concern; however, research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify N2O emission fluxes as affected by...

  7. A multivariable assessment quantifying effects of cohort-level factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk in cohorts of U.S. commercial feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Babcock, A H; Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Dubnicka, S R; Thomson, D U; Ives, S E; Scott, H M; Milliken, G A; Renter, D G

    2013-01-01

    Economic losses due to cattle mortality and culling have a substantial impact on the feedlot industry. Since criteria for culling may vary and may affect measures of cumulative mortality within cattle cohorts, it is important to assess both mortality and culling when evaluating cattle losses over time and among feedlots. To date, there are no published multivariable assessments of factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk. Our objective was to evaluate combined mortality and culling losses in feedlot cattle cohorts and quantify effects of commonly measured cohort-level risk factors (weight at feedlot arrival, gender, and month of feedlot arrival) using data routinely collected by commercial feedlots. We used retrospective data representing 8,904,965 animals in 54,416 cohorts from 16 U.S. feedlots from 2000 to 2007. The sum of mortality and culling counts for each cohort (given the number of cattle at risk) was used to generate the outcome of interest, the cumulative incidence of combined mortality and culling. Associations between this outcome variable and cohort-level risk factors were evaluated using a mixed effects multivariable negative binomial regression model with random effects for feedlot, year, month and week of arrival. Mean arrival weight of the cohort, gender, and arrival month and a three-way interaction (and corresponding two-way interactions) among arrival weight, gender and month were significantly (P<0.05) associated with the outcome. Results showed that as the mean arrival weight of the cohort increased, mortality and culling risk decreased, but effects of arrival weight were modified both by the gender of the cohort and the month of feedlot arrival. There was a seasonal pattern in combined mortality and culling risk for light and middle-weight male and female cohorts, with a significantly (P<0.05) higher risk for cattle arriving at the feedlot in spring and summer (March-September) than in cattle arriving during fall, and

  8. Feedlot Nutritionist Boot Camp: An Intensive Short-Course for Commercial Agriculture Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Chris; Hubbert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In the digital age, face-to-face meetings combining didactic and experiential learning are valuable. Beef cattle nutrition graduate students (n = 33) from 11 universities attended a 5-day feedlot nutrition and management short-course. Topics included nutrition, veterinary medicine, feedmill maintenance, and management of the financial and human…

  9. Determination of particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots using windtrax and flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large commercial cattle feedlots are significant sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. This research compared WindTrax and the flux-gradient technique in estimating emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) from cattle feedlots. Meteorological conditions were measured and PM10...

  10. Efficacy of the Salmonella siderophore receptor protein vaccine against lymph node carriage and fecal shedding of Samonella in commercial feedlot cattle: A randomized complete block design study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of the Salmonella Newport siderophore receptor protein (SRP)® vaccine for reducing lymph node (LN) carriage and fecal shedding of Salmonella at harvest was investigated in a study of commercial feedlot cattle. The study was designed as a randomized complete block with pen as the experi...

  11. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  12. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Hessman, Bill E; Sjeklocha, David B; Fulton, Robert W; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; McElroy, Diana R

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. Mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. Necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but other mortalities presented more proliferative lesions. A calf persistently infected with BVDV arrived with one lot and the isolated virus was genotyped as BVDV-1b. Identical BVDV-1b strains were isolated from 2 other mortalities. A BVDV-2a genotype was also isolated in this outbreak. This genotype was identical to all BVDV-2a strains isolated in both lots. Serum samples were collected from exposed and unexposed animals and tested for antibodies for multiple viral pathogens. Seropositivity ranged from zero percent for calicivirus to 100% positive to Pseudocowpox virusx. At the end of the feeding period, the morbidity and mortality for the 2 lots involved was 76.2% and 30.8%, respectively, for lot A, and 49.0% and 5.6%, respectively, for lot B. Differential diagnoses included vesicular stomatitis viruses, Bovine papular stomatitis virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Based on the present case, acute BVDV should be considered when mucosal lesions are observed grossly.

  13. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease causing high morbidity and mortality involving two lots of calves (Lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus. Mucosal lesions vari...

  14. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m(-3) at 50 m to 36 μg N m(-3) at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr(-1) in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition. PMID:27600433

  15. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m−3 at 50 m to 36 μg N m−3 at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m−2 s−1 at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m−2 s−1 at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr−1 in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition. PMID:27600433

  16. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m(-3) at 50 m to 36 μg N m(-3) at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr(-1) in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition.

  17. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m‑3 at 50 m to 36 μg N m‑3 at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m‑2 s‑1 at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m‑2 s‑1 at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr‑1 in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition.

  18. Associations between the distance traveled from sale barns to commercial feedlots in the United States and overall performance, risk of respiratory disease, and cumulative mortality in feeder cattle during 1997 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Renter, D G; Babcock, A H; Kelly, L; Slattery, R

    2012-06-01

    Most beef cattle are transported at least once during their lives, and this potentially stressful practice may affect subsequent health and performance. Limited research is available quantifying the effects of transport on feedlot performance and health, and particularly the risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD), which is the most common disease of weaned calves after arrival to the feedlot. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine potential associations between distance traveled (DTV) during transportation with health (cumulative BRD morbidity and mortality of all causes) and performance (ADG and HCW) parameters in cattle cohorts (n = 14,601) that arrived to 21 U.S. commercial feedlots from 1997 to 2009. Multivariable mixed-effects negative binomial and linear regression models were employed to determine associations between health and performance outcomes with DTV and other cohort-level demographic variables. Cattle were transported a median of 552 km from origin to feedlot with a mean (± SEM) of 698 ± 4.4 km. The mean (±SEM) cumulative BRD morbidity was 4.9% ± 0.01% (median = 1.1%; range: 0 to 100%) whereas the mean (±SEM) cumulative mortality due to all causes was 1.3% ± 0.01% (median = 0.8%; range: 0 to 28.7%). Distance traveled was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with BRD morbidity, overall mortality, HCW and ADG, and its effects were modified by demographic characteristics (i.e., cohort region of origin, mean arrival BW, gender, and the season of the year) of the cohort. Knowledge of the distance traveled during transportation could allow a more precise prediction of cattle feedlot health and performance.

  19. Design of large format commercial display holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John F. W.

    1989-05-01

    Commercial display holography is approaching a critical stage where the ability to compete with other graphic media will dictate its future. Factors involved will be cost, technical quality and, in particular, design. The tenuous commercial success of display holography has relied heavily on its appeal to an audience with little or no previous experience in the medium. Well designed images were scarce, leading many commercial designers to avoid holography. As the public became more accustomed to holograms, the excitement dissipated, leaving a need for strong visual design if the medium is to survive in this marketplace. Drawing on the vast experience of TV, rock music and magazine advertising, competitive techniques such as video walls, mural duratrans, laser light shows and interactive videos attract a professional support structure far greater than does holography. This paper will address design principles developed at Holographics North for large format commercial holography. Examples will be drawn from a number of foreign and domestic corporate trade exhibitions. Recommendations will also be made on how to develop greater awareness of a holographic design.

  20. Soil micro nutrients in backgrounding beef feedlot site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef cattle backgrounding represent an intermediate tire of the U.S. commercial beef production system and grow out weaned calves from cow-calf enterprises to weights and conditions ready for feedlot finishing (Bradford et al.,1978). Steer calves in backgrounding feedlots are fed mainly with gr...

  1. A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against type III secreted proteins reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum in beef cattle in commercial feedlots.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Moxley, Rodney A; Peterson, Robert E; Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bretschneider, Gustavo; Berberov, Emil M; Clowser, Sharon

    2009-03-01

    A large-scale clinical vaccine trial of commercially fed cattle was conducted to test the efficacy of a two-dose regimen of a vaccine product against type III secreted proteins of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the probability to detect the same organism from terminal rectal mucosa (TRM) as a measure of gut colonization. Vaccine was administered to all cattle within treated pens at arrival processing and at reimplant processing. At harvest, TRM was collected from a sample of cattle from within vaccinated and nonvaccinated pens. The TRM were collected by scraping the mucosa of the terminal rectum 3-5 cm proximal to the rectoanal juncture. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated and identified from TRM using standard culture methods involving selective enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and PCR confirmation. The probability to detect E. coli O157:H7 from TRM was modeled using a generalized linear mixed model with a logit link function and accounting for random effects of pen within feedlot. Seven hundred eighteen cattle were tested from within 21 pens of cattle (11 vaccinated and 10 not vaccinated) representing 3683 cattle. E. coli O157:H7 was cultured from 68 of 718 (9.5%) TRM samples. Eleven of 382 (2.9%) vaccinated cattle and 57 of 336 (17.0%) nonvaccinated cattle were TRM culture positive. From the multilevel logistic model, vaccinated cattle were 92% less likely to be colonized with E. coli O157:H7 than nonvaccinated cattle (odds ratio [OR] = 0.07, p = 0.0008). Additional explanatory variables were region of the state (OR = 7.4, p = 0.04), and pens with fewer cattle (OR = 0.22, p = 0.05). We concluded that the two-dose vaccine regimen effectively reduced the probability for E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum of commercially fed cattle at harvest.

  2. Hydraulic conditions required to not move unconsolidated surface materials located within feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated surface material that accumulates within feedlot pens during a feeding cycle. Runoff from feedlot surfaces is diverted into settling basins. The storage capacity of settling basins will be substantially reduced if large quantities of solid material are tra...

  3. Efficacy of a Salmonella Siderophore Receptor Protein Vaccine on Fecal Shedding and Lymph Node Carriage of Salmonella in Commercial Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Ives, Samuel E; Edrington, Thomas S; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Renter, David G

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of a Salmonella vaccine for reducing fecal shedding of Salmonella during the finishing period and lymph node (LN) carriage at harvest was investigated in commercial feedlot cattle. The study was designed as a pen-level randomized complete block with two treatment groups, a Salmonella Newport siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine (VAC) and a nonvaccinated control (CON). Cattle were randomly allocated into 24 pens within 12 blocks based on the time of allocation. Twenty to 25 fecal pats were collected from each of the study pen floors once a month from June to August 2013. During harvest, a minimum of 25 sub-iliac LN were collected from carcasses within each study pen. Fecal and pulverized LN samples were cultured for Salmonella quantification and detection. Mixed models were used to analyze the effect of vaccination on fecal shedding and LN carriage of Salmonella. Montevideo and Anatum were the predominant Salmonella serotypes among fecal samples and LNs; no Newport isolates were recovered. Vaccination was not significantly associated (p = 0.57) with the prevalence of Salmonella in feces over time; the mean within-pen prevalence was 62.3% and 66.0% among VAC and CON, respectively. Sampling month was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with fecal prevalence; mean prevalence was 71.4% for June, 48.6% for July, and 70.8% for August. Across all pens, the cumulative prevalence of Salmonella in LN was 86.4%. Vaccination resulted in no significant reduction in LN prevalence (p = 0.52); mean prevalence was 85.7% for VAC and 87.4% for CON groups. Although vaccinated cattle had numerically fewer Salmonella LN and fecal positives, there were no statistically significant vaccine effects. Potential reasons for the lack of vaccine efficacy could include an overwhelming Salmonella exposure, a lack of cross-protection against non-Newport serotypes, and insufficient duration of immunity relative to harvest. PMID:27304488

  4. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  5. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Escherichia coli O157: H7 from feces and hides of super-shedders and low-shedding pen-mates in two commercial beef feedlots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cattle shedding at least 104 CFU Escherichia coli O157:H7/g feces are described as super-shedders and have been shown to increase transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to other cattle in feedlots. This study investigated relationships among fecal isolates from super-shedders (n = 162), perineal hide swab isolates (PS) from super-shedders (n = 137) and fecal isolates from low-shedder (< 104 CFU/g feces) pen-mates (n = 496) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A subsample of these fecal isolates (n = 474) was tested for antimicrobial resistance. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 were obtained from cattle in pens (avg. 181 head) at 2 commercial feedlots in southern Alberta with each steer sampled at entry to the feedlot and prior to slaughter. Results Only 1 steer maintained super-shedder status at both samplings, although approximately 30% of super-shedders in sampling 1 had low-shedder status at sampling 2. A total of 85 restriction endonuclease digestion clusters (REPC; 90% or greater similarity) and 86 unique isolates (< 90% similarity) were detected, with the predominant REPC (30% of isolates) being isolated from cattle in all feedlot pens, although it was not associated with shedding status (super- or low-shedder; P = 0.94). Only 2/21 super-shedders had fecal isolates in the same REPC at both samplings. Fecal and PS isolates from individual super-shedders generally belonged to different REPCs, although fecal isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from super- and low-shedders showed greater similarity (P < 0.001) than those from PS. For 77% of super-shedders, PFGE profiles of super-shedder fecal and PS isolates were distinct from all low-shedder fecal isolates collected in the same pen. A low level of antimicrobial resistance (3.7%) was detected and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance did not differ among super- and low-shedder isolates (P = 0.69), although all super-shedder isolates with antimicrobial resistance (n = 3) were

  6. Bovine diseases causing neurological signs and death in Mexican feedlots.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Ramírez-Hernández, Cecilia; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael Julio; Martínez-Burnes, Julio; López-Mayagoitia, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The number of large feedlot operations, similar to that of USA and Canada, has notably increased in Mexico in the last three decades. Clinical and laboratory diagnoses of neurological diseases in feedlot cattle are crucial in Mexico and Central America because of the high incidence of bovine paralytic rabies (BPR). Because of its zoonotic potential, BPR must be promptly diagnosed and differentiated from other bovine neurological diseases such as thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME), polioencephalomalacia (PEM) and botulism. More recently, BPR and botulism have been diagnosed with increasing frequency in Mexican feedlots. Neither BPR nor botulism has relevant gross lesions, thus post-mortem diagnosis without laboratory support is impossible. Herein, we describe five outbreaks of neurological diseases in Mexican feedlots in which BPR, botulism and PEM were diagnosed either independently or in combination. A diagram illustrating the most conspicuous pathologic findings and ancillary laboratory test required to confirm the diagnoses of these neurological diseases in feedlot cattle is proposed.

  7. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOEpatents

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  8. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  9. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  10. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of

  11. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  12. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on blood gas, electrolyte balance, and pH in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on blood gas, electrolyte balance and pH in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. C...

  13. Evaluation of objective and subjective mobility variables in feedlot cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on mobility in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. Cattle were weighed and scan...

  14. A Snapshot of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cattle Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mei; Flesch, Thomas K; McGinn, Sean M; Chen, Deli

    2015-11-01

    Beef cattle feedlots emit large amounts of the greenhouse gases (GHG) methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO), as well as ammonia (NH), which contributes to NO emission when NH is deposited to land. However, there is a lack of simultaneous, in situ, and nondisturbed measurements of the major GHG gas components from beef cattle feedlots, or measurements from different feedlot sources. A short-term campaign at a beef cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia, quantified CH, NO, and NH emissions from the feedlot pens, manure stockpiles, and surface run-off pond. Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers and open-path lasers (OP-Laser) were used with an inverse-dispersion technique to estimate emissions. Daily average emissions of CH, NO, and NH were 132 (± 2.3 SE), 0, and 117 (± 4.5 SE) g animal d from the pens and 22 (± 0.7 SE), 2 (± 0.2 SE), and 9 (± 0.6 SE) g animal d from the manure stockpiles. Emissions of CH and NH from the run-off pond were less than 0.5 g animal d. Extrapolating these results to the feedlot population of cattle across Australia would mean that feedlots contribute approximately 2% of the agricultural GHG emissions and 2.7% of livestock sector emissions, lower than a previous estimate of 3.5%.

  15. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  16. Efficacy of a vaccine and a direct-fed microbial against fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a randomized pen-level field trial of commercial feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Cull, Charley A; Paddock, Zachary D; Nagaraja, T G; Bello, Nora M; Babcock, Abram H; Renter, David G

    2012-09-21

    Our primary objective was to determine the efficacy of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine (VAC) and a Lactobacillus acidophilus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) against fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial feedlot cattle fed a corn grain-based diet with 25% distiller's grains. Cattle projected to be on a finishing diet during the summer were randomly allocated into 40 study pens within ten blocks based on allocation dates. Blocks were complete; each of the four pens within a block was randomly assigned one treatment: control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM. The DFM was fed (10⁶CFU/animal/day of Lactobacillus) throughout the study periods (84-88 days) and cattle were vaccinated at enrollment and again three weeks later. Fresh fecal samples (30/pen) from pen floors were collected weekly for four consecutive weeks (study days 52-77). Two concurrent culture procedures were used to enable estimates of E. coli O157:H7 shedding prevalence and prevalence of high shedders. From 4800 total samples, 1522 (31.7%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 169 (3.5%) were considered high shedders. Pen-level linear mixed models were used for data analyses. There were no significant interactions among treatments and time of sampling. However, vaccinated pens had lower (P<0.01) overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (model-adjusted mean ± SEM=17.4 ± 3.95%) and lower (P<0.01) prevalence of high shedders (0.95 ± 0.26%) than unvaccinated pens (37.0 ± 6.32% and 4.19 ± 0.81%, respectively). There was no evidence of a DFM effect on either measure of E. coli O157:H7 shedding. Results indicate that a two-dose regimen of the vaccine significantly reduces fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (vaccine efficacy of 53.0%) and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 high shedders (vaccine efficacy of 77.3%) in commercial feedlot cattle reared in the summer on a finishing diet with 25% distiller's grains.

  17. Optical and electrical performance of commercially manufactured large GEM foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posik, M.; Surrow, B.

    2015-12-01

    With interest in large area GEM foils increasing and CERN being the only main distributor, keeping up with the demand for GEM foils will be difficult. Thus the commercialization of GEMs is being established by Tech-Etch of Plymouth, MA, USA using single-mask techniques. We report here on the first of a two step quality verification of the commercially produced 10×10 cm2 and 40×40 cm2 GEM foils, which includes characterizing their electrical and geometrical properties. We have found that the Tech-Etch foils display excellent electrical properties, as well as uniform and consistent hole diameters comparable to established foils produced by CERN.

  18. Distribution of sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin in manure and soil of Canadian feedlots after subtherapeutic use in cattle.

    PubMed

    Aust, Marc-Oliver; Godlinski, Frauke; Travis, Greg R; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A; Leinweber, Peter; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2008-12-01

    Feedlots are potential point sources for the flow of antibiotics into the environment due to common use of antibiotics such as sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hence soils and manures originating from a grassland control, an experimental and a commercial feedlot were analyzed and mass balances were calculated for these antibiotics. Up to 9990 microg kg(-1) sulfamethazine and 401microg kg(-1) chlortetracycline on a dry matter basis were determined in feedlot manure. Soil concentrations were two orders of magnitude smaller. This corresponds to 7-40% of the calculated residual amount. In the commercial feedlot chlortetracycline was found down to soil depths of -40 cm; sulfamethazine was still detectable 1 year after medication. Sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline were additionally determined in manure of a control treatment in the experimental feedlot where cattle never received antibiotics. This was attributed to runoff from upslope pens. Consequently, antibiotics partially persist within feedlots and may be dislocated into the surrounding environment by vertical transport and runoff.

  19. Determination of the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feedlot steers in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A study was conducted in Alberta to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feedlot calves purchased from various auction markets throughout western Canada. Four feedlots (1 feedlot from each of the Airdrie and High River areas and 2 feedlots from the Strathmore area) were selected for sampling. At each feedlot, a random 10% sample of feedlot steer and bull calves entering the feedlot from September 2001 to December 2001 were enrolled in the study until there were a maximum of 500 animals enrolled per feedlot. Blood samples were collected from 1976 male animals at the time of entry to the 4 study feedlots. The animals represented 375 groups purchased from 70 sale points throughout British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Of the 1976 animals tested, 128 animals tested positive for antibodies to N. caninum. The prevalence and adjusted 95% confidence limits for N. caninum in beef calves on entrance to the feedlot in western Canada were 6.5% (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2). There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) associations between the risk of treatment, the risk of designation as “chronic,” and the risk of death and antibodies to N. caninum either before or after adjusting for feedlot, entry weight, entry date, and clustering of disease within lots at each feedlot. In addition, there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) association between serological status and feedlot entry weight or average daily gain. Note that there was no information available on feed conversion because the calves were mixed within existing commercial feedlot pens and the actual feed intake of each animal could not be determined. Adjustment for the concentration of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus on arrival did not change any of the examined associations between N. caninum status and calf health or performance. The results of this study demonstrated that the prevalence of N. caninum in feedlot calves in western Canada was less than the prevalence reported in the

  20. Nutrient accumulation below cattle feedlot pens in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Grace C; Pierzynski, Gary M; Ham, Jay M; Derouchey, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Waste excreted on cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot pens is a source of N and other nutrients that could potentially leach into soil and negatively impact local groundwater quality. Analyses of soil chemical and physical properties beneath active open air feedlot pens were conducted at four Kansas locations to determine nutrient accumulation. Results were compared to estimated nutrient deposition, and remediation implications were considered. The surface concentrations of NH(4)-N, organic N, organic C, Cl(-), and extractable P were elevated at the surface and rapidly decreased with depth to 1.0 m. Ammonium N in the top 0.25 m ranged from 8000 to 375 mg kg(-1) but decreased below background (5.6 mg kg(-1)) at 1.0 to 1.3 m. Organic N in the top 0.25 m ranged from 22,000 to 500 mg kg(-1) and was the largest N source. At three of four feedlots, NO(3)-N was below background concentration (4.1 mg kg(-1)) for the entire profile whereas one feedlot had a >75 mg kg(-1) increase from the background concentration in the top 1.0 m. Considering expected nutrient deposition onto the pen surface only a fraction of the nutrients were found beneath feedlot pen surfaces. While in use, these feedlots do not appear to have a high potential for groundwater contamination from NO(3)-N leaching. However, if they were to become inactive NO(3)-N may increase and could leach into groundwater. Upon closing of the feedlots, the land could be largely remediated by removing the top 0.25 m of pen surface, a zone holding 48% of total profile N.

  1. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  2. Dust emissions in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Sweeten, J B; Parnell, C B; Etheredge, R S; Osborne, D

    1988-11-01

    Dust emissions were measured at three Texas cattle feedlots on 15 occasions in 1987 to determine concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and dust with 10 microns or less aerodynamic particle size (PM-10). Net feedlot dust concentrations (downwind minus upwind) ranged from 15.7 to 1,700.1 micrograms per m3 and averaged 412.4 +/- 271.2 micrograms per m3, which is about 37 per cent less than was determined in feedlot dust research in California approximately 17 years earlier. Upwind concentrations averaged 22 per cent of the downwind concentrations. Feedlot dust concentrations were generally highest in early evening and lowest in early morning. Using the Wedding and Andersen-321A PM-10 samplers, the PM-10 dust concentrations were 19 and 40 per cent, respectively, of mean TSP concentrations in direct comparisons. There was good correlation between PM-10 and TSP concentrations. Although dust concentrations decreased with increasing moisture, the correlation coefficients were relatively low. Odor intensity appeared to increase with decreasing net dust concentrations, perhaps due to moisture influences. Mean particle sizes of feedlot dust were 8.5 to 12.2 microns on a particle volume basis and 2.5 to 3.4 microns on a population basis. Respirable dust (below 2 microns) represented only 2.0 to 4.4 per cent of total dust on a particle volume basis. Under conditions of these experiments, the feedlots often exceeded both state and federal (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standards for TSP concentrations and for PM-10 concentrations measured using the Andersen-321A sampler. However, feedlots were below the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards when the Wedding PM-10 sampler was used for measuring dust emissions.

  3. Particulate matter emission rates from beef cattle feedlots in Kansas-reverse dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Auvermann, Brent W; Razote, Edna B; Murphy, James P; Harner, Joseph P

    2012-03-01

    Open beef cattle feedlots emit various air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10); however limited research has quantified PM10 emission rates from feedlots. This research was conducted to determine emission rates of PM10 from large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Concentrations of PM10 at the downwind and upwind edges of two large cattle feedlots (KS1 and KS2) in Kansas were measured with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitors from January 2007 to December 2008. Weather conditions at the feedlots were also monitored. From measured PM10 concentrations and weather conditions, PM10 emission rates were determined using reverse modeling with the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD). The two feedlots differed significantly in median PM10 emission flux (1.60 g/m2-day for KS1 vs. 1.10 g/m2-day for KS2) but not in PM10 emission factor (27 kg/1000 head-day for KS1 and 30 kg/1000 head-day KS2). These emission factors were smaller than published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission factor for cattle feedlots.

  4. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  5. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on internal body temperature and respiration rate of black-hided feedlot steers and heifers during moderate heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the internal body temperature and respiration rate of feedlot cattle during moderate heat stress. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech...

  6. Large-size monodisperse latexes as a commercial space product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed spacelab production of large-size (2-40 micron diameter) monodispersed latexes is discussed. Explanations are given for the present lack of monodisperse particles in this size range. The four main topics discussed are: (1) the potential uses of these large particle size latexes, (2) why it is necessary for the particles to have a very narrow size distribution, (3) why large amounts of these monodisperse latexes are needed, and (4) why it is necessary to go to microgravity to prepare these latexes.

  7. Multiplexed Predictive Control of a Large Commercial Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, hanz; Singaraju, Anil; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    Model predictive control is a strategy well-suited to handle the highly complex, nonlinear, uncertain, and constrained dynamics involved in aircraft engine control problems. However, it has thus far been infeasible to implement model predictive control in engine control applications, because of the combination of model complexity and the time allotted for the control update calculation. In this paper, a multiplexed implementation is proposed that dramatically reduces the computational burden of the quadratic programming optimization that must be solved online as part of the model-predictive-control algorithm. Actuator updates are calculated sequentially and cyclically in a multiplexed implementation, as opposed to the simultaneous optimization taking place in conventional model predictive control. Theoretical aspects are discussed based on a nominal model, and actual computational savings are demonstrated using a realistic commercial engine model.

  8. Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, Kimberly R; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry.

  9. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  10. Microbial Population of Feedlot Waste and Associated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R. A.; Hrubant, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative determination was made every 2 months for a year of the microflora of beef cattle waste and runoff at a medium-sized midwestern feedlot. Counts were obtained for selected groups of organisms in waste taken from paved areas of pens cleaned daily and, therefore, reflect the flora of raw waste. Overall, in terms of viable count per gram dry weight, the feedlot waste contained 1010 total organisms, 109 anaerobes, 108 gram-negative bacteria, 107 coliforms, 106 sporeformers, and 105 yeasts, fungi, and streptomycetes. The specific numbers and pattern of these groups of organisms varied only slightly during the study in spite of a wide variation in weather. Data indicate that little microbial growth occurs in the waste as it exists in the feedlot. Runoff from the pens contained the same general population pattern but with greater variation attributable to volume of liquid. Comparable determinations of an associated field disposal area (before and after cropping), stockpiled waste, and elevated dirt areas in the pens indicate that fungi, and especially streptomycetes, are the aerobic organisms most associated with final stabilization of the waste. Yeasts, which are the dominant type of organism in the ensiled corn fed the cattle, do not occur in large numbers in the animal waste. Large ditches receiving runoff and subsurface water from the fields have a population similar to the runoff but with fewer coliforms. PMID:16349931

  11. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of dust-control effectiveness of pen surface treatments for cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Razote, Edna B; Auvermann, Brent W

    2011-01-01

    Emission of particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air quality concerns for large beef cattle feedlots. Effective treatments on the uncompacted soil and manure mixture of the pen surface may help in reducing PM emission from feedlots. A laboratory apparatus was developed for measuring dust-emission potential of cattle feedlot surfaces as affected by pen surface treatments. The apparatus was equipped with a simulated pen surface, four mock cattle hooves, and samplers for PM with equivalent aerodynamic diam. ≤ 10 μm (PM(10)). The simulated pen surface had a layer of dry, loose feedlot manure with a compacted soil layer underneath. Mock hooves were moved horizontally on the manure layer to simulate horizontal action of cattle hooves on the pen surface. High-volume PM samplers were used to collect emitted dust. Effects of hoof speed, depth of penetration, and surface treatments with independent candidate materials (i.e., sawdust, wheat straw, hay, rubber mulch, and surface water application) on PM(10) emission potential of the manure layer were investigated. Our laboratory study showed PM(10) emission potential increased with increasing depth of penetration and hoof speed. Of the surface treatments evaluated, application of water (6.4 mm) and hay (723 g m(-2)) exhibited the greatest percentage reduction in PM(10) emission potential (69 and 77%, respectively) compared with the untreated manure layer. This study indicated application of hay or other mulch materials on the pen surface might be good alternative methods to control dust emission from cattle feedlots.

  13. Harvesting feedlot manure for fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Higgins, A.; Spindler, D.; Undersander, D.J.; Egg, R.P.; Reddell, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the variation of manure quality as a function of depth in the manure pack, the quantity of feedlot manure that can be harvested with elevating scrapers and wheel loader, and the yield of reasonable high-quality feedlot manure for biogas plant feedstock. Feedlot manure quality (ash, heat of combustion, and S content) varied with vertical location in the manure pack. Loose surface manure had the highest quality for these purposes. Heat of combustion was closely related with ash and moisture contents, it averaged 8302 Btu per pound on a dry ash-free basis for all samples. The majority of the manure pack could be collected with an elevating scraper to yield a feedstock with 30% ash and a heat of combustion of 8800 Btu per pound on a dry ash-free basis. Feedlot manure collected by the elevating scraper is much higher in quality for essentially all uses than the 1-2 inch, thick manure/soil interfacial layer. The quantity and quality of feedlot manure that can be collected from feedlots in the vicinity of a proposed biogas production plant in southeastern Colorado are reported.

  14. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... management groups is closed, even across fishing years. On July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY:...

  15. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  16. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P < 0.001). Furthermore, increased mean mealtime, frequency

  17. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward; Wright, André-Denis G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2015-10-22

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (P<0.05) of Micrococcaceae (day 0 only), Lachnospiraceae (≥60 days), Lactobacillaceae (day 0), and Bacillaceae (day 0) in healthy cattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot.

  18. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward; Wright, André-Denis G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2015-10-22

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (P<0.05) of Micrococcaceae (day 0 only), Lachnospiraceae (≥60 days), Lactobacillaceae (day 0), and Bacillaceae (day 0) in healthy cattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot. PMID:26249828

  19. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Timsit, Edouard; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    The bovine nasopharyngeal tract plays an important role in animal health and welfare by acting as a site for the carriage of pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, a condition which results in significant morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. We characterized the bacterial nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle at feedlot entry (day 0) and day 60 using 454 pyrosequencing. We also identified the most frequently isolated aerobic bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs after plating onto three types of media. The cattle nasopharyngeal microbiota was composed primarily of Proteobacteria (68.9%) and Firmicutes (19.2%). At the genus-level, there was more inter-individual variability and a total of 55 genera were identified. The genera Pseudomonas (23.7%), Shewanella (23.5%), Acinetobacter (17.5%), and Carnobacterium (12.2%) were most prevalent at entry, while after 60 days in the feedlot, Staphylococcus (20.8%), Mycoplasma (14.9%), Mannheimia (10.4%), and Moraxella (9.4%) were dominant. The nasopharyngeal microbiota also became more homogenous after 60 days in the feedlot and differed in structure at day 0 and 60. Using culture-based methods, the most frequently isolated bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs were Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Moraxella, Pasteurella, and Mannheimia. These results provide insight into the nasopharyngeal microbiota of cattle and demonstrate that specific changes take place during feedlot production. PMID:26497574

  20. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    SciTech Connect

    Ormerod, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  1. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  2. A Large Area Tactile Sensor Patch Based on Commercial Force Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Barquero, Maria Jose; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Navas-González, Rafael; Sánchez, Jose Antonio; Serón, Javier; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a tactile sensor patch to cover large areas of robots and machines that interact with human beings. Many devices have been proposed to meet such a demand. These realizations are mostly custom-built or developed in the lab. The sensor of this paper is implemented with commercial force sensors. This has the benefit of a more foreseeable response of the sensor if its behavior is understood as the aggregation of readings from all the individual force sensors in the array. A few reported large area tactile sensors are also based on commercial sensors. However, the one in this paper is the first of this kind based on the use of polymeric commercial force sensing resistors (FSR) as unit elements of the array or tactels, which results in a robust sensor. The paper discusses design issues related to some necessary modifications of the force sensor, its assembly in an array, and the signal conditioning. The patch has 16 × 9 force sensors mounted on a flexible printed circuit board with a spatial resolution of 18.5 mm. The force range of a tactel is 6 N and its sensitivity is 0.6 V/N. The array is read at a rate of 78 frames per second. Finally, two simple application examples are also carried out with the sensor mounted on the forearm of a rescue robot that communicates with the sensor through a CAN bus. PMID:22163910

  3. Large scale application of vibration sensors for fan monitoring at commercial layer hen houses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Bogan, Bill W; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable.

  4. The development of a novel percutaneous lung biopsy procedure for use on feedlot steers

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Brandy A.; Hendrick, Steve H.; Pollock, Colleen M.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Vogstad, Amanda; Jim, G. Kee; Booker, Calvin W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a percutaneous lung biopsy technique to be used on steers in a commercial feedlot setting. Thirty-four crossbred steer and heifer calves from a commercial feedlot in southern Alberta were used in this study. The calves originated from the auction market and all were chronically affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). A technique was developed to obtain a lung sample from the right cranioventral lung lobe, intercostal space (ICS) 2, using a manual or an automatic biopsy instrument with a 14- or 12-gauge (ga) biopsy needle. Overall, lung parenchyma was successfully harvested in 55.9% of experimental animals and in 55.0% of lung biopsy trials. Compared with postmortem diagnosis, the biopsy resulted in the same pathologic diagnosis for 75% of biopsy samples when evaluated using standardized criteria by the same veterinary pathologist. The success rate was 61.5% and 42.9% in a hospital or field setting, respectively. With an automatic instrument, lung was recovered from 57.9% and 37.5% of samples obtained using a 12- or 14-ga biopsy needle, respectively. One experimental animal or 2.9% of the total had fatal complications from the procedure. In a commercial feedlot setting, the procedure took 20 min for each animal. Percutaneous lung biopsy of the right cranioventral lung lobe may be a viable technique when used on feedlot steers affected with chronic pneumonia. These findings suggest that using an automatic instrument with either a 14- or 12-ga biopsy needle may yield lung samples that are suitable for histopathological evaluation. However, this technique needs to be further evaluated in a field setting. PMID:22468022

  5. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat "unconventional" aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method was able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  6. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat 'unconventional' aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method is able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  7. Characterization and manufacture of braided composites for large commercial aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedro, Mark J.; Willden, Kurtis

    1992-01-01

    Braided composite materials has been recognized as a potential cost effective material form for fuselage structural elements. Consequently, there is a strong need for more knowledge in the design, manufacture, test, and analysis of textile structural composites. Advance braided composite technology is advanced towards applications to a large commercial transport fuselage. The mechanics are summarized of materials and manufacturing demonstration results which were obtained in order to acquire an understanding of how braided composites can be applied to a commercial fuselage. Textile composites consisting of 2-D, 2-D triaxial, and 3-D braid patterns with thermoplastic and two resin transfer molding resin systems were studied. The structural performance of braided composites was evaluated through an extensive mechanical test program. Analytical methods were also developed and applied to predict the following: internal fiber architecture; stiffness; fiber stresses; failure mechanisms; notch effects; and the history of failure of the braided composite specimens. The applicability of braided composites to a commercial transport fuselage was further assessed through a manufacturing demonstration.

  8. Acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle: effects of feeding feather meal or vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Ayroud, Mejid; Bray, Tammy M; Yost, Garold S

    2007-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding 1.5% cysteine-rich feather meal or 550 IU of vitamin E for 40 d before slaughter on the rates of death and emergency slaughter due to acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) in commercial feedlots. Blood and lung tissue were collected at slaughter from 83 animals clinically diagnosed with AIP, 40 asymptomatic penmates, and 40 heifers receiving either feather meal (20) or vitamin E (20); the left lung was subsampled for histologic examination. Blood and lung tissue were analyzed for thiol adducts of 3-methyleneindolenine (3ME) and reduced glutathione. Supplementation with feather meal or vitamin E had no effect on the rates of death and emergency slaughter attributable to AIP and did not influence the levels of 3ME or reduced glutathione in blood or lung tissue. Although supplementation with greater amounts of feather meal or vitamin E may have been necessary to significantly affect factors related to feedlot AIP, increased supplementation would be uneconomical for commercial feedlots, given the relatively low incidence of AIP.

  9. 77 FR 39648 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... that specific quota is closed, even across fishing years. On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393), NMFS... fisheries remain open, except the commercial porbeagle fishery, which closed on May 30, 2012 (77 FR 32036... Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non- Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National...

  10. 75 FR 62690 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-sandbar Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... FR 250), NMFS announced that the shark research fishery for the 2010 fishing year was open and the... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-sandbar Large Coastal Shark Research Fishery AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of fishery closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is closing the commercial shark research...

  11. 76 FR 44501 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-Sandbar Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... FR 76302), NMFS announced that the shark research fishery for the 2011 fishing year was open and the... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Research Fishery AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of fishery closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is closing the commercial shark research...

  12. Characterization and manufacture of braided composites for large commercial aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedro, Mark J.; Willden, Kurtis

    1992-01-01

    Braided composite materials, one of the advanced material forms which is under investigation in Boeing's ATCAS program, have been recognized as a potential cost-effective material form for fuselage structural elements. Consequently, there is a strong need for more knowledge in the design, manufacture, test, and analysis of textile structural composites. The overall objective of this work is to advance braided composite technology towards applications to a large commercial transport fuselage. This paper summarizes the mechanics of materials and manufacturing demonstration results which have been obtained in order to acquire an understanding of how braided composites can be applied to a commercial fuselage. Textile composites consisting of 1D, 2D triaxial, and 3D braid patterns with thermoplastic and two RTM resin systems were investigated. The structural performance of braided composites was evaluated through an extensive mechanical test program. Analytical methods were also developed and applied to predict the following: internal fiber architectures, stiffnesses, fiber stresses, failure mechanisms, notch effects, and the entire history of failure of the braided composites specimens. The applicability of braided composites to a commercial transport fuselage was further assessed through a manufacturing demonstration. Three foot fuselage circumferential hoop frames were manufactured to demonstrate the feasibility of consistently producing high quality braided/RTM composite primary structures. The manufacturing issues (tooling requirements, processing requirements, and process/quality control) addressed during the demonstration are summarized. The manufacturing demonstration in conjunction with the mechanical test results and developed analytical methods increased the confidence in the ATCAS approach to the design, manufacture, test, and analysis of braided composites.

  13. Monitoring large enrichment plants using thermal imagery from commercial satellites: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Bernstein

    2000-05-01

    Thermal imagery from commercial satellites is an interesting candidate technology for use as a verification tool for the purpose of monitoring certain types of fissile material production sites. Examples of its potential treaty applications include the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) or a Fissile Material Production Moratorium. To help determine the capabilities and limitations of such imagery as a monitoring tool, the author has examined archived LANDSAT-5 images of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a large US uranium-enrichment facility in Ohio. This analysis indicates that large-scale gaseous diffusion plants can very likely be recognized as operational with thermal imagery throughout most of the year in clear weather conditions. It may also be possible to identify certain other large-scale qualitative changes in operations, such as the shut-down of a single process building in a plant, by a comparison of its temperature with the temperatures of neighboring operational process buildings. However, uncertainties in the current data set prevent a definitive conclusion regarding the latter capability. This study identifies intrinsic weaknesses, including vulnerability to countermeasures, that prevent thermal imagery from satellites from being a robust standalone verification tool, even for very large enrichment plants. Nonetheless, the imagery may be useful as a trigger for an on-site inspection, to alert and train inspectors prior to an inspection, and possibly to reduce the frequency of on-site inspections required at a given site. It could have some immediate utility for monitoring the two large gaseous diffusion plants the US and the French plant at Tricastin, and possibly for determining the operational status of two gaseous diffusion plants in China as well--a total of five plants worldwide. The ease of acquisition and modest cost of thermal commercial imagery further increase its attractiveness as a verification tool. In addition to these basic

  14. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-06-23

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry.

  15. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry.

  16. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry. PMID:27334348

  17. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry. PMID:27334348

  18. The microbiological quality of seven large commercial private water supplies in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Watkins, J; Francis, C A; Wyn-Jones, A P; Stapleton, C M; Fewtrell, L; Wyer, M D; Drury, D

    2007-12-01

    Some 1% of the UK population derives their potable water from 140,000 private water supplies (PWSs) regulated by Local Authorities. The overwhelming majority of these are very small domestic supplies serving a single property or a small number of properties. Treatment for such supplies is rudimentary or non-existent and their microbiological quality has been shown to be poor in every published study to date. Private water supplies serving commercial enterprises such as hotels, restaurants, food production premises and factories are more frequently treated and subject to closer regulation in the United Kingdom. As a result, it has been assumed that these larger commercial supplies are less likely to experience elevated faecal indicator and pathogen concentrations at the consumer tap which have been observed at small domestic supplies.This paper reports on intensive monitoring at seven commercial private water supplies (six of which were treated) spread throughout the UK serving hotels, holiday parks and food production enterprises. Daily sampling of 'potable' water, both at the consumer tap and using large volume filtration for Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted over two six week periods in the spring and autumn of 2000. This allowed the effects of short term episodic peaks in faecal indicator and pathogen concentration to be quantified. All the supplies experienced intermittent pathogen presence and only one, a chlorinated deep borehole supply, fully complied with UK water quality regulations during both periods of sampling.Poor microbiological water quality typically followed periods of heavy rainfall. This suggests that the design and installation of such systems should be undertaken only after the likely range of raw water quality has been characterised, which requires a thorough understanding of the effects of flow and seasonality on raw water quality. There is no reason to suspect that the monitored sites are uncharacteristic of other commercial

  19. Initial Tests of Commercially Manufactured Large GEM Foils and EIC Triple-GEM Detector Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraishan, Amani

    2015-10-01

    Tracking detectors exist in many different varieties and operate on different physical principles, depending on the type of particle that has to be tracked, on the desired spatial resolution, and on the area that has to be covered. Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors, operating on the principle of electron amplification in gases, provide good spatial resolution for charged particles and can be built with large sensitive areas. Currently CERN is the only main distributor of large area GEM foils, and will be hard pressed to keep up with the increasing demand. To help satisfy the GEM foil demand, the commercialization of large area GEM foils via the single mask process has been established by Tech-Etch of Plymouth, MA, USA. Here we present our initial quality assurance tests of the foil's electrical and geometrical properties for sizes up to 40 X 40 cm2. Using our electrical and optical measurement setup, we also measured 10 X 10 cm2 GEMs produced by CERN and compare it with the Tech-Etch foils. Furthermore, we will present initial R&D design work done toward building a potential triple-GEM tracking detector to be used at a future experiment at an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) facility.

  20. Lyme Disease Testing by Large Commercial Laboratories in the United States

    PubMed Central

    HINCKLEY, ALISON F.; CONNALLY, NEETA P.; MEEK, JAMES I.; JOHNSON, BARBARA J.; KEMPERMAN, MELISSA M.; FELDMAN, KATHERINE A.; WHITE, JENNIFER L.; MEAD, PAUL S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Laboratory testing is helpful when evaluating patients with suspected Lyme disease (LD). A two-tiered antibody testing approach is recommended, but single-tier and non-validated tests are also used. We conducted a survey of large commercial laboratories in the United States to assess laboratory practices. We used these data to estimate the cost of testing and number of infections among patients from whom specimens were submitted. Methods Large commercial laboratories were asked to report the type and volume of testing conducted nationwide in 2008, as well as the percent of positive tests for four LD endemic states. The total direct cost of testing was calculated for each test type. These data and test-specific performance parameters available in published literature were used to estimate the number of infections among source patients. Results Seven participating laboratories performed ~3.4 million LD tests on ~2.4 million specimens nationwide at an estimated cost of $492 million. Two-tiered testing accounted for at least 62% of assays performed; alternative testing accounted for less than 3% of assays. The estimated frequency of infection among patients from whom specimens were submitted ranged from 10% to 18.5%. Applied to the total numbers of specimens, this yielded an estimated 240,000 to 444,000 infected source patients in 2008. Discussion LD testing is common and costly, with most testing in accordance with diagnostic recommendations. These results highlight the importance of considering clinical and exposure history when interpreting laboratory results for diagnostic and surveillance purposes. PMID:24879782

  1. Comparison of a multivalent viral vaccine program versus a univalent viral vaccine program on animal health, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot calves

    PubMed Central

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Guichon, P. Timothy; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    A field study was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions at 2 sites in western Canada to determine the relative effects of a univalent viral vaccine (MLV 1) program versus a multivalent viral vaccine (MLV 4) program on animal health; feedlot performance; and carcass characteristic variables of fall-placed, auction market derived, feedlot calves. Five thousand one hundred and sixty-three calves were processed and randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups as follows: MLV 1, which received a modified live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus vaccine upon arrival at the feedlot and again at approximately 70 days on feed (DOF); or MLV 4, which received a modified live IBR virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine upon arrival at the feedlot and again at approximately 70 DOF. A total of 20 pens (10 pens at the site located near High River, Alberta and 10 pens at the site located near Vegreville, Alberta) were allocated to the study. On both a live and carcass weight basis, final weight, weight gain, and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group. However, there were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in DOF, daily dry matter intake, dry matter intake to gain ratio (DM:G) live, or DM:G carcass between the experimental groups. In addition, there were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences between the experimental groups in any of the carcass characteristic variables measured. The initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in the other measures of health between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was a net advantage of $0.74 CDN per animal in the MLV 4 group as compared with the MLV 1 group due to lower initial UF treatment and improved ADG

  2. Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

    1980-09-01

    The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

  3. Associations between feedlot management practices and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-06-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between factors related to feedlot management and risk of BRD. In total, 35,131 animals in 170 pens (cohorts) inducted into 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow separate estimation of total and direct effects. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. The placement of pen water troughs such that they could be accessed by animals in adjoining pens was associated with markedly increased risk of BRD (OR 4.3, 95% credible interval: 1.4-10.3). Adding animals to pens over multiple days was associated with increased risk of BRD across all animals in those pens compared to placing all animals in the pen on a single day (total effect: OR 1.9, 95% credible interval: 1.2-2.8). The much attenuated direct effect indicated that this was primarily mediated via factors on indirect pathways so it may be possible to ameliorate the adverse effects of adding animals to pens over multiple days by altering exposure to these intervening factors (e.g. mixing history). In pens in which animals were added to the pen over multiple days, animals added ≥7 days (OR: 0.7, credible interval: 0.5-0.9) or 1-6 days (OR: 0.8, credible interval: 0.7-1.0) before the last animal was added were at modestly reduced risk of BRD compared to the animals that were added to the pen on the latest day. Further research is required to disentangle effects of cohort formation patterns at animal-level and higher levels on animal-level risk of BRD. Vaccination against Bovine herpesvirus 1 at feedlot entry was investigated but results were inconclusive and further research is required to evaluate vaccine efficacy. We conclude that there are practical interventions available to

  4. Nitrogen loss from sprinkler applied beef feedlot effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of nitrogen from sprinkler applied beef feedlot effluent can be costly for both the producer and the environment. Sprinkler application of effluent is common throughout the Great Plains, though little work has occurred focusing specifically on N losses from beef feedlot effluent. The objectives...

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from a commerical cattle feedlot in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming a concern. Research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots, however, has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify the N2O emission rate from pen surfaces in a com...

  6. Bacterial Community Structure of a Cattle Feedlot Pen Surface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal variation in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-o...

  7. Particulate emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L; Prueger, John H; Razote, Edna B

    2014-07-01

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle () feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine fluxes of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely used micrometeorological method for air emissions from open sources. Vertical PM concentration profiles and micrometeorological parameters were measured at the feedlot using tapered element oscillating microbalance PM samplers and eddy covariance instrumentations (i.e., sonic anemometer and infrared hygrometer), respectively, from May 2010 through September 2011, representing feedlot conditions with air temperatures ranging from -24 to 39°C. Calculated hourly PM fluxes varied diurnally and seasonally, ranging up to 272 mg m h, with an overall median of 36 mg m h. For warm conditions (air temperature of 21 ± 10°C), the highest hourly PM fluxes (range 116-146 mg m h) were observed during the early evening period, from 2000 to 2100 h. For cold conditions (air temperature of -2 ± 8°C), the highest PM fluxes (range 14-27 mg m h) were observed in the afternoon, from 1100 to 1500 h. Changes in the hourly trend of PM fluxes coincided with changes in friction velocity, air temperature, sensible heat flux, and surface roughness. The PM emission was also affected by the pen surface water content, where a water content of at least 20% (wet basis) would be sufficient to effectively reduce PM emissions from pens by as much as 60%.

  8. Particulate emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L; Prueger, John H; Razote, Edna B

    2013-09-01

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle () feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine fluxes of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely used micrometeorological method for air emissions from open sources. Vertical PM concentration profiles and micrometeorological parameters were measured at the feedlot using tapered element oscillating microbalance PM samplers and eddy covariance instrumentations (i.e., sonic anemometer and infrared hygrometer), respectively, from May 2010 through September 2011, representing feedlot conditions with air temperatures ranging from -24 to 39°C. Calculated hourly PM fluxes varied diurnally and seasonally, ranging up to 272 mg m h, with an overall median of 36 mg m h. For warm conditions (air temperature of 21 ± 10°C), the highest hourly PM fluxes (range 116-146 mg m h) were observed during the early evening period, from 2000 to 2100 h. For cold conditions (air temperature of -2 ± 8°C), the highest PM fluxes (range 14-27 mg m h) were observed in the afternoon, from 1100 to 1500 h. Changes in the hourly trend of PM fluxes coincided with changes in friction velocity, air temperature, sensible heat flux, and surface roughness. The PM emission was also affected by the pen surface water content, where a water content of at least 20% (wet basis) would be sufficient to effectively reduce PM emissions from pens by as much as 60%.

  9. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves

    PubMed Central

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.; Jacobsen, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetracycline, which received intramuscular long-acting oxytetracycline (300 mg/mL formulation) at a rate of 30 mg/kg BW; or tilmicosin, which received subcutaneous tilmicosin (300 mg/mL formulation) at a rate of 10 mg/kg BW. There were 20 pens in each experimental group. In Study 1 and in the combined analysis, the initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oxytetracycline group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, third UF relapse, overall chronicity, overall rail, overall mortality, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality, hemophilosis mortality, arthritis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the experimental groups in either study or in the combined analysis. In addition, there were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in initial weight, final weight, weight gain, days on feed, daily dry matter intake, average daily gain, or the dry matter intake to gain ratio between the experimental groups in either study or in the combined analyses. In the economic analysis, there was a net economic advantage of $5.22 CDN per animal in the oxytetracycline group, due to a lower prophylactic cost, even though the UF therapeutic cost was higher. PMID:12001501

  10. Comparative cost-effectiveness of ivermectin versus topical organophosphate in feedlot yearlings.

    PubMed Central

    Schunicht, O C; Guichon, P T; Booker, C W; Jim, G K; Wildman, B K; Ward, T I; Bauck, S W; Gross, S J

    2000-01-01

    A replicated-pen field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to determine the cost-effectiveness of administering ivermectin to yearling beef cattle upon entry to the feedlot after the grazing season, and to establish the level of trichostrongylid gastrointestinal parasite infection in this population, as estimated by fecal egg counts. Six thousand eight hundred and eighty-three, mixed breed, yearling steers were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: Ivermectin, which received topical ivermectin (0.5%) at the rate of 1.0 mL/10 kg body weight; or Fenthion, which received topical fenthion (20%) at the rate of 12 mL/295 kg body weight. There were 15 pens in each experimental group. Final weight, weight gain, average daily gain, and dry matter intake to gain ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the Ivermectin group as compared with the Fenthion group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in initial weight, days on feed, or daily dry matter intake between the experimental groups. The geometric mean fecal egg counts at the time of allocation were 14.7 eggs/5 g and 16.6 eggs/5 g for the Ivermectin and Fenthion groups, respectively (P > or = 0.05). There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in morbidity or mortality between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, the significant improvements in feedlot performance in the Ivermectin group resulted in a net economic advantage of $4.20 CDN per animal. PMID:10738601

  11. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Schunich, Oliver C; Guichon, P Timothy; Booker, Calvin W; Jim, G Kee; Wildman, Brian K; Hill, Bruce W; Ward, Tracy I; Bauck, Stewart W; Jacobsen, John A

    2002-05-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetracycline, which received intramuscular long-acting oxytetracycline (300 mg/mL formulation) at a rate of 30 mg/kg BW; or tilmicosin, which received subcutaneous tilmicosin (300 mg/mL formulation) at a rate of 10 mg/kg BW. There were 20 pens in each experimental group. In Study 1 and in the combined analysis, the initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oxytetracycline group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, third UF relapse, overall chronicity, overall rail, overall mortality, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality, hemophilosis mortality, arthritis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the experimental groups in either study or in the combined analysis. In addition, there were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in initial weight, final weight, weight gain, days on feed, daily dry matter intake, average daily gain, or the dry matter intake to gain ratio between the experimental groups in either study or in the combined analyses. In the economic analysis, there was a net economic advantage of $5.22 CDN per animal in the oxytetracycline group, due to a lower prophylactic cost, even though the UF therapeutic cost was higher.

  12. Comparative cost-effectiveness of ivermectin versus topical organophosphate in feedlot yearlings.

    PubMed

    Schunicht, O C; Guichon, P T; Booker, C W; Jim, G K; Wildman, B K; Ward, T I; Bauck, S W; Gross, S J

    2000-03-01

    A replicated-pen field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to determine the cost-effectiveness of administering ivermectin to yearling beef cattle upon entry to the feedlot after the grazing season, and to establish the level of trichostrongylid gastrointestinal parasite infection in this population, as estimated by fecal egg counts. Six thousand eight hundred and eighty-three, mixed breed, yearling steers were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: Ivermectin, which received topical ivermectin (0.5%) at the rate of 1.0 mL/10 kg body weight; or Fenthion, which received topical fenthion (20%) at the rate of 12 mL/295 kg body weight. There were 15 pens in each experimental group. Final weight, weight gain, average daily gain, and dry matter intake to gain ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the Ivermectin group as compared with the Fenthion group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in initial weight, days on feed, or daily dry matter intake between the experimental groups. The geometric mean fecal egg counts at the time of allocation were 14.7 eggs/5 g and 16.6 eggs/5 g for the Ivermectin and Fenthion groups, respectively (P > or = 0.05). There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in morbidity or mortality between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, the significant improvements in feedlot performance in the Ivermectin group resulted in a net economic advantage of $4.20 CDN per animal.

  13. 76 FR 69139 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-Sandbar Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... closed, even across fishing years. On December 8, 2011 (75 FR 76302), NMFS announced that the non... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery in the Atlantic...-sandbar large coastal sharks (LCS) in the Atlantic region. This action is necessary under...

  14. 75 FR 75416 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-Sandbar Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... January 5, 2010 (75 FR 250), NMFS announced that the non-sandbar LCS fishery quota in the Atlantic region... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery in the Atlantic...-sandbar large coastal sharks (LCS) in the Atlantic region. This action is necessary because landings...

  15. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct

  16. Dehydrated citrus pulp alters feedlot performance of crossbred heifers during the receiving period and modulates serum metabolite concentrations pre- and post-endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    English x Continental heifers (n=180) were sourced in two loads (188.7 ± 18.0 kilograms and 225.2 ± 22.2 kilograms body weight, respectively) from commercial auction barns to study the effects of feeding dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on feedlot performance of newly received heifers. A completely ran...

  17. Parametric System Curves: Correlations Between Fan Pressure Rise and Flow for Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Wray, Craig

    2010-05-19

    A substantial fraction of HVAC energy use in large commercial buildings is due to fan operation. Fan energy use depends in part on the relationship between system pressure drop and flow through the fan, which is commonly called a "system curve." As a step toward enabling better selections of air-handling system components and analyses of common energy efficiency measures such as duct static pressure reset and duct leakage sealing, this paper shows that a simple four-parameter physical model can be used to define system curves. Our model depends on the square of the fan flow, as is commonly considered. It also includes terms that account for linear-like flow resistances such as filters and coils, and for supply duct leakage when damper positions are fixed or are changed independently of static pressure or fan flow. Only two parameters are needed for systems with variable-position supply dampers (e.g., VAV box dampers modulating to control flow). For these systems, reducing or eliminating supply duct leakage does not change the system curve. The parametric system curve may be most useful when applied to field data. Non-linear techniques could be used to fit the curve to fan pressure rise and flow measurements over a range of operating conditions. During design, when measurements are unavailable, one could use duct design calculation tools instead to determine the coefficients.

  18. Operational experiences of a commercial helicopter flown in a large metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of commercial helicopter-operating experiences was conducted using a helicopter flight recorder in order to provide a basis for extending helicopter design and service-life criteria. These data are representative of 182 flight hours accumulated during 1414 flights comprised of the separate legs of the total route structure employed. The operating experiences are presented in terms of the time spent within different airspeed brackets, within the classifiable flight conditions of climb, en route, and descent, at various rates of climb and descent, and at different rotor rotational speeds. The results indicated that the helicopter spent a majority of the flight time at airspeeds either below 40 knots or above 100 knots. Rates of climb and descent were concentrated at values below 5.1 m/s (1000 ft/min) particularly for higher airspeeds. Normal acceleration experiences were low, both in the total number and peak value realized; however, an extremely large number of pitch angular-velocity experiences were noted. Rotor rotational speeds were normal with no occurrences above the upper red-line limit.

  19. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  20. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for

  1. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  2. The use of lung biopsy to determine early lung pathology and its association with health and production outcomes in feedlot steers

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Brandy A.; Hendrick, Steve H.; Pollock, Colleen M.; Hannon, Sherry J.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Vogstad, Amanda; Jim, G. Kee; Booker, Calvin W.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percutaneous lung biopsy can be used to characterize early pathologic changes in bovine lung associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), to determine if specific infectious respiratory pathogens can be identified in association with these changes, and to determine whether pulmonary pathology at arrival and at the time of initial diagnosis are associated with health and production outcomes. One hundred auction-market derived crossbred steer calves from a commercial feedlot in southern Alberta were included in this study. A percutaneous lung biopsy technique was used to obtain lung samples from the right middle lung. Steers were sampled 295 times yielding 283 samples with 210 (74%) containing lung tissue. Overall, histopathological changes were observed in 20 (9.5%) of lung biopsy samples. There were too few samples with pathology to reveal an association between lung pathology and subsequent health events. In general, percutaneous lung biopsy can be done safely on feedlot steers in a commercial feedlot setting with few clinical side effects. This technique did not prove useful as a diagnostic tool or prognostic indicator for early BRD. However, it may be useful for the diagnosis of BRD in targeted populations of commercial feedlot steers. PMID:24124270

  3. [Study on Ammonia Emission Rules in a Dairy Feedlot Based on Laser Spectroscopy Detection Method].

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Wang, Li-ming; Gao, Yan-wei; Xu, Jin-feng; Gao, Zhi-ling; Ma, Wen-qi

    2016-03-01

    It needs on-line monitoring of ammonia concentration on dairy feedlot to disclose ammonia emissions characteristics accurately for reducing ammonia emissions and improving the ecological environment. The on-line monitoring system for ammonia concentration has been designed based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology combining with long open-path technology, then the study has been carried out with inverse dispersion technique and the system. The ammonia concentration in-situ has been detected and ammonia emission rules have been analyzed on a dairy feedlot in Baoding in autumn and winter of 2013. The monitoring indicated that the peak of ammonia concentration was 6.11 x 10(-6) in autumn, and that was 6.56 x 10(-6) in winter. The concentration results show that the variation of ammonia concentration had an obvious diurnal periodicity, and the general characteristic of diurnal variation was that the concentration was low in the daytime and was high at night. The ammonia emissions characteristic was obtained with inverse dispersion model that the peak of ammonia emissions velocity appeared at noon. The emission velocity was from 1.48 kg/head/hr to 130.6 kg/head/hr in autumn, and it was from 0.004 5 kg/head/hr to 43.32 kg/head/hr in winter which was lower than that in autumn. The results demonstrated ammonia emissions had certain seasonal differences in dairy feedlot scale. In conclusion, the ammonia concentration was detected with optical technology, and the ammonia emissions results were acquired by inverse dispersion model analysis with large range, high sensitivity, quick response without gas sampling. Thus, it's an effective method for ammonia emissions monitoring in dairy feedlot that provides technical support for scientific breeding.

  4. Investigating nitrate dynamics in a fine-textured soil affected by feedlot effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizaga, E. A.; Rodríguez, L.; Ocampo, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    Feedlots concentrate large volumes of manure and effluents that contain high concentrations of nitrate, among other constituents. If not managed properly, pen surfaces run-off and lagoons overflows may spread those effluents to surrounding land, infiltrating into the soil. Soil nitrate mobilization and distribution are of great concern due to its potential migration towards groundwater resources. This work aimed at evaluating the migration of nitrate originated on feedlots effluents in a fine-textured soil under field conditions. Soil water constituents were measured during a three-year period at three distinct locations adjacent to feedlot retention lagoons representing different degrees of exposure to water flow and manure accumulation. A simple statistical analysis was undertaken to identify patterns of observed nitrate and chloride concentrations and electrical conductivity and their differences with depth. HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate water flow and solute transport of Cl-, NO4+sbnd N, NO3-sbnd N and electrical conductivity to complement field data interpretation. Results indicated that patterns of NO3-sbnd N concentrations were not only notoriously different from electrical conductivity and Cl- but also ranges and distribution with depth differed among locations. A combination of dilution, transport, reactions such as nitrification/denitrification and vegetation water and solute uptake took place at each plots denoting the complexity of soil-solution behavior under extreme polluting conditions. Simulations using the concept of single porosity-mobile/immobile water (SP-MIM) managed structural controls and correctly simulated -all species concentrations under field data constrains. The opposite was true for the other two locations experiencing near-saturation conditions, absence of vegetation and frequent manure accumulation and runoff from feedlot lagoons. Although the results are site specific, findings are relevant to advance the understanding of NO3-sbnd

  5. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    PubMed

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow. PMID:23099951

  6. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  7. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Razote, Edna; Hatfield, Jerry

    2011-08-01

    Odors from cattle feedlots can negatively affect air quality in local communities. Our objectives were the following: 1) identify key odor-causing compounds using odor activity values (OAVs) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques; 2) compare odor threshold values from published databases; and 3) track the movement of odors from a cattle feedlot to receptor community. Odorous compounds emitted from a cattle feedlot were sampled on-site, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC-MS and GC-MS-O and key odorants determined using both OAV and GC-Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure nature were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low thereby limiting its usefulness. There is a need to improve field sampling devices and odor threshold databases to enhance understanding and confidence in evaluating odors.

  8. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... management group, which did not open in 2013 (78 FR 75896), and the commercial Gulf of Mexico blacktip shark management group, which closed on July 7, 2013 (78 FR 40318). At Sec. 635.27(b)(1), the boundary between the... July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the final rule for Amendment 5a to the Consolidated...

  9. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  10. Persistent disturbance by commercial navigation afters the relative abundance of channel-dwelling fishes in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Vallazza, J.M.; Knights, B.C.

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence for chronic effects of disturbance by commercial vessels on the spatial distribution and abundance of fishes in the channels of a large river. Most of the world's large rivers are intensively managed to satisfy increasing demands for commercial shipping, but little research has been conducted to identify and alleviate any adverse consequences of commercial navigation. We used a combination of a gradient sampling design incorporating quasicontrol areas with Akaike's information criterion (AIC)-weighted model averaging to estimate effects of disturbances by commercial vessels on fishes in the upper Mississippi River. Species density, which mainly measured species evenness, decreased with increasing disturbance frequency. The most abundant species - gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) - and the less abundant shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) were seemingly unaffected by traffic disturbance. In contrast, the relative abundance of the toothed herrings (Hiodon spp.), redhorses (Moxostoma spp.), buffaloes (Ictiobus spp.), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), sauger (Sander canadensis), and white bass (Morone chrysops) decreased with increasing traffic in the navigation channel. We hypothesized that the combination of alteration of hydraulic features within navigation channels and rehabilitation of secondary channels might benefit channel-dependent species. ?? 2006 NRC.

  11. Soil nutrients, bacteria populations, and veterinary pharmaceuticals across a backgrounding beef feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of environmentally significant contaminants. Better understanding of these contaminants and their distribution will aid in development of effective contaminant management...

  12. Nitrogen enrichment of surface water by absorption of ammonia volatilized from cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G L; Viets, F G

    1969-10-24

    Apparatus designed to measure absorption of ammonia from the air by aqueous surfaces was installed near several cattle feedlots and in appropriate control areas. Ammonia absorption rates measured near feedlots were as much as 20 times greater than near the control. Their magnitudes indicate that absorption of ammonia volatilized from cattle feedlots contributes significantly to the nitrogen enrichment of surface water in the vicinity of feedlots.

  13. Nutrient losses in runoff from feedlot surfaces as affected by unconsolidated surface materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated surface materials (USM) (loose manure pack) that accumulate within feedlot pens during a feeding cycle. The effects of varying amounts of USM on feedlot runoff water quality are not well defined. The objectives of this field investigation were to: a) compa...

  14. Using Experts to Validate an Animal Specific Heat Stress Model for Feedlot Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extreme effects of heat stress in a feedlot situation can cause losses exceeding 5% of all the cattle on feed in a single feedlot. These losses can be very devastating to a localized area of feedlot producers. Animal stress is a result of the combination of three different components: environm...

  15. Case Study: Commercialization of sweet sorghum juice clarification for large-scale syrup manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The precipitation and burning of insoluble granules of starch from sweet sorghum juice on heating coils prevented the large scale manufacture of syrup at a new industrial plant in Missouri, USA. To remove insoluble starch granules, a series of small and large-scale experiments were conducted at the...

  16. Commercial Internet Adoption in China: Comparing the Experience of Small, Medium and Large Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riquelme, Hernan

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of small, medium, and large enterprises in Shanghai, China that investigated which size companies benefit the most from the Internet. Highlights include leveling the ground for small and medium enterprises (SMEs); increased sales and cost savings for large companies; and competitive advantages. (LRW)

  17. Comments on the use of structureborne noise analysis for large commercial airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Steven E.; Butzel, Leo M.

    In a business climate of continuous cost reduction, noise control engineers are ever more dependent on computer simulation in lieu of testing. Several analytical methodologies have been applied to predicting structureborne transmission, fuselage response, and passenger cabin noise. In order to facilitate problem solution, simplifying assumptions are typically made related to the structural configurations or boundary conditions. Yet, results from the same prediction schemes demonstrate significant cabin noise sensitivity to the simplifications themselves. This paper is submitted in support of the objectives and activities of the Institute of Noise Control Engineers (INCE) Structureborne Noise Technical Subcommittee. The characteristic dynamic behavior of commercial transport fuselage structure as related to geometry-frequency scales and to engineering/customer issues are briefly described. Then, recommendations are extended with regard to concerns and interests associated with cabin noise within Boeing airplanes.

  18. Barriers to commercialization of large-scale solar electricity: Lessions learned from the LUZ experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lotker, M.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the economic and policy factors leading to the initial successful introduction of Luz International Limited`s Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS). It then addresses the wide range of barriers to continued SEGS commercialization, including state and federal tax policy, avoided cost energy pricing, artificial size limitations under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the loss of effectiveness of PURPA itself, the lack of incentives available to utilities as owners of solar electric plants, and the limited ways in which the environmental benefits of this technology have been recognized. The way in which each of these barriers contributed to the suspension of new LUZ projects is highlighted. In addition, mitigation approaches to each of these barriers are suggested.

  19. Measuring large aspherics using a commercially available 3D-coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Wolfgang; Matthes, Axel; Schiehle, Heinz

    2000-07-01

    A CNC-controlled precision measuring machine is a very powerful tool in the optical shop not only to determine the surface figure, but also to qualify the radius of curvature and conic constant of aspherics. We used a commercially available 3D-coordinate measuring machine (CMM, ZEISS UPMC 850 CARAT S-ACC) to measure the shape of the GEMINI 1-m convex secondary mirrors at different lapping and polishing stages. To determine the measuring accuracy we compared the mechanical measurements with the results achieved by means of an interferometrical test setup. The data obtained in an early stage of polishing were evaluated in Zernike polynomials which show a very good agreement. The deviation concerning long wave rotational symmetrical errors was 20 nm rms, whereas the accuracy measuring of mid spatial frequency deviations was limited to about 100 nm rms.

  20. Prevalence and Quinolone Susceptibilities of Salmonella Isolated from the Feces of Preharvest Cattle Within Feedlots that Used a Fluoroquinolone to Treat Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley B; Renter, David G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen and antimicrobial resistance can be a human health concern. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (1) determine the prevalence and quinolone susceptibility of Salmonella in feces of preharvest commercial feedlot cattle and (2) determine if the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella isolates were associated with previous fluoroquinolone use within pens. Five feedlots in western Kansas and Texas were selected based on their use of a commercially licensed fluoroquinolone for initial treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Twenty pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 10 pens from each feedlot during early summer of 2012. Salmonella isolation was performed and microbroth dilution was used to determine susceptibility of isolates to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Prior antimicrobial treatment data were retrieved from feedlots' operational data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess associations between Salmonella prevalence and the number of fluoroquinolone treatments within pens while taking into consideration cattle demographic and management factors, as well as the hierarchical structure of the data. Overall, cumulative fecal prevalence of Salmonella was 38.0% (380/1000), but prevalence varied significantly (p < 0.01) among the five feedlots: 0.5% (1/200), 17.5% (35/200), 37.0% (74/200), 58.5% (117/200), and 76.5% (153/200). Salmonella serogroups included C1 (49.3%), E (36.4%), C2 (13.8%), and D (0.6%). There was no significant association (p = 0.52) between Salmonella prevalence and the frequency of fluoroquinolone treatments within a pen. All Salmonella isolates (n = 380) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, while one isolate exceeded the human breakpoint (≥32 μg/mL) for nalidixic acid. In conclusion, Salmonella fecal prevalence in preharvest cattle was highly variable among feedlots. Nearly all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to quinolones

  1. Prevalence and Quinolone Susceptibilities of Salmonella Isolated from the Feces of Preharvest Cattle Within Feedlots that Used a Fluoroquinolone to Treat Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley B; Renter, David G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen and antimicrobial resistance can be a human health concern. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (1) determine the prevalence and quinolone susceptibility of Salmonella in feces of preharvest commercial feedlot cattle and (2) determine if the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella isolates were associated with previous fluoroquinolone use within pens. Five feedlots in western Kansas and Texas were selected based on their use of a commercially licensed fluoroquinolone for initial treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Twenty pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 10 pens from each feedlot during early summer of 2012. Salmonella isolation was performed and microbroth dilution was used to determine susceptibility of isolates to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Prior antimicrobial treatment data were retrieved from feedlots' operational data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess associations between Salmonella prevalence and the number of fluoroquinolone treatments within pens while taking into consideration cattle demographic and management factors, as well as the hierarchical structure of the data. Overall, cumulative fecal prevalence of Salmonella was 38.0% (380/1000), but prevalence varied significantly (p < 0.01) among the five feedlots: 0.5% (1/200), 17.5% (35/200), 37.0% (74/200), 58.5% (117/200), and 76.5% (153/200). Salmonella serogroups included C1 (49.3%), E (36.4%), C2 (13.8%), and D (0.6%). There was no significant association (p = 0.52) between Salmonella prevalence and the frequency of fluoroquinolone treatments within a pen. All Salmonella isolates (n = 380) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, while one isolate exceeded the human breakpoint (≥32 μg/mL) for nalidixic acid. In conclusion, Salmonella fecal prevalence in preharvest cattle was highly variable among feedlots. Nearly all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to quinolones

  2. Maize (Zea mays)-derived bovine trypsin: characterization of the first large-scale, commercial protein product from transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Susan L; Mayor, Jocelyne M; Bailey, Michele R; Barker, Donna K; Love, Robert T; Lane, Jeffrey R; Delaney, Donna E; McComas-Wagner, Janet M; Mallubhotla, Hanuman D; Hood, Elizabeth E; Dangott, Lawrence J; Tichy, Shane E; Howard, John A

    2003-10-01

    Bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) is an enzyme that is widely used for commercial purposes to digest or process other proteins, including some therapeutic proteins. The biopharmaceutical industry is trying to eliminate animal-derived proteins from manufacturing processes due to the possible contamination of these products by human pathogens. Recombinant trypsin has been produced in a number of systems, including cell culture, bacteria and yeast. To date, these expression systems have not produced trypsin on a scale sufficient to fulfill the need of biopharmaceutical manufacturers where kilogram quantities are often required. The present paper describes commercial-level production of trypsin in transgenic maize (Zea mays) and its physical and functional characterization. This protease, the first enzyme to be produced on a large-scale using transgenic plant technology, is functionally equivalent to native bovine pancreatic trypsin. The availability of this reagent should allow for the replacement of animal-derived trypsin in the processing of pharmaceutical proteins.

  3. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, J A; Urech, R; Green, P E; Skerman, A; Elson-Harris, M M; Bright, R L; Brown, G W

    2012-03-01

    Species composition, seasonality and distribution of immature fly populations on a southern Queensland feedlot during 2001-2003 were determined. Similar data were collected on feedlots in central New South Wales and central Queensland. The fly species recovered in the highest numbers were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and Physiphora clausa Macquart (Diptera: Ulidiidae). Houseflies were the dominant species at all feedlots. Houseflies preferred the warmer months from October to June, but stable flies preferred the cooler months and peaked in spring (September-November) and autumn (March-May). Larval abundance ratings recorded in the feedlot and numbers of larvae extracted in the laboratory from corresponding samples followed similar trends. Larvae of M. domestica were most abundant in the hospital and induction area and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of M. domestica were abundant in the hospital and induction area and drains, but least abundant in horse stables and yards. Larvae of S. calcitrans were most abundant in drains and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of S. calcitrans were most numerous in drains and least numerous in old cattle pens. Feedlot design and management had little effect on fly reduction.

  4. Large scale commercial pretreatment facility treats nonhazardous wastewaters at former municipal WWTP

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, N.A.; Bogel, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    Numerous small to medium sized industries and commercial businesses generate nondomestic, nonhazardous water-based waste streams. These waste streams are normally contained temporarily, then hauled off site for pretreatment prior to allowable release into public disposal systems. Industrial Water Recycling, Inc. (IWR) purchased a 4.5 million gallon per day (MGD) former municipal wastewater treatment plant and converted it into a nonhazardous treatment facility which pretreats waters hauled in by truck or drum. The facility uses physical, chemical and biological systems to process leachate, holding tank waters, grease trap wastes, coolant waters, oily wastes and waters with heavy metals. The unit processes are discussed in this paper and the plant`s sequential biological reactor (SBR) treatment system is described. The plant uses air stripping prior to the activated sludge process and treatment of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a biosoil filter. A high level of removal efficiency has been achieved in meeting IWR`s pretreatment discharge permit as shown in the plant operating data presented. Each load received is manifested in and is screened in accordance with IWR`s strict compliance plan. All loads are sampled and may be checked for pH, flash point, oil content, solids content, heavy metals, VOCs or other constituents to verify that it is nonhazardous and meets the manifest specifications.

  5. An evaluation of savings and measure persistence fromretrocommissioning of large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bourassa, Norman J.; Piette, Mary Ann; Motegi, Naoya

    2004-03-10

    Commercial building retrocommissioning activity has increased in recent years. LBNL recently conducted a study of 8 participants in Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) retrocommissioning program. We evaluated the persistence of energy savings and measure implementation, in an effort to identify and understand factors that affect the longevity of retrocommissioning benefits. The LBNL analysis looked at whole-building energy and the retrocommissioning measure implementation status, incorporating elements from previous work by Texas A&M University and Portland Energy Conservation Inc. When possible, adjustments due to newly discovered major end uses, occupancy patterns and 2001 energy crisis responses were included in the whole-building energy analysis. The measure implementation analysis categorized each recommended measure and tracked the measures to their current operational status. Results showed a 59% implementation rate of recommended measures. The whole-building energy analysis showed an aggregate electricity savings of approximately 10.5% in the second post-retrocommissioning year, diminishing to approximately 8% in the fourth year. Results also showed the 2001 energy crisis played a significant role in the post-retrocommissioning energy use at the candidate sites. When natural gas consumption was included in the analysis, savings were reduced slightly, showing the importance in considering interactive effects between cooling and heating systems. The cost effectiveness of retrocommissioning was very attractive at the sites studied. However, funding for retrocommissioning activities is still very constrained.

  6. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  7. A representative microbial sampling method for large commercial containers of raw beef based on purge.

    PubMed

    Dorsa, W J; Siragusa, S R

    1998-02-01

    The purge from beef combos ( a boxed collection of beef trimmings) was tested as a means of representatively sampling the microbial content of this raw product. In the first experiment, purge was sampled from model beef combos that had been inoculated with bovine feces.. Data from this experiment indicated a strong correlation (r = 0.94) between the total aerobic bacteria counts derived from the purge samples of a model beef combo and the total aerobic bacteria present in a rinse sample of the entire model beef combo. In a second experiment, two 500-g meat pieces were inoculated with an antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 and place at various levels within a 75-cm meat column. The marked bacteria were retrievable from the purge of the meat column after 24 h, showing that bacteria are carried downward into the purge. During the third part of the study, 90 beef combos (approximately 900 kg beef/combo) were randomly selected at the receiving dock of a commercial grinding facility and sampled using both purge and concurrently used 11-g core samples. Purge samples from these combos recovered significantly greater numbers of mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli than core samples from the same combos. Additionally, coliforms and E. coli were recoverable from 100% and 80%, respectively, of the purge samples taken, whereas core samples were only able to recover 60% and 40%, respectively, from the same combos. These findings indicate that a purge sample from a beef combo is a more efficacious sampling method for determining the general bacterial profile and identifying the presence of coliforms and E. coli than randomly taken core samples. PMID:9708274

  8. Decision Envelopment Analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Thompson, Russell G.

    1992-08-01

    Decision Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems, is used to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. The Lunar Power System (LPS) captures sunlight on the moon, converts it to microwaves and beams the power to receivers on earth that output electricity. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0 to 1, DEA reveals that LPS is at least ten times more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and -photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LPS is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.

  9. Large scale, synchronous variability of marine fish populations driven by commercial exploitation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kenneth T; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C; Boyce, Daniel G

    2016-07-19

    Synchronous variations in the abundance of geographically distinct marine fish populations are known to occur across spatial scales on the order of 1,000 km and greater. The prevailing assumption is that this large-scale coherent variability is a response to coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, commonly represented by climate indexes, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that exploitation might contribute to this coherent variability. This possibility has been generally ignored or dismissed on the grounds that exploitation is unlikely to operate synchronously at such large spatial scales. Our analysis of adult fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass of 22 North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks revealed that both the temporal and spatial scales in fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass were equivalent to those of the climate drivers. From these results, we conclude that greater consideration must be given to the potential of exploitation as a driving force behind broad, coherent variability of heavily exploited fish species.

  10. Nutritive value of methane fermentation residue in diets fed to feedlot steers

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Shirley, R.L.; Palmer, A.Z.

    1982-12-01

    Nutritive value of the methane fermentation residue (MFR) from the effluent of a large scale thermophilic methane generator was determined in diets fed to feedlot steers. The MFR contained 22.2% dry matter and 21.9% crude protein (dry basis). Two diets containing 10.6% (dry basis) MFR were formulated using the Urea Fermentation Potential (UFP) system such that in one diet N was in excess (-1.6 UFP) while in the other diet energy was in excess (+2.6 UFP). These two diets were compared in a California Net Energy trial with a feedlot diet (-.3 UFP) containing the same ingredients except the MFR. Six steers were fed in a replicated 3(2) Latin square metabolism trial and 70 steers were fed in a 118-d comparative-slaughter, feedlot trial. Digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, ash, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy were depressed (all P less than .05) in the MFR-containing diets. Steers fed the MFR-containing diets had lower (P less than .05) rates of gain and increased (P less than .05) feed requirements per unit gain. Net energies for maintenance and gain were slightly lower for the MFR-containing diets than the control diet. Crude protein digestibility for the MFR calculated by difference, for the -UFP and the +UFP diets were 37.8 and 50.7%, while corresponding values for TDN were 28.8 and 12.8%, respectively. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in kidney, liver and muscle as well as flavor and tenderness of steaks were not affected by feeding MFR.

  11. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  12. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef-cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly decreased energy-production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef-feedlot manure of various ages was digested. Compared with fresh manure-gas production at 100%, aged manure produced 16-73% of the gas/kg of volatile solids added. More than 1/2 of the N was lost after the manure had aged 3 months. Economic benefits of CH/sub 4/ and N recovery from manure of different ages are discussed.

  13. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly reduced energy production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef feedlot manure of various ages was digested. The study showed that compared with fresh manure gas production at 100%, aged manure produced between 16 and 73% of the gas per kilogram of volatile solids added. More than one-half of the nitrogen was lost after the manure had aged three months. The resulting economic advantage of fresh manure over aged manure for energy and nitrogen recovery would be from $26 to $61/head/y.

  14. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (<45 cm TL), showing significant changes to swimming speeds across every temperature tested, while medium (45-55 cm TL) and large individuals (>55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and

  15. Optimizing the Design of Chilled Water Plants in Large Commercial Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Dante'E.

    The design of chilled water plants has a very large impact on building energy use and energy operating costs. This thesis proposes procedures and analysis techniques for energy efficiency design of chilled water plants. The approach that leads to optimal design variables can achieve a significant saving in cooling cost. The optimal variables include piping sizing, chilled water temperature difference, and chilled water supply temperature. The objective function is the total cooling energy cost. The proposed design method depends on detailed cooling load analysis, head and energy calculations, and an optimization solver. The pump head calculations including piping, all fittings, valves, and devices are achieved by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation and given flow parameters. The energy calculations are done by using generic chiller, fan, and pump models. The method is tested on an existing four-story building located in Greensboro, NC, equipped with a packaged water-cooled chiller. A whole building energy simulation model is used to generate the hourly cooling loads and then the optimal design variables are found to minimize the total energy cost. The testing results show this approach will achieve better results than rules-of-thumb or traditional design procedures. The cooling energy saving could be up to 10% depending on particular projects.

  16. Water and chloride transport in a fine-textured soil in a feedlot pen.

    PubMed

    Veizaga, E A; Rodríguez, L; Ocampo, C J

    2015-11-01

    Cattle feeding in feedlot pens produces large amounts of manure and animal urine. Manure solutions resulting from surface runoff are composed of numerous chemical constituents whose leaching causes salinization of the soil profile. There is a relatively large number of studies on preferential flow characterization and modeling in clayed soils. However, research on water flow and solute transport derived from cattle feeding operations in fine-textured soils under naturally occurring precipitation events is less frequent. A field monitoring and modeling investigation was conducted at two plots on a fine-textured soil near a feedlot pen in Argentina to assess the potential of solute leaching into the soil profile. Soil pressure head and chloride concentration of the soil solution were used in combination with HYDRUS-1D numerical model to simulate water flow and chloride transport resorting to the concept of mobile/immobile-MIM water for solute transport. Pressure head sensors located at different depths registered a rapid response to precipitation suggesting the occurrence of preferential flow-paths for infiltrating water. Cracks and small fissures were documented at the field site where the % silt and % clay combined is around 94%. Chloride content increased with depth for various soil pressure head conditions, although a dilution process was observed as precipitation increased. The MIM approach improved numerical results at one of the tested sites where the development of cracks and macropores is likely, obtaining a more dynamic response in comparison with the advection-dispersion equation. PMID:26348833

  17. Water and chloride transport in a fine-textured soil in a feedlot pen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizaga, E. A.; Rodríguez, L.; Ocampo, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    Cattle feeding in feedlot pens produces large amounts of manure and animal urine. Manure solutions resulting from surface runoff are composed of numerous chemical constituents whose leaching causes salinization of the soil profile. There is a relatively large number of studies on preferential flow characterization and modeling in clayed soils. However, research on water flow and solute transport derived from cattle feeding operations in fine-textured soils under naturally occurring precipitation events is less frequent. A field monitoring and modeling investigation was conducted at two plots on a fine-textured soil near a feedlot pen in Argentina to assess the potential of solute leaching into the soil profile. Soil pressure head and chloride concentration of the soil solution were used in combination with HYDRUS-1D numerical model to simulate water flow and chloride transport resorting to the concept of mobile/immobile-MIM water for solute transport. Pressure head sensors located at different depths registered a rapid response to precipitation suggesting the occurrence of preferential flow-paths for infiltrating water. Cracks and small fissures were documented at the field site where the % silt and % clay combined is around 94%. Chloride content increased with depth for various soil pressure head conditions, although a dilution process was observed as precipitation increased. The MIM approach improved numerical results at one of the tested sites where the development of cracks and macropores is likely, obtaining a more dynamic response in comparison with the advection-dispersion equation.

  18. Water and chloride transport in a fine-textured soil in a feedlot pen.

    PubMed

    Veizaga, E A; Rodríguez, L; Ocampo, C J

    2015-11-01

    Cattle feeding in feedlot pens produces large amounts of manure and animal urine. Manure solutions resulting from surface runoff are composed of numerous chemical constituents whose leaching causes salinization of the soil profile. There is a relatively large number of studies on preferential flow characterization and modeling in clayed soils. However, research on water flow and solute transport derived from cattle feeding operations in fine-textured soils under naturally occurring precipitation events is less frequent. A field monitoring and modeling investigation was conducted at two plots on a fine-textured soil near a feedlot pen in Argentina to assess the potential of solute leaching into the soil profile. Soil pressure head and chloride concentration of the soil solution were used in combination with HYDRUS-1D numerical model to simulate water flow and chloride transport resorting to the concept of mobile/immobile-MIM water for solute transport. Pressure head sensors located at different depths registered a rapid response to precipitation suggesting the occurrence of preferential flow-paths for infiltrating water. Cracks and small fissures were documented at the field site where the % silt and % clay combined is around 94%. Chloride content increased with depth for various soil pressure head conditions, although a dilution process was observed as precipitation increased. The MIM approach improved numerical results at one of the tested sites where the development of cracks and macropores is likely, obtaining a more dynamic response in comparison with the advection-dispersion equation.

  19. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  20. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to

  1. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    with the optimization of the hybrid system design (which consists of PV panels and/or wind turbines and/or storage devices for building applications) by developing an algorithm designed to make the system cost effective and energy efficient. Input data includes electrical load demand profile of the buildings, buildings' structural and geographical characteristics, real time pricing of electricity, and the costs of hybrid systems and storage devices. When the electrical load demand profile of a building that is being studied is available, a measured demand profile is directly used as input data. However, if that information is not available, a building's electric load demand is estimated using a developed algorithm based on three large data sources from a public domain, and used as input data. Using the acquired input data, the algorithm of this research is designed and programmed in order to determine the size of renewable components and to minimize the total yearly net cost. This dissertation also addresses the parametric sensitivity analysis to determine which factors are more significant and are expected to produce useful guidelines in the decision making process. An engineered and more practical, simplified solution has been provided for the optimized design process.

  2. Ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scale

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sasche, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo; et al

    2015-09-27

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013more » field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv–1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20–30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. As a result, our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.« less

  3. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  4. Ammonia and methane dairy emission plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  5. Occurrence of foodborne bacteria in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 Alberta feedlots. In cattle manure, generic E. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and Campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; E. coli O157 (7%, 143/2100) and Salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. Samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point interventions yielded only 1 isolate each of generic E. coli and Campylobacter (1/1653) and no Salmonella (0/1653). Catch basin water specimens were positive for generic E. coli in both the spring (62%, 13/21) and the fall (52%, 11/21). Other bacteria were detected only in the spring water specimens, including E. coli O157 (29%, 6/21), Salmonella (5%, 1/21), and Campylobacter (52%, 11/21). Generic E. coli was frequently isolated from soil specimens (30%, 27/88), but E. coli O157 was not found in soil samples obtained in the spring and was only occasionally detected in the fall samples (9%, 3/32). Salmonella were occasionally found in the soil specimens collected in the spring (3%, 2/56), but not in the fall season (0/32). Campylobacter jejuni was frequent in cattle manure (66%, 1070/1623), but rare in carcass and environmental samples. E. coli O157 and Salmonella were rarely detected in cattle or the environment. Generic E. coli and Salmonella were rarely detected on carcasses.

  6. Characterizing odors from cattle feedlots with different odor techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect local communities. The purpose of this study was to characterize odors and odorants using different odor sampling techniques. Odors were characterized with field olfactometers (Nasal Ranger®), sensory techniques (GC-O) and analytical techniques (sorbent t...

  7. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  8. Coarse particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots in Australia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Flesch, T K; Chen, D; Crenna, B; Denmead, O T; Naylor, T; Rowell, D

    2010-01-01

    Open cattle feedlots are a source of air pollutants that include particular matter (PM). Over 24 h, exposure to ambient concentrations of 50 microg m(-3) of the coarse-sized fraction PM (aerodynamic diameter <10 microm [PM(10)]) is recognized as a health concern for humans. The objective of our study was to document PM(10) concentration and emissions at two cattle feedlots in Australia over several days in summer. Two automated samplers were used to monitor the background and in-feedlot PM(10) concentrations. At the in-feedlot location, the PM(10) emission was calculated using a dispersion model. Our measurements revealed that the 24-h PM(10) concentrations on some of the days approached or exceeded the health criteria threshold of 50 microg m(-3) used in Australia. A key factor responsible for the generation of PM(10) was the increased activity of cattle in the evening that coincided with peak concentrations of PM(10) (maximum, 792 microg m(-3)) between 1930 and 2000 h. Rain coincided with a severe decline in PM(10) concentration and emission. A dispersion model used in our study estimated the emission of PM(10) between 31 and 60 g animal(-1) d(-1). These data contribute to needed information on PM(10) associated with livestock to develop results-based environmental policy.

  9. Environmental impact of new feeding choices in the feedlot industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feedlot industry is adapting to an economic environment that has fundamentally changed because of high corn prices. Developing strategies to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and reduce costs are important. Uses of agricultural commodity products for alternative fuels are rapidly incr...

  10. Performance of four stabilization bioprocesses of beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Lorin, Higor E Francisconi; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Cestonaro, Taiana; Pereira, Dercio C; Bernardi, Francieli H

    2016-10-01

    The biological stabilization of beef cattle manure is crucial for promoting sanitation in feedlot pens. This study compared the performance of composting, vermicomposting, static windrows, and anaerobic digestion for stabilization of beef cattle feedlot manure based on the degradation of organic matter, nutrient retention, and stability of the final product in each process using uni- and multivariate analysis. The cluster analysis showed that composting and vermicomposting were the most similar processes. The principal component analysis showed that the more oxidative processes (composting and vermicomposting) degraded beef cattle feedlot manure more effectively (up to 45%) than static windrows and anaerobic digestion. Stabilization processes did not affect the amount of phosphorus, whereas potassium losses ranged from 3% (anaerobic digestion) to 30% (static windrow) and differed significantly across processes. Electrical conductivity decreased only in static windrow (30%). A decrease in the C/N ratio were observed in all processes, but the reduction was smaller in static windrow (5%). Larger reductions in C/N ratio were associated with greater increases in the humic to fulvic acid ratio. Composting and vermicomposting processes more effectively degraded beef cattle manure and produced stable organic fertilizers. Anaerobic digestion more effectively retained macronutrients (N and K) and converted organic N to ammonium. The use of static windrows is the least effective bioprocess for the stabilization of beef cattle feedlot manure. PMID:27415410

  11. Management practices associated with conception rate and service rate of lactating Holstein cows in large, commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schefers, J M; Weigel, K A; Rawson, C L; Zwald, N R; Cook, N B

    2010-04-01

    Data from lactating Holstein cows in herds that participate in a commercial progeny testing program were analyzed to explain management factors associated with herd-average conception and service rates on large commercial dairies. On-farm herd management software was used as the source of data related to production, reproduction, culling, and milk quality for 108 herds. Also, a survey regarding management, facilities, nutrition, and labor was completed on 86 farms. A total of 41 explanatory variables related to management factors and conditions that could affect conception and service rate were considered in this study. Models explaining conception and service rates were developed using a machine learning algorithm for constructing model trees. The most important explanatory variables associated with conception rate were the percentage of repeated inseminations between 4 and 17 d post-artificial insemination, stocking density in the breeding pen, length of the voluntary waiting period, days at pregnancy examination, and somatic cell score. The most important explanatory variables associated with service rate were the number of lactating cows per breeding technician, use of a resynchronization program, utilization of soakers in the holding area during the summer, and bunk space per cow in the breeding pen. The aforementioned models explained 35% and 40% of the observed variation in conception rate and service rate, respectively, and underline the association of herd-level management factors not strictly related to reproduction with herd reproductive performance.

  12. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Shridhar, Pragathi B.; Noll, Lance W.; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G.; Bai, J.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar’s test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  13. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Bai, J; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar's test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  14. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Bai, J; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar's test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  15. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

  16. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. Nataraja

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed.

  17. Effect of Direct-Fed Microbial Dosage on the Fecal Concentrations of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M

    2016-04-01

    Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, preharvest intervention strategies have been implemented with the aim to reduce EHEC in cattle. One class of interventions that has been widely used in feedlots is direct-fed microbials (DFMs), which can contain various dosing rates of probiotic bacteria. Here we compare the use of two different doses of a commercially available DFM on total EHEC load in a commercial feedlot setting. The DFMs used were the standard 10(9) Propionibacterium freudenreichii and 10(6) Lactobacillus acidophilus colony forming units (CFUs)/head/day dose of Bovamine(®) (Nutrition Physiology Company, Guymon, OK) and the higher dose, Bovamine Defend™ (Nutrition Physiology Company), which is dosed at 10(9) P. freudenreichii and 10(9) Lactobacillus acidophilus CFUs/head/day. To analyze the total EHEC fecal concentration, 2200 head of cattle were assigned a DFM feed regimen lasting approximately 5 months. At harvest, 480 head of cattle were sampled using rectoanal mucosal swabs. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay targeting ecf1 was used to enumerate the total EHEC fecal concentration for 240 head fed the low-dose DFM and 240 head fed the high-dose DFM. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the fecal concentration of total EHEC was observed between the two doses. This suggests that using an increased dosage provides no additional reduction in the total EHEC fecal concentration of feedlot cattle compared to the standard dosage. PMID:26974651

  18. Effect of Direct-Fed Microbial Dosage on the Fecal Concentrations of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M

    2016-04-01

    Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, preharvest intervention strategies have been implemented with the aim to reduce EHEC in cattle. One class of interventions that has been widely used in feedlots is direct-fed microbials (DFMs), which can contain various dosing rates of probiotic bacteria. Here we compare the use of two different doses of a commercially available DFM on total EHEC load in a commercial feedlot setting. The DFMs used were the standard 10(9) Propionibacterium freudenreichii and 10(6) Lactobacillus acidophilus colony forming units (CFUs)/head/day dose of Bovamine(®) (Nutrition Physiology Company, Guymon, OK) and the higher dose, Bovamine Defend™ (Nutrition Physiology Company), which is dosed at 10(9) P. freudenreichii and 10(9) Lactobacillus acidophilus CFUs/head/day. To analyze the total EHEC fecal concentration, 2200 head of cattle were assigned a DFM feed regimen lasting approximately 5 months. At harvest, 480 head of cattle were sampled using rectoanal mucosal swabs. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay targeting ecf1 was used to enumerate the total EHEC fecal concentration for 240 head fed the low-dose DFM and 240 head fed the high-dose DFM. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the fecal concentration of total EHEC was observed between the two doses. This suggests that using an increased dosage provides no additional reduction in the total EHEC fecal concentration of feedlot cattle compared to the standard dosage.

  19. Transport of pollutants from cow feedlots in eastern Colorado into Rocky Mountain alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, S.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), also called factory farms, are known for raising tens of millions head of livestock including cows (beef and dairy), swine, and poultry. With as many as 250 head of cattle per acre, a United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) report showed beef cattle from CAFOs in the United States produce as much as 24.1 million tons of manure annually. Gases released from cow manure include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and ammonia (NH3). During boreal summers Colorado experiences fewer synoptic weather systems, allowing the diurnal cycle to exert greater control of meteorological events along the mountain-plains interface. Anabatic, or upslope winds induced by the diurnal cycle, contribute largely to the transport of gases and particulates from feedlots in eastern Colorado into the Rocky Mountains, presenting a potential harm to natural alpine ecosystems. This study focuses on locating the source of transport of gases from feedlots along the eastern Front Range of Colorado into alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains. Source regions are approximated using backward time simulation of a Lagrangian Transport model.

  20. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Escherichia coli O157 isolates from Kansas feedlots.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Shi, X; Sanderson, M W; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157 genetic types within and among feedlots using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to separate XbaI-digested DNA. The study population consisted of 300 pens of cattle in 30 feedlots in Kansas that were sampled (feces, water, and water sediment) within a month of being shipped for slaughter. The prevalence of E. coli O157 was 8.5% in feces, 3.1% in water, and 4.5% in water sediment samples. A total of 424 E. coli O157 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 139 subtypes (100% Dice similarity with no band differences) were identified. The majority of subtypes (70/139) was identified only once, but nine were identified 10 or more times. Identical subtypes were recovered from both feces and water tanks in 10 feedlots. The majority of subtypes were identified in only one feedlot, and the number of subtypes ranged from one to 23 within a feedlot and from one to seven within a pen. There were 10 feedlots with at least 15 positive samples. In these 10 feedlots, the most common subtype accounted for 16.9-78.6% of the isolates. Common subtypes differed among feedlots. In eight of the 10 feedlots, the most common subtype was identified in multiple pens. The results support a complex ecology for E. coli O157 in feedlot operations, with factors associated with exposure and transmission likely acting at a common level for multiple feedlots, within feedlots, and within pens of cattle.

  1. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Clawson, Michael L

    2011-05-01

    The surface of beef cattle feedlot pens is commonly conceptualized as being packed uncomposted manure. Despite the important role that the feedlot pen may play in the transmission of veterinary and zoonotic pathogens, the bacterial ecology of feedlot surface material is not well understood. Our present study characterized the bacterial communities of the beef cattle feedlot pen surface material using 3647 full-length 16S rDNA sequences, and we compared the community composition of feedlot pens to the fecal source material. The feedlot surface composite was represented by members of the phylum Actinobacteria (42%), followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (24%), and Proteobacteria (9%). The feedlot pen surface material bacterial communities were clearly distinct from those of the feces from animals in the same pen. Comparisons with previously published results of feces from the animals in the same pen reveal that, of 139 genera identified, only 25 were present in both habitats. These results indicate that, microbiologically, the feedlot pen surface material is separate and distinct from the fecal source material, suggesting that bacteria that originate in cattle feces face different selection pressures and survival challenges during their tenure in the feedlot pen, as compared to their residence in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes in wastewater lagoons at cattle feedlots with different antibiotic use strategies.

    PubMed

    Peak, Nicholas; Knapp, Charles W; Yang, Richard K; Hanfelt, Margery M; Smith, Marilyn S; Aga, Diana S; Graham, David W

    2007-01-01

    The abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tet(B) and tet(L), were quantified over time in wastewater lagoons at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to assess how feedlot operation affects resistance genes in downstream surface waters. Eight lagoons at five cattle feedlots in the Midwestern United States were monitored for 6 months. Resistance and 16S-rRNA gene abundances were quantified using real-time PCR, and physicochemical lagoon conditions, tetracycline levels, and other factors (e.g. feedlot size and weather conditions) were monitored over time. Lagoons were sorted according to antibiotic use practice at each site, and designated as 'no-use', 'mixed-use' or 'high-use' for comparison. High-use lagoons had significantly higher detected resistance gene levels (tet(R); 2.8 x 10(6) copies ml(-1)) relative to no-use lagoons (5.1 x 10(3) copies ml(-1); P < 0.01) and mixed-use lagoons (7.3 x 10(5) copies ml(-1); P = 0.076). Bivariate correlation analysis on pooled data (n = 54) confirmed that tet(R) level strongly correlated with feedlot area (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) and 'total' bacterial 16S-rRNA gene level in each lagoon (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), which are both characteristic of large CAFOs. tet(M) was the most commonly detected gene, both in absolute number and normalized to 16S-rRNA gene level, although tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W) levels were also high in the mixed and high-use lagoons. Finally, resistance gene levels were highly seasonal with abundances being 10-100 times greater in the autumn versus the summer. Results show that antibiotic use strategy strongly affects both the abundance and seasonal distribution of resistance genes in associated lagoons, which has implications on water quality and feedlot management practices. PMID:17227419

  3. Abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes in wastewater lagoons at cattle feedlots with different antibiotic use strategies.

    PubMed

    Peak, Nicholas; Knapp, Charles W; Yang, Richard K; Hanfelt, Margery M; Smith, Marilyn S; Aga, Diana S; Graham, David W

    2007-01-01

    The abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tet(B) and tet(L), were quantified over time in wastewater lagoons at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to assess how feedlot operation affects resistance genes in downstream surface waters. Eight lagoons at five cattle feedlots in the Midwestern United States were monitored for 6 months. Resistance and 16S-rRNA gene abundances were quantified using real-time PCR, and physicochemical lagoon conditions, tetracycline levels, and other factors (e.g. feedlot size and weather conditions) were monitored over time. Lagoons were sorted according to antibiotic use practice at each site, and designated as 'no-use', 'mixed-use' or 'high-use' for comparison. High-use lagoons had significantly higher detected resistance gene levels (tet(R); 2.8 x 10(6) copies ml(-1)) relative to no-use lagoons (5.1 x 10(3) copies ml(-1); P < 0.01) and mixed-use lagoons (7.3 x 10(5) copies ml(-1); P = 0.076). Bivariate correlation analysis on pooled data (n = 54) confirmed that tet(R) level strongly correlated with feedlot area (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) and 'total' bacterial 16S-rRNA gene level in each lagoon (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), which are both characteristic of large CAFOs. tet(M) was the most commonly detected gene, both in absolute number and normalized to 16S-rRNA gene level, although tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W) levels were also high in the mixed and high-use lagoons. Finally, resistance gene levels were highly seasonal with abundances being 10-100 times greater in the autumn versus the summer. Results show that antibiotic use strategy strongly affects both the abundance and seasonal distribution of resistance genes in associated lagoons, which has implications on water quality and feedlot management practices.

  4. The effects of technology use in feedlot production systems on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C L; Bernhard, B C; O'Neill, C F; Wilson, B K; Hixon, C G; Haviland, C L; Grimes, A N; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feedlot production systems with and without the use of a β-adrenergic agonist compared to an all-natural production program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Crossbred beef steers ( = 336; initial BW = 379 ± 8 kg) were randomized to 1 of 3 treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD; 14 steers/pen; 8 pens/treatment). Treatments consisted of an all-natural treatment (NAT), a conventional treatment (CONV), and a conventional treatment with a β-agonist (CONV-Z). All treatments were fed the same basal diet with NAT cattle receiving no growth promoting technologies. The CONV and CONV-Z cattle were implanted with 40 mg of estradiol and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA) on d 0 and were fed 33 and 9 mg/kg of monensin and tylosin daily, respectively. The CONV-Z cattle were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) at 6.76 mg/kg (90% DM basis) for the last 20 days on feed (DOF) There was no effect of treatment on DMI ( = 0.83); however, CONV-Z steers gained 3.8% faster (1.64 vs. 1.58 kg/d; < 0.01) and were 5.3% more efficient (0.160 vs. 0.152; < 0.01) than CONV steers, and CONV steers gained 32.8% faster (1.58 vs. 1.19 kg/d; < 0.01) and were 26.7% more efficient (0.152 vs. 0.120; < 0.01) than NAT steers. There was a 35.7% improvement in estimated carcass gain (1.29 vs. 0.95 kg/d; < 0.01) and a 32.6% improvement in carcass efficiency (0.126 vs. 0.095; < 0.01) for CONV-Z steers compared to NAT steers. Hot carcass weight was increased by 8 kg for CONV-Z steers compared to CONV steers (394 vs. 386 kg; = 0.05) and 46 kg compared to NAT steers (394 vs. 348 kg; < 0.01). Longissimus muscle area was increased by 3.6 cm for CONV-Z steers compared to CONV steers (92.29 vs. 88.67 cm; = 0.02) and 12.1 cm for CONV-Z steers compared to NAT steers (92.29 vs. 80.16 cm; < 0.01), resulting in a 9.6% unit increase in USDA yield grade (YG) 1 (15.14 vs. 5.52%; < 0.05) and a 21.6% unit reduction in USDA YG 3 for

  5. Effects of prenatal androgenization, melengestrol acetate, and Synovex-H on feedlot performance, carcass, and sensory traits of once-calved heifers.

    PubMed

    Reiling, B A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Nash, T G; Ireland, F A

    1996-09-01

    Three studies were designed using a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments within each experiment to evaluate the effects of various management techniques on growth and carcass traits of once-calved heifers. In Exp. 1, 33 yearling (16 control [C] and 17 prenatally androgenized [PA]) and 39 once-calved (20 C and 19 PA) nonpregnant heifers were used to evaluate the effects of age and PA. Once-calved heifers were approximately 31 kg heavier (P < .03) on-test, initially consumed 11% more (P < .01) DM, and gained 11% faster (P < .08), but had similar (P = .44) gain to feed ratios (.138 vs. .131) as yearlings. Growth performance was not affected by PA. The yearling and once-calved heifers were then slaughtered at approximately 707 and 1,080 d of age, respectively. Despite maturity differences (P < .01), marbling scores (P = .26) and percentage of choice carcasses (P = .27) were similar. However, on the basis of newly accepted grading changes, percentage of once-calved heifer carcasses grading choice decreased from 57.3 to 34.4%. Organoleptic properties did not differ. Experiments 2 and 3 were then conducted to evaluate effects of commercially available products (melengestrol acetate [MGA] and Synovex-H) on feedlot characteristics of heifers following weaning of their first calf. In Exp. 2, 48 once-calved Simmental-based heifers were fed during the summer to a constant compositional fat thickness of .8 cm. Experiment 3 was conducted in the late fall and early winter, during which 52 moderately sized heifers were fed for 116 d postweaning and slaughtered. Performance of heifers in Exp. 2 was not affected by MGA. However, heifers fed MGA in Exp. 3 gained 9% faster (P < .05) than controls. In Exp. 2, Synovex-H tended to improve ADG (P < .09) and feed efficiency (P < .07), but did not affect performance in Exp. 3. Most carcass traits were not affected by either treatment. Nonpregnant, once-calved heifers seem to have a large capacity for efficient weight gain as compared

  6. Comparison of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium for the treatment of relapse of undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Schunicht, Oliver C.; Wildman, Brian K.; Hannon, Sherry J.; Jim, G. Kee; Ward, Tracy I.; Booker, Calvin W.

    2012-01-01

    This commercial field trial compared the efficacy of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium in beef cattle at high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (UF), also known as bovine respiratory disease (BRD) that received tilmicosin at feedlot arrival, were diagnosed and initially treated for UF with tilmicosin, and subsequently required a second UF treatment (first relapse). Feedlot cattle (n = 463) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups: ENRO or CEF. Second UF relapse, 3rd UF relapse, overall case fatality and BRD case fatality rates were lower in the ENRO group than in the CEF group (P < 0.05). There were no differences in average daily gain (allocation to re-implant date), chronicity, histophilosis case fatality or miscellaneous case fatality rates between the groups (P ≥ 0.05). A per-animal economic advantage of Can$57.08 was calculated for the ENRO group versus the CEF group. In feedlot cattle in western Canada at high risk of developing UF, it was more cost effective to administer enrofloxacin than ceftiofur sodium for treatment of UF relapse. PMID:22753964

  7. Nutrient concentrations of runoff as affected by the diameter of unconsolidated material from feedlot surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated material that accumulates on the feedlot surface during a feeding cycle. This study was conducted to measure the effects of varying diameters of unconsolidated surface material and varying flow rates on nutrient concentrations in runoff. Unconsolidated sur...

  8. Ammonia Emission from a Beef Cattle Feedlot and Its Local Dry Deposition and Re-Emission.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Janzen, H H; Coates, T W; Beauchemin, K A; Flesch, T K

    2016-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatized from livestock manure is affiliated with ecosystem and human health concerns and decreased fertilizer value of manure and can also be an indirect source of greenhouse gas. Beef cattle feedlots, where thousands of cattle are grouped together to enable greater control of feed management and production, are hot spots in the agricultural landscape for NH emissions. Quantifying the feedlot NH emissions is a difficult task, partly due to the reactive nature of NH within and surrounding the feedlot. Our study used a dispersion model coupled to field measurements to derive NH emissions from a feedlot in southern Alberta, Canada. The average feedlot NH emission was 50 μg m s (85 g animal d), which coincides with a low dietary crude protein content. At a location 165 m east of the feedlot, a flux gradient (FG) technique measured an average NH deposition of 12.0 μg m s (west wind) and 5.3 μg m s (east wind). Ammonia FG emission averaged 1 μg m s with east winds, whereas no NH emission was found for west wind. Using soil-captured NH, there was a decrease in deposition with distance from the feedlot (50% over 200 m). Collectively, the results of this study provide insight into the dynamics of NH in the agricultural landscape and illustrate the need for NH mitigation to improve the environmental and economic sustainability of cattle feedlots.

  9. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with animal and treatment information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) occurring in the feedlot represent the major disease entity during the feeding period. Several bacteria, viruses, and Mycoplasma spp. are reported as causative agents. Feedlot BRD may occur at various times, although the early disease appearing after arrival and pro...

  10. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with animal and treatment information.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) occurring in the feedlot represent the major, if not the most important, disease entities during the feeding period. Several bacteria, viruses, Mycoplasma spp.are reported as causative agents. The feedlot BRD may occur at varied times, although the ear...

  11. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  12. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Booker, Calvin W.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Pittman, Tom J.; Perrett, Tye

    2007-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in central Nebraska to assess the relative efficacy of tulathromycin (TULA) to florfenicol (FLOR) for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in feedlot calves that did not receive a metaphylactic antimicrobial or vaccines/bacterins containing Mannheimia haemolytica or Histophilus somni at feedlot arrival by comparing animal health, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristic variables. Two hundred recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef calves that met the study-specific case definition of UF were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 experimental groups as follows: TULA, which received tulathromycin administered subcutaneously at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) once at the time of allocation; or FLOR, which received florfenicol administered subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg BW once at the time of allocation. In terms of animal health, the first UF relapse (RR = 0.65), overall mortality (RR = 0.33), and BRD mortality (RR = 0.29) rates in the TULA group were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than in the FLOR group. There were no significant (P = 0.05) differences between the TULA and FLOR groups for the other animal health variables measured. There was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) difference in average daily gain between the TULA and FLOR groups. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in the overall distributions of quality grade and yield grade between the experimental groups; however, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportion of carcasses in the TULA group graded yield grade USDA-4 as compared with the FLOR group. In the economic analysis, the benefits observed resulted in an economic advantage of $52.50 USD/animal in the TULA group due to lower first UF relapse and overall mortality rates, even though the occurrence of yield grade USDA-4 carcasses increased and the initial UF treatment cost was higher. PMID:17616056

  13. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  14. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m−2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head−1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head−1 yr−1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots. PMID:26584639

  15. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Denmead, Owen T; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-20

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m(-2) lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head(-1) in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head(-1) yr(-1), based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  16. Predicting cumulative risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) using feedlot arrival data and daily morbidity and mortality counts

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Abram H.; White, Brad J.; Renter, David G.; Dubnicka, Suzanne R.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Although bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is common in post-weaning cattle, BRDC prediction models are seldom analyzed. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability to predict cumulative cohort-level BRDC morbidity using on-arrival risk factors and to evaluate whether or not adding BRDC risk classification and daily BRDC morbidity and mortality data to the models enhanced their predictive ability. Retrospective cohort-level and individual animal health data were used to create mixed negative binomial regression (MNBR) models for predicting cumulative risk of BRDC morbidity. Logistic regression models were used to illustrate that the percentage of correctly (within |5%| of actual) classified cohorts increased across days, but the effect of day was modified by arrival weight, arrival month, and feedlot. Cattle arriving in April had the highest (77%) number of lots correctly classified at arrival and cattle arriving in December had the lowest (28%). Classification accuracy at arrival varied according to initial weight, ranging from 17% (< 182 kg) to 91% (> 409 kg). Predictive accuracy of the models improved from 64% at arrival to 74% at 8 days on feed (DOF) when risk code was known compared to 56% accuracy at arrival and 69% at 8 DOF when risk classification was not known. The results of this study demonstrate how the predictive ability of models can be improved by utilizing more refined data on the prior history of cohorts, thus making these models more useful to operators of commercial feedlots. PMID:23814354

  17. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m-2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head-1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head-1 yr-1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Recovered from Feedlot Cattle and Associations with Antimicrobial Use

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Katharine M.; Gow, Sheryl P.; McAllister, Tim A.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hannon, Sherry J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Noyes, Noelle R.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to investigate the associations between exposures to antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and AMR in fecal non-type specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) recovered from a large population of feedlot cattle. Two-stage random sampling was used to select individually identified cattle for enrollment, which were sampled at arrival and then a second time later in the feeding period. Advanced regression techniques were used to estimate resistance prevalences, and to investigate associations between AMD exposures in enrolled cattle and penmates and AMR identified in NTSEC recovered from the second sample set. Resistance was most commonly detected to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole, and was rarely identified for critically important AMDs. All cattle were exposed to AMDs in feed, and 45% were treated parenterally. While resistance prevalence generally increased during the feeding period, most AMD exposures were not significantly associated with AMR outcomes. Exposures of enrolled cattle to tetracycline were associated with increased resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim sulfa, while beta-lactam exposures were associated with decreased likelihood of detecting streptomycin resistance. Pen-level AMD exposure measures were not associated with resistance outcomes. These findings suggest that tetracycline treatment of feedlot cattle can be associated with modest increases in risk for recovery of resistant NTSEC, but the numerous treatments with an advanced macrolide (tulathromycin) were not associated with detectable increases in resistance in NTSEC. All cattle were exposed to in-feed treatments of tetracycline and this could limit the ability to identify the full impact of these exposures, but these exposures varied for enrolled cattle varied, providing an opportunity to evaluate a dose response. While AMD exposures were not associated with detectably increased risks for

  19. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  20. Ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scale

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sasche, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo; Zondlo, Mark A.; Pan, Da

    2015-09-27

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv–1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20–30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. As a result, our analyses have

  1. The development of industry-specific odor impact criteria for feedlots using models.

    PubMed

    Henry, Chris G; Watts, Peter J; Nicholas, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    Emissions from feedlot operations are known to vary by environmental conditions and few if any techniques or models exist to predict the variability of odor emission rates from feedlots. The purpose of this paper is to outline and summarize unpublished reports that are the result of a collective effort to develop industry-specific odor impact criteria for Australian feedlots. This effort used over 250 olfactometry samples collected with a wind tunnel and past research to develop emission models for pads, sediment basins, holding ponds, and manure storage areas over a range of environmental conditions and tested using dynamic olfactometry. A process was developed to integrate these emission models into odor dispersion modeling for the development of impact criteria. The approach used a feedlot hydrology model to derive daily feedlot pad moisture, temperature, and thickness. A submodel converted these daily data to hourly data. A feedlot pad emissions model was developed that predicts feedlot pad emissions as a function of temperature, moisture content, and pad depth. Emissions from sediment basins and holding ponds were predicted using a basin emissions model as a function of days since rain, inflow volume, inflow ratio (pond volume), and temperature. This is the first attempt to model all odor source emissions from a feedlot as variable hourly emissions on the basis of climate, management, and site-specific conditions. Results from the holding pond, sediment basin, and manure storage emission models performed well, but additional work on the pad emissions model may be warranted. This methodology mimics the variable odor emissions and odor impact expected from feedlots due to climate and management effects. The main outcome of the work is the recognition that an industry-specific odor impact criterion must be expressed in terms of all of the components of the assessment methodology.

  2. Associations between weather conditions during the first 45 days after feedlot arrival and daily respiratory disease risks in autumn-placed feeder cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; White, B J; Babcock, A H; Fox, J T

    2012-04-01

    Data on associations between weather conditions and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity in autumn-placed feedlot cattle are sparse. The goal of our study was to quantify how different weather variables during corresponding lag periods (considering up to 7 d before the day of disease measure) were associated with daily BRD incidence during the first 45 d of the feeding period based on a post hoc analysis of existing feedlot operational data. Our study population included 1,904 cohorts of feeder cattle (representing 288,388 total cattle) that arrived to 9 US commercial feedlots during September to November in 2005 to 2007. There were 24,947 total cases of initial respiratory disease (animals diagnosed by the feedlots with BRD and subsequently treated with an antimicrobial). The mean number of BRD cases during the study period (the first 45 d after arrival) was 0.3 cases per day per cohort (range = 0 to 53.0), and cumulative BRD incidence risks ranged from 0 to 36% within cattle cohorts. Data were analyzed with a multivariable mixed-effects binomial regression model. Results indicate that several weather factors (maximum wind speed, mean wind chill temperature, and temperature change in different lag periods) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increased daily BRD incidence, but their effects depended on several cattle demographic factors (month of arrival, BRD risk code, BW class, and cohort size). In addition, month and year of arrival, sex of the cohort, days on feed, mean BW of the cohort at entry, predicted BRD risk designation of the cohort (high or low risk), cohort size, and the interaction between BRD risk code and arrival year were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with daily BRD incidence. Our results demonstrate that weather conditions are significantly associated with BRD risk in populations of feedlot cattle. Defining these conditions for specific cattle populations may enable cattle health managers to predict and potentially manage

  3. Associations between weather conditions during the first 45 days after feedlot arrival and daily respiratory disease risks in autumn-placed feeder cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; White, B J; Babcock, A H; Fox, J T

    2012-04-01

    Data on associations between weather conditions and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity in autumn-placed feedlot cattle are sparse. The goal of our study was to quantify how different weather variables during corresponding lag periods (considering up to 7 d before the day of disease measure) were associated with daily BRD incidence during the first 45 d of the feeding period based on a post hoc analysis of existing feedlot operational data. Our study population included 1,904 cohorts of feeder cattle (representing 288,388 total cattle) that arrived to 9 US commercial feedlots during September to November in 2005 to 2007. There were 24,947 total cases of initial respiratory disease (animals diagnosed by the feedlots with BRD and subsequently treated with an antimicrobial). The mean number of BRD cases during the study period (the first 45 d after arrival) was 0.3 cases per day per cohort (range = 0 to 53.0), and cumulative BRD incidence risks ranged from 0 to 36% within cattle cohorts. Data were analyzed with a multivariable mixed-effects binomial regression model. Results indicate that several weather factors (maximum wind speed, mean wind chill temperature, and temperature change in different lag periods) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increased daily BRD incidence, but their effects depended on several cattle demographic factors (month of arrival, BRD risk code, BW class, and cohort size). In addition, month and year of arrival, sex of the cohort, days on feed, mean BW of the cohort at entry, predicted BRD risk designation of the cohort (high or low risk), cohort size, and the interaction between BRD risk code and arrival year were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with daily BRD incidence. Our results demonstrate that weather conditions are significantly associated with BRD risk in populations of feedlot cattle. Defining these conditions for specific cattle populations may enable cattle health managers to predict and potentially manage

  4. Manipulating grain processing method and roughage level to improve feed efficiency in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, O A; Szasz, J I; Koers, W C; Davis, M S; Vander Pol, K J

    2010-01-01

    The effects of feeding finishing diets containing whole corn with no roughage on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers were evaluated in 6 trials conducted at commercial research facilities (Bos Technica Research Services Inc., Salina, KS) in the Southern Plains of the United States. One hundred and two feedlot pens containing 6,895 steers were represented. All trials were designed as randomized complete blocks with pen serving as the experimental unit. Steers were fed and managed similarly across all trials. Treatments consisted of a typical control finishing diet with various grain sources and processing methods that contained roughage and a finishing diet containing whole corn (8 to 23% of diet DM) but without added roughage. Final BW was greater (P < 0.1) for steers fed typical finishing diets than for steers fed whole corn diets without roughage in 5 of the 6 trials. Feeding finishing diets containing whole corn but without roughage resulted in decreased (P < 0.1) ADG and carcass ADG in 5 of the 6 trials. However, DMI also was less (P < 0.1) for steers fed whole corn finishing diets without roughage in all trials such that feeding whole corn diets without roughage improved (P < 0.05) G:F (BW basis) in 2 of the 6 trials, and improved (P < 0.1) G:F based on carcass weight in 5 of the 6 trials. Dry matter intake as a percentage of BW daily across trials was well predicted from percentage of dietary NDF from roughage, being 1.906 + 0.0199 (+/-0.0012) NDF (P < 0.05). Performance-based NE(g) content of the diet was greater (P < 0.07) for steers fed whole corn diets without roughage. Differences in USDA yield and quality grades were inconsistent. Results indicate that feeding diets containing whole corn with no added roughage tends to decrease DMI and ADG in finishing steers, but improves feed efficiency and performance-calculated dietary NE(g).

  5. Survey of large circular and octagonal tanks operated at Norwegian commercial smolt and post-smolt sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted to determine the geometry, operating parameters, and other key features of large circular or octagonal culture tanks used to produce Atlantic salmon smolt and post-smolt at six major Norwegian Atlantic salmon production companies. A total of 55 large tanks were reported at sev...

  6. Effect of age at feedlot entry on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls and steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Turner, T B

    2002-09-01

    Seventy Angus x Simmental calves (BW = 166.3 +/- 4.2 kg) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement to determine the effect of age at feedlot entry and castration on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics. At 82 d of age, steers were castrated. Calves were placed in the feedlot at 111 (early-weaned), 202, or 371 (yearling) d of age. Steers were implanted with Synovex-S followed 93 d later with Revalor-S. Calves were harvested on an individual basis when fat thickness was estimated to be 1.27 cm. During the feedlot phase, yearlings gained faster (P < 0.01) than calves placed in the feedlot at 202 or 111 d of age (1.88, 1.68, and 1.62 kg/d, respectively); however, from 111 d of age until harvest, ADG was greatest for early-weaned calves, intermediate for cattle placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age, and lowest for yearlings (1.62, 1.47, and 1.21 kg/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Early-weaned calves spent the most days in the feedlot, followed by calves placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age; yearlings spent the fewest days in the feedlot (221, 190, and 163 d, respectively; P < 0.01). Total DMI when in the feedlot was similar (P = 0.22) among age groups; however, daily DMI was lowest for early-weaned calves, intermediate for calves placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age, and the highest for yearlings (7.1, 8.1, 10.5 kg/ d, respectively; P < 0.01). Early-weaned calves were the most efficient, followed by calves placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age; yearlings were the least efficient (227, 207, 180 g gain/kg feed, respectively; P < 0.01). Weight at harvest (682, 582, 517 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) and hot carcass weight (413, 358, 314 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) were greatest for yearlings, intermediate for cattle placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age, and lowest for early-weaned calves. Early-weaned calves had the smallest longissimus area, followed by calves placed in the feed-lot at 202 d of age; yearlings had the largest longissimus area (77, 86, 88 cm2

  7. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    MacVean, D.W.; Franzen, D.K.; Keefe, T.J.; Bennett, B.W.

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring.

  8. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2015-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera’s 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs’ male clients. PMID:26778847

  9. Dramatic increase in the relative abundance of large male dungeness crabs Cancer magister following closure of commercial fishing in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; O'Clair, C. E.; Mondragon, J.

    2004-01-01

    The size structure of the population of the Dungeness crab Cancer magister was studied at six sites in or near Glacier Bay, Alaska, before and after the closure of commercial fishing. Seven years of preclosure and 4 years of postclosure data are presented. After the closure of Glacier Bay to commercial fishing, the number and size of legal-sized male Dungeness crabs increased dramatically at the experimental sites. Female and sublegal-sized male crabs, the portions of the population not directly targeted by commercial fishing, did not increase in size or abundance following the closure. There was not a large shift in the size-abundance distribution of male crabs at the control site that is still open to commercial fishing. Marine protected areas are being widely promoted as effective tools for managing fisheries while simultaneously meeting marine conservation goals and maintaining marine biodiversity. Our data demonstrate that the size of male Dungeness crabs can markedly increase in a marine reserve, which supports the concept that marine reserves could help maintain genetic diversity in Dungeness crabs and other crab species subjected to size-limit fisheries and possibly increase the fertility of females. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  10. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Witcher

    2002-01-02

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State.

  11. Rainfall Driven Sorting of Soils and Manure in Beef Feedlot Pens, Implications for Steroid Hormone Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has documented elevated estrogenic and androgenic activity in surface waters receiving cattle feedlot effluent, while current research shows that significant concentrations of hydrophobic steroid hormones are transported in the solid phase of feedlot pen surface runoff. Accumulated manure in beef feedlot pens includes organic matter ranging from colloidal particles to partially digested feed, forming a complex soil-manure conglomerate at the pen surface. We hypothesized that the transport of solid phase particles in rainfall runoff on beef feedlots would be influenced but not limited by shield layer development. Soils and manure at a beef feedlot were evaluated before and after rainfall-runoff events to determine changes in soil composition and structure. Runoff samples were also collected during an hour of runoff and analyzed for suspended solids. Results indicate that rainfall actively sorts the soil and manure components through raindrop impact, depression storage and runoff. However, transport of solid phase constituents was found to be elevated throughout the hydrograph. This suggests that the surface shield layer conceptualization applied to other soils should be modified before application to the soil-manure conglomerate found in beef feedlot pens.

  12. Scheduled sanitation to reduce stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in beef cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G D; Skoda, S R; Berkebile, D R; Campbell, J B

    1996-04-01

    Sanitation has been long recommended as a means of reducing stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations at cattle feedlots, but there is little published research to support this recommendation. In each of the 2 yr of this study, 4 feedlots received complete sanitation and 4 feedlots received no cleaning. The objective was to have the initial cleaning done before 1 June and then to reclean as needed every 2 wk thereafter. The feedlots that were cleaned had significantly fewer flies than the uncleaned feedlots, with 50.9% fewer stable flies during the 1st yr and 36.2% fewer flies in the 2nd yr. These reductions were realized even though initial cleaning was not done by 1 June in either year: bad weather delayed completion until 20 June the 1st yr and 29 June the 2nd yr. Sanitation at cattle feedlots significantly reduces stable fly populations and sanitation may have been more effective if initial cleaning was done by 1 June.

  13. Transport of trace metals in runoff from soil and pond ash feedlot surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, J.R.; Gilley, J.E.; Cottrell, G.L.; Woodbury, B.L.; Berry, E.D.; Eigenbert, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements, and the runoff water-quality effects of feedlot surfaces amended with pond ash are not well defined. For this study, two experimental units (plots) were established in eight feedlot pens. Four of the pens contained unamended soil surfaces, and the remaining four pens had pond-ash amended surfaces. Before each test, unconsolidated surface material was removed from four of the plots for each of the amendment treatments, resulting in eight unamended plots and eight pond-ash amended plots. Concentrations for 23 trace elements were measured in cattle feedlot surface material and in the runoff water from three simulated rainfall events. Trace element concentrations in surface material and runoff did not differ between surface consolidation treatments. Amending the feedlot surface material with pond ash resulted in a significant increase in concentration for 14 of the 17 trace elements. Runoff concentrations for 21 trace elements were affected by pond-ash amendment. Sixteen of 21 trace element concentrations that differed significantly were greater in runoff from unamended soil surfaces. Concentrations in runoff were significantly correlated with concentrations in feedlot surface material for boron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium.

  14. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  15. A practical overview and comparison of certain commercial forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations. In particular, we focus on the new version of Nuix 4.2 and compare it with AccessData FTK 4.2, X-Ways Forensics 16.9 and Guidance Encase Forensic 7 regarding its performance, functionality, usability and capability. We will show how these software tools work with large forensic images and how capable they are in examining complex and big data scenarios.

  16. Metrics for quantifying antimicrobial use in beef feedlots.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Katharine M; Gow, Sheryl P; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Booker, Calvin W; Morley, Paul S

    2012-08-01

    Accurate antimicrobial drug use data are needed to enlighten discussions regarding the impact of antimicrobial drug use in agriculture. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the perceived accuracy and clarity of different methods for reporting antimicrobial drug use information collected regarding beef feedlots. Producers, veterinarians, industry representatives, public health officials, and other knowledgeable beef industry leaders were invited to complete a web-based survey. A total of 156 participants in 33 US states, 4 Canadian provinces, and 8 other countries completed the survey. No single metric was considered universally optimal for all use circumstances or for all audiences. To effectively communicate antimicrobial drug use data, evaluation of the target audience is critical to presenting the information. Metrics that are most accurate need to be carefully and repeatedly explained to the audience.

  17. Triclosan-resistant bacteria isolated from feedlot and residential soils.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanner T; Gillock, Eric T

    2011-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that is currently incorporated into hundreds of consumer and medical products. It can be either a bacteriostatic or bactericidal agent, depending on its formulation. It has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some viruses and protists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triclosan-resistant bacteria could be isolated from the soil. Soils from cattle feedlots and residential lawns were collected and assayed for the presence of these organisms by plating samples on growth media containing triclosan. Organisms were subsequently identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. All the organisms isolated in this study were Gram-negative rods, with members of genus Pseudomonas being particularly well represented. This result may not be surprising because Gram-negative organisms are generally more resistant to triclosan, and since Pseudomonas bacteria are known to have numerous efflux mechanisms for dealing with harmful substances.

  18. Metrics for quantifying antimicrobial use in beef feedlots

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Katharine M.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Booker, Calvin W.; Morley, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate antimicrobial drug use data are needed to enlighten discussions regarding the impact of antimicrobial drug use in agriculture. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the perceived accuracy and clarity of different methods for reporting antimicrobial drug use information collected regarding beef feedlots. Producers, veterinarians, industry representatives, public health officials, and other knowledgeable beef industry leaders were invited to complete a web-based survey. A total of 156 participants in 33 US states, 4 Canadian provinces, and 8 other countries completed the survey. No single metric was considered universally optimal for all use circumstances or for all audiences. To effectively communicate antimicrobial drug use data, evaluation of the target audience is critical to presenting the information. Metrics that are most accurate need to be carefully and repeatedly explained to the audience. PMID:23372190

  19. The relative economics of feeding open, aborted, pregnant feedlot heifers

    PubMed Central

    Jim, G. Kee; Ribble, Carl S.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Thorlakson, Ben E.

    1991-01-01

    A 90-day finishing trial involving 144 feedlot heifers was conducted to compare the performance parameters and carcass characteristics of open heifers, therapeutically aborted heifers, and pregnant heifers. In the first 28 days of the trial, the aborted heifers had reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (FE) compared to pregnant and open heifers. Over the entire trial, on a live weight basis, the aborted group had reduced (p < 0.05) final weight, ADG, and FE compared to pregnant and open heifers. However, when the data were adjusted for total uterine weight, the aborted and open heifers had improved (p < 0.05) final weight, ADG, and FE compared to pregnant heifers. The aborted and open group had a higher (p < 0.05) carcass weight, rib eye area, dressing percentage, and cutability estimate compared to the pregnant heifers. The aborted group had lower (p < 0.05) carcass weight than the open heifers. Over the entire 90-day feeding period, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups with respect to feed intake (FI), average fat, grade fat, and carcass grades. Also, there were no significant health problems or mortality in any of the groups. In the economic analysis, aborted heifers returned $26.41 per head more than pregnant heifers. Open heifers returned $39.94 per head more than aborted heifers, and $66.35 more than pregnant heifers. Thus, aborting feedlot heifers during the second trimester was determined to be a safe and cost effective management decision. PMID:17423875

  20. Retrospective serosurveillance of bovine norovirus (GIII.2) and nebovirus in cattle from selected feedlots and a veal calf farm in 1999 to 2001 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher; Jung, Kwonil; Han, Myung-Guk; Hoet, Armando; Scheuer, Kelly; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on the seroprevalence of bovine norovirus (BoNoV) and nebovirus in cattle of the US. In this retrospective study, serum IgG antibodies to two bovine enteric caliciviruses, GIII.2 BoNoV (Bo/CV186-OH/00/US) and genetically and antigenically distinct nebovirus (Bo/NB/80/US), were evaluated in feedlot and veal calves from different regions of the US during 1999-2001. Three groups of 6- to 7-month-old feedlot calves from New Mexico (NM) (n=103), Arkansas (AR) (n=100) and Ohio (OH) (n=140) and a group of 7- to 10-day-old Ohio veal calves (n=47) were studied. Serum samples were collected pre-arrival or at arrival to the farms for the NM, AR and OH calves and 35 days after arrival for all groups for monitoring seroconversion rates during the period. Virus-like particles of Bo/CV186-OH/00/US and Bo/NB/80/US were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and were used in ELISA to measure antibodies. A high seroprevalence of 94-100 % and 78-100 % was observed for antibodies to GIII.2 BoNoV and nebovirus, respectively, in the feedlot calves tested. In the Ohio veal farm, an antibody seroprevalence of 94-100 % and 40-66 % was found for GIII.2 BoNoV and nebovirus, respectively. Increased seropositive rates of 38-85 % for GIII.2 BoNoV and 26-83 % for nebovirus were observed at 35 days after arrival and commingling on farms for all groups. Infection of calves with either GIII.2 BoNoV or nebovirus, or both viruses, appeared to be common in the regions studied in the US during 1999-2001. These two viruses likely remain endemic because no commercial vaccines are available.

  1. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of two years, leafy greens were planted to nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 meters from a cattle feedlot (3 plots each distance). Leafy greens, feedlot manure, and bioaerosol ...

  2. Further tests of a model-based scheme for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, W. W.; Levison, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was demonstrated for assessing longitudinal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft on the basis of closed-loop criteria. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling quality problems that included the presence of flexible aircraft modes. Using closed-loop performance requirements derived from task analyses and pilot interviews, predictions of performance/workload tradeoffs were obtained using an analytical pilot/vehicle model. A subsequent manned simulation study yielded objective performance measures and Cooper-Harper pilot ratings that were largely consistent with each other and with analytic predictions.

  3. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ΔNH3:ΔCH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ≈28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and

  4. Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoar, Bruce R; Paul, Robert R; Siembieda, Jennifer; Pereira, Maria das Gracas C; Atwill, Edward R

    2009-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment. PMID:19799795

  5. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing <400kg at induction (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.5-0.7). Animals inducted into feedlots during summer (OR: 2.4, 95% credible interval: 1.4-3.8) and autumn (OR: 2.1, 95% credible interval: 1.2-3.2) were at markedly increased risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  6. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  7. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 hide contamination routes: feedlot to harvest.

    PubMed

    Childs, K D; Simpson, C A; Warren-Serna, W; Bellenger, G; Centrella, B; Bowling, R A; Ruby, J; Stefanek, J; Vote, D J; Choat, T; Scanga, J A; Sofos, J N; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2006-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the origin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination on steer hides at the time of harvest. Samples were collected from the feedlot, transport trailers, and packing plant holding pens and from the colons and hides of feedlot steers. A total of 50 hide samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 in two geographical locations: the Midwest (25 positive hides) and Southwest (25 positive hides). Hide samples were screened, and the presence of E. coli O157: H7 was confirmed. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and subjected to multiplex PCR procedures for amplification of E. coli O157:H7 genes stx1, stx2, eaeA, fliC, rfbEO157, and hlyA. Feedlot water trough, pen floor, feed bunk, loading chute, truck trailer side wall and floor, packing plant holding pen floor and side rail, and packing plant cattle drinking water samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis banding patterns were analyzed after classifying isolates according to the marker genes present and according to packing plant. In this study, hide samples positive for E. coli O157:H7 were traced to other E. coli O157:H7-positive hide, colon, feedlot pen floor fecal, packing plant holding pen drinking water, and transport trailer side wall samples. Links were found between packing plant side rails, feedlot loading chutes, and feedlot pens and between truck trailer, different feedlots, and colons of multiple cattle. This study is the first in which genotypic matches have been made between E. coli O157:H7 isolates obtained from transport trailer side walls and those from cattle hide samples within the packing plant. PMID:16786841

  8. A Systematic Review of Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Focused on Diagnostic Confirmation, Early Detection, and Prediction of Unfavorable Outcomes in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Timsit, Edouard; White, Brad J; Orsel, Karin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of newly arrived feedlot cattle are affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Economic losses could be reduced by accurate, early detection. This review evaluates the available literature regarding BRD confirmatory diagnostic tests, early detection methods, and modalities to estimate post-therapeutic prognosis or predict unfavorable or fatal outcomes. Scientific evidence promotes the use of haptoglobin to confirm BRD status. Feeding behavior, infrared thermography, and reticulorumen boluses are promising methods. Retrospective analyses of routinely collected treatment and cohort data can be used to identify cattle at risk of unfavorable outcome. Other methods have been reviewed but require further study.

  9. Managing thermal stress in feedlot cattle: environment, animal susceptibility and management options from a U.S. perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme summer time conditions can have a devastating impact on livestock, especially those animals who are typically housed outdoors without shelter, such as feedlot cattle. The effect of heat stress on feedlot cattle can vary from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in ...

  10. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine field trial in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Hancock, Dale; Rogan, Dragan; Potter, Andrew A

    2005-08-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in reducing fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in 218 pens of feedlot cattle in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Pens of cattle were vaccinated once at arrival processing and again at reimplanting with either the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a placebo. The E. coli O157:H7 vaccine included 50 microg of type III secreted proteins. Fecal samples were collected from 30 fresh manure patties within each feedlot pen at arrival processing, revaccination at reimplanting, and within 2 wk of slaughter. The mean pen prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was 5.0%; ranging in pens from 0% to 90%, and varying significantly (P < 0.001) among feedlots. There was no significant association (P > 0.20) between vaccination and pen prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 following initial vaccination, at reimplanting, or prior to slaughter.

  11. Environmental sources and transmission of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Berg, J; Potter, A; Hancock, D; Besser, T; Rice, D; LeJeune, J; Klashinsky, S

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2 feedlots in southern Alberta to identify environmental sources and management factors associated with the prevalence and transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated in preslaughter pens of cattle from feces (0.8%), feedbunks (1.7%), water troughs (12%), and incoming water supplies (4.5%), but not from fresh total mixed rations. Fresh total mixed rations did not support the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli from bovine feces following experimental inoculation. Within a feedlot, the feces, water troughs, and feedbunks shared a few indistinguishable subtypes of E. coli O157:H7. A few subtypes were repeatedly isolated in the same feedlot, and the 2 feedlots shared a few indistinguishable subtypes. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in water troughs of preslaughter cattle in 1 feedlot was associated with season, maximum climatic temperatures the week before sampling; total precipitation the week before sampling, and coliform and E. coli counts in the water trough. PMID:11565371

  12. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  13. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  14. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  15. In vivo quantitative imaging of photoassimilate transport dynamics and allocation in large plants using a commercial positron emission tomography (PET) scanner

    DOE PAGES

    Karve, Abhijit A.; Alexoff, David; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Babst, Benjamin A.

    2015-11-09

    Although important aspects of whole-plant carbon allocation in crop plants (e.g., to grain) occur late in development when the plants are large, techniques to study carbon transport and allocation processes have not been adapted for large plants. Positron emission tomography (PET), developed for dynamic imaging in medicine, has been applied in plant studies to measure the transport and allocation patterns of carbohydrates, nutrients, and phytohormones labeled with positron-emitting radioisotopes. However, the cost of PET and its limitation to smaller plants has restricted its use in plant biology. Here we describe the adaptation and optimization of a commercial clinical PET scannermore » to measure transport dynamics and allocation patterns of 11C-photoassimilates in large crops. Based on measurements of a phantom, we optimized instrument settings, including use of 3-D mode and attenuation correction to maximize the accuracy of measurements. To demonstrate the utility of PET, we measured 11C-photoassimilate transport and allocation in Sorghum bicolor, an important staple crop, at vegetative and reproductive stages (40 and 70 days after planting; DAP). The 11C-photoassimilate transport speed did not change over the two developmental stages. However, within a stem, transport speeds were reduced across nodes, likely due to higher 11C-photoassimilate unloading in the nodes. Photosynthesis in leaves and the amount of 11C that was exported to the rest of the plant decreased as plants matured. In young plants, exported 11C was allocated mostly (88 %) to the roots and stem, but in flowering plants (70 DAP) the majority of the exported 11C (64 %) was allocated to the apex. Our results show that commercial PET scanners can be used reliably to measure whole-plant C-allocation in large plants nondestructively including, importantly, allocation to roots in soil. This capability revealed extreme changes in carbon allocation in sorghum plants, as they advanced to maturity

  16. In vivo quantitative imaging of photoassimilate transport dynamics and allocation in large plants using a commercial positron emission tomography (PET) scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Karve, Abhijit A.; Alexoff, David; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Babst, Benjamin A.

    2015-11-09

    Although important aspects of whole-plant carbon allocation in crop plants (e.g., to grain) occur late in development when the plants are large, techniques to study carbon transport and allocation processes have not been adapted for large plants. Positron emission tomography (PET), developed for dynamic imaging in medicine, has been applied in plant studies to measure the transport and allocation patterns of carbohydrates, nutrients, and phytohormones labeled with positron-emitting radioisotopes. However, the cost of PET and its limitation to smaller plants has restricted its use in plant biology. Here we describe the adaptation and optimization of a commercial clinical PET scanner to measure transport dynamics and allocation patterns of 11C-photoassimilates in large crops. Based on measurements of a phantom, we optimized instrument settings, including use of 3-D mode and attenuation correction to maximize the accuracy of measurements. To demonstrate the utility of PET, we measured 11C-photoassimilate transport and allocation in Sorghum bicolor, an important staple crop, at vegetative and reproductive stages (40 and 70 days after planting; DAP). The 11C-photoassimilate transport speed did not change over the two developmental stages. However, within a stem, transport speeds were reduced across nodes, likely due to higher 11C-photoassimilate unloading in the nodes. Photosynthesis in leaves and the amount of 11C that was exported to the rest of the plant decreased as plants matured. In young plants, exported 11C was allocated mostly (88 %) to the roots and stem, but in flowering plants (70 DAP) the majority of the exported 11C (64 %) was allocated to the apex. Our results show that commercial PET scanners can be used reliably to measure whole-plant C-allocation in large plants nondestructively including, importantly, allocation to roots in soil. This capability revealed extreme changes in

  17. Comparison of tulathromycin and tilmicosin on the prevalence and severity of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in association with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Tennant, T C; Ives, S E; Harper, L B; Renter, D G; Lawrence, T E

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify effects of metaphylactic treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and lung lesion prevalence and severity; 2) evaluate the association of lung lesion prevalence and severity with carcass characteristics; and 3) evaluate effects of therapeutic treatment on carcass characteristics and lung lesion prevalence and severity. The study was conducted at a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle in which steers (n = 2,336) initially weighing 312.1 ± 9.6 kg were sourced from auction markets and allocated in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments (no metaphylactic [no antimicrobial drug {ND}] treatment, tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW [TIL], and tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW [TUL]). Lungs of all steers were evaluated during harvest to assess presence and severity of pneumonic lesions in the anteroventral lobes and the presence and severity of pleural adherences. Compared to the ND treatment, steers treated via metaphylactic therapy had greater (P < 0.05) metaphylactic cost, ADG, shrunk final BW, dressed carcass yield, HCW, 12th rib fat, calculated empty body fat (EBF), and gross revenue, concurrent with reduced (P < 0.05) BRD treatment costs and financial losses from BRD death and railed cattle, cumulatively resulting in greater financial returns. Lung lesions were present in 64.3% of lungs and were distributed similarly between metaphylactic treatments (63.9%) and ND (65.1%) cattle. Steers with advanced lung lesions present at harvest were associated with reduced (P < 0.05) HCW, KPH, 12th rib fat, calculated yield grades, marbling scores, and calculated EBF as compared to steers without lung lesions. Steers pulled for BRD had increased (P < 0.01) incidence of advanced lung lesions, mortality, and railers with decreased (P < 0.05) HCW, 12th rib fat, KPH, marbling score, calculated EBF, and percentage choice carcasses when compared to non-BRD event steers. From

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  19. Cattle feedlot soil moisture and manure content: II. Impact on Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Miller, Daniel N

    2005-01-01

    The moisture and manure contents of soils at cattle feedlot surfaces vary spatiotemporally and likely are important factors in the persistence of Escherichia coli O157 in these soils. The impacts of water content (0.11-1.50 g H2O g(-1) dry feedlot surface material [FSM]) and manure level (5, 25, and 75% dry manure in dry FSM) on E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot soils were evaluated. Generally, E. coli O157:H7 numbers either persisted or increased at all but the lowest moisture levels examined. Manure content modulated the effect of water on E. coli growth; for example, at water content of 0.43 g H2O g(-1) dry FSM and 25% manure, E. coli O157:H7 increased by 2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) dry FSM in 3 d, while at 0.43 g H2O g(-1) dry FSM and 75% manure, populations remained stable over 14 d. Escherichia coli and coliform populations responded similarly. In a second study, the impacts of cycling moisture levels and different drying rates on naturally occurring E. coli O157 in feedlot soils were examined. Low initial levels of E. coli O157 were reduced to below enumerable levels by 21 d, but indigenous E. coli populations persisted at >2.50 log10 CFU g(-1) dry FSM up to 133 d. We conclude that E. coli O157 can persist and may even grow in feedlot soils, over a wide range of water and manure contents. Further investigations are needed to determine if these variables can be manipulated to reduce this pathogen in cattle and the feedlot environment.

  20. Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-02-05

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

  2. Energy production from biosolids: A cattle feedlot demonstration system

    SciTech Connect

    Fedler, C.B.; Parker, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    About 5 million head of cattle are produced annually from about 200 feedlots in the Texas High Plains with about 3.5 million head standing. Annually, the 3.5 million head of cattle produce about 28 millions metric tons of were manure (88% water). If anaerobically digested, the manure would yield about 1.4 million m{sup 3} of biogas, or about 4.4 million kWh daily. With cogeneration and nutrient recovery, the sum of the revenue sources in over $500 million annually and does no include the value of water or other byproducts such as fish and plants that could be produced from an integrated system. A demonstration unit to treat the waste from a 1000-head cattle and a 280 sow farrow-to-finish swine operation is constructed. This system employs a 6 m deep anaerobic pit for production and capture of biogas integrated with a facultative pond, a shallow pond for production of aquatic plants, and a pond for production of fish or other aquatic species. The resulting related agribusinesses would not only produce additional revenues, but would also produce energy, improve the environment though extraction of nitrogen compounds, capture of gaseous emissions, reduction of odor, and creation of wildlife habitat in consturcted wetlants.

  3. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored. PMID:25489604

  4. Laminitis-like changes in the claws of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Paul R.; Vermunt, Jos J.; McKinnon, John J.; Fathy, Fowzy A.; Berg, Philip A.; Cohen, Roger D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and quantitate changes in the claws of two groups of feedlot cattle (calves and backgrounded yearlings) fed diets that varied in energy (73.5 or 78.5% TDN) and crude protein (11, 13, 15, 16, 17, or 19%) content. At slaughter, the thickness of sole horn and the prevalence of toe and heel hemorrhages were greater in calves than in yearlings (p<0.02). Feeding the high-energy ration increased the prevalence of toe and heel hemorrhages in calves (p<0.02) and heel hemorrhages in yearlings (p<0.02). In yearlings, rotation of the distal phalanx and ridging of the dorsal wall of the claw were the most prominent pathological features. Osteopathy of the apex of the distal phalanx occurred more frequently in calves than in yearlings (p<0.01). This study suggests that intensive feeding of beef cattle before they reach 14 months of age has a deleterious effect on digital health. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423536

  5. Risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle: use of a causal diagram-informed approach to estimate effects of animal mixing and movements before feedlot entry.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2014-11-01

    A nationwide longitudinal study was conducted to investigate risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle in Australian feedlots. After induction (processing), cattle were placed in feedlot pens (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50 days on feed. Data from a national cattle movement database were used to derive variables describing mixing of animals with cattle from other farms, numbers of animals in groups before arrival at the feedlot, exposure of animals to saleyards before arrival at the feedlot, and the timing and duration of the animal's move to the vicinity of the feedlot. Total and direct effects for each risk factor were estimated using a causal diagram-informed process to determine covariates to include in four-level Bayesian logistic regression models. Mixing, group size and timing of the animal's move to the feedlot were important predictors of BRD. Animals not mixed with cattle from other farms prior to 12 days before induction and then exposed to a high level of mixing (≥4 groups of animals mixed) had the highest risk of developing BRD (OR 3.7) compared to animals mixed at least 4 weeks before induction with less than 4 groups forming the cohort. Animals in groups formed at least 13 days before induction comprising 100 or more (OR 0.5) or 50-99 (OR 0.8) were at reduced risk compared to those in groups of less than 50 cattle. Animals moved to the vicinity of the feedlot at least 27 days before induction were at reduced risk (OR 0.4) compared to cattle undergoing short-haul transportation (<6h) to the feedlot within a day of induction, while those experiencing longer transportation durations (6h or more) within a day of induction were at slightly increased risk (OR 1.2). Knowledge of these risk factors could potentially be used to inform management decisions to reduce the risk of BRD in feedlot cattle.

  6. Use of pattern recognition techniques for early detection of morbidity in receiving feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Silasi, R; McAllister, T A; Genswein, B; Crowe, T; Marti, S; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2015-07-01

    .3% of the MO cattle, with MO cattle detected 2.4 ± 1.99 d earlier than visual observation. The application of pattern recognition algorithms to feeding behavior has potential value in identifying MO cattle in advance of overt physical signs of morbidity. Work on an integrated system that would automatically process data collected from automated feed bunk monitoring systems is still required, however, for this method to have value to the commercial feedlot industry as a practical means of identifying MO cattle in real time. PMID:26726330

  7. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P < 0.10) to be weaning age x day interactions for each acute-phase protein. Ceruloplasmin concentrations increased in NW, but not EW calves, and peaked on d 7 (27.6 and 34.2 mg/100 mL for EW and NW calves, respectively; P < 0.05). Haptoglobin concentrations increased in both groups and were greatest (P < 0.05) in NW calves on d 3 (7.63 vs. 14.86 mg of haptoglobin/hemoglobin complexing/100 mL). No differences in ADG or G:F were detected during the finishing phase; however

  8. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P < 0.10) to be weaning age x day interactions for each acute-phase protein. Ceruloplasmin concentrations increased in NW, but not EW calves, and peaked on d 7 (27.6 and 34.2 mg/100 mL for EW and NW calves, respectively; P < 0.05). Haptoglobin concentrations increased in both groups and were greatest (P < 0.05) in NW calves on d 3 (7.63 vs. 14.86 mg of haptoglobin/hemoglobin complexing/100 mL). No differences in ADG or G:F were detected during the finishing phase; however

  9. A preliminary investigation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a cylinder at ReD = 3900 using a commercial CFD code

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-02-14

    Engineering fluid mechanics simulations at high Reynolds numbers have traditionally been performed using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations and a turbulence model. The RANS methodology has well-documented shortcomings in the modeling of separated or bluff body wake flows that are characterized by unsteady vortex shedding. The resulting turbulence statistics are strongly influenced by the detailed structure and dynamics of the large eddies, which are poorly captured using RANS models (Rodi 1997; Krishnan et al. 2004). The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology offers the potential to more accurately simulate these flows as it resolves the large-scale unsteady motions and entails modeling of only the smallest-scale turbulence structures. Commercial computational fluid dynamics products are beginning to offer LES capability, allowing practicing engineers an opportunity to apply this turbulence modeling technique to much wider array of problems than in dedicated research codes. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the LES capability in the commercial CFD solver StarCD by simulating the flow around a cylinder at a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, D, of 3900 using the constant coefficient Smagorinsky LES model. The results are compared to both the experimental and computational results provided in Kravchenko & Moin (2000). We find that StarCD provides predictions of lift and drag coefficients that are within 15% of the experimental values. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the time-averaged velocity statistics and the published data. The differences in these metrics may be due to the use of a truncated domain in the spanwise direction and the short time-averaging period used for the statistics presented here. The instantaneous flow field visualizations show a coarser, larger-scale structure than the study of Kravchenko & Moin (2000), which may be a product of the LES implementation or of the domain and resolution used

  10. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. M. Bhaskara; Kumari, Y. Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

    2012-01-01

    The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness. PMID:23118772

  11. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-05-10

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 3 (12/15/00-3/14/01): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies - Task 1; (2) Continue to perform re-burn experiments. - Task 2; (3) Design fixed bed combustor. - Task 3; and (4) Modify the PCGC2 code to include moisture evaporation model - Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 3 (12/15/0-3/14/01): (1) Conducted TGA and Fuel Characterization studies (Appendix I). A comparison of -fuel properties, TGA traces etc is given in Appendix I. Litter has 3 and 6 times more N compared to coal on mass and heat basis. The P of litter is almost 2 % (Task 1). Both litter biomass (LB) and feedlot biomass (FB) have been pulverized. The size distributions are similar for both litter and FB in that 75 % pass through 150 {micro}m sieve while for coal 75 % pass through 60 {micro}m sieve. Rosin Rammler curve parameters are given. The TGA characteristics of FB and LB are similar and pyrolysis starts at 100 C below that of coal; (2) Reburn experiments with litter and with FB have been performed (Appendix II) -Task 2. Litter is almost twice effective (almost 70--90 % reduction) compared to coal in reducing the NOx possibly due to presence of N in the form of NH{sub 3}; (3) Designed fixed bed gasifier/combustor (Appendix III) - Task 3; and (4) Modified PCGC2 to include moisture evaporation model in coal and biomass particles. (Appendix IV) - Task 4.

  12. Effect of backgrounding system on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers that were backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 days a week with 2.77 kg DM/hd of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF) or 3) drylotting on a ...

  13. Stocker growth on rye and ryegrass pastures affects subsequent feedlot gains and carcass traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker calves were stocked on annual rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures using stocking strategies (STK) to create graded levels of gain to assess subsequent growth rates, feedlot performance, and carcass traits. During two consecutive years, yearling Angus, Here...

  14. Postweaning feed restriction effects on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Bull calves (n = 56 in 2010; n = 51 in 2011) were bo...

  15. The association between serological evidence of mycoplasma infection and respiratory disease in feedlot calves.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Martin, S W

    1986-01-01

    Calves from five Ontario feedlots were bled on arrival and approximately 28 days later. Calves treated during this interval for undifferentiated respiratory disease were classified as cases and untreated calves were classified as controls. Serum was titrated blindly for antibodies to Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma dispar. Indirect hemagglutination titers of 1:20 or more were assumed to reflect recent or current exposure, whereas 1:10 or less were not. The titers to M. bovis increased in all feedlots indicating active infection. The initial titers to M. dispar were higher than the titers against M. bovis, yet they increased in all feedlots except one, suggesting widespread infection with this organism. There was an increased risk (although not statistically significant) of being treated if the titer against M. bovis rose during the period. Calves with low M. dispar titers on arrival were at increased risk of being treated and titer increases were strongly associated with treatment (statistically significant). Thus, the serological results indicate high prevalence of M. bovis and M. dispar in the feedlot calves and that calves with increasing titers in particular to M. dispar are at increased risk of being treated for respiratory disease. PMID:3756671

  16. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  17. Presumptive diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum type D intoxication in a herd of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Heider, L C; McClure, J T; Leger, E R

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two feedlot cattle exhibited clinical signs suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum type D organisms were recovered from ruminal fluid of 4 of the 5 affected animals tested and were isolated from bakery waste fed to the cattle. Clostridium botulinum type D has not been reported previously in Canadian cattle. PMID:11265191

  18. Comparing soil and pond ash feedlot pen surfaces for environmental management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hauling soil/manure out and fill-soil in to maintain adequate feedlot pen surfaces is time consuming and expensive. Pond ash (PA), a by-product from coal-fired electrical generation has very good support qualities even when wet. Four pens of an eight pen series, each with dimensions of 7.3 m by 20.7...

  19. Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 180; 507 +/- 13 lb) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACEbrandChromiumPropionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas during fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research measuring emission fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from ope...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open-lot beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research concerning nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from the manure...

  2. Experimental research on the effects of water application on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water application (e.g., through rainfall or sprinkler system) on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from pen surfaces of open-lot beef cattle feedlots was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil/ma...

  3. Laboratory evaluation of surface amendments for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pen surface amendments for mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from beef cattle feedlots, were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Amendments were organic residues (i.e., sorghum straw, prairie grass, wo...

  4. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  5. Sweating rates of dairy and feedlot cows under stressful thermal environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  6. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF AN INFILTRATION BASIN AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR REMOVAL OF PATHOGENS FROM FEEDLOT RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland to treat process wastewater from a cattle feedlot prior to discharge to an adjacent waterway was explored in regards to fecal pathogens. Weekly sampling of typical operating conditions and rainfall-generated runoff during 2...

  8. Nutrient and Bacterial Transport in Runoff from Soil and Pond Ash Amended Feedlot Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides environmental and economic benefits. However, the water quality effects of pond ash use are not well defined. The objectives of this field investigation were t...

  9. Eco-efficiency model for evaluating feedlot rations in the Great Plains, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental impacts attributable to beef feedlot production provide an opportunity for economically-linked environmental efficiency optimization. An adaptable eco-efficiency model was developed to assess the impacts of dietary rations. The hybridized model utilized California Net Energy System m...

  10. Utilizing single particle Raman microscopy as a non-destructive method to identify sources of PM10 from cattle feedlot operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; McConnell, Laura L.; Razote, Edna; Schmidt, Walter F.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Torrents, Alba; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Trabue, Steven L.; Prueger, John; Ro, Kyoung S.

    2013-02-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) pose a potential threat to the health of humans and livestock. Current efforts to characterize PM emissions from AFOs generally examine variations in mass concentration and particle size distributions over time and space, but these methods do not provide information on the sources of the PM captured. Raman microscopy was employed as a non-destructive method to quantify the contributions of source materials to PM10 emitted from a large cattle feedlot. Raman spectra from potential source materials (dust from unpaved roads, manure from pen surface, and cattle feed) were compiled to create a spectral library. Multivariate statistical analysis methods were used to identify specific groups composing the source library spectra and to construct a linear discriminant function to identify the source of particles collected on PM10 sample filters. Cross validation of the model resulted in 99.76% correct classification of source spectra in the training group. Source characterization results from samples collected at the cattle feedlot over a two-day period indicate that manure from the cattle pen surface contributed an average of 78% of the total PM10 particles, and dust from unpaved roads accounted for an average of 19% with minor contributions from feed. Results of this work are promising and provide support for further investigation into an innovative method to identify agricultural PM10 sources accurately under different meteorological and management conditions.

  11. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  12. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

    2012-03-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

  13. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Cattle Feces in United States Feedlots in 2011.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Kopral, Christine A; Erdman, Matthew M; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from feces of cattle in feedlots in the United States. Fecal samples were collected from up to three pens of cattle in each of 68 feedlots in 12 states. Samples included up to 25 individual fecal pats from the pen floors and up to five composite samples from the floors of the same pens. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 9.1% (460/5050) and 11.3% (114/1009) for individual and composite samples, respectively. The prevalences of Salmonella at the pen level were 35.6% (72/202) and 22.8% (46/202) for individual and composite samples, respectively. Dietary factors, including inclusion of cottonseed hulls, coccidiostats, and antimicrobial drugs, were associated with differences in prevalence of Salmonella isolation. Overall, 32 serotypes of Salmonella were identified, but six serotypes accounted for 69.1% (495/716) of the isolates. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%, 44/68) of feedlots had at least one positive sample. All isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. Most isolates (74.4%, 533/716) were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs in the panel. When resistance was detected, it was most commonly to tetracycline (21.7%, 155/716 of isolates) or sulfisoxazole (12.4%, 89/716 of isolates). Less than 10% of the isolates were resistant to any other antimicrobials in the panel. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in individual fecal samples was less than 10%, but that Salmonella is widely distributed among feedlot cattle. Furthermore, when Salmonella is present in feedlot cattle, there is a low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance with the exception of tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. More research is indicated to understand the ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance, when present, in cattle-feeding operations.

  14. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    PubMed

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Cattle Feces in United States Feedlots in 2011.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Kopral, Christine A; Erdman, Matthew M; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from feces of cattle in feedlots in the United States. Fecal samples were collected from up to three pens of cattle in each of 68 feedlots in 12 states. Samples included up to 25 individual fecal pats from the pen floors and up to five composite samples from the floors of the same pens. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 9.1% (460/5050) and 11.3% (114/1009) for individual and composite samples, respectively. The prevalences of Salmonella at the pen level were 35.6% (72/202) and 22.8% (46/202) for individual and composite samples, respectively. Dietary factors, including inclusion of cottonseed hulls, coccidiostats, and antimicrobial drugs, were associated with differences in prevalence of Salmonella isolation. Overall, 32 serotypes of Salmonella were identified, but six serotypes accounted for 69.1% (495/716) of the isolates. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%, 44/68) of feedlots had at least one positive sample. All isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. Most isolates (74.4%, 533/716) were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs in the panel. When resistance was detected, it was most commonly to tetracycline (21.7%, 155/716 of isolates) or sulfisoxazole (12.4%, 89/716 of isolates). Less than 10% of the isolates were resistant to any other antimicrobials in the panel. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in individual fecal samples was less than 10%, but that Salmonella is widely distributed among feedlot cattle. Furthermore, when Salmonella is present in feedlot cattle, there is a low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance with the exception of tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. More research is indicated to understand the ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance, when present, in cattle-feeding operations. PMID:27464334

  16. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings.

  17. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  18. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in representative broiler feedlots environments: identification of indicator ARGs and correlations with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    He, Liang-Ying; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-11-18

    Livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that may pose a threat to public health. Broiler feedlots may represent an important source of ARGs in the environment. However, the prevalence and dissemination mechanisms of various types of ARGs in the environment of broiler feedlots have not previously been identified. We examined the occurrence, abundance and variation of ARGs conferring resistance to chloramphenicols, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the environments of two representative types of broiler feedlots (free range and indoor) by quantitative PCR, and assessed their dissemination mechanisms. The results showed the prevalence of various types of ARGs in the environmental samples of the broiler feedlots including manure/litter, soil, sediment, and water samples, with the first report of five chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, floR, fexA, cfr, and fexB) in broiler feedlots. Overall, chloramphenicol resistance genes and sulfonamides sul genes were more abundant than tetracyclines tet genes. The ARG abundances in the samples from indoor boiler feedlots were generally different to the free range feedlots, suggesting the importance of feeding operations in ARG dissemination. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic element genes (int1 and int2), and between the different classes of ARGs themselves, revealing the roles of horizontal gene transfer and coselection for ARG dissemination in the environment. Further regression analysis revealed that fexA, sul1 and tetW could be reliable indicator genes to surrogate anthropogenic sources of ARGs in boiler feedlots (correlations of fexA, sul1 and tetW to all ARGs: R = 0.95, 0.96 and 0.86, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, significant correlations were also identified between indicator ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. In addition, some ARGs were significantly correlated with typical metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, and As with

  19. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in representative broiler feedlots environments: identification of indicator ARGs and correlations with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    He, Liang-Ying; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-11-18

    Livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that may pose a threat to public health. Broiler feedlots may represent an important source of ARGs in the environment. However, the prevalence and dissemination mechanisms of various types of ARGs in the environment of broiler feedlots have not previously been identified. We examined the occurrence, abundance and variation of ARGs conferring resistance to chloramphenicols, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the environments of two representative types of broiler feedlots (free range and indoor) by quantitative PCR, and assessed their dissemination mechanisms. The results showed the prevalence of various types of ARGs in the environmental samples of the broiler feedlots including manure/litter, soil, sediment, and water samples, with the first report of five chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, floR, fexA, cfr, and fexB) in broiler feedlots. Overall, chloramphenicol resistance genes and sulfonamides sul genes were more abundant than tetracyclines tet genes. The ARG abundances in the samples from indoor boiler feedlots were generally different to the free range feedlots, suggesting the importance of feeding operations in ARG dissemination. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic element genes (int1 and int2), and between the different classes of ARGs themselves, revealing the roles of horizontal gene transfer and coselection for ARG dissemination in the environment. Further regression analysis revealed that fexA, sul1 and tetW could be reliable indicator genes to surrogate anthropogenic sources of ARGs in boiler feedlots (correlations of fexA, sul1 and tetW to all ARGs: R = 0.95, 0.96 and 0.86, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, significant correlations were also identified between indicator ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. In addition, some ARGs were significantly correlated with typical metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, and As with

  20. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M.; Eigenberg, Roger A.; Nienaber, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the increase in body temperature, it was beneficial to the

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and four conference

  2. Occurrence of the Transferable Copper Resistance Gene tcrB among Fecal Enterococci of U.S. Feedlot Cattle Fed Copper-Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, R. G.; Alvarado, C. A.; Mainini, T. R.; Vinasco, J.; Drouillard, J. S.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Copper, an essential micronutrient, is supplemented in the diet at elevated levels to reduce morbidity and mortality and to promote growth in feedlot cattle. Gut bacteria exposed to copper can acquire resistance, which among enterococci is conferred by a transferable copper resistance gene (tcrB) borne on a plasmid. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the feeding of copper at levels sufficient to promote growth increases the prevalence of the tcrB gene among the fecal enterococci of feedlot cattle. The study was performed with 261 crossbred yearling heifers housed in 24 pens, with pens assigned randomly to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments consisting of dietary copper and a commercial linseed meal-based energy protein supplement. A total of 22 isolates, each identified as Enterococcus faecium, were positive for tcrB with an overall prevalence of 3.8% (22/576). The prevalence was higher among the cattle fed diets supplemented with copper (6.9%) compared to normal copper levels (0.7%). The tcrB-positive isolates always contained both erm(B) and tet(M) genes. Median copper MICs for tcrB-positive and tcrB-negative enterococci were 22 and 4 mM, respectively. The transferability of the tcrB gene was demonstrated via a filter-mating assay. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis revealed a genetically diverse population of enterococci. The finding of a strong association between the copper resistance gene and other antibiotic (tetracycline and tylosin) resistance determinants is significant because enterococci remain potential pathogens and have the propensity to transfer resistance genes to other bacteria in the gut. PMID:23666328

  3. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  4. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Eigenberg, Roger A; Nienaber, John A

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the

  5. Androgenic and estrogenic activity in water bodies receiving cattle feedlot effluent in Eastern Nebraska, USA.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ana M; Calabro, Janine M; Prechtl, Nancy V; Yau, Alice Y; Orlando, Edward F; Daxenberger, Andreas; Kolok, Alan S; Guillette, Louis J; le Bizec, Bruno; Lange, Iris G; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    Studies reveal that surface waters worldwide are contaminated with hormonally active agents, many released from sewage treatment plants. Another potential source of aquatic hormonal contamination is livestock feedlot effluent. In this study, we assessed whether feedlot effluent contaminates watercourses by measuring a) total androgenic [methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalents] and estrogenic (17beta-estradiol equivalents) activity using the A-SCREEN and E-SCREEN bioassays and b) concentrations of anabolic agents via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and enzyme-based immunoassays. Water samples were collected over 3 years from up to six sites [all confluent with the Elkhorn River, Nebraska, USA: a feedlot retention pond (site 1), a site downstream from site 1 (site 2), a stream with intermediate livestock impact (site 3), and three sites with no observable livestock impact (sites 4-6)] and two sources of tap water. In 1999, samples from site 1 contained 9.6 pM R1881 equivalents and 1.7 pM 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Site 2 samples had estrogen levels similar to those in site 1 samples but lower androgen levels (3.8 pM R1881 equivalents). Androgen levels in site 3 samples were similar to those in site 2 samples, whereas estrogen levels decreased to 0.7 pM 17beta-estradiol equivalents. At site 6, androgen levels were approximately half those found at site 3, and estrogen levels were comparable with those at site 3. Sampling in later years was limited to fewer sites because of drought and lack of permission to access one site. Instrumental analysis revealed estrone but no significant levels of resorcylic acid lactones or trenbolone metabolites. Tap water was devoid of hormonal activity. We conclude that feedlot effluents contain sufficient levels of hormonally active agents to warrant further investigation of possible effects on aquatic ecosystem health.

  6. Eco-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Feedlot Rations in the Great Plains, United States.

    PubMed

    Hengen, Tyler J; Sieverding, Heidi L; Cole, Noel A; Ham, Jay M; Stone, James J

    2016-07-01

    Environmental impacts attributable to beef feedlot production provide an opportunity for economically linked efficiency optimization. Eco-efficiency models are used to optimize production and processes by connecting and quantifying environmental and economic impacts. An adaptable, objective eco-efficiency model was developed to assess the impacts of dietary rations on beef feedlot environmental and fiscal cost. The hybridized model used California Net Energy System modeling, life cycle assessment, principal component analyses (PCA), and economic analyses. The model approach was based on 38 potential feedlot rations and four transportation scenarios for the US Great Plains for each ration to determine the appropriate weight of each impact. All 152 scenarios were then assessed through a nested PCA to determine the relative contributing weight of each impact and environmental category to the overall system. The PCA output was evaluated using an eco-efficiency model. Results suggest that water, ecosystem, and human health emissions were the primary impact category drivers for feedlot eco-efficiency scoring. Enteric CH emissions were the greatest individual contributor to environmental performance (5.7% of the overall assessment), whereas terrestrial ecotoxicity had the lowest overall contribution (0.2% of the overall assessment). A well-balanced ration with mid-range dietary and processing energy requirements yielded the most eco- and environmentally efficient system. Using these results, it is possible to design a beef feed ration that is more economical and environmentally friendly. This methodology can be used to evaluate eco-efficiency and to reduce researcher bias of other complex systems. PMID:27380071

  7. Eco-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Feedlot Rations in the Great Plains, United States.

    PubMed

    Hengen, Tyler J; Sieverding, Heidi L; Cole, Noel A; Ham, Jay M; Stone, James J

    2016-07-01

    Environmental impacts attributable to beef feedlot production provide an opportunity for economically linked efficiency optimization. Eco-efficiency models are used to optimize production and processes by connecting and quantifying environmental and economic impacts. An adaptable, objective eco-efficiency model was developed to assess the impacts of dietary rations on beef feedlot environmental and fiscal cost. The hybridized model used California Net Energy System modeling, life cycle assessment, principal component analyses (PCA), and economic analyses. The model approach was based on 38 potential feedlot rations and four transportation scenarios for the US Great Plains for each ration to determine the appropriate weight of each impact. All 152 scenarios were then assessed through a nested PCA to determine the relative contributing weight of each impact and environmental category to the overall system. The PCA output was evaluated using an eco-efficiency model. Results suggest that water, ecosystem, and human health emissions were the primary impact category drivers for feedlot eco-efficiency scoring. Enteric CH emissions were the greatest individual contributor to environmental performance (5.7% of the overall assessment), whereas terrestrial ecotoxicity had the lowest overall contribution (0.2% of the overall assessment). A well-balanced ration with mid-range dietary and processing energy requirements yielded the most eco- and environmentally efficient system. Using these results, it is possible to design a beef feed ration that is more economical and environmentally friendly. This methodology can be used to evaluate eco-efficiency and to reduce researcher bias of other complex systems.

  8. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2013-04-01

    Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ≤ 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ≤ 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ≤ 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ≤ 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients.

  9. Fate of endogenous steroid hormones in steer feedlots under simulated rainfall-induced runoff.

    PubMed

    Mansell, D Scott; Bryson, Reid J; Harter, Thomas; Webster, Jackson P; Kolodziej, Edward P; Sedlak, David L

    2011-10-15

    Steroid hormones pose potential risks to fish and other aquatic organisms at extremely low concentrations. To assess the factors affecting the release of endogenous estrogenic and androgenic steroids from feedlots during rainfall, runoff, and soil samples were collected after simulated rainfall on a 14-steer feedlot under different rainfall rates and aging periods and analyzed for six steroid hormones. While only 17α-estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were detected in fresh manure, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and androstenedione were present in the surficial soil after two weeks. In the feedlot surficial soil, concentrations of 17α-estradiol decreased by approximately 25% accompanied by an equivalent increase in estrone and 17β-estradiol. Aging of the feedlot soils for an additional 7 days had no effect on estrogen and testosterone concentrations, but androstenedione concentrations decreased substantially, and progesterone concentrations increased. Androstenedione and progesterone concentrations in the surficial soil were much higher than could be accounted for by excretion or conversion from testosterone, suggesting that other potential precursors, such as sterols, were converted after excretion. The concentration of androgens and progesterone in the soil were approximately 85% lower after simulated rainfall, but the estrogen concentrations remained approximately constant. The decreased masses could not be accounted for by runoff, suggesting the possibility of rapid microbial transformation upon wetting. All six steroids in the runoff, with the exception of 17β-estradiol, were detected in both the filtered and particle-associated phases at concentrations well above thresholds for biological responses. Runoff from the aged plots contained less 17α-estradiol and testosterone, but more estrone, androstenedione, and progesterone relative to the runoff from the unaged plots, and most of the steroids had a lower particle-associated fraction.

  10. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment.

  11. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment. PMID:27497120

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of tulathromycin as a metaphylactic antimicrobial in feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Booker, Calvin W; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Schunicht, Oliver C; Jim, G Kee; Perrett, Tye; Wildman, Brian K; Guichon, P Timothy; Pittman, Tom J; Jones, Corey; Pollock, Colleen M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of tulathromycin (DRAX) versus tilmicosin (MIC) or oxytetracycline (TET) as a metaphylactic antimicrobial in feedlot calves. Calves that received DRAX had significantly (P<.05) lower initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment and relapse rates; lower overall chronicity, overall mortality, and cause-specific mortality rates; higher average daily gains; and improved quality grades. However, calves that received DRAX also had poorer (P<.05) yield grades compared with calves that received MIC or TET and worse feed conversion compared with calves that received MIC. Net advantages in the DRAX group were 3.79CanDollars/animal and 16.96CanDollars/animal compared with the MIC and TET groups, respectively. Based on these results, DRAX is a more efficacious and cost-effective metaphylactic antimicrobial than MIC or TET in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing UF. In addition, this study presents a comparison between two methods ("deads out" and "deads in") of calculating feedlot performance variables. PMID:17926304

  13. Effect of dietary melengestrol acetate on the incidence of acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Ayroud, Mejid; Bray, Tammy M; Yost, Garold S

    2006-07-01

    Over a 3-y period, 906,000 cattle were monitored in 23 feedlots in southern Alberta for symptoms of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Plasma, urine, and lung tissue were collected at slaughter from 299 animals clinically diagnosed with AIP and from 156 healthy penmates and analyzed for 3-methylindole (3MI) derivatives and reduced glutathione concentration. From each animal, the left lung was subsampled for histologic examination. Concentrations of glutathione in lung tissue were reduced (P < 0.001) in animals showing clinical symptoms of AIP as compared with their asymptomatic penmates. Animals histologically confirmed as having AIP had higher levels of 3MI protein adducts in blood and lung tissue (P < 0.05) than did emergency-slaughtered animals without AIP. Within feedlots, where pens of heifers were fed either a standard dosage of melengestrol acetate (MGA) or none, the rate of death attributable to AIP was similar between treatment groups, but emergency slaughter after clinical diagnosis of AIP was done 3.2 times more often (P < 0.001) in the MGA-fed heifers than in the group not fed MGA. Use of MGA did not influence glutathione concentration. As growth performance of heifers given steroidal implants may not be improved by feeding MGA, the most cost-effective method of reducing the incidence of AIP-related emergency slaughter in feedlot heifers may be to eliminate MGA from the diet.

  14. Effect of dietary melengestrol acetate on the incidence of acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot heifers

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Tim A.; Ayroud, Mejid; Bray, Tammy M.; Yost, Garold S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Over a 3-y period, 906 000 cattle were monitored in 23 feedlots in southern Alberta for symptoms of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Plasma, urine, and lung tissue were collected at slaughter from 299 animals clinically diagnosed with AIP and from 156 healthy penmates and analyzed for 3-methylindole (3MI) derivatives and reduced glutathione concentration. From each animal, the left lung was subsampled for histologic examination. Concentrations of glutathione in lung tissue were reduced (P < 0.001) in animals showing clinical symptoms of AIP as compared with their asymptomatic penmates. Animals histologically confirmed as having AIP had higher levels of 3MI protein adducts in blood and lung tissue (P < 0.05) than did emergency-slaughtered animals without AIP. Within feedlots, where pens of heifers were fed either a standard dosage of melengestrol acetate (MGA) or none, the rate of death attributable to AIP was similar between treatment groups, but emergency slaughter after clinical diagnosis of AIP was done 3.2 times more often (P < 0.001) in the MGA-fed heifers than in the group not fed MGA. Use of MGA did not influence glutathione concentration. As growth performance of heifers given steroidal implants may not be improved by feeding MGA, the most cost-effective method of reducing the incidence of AIP-related emergency slaughter in feedlot heifers may be to eliminate MGA from the diet. PMID:16850945

  15. The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections on health and performance of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Calvin W.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Morley, Paul S.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Wildman, Brian K.; Jim, G. Kee; Schunicht, Oliver C.; Pittman, Tom J.; Perrett, Tye; Ellis, John A.; Appleyard, Greg; Haines, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections (unapparent acute infections and persistent infections) on the overall health and performance of feedlot cattle. Calves from 25 pens (7132 calves) were enrolled in the study. Overall and infectious disease mortality rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in pens categorized at arrival as positive for type I BVDV and lower in pens that were positive for type II BVDV than in negative pens. Mortality attributed to BVDV infection or enteritis was significantly more common (P < 0.05) in the pens containing persistently infected (PI) calves than in pens not containing PI calves (non-PI pens). There were no statistically detectable (P ≥ 0.05) differences in morbidity, overall mortality, average daily gain, or the dry matter intake to gain ratio between PI and non-PI pens. Although type-I BVDV infections in feedlots appear to contribute to higher mortality rates, the presence of PI calves alone does not appear to have a strong impact on pen-level animal health and feedlot performance. PMID:18390097

  16. Geospatial methods for monitoring a vegetative treatment area receiving beef feedlot runoff.

    PubMed

    Eigenberg, Roger A; Lesch, Scott M; Woodbury, Bryan; Nienaber, John A

    2008-01-01

    A vegetative treatment area (VTA) offers alternative solutions to traditional feedlot runoff holding ponds, but the distribution of nutrients is not easily defined. Methods for monitoring salt accumulations in soils have been demonstrated at the United States Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA. This study was conducted to determine if methods developed to inventory saline soils can be used to inventory a VTA designed to control feedlot runoff. A soil conductivity map was generated at a VTA site using electromagnetic induction equipment (Dualem-1S) and global positioning satellite. The ESAP software package, developed by the United States Salinity Laboratory at Riverside, CA, was used to determine a representative set of (n = 20) soil sampling locations for estimating the chloride distribution in the VTA (Cl(-): selected as an indicator ion to track feedlot runoff). An additional set of (n = 20) stratified random sampling (SRS) locations were selected for comparison. The ESAP-generated, prediction-based sampling plan exhibited better design optimality criteria than the SRS plan. Statistical validation tests confirmed that the regression model estimated from the ESAP-generated sample data was capable of producing accurate and unbiased predictions of the natural log (Cl(-)) levels at the independently chosen SRS sites. The combination of geo-referenced soil conductivity, directed soil sample data, and regression modeling provides a cost-effective tool to observe and manage liquid flow patterns in a VTA.

  17. The effect of age at weaning on the health status of bull calves in a feedlot

    PubMed Central

    Makarechian, Mahmoud; Kubisch, Hans-Michael

    1988-01-01

    Incidence of morbidity and mortality in a feedlot were compared among 381 bull calves weaned one month apart (October 3 and November 1). The calves were 156 and 192 days old at weaning in the earlier and later weaned groups, respectively. Following an adjustment period, the calves were fed a mixed finishing diet containing 90% concentrate ad lib for 140 days in a feedlot. The rate of morbidity did not differ significantly between the two weaning groups. Sick calves in the earlier weaned group had a longer treatment period than those in the later weaned group (3.2 vs 1.4 days, p<0.05). Infections of the respiratory tract were the major cause of sickness and most of the respiratory infections occurred in the early stages of the feedlot period. The frequency of respiratory infections was higher among the earlier weaned calves compared with that in the later weaned group (p<0.01) indicating a higher susceptibility to these infections when calves were weaned at younger ages. Bloat was the second most common health problem among the bulls; however, its incidence did not differ between the two groups (p>0.05). The rate of mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups. PMID:17423140

  18. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  19. Longitudinal concentrations of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in feces do not correspond to the patterns of antibiotic use at a cattle feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of antibiotics at cattle feedlots increases the concentrations of Escherichia coli resistant to antibiotics of critical importance to human medicine. However, the impact of therapeutic use of antibiotics at cattle feedlots on levels of anti...

  20. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of a new formulation of oxytetracycline for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Booker, Calvin W.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.

    2002-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of a new formulation of long-acting oxytetracycline (LA 30) to a standard long-acting oxytetracycline formulation (LA 20) and florfenicol (FLOR) for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. Seven hundred and ninety-seven recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred, beef calves suffering from UF were allocated to 1 of 3 experimental groups as follows: LA 30, which received intramuscular long-acting oxytetracycline (300 mg/mL formulation) at the rate of 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) at the time of allocation; LA 20, which received intramuscular long-acting oxytetracycline (200 mg/mL formulation) at the rate of 20 mg/kg BW at the time of allocation; or FLOR, which received intramuscular florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg BW at the time of allocation and again 48 hours later. Two hundred and sixty-six animals were allocated to the LA 30 group, 265 animals were allocated to the LA 20 group, and 266 animals were allocated to the FLOR group. The relative efficacy of the LA 30 group, as compared with the LA 20 and FLOR groups, was assessed by comparing relapse, chronicity, wastage, and mortality rates. The overall mortality (RR = 0.50) rate in the LA 30 group was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than in the LA 20 group. However, the overall chronicity (RR = 2.56) and overall wastage (RR = 6.97) rates of the LA 30 group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in the LA 20 group. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in UF relapse rates or cause specific mortality rates between the LA 30 and LA 20 groups. In the economic analysis, there was an advantage of $28.59 CDN per animal in the LA 30 group compared with the LA 20 group. The overall chronicity (RR = 2.25) and overall wastage (RR = 2.80) rates of the LA 30 group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than

  1. Effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers fed with and without monensin and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Cranston, J J; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Swingle, R S; Montgomery, T H

    2009-03-01

    A feedlot experiment was conducted under commercial conditions in the Texas Panhandle using 3,757 feedlot steers (average of 94 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (monensin and tylosin withdrawn vs. monensin and tylosin fed during the final 35 d on feed) factorial. Steers were fed for a total of 161 to 167 d, and treatments were administered during the final 35 d that cattle were on feed. When included in the diet, zilpaterol, monensin, and tylosin were supplemented at 8.3, 33.1, and 12.2 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively. Zilpaterol was included in the diet for 30 d at the end of the finishing period and withdrawn from the diet for the last 5 or 6 d cattle were on feed. Cattle were harvested and carcass data collected. There were no zilpaterol x monensin/tylosin interactions (P >or= 0.12) for ADG or G:F. Feeding zilpaterol increased ADG (P < 0.001) by 0.20 kg and G:F (P < 0.001) by 0.029 kg/kg during the last 35 d on feed. Likewise, when feedlot variables were measured throughout the entire 161- to 167-d feeding trial, ADG (3.4%; P < 0.001) and G:F (3.9%; P < 0.001) were increased. Feeding zilpaterol increased (P < 0.001) dressing percent and HCW and decreased (P < 0.001) total liver abscess rate compared with controls. In addition, zilpaterol increased (P < 0.001) LM area by an average of 8.0 cm(2). There was a zilpaterol x monensin/tylosin interaction (P = 0.03) for marbling score. Zilpaterol decreased (P < 0.001) marbling score regardless of monensin and tylosin treatment, although withdrawal of monensin and tylosin for 35 d decreased marbling to a greater extent (31 vs. 17 degrees). Zilpaterol decreased (i.e., improved; P < 0.001) calculated yield grade regardless of monensin and tylosin treatment, but

  2. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot.

  3. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot. PMID:27066712

  4. Mobile mapping and eddy covariance flux measurements of NH3 emissions from cattle feedlots with a portable laser-based open-path sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Pan, D.; Golston, L.; Stanton, L. G.; Ham, J. M.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Nash, C.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant alkaline species in the atmosphere and an important compound in the global nitrogen cycle. There is a large uncertainty in NH3 emission inventory from agriculture, which is the largest source of NH3, including livestock farming and fertilizer applications. In recent years, a quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based open-path sensor has been developed to provide high-resolution, fast-response and high-sensitivity NH3 measurements. It has a detection limit of 150 pptv with a sample rate up to 20 Hz. This sensor has been integrated into a mobile platform mounted on the roof of a car to perform measurement of multiple trace gases. We have also used the sensor for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. The mobile sensing method provides high spatial resolution and fast mapping of measured gases. Meanwhile, the EC flux method offers accurate flux measurements and resolves the diurnal variability of NH3emissions. During the DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPÉ field campaigns in 2014, this mobile platform was used to study NH3 emissions from cattle feedlot near Fort Morgan, Colorado. This specific feedlot was mapped multiple times in different days to study the variability of its plume characteristics. At the same time, we set up another open-path NH3 sensor with LICOR open-path sensors to perform EC flux measurements of NH3, CH4 and CO2 simultaneously in the same cattle feedlot as shown in Fig. 1. NH3/CH4 emission flux ratio show a strong temperature dependence from EC flux measurements. The median value of measured NH3 and CH4 emission flux ratio is 0.60 ppmv/ppmv. In contrast, the median value of ΔNH3/ΔCH4 ratios measured from mobile platform is 0.53 ppmv/ppmv for the same farm. The combination of mobile mapping and EC flux measurements with the same open-path sensors greatly improves understanding of NH3 emissions both spatially and temporally.

  5. Use of FBC ash to stablize dairy barn feedlots, minimize nutrient pollution, and develop new utilization outlets

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.; Stout, W.

    1995-11-01

    Using technology developed by the USDA/ARS and US DOE, the Ahlstrom Ash Development Corporation has been successfully using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash from the Black River Co-Gen plant in Watertown, NY as an agricultural soil amendment. This permitted land application was based primarily on the jointly derived handbook on FBC utilization. During times of the year when ash cannot be spread on crop land, Ahlstrom has been using the ash as a low strength concrete to stabilize dairy barn feedlots. The stabilized feedlots provide a place for cattle to escape from muddy conditions in the spring and fall. Farmer acceptance of these stabilized feedlots is very positive. However, there is a need to provide data on the leachates from and through these barnyard pads.

  6. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Lana A; Paetsch, Chad D; Jelinski, Murray D; Allen, Andrew L

    2015-11-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line.

  7. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Lana A.; Paetsch, Chad D.; Jelinski, Murray D.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line. PMID:26538666

  8. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  9. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  10. Management Practices Affect Soil Nutrients and Bacterial Populations in Backgrounding Beef Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Netthisinghe, A M P; Cook, K L; Gilfillen, R A; Sistani, K R; Woosley, P B

    2015-11-01

    Contaminants associated with manure in animal production sites are of significant concern. Unless properly managed, manure-derived soil nutrients in livestock production sites can deteriorate soil and water quality. This 3-yr study evaluated a soil nutrient management strategy with four sequentially imposed management practices: 12-mo backgrounding (BG), manure removal from the feeder area (FD), 12-mo destocking (DS), and 12-mo grass hay harvesting (H) in a small backgrounding feedlot. Resulting soil nutrient levels, total (), and N cycling bacterial ( and ) populations after each management practice in feedlot feeder and grazing (GR) areas and in crop grown at the control location (CT) were measured. Irrespective of management practice, FD contained greater soil nutrient concentrations than the GR and CT. Regardless of management practice, total bacteria cells (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) and nitrate reducers (5.2 × 10 cells g soil) were an order of magnitude higher in the FD than in the GR and CT, whereas nitrifying bacteria concentrations (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) were higher in the GR. Manure removal from the feeder area reduced M3-P (39%), total C (21%), total N (23%), NH-N (47%), and NO-N (93%) levels established in the FD during BG. Destocking lowered total C and N (45%) in the FD and NH-N (47%), NO-N (76%), and Zn (16%) in the GR. Hay harvesting reduced all soil nutrients in the FD and GR marginally. The management strategy has potential to lower soil nutrient concentrations, control soil nutrient buildup, and limit nutrient spread within the feedlot. PMID:26641341

  11. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Trevor W.; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L.; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle. PMID:24130555

  12. Growth and muscle development of feedlot cattle of different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Eversole, D E; Bergen, W G; Merkel, R A; Magee, W T; Harpster, H W

    1981-07-01

    The effects of crossbreeding, cattle type and dietary energy level on semitendinosus muscle (ST) development, feedlot performance, daily carcass protein and fat gain and serum anabolic hormone concentrations were studied. Over 3 consecutive years, 176 feedlot steers representing four cattle types - unselected Hereford (UH), selected Hereford (SH), Angus x Hereford x Charolais (AHC) and Angus x Hereford x Holstein (AHH) - were fed either an all-corn silage (HS) or a high grain (HG) diet. Steers were slaughtered on day 1 and at the end of the feedlot trial, and ST muscles were removed rapidly. During years 2 and 3, single blood samples were obtained from steers on days 1, 29, 57, 113 and 169, and analyzed for insulin and growth hormone (GH). Steers fed HG had a higher (P less than .005) average daily gain (ADG) than steers fed HS, and cattle type had an effect (P less than .005) on ADG. Cattle type and HG affected (P less than .005) daily carcass protein and fat gain. Weight of ST muscle and total muscle RNA, DNA and protein content increased with frame size, and HS steers had heavier (P less than .05) ST muscles than the HG steers. Steers fed HG had higher (P less than .01) serum insulin concentrations than steers fed HS, but there were no consistent cattle type effects. Serum GH concentrations were not affected by cattle type or diet. Serum insulin concentrations, combined across diet and cattle types, were correlated (P less than .01) with ADG; however, serum GH, assessed on the same basis, was not related to ADG. Average daily protein and fat gain were positively related to serum insulin and were negatively related to serum GH.

  13. Bedding and seasonal effects on chemical and bacterial properties of feedlot cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jim J; Beasley, Bruce W; Yanke, L Jay; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A; Olson, Barry M; Selinger, L Brent; Chanasyk, David S; Hasselback, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients, soluble salts, and pathogenic bacteria in feedlot-pen manure have the potential to cause pollution of the environment. A three-year study (1998-2000) was conducted at a beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot in southern Alberta, Canada to determine the effect of bedding material [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw versus wood chips] and season on the chemical and bacterial properties of pen-floor manure. Manure was sampled for chemical content (N, P, soluble salts, electrical conductivity, and pH) and populations of four groups of bacteria (Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and total aerobic heterotrophs at 27 and 39 degrees C). More chemical parameters of manure were significantly (P < or = 0.05) affected by season (SO4, Na, Mg, K, Ca, sodium adsorption ratio [SAR], total C, NO3-N, NH4-N, total P, and available P) than by bedding (K, pH, total C, C to N ratio, NH4-N, and available P). Bedding had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the four bacterial groups whereas season affected all four groups. Numbers of E. coli and total coliforms (TC) were significantly higher by 1.72 to 2.02 log10 units in the summer than the other three seasons, which was consistent with a strong positive correlation of E. coli and TC with air temperature. The low ratio of bedding to manure in the pens was probably the major cause of the lack of significant bedding effects. Bedding material and seasonal timing of cleaning feedlot pens and land application of manure may be a potential tool to manage nutrients, soluble salts, and pathogens in manure.

  14. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Trevor W; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  15. Management Practices Affect Soil Nutrients and Bacterial Populations in Backgrounding Beef Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Netthisinghe, A M P; Cook, K L; Gilfillen, R A; Sistani, K R; Woosley, P B

    2015-11-01

    Contaminants associated with manure in animal production sites are of significant concern. Unless properly managed, manure-derived soil nutrients in livestock production sites can deteriorate soil and water quality. This 3-yr study evaluated a soil nutrient management strategy with four sequentially imposed management practices: 12-mo backgrounding (BG), manure removal from the feeder area (FD), 12-mo destocking (DS), and 12-mo grass hay harvesting (H) in a small backgrounding feedlot. Resulting soil nutrient levels, total (), and N cycling bacterial ( and ) populations after each management practice in feedlot feeder and grazing (GR) areas and in crop grown at the control location (CT) were measured. Irrespective of management practice, FD contained greater soil nutrient concentrations than the GR and CT. Regardless of management practice, total bacteria cells (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) and nitrate reducers (5.2 × 10 cells g soil) were an order of magnitude higher in the FD than in the GR and CT, whereas nitrifying bacteria concentrations (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) were higher in the GR. Manure removal from the feeder area reduced M3-P (39%), total C (21%), total N (23%), NH-N (47%), and NO-N (93%) levels established in the FD during BG. Destocking lowered total C and N (45%) in the FD and NH-N (47%), NO-N (76%), and Zn (16%) in the GR. Hay harvesting reduced all soil nutrients in the FD and GR marginally. The management strategy has potential to lower soil nutrient concentrations, control soil nutrient buildup, and limit nutrient spread within the feedlot.

  16. Bedding and within-pen location effects on feedlot pen runoff quality using a rainfall simulator.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jim J; Olson, Edith C S; Chanasyk, David S; Beasley, Bruce W; Yanke, L Jay; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A; Olson, Barry M; Selinger, L Brent

    2006-01-01

    Soluble salts, nutrients, and pathogenic bacteria in feedlot-pen runoff have the potential to cause pollution of the environment. A 2-yr study (1998-1999) was conducted at a beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot in southern Alberta, Canada, to determine the effect of bedding material [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw versus wood chips] and within-pen location on the chemical and bacterial properties of pen-floor runoff. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator and analyzed for chemical content (nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P], soluble salts, electrical conductivity [EC], sodium adsorption ratio [SAR], dissolved oxygen [DO], and pH) and populations of three groups of bacteria (Escherichia coli, total coliforms, total aerobic heterotrophs at 27 degrees C) in 1998 and 1999. Bedding had a significant (P < or = 0.05) effect on NH4-N concentration and load in 1999, SO4 load in 1998, SO4 concentration and load in 1999, and total coliforms in both years; where these three variables were higher in wood than straw pens. Location had a significant effect on EC and concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), Na, K, SO4, and Cl in 1998, and total coliforms in both years. These seven variables were higher at the bedding pack than pen floor location, indicating that bedding packs were major reservoirs of TKN, soluble salts, and total coliforms. Significantly higher dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total P, and NH4-N concentrations and loads at the bedding pack location in wood pens in 1998, and a similar trend for TKN concentration in 1999, indicated that this bedding-location treatment was a greater source of nutrients to runoff than the other three bedding-location treatments. Bedding, location, and their interaction may therefore be a potential tool to manage nutrients, soluble salts, and bacteria in feedlot runoff. PMID:16455851

  17. Nutritional recommendations of feedlot consulting nutritionists: The 2015 New Mexico State and Texas Tech University survey.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, K L; Hubbert, M E; Galyean, M L; Löest, C A

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 feedlot consulting nutritionist survey is a collaborative project between New Mexico State University and Texas Tech University that focuses on summarizing the professional practices of consulting feedlot nutritionists and updates a 2007 survey. Forty-nine consulting feedlot nutritionists were asked to participate, of which 24 completed the survey. The nutritionists surveyed service over 14,000,000 cattle annually and were representatives from individual consulting practices (54.2%), corporate cattle feeding companies (20.8%), corporate feed manufacturing companies (20.8%), or a combination of consulting practices (4.2%). The survey was completed using a web-based survey tool and contained 101 questions that were divided into sections regarding general information about the consulting practice; general cattle management; receiving cattle management, diet adaption; mixers, feed mills, and feeding management; grains and grain processing; grain by-product use; roughage use; information about supplements and microingredients; liquid feed use; nutrient formulation; feed additive use; and information used as a basis for nutritional recommendations. In most cases, the results of the current survey were similar to those reported for the 2007 survey, with a few notable exceptions such as shifts in cattle numbers and preferences for specific feedstuffs. The present study introduced a number of new questions not included in the 2007 survey that focused on management strategies used in the receiving period. Data from this survey provide insight into current nutritional and management practices of consulting nutritionists and, as in past surveys, should be useful for informing national committees that make nutritional recommendations for cattle, as well as nutrition and management strategies employed within university research settings. PMID:27285940

  18. Nutritional recommendations of feedlot consulting nutritionists: The 2015 New Mexico State and Texas Tech University survey.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, K L; Hubbert, M E; Galyean, M L; Löest, C A

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 feedlot consulting nutritionist survey is a collaborative project between New Mexico State University and Texas Tech University that focuses on summarizing the professional practices of consulting feedlot nutritionists and updates a 2007 survey. Forty-nine consulting feedlot nutritionists were asked to participate, of which 24 completed the survey. The nutritionists surveyed service over 14,000,000 cattle annually and were representatives from individual consulting practices (54.2%), corporate cattle feeding companies (20.8%), corporate feed manufacturing companies (20.8%), or a combination of consulting practices (4.2%). The survey was completed using a web-based survey tool and contained 101 questions that were divided into sections regarding general information about the consulting practice; general cattle management; receiving cattle management, diet adaption; mixers, feed mills, and feeding management; grains and grain processing; grain by-product use; roughage use; information about supplements and microingredients; liquid feed use; nutrient formulation; feed additive use; and information used as a basis for nutritional recommendations. In most cases, the results of the current survey were similar to those reported for the 2007 survey, with a few notable exceptions such as shifts in cattle numbers and preferences for specific feedstuffs. The present study introduced a number of new questions not included in the 2007 survey that focused on management strategies used in the receiving period. Data from this survey provide insight into current nutritional and management practices of consulting nutritionists and, as in past surveys, should be useful for informing national committees that make nutritional recommendations for cattle, as well as nutrition and management strategies employed within university research settings.

  19. Case studies of unique problems and events encountered during design, construction, and operation of three large commercial-scale fuel ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the unique problems and events encountered during the design, construction, start-up, and operation phases of three differently constructed alcohol fuel projects. These projects were awarded cost sharing contracts (Cooperative Agreements) as part of the Department of Energy's effort to expedite ethanol production on a commercial scale. The scope of the projects included final design, economic and financial analysis, market analysis, environmental analysis, facility construction, and plant start-up operation. The three ethanol plants are a 20-million gallon per year (MMGPY) new-construction or grass roots facility; a 60-MMGPY plant constructed using refurbished equipment at a decommissioned ammonia fertilizer facility; and a 10-MMGPY retrofitted brewery. A comparison of the case histories of these projects clearly points out the advantages and disadvantages of each type of design and construction.

  20. Metaphylactic antimicrobial therapy for bovine respiratory disease in stocker and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J

    2010-07-01

    This article provides an overview of implementing metaphylactic antimicrobial protocols to certain classes of cattle on arrival to stocker and feedlot production systems. The goal of this management practice is to reduce the negative health and performance effects induced by bovine respiratory disease (BRD). This article emphasizes the multiple factors that influence the decision for mass medication, including weight (age) of the cattle, distance traveled, environmental conditions, previous health history, visual inspection of the cattle at arrival, and prediction of the risk of disease. Current data suggest that metaphylactic programs significantly reduce negative health effects and improve feed performance that can be observed in cattle stricken with BRD.

  1. Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Jennings, J S; Depenbusch, B E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alternative finishing strategies on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Beef steers (64 pens; 8 steers/pen) were allocated to a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Factor 1 consisted of diet, with cattle fed a conventional (CON) diet or a diet consisting of Programmed Nutrition Beef Program (PN) supplements. The PN treatment included Programmed Nutrition Beef Receiver fed from d 1 through 20 of feeding and Programmed Nutrition Beef Finisher fed from d 21 to harvest. Factor 2 evaluated the presence (EGP+) or absence (EGP-) of exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) in the production system. Steers in the EGP+ treatments were initially implanted with Component E-S, reimplanted with Component TE-IS, and fed 400 mg·animal·dof ractopamine hydrochloride for the final 28 d before harvest. Steers were harvested on d 175, and strip loins were removed from 2 carcasses selected at random from each pen for transport to Kansas State University. One 1.27-cm-thick steak was removed from the anterior face for proximate and long-chain fatty acid analysis. There were no diet × ExGP interactions ( > 0.10) for feedlot performance except for DMI ( = 0.02). Steers in the PN/EGP+ treatment consumed more feed than all other treatments ( < 0.05). Both diet and ExGP affected DMI ( < 0.05), with PN and EGP+ steers consuming more feed than their contemporaries. Gain:feed and ADG were unaffected ( > 0.10) by diet, but ExGP improved these measures ( < 0.01). There were no diet × ExGP interactions for carcass characteristics except KPH fat and percentages of yield grade 3 and 4 carcasses ( < 0.05). Diet affected total incidence of liver abscesses because PN steers had a greater ( = 0.05) incidence of liver abscesses than steers in the CON treatment. Diet did not affect the other carcass characteristics ( > 0.10). Use of ExGP increased ( < 0.05) HCW, LM area, and 12th-rib fat but did

  2. Comparison of digestive microflora between feedlot cattle with and without infection by Cryptosporidium andersoni.

    PubMed

    Holko, I; Pavlásek, I; Barton, L; Kmet, V

    2004-01-01

    The influence of cryptosporidial abomasitis on digestive anaerobic microflora in feedlot cattle with spontaneous Cryptosporidium andersoni colonization of abomasum was shown. Significant differences were found after the cultivation of abomasal content. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was detected in damaged areas of infected abomasum. PCR analysis of ruminal fluid showed no differences between the two animal groups regarding qualitative composition of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic rumen microflora. The concentration of volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) and ammonia in the rumen content showed that examined metabolic parameters were within normal limits except for ammonia content, which was higher in infected (291 mg/kg) than in healthy animals (203 mg/kg).

  3. Efficiency Analysis of Caspian Cattle Feedlot Farms by Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Ali; Jaafar, Azmi Bin; Lee, Lai Soon

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an excellent approach for evaluating the performance of decision making units (DMUs) that use multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs. This research utilizes the DEA to analyze the operating efficiency of Caspian cattle feedlot farms in Iran. The inputs utilized by the farms are number of calve, number of labors, total metabolizable energy intake, total crude protein intake and total cost of hygiene-treatment of calve; and the output considered is total live weigh gain of calve. By using two DEA models, the efficiency score for each farm is calculated and the efficient farms are ranked.

  4. Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: environmental, genetic, and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Bennett, G L

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genetic, environmental, and economic factors related to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. Records from 18,112 calves representing 9 breeds (Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental) and 3 composite types (MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III) over a 15-yr period (1987 to 2001) were evaluated. Disease incidence was observed and recorded by station veterinary and technical staff. The incidence of BRD varied across years, with the annual observed incidence ranging from 5 to 44%. From 1987 to 1992, the annual average incidence generally exceeded 20%. However, in later years the annual incidence did not exceed 14%. The epidemiological pattern indicated that BRD infection increased dramatically after 5 d on feed and remained high until approximately 80 d on feed. Previous BRD infection during the preweaning period did not influence subsequent BRD infection in the feedlot. Steers were more likely to become sick with BRD than heifers; castration before entry in the feedlot may be a predisposing cause. Few significant differences among breeds were detected for BRD incidence. Adjusted solutions from mixed model analyses indicated that Herefords were generally more susceptible to BRD infection (P < 0.05) than MARC I and III composite types. Composite breed types had similar susceptibility compared with other purebred breeds. Mortality associated with BRD was greatest in Red Poll calves (9%) compared with the average over all breeds (4%). Estimates of heritability for resistance to BRD ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 +/- 0.01. When the observed heritability was transformed to an underlying continuous scale, the estimate increased to 0.18. Selection for resistance to BRD could be effective if phenotypes for BRD resistance were known. Thus, development of an inexpensive and humane method of challenging animals with BRD to determine resistance would be an

  5. Issues concerning Mexican cattle on feedlots in the United States as reported in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1994-1995 Cattle on Feed Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Losinger, W C

    1997-07-01

    Producers participating in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1994-1995 Cattle on Feed Evaluation provided information on cattle of Mexican origin in their feedlot operations. Cattle of Mexican origin accounted for 8.1% of cattle placed on United States feedlots from 1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994. Of operations with a one-time capacity of 1000 or more cattle, 12.8% placed cattle of Mexican origin on their feedlots over this time frame. Very few operations (about 1%) reported cattle of Mexican origin at the same time as cattle to be used for breeding in the United States.

  6. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  7. Effects of a cattle feedlot on ground-water quality in the South Platte River Valley near Greeley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borman, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in water quality in an alluvial aquifer resulting from the operation of a feedlot stocked with 90,000 cattle have been minimal. Monitoring water quality in 19 observation wells from April 1974, prior to the operation of the feedlot, to June 1978, after about 4 years of operation, indicates that chloride concentrations have increased slightly in one well downgradient from a runoff-retention pond. Chemical analyses of water from two lysimeters installed in the unsaturated zone indicate that leachate from the feedlot has percolated to a depth of at least 5 feet but has not percolated to a depth of 20 feet. The small changes in ground-water quality caused by the feedlot are likely the result of the limited available recharge, a relatively impermeable manure pack, soil clogging under the cattle pens resulting in slow vertical movement of leachate through the unsaturated zone, soil clogging under the unlined runoff-retention ponds, and denitrification in the unsaturated zone. (USGS)

  8. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Thomas, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  9. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  10. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in French calf feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Aslan, Hamidé; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of respiratory outbreaks in cattle feedlots. In this study pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to trace field strains and provide information on M. bovis patterns of spread in calf feedlots. The suitability of KpnI, MluI and SmaI restriction enzymes was assessed on different sets of strains. The discriminative power of the first two enzymes was first assessed using 28 epidemiologically unrelated strains; stability was 100% on multiple isolates from in vivo experimental infection. Thirty-nine field isolates from six feedlots were then evaluated. In contrast to the unique fingerprints displayed by the unrelated strains, the isolates from the feedlots showed identical patterns at the time of the outbreak of respiratory disease and 4 weeks later. The PFGE typing results suggest that M. bovis strains follow a clonal epidemic spread pattern at the herd level and that the same strain persists in calves of the herd after the clinical signs have disappeared.

  11. Evaluation of a vegetative treatment system to reduce fecal microorganisms and antibiotic resistant bacteria in beef cattle feedlot runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative treatment systems designed to treat beef cattle feedlot runoff are an alternative to holding ponds and involve short-term runoff accumulation in basins and application to grass treatment areas. Field evaluations are needed to determine if pathogens, fecal indicators, and antibiotic resis...

  12. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in feedlot steers supplemented with OmniGen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with OmniGen-AF on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 270 ± 5 kilograms body weight) were separated into two treatment groups (n=9/treatment): one group was fed a standard ...

  13. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids improve performance and immune response of newly-received feedlot calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW a...

  14. High diversity among environmental Escherichia coli isolates from a bovine feedlot.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Hui; Vinopal, Robert T; Grasso, Domenico; Smets, Barth F

    2004-03-01

    Approximately 280 Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from a bovine feedlot at the University of Connecticut campus via enrichment in lauryl tryptose broth and random selection from MacConkey plates. The E. coli subspecies diversity was estimated by employing whole-cell BOX-PCR genomic fingerprints. A total of 89 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by employing a criterion of 85% fingerprint similarity as a surrogate for an OTU, while the Chao1 index estimated the E. coli population richness at 128 OTUs. One genotype (at a similarity level of 60%) dominated the population at 66% regardless of sampling depth or location, while no significant vertical distribution pattern was observed in terms of genotype, mobility, antibiotic resistance profile, or biofilm-forming ability. Motility, measured by a soft agar assay, had a very broad range among the E. coli population and was positively correlated with biofilm-forming ability in minimal medium (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.619, P < 10(-4)) but not in Luria broth. Only an estimated 48% of the population possessed gene agn43, which encodes Ag43, a phase-variable outer membrane protein that has been implicated in biofilm formation in minimal medium. We observed significantly more biofilm formation in both minimal medium and Luria broth for agn43(+) strains, with a larger effect in minimal medium. This study represents an exhaustive inventory of extant E. coli population diversity at a bovine feedlot and reveals significant subspecies heterogeneity in interfacial behavior.

  15. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198

  16. Nutritional methods to decrease N losses from open-dirt feedlots in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J

    2001-11-21

    Nitrogen (N) losses from cattle feedlots are of concern due to loss of valuable N and enrichment of the atmospheric N pool. Nutritional methods to decrease such losses would have economic and environmental benefits. One method to decrease N losses is by increasing carbon (C) on the pen surface. The most cost effective method of decreasing N losses with C may be feeding diets lower in digestibility compared to adding C directly to pens. Therefore, three experiments evaluated feeding corn bran (which is less digestible than corn) as either 0, 15, or 30% of the diet. The 15- and 30%-bran diets increase organic matter (OM) excretion by approximately 0.5 and 1.0 kg per steer per day, respectively. Compared with no bran, feeding 15 and 30% decreased feed efficiency by 7.8 and 10.4%, respectively. Nutrient balance was assessed in two trials from October through May and in one trial from June to September. During the trials from October to May, N losses were decreased by 14.5 and 20.7% for the 15- and 30%-bran diets compared with no bran. Feeding 15 or 30% bran did not influence N losses in the experiment from June to September. Increasing the C:N ratio of manure prior to cleaning open-dirt feedlots had variable results depending on time of year.

  17. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  18. Genome-wide association study for feedlot average daily gain in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-06-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.

  19. Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 β-stigmastanol and epi-5 β-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.0±0.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

  20. A mail survey of factors associated with morbidity and mortality in feedlot calves in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, D L; Martin, S W

    1983-01-01

    The design and results of a mail survey of a simple random sample of southwestern Ontario feedlot owners are presented. The survey provided general data about management of feedlot calves and the association between a number of factors and disease and/or death rates. The number of calves purchased was related positively, in a linear manner, to mortality and morbidity rates. Increased levels of morbidity and mortality were noted when the ration was changed to corn silage from dry-hay within the first month after arrival. However, it was not clear whether the ration changes preceded or followed increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Prophylactic levels of antimicrobials in the water supply were associated with increased death losses. Shipping cattle by truck, rather than train, was associated with decreased rates of disease. Processing factors, including using vaccines against respiratory disease, were not associated significantly with mortality or morbidity. It was concluded that reducing the number of calves, to approximately 100 per group, not changing the ration to silage within the first month and not using antibiotics in the water supply on arrival could significantly reduce disease and death losses. PMID:6309344

  1. Epidemiology of toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS) of North American feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray; Fenton, Kent; Perrett, Tye; Paetsch, Chad

    2016-08-01

    Toe Tip Necrosis Syndrome (TTNS) is predominantly a hind limb lameness of feedlot cattle that develops early in the feeding period. Retrospective analyses of feedlot health records were conducted in order to describe the epidemiology of the disease at the level of the individual animal, lot, and feedyard. Analysis of 1904 lots (cohorts of > 100 head) of cattle, from 48 feedyards, found that TTNS occurred sporadically, but clustered by both lots and feedyards. Only 3.8% of lots had ≥ 1 case of TTNS; however, 26.4% of these lots were associated with 1 feedyard. Analysis of 702 cases of TTNS found that the disease clusters early in the feeding period; the mean (median; range) number of days on feed at death was 42.3 d (27.0 d; 4 to 302 d). The disease occurred in all months of the year and affected calves, yearlings, steers, and heifers. It was equivocal as to whether the source of the animals was associated with how quickly they died of TTNS in the feedyard. PMID:27493280

  2. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus florfenicol and tilmicosin against undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Skogerboe, Terry L; Rooney, Kathleen A; Nutsch, Robert G; Weigel, Daniel J; Gajewski, Kimberly; Kilgore, W Randal

    2005-01-01

    Four studies conducted at feedlots in Greeley and Wellington, Colorado; Nebraska; and Texas compared the efficacy of tulathromycin to florfenicol or tilmicosin for the treatment of cattle with undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. In each study, 100 calves with BRD were treated with tulathromycin given SC at 2.5 mg/kg body weight. At the Greeley, CO, and Nebraska study locations, 100 calves were treated with florfenicol given SC at 40 mg/kg body weight, and at the Wellington, CO, and Texas study locations, tilmicosin was given SC at 10 mg/kg body weight. Cure rate, a derived variable that included assessments of mortality, rectal temperature, and attitude and respiratory scores from day 3 to day 28 and day 3 through harvest, was the primary assessment of BRD efficacy. Cure rates of calves treated with tulathromycin were significantly (P < or = .009) higher than those calves treated with florfenicol. At Wellington, CO, the cure rate of calves treated with tulathromycin was significantly higher (P < or = .018) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. The differences in cure rates between tulathromycin and tilmicosin treatment groups in the Texas study were not significantly different (P > .05). Tulathromycin was more efficacious in the treatment of undifferentiated BRD compared with florfenicol and, in one study, compared with tilmicosin.

  3. Identification of Metabolites of Trenbolone Acetate in Androgenic Runoff from a Beef Feedlot

    PubMed Central

    Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Lambright, Christy S.; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Lazorchak, James; Hartig, Phillip C.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Gray, L. Earl; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known concerning the potential ecological effects of hormonally active substances associated with discharges from animal feeding operations. Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic anabolic steroid that is widely used in the United States to promote growth of beef cattle. Metabolites of trenbolone acetate include the stereoisomers 17α- and 17β-trenbolone, both of which are stable in animal wastes and are relatively potent androgens in fish and mammals. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the occurrence of 17α- and 17β-trenbolone in a beef cattle feedlot discharge and in river water upstream and downstream from the discharge. In conjunction with that effort, we measured in vitro androgenic activity of the discharge using CV-1 cells that had been transiently cotransfected with human androgen receptor and reporter gene constructs. Samples were collected on nine different occasions during 2002 and 2003. Whole-water samples from the discharge caused a significant androgenic response in the CV-1 cells and contained detectable concentrations of 17α- and 17β-trenbolone. Further work is needed to ascertain the degree to which synthetic androgens such as trenbolone contribute to androgenic activity of feedlot discharges. PMID:16818248

  4. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  5. Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.; Thompson, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Society must develop a large new source of electric power to adequately meet human needs in the 21st Century. The Lunar Solar Power system (LSP) is a new option that is independent of the biosphere. LSP captures sunlight on the moon, converts the solar power to microwaves, and beams the power to receivers on Earth that output electricity. The collimated microwave beams are low in intensity (< 20% of sunlight), safe, and environmentally benign. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) enables the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems. We use DEA methodology to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. This comparison suggests the efficiencies to be gained from LSP are large indeed. Such gains remain even if the resources needed for LSP are 10-fold greater than estimated from United States government studies. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0-1, DEA reveals that LSP is much more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LSP is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.. 1 ref., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  6. Measuring cattle feedlot dust using laser diffraction analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable amounts of particulate matter (PM), including total suspended particulates (TSP), particulates with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 um (PM10), and particulates with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 um (PM2.5), are emitted from large beef...

  7. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  8. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  9. Commercial Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Thomas

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in commercial art at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Optimized batch fermentation of cheese whey. Supplemented feedlot waste filtrate to produce a nitrogen-rich feed supplement for ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Reddy, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been shown to be valuable as nitrogenous feed supplements for ruminants. The utilization of substrate carbohydrate at pH 7.0 and 43 degrees C was greater than 94% within 8 h, and the crude protein (total N X 6.25) content of the product was 70 to 78% (dry weight basis). About 66 to 69% of the crude protein was in the form of ammonia nitrogen. Lactate and acetate were the predominant acids during the first 6 to 8 hours of fermentation, but after 24 hours, appreciable levels of propionate and butyrate were also present. The rate of fermentation and the crude protein content of the product were optimal at pH 7.0 and decreased at a lower pH. For example, fermentation did not go to completion even after 24 hours at pH 4.5. Fermentation proceeded optimally at 43 degrees C, less so at 37 degrees C, and considerably more slowly at 23 and 50 degrees C. Concentrations of up to 15 g of cheese whey per 100 ml of feedlot waste filtrate were fermented efficiently. Fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate obtained from animals fed low silage-high grain, high silage-low grain, or dairy rations resulted in similar products in terms of total nitrogen and organic acid composition.

  11. Effects of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly weaned feedlot calves to immunization with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza 3 virus.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, J L; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary chromium (Cr) on antibody responses of feedlot calves. Fifty-five newly weaned calves were divided into two groups, 28 that received supplemental Cr and 27 that did not, and were immunized with a commercial vaccine against bovine infectious rhinotracheitis virus (IBR) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3(PI-3). Sera harvested from blood sampled preimmunization, and at days 14 and 28 postimmunization (PI), were assayed for anti-IBR and anti-PI-3 antibody titers. Individual calves were also scored as seroconverters if day 14 or 28 PI titers were > or = 3 times the value of the preimmunization titer. Thirty-five calves did not seroconvert to either antigen. Of 20 IBR seroconverters, 15 calves were from the Cr-supplemented group while only five calves were controls (p = 0.007). There was no treatment difference in the number of PI-3 seroconverters. Least squares analysis of actual antibody titers revealed that Cr supplementation increased the magnitude of the peak antibody response to the IBR (p = 0.003), but had no effect on anti-PI-3 antibody titers. These data confirmed and extended our previous observations that supplemental Cr can be immunomodulatory in cattle. PMID:8004541

  12. Interaction between bunk management and monensin concentration on finishing performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal metabolism during an acidosis challenge with feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Milton, C T; Fanning, K C; Cooper, R J; Swingle, R S; Parrott, J C; Vogel, G; Klopfenstein, T J

    2003-11-01

    Two commercial feedlot experiments and a metabolism study were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin concentrations and bunk management strategies on performance, feed intake, and ruminal metabolism. In the feedlot experiments, 1,793 and 1,615 steers were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, in 18 pens for each experiment (six pens/treatment). Three treatments were evaluated: 1) ad libitum bunk management with 28.6 mg/kg monensin and clean bunk management strategies with either 2) 28.6 or 3) 36.3 mg/kg monensin. In both experiments, 54 to 59% of the clean bunk pens were clean at targeted clean time, or 2200, compared with 24 to 28% of the ad libitum pens. However, only 13% of the pens were clean by 2000 in Exp. 1 (summer), whereas 44% of the pens in Exp. 2 (winter) were clean by 2000. In Exp. 1, bunk management and monensin concentration did not affect carcass-adjusted performance. In Exp. 2, steers fed ad libitum had greater DMI (P < 0.01) and carcass-adjusted ADG (P < 0.01) but feed efficiency (P > 0.13) similar to that of clean bunk-fed steers. Monensin concentration had no effect on carcass-adjusted performance (P > 0.20) in either experiment. A metabolism experiment was conducted with eight fistulated steers in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square acidosis challenge experiment. An acidosis challenge was imposed by feeding 125% of the previous day's DMI, 4 h later than normal. Treatments consisted of monensin concentrations (mg/kg) of 0, 36.7, 48.9, or 36.7 until challenged and switched to 48.9 on the challenge day and 4 d following. Each replicate of the Latin square was managed with separate bunk management strategies (clean bunk or ad libitum). Feeding any concentration of monensin increased number of meals and decreased DMI rate (%/h) (P < 0.12) for the 4 d following the acidosis challenge. Meal size, pH change, and pH variance were lower (P < 0.10) for steers fed monensin with clean bunk management. However, no monensin effect was observed for steers fed

  13. Escherichia coli O26 in feedlot cattle: fecal prevalence, isolation, characterization, and effects of an E. coli O157 vaccine and a direct-fed microbial.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Zac D; Renter, David G; Cull, Charley A; Shi, Xiarong; Bai, Jianfa; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli O26 is second only to O157 in causing foodborne, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. Our objectives were to determine fecal prevalence and characteristics of E. coli O26 in commercial feedlot cattle (17,148) that were enrolled in a study to evaluate an E. coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor and porin (SRP(®)) vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM; 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/animal/day of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 10(9) CFU/animal/day of Propionibacterium freudenreichii). Cattle were randomly allocated to 40 pens within 10 complete blocks; pens were randomly assigned to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM treatments. Vaccine was administered on days 0 and 21, and DFM was fed throughout the study. Pen-floor fecal samples (30/pen) were collected weekly for the last 4 study weeks. Samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect O26-specific wzx gene and four major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) and to a culture-based procedure that involved immunomagnetic separation and plating on MacConkey agar. Ten presumptive E. coli colonies were randomly picked, pooled, and tested by the multiplex PCR. Pooled colonies positive for O26 serogroup were streaked on sorbose MacConkey agar, and 10 randomly picked colonies per sample were tested individually by the multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of E. coli O26 was higher (p<0.001) by the culture-based method compared to the PCR assay (22.7 versus 10.5%). The interventions (VAC and or DFM) had no impact on fecal shedding of O26. Serogroup O26 was recovered in pure culture from 23.9% (260 of 1089) of O26 PCR-positive pooled colonies. Only 7 of the 260 isolates were positive for the stx gene and 90.1% of the isolates possessed an eaeβ gene that codes for intimin subtype β, but not the bfpA gene, which codes for bundle-forming pilus. Therefore, the majority of the O26 recovered from feedlot cattle feces was

  14. Interaction between bunk management and monensin concentration on finishing performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal metabolism during an acidosis challenge with feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Milton, C T; Fanning, K C; Cooper, R J; Swingle, R S; Parrott, J C; Vogel, G; Klopfenstein, T J

    2003-11-01

    Two commercial feedlot experiments and a metabolism study were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin concentrations and bunk management strategies on performance, feed intake, and ruminal metabolism. In the feedlot experiments, 1,793 and 1,615 steers were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, in 18 pens for each experiment (six pens/treatment). Three treatments were evaluated: 1) ad libitum bunk management with 28.6 mg/kg monensin and clean bunk management strategies with either 2) 28.6 or 3) 36.3 mg/kg monensin. In both experiments, 54 to 59% of the clean bunk pens were clean at targeted clean time, or 2200, compared with 24 to 28% of the ad libitum pens. However, only 13% of the pens were clean by 2000 in Exp. 1 (summer), whereas 44% of the pens in Exp. 2 (winter) were clean by 2000. In Exp. 1, bunk management and monensin concentration did not affect carcass-adjusted performance. In Exp. 2, steers fed ad libitum had greater DMI (P < 0.01) and carcass-adjusted ADG (P < 0.01) but feed efficiency (P > 0.13) similar to that of clean bunk-fed steers. Monensin concentration had no effect on carcass-adjusted performance (P > 0.20) in either experiment. A metabolism experiment was conducted with eight fistulated steers in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square acidosis challenge experiment. An acidosis challenge was imposed by feeding 125% of the previous day's DMI, 4 h later than normal. Treatments consisted of monensin concentrations (mg/kg) of 0, 36.7, 48.9, or 36.7 until challenged and switched to 48.9 on the challenge day and 4 d following. Each replicate of the Latin square was managed with separate bunk management strategies (clean bunk or ad libitum). Feeding any concentration of monensin increased number of meals and decreased DMI rate (%/h) (P < 0.12) for the 4 d following the acidosis challenge. Meal size, pH change, and pH variance were lower (P < 0.10) for steers fed monensin with clean bunk management. However, no monensin effect was observed for steers fed

  15. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  16. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  17. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  18. Effects of preslaughter withdrawal period on response of feedlot heifers to zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation: growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robles-Estrada, J C; Arrizon, A A; Barreras, A; Calderon, J F; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Torrentera, N; Plascencia, A; Zinn, R A

    2009-05-01

    Sixty-four crossbred heifers (451 +/- 23 kg) were used in a 42-d feeding trial (4 pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design) to evaluate the influence of preslaughter zilpaterol hydrochloride withdrawal period on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Heifers were fed a diet based on steam-flaked corn (2.13 Mcal of NE(m)/kg). Treatments were 1) control, no zilpaterol supplementation; 2) zilpaterol supplementation for 30 d, drug withdrawn from the diet 3 d preslaughter (ZIL-3); 3) zilpaterol supplementation for 30 d, drug withdrawn 6 d preslaughter (ZIL-6), and 4) zilpaterol supplementation for 30 d, drug withdrawn 12 d preslaughter (ZIL-12). Zilpaterol was supplemented at the rate of 0.15 mg/kg of BW daily. Intake of DM averaged 9.2 +/- 0.26 kg/d and was not affected (P > or = 0.36) by treatment. Compared with control heifers, ZIL-3 increased (P < 0.01) carcass-adjusted ADG (59%), G:F (57%), apparent dietary NE(m) (31%), and decreased observed/expected DMI (25%). Treatment with ZIL-3 did not affect marbling score (P = 0.49) or backfat thickness (P = 0.17), but compared with the control group, increased HCW (3.6%, P = 0.03), carcass dressing percentage (3.2%, P = 0.02), LM area (6.3%, P = 0.05), and reduced trimmed fat (31%, P = 0.03). Prolonging the period of zilpaterol withdrawal preslaughter tended to decrease carcass-adjusted ADG (linear, P = 0.11), G:F (linear, P = 0.08), apparent dietary NE(m) (linear, P = 0.11), and carcass dressing percentage (linear, P = 0.11). We conclude that growth performance and carcass yield responses to zilpaterol supplementation are negatively affected by prolonging the period of zilpaterol withdrawal beyond 3 d (the required minimum withdrawal period according to label). Drug withdrawal period may be a relevant factor in explaining variation in performance response to zilpaterol supplementation in commercial feedlots.

  19. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in surface water near cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Tanaro, José D; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Galli, Lucía; Gasparovic, Alejandra M C; Procura, Francisco; Molina, Demián A; Vitón, Mauro; Zolezzi, Gisela; Rivas, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Between April 2009 and July 2011, 311 surface water samples in 48 cattle feedlots distributed in an area of about 67,000 km(2) were analyzed to examine the environmental dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were taken inside and outside the pens, exposed and not exposed to runoff from corrals, near the feedlots. Two types of samples were defined: (1) exposed surface waters (ESW; n=251), downstream from cattle pens; and (2) nonexposed surface waters (NESW; n=60), upstream from cattle pens. By multiplex PCR, 177 (70.5%) ESW samples were rfb(O157)-positive, and 62 (24.7%) E. coli O157, and 32 (12.7%) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated. In the NESW samples, 36 (60.0%) were rfb(O157)- positive, and 9 (15.0%) E. coli O157, and 6 (10.0%) STEC O157:H7 strains were isolated. These results showed that the environmental surface waters exposed to liquid discharges from intensive livestock operations tended to be contaminated with more STEC O157:H7 than NESW. However, no significant difference was found. This fact emphasizes the relevance of other horizontal routes of transmission, as the persistence of E. coli in the environment resulting from extensive livestock farming. By XbaI-PFGE, some patterns identified are included in the Argentine Database of E. coli O157, corresponding to strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases, food, and animals, such as AREXHX01.0022, second prevalent pattern in Argentina, representing 5.5% of the total database. In the study area, characterized by the abundance of waterways, pathogens contained in feedlot runoff could reach recreational waters and also contaminate produce through irrigation, increasing the potential dissemination of STEC O157:H7 and the risk of human infections. The control of runoff systems from intensive livestock is necessary, but other alternatives should be explored to solve the problem of the presence of E. coli O157 in the aquatic rural environment

  20. Cinnamaldehyde in feedlot cattle diets: intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N; Benchaar, C; He, M L; Beauchemin, K A

    2010-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN), a natural chemical compound found in the bark of cinnamon trees, can alter rumen fermentation by inhibiting selected ruminal microbes, and consequently, may improve growth performance and feed efficiency of animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of feedlot cattle with CIN on intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites. Seventy yearling steers (BW = 390 +/- 25.2 kg) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments: control (no additive), monensin (MO; 330 mg*steer(-1)*d(-1)), and 400, 800, or 1,600 mg of CIN*steer(-1)*d(-1). At the start of the experiment, steers were blocked according to BW and assigned to 14 blocks of 5 cattle, with cattle within block assigned to treatments. The diets consisted of 9% barley silage, 86% dry-rolled barley grain, and 5% supplement (DM basis). Dry matter intake responded quadratically (P = 0.03) to CIN supplementation with 13% more feed consumed for steers fed CIN (mean of 3 CIN levels) compared with those fed control during the first 28 d of the experiment, and with a tendency of 4% increase over the entire experiment. The ADG (kg/d) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.08) to CIN supplementation during the first 28 d, but was not affected over the entire experiment (112 d). Feed efficiency (G:F) linearly declined (P = 0.03) during the first 28 d with CIN supplementation and was quadratically affected between d 29 to 56 and d 85 to 112 by CIN dose. Supplementation of MO did not affect (P > 0.15) DMI or growth performance at any time during the experiment. Serum NEFA concentrations were reduced (P = 0.05) by 35, 29, 30, and 22%, respectively, on d 56, 84, 112, and overall with CIN supplementation. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were reduced on d 28 by 56, 60, or 56% for 800 mg of CIN, 1,600 mg of CIN, and MO, respectively, compared with control. Plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein

  1. Cow-calf and feedlot performances of Brahman-derivative breeds.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2002-12-01

    A study was conducted to compare Brangus, Beefmaster, Gelbray, and Simbrah breed influences for economically important traits. Brangus (9), Beefmaster (12), Gelbray (10), and Simbrah (7) sires were used in purebred and crossbred (Brahman x Hereford F1 cows) matings to generate calves (326) in eight breed groups. Beefmaster cows were of similar size (448 kg), Brangus and Gelbray cows were 11% heavier (501 and 503 kg), and Simbrah cows were 21% heavier (548 kg) compared to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (452 kg). Calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls had lower birth weights (35 vs 38 kg; P < 0.05), preweaning growth rates (0.87 vs 0.91 kg x d(-1); P < 0.01), and weaning weights (206 vs 219 kg; P < 0.01) than Gelbray- and Simbrah-sired calves. Birth weights, preweaning ADG, and weaning weight and hip heights were similar between Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired calves. Simbrah-sired calves had greater preweaning growth rates (0.94 vs 0.88 kg x d(-1); P < 0.05), weaning weights (227 vs 211 kg; P < 0.01), and adjusted 205-d hip heights (126 vs 122 cm; P < 0.05) than Gelbray-sired calves. Straightbred Angus steers were introduced in the postweaning portion of the study. Steer calves were placed on feed at an average age of 14.5 mo. Steers were removed from the feedlot upon attaining a targeted 10 mm of backfat. Feedlot ADG did not differ among sire breeds. Brahman-derivative sired steers required an additional 54 d on feed (P < 0.01) and were 86 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at harvest than Angus steers. Continental-Brahman steers spent an additional 25 d on feed (P < 0.05) and were 35 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at harvest than British-Brahman steers. Simbrah-sired steers were 52 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at harvest than Gelbray-sired steers when fed for a similar number of days (211 vs 203 d). However, straightbred Simbrah steers required an additional 12 d on feed (P < 0.01) and weighed 47 kg more (P < 0.01) than Simbrah-sired crossbred steers. The economic value of the heavier calf

  2. Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria among cattle from Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeeta; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David; Morley, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter) and non-type-specific E. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use. A secondary objective was to determine if AMR in non-type-specific E. coli could be used as a predictor of AMR in foodborne pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 Alberta feedlots during March through December 2004, and resistance prevalence was estimated by season (Spring, Fall) and cattle type (fewest days-on-feed and closest to slaughter). AMD exposures were obtained by calculating therapeutic animal daily doses for each drug before sampling from feedlot records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between each AMR and AMD use. Non-type-specific E. coli was commonly recovered from fecal samples (88.62%), and the highest prevalence of resistance was found toward tetracycline (53%), streptomycin (28%), and sulfadiazine (48%). Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 55.3% of the fecal samples, and resistance was generally less for the drugs that were evaluated (doxycycline 38.1%, ciprofloxacin 2.6%, nalidixic acid 1.64%, erythromycin 1.2%). E. coli O157 and Salmonella were recovered much less frequently (7% and 1% prevalence, respectively). The prevalence of recovery for the bacteria studied varied between seasons and cattle types, as did patterns of AMR. Among non-type-specific E. coli, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfadiazine was found to be positively associated with in-feed exposure as well as injectable tetracycline, but these differences were relatively small and of questionable practical relevance. Among C. jejuni isolates, cattle type was significantly associated with doxycycline resistance. Results suggested that resistance in non-type-specific E. coli to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim

  3. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in surface water near cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Tanaro, José D; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Galli, Lucía; Gasparovic, Alejandra M C; Procura, Francisco; Molina, Demián A; Vitón, Mauro; Zolezzi, Gisela; Rivas, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Between April 2009 and July 2011, 311 surface water samples in 48 cattle feedlots distributed in an area of about 67,000 km(2) were analyzed to examine the environmental dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were taken inside and outside the pens, exposed and not exposed to runoff from corrals, near the feedlots. Two types of samples were defined: (1) exposed surface waters (ESW; n=251), downstream from cattle pens; and (2) nonexposed surface waters (NESW; n=60), upstream from cattle pens. By multiplex PCR, 177 (70.5%) ESW samples were rfb(O157)-positive, and 62 (24.7%) E. coli O157, and 32 (12.7%) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated. In the NESW samples, 36 (60.0%) were rfb(O157)- positive, and 9 (15.0%) E. coli O157, and 6 (10.0%) STEC O157:H7 strains were isolated. These results showed that the environmental surface waters exposed to liquid discharges from intensive livestock operations tended to be contaminated with more STEC O157:H7 than NESW. However, no significant difference was found. This fact emphasizes the relevance of other horizontal routes of transmission, as the persistence of E. coli in the environment resulting from extensive livestock farming. By XbaI-PFGE, some patterns identified are included in the Argentine Database of E. coli O157, corresponding to strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases, food, and animals, such as AREXHX01.0022, second prevalent pattern in Argentina, representing 5.5% of the total database. In the study area, characterized by the abundance of waterways, pathogens contained in feedlot runoff could reach recreational waters and also contaminate produce through irrigation, increasing the potential dissemination of STEC O157:H7 and the risk of human infections. The control of runoff systems from intensive livestock is necessary, but other alternatives should be explored to solve the problem of the presence of E. coli O157 in the aquatic rural environment.

  4. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( < 0.01) compared to that of the EXC cohorts. Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and

  5. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments

  6. Effect of cattle age, forage level, and corn processing on diet digestibility and feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Gorocica-Buenfil, M A; Loerch, S C

    2005-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of cattle age and dietary forage level on the utilization of corn fed whole or ground to feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 16 steers were used to investigate the effects of cattle age and corn processing on diet digestibility. Two cattle age categories were evaluated (weanling [254 +/- 20 kg BW] and yearling [477 +/- 29 kg BW]; eight steers per group), and corn was fed either ground or whole to each cattle age category. Cattle age and corn processing did not affect (P > 0.10) diet digestibility of DM, OM, starch, CP, NDF or ADF, and no interactions (P > 0.10) between these two factors were detected. In Exp. 2, the effects of forage level and corn processing on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. One hundred eighty steers (310 +/- 40 kg BW) were allotted to 24 pens, and were fed one of the following diets: high-forage (18.2% corn silage) cracked corn (HFCC); high-forage shifting corn (whole corn for the first half of the trial, then cracked corn until harvest; HFSC); high-forage whole corn (HFWC); low-forage (5.2% corn silage) cracked corn (LFCC); low-forage shifting corn (LFSC); and low-forage whole corn (LFWC). For the high-forage diets, steers fed cracked corn had 7% greater DMI than those fed whole corn, whereas for the low-forage diets, grain processing did not affect DMI (interaction; P = 0.02). No interactions (P > 0.10) between forage level and corn processing were found for ADG and G:F. Total trial ADG and G:F, and percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice, and carcass yield grade were not affected (P > 0.10) by corn processing. Cattle with fewer days on feed grew faster and more efficiently when cracked corn was fed, whereas cattle with longer days on feed had greater ADG and G:F when corn was fed whole (interaction; P < 0.10). In Exp. 3, the effects of forage level and corn processing on diet digestibility were evaluated. The high-forage cracked corn, high-forage whole corn

  7. Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance, carcass and meat quality attributes of Tanzania shorthorn zebu steers.

    PubMed

    Asimwe, Lovince; Kimambo, Abiliza Elia; Laswai, Germana Henry; Mtenga, Louis Athuman; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Madsen, Jorgen

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted on 50 steers (183 ± 4 kg initial body weight, 3 years of age) to assess effects of days in feedlot on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle with the aim of determining appropriate finishing period. Periods were 0 day (P0), 25 days (P25), 50 days (P50), 75 days (P75) and 100 days (P100) with 10 animals per period. Steers were housed in individual pens, fed with a concentrate diet and hay on an ad libitum basis except the P0 group which was slaughtered at the beginning of trial. Long stay in feedlot, P100, increased concentrate dry matter intake by 2 kg DM/day over short stay, P25. Final weight and total gain increased (P < 0.05) from P25 (22.6 kg) to P100 steers (95.4 kg). Periods had no influence (P > 0.05) on an average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) but affected carcass characteristics. Empty body weight (EBW) and hot carcass weight (HCW) increased by 61 and 65 %, respectively, from no feedlot, P0 to P100. Dressing percentage was high (P < 0.05) for P100 steers. Carcass measurements, internal fat, fat thickness and carcass total fat were the highest (P < 0.05) on P100 steers and the lowest on P0 steers. Rate of pH decline increased with days in feedlot, while cooking loss and shear force values decreased in advanced ageing time. Feedlot periods of 75 and 100 days resulted into high intake, carcass measurements and tenderness, but 100 days further increased carcass fatness and fat thickness levels, thus, with this particular feeding system and animal's condition, 75 days is the recommended period to finish TSZ cattle in feedlots.

  8. Effect of feeding olive-pulp ensiled with additives on feedlot performance and carcass attributes of fat-tailed lambs.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rowghani, Ebrahim; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Feed cost has a significant effect on the economic efficiency of feedlot lambs; therefore, the use of low-cost non-conventional feedstuffs, such as olive pulp (OP), has the potential to decrease the production costs. Because optimum inclusion of OP-treated silages has not been determined in feedlot lambs, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of inclusion of OP ensiled with additives in the diet on the feedlot performance and carcass attributes of feedlot lambs. Ram lambs of Mehraban and Ghezel breeds (n = 50 lambs per breed) were randomly allotted to 10 groups and fed with one of the nine diets containing OP silage or a control diet. Silage treatments were: (1) OP silage without additives (OPS), (2) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses and 0.4 % formic acid (OP-MF), and (3) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses, 0.4 % formic acid and 0.5 % urea (OP-MFU). The control diet contained 50 % alfalfa hay and 50 % barley grain. Three levels from each silage were chosen to replace the barley grain (10, 20, or 30 % dry matter basis). The lambs were slaughtered after 92 days, and the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass characteristics were determined. Feeding OPS to fat-tailed lambs, at an inclusion level of 30 %, decreased the carcass dressing percentage, mainly as a result of decreased brisket percentage, but the ADG and FCR values were not adversely affected. Ghezel lambs had higher ADG than Mehraban lambs, but the visceral fat weight percentage, flap weight percentage, and back fat depth were higher in Mehraban. The crude protein content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was higher in Ghezel, but the dry matter percentage was higher in Mehraban (P < 0.05). Other attributes were not significantly affected by breed (P > 0.05). Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS feeding; therefore, feeding OPS (up to 30 %) can be economical for feedlot lambs. Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts

  9. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the research, development and production (RD&P) of large commercial aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalization.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  12. Comparative efficacy of tilmicosin versus tulathromycin as a metaphylactic antimicrobial in feedlot calves at moderate risk for respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Merrill, John; Hendrick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of tilmicosin (MIC) versus tulathromycin (DRAX) as a metaphylactic antimicrobial in feedlot calves at moderate risk for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Calves that received DRAX had significantly (P < or = .05) lower initial BRD treatment rates compared with calves that received MIC. However, there were no significant differences in the BRD relapse rate, railer rate, total mortality rate, BRD mortality rate, average daily gain, and dry matter conversion between the two groups. The economic advantage of the MIC group was Can$8.29/animal. Based on these results, while DRAX was more efficacious in reducing initial treatments for BRD in feedlot calves at moderate risk for disease, MIC was more cost-effective. The lower initial BRD treatment costs in the DRAX group did not offset the higher metaphylactic cost of DRAX. PMID:19177334

  13. Comparative efficacy of tilmicosin versus tulathromycin as a metaphylactic antimicrobial in feedlot calves at moderate risk for respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Merrill, John; Hendrick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of tilmicosin (MIC) versus tulathromycin (DRAX) as a metaphylactic antimicrobial in feedlot calves at moderate risk for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Calves that received DRAX had significantly (P < or = .05) lower initial BRD treatment rates compared with calves that received MIC. However, there were no significant differences in the BRD relapse rate, railer rate, total mortality rate, BRD mortality rate, average daily gain, and dry matter conversion between the two groups. The economic advantage of the MIC group was Can$8.29/animal. Based on these results, while DRAX was more efficacious in reducing initial treatments for BRD in feedlot calves at moderate risk for disease, MIC was more cost-effective. The lower initial BRD treatment costs in the DRAX group did not offset the higher metaphylactic cost of DRAX.

  14. Electromagnetic Induction and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Applied to evaluate contamination at a site of disposal of animal wastes from a feedlot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainato, C. M.; Marquez Molina, J.; Losinno, B.; Urricariet, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    In Argentina, the systems of animal feeding in pens (feedlots) are expanding the production, generating a great quantity of solids and liquid residuals, being a highly risky source of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relation between soil bulk conductivity and the distribution of concentrations of nitrates and other potential contaminants of groundwater from animal manure. Shallow electromagnetic induction (EMI) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were carried out at a pen of a feedlot at San Pedro , Bs. As. Province , Argentina, where large quantities of manure (3.5 m height) had been placed at the center of them, for a few months of activity. Soil sampling up to 2 m depth was performed for physical and chemical analysis. Wells were drilled for monitoring groundwater level (12 m depth) and water quality. Soil texture was defined as loamy clayey silty. Distribution of electrical conductivity obtained from the two exploration methods was similar, being higher the values at the pen than at the background site, coinciding with laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract. At the center of the pen, bellow the manure accumulation, the highest values of conductivity were found (greater than 120mS/m), decreasing to the surroundings. However, values of N-NO3 in soil were lower at the center of the pen than at the surroundings. Concentration decreases with depth at sites of the pen with high soil compaction. Water content showed a strong influence on values of conductivity. Groundwater values of NO3 concentration do not exceed the level for human consumption although SO4 concentration increases respect to background deeper well.Values of conductivity and N-NO3 were still lower compared with the ones found at another pen with 10 years of use. An EMI survey carried out two years later showed an increase of twice the values of electrical conductivity. We conclude that higher

  15. Meat production in a feedlot system of Zebu-Holstein steers and heifers with dairy genetics: productive and biological analyses.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Gustavo Chamon de Castro; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Ruas, José Reinaldo Mendes; Detmann, Edenio; Menezes, Arismar de Castro; Zanett, Diego; Mariz, Lays Débora Silva; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; da Silva Junior, Jarbas Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and biological efficiency of steers and heifers from dairy genetics in a feedlot system in terms of meat production. Twenty-four steers and 24 heifers at 10 monthes of age, (3/4) Zebu × (1/4) Holstein were utilized. They were distributed over four feedlot times, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days with four replications for each sex, and were slaughtered at the end of each period. The productive and biological analyses were performed through comparative slaughter to determine the body composition. Heifers presented with greater intakes (P < 0.05) of dry matter in grams per kg of body weight. Steers presented with a greater (P < 0.05) final empty body weight, carcass gain, cold carcass weight, and meat proportion in the carcass; however, heifers presented with a greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.05) and, consequently, a greater (P < 0.05) fat proportion in the carcass. We conclude that steers are more efficient in their productive performance than heifers in a feedlot. For the finishing carcass fat cover, heifers need 90 days in the feedlot. The net energy requirements for maintenance are 67 kcal/EBW(0.75)/d, and the net requirements of energy (NEg) and protein (NPg) for gain can be estimated by the following equations: NEg(Mcal/d) = 0.067 × EBW(0.75) × EBG(1.095) and NPg = 162 × EBG - 5.62 × RE for the two sexes.

  16. Meat Production in a Feedlot System of Zebu—Holstein Steers and Heifers with Dairy Genetics: Productive and Biological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Gustavo Chamon de Castro; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Ruas, José Reinaldo Mendes; Detmann, Edenio; Menezes, Arismar de Castro; Zanett, Diego; Mariz, Lays Débora Silva; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; da Silva Junior, Jarbas Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and biological efficiency of steers and heifers from dairy genetics in a feedlot system in terms of meat production. Twenty-four steers and 24 heifers at 10 monthes of age, (3/4) Zebu × (1/4) Holstein were utilized. They were distributed over four feedlot times, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days with four replications for each sex, and were slaughtered at the end of each period. The productive and biological analyses were performed through comparative slaughter to determine the body composition. Heifers presented with greater intakes (P < 0.05) of dry matter in grams per kg of body weight. Steers presented with a greater (P < 0.05) final empty body weight, carcass gain, cold carcass weight, and meat proportion in the carcass; however, heifers presented with a greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.05) and, consequently, a greater (P < 0.05) fat proportion in the carcass. We conclude that steers are more efficient in their productive performance than heifers in a feedlot. For the finishing carcass fat cover, heifers need 90 days in the feedlot. The net energy requirements for maintenance are 67 kcal/EBW0.75/d, and the net requirements of energy (NEg) and protein (NPg) for gain can be estimated by the following equations: NEg(Mcal/d) = 0.067 × EBW0.75 × EBG1.095 and NPg = 162 × EBG − 5.62 × RE for the two sexes. PMID:25574483

  17. Relationship between rectal temperature at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot calves and the probability of not finishing the production cycle.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Miles E; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Holstein, Krista K; Amrine, David E

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To determine the relationship between rectal temperature at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feedlot calves and the probability of not finishing the production cycle. DESIGN-Retrospective data analysis. ANIMALS-344,982 calves identified as having BRDC from 19 US feedlots from 2000 to 2009. PROCEDURES-For each calf, data for rectal temperature at initial treatment for BRDC and various performance and outcome variables were analyzed. A binary variable was created to identify calves that did not finish (DNF) the production cycle (died or culled prior to cohort slaughter). A mixed general linear model and receiver operating characteristic curve were created to evaluate associations of rectal temperature, number of days in the feedlot at time of BRDC diagnosis, body weight, quarter of year at feedlot arrival, sex, and all 2-way interactions with rectal temperature with the probability that calves DNF. RESULTS-27,495 of 344,982 (7.97%) calves DNF. Mean rectal temperature at first treatment for BRDC was 40.0°C (104°F). As rectal temperature increased, the probability that a calf DNF increased; however, that relationship was not linear and was influenced by quarter of year at feedlot arrival, sex, and number of days in the feedlot at time of BRDC diagnosis. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for correct identification of a calf that DNF was 0.646. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Rectal temperature of feedlot calves at first treatment for BRDC had limited value as a prognostic indicator of whether those calves would finish the production cycle.

  18. Occurrence of sulfonamide-, tetracycline-, plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Quanhua; Li, Jin; Sun, Yingxue; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Qing; Luo, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock feedlots deserve attention because they are prone to transfer to human pathogens and thus pose threats to human health. In this study, the occurrence of 21 ARGs, including tetracycline (tet)-, sulfonamide (sul)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone (PMQR)- and macrolide-resistance (erm) genes were investigated in feces and adjacent soils from chicken, swine, and cattle feedlots in Northern China. PMQR and sul ARGs were the most prevalent and account for over 90.0 % of the total ARGs in fecal samples. Specifically, PMQR genes were the most prevalent, accounting for 59.6 % of the total ARGs, followed by sul ARGs (34.2 %). The percentage of tet ARGs was 3.4 %, and erm ARGs accounted for only 1.9 %. Prevalence of PMQR and sul ARGs was also found in swine and cattle feces. The overall trend of ARG concentrations in feces of different feeding animals was chicken > swine > beef cattle in the studied area. In soils, sul ARGs had the highest concentration and account for 71.1 to 80.2 % of the total ARGs, which is possibly due to the widely distributed molecular carriers (i.e., class one integrons), facilitating sul ARG propagation. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of various types of ARGs in livestock feedlots and thus provides a reference for the management of antibiotic use in livestock farming.

  19. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in 2 Iowa feedlots and its association with morbidity, mortality, production parameters, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Johann F; Schmidt, Peggy L; O'Connor, Annette M; Apley, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    A prospective cohort observational study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Iowa feedlots and its association with morbidity, mortality, and treatment costs. Blood samples were taken from 659 calves from 31 consigners at processing and classified as seropositive to A. marginale using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) with a 30% cutoff. Health and production parameters were modeled by A. marginale serostatus with mixed model regression analysis. The apparent prevalence of seropositive cattle was 15.17% (100/659). When the cELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 5.00% (33/659). There was no significant association between A. marginale serostatus and production parameters; however, seropositive status had a weak positive association with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.17). Although prevalence of anaplasmosis in Iowa feedlots is higher than reported in Montana-sourced calves arriving in Canadian feedlots, this was not associated with increased production costs.

  20. Microbiological and histopathological findings in cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease of feedlot cattle in western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Calvin W.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Morley, Paul S.; Jim, G. Kee; Pittman, Tom J.; Schunicht, Oliver C.; Perrett, Tye; Wildman, Brian K.; Fenton, R. Kent; Guichon, P. Timothy; Janzen, Eugene D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the microbiologic agents and pathologic processes in fatal bovine respiratory disease (BRD) of feedlot cattle and to investigate associations between agents and pathologic processes. Ninety feedlot calves diagnosed at necropsy with BRD and 9 control calves without BRD were examined, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and histopathologic studies. Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) (peracute, acute, and subacute cases) and Mycoplasma bovis (MB) (subacute, bronchiolar, and chronic cases) were the most common agents identified in fatal BRD cases. Significant associations (P < 0.10) were detected between microbiologic agents and between agents and pathologic processes. When IHC staining was used, 25/26 (96%) of animals that were positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were also positive for MH; 12/15 (80 %) of animals that were positive for Histophilus somni (HS) were also positive for MB; and all of the animals that were positive for HS were negative for MH and BVDV. This quantitative pathological study demonstrates that several etiologic agents and pathologic processes are involved in fatal BRD of feedlot cattle. PMID:18512458

  1. Effects of graded levels of potato by-products in barley- and corn-based beef feedlot diets: I. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, meat composition, and appearance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M L; Busboom, J R; Cronrath, J D; Falen, L; Blankenbaker, A

    2000-07-01

    To measure effects of diet on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef appearance, 144 crossbred beef steers (333+/-.44 kg) were allotted within weight block (3) to a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Main effects were grain (barley or corn) and level of potato by-product (PB) (0, 10, or 20% of diet DM). Steers were fed diets containing 83% concentrate (grain plus PB), 10% supplement, and 7% alfalfa on a DM basis for an average of 130 d. Level of PB quadratically affected (P < .10) DM intake and gain such that steers fed 10% PB ate more and gained faster. Corn-fed steers were more (P < .05) efficient (5.8 vs 6.3 kg DM/kg gain) and had more (P < .05) kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.2 vs 2.0%) than barley-fed steers. A grain x PB interaction was detected (P < .10) for marbling score, which was minimized in steers fed barley diets (small 0) but maximized in those fed corn diets (small 30) at 10% PB. Diet did not affect beef firmness or beef color score. Barley-fed beef had whiter fat (P < .05) than corn-fed beef (2.6 vs 2.9 on a 1 to 7 scale); however, fat luster score was not affected by diet. Small differences were noted in fatty acid profile, purge, drip loss, and muscle pH. No differences were noted in color measurements due to dietary treatment over 7 d of retail shelf life. Overall, differences were small and probably not biologically important. These results indicate that these diets had minimal effects on beef appearance and carcass characteristics, meat composition, and water retention properties. PMID:10907824

  2. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  3. Effects of sodium hydroxide treatment of dried distillers' grains on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T B; Relling, A E; Pedreira, M S; Santana Junior, H A; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the optimum inclusion of NaOH necessary to buffer the acidity of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and its effects on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis in feedlot steers. Rumen cannulated Angus-crossed steers were blocked by BW (small: 555 ± 42 kg initial BW, = 4; large: 703 ± 85 kg initial BW, = 4) over four 21-d periods in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Steers were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% untreated DDGS, 2) 50% DDGS treated with 0.5% (DM basis) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3) 50% DDGS treated with 1.0% (DM basis) NaOH, and 4) 50% DDGS treated with 1.5% (DM basis) NaOH. The remainder of the diets, on a DM basis, was composed of 20% corn silage, 20% dry-rolled corn, and 10% supplement. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments ( = 0.56) or by a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.15). In situ NDF and ruminal DM disappearance did not differ ( ≥ 0.49 and ≥ 0.47, respectively) among treatments. Similar to in situ results, apparent total tract DM and NDF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.33 and ≥ 0.21, respectively) by increasing NaOH inclusion in the diets. Urinary pH increased (linear, < 0.01) with increasing NaOH concentration in the diet. Blood pH was not affected ( ≥ 0.20), and blood total CO and partial pressure of CO were similar ( ≥ 0.56 and ≥ 0.17, respectively) as NaOH increased in the diet. Increasing NaOH in the diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.21) ruminal concentrations of total VFA. There were no linear ( = 0.20) or quadratic ( = 0.20) effects of treatment on ruminal acetate concentrations, nor was there a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.22) for acetate. Furthermore, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.90) of NaOH inclusion on ruminal propionate concentration. However, there was a quadratic response ( = 0.01) of ruminal butyrate concentrations as NaOH inclusion increased in the diet; ruminal butyrate concentrations were greatest with the 0.5 and 1

  4. Effects of tail docking on health and performance of beef cattle in confined, slatted-floor feedlots.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Metz, K; Rust, S R

    2014-09-01

    Tail docking of feedlot cattle is a management practice used in some confined, slatted-floor feedlots of the midwestern United States. Justification for tail docking in these management systems is to reduce tail injuries and their sequelae and improve performance, but limited evidence exists to support these claims. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on performance, carcass traits, and health parameters after tail docking in feedlot cattle raised in slatted-floor feedlots. Three separate trials were performed. Trial 1 consisted of 140 Angus-cross (370-kg) yearling steers that spent 144 to 160 days on feed (DOF). Trial 2 consisted of 137 Angus-cross (255-kg) weaned steers that spent 232 DOF. Trial 3 consisted of 102 Holstein steers (370 kg) that spent 185 to 232 DOF. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All steers received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. Approximately two-thirds of the tail of DK calves was removed and an elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis. Performance parameters collected included daily gain, final weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Carcass data included HCW, subcutaneous fat thickness, LM area, KPH percent, marbling, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. Morbidity, mortality, incidence of lameness, and incidence of tail lesions were recorded. Across all 3 trials, there was no significant effect (P < 0.05) of treatment on performance parameters, carcass traits, or health parameters. In all 3 trials, tail tip injuries occurred in 60 to 76% of undocked (CN) calves, developed while living in the slatted-floor environment, compared to 100% of DK calves, whose injuries were a result of the tail docking procedure. We were unable to identify a performance or significant health advantage to tail docking. However, tail tip injuries still

  5. Feedlot performance and carcass traits of hairbreed ewe lambs in response to zilpaterol hydrochloride and soybean oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Ramírez, J L; Macías-Cruz, U; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Peña-Ramos, E A; Soto-Navarro, S A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 0 or 10 mg/lamb daily) and soybean oil (SBO; 0 or 6%) supplementation on feedlot performance, carcass traits, and wholesale cut yield of 32 Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs (30.55 ± 2. 57 kg of initial BW). Lambs were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to treatments under a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. After a 34-d feeding period, all ewes were slaughtered. No ZH × SBO interactions were detected (P ≥ 0.11) for the variables evaluated. In the overall feeding period and first 17 d of experiment, feedlot performance was not affected (P ≥ 0.26) by ZH supplementation, but from d 18 to 34, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.03) total gain, ADG, and G:F without affecting DMI (P = 0.58). Also, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.02) HCW, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, LM area, and leg perimeter. Lung weight as percentage of final BW decreased (P = 0.05) whereas other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P ≥ 0.06) by ZH supplementation. Inclusion of SBO did not affect (P ≥ 0.08) feedlot performance or wholesale cut yields. The LM pH at 24 h postmortem as well as liver and peritoneum percentages were decreased (P ≤ 0.05) by SBO supplementation, but no other carcass characteristics or noncarcass components were affected (P ≥ 0.08) by SBO. In conclusion, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were not altered by the interaction of ZH × SBO. However, ZH alone increased the growth of ewes during the last 17 d of the feeding period. Likewise, carcass characteristics of economic importance (i.e., HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and leg perimeter) increased with ZH supplementation. In general, feedlot performance, carcass traits, and wholesale cut yields were not altered by including 6% of SBO in the finishing diet of ewe lambs.

  6. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-07-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modified live 4-way viral vaccine containing BVDV. On arrival at the feedlots, 90% of animals were seropositive for BCV, while 39% of animals were seropositive for BVDV. This evidence of previous exposure to both viruses was associated with reduced subsequent UBRD risk. Evidence of exposure to BCV during the study period was common, as 50% of animals showed a 16-fold or greater titer increase; however, treatment for UBRD was not associated with titer change. Although the majority of animals were vaccinated for BVDV at arrival, within a feedlot, animals treated for UBRD had larger titer increases to BVDV than non-treated animals. Based on our findings we infer that BCV was not causally related to UBRD occurrence, however consistent with other literature, BVDV may be causally related to UBRD occurrence.

  7. Incorporation of thymol into corncob granules for reduction of odor and pathogens in feedlot cattle waste.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Berry, E D

    2006-02-01

    Confined animal feeding operations can be a source of odor emissions, global warming gases, water pollution, and food contamination. Laboratory studies have indicated that plant oils with antimicrobial activity can be used to control pathogens and odor emissions from cattle and swine wastes. However, these oils are aromatic and may volatilize when applied topically. Our objectives were to evaluate the volatility of thymol from a feedlot surface and the effectiveness of topically applying thyme oil (2.5% thymol), incorporated into corncob granules and added once per week, to control odor emissions and total coliforms in feedlot manure. In the first study, thymol either volatilized or was degraded within 28 d after topical application. In a second study, thyme oil (2.5% thymol) was incorporated into corncobs and applied to pen surfaces weekly. Manure samples from 6 locations in each pen were collected from 3 untreated and 3 thymol-corncob-treated pens (15 x 150 m; fifty 400-kg cattle/pen), 3 times per week for 8 wk. Samples were analyzed for thymol concentration, total VFA, branched-chain VFA, aromatic compounds, and the number of Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. Over the 8 wk, with the exception of wk 7, the desired thymol concentration of 15 to 20 micromol/g DM was maintained in the manure. Concentrations of VFA and branched chain-VFA increased over time in untreated and treated pens. However, the rate of VFA accumulation in treated pens (7.5 +/- 1.3 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(-1)) was less (P < 0.01) than the rate of accumulation in untreated pens (18.0 +/- 2.1 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(-1)). Likewise, the rate of branched-chain VFA accumulation in treated pens (0.31 +/- 0.04 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(-1)) was less (P < 0.01) than in untreated pens (0.55 +/- 0.06 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(1)). The concentrations of E. coli in treated pens (2.9 +/- 1.2 x 10(5) cfu.g DM(-1)) were 91% less (P < 0.04) than in untreated pens (31.1 +/- 4.0 x 10(5) cfu.g DM(-1)). Similarly

  8. Incorporation of thymol into corncob granules for reduction of odor and pathogens in feedlot cattle waste.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Berry, E D

    2006-02-01

    Confined animal feeding operations can be a source of odor emissions, global warming gases, water pollution, and food contamination. Laboratory studies have indicated that plant oils with antimicrobial activity can be used to control pathogens and odor emissions from cattle and swine wastes. However, these oils are aromatic and may volatilize when applied topically. Our objectives were to evaluate the volatility of thymol from a feedlot surface and the effectiveness of topically applying thyme oil (2.5% thymol), incorporated into corncob granules and added once per week, to control odor emissions and total coliforms in feedlot manure. In the first study, thymol either volatilized or was degraded within 28 d after topical application. In a second study, thyme oil (2.5% thymol) was incorporated into corncobs and applied to pen surfaces weekly. Manure samples from 6 locations in each pen were collected from 3 untreated and 3 thymol-corncob-treated pens (15 x 150 m; fifty 400-kg cattle/pen), 3 times per week for 8 wk. Samples were analyzed for thymol concentration, total VFA, branched-chain VFA, aromatic compounds, and the number of Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. Over the 8 wk, with the exception of wk 7, the desired thymol concentration of 15 to 20 micromol/g DM was maintained in the manure. Concentrations of VFA and branched chain-VFA increased over time in untreated and treated pens. However, the rate of VFA accumulation in treated pens (7.5 +/- 1.3 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(-1)) was less (P < 0.01) than the rate of accumulation in untreated pens (18.0 +/- 2.1 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(-1)). Likewise, the rate of branched-chain VFA accumulation in treated pens (0.31 +/- 0.04 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(-1)) was less (P < 0.01) than in untreated pens (0.55 +/- 0.06 micromol.g DM(-1).wk(1)). The concentrations of E. coli in treated pens (2.9 +/- 1.2 x 10(5) cfu.g DM(-1)) were 91% less (P < 0.04) than in untreated pens (31.1 +/- 4.0 x 10(5) cfu.g DM(-1)). Similarly

  9. Cow-calf and feedlot performances of Brahman-derivative breeds.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2002-12-01

    A study was conducted to compare Brangus, Beefmaster, Gelbray, and Simbrah breed influences for economically important traits. Brangus (9), Beefmaster (12), Gelbray (10), and Simbrah (7) sires were used in purebred and crossbred (Brahman x Hereford F1 cows) matings to generate calves (326) in eight breed groups. Beefmaster cows were of similar size (448 kg), Brangus and Gelbray cows were 11% heavier (501 and 503 kg), and Simbrah cows were 21% heavier (548 kg) compared to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (452 kg). Calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls had lower birth weights (35 vs 38 kg; P < 0.05), preweaning growth rates (0.87 vs 0.91 kg x d(-1); P < 0.01), and weaning weights (206 vs 219 kg; P < 0.01) than Gelbray- and Simbrah-sired calves. Birth weights, preweaning ADG, and weaning weight and hip heights were similar between Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired calves. Simbrah-sired calves had greater preweaning growth rates (0.94 vs 0.88 kg x d(-1); P < 0.05), weaning weights (227 vs 211 kg; P < 0.01), and adjusted 205-d hip heights (126 vs 122 cm; P < 0.05) than Gelbray-sired calves. Straightbred Angus steers were introduced in the postweaning portion of the study. Steer calves were placed on feed at an average age of 14.5 mo. Steers were removed from the feedlot upon attaining a targeted 10 mm of backfat. Feedlot ADG did not differ among sire breeds. Brahman-derivative sired steers required an additional 54 d on feed (P < 0.01) and were 86 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at harvest than Angus steers. Continental-Brahman steers spent an additional 25 d on feed (P < 0.05) and were 35 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at harvest than British-Brahman steers. Simbrah-sired steers were 52 kg heavier (P < 0.01) at harvest than Gelbray-sired steers when fed for a similar number of days (211 vs 203 d). However, straightbred Simbrah steers required an additional 12 d on feed (P < 0.01) and weighed 47 kg more (P < 0.01) than Simbrah-sired crossbred steers. The economic value of the heavier calf

  10. Prevalence and impact of bacteriophages on the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle and their environment.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y D; McAllister, T A; Xu, Y; Johnson, R P; Stephens, T P; Stanford, K

    2009-03-01

    The relationship between endemic bacteriophages infecting E. coli O157:H7 (referred to as "phage") and levels of shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle was investigated in two commercial feedlots in southern Alberta, Canada. Between May and November 2007, 10 pens of cattle were monitored by collection of pooled fecal pats, water with sediment from troughs, manure slurry from the pen floor, and rectal fecal samples from individual animals (20 per pen) at two separate times. Bacteriophages infecting E. coli O157:H7 were detected more frequently (P<0.001) after 18 to 20 h enrichment than by initial screening and were recovered in 239 of 855 samples (26.5% of 411 pooled fecal pats, 23.8% of 320 fecal grab samples, 21.8% of 87 water trough samples, and 94.6% of 37 pen floor slurry samples). Overall, prevalence of phage was highest (P<0.001) in slurry. Recovery of phage from pooled fecal pats was highest (P<0.05) in May. Overall recovery did not differ (P>0.10) between fecal grab samples and pooled fecal pats. A higher prevalence of phage in fecal pats or water trough samples was associated (P<0.01) with reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in rectal fecal samples. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between isolation of phage and E. coli O157:H7 in fecal grab samples (r= -0.11; P<0.05). These data demonstrate that the prevalence of phage fluctuates in a manner similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7. Phage were more prevalent in manure slurry than other environmental sources. The likelihood of fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced if cattle in the pen harbored phage.

  11. Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arias, R A; Mader, T L

    2011-01-01

    Records from 7 studies conducted during 1999 to 2005 were utilized to assess the effects of environmental factors on daily water intake (DWI) of finishing cattle. Data from unshaded feedlot pens (up to 24 pens utilized per study; 6 to 9 animals·pen(-1)) containing predominantly Angus crossbred cattle were obtained by dividing total water intake by the number of animals utilizing that waterer. Each waterer was shared by 2 pens; therefore, data were derived from a database containing 72 experimental units comprising 144 pen records. Climatic data were compiled from weather stations located at the feedlot facility. The database included daily measures of mean ambient (Ta), maximum (Tmax), and minimum (Tmin) temperature (°C), precipitation, relative humidity (%), wind speed (m•s(-1)), solar radiation (SR, W•m(-2)), and temperature-humidity index (THI), as well as DMI (kg•d(-1)) and DWI (L•d(-1)). Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted by season and for the overall data set. Results confirmed that DWI increases during the summer (P < 0.01). When seasons were combined and analyzed by linear regression, the best predictors of DWI were THI (r(2) = 0.57), Ta (r(2) = 0.57), Tmin (r(2) = 0.56), and Tmax (r(2) = 0.54). In multiple regression analyses, smaller coefficients of determination (R(2) < 0.25) were found within summer and winter seasons. Across season, the largest R(2) (0.65) were obtained from the following prediction equations: 1) DWI = 5.92 + (1.03•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.45•Tmin); and 2) DWI = -7.31 + (1.00•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.30•THI). In conclusion, Ta, Tmin, and THI were found to be the primary factors that influence DWI in finishing cattle, whereas SR and DMI were found to have a smaller influence on DWI.

  12. Comparative effects of processing methods on the feeding value of maize in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Barreras, A; Corona, L; Owens, F N; Plascencia, A

    2011-12-01

    The primary reason for processing maize is to enhance feeding value. Total tract starch digestion is similar for coarsely processed (dry rolled, cracked) dry maize. Enhancements in starch digestion due to dry rolling maize v. feeding maize whole may be greater in light-weight calves than in yearlings, and when DM intake is restricted ( < 1·5 % of body weight). The net energy (NE) maintain (NEm) and NE gain (NEg) values for whole maize are 8·83 and 6·02 MJ (2·11 and 1·44 Mcal)/kg, respectively. Compared with conventional dry processing (i.e. coarse rolled, cracked), finely processing maize may increase the initial rate of digestion, but does not improve total tract starch digestion. Tempering before rolling (without the addition of steam) may enhance the growth performance response and the NE value of maize. Average total tract starch digestion is similar for high-moisture and steam-flaked maize. However, the proportion of starch digested ruminally is greater (about 8 %) for high-moisture maize. The growth performance response of feedlot cattle to the feeding of high-moisture maize is highly variable. Although the NEm and NEg value of whole high-moisture maize was slightly less than that of dry processed maize (averaging 9·04 and 6·44 MJ (2·16 and 1·54 Mcal)/kg, respectively), grinding or rolling high-moisture maize before ensiling increased (6 %) its NE value. Substituting steam-flaked maize for dry processed maize increases average daily gain (6·3 %) and decreases DM intake (5 %). The comparative NEm and NEg values for steam-flaked maize at optimal processing (density = 0·34 kg/l) are 10·04 and 7·07 MJ (2·40 and 1·69 Mcal)/kg, respectively. These NE values are greater (3 %) than current tabular values (National Research Council, 2000), being more consistent with earlier standards (National Research Council, 1984). When maize is the primary or sole source of starch in the diet, concentration of starch in faeces (faecal starch, % of

  13. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minot, Michael J.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O`Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G.; McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a "pathway toward commercialization".

  14. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Bono, James L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Norman, Keri N; Suslow, Trevor V; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Millner, Patricia D

    2015-02-01

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of 2 years, leafy greens were planted in nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 m from a cattle feedlot (3 plots at each distance). Leafy greens (270) and feedlot manure samples (100) were collected six different times from June to September in each year. Both E. coli O157:H7 and total E. coli bacteria were recovered from leafy greens at all plot distances. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from 3.5% of leafy green samples per plot at 60 m, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the 1.8% of positive samples per plot at 180 m, indicating a decrease in contamination as distance from the feedlot was increased. Although E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from air samples at any distance, total E. coli was recovered from air samples at the feedlot edge and all plot distances, indicating that airborne transport of the pathogen can occur. Results suggest that risk for airborne transport of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle production is increased when cattle pen surfaces are very dry and when this situation is combined with cattle management or cattle behaviors that generate airborne dust. Current leafy green field distance guidelines of 120 m (400 feet) may not be adequate to limit the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to produce crops planted near concentrated animal feeding operations. Additional research is needed to determine safe set-back distances between cattle feedlots and crop production that will reduce fresh produce contamination.

  15. Effect of Proximity to a Cattle Feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Contamination of Leafy Greens and Evaluation of the Potential for Airborne Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wells, James E.; Bono, James L.; Woodbury, Bryan L.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Norman, Keri N.; Suslow, Trevor V.; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Millner, Patricia D.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of 2 years, leafy greens were planted in nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 m from a cattle feedlot (3 plots at each distance). Leafy greens (270) and feedlot manure samples (100) were collected six different times from June to September in each year. Both E. coli O157:H7 and total E. coli bacteria were recovered from leafy greens at all plot distances. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from 3.5% of leafy green samples per plot at 60 m, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the 1.8% of positive samples per plot at 180 m, indicating a decrease in contamination as distance from the feedlot was increased. Although E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from air samples at any distance, total E. coli was recovered from air samples at the feedlot edge and all plot distances, indicating that airborne transport of the pathogen can occur. Results suggest that risk for airborne transport of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle production is increased when cattle pen surfaces are very dry and when this situation is combined with cattle management or cattle behaviors that generate airborne dust. Current leafy green field distance guidelines of 120 m (400 feet) may not be adequate to limit the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to produce crops planted near concentrated animal feeding operations. Additional research is needed to determine safe set-back distances between cattle feedlots and crop production that will reduce fresh produce contamination. PMID:25452286

  16. Diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Gonyou, H W; Stricklin, W R

    1984-05-01

    The diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls were investigated at 52 degrees N during winter and spring. Two trials were conducted during periods when the daylight portion of the day increased by over 7 h. In trial 1, 324 bulls were observed hourly for 24 h on nine occasions at 2-wk intervals. The average proportions of bulls eating, drinking, standing and lying were 9.8, 1.9, 27.4 and 60.0%, respectively. Major periods of eating, drinking and standing were associated with the times of sunrise and sunset and shifted with seasonal changes. Initiation and termination of the afternoon period of eating was greatly affected by changing times of sunset and not by the daily addition of feed, which always occurred at approximately 1600 h. A significant period of eating, involving up to 15% of the bulls at one time, occurred near midnight during the longer winter night but decreased in duration and intensity as day-length increased. In trial 2, continuous observations for 24 h were made at 2-wk intervals on two groups of nine bulls. When the spread in time between morning and evening activity increased due to longer daylength, bulls were active at midday. This became more pronounced on days when the photoperiod exceeded 10 h. Minor periods of activity were evident at night. Mounting and agonistic encounters increased dramatically in frequency near sunset and in general were associated with the major periods of eating and standing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effect of essential oils on meat and fat qualities of crossbred young bulls finished in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Guerrero, Ana; Velandia Valero, Maribel; Zawadzki, Fernando; Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Campo, Maria Del Mar; Sañudo, Carlos; Mendes Jorge, André; Nunes do Prado, Ivanor

    2016-11-01

    Twenty-seven animals (½ Angus - ½ Nellore) were fed for four months with one of the following diets: without addition of essential oils (E0.0), with 3.5 (E3.5) or 7 (E7.0) g/animal/day of an essential oil blend (oregano, garlic, lemon, rosemary, thyme, eucalyptus and sweet orange). Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and meat color were evaluated in Longissimus muscle. In addition, the effects of aging (one, seven and 14days) on the meat water holding capacity, texture and lipid oxidation were evaluated. Essential oils had no effect on chemical and fatty acid composition, meat color, water holding capacity or texture, but an inclusion of 3.5g/day decreased lipid oxidation. The addition of 7.0g/animal/day had a pro-oxidant effect on meat during aging and resulted in higher values for lipid oxidation at 14days of aging. Aging significantly affected thawing losses and texture. A dose of 3.5g/animal/day could be recommended in feedlot animals, but greater doses could have a pro-oxidant effect. PMID:27388818

  18. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P < 0.05) but were significantly higher than the average gain on 10% MOC (P < 0.05). The inclusion of 20% MOC increased feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the other two treatments. The control group had significantly heavier warm carcasses than the 10% and 20% MOC groups and the 20% MOC group had significantly heavier carcasses than the 10% MOC group. The inclusion of MOC did not significantly affect the dressing percentage and conformation scores of the animals (P > 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  19. Statistical analysis to characterize transport of nutrients in groundwater near an abandoned feedlot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbolo, P.; Gerla, P.

    2013-01-01

    Surface water from a dugout pond and groundwater samples from seven shallow wells installed within an abandoned feedlot in northwestern Minnesota, USA. were analyzed for nutrients, ammonia, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity (EC). In the study, multivariate statistical techniques including cluster and factor analyses were used to evaluate the interrelationship between the analyzed chemical species. The cluster and factor analyses grouped the analyzed chemical species into three different groupings or clusters based on the concentrations of the chemical species and physical parameters. From the factor analysis, approximately 78% of the variability in the factor 1 was caused by electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium (NH4+, total carbon (TC), and total phosphorus (TP), while within factor 2; approximately 82% of the variability was caused by temperature (T), pH, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and ammonium (NH4+. The contribution of nitrate-N and ammonium could be attributed to the high rate of denitrification and/or the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. The change in the concentration of nutrients is attributed to redox conditions, temperature variation, and the movement of nutrients from manure.

  20. Pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlots conferring multidrug resistance via integrative conjugative elements.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Booker, Calvin W; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD.

  1. Pathogens of Bovine Respiratory Disease in North American Feedlots Conferring Multidrug Resistance via Integrative Conjugative Elements

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hendrick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. PMID:24478472

  2. Modelling considerations in the analysis of associations between antimicrobial use and resistance in beef feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Noyes, N R; Benedict, K M; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Reid-Smith, R J; Booker, C W; McAllister, T A; Morley, P S

    2016-04-01

    A number of sophisticated modelling approaches are available to investigate potential associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animal health settings. All have their advantages and disadvantages, making it unclear as to which model is most appropriate. We used advanced regression modelling to investigate AMU-AMR associations in faecal non-type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolates recovered from 275 pens of feedlot cattle. Ten modelling strategies were employed to investigate AMU associations with resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. Goodness-of-fit statistics did not show a consistent advantage for any one model type. Three AMU-AMR associations were significant in all models. Recent parenteral tetracycline use increased the odds of finding tetracycline-resistant NTSEC [odds ratios (OR) 1·1-3·2]; recent parenteral sulfonamide use increased the odds of finding sulfisoxazole-resistant NTSEC (OR 1·4-2·5); and recent parenteral macrolide use decreased the odds of recovering ampicillin-resistant NTSEC (OR 0·03-0·2). Other results varied markedly depending on the modelling approach, emphasizing the importance of exploring and reporting multiple modelling methods based on a balanced consideration of important factors such as study design, mathematical appropriateness, research question and target audience.

  3. Dehydrated citrus pulp alters feedlot performance of crossbred heifers during the receiving period and modulates serum metabolite concentrations before and after an endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, J T; Bernhard, B C; Young, T R; Jennings, M A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Callaway, T R; Schmidt, T B; Johnson, B J; Rathmann, R J

    2015-12-01

    English × Continental heifers ( = 180) were sourced in 2 loads (219.3 ± 16.0 and 221.4 ± 16.4 kg, respectively) from commercial auction barns to study the effects of feeding dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on feedlot performance of newly received heifers. A completely randomized block design was used with BW nested within arrival load and blocked by BW into 3 dietary treatments (36 pens, 5 heifers/pen, 12 blocks, 3 pens/block, and 12 pens/treatment). Treatment diets contained 1) 0% DCP (control diet [CON]), 2) 10% DCP, or 3) 20% DCP on a DM basis. Diets containing DCP were exchanged with steam-flaked corn on a 1:1 basis. Cattle were fed a 63, 73, and 83% concentrate diet from d 0 to 28, d 28 to 42, and d 42 to 56, respectively. Over the 56-d trial period, as the amount of dietary DCP increased, DMI decreased ( = 0.01), ADG decreased ( < 0.01), and G:F decreased ( = 0.02). From d 0 to 28, there was no difference in the observed minus the predicted NEg of the diet ( = 0.73); from d 28 to 42, there was a linear increase in NEg favoring DCP treatments ( < 0.01); and from d 42 to 56, there was a linear decrease in NEg against the DCP treatments ( < 0.01). At the conclusion of the trial, a subset of heifers ( = 22; 307.89 ± 3.32 kg on d 63) were used to evaluate blood metabolite concentrations before and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. On d 63, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and moved into individual stalls. On d 64, heifers were intravenously challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW), and blood samples were collected every 0.5 h from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge (0 h). Serum glucose, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), and NEFA concentrations were determined. Cattle lost less weight at both 24 and 72 h after the LPS challenge with increasing DCP percentage ( < 0.01). Glucose ( = 0.12) and NEFA ( = 0.13) concentrations did not differ before the LPS challenge; however, there was a treatment effect for SUN, with elevated concentrations of

  4. Dehydrated citrus pulp alters feedlot performance of crossbred heifers during the receiving period and modulates serum metabolite concentrations before and after an endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, J T; Bernhard, B C; Young, T R; Jennings, M A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Callaway, T R; Schmidt, T B; Johnson, B J; Rathmann, R J

    2015-12-01

    English × Continental heifers ( = 180) were sourced in 2 loads (219.3 ± 16.0 and 221.4 ± 16.4 kg, respectively) from commercial auction barns to study the effects of feeding dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on feedlot performance of newly received heifers. A completely randomized block design was used with BW nested within arrival load and blocked by BW into 3 dietary treatments (36 pens, 5 heifers/pen, 12 blocks, 3 pens/block, and 12 pens/treatment). Treatment diets contained 1) 0% DCP (control diet [CON]), 2) 10% DCP, or 3) 20% DCP on a DM basis. Diets containing DCP were exchanged with steam-flaked corn on a 1:1 basis. Cattle were fed a 63, 73, and 83% concentrate diet from d 0 to 28, d 28 to 42, and d 42 to 56, respectively. Over the 56-d trial period, as the amount of dietary DCP increased, DMI decreased ( = 0.01), ADG decreased ( < 0.01), and G:F decreased ( = 0.02). From d 0 to 28, there was no difference in the observed minus the predicted NEg of the diet ( = 0.73); from d 28 to 42, there was a linear increase in NEg favoring DCP treatments ( < 0.01); and from d 42 to 56, there was a linear decrease in NEg against the DCP treatments ( < 0.01). At the conclusion of the trial, a subset of heifers ( = 22; 307.89 ± 3.32 kg on d 63) were used to evaluate blood metabolite concentrations before and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. On d 63, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and moved into individual stalls. On d 64, heifers were intravenously challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW), and blood samples were collected every 0.5 h from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge (0 h). Serum glucose, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), and NEFA concentrations were determined. Cattle lost less weight at both 24 and 72 h after the LPS challenge with increasing DCP percentage ( < 0.01). Glucose ( = 0.12) and NEFA ( = 0.13) concentrations did not differ before the LPS challenge; however, there was a treatment effect for SUN, with elevated concentrations of

  5. Physical and chemical changes during composting of wood chip-bedded and straw-bedded beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; DeMaere, Paul R; Zvomuya, Francis; McAllister, Tim A

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, restrictions on incineration encouraged the forest industry in western Canada to develop new uses for their wood residuals by product. One such use was as a replacement for cereal straw bedding in southern Alberta's beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot industry. However, use of carbon (C)-rich bedding, such as wood chips, had implications for subsequent composting of the feedlot manure, a practice that was being increasingly adopted. In a 3-yr study, we compared composting of wood chip-bedded manure (WBM) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw-bedded manure (SBM). There were no significant differences in temperature regimes of SBM and WBM, indicating similar rates of successful composting. Of 17 physical and chemical parameters, five showed significant (P < 0.10) differences due to bedding at the outset of composting (Day 0), and 11 showed significant differences at final sampling (Day 124). During composting (10 sampling times), seven parameters showed significant bedding effects, 16 showed significant time effects, and four showed a Bedding x Time interaction. Significantly lower (P < 0.10) losses of nitrogen (N) occurred with WBM (19%) compared with SBM (34%), which has positive implications for air quality and use as a soil amendment. Other advantages of WBM compost included significantly higher total C (333 vs. 210 kg Mg(-1) for SBM) and inorganic N (1.3 vs. 1.0 kg Mg(-1) for SBM) and significantly lower total phosphorus (4.5 vs. 5.3 kg Mg(-1) for SBM). Our results showed that wood chip bedding should not be a problem for subsequent composting of the manure after pen cleaning. In combination with other benefits, our findings should encourage the adoption of wood chips over straw as a bedding choice for southern Alberta feedlots.

  6. Attenuation of runoff and chemical loads in grass filter strips at two cattle feedlots, Minnesota, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, Stephen Charles; Hansen, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    Attenuation of cattle feedlot runoff in two grass-covered filter strips in Minnesota was estimated by measuring chemical loads into and out of the strips. Filter strips of the Bock and Sanborn sites were 60-m long and 20-m wide and received runoff from cattle feedlots that supported 35 and 225 cattle, respectively. Feedlot and filter-strip runoff were measured using flumes with stage sensors. Water samples were collected using automated samplers. Attenuation values were calculated from four storm-runoff events. Ground water sampled beneath and outside the filter strips indicated some infiltration losses of sulfate, chloride, and nitrogen at the Bock site where soil permeability was greater than at the Sanborn site. Chemical constituents in filter-strip runoff, and their corresponding ranges of attenuation were as follows: chemical oxygen demand, 30–81 percent; dissolved chloride, 6–79 percent; dissolved sulfate, -3–82 percent; dissolved ammonia nitrogen, 33–80 percent; suspended ammonia plus organic nitrogen, 29–85 percent; dissolved organic nitrogen, 14–75 percent; suspended phosphorus, 24–82 percent; dissolved phosphorus, 14–72 percent; and fecal coliform bacteria, 18–79 percent. The ranges seem to be affected by barriers of direct contact of the runoff water with the soil. This varies seasonally by coverage of the soil by ice in winter and vegetation in summer months. Greater attenuation values occurred in October and May when mats of wilted, flat-lying grass covered the filter strips; attenuation values were less during the summer when tall growing grass covered the filter strips.

  7. Dissemination of veterinary antibiotics and corresponding resistance genes from a concentrated swine feedlot along the waste treatment paths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ben, Weiwei; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are an important pollution source of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. This study investigated the dissemination of two classes of commonly-used veterinary antibiotics, namely, tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs), and their corresponding ARGs along the waste treatment paths from a concentrated swine feedlot located in Beijing, China. The highest total TC and total SA concentrations detected were 166.7mgkg(-1) and 64.5μgkg(-1) in swine manure as well as 388.7 and 7.56μgL(-1) in swine wastewater, respectively. Fourteen tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPP), efflux proteins (EFP) and enzymatic inactivation proteins, three sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs), and two integrase genes were detected along the waste treatment paths with detection frequencies of 33.3-75.0%. The relative abundances of target ARGs ranged from 2.74×10(-6) to 1.19. The antibiotics and ARGs generally declined along both waste treatment paths, but their degree of reduction was more significant along the manure treatment path. The RPP TRGs dominated in the upstream samples and then decreased continuously along both waste treatment paths, whilst the EFP TRGs and SRGs maintained relatively stable. Strong correlations between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs were observed among both manure and wastewater samples. In addition, seasonal temperature, and integrase genes, moisture content and nutrient level of tested samples could all impact the relative abundances of ARGs along the swine waste treatment paths. This study helps understand the evolution and spread of ARGs from swine feedlots to the environment as well as assess the environmental risk arising from swine waste treatment. PMID:27128716

  8. The associations of viral and mycoplasmal antibody titers with respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S W; Nagy, E; Armstrong, D; Rosendal, S

    1999-01-01

    Blood samples from 32 groups of calves (n = 700) were taken on arrival and after 28-35 days at the feedlot. Eleven groups were housed in feedlots in Ontario, and 21 groups in feedlots in Alberta. Serum antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), Mycoplasma dispar and M. bovis, plus data on bovine corona virus (BCV) from a previous study were investigated for their association with the risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and with 28-day weight change, both before and after controlling for titers to Pasteurella haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus. Exposure to IBRV and M. bovis was infrequent, and although exposure to PIV-3 was more common, none of these agents had important associations with BRD. Higher titers to BVDV, BRSV, and BCV on arrival were associated with reduced risks of BRD and increased weight gains. However, there was some variation in these relationships and higher arrival titers to BVDV and BRSV in a subset of the calves were associated with increased risks of BRD. Titer increases to BVDV were associated with a higher risk of BRD and lower weight gains. Titer increases to BRSV were not usually associated with the occurrence of BRD, but titer increases to BRSV in a subset of calves that were vaccinated against BRSV, on arrival, were associated with an elevated risk of BRD. Of all the agents studied, BVDV had the most consistent associations with elevated risk of BRD and lower weight gains. Higher BRSV arrival titers were related to lower risk of BRD and higher weight gains; in some instances titer increases to BRSV were associated with higher BRD risk. Higher titers to BCV on arrival were related to reduced risks of BRD. Practical ways of adequately preventing the negative effects of these agents are still needed. PMID:12001336

  9. Effects of free ferulic acid on productive performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of feedlot finishing ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P≥0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P≥0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet.

  10. Dissemination of veterinary antibiotics and corresponding resistance genes from a concentrated swine feedlot along the waste treatment paths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ben, Weiwei; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are an important pollution source of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. This study investigated the dissemination of two classes of commonly-used veterinary antibiotics, namely, tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs), and their corresponding ARGs along the waste treatment paths from a concentrated swine feedlot located in Beijing, China. The highest total TC and total SA concentrations detected were 166.7mgkg(-1) and 64.5μgkg(-1) in swine manure as well as 388.7 and 7.56μgL(-1) in swine wastewater, respectively. Fourteen tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPP), efflux proteins (EFP) and enzymatic inactivation proteins, three sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs), and two integrase genes were detected along the waste treatment paths with detection frequencies of 33.3-75.0%. The relative abundances of target ARGs ranged from 2.74×10(-6) to 1.19. The antibiotics and ARGs generally declined along both waste treatment paths, but their degree of reduction was more significant along the manure treatment path. The RPP TRGs dominated in the upstream samples and then decreased continuously along both waste treatment paths, whilst the EFP TRGs and SRGs maintained relatively stable. Strong correlations between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs were observed among both manure and wastewater samples. In addition, seasonal temperature, and integrase genes, moisture content and nutrient level of tested samples could all impact the relative abundances of ARGs along the swine waste treatment paths. This study helps understand the evolution and spread of ARGs from swine feedlots to the environment as well as assess the environmental risk arising from swine waste treatment.

  11. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Alexander, Trevor W.; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), blaROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the blaROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and gcp

  12. Restriction of vitamin A and D in beef cattle finishing diets on feedlot performance and adipose accretion.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, C L; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L

    2012-06-01

    Feedlot producers often exceed NRC recommendations for vitamin A and D supplementation; however, increased concentrations of these vitamins have been shown to limit adipocyte differentiation in vitro. A feedlot trial was conducted using 168 Angus crossbred steers (BW = 284 ± 0.4 kg) allotted to 24 pens. The experiment had a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: no supplemental vitamin A or D (NAND), 3,750 IU vitamin A/kg dietary DM with no supplemental vitamin D (SAND), no supplemental vitamin A and 1,860 IU vitamin D/kg dietary DM (NASD), and 3,750 IU and 1,860 IU vitamin A and D/ kg dietary DM (SASD), respectively. Serum, liver, and intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue retinol concentrations were decreased in (P < 0.001) in cattle fed the no supplemental vitamin A diets (NAND and NASD combined) compared with those consuming supplemental vitamin A (SAND and SASD combined) diets. In addition, intramuscular retinol concentration was 38% less than in the subcutaneous depot. Serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were reduced (P < 0.001) during the first 70 d when cattle were fed no supplemental vitamin D diets (NAND and SAND combined); however, liver 25(OH)D(3) concentrations remained unchanged (P > 0.10) through d 184. Serum and liver 25(OH)D(3) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with vitamin D supplementation (NASD and SASD combined). The DMI, ADG, G:F, and morbidity were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary concentration of vitamin A or D. There were vitamin A and D interactions (P < 0.03) for backfat thickness and USDA Yield grade. Cattle fed the NAND diet had greater (P < 0.03) Yield grades than other treatments because of greater (P < 0.005) 12th rib backfat thickness in NAND steers than the NASD and SAND steers. Vitamin D concentrations were attenuated and minimal carcass adiposity responses to vitamin D supplementation were observed. Feeding a diet without supplemental vitamin A increased (P < 0.05) Quality grades and marbling scores and tended (P

  13. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Alexander, Trevor W; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), bla ROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the bla ROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and

  14. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of Grofactor, a beta-adrenergic agonist based on zilpaterol hydrochloride, using feedlot finishing bulls.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Meraz-Murillo, F J; Pérez-Linares, C; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Correa, A; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Guerra-Liera, J E; López-Rincón, G; Macías-Cruz, U

    2016-07-01

    Beta-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) have been shown to positively impact finishing performance and some carcass traits of feedlot cattle. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a β-AA on the basis of zilpaterol hydrochloride (Grofactor, Laboratorios Virbac México, Guadalajara, Mexico) on growth and DMI, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing bulls. Forty-five bulls (75% 25% ) initially weighing 448.7 ± 2.58 kg were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets, using pens of 3 animals, in a randomized complete block design: 1) daily feeding without β-AA in the basal diet (Control), 2) daily feeding with 0.15 mg/kg BW of Grofactor added to the basal diet (ZHG), or 3) daily feeding with 0.15 mg/kg BW of Zilmax (MSD Salud Animal México, Mexico City, Mexico) added to the basal diet (ZHZ). The duration of the feeding period was 30 d with a subsequent 4-d withdrawal period. Compared with Control bulls, the group fed ZHG had a 12% better ( < 0.025) G:F ratio, and their final BW ( 0.094) and ADG ( 0.084) tended to be enhanced. Feedlot performance of ZHG and ZHZ bulls was similar, although the DMI was ∼4% lower ( 0.05) in ZHG bulls vs. the ZHZ and Control groups. The HCW ( 0.001) and dressing percentage ( 0.015) were higher by 20 kg and 3%, respectively, in ZHG bulls vs. Control bulls. The KPH fat was lower ( 0.007) in bulls fed ZHG than in nonsupplemented bulls, but other carcass characteristics were not different in the ZHG and ZHZ bulls, and noncarcass components were not affected by ZHG or ZHZ supplementation. At 48 h postmortem, ZHG bulls had lower ( 0.007) water holding capacity and trended toward ( 0.06) increased chroma and reduced pH ( 0.09) compared to Control bulls. However, compared to ZHZ bulls, ZHG bulls had higher ( 0.02) chroma and a trend ( 0.08) toward increased hue angle. At 14 d postmortem, meat quality variables did not differ between the 3 groups of bulls. Supplementation of ZH Grofactor improved feedlot performance and

  16. Preweaning growth traits for Senepol, Hereford, and reciprocal crossbred calves and feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Butts, W T

    1998-12-01

    We conducted a multiyear study in two phases to determine preweaning performance traits of Senepol (S x S), Hereford (H x H), and reciprocal (S x H and H x S) F1 crossbred calves and feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers. In Phase I, from 1985 to 1989, data from S x S (n = 194), H x H (n = 383), and S x H (n = 120) calves were used. Numbers of S x S cows were increased during Phase I so that data from H x S (n = 74) calves could be included in Phase II (1990 to 1992) in addition to S x S (n = 118), H x H (n = 130), and S x H (n = 56) calves. Also during Phase II, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were determined for S x S (n = 30), H x H (n = 26), H x S (n = 36), and S x H (n = 26) steers. In Phase I, S x S calves had heavier (P < .01) birth weights and heavier (P < .01) 205-d adjusted weaning weights than H x H calves. Birth weights of S x H calves were heavier (P < .01) than the mean of the purebred calves, but 205-d adjusted weaning weights did not differ (P > .10). In phase II, direct heterosis was 3.5% for birth weight (P < .05) and 5.1% for 205-d adjusted weaning weight (P < .01). Senepol maternal breed effects were 1.9 kg for birth weight (P < .10) and 37.9 kg for 205-d adjusted weaning weight (P < .01). Levels of direct heterosis, Senepol maternal breed effects, and Hereford direct breed effects were significant for most feedlot performance traits of steer calves that were fed to a common end point. Breeds did not differ (P > .10) for USDA yield and quality grades, and direct heterosis was not significant for Warner-Bratzler shear force. These results demonstrate significant levels of heterosis in preweaning performance between S x S and H x H calves and in feedlot performance of steers. Levels of heterosis were smaller and nonsignificant for most carcass traits including meat tenderness, which did not differ between S x S and H x H steers in this study. PMID:9928599

  17. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P < .05) values for dressing percentage. Loin steak tenderness and juiciness decreased (P < .05) and shear force values increased (P < .05) as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness. PMID:8655435

  18. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    PubMed

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1885380

  19. Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, T G; Beharka, A B; Chengappa, M M; Carroll, L H; Raun, A P; Laudert, S B; Parrott, J C

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial flora of liver abscesses from cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin and susceptibilities of the predominant bacterial isolates to tylosin and other antimicrobial compounds were determined. Abscessed livers were collected at slaughter from cattle originating from feedlots that had fed tylosin (n = 36) or no tylosin (n = 41) for at least 2 yr, and segments of livers with one or two intact abscesses were transported to the laboratory. Abscesses were cultured for anaerobic and facultative bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum, either as single culture or mixed with other bacteria, was isolated from all abscesses. The incidence of subsp. necrophorum, as part of the mixed infection, was lower (P < .05) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (33 vs 61%). However, the incidence of Actinomyces pyogenes was higher (P < .01) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (53 vs 10%). Totals of 119 F. necrophorum and 21 A. pyogenes isolates were used for determinations of susceptibilities to bacitracin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, tylosin, tilmicosin, and virginiamycin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics were determined with a broth microdilution method. The mean MIC of tylosin for F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes were not different between isolates from tylosin and no-tylosin groups. We concluded that continuous feeding of tylosin did not induce resistance in F. necrophorum or A. pyogenes. Also, the higher incidence of mixed infection of F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes in liver abscesses of tylosin-fed cattle suggests a potential synergistic interaction between the two organisms in causing liver abscesses. PMID:10328365

  20. Endocrine-disrupting effects of cattle feedlot effluent on an aquatic sentinel species, the fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Edward F; Kolok, Alan S; Binzcik, Gerry A; Gates, Jennifer L; Horton, Megan K; Lambright, Christy S; Gray, L Earl; Soto, Ana M; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-03-01

    Over the last decade, research has examined the endocrine-disrupting action of various environmental pollutants, including hormones, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants, in sewage treatment plant effluent. Responding to the growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and the pollutants present in their wastewater (e.g., nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed a new rule that tightens the regulation of CAFOs. In this study, we collected wild fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to feedlot effluent (FLE) and observed significant alterations in their reproductive biology. Male fish were demasculinized (having lower testicular testosterone synthesis, altered head morphometrics, and smaller testis size). Defeminization of females, as evidenced by a decreased estrogen:androgen ratio of in vitro steroid hormone synthesis, was also documented. We did not observe characteristics in either male or female fish indicative of exposure to environmental estrogens. Using cells transfected with the human androgen receptor, we detected potent androgenic responses from the FLE. Taken together, our morphologic, endocrinologic, and in vitro gene activation assay data suggest two hypotheses: a) there are potent androgenic substance(s) in the FLE, and/or b) there is a complex mixture of androgenic and estrogenic substances that alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, inhibiting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone or gonadotropins. This is the first study demonstrating that the endocrine and reproductive systems of wild fish can be adversely affected by FLE. Future studies are needed to further investigate the effects of agricultural runoff and to identify the biologically active agents, whether natural or pharmaceutical in origin.

  1. Distillers By-Product Cattle Diets Enhance Reduced Sulfur Gas Fluxes from Feedlot Soils and Manures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel N; Spiehs, Mindy J; Varel, Vincent H; Woodbury, Bryan L; Wells, James E; Berry, Elaine D

    2016-07-01

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times during Feeding Trial 1 from cattle fed 0, 20, 40, and 60% WDGS. Fluxes of TRS from 40 and 60% WDGS manures were 3- to 13-fold greater than the 0 and 20% WDGS manures during the first two periods. In the final period, TRS flux from 60% WDGS was 5- to 22-fold greater than other WDGS manures. During Feeding Trial 2, 0 and 40% WDGS diets on four dates were compared in feedlot-scale pens. On two dates, fluxes from mixed manure and soil near the feed bunk were 3.5-fold greater from 40% WDGS pens. After removing animals, soil TRS flux decreased 82% over 19 d but remained 50% greater in 40% WDGS pens, principally from the wetter pen edges (1.9-fold greater than the drier central mound). During two cycles of cattle production in Feeding Trial 3, TRS soil fluxes were 0.3- to 4-fold greater over six dates for pens feeding WDGS compared with dry-rolled corn diet and principally from wetter pen edges. Soil TRS flux correlated with %WDGS, total N, total P, manure pack temperature, and surface temperature. Consistent results among these three trials indicate that TRS fluxes increase by two- to fivefold when cattle were fed greater levels of WDGS, but specific manure management practices may help control TRS fluxes. PMID:27380063

  2. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration.

  3. Influence of processing on the comparative feeding value of barley for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A

    1993-01-01

    Ninety-six crossbred steers were used in a 172-d feedlot growth performance trial to determine the effects of type processing on the comparative feeding value of barley in a 90% concentrate finishing diet. Treatments were: 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC; density = .31 kg/L); 2) dry-rolled barley (DRB; density = .39 kg/L); 3) steam-rolled barley, coarse roll (SRB-C, density = .39 kg/L); and 4) SRB, thin roll (SRB-T, density = .19 kg/L). The ADG was similar (P > .10) across barley treatments, averaging 1.29 kg/d. Feed intake (P < .05) was lower for SRB than for DRB. Diet NE was greater (P < .05) for SRB than for DRB. Feed intake was lower (P < .05) for SFC than for barley diets. The influence of grain processing on characteristics of digestion was evaluated using four Holstein steers (average BW = 230 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum. Ruminal and total tract digestibility of OM and starch were lower (P < .05) for DRB than for SRB. Ruminal and total tract digestibility of OM and starch were similar (P > .10) for SRB-C and SRB-T. However, passage of nonammonia N was markedly increased (26.9%, P < .01) with SRB-T compared with SRB-C. This increase in ruminal N efficiency was due partly to reduced ruminal degradation of feed N (23.4%, P < .01) and partly to increased microbial N synthesis (13.3%, P > .10). The comparative feeding value of DRB, SRB-C, and SRB-T in this study was 90, 92, and 96% the value of SFC, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils. PMID:25603264

  5. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration. PMID:26733733

  6. A path model of factors influencing morbidity and mortality in Ontario feedlot calves.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S W; Meek, A H

    1986-01-01

    The principles of path analysis and causal modelling are discussed. Path analysis was applied to three data sets to assess the relationship between group characteristics (number per group and "mixing" subgroups of cattle, feeding-management of the group and processing factors (vaccination and prophylactic antimicrobials) and subsequent morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The major findings agree with previously reported results but the timing and pathways of the effects are elaborated. In general, morbidity in week 1 was correlated with morbidity in week 2, which was correlated with morbidity in weeks 3-5. The same was generally true for mortality. In general, morbidity was not strongly correlated with mortality. Lots (unmixed groups) did not arrive in better condition, but experienced fewer subsequent health problems than mixed groups. (Silage-fed lots appeared to do poorly, however this was apparently due to the positive association between lots and vaccination, the latter being detrimental to mortality rates.) The more cattle per group, the greater the health problems in weeks 3-5 postarrival. Prophylactic antimicrobials in the water supply on arrival lead to increased health problems in the three to five week postarrival period. Antibiotic containing starter rations had a beneficial effect on health status in this period. This effect appeared to be partly due to delaying making silage the major ration component in silage-fed cattle receiving antimicrobial containing starter rations. Vaccination against respiratory disease in either of the first two weeks postarrival had detrimental direct and indirect effects on subsequent health status. Vaccination during weeks 3-5 postarrival was not significantly related to health status in that period. PMID:3742352

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab of Feedlot Cattle for Detection and Enumeration of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Schmidt, John W; Wang, Rong; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M

    2016-04-01

    Cattle are noted carriers of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica. The perceived need to decrease the potential human health risk posed by excretion of this pathogen has resulted in numerous studies examining the factors that influence Salmonella shedding in cattle. Fecal grab (FG) samples have been the predominant method used to identify cattle colonized or infected with Salmonella; however, FG sampling can be impractical in certain situations, and rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) are a more convenient sample type to collect. Despite a lack of studies comparing FG and RAMS for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella fecal shedding, RAMS is perceived as less sensitive because a smaller amount of feces is cultured. In a cross-sectional study to address these concerns, paired RAMS and FG samples were collected from 403 adult feedlot cattle approximately 90 days prior to harvest. Samples were processed for Salmonella enumeration (direct plating) and detection (enrichment and immunomagnetic separation). In all, 89.6% of RAMS and 98.8% of FG samples were positive for Salmonella, and concordant prevalence outcomes were observed for 90.8% of samples. Mean enumeration values were 3.01 and 3.12 log CFU/ml for RAMS and FG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RAMS were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.5 to 93%) and 100% (95% CI: 48 to 100%), respectively, for Salmonella detection. Furthermore, RAMS Salmonella enumeration was substantially concordant (ρc = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.91) with FG values. We conclude that RAMS are a reliable alternative to FG for assessing cattle Salmonella fecal shedding status, especially for cattle shedding high levels of Salmonella. PMID:27052855

  8. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    PubMed

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P < .05) values for dressing percentage. Loin steak tenderness and juiciness decreased (P < .05) and shear force values increased (P < .05) as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  10. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  11. Prevalence of lactose fermenting coliforms resistant to third generation cephalosporins in cattle feedlot throughout a production cycle and molecular characterization of resistant isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Increases in incidence of human infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (3GC) have become a public health concern. The 3GC ceftiofur is commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of feedlot cattle but the impact this practice has on public h...

  12. Chromium supplementation alters the performance and health of feedlot cattle during the receiving period and enhances their metabolic response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 +/- 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumPropionate0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; ...

  13. Effect of N-(n-butyl) Phosphoric Triamide (NPBT) and a Linalool or Pine Oil Extract on Urea Concentration, Odorants, and Coliform Bacteria in Cattle Feedlot Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of a urease inhibitor (NBPT) in combination with plant oils for their ability to maintain urea in feedlot manure, control odor production, and reduce pathogens. Initially, NBPT (40 ppm) and a linalool extract (LE; 4000 ppm) were sprayed on...

  14. Use of zilpaterol hydrochloride to reduce odor and gas production from the feedlot surface when beef cattle are fed diets with or without ethanol byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many malodorous compounds emitted from the feedlot surface of beef finishing facilities result from protein degradation. The inclusion of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) in beef finishing diets has been shown to increase odorous compounds in waste due to excess nitrogen excretion. Zilpater...

  15. Use of zilpaterol hydrochloride to reduce odors and gas production from the feedlot surface when beef cattle are fed diets with or without ethanol byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many malodorous compounds emitted from the feedlot surface of beef finishing facilities result from protein degradation. The inclusion of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) in beef finishing diets has been shown to increase odorous compounds in waste due to excess nitrogen excretion. Zilpater...

  16. 'Super' or just 'above average'? Supershedders and the transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 among feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Simon E F; Besser, Thomas E; Cobbold, Rowland N; French, Nigel P

    2015-09-01

    Supershedders have been suggested to be major drivers of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) among cattle in feedlot environments, despite our relatively limited knowledge of the processes that govern periods of high shedding within an individual animal. In this study, we attempt a data-driven approach, estimating the key characteristics of high shedding behaviour, including effects on transmission to other animals, directly from a study of natural E. coli O157:H7 infection of cattle in a research feedlot, in order to develop an evidence-based definition of supershedding. In contrast to the hypothesized role of supershedders, we found that high shedding individuals only modestly increased the risk of transmission: individuals shedding over 10(3) cfu g(-1) faeces were estimated to pose a risk of transmission only 2.45 times greater than those shedding below that level. The data suggested that shedding above 10(3) cfu g(-1) faeces was the most appropriate definition of supershedding behaviour and under this definition supershedding was surprisingly common, with an estimated prevalence of 31.3% in colonized individuals. We found no evidence that environmental contamination by faeces of shedding cattle contributed to transmission over timescales longer than 3 days and preliminary evidence that higher stocking density increased the risk of transmission.

  17. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers. PMID:26942915

  18. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers.

  19. A meta-analysis of zilpaterol and ractopamine effects on feedlot performance, carcass traits and shear strength of meat in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Thompson, John M; Dunshea, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality.

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Zilpaterol and Ractopamine Effects on Feedlot Performance, Carcass Traits and Shear Strength of Meat in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Ian J.; Thompson, John M.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality. PMID:25548908

  1. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; Donk, Simon J van; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

    2012-02-01

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens. A two-year controlled study was conducted in which beef cattle were administered steroid hormones via subcutaneous implants and feed additives and the occurrence of 16 endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones and metabolites was evaluated in runoff from beef cattle feedlots and in manure and soil collected from feedlot surfaces. Samples were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometryfor metabolites of the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate, 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, for the nonsteroidal semisynthetic estrogen agonist, α-zearalanol, and the synthetic progesterone melengesterol acetate, as well as a wide range of endogeneous estrogens, androgens, and fusarium metabolites. Synthetic steroids including trenbolone metabolites and melengestrol acetate were detected in fresh manure and in feedlot surface soils from cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations up to 55 ± 22 ng/g dry weight (dw) (17α-trenbolone) and 6.5 ± 0.4 ng/g dw (melengesterol acetate). Melengesterol acetate was detected in 6% of runoff samples from feedlots holding cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations ranging up to 115 ng/L. The presence of melengesterol acetate in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations has not been previously reported. Synthetic steroids were not detected in manure or runoff from control cattle. A wide range of endogenous hormones were detected in runoff and feedlot surface soils and manure from cattle given synthetic steroids and from control cattle, with no statistically significant differences in concentration. These results indicate that runoff from

  2. Summer and Winter Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in Feces of Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, Diana M A; Renter, David G; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef products. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of these seven serogroups and the associated virulence genes (Shiga toxin [stx1, stx2], and intimin [eae]) in cattle feces during summer (June-August 2013) and winter (January-March 2014) months. Twenty-four pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 24 cattle pens, in both summer and winter months, at a commercial feedlot in the United States. Samples were subjected to culture-based detection methods that included enrichment, serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation and plating on selective media, followed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for serogroup confirmation and virulence gene detection. A sample was considered STEC positive if a recovered isolate harbored an O gene, stx1, and/or stx2, and eae genes. All O serogroups of interest were detected in summer months, and model-adjusted prevalence estimates are as follows: O26 (17.8%), O45 (14.6%), O103 (59.9%), O111 (0.2%), O121 (2.0%), O145 (2.7%), and O157 (41.6%); however, most non-O157 isolates did not harbor virulence genes. The cumulative model-adjusted sample-level prevalence estimates of STEC O26, O103, O145, and O157 during summer (n=576) were 1.0, 1.6, 0.8, and 41.4%, respectively; STEC O45, O111, and O121 were not detected during summer months. In winter, serogroups O26 (0.9%), O45 (1.5%), O103 (40.2%), and O121 (0.2%) were isolated; however, no virulence genes were detected in isolates from cattle feces collected during winter (n=576). Statistically significant seasonal differences in prevalence were identified for STEC O103 and O157 (p<0.05), but data on other STEC were sparse. The results of this study indicate that although non-O157 serogroups were present, non-O157 STEC were

  3. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  4. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  5. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

  6. Effects of estradiol benzoate and trenbolone acetate, alone or in combination at dose levels present in Synovex Choice, on performance by feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Cleale, R M; Amodie, D; Bechtol, D T; Drouillard, J S; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Lawrence, T E; Rulli, R D; Waite, A R

    2013-02-01

    Trials were conducted with beef heifers at 4 sites to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in response to implants containing 14 mg estradiol benzoate and 100 mg trenbolone acetate (EB/TBA; Synovex Choice, Zoetis LLC, New York, NY), 14 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 100 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), or a sham-implanted control (SC). The study design at each site was a randomized complete block with 12 blocks and 4 treatments. Blocks of cattle at each site were harvested in commercial abattoirs when masked personnel estimated at least 60% of animals would yield carcasses with USDA quality grades of Choice or Prime. Data were pooled across sites for statistical analysis. Initial BW averaged 374 kg, and days on feed ranged from 98 to 126 d (mean 112 d). Heifers implanted with EB/TBA, EB, and TBA had greater ADG and G:F (P < 0.05) than SC; ADG and G:F were greater for EB/TBA than EB or TBA (P < 0.05). Heifers treated with TBA had greater G:F than EB (P < 0.05). Feed intake was not affected by treatments. Mean HCW and LM area for EB/TBA were greater than for other treatments (P < 0.05). Mean HCW for TBA was greater than SC (P < 0.05) but not different from EB. Mean LM area for EB and TBA were greater than SC (P < 0.05) but not different from each other. There were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for KPH, 12th-rib fat thickness, or yield grade. Dressing percent was greater for EB/TBA than SC (P < 0.05) but not different from EB or TBA. Marbling score was decreased by EB/TBA (P < 0.05) compared with other treatments, but no other differences were noted. Despite the effect of EB/TBA on marbling scores, there were no significant (P > 0.05) treatment differences on proportions of carcasses with quality grades ≥ Choice vs. < Choice. With respect to ADG and G:F, implants containing EB, TBA, or EB/TBA produced improved responses over SC. Furthermore, EB/TBA induced greater ADG and G:F responses than EB and TBA. Results confirmed that EB and TBA have

  7. Genetic parameters estimated at receiving for circulating cortisol, immunoglobulin G, interleukin 8, and incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot beef steers.

    PubMed

    Cockrum, R R; Speidel, S E; Salak-Johnson, J L; Chase, C C L; Peel, R K; Weaber, R L; Loneagan, G H; Wagner, J J; Boddhireddy, P; Thomas, M G; Prayaga, K; DeNise, S; Enns, R M

    2016-07-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (i.e., shipping fever and bacterial bronchopneumonia) is a multifaceted respiratory illness influenced by numerous environmental factors and microorganisms. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is just one component of BRD complex. Because BRD is moderately heritable, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of BRD through genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to determine the heritability and associative genetic relationships among immune system traits (i.e., cortisol, total IgG, IgG isotypes, and IL-8) in cattle monitored for BRD incidence. At an average of 83 d after weaning (219 d age and mean = 221.7 kg [SD 4.34]), crossbred steer calves ( = 2,869) were received at a commercial feedlot in southeastern Colorado over a 2-yr period. At receiving, jugular blood samples were collected at 212 (yr 1) and 226 d (yr 2) of age for immune trait analyses. The BRD phenotype was defined as a binomial variable (0 = no and 1 = yes) and compared with immune system traits measured at receiving (prior to illness onset). An animal identified as BRD positive exhibited ≥ 2 clinical signs (i.e., eye or nasal discharge, cough, lethargy, rapid breathing, acute interstitial pneumonia, or acute upper respiratory syndrome and/or a rectal temperature > 39.7°C). Heritability and genetic correlation estimates for categorical variable BRD, cortisol, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IL-8 were estimated from a sire model using ASREML. Heritability estimates were low to moderate for BRD (0.17 ± 0.08), cortisol (0.13 ± 0.05), IgG (0.15 ± 0.05), IgG1 (0.11 ± 0.05), IgG2 (0.24 ± 0.06), and IL-8 (0.30 ± 0.06). A moderate negative genetic correlation was determined between BRD and cortisol ( = -0.19 ± 0.32). Moderate positive correlations were found between BRD with IgG (0.42 ± 0.28), IgG1 (0.36 ± 0.32), and IL-8 ( = 0.26 ± 0.26). Variation in the BRD phenotype and immune system traits suggested herd health improvement may be achieved through genetic

  8. Nutritional and management methods to decrease nitrogen losses from beef feedlots.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G; Klopfenstein, T

    2010-04-01

    Nitrogen losses from open beef feedlots are a concern. Methods that decrease volatilization losses will lead to greater manure N, which is likely to be beneficial in open lot beef operations. Twelve or more pens were dedicated to N research whereby N intake, retention, and excretion were quantified and a mass balance conducted using manure, runoff, soil balance, and loss quantities. The objective was to decrease N volatilization losses or increase manure N or both. Dietary CP affects N excretion and N volatilization losses. Four experiments across 2 yr compared industry average CP (13%) to diets that were phase-fed to not exceed protein requirements (12.1 to 10.9%). Phase-fed cattle excreted 12 to 21% less N (P < 0.01), and N volatilization losses were reduced 15 to 33% (P < 0.01). In 2 other experiments, phase-fed diets were formulated to recycle undegradable intake protein. Steer G:F was similar (P = 0.18) or improved (P = 0.09), whereas N excretion and N volatilization losses tended to be reduced (P < 0.11) and N in manure was not affected (P > 0.35) compared with cattle fed 13% CP. Feeding less protein did not affect manure N, indicating manure N from open lots is related to other factors. A series of experiments evaluated increasing OM on the pen surface to increase N in manure. Feeding less digestible diets using fiber increased manure N (P < 0.01) and decreased (P < 0.10) N volatilization losses in 2 experiments conducted from November to May, but did not affect (P > 0.30) manure N or volatilization losses during 2 summer experiments. Adding bedding (i.e., OM) increased manure N in the winter as well. Another method evaluated was increasing pen cleaning frequency, which decreased N volatilization losses by 19 to 44% and increased manure N by 26 to 41% across 3 experiments. Other methods, such as acidifying manure by manipulating dietary cation anion difference, clinoptilite zeolite clay addition, and feeding different amounts of by-products had variable

  9. Flaking corn: processing mechanics, quality standards, and impacts on energy availability and performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Owens, F N; Ware, R A

    2002-05-01

    Based on performance of feedlot cattle, steam flaking increases the value of corn by 18%, considerably more than is suggested by tabular values. Tabular values underestimate the energy availability of flaked corn by failing to account for digestibility of the nonstarch OM that is increased by flaking by the same magnitude (10%) as starch. Correcting for improvement in digestibility of nonstarch OM increases the NEg value of steam-flaked corn to 1.70 Mcal/kg, a value very close to values calculated from cattle performance trials. Digestibility of starch from corn grain is limited by the protein matrix that encapsulates starch granules, and by the compact nature of the starch itself. Disruption of the protein matrix (by shear forces on hot grain during flaking) is the first limiting step toward optimizing starch digestion. Five critical production factors influence the quality of steam-flaked corn: steam chest temperature, steaming time, roll corrugation, roll gap, and roll tension. For optimal shear, it is important that rolls be hot and that kernels be hot when flaked. Steam chests should be designed to allow a steaming time of at least 30 min at maximum roller mill capacity producing a flake of 0.31 kg/L (24 lb/bushel). As little as 5% moisture uptake during steaming appears adequate. The rate of flaking and distribution of kernels across the rolls also are critical. Quality standards for steam-flaked corn include measurements of flake thickness, flake density, starch solubility, and enzyme reactivity. Flake density, the most common quality standard, closely associated with starch solubility (r2 = 0.87) and enzyme reactivity (r2 = 0.79), still explains only 63% of the variability in percentage fecal starch and 52% of the variability in starch digestibility. Direct determination of fecal starch can explain 91% of the variability in starch digestion. The NEg value of corn can be predicted from fecal starch: NEg= 1.78 - 0.0184FS. Starch digestion is a Kappa Curve

  10. In vitro study of the biochemical origin and production limits of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2001-12-01

    suggests a balance between protein consumption and new bacterial biomass production. We conclude that the types of substrates in cattle manure and the feedlot soils where they are deposited are significant factors in the production of odors. PMID:11811446

  11. Flint corn grain processing and citrus pulp level in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, V N; Batistel, F; Souza, J; Chagas, L J; Sitta, C; Campanili, P R B; Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-02-01

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of flint corn processing and the replacement of corn with citrus pulp (CiP) in diets for Nellore feedlot cattle. In a 103-d finishing trial, 216 Nellore bulls (350 ± 24 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 2 processing methods, either ground corn (GC) or steam-flaked corn (FC), with CiP replacing each corn type at 4 levels (0, 25, 50, and 75% of DM). All diets contained 12% sugarcane bagasse and 88% concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were also evaluated in metabolism trials, in which 10 ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (389 ± 37 kg) were assigned to 2 independent but simultaneous 5 × 5 Latin squares, each using 1 method of corn processing (GC and FC). Interactions ( < 0.05) between corn processing and CiP inclusion level were observed for final BW, DMI, ADG, G:F, and HCW. With FC-based diets, added CiP linearly decreased final BW ( = 0.04), whereas with GC-based diets, added CiP quadratically increased final BW ( = 0.002). With FC-based diets, the inclusion of CiP linearly increased DMI ( = 0.03) and linearly decreased ADG ( = 0.03) and G:F ( = 0.001). Increasing CiP in GC-based diets quadratically increased DMI ( = 0.001), ADG ( = 0.005), and HCW ( = 0.003). In FC-based diets, CiP inclusion had no effect on HCW ( = 0.21). Dressing percent, LM area, and 12th-rib fat were not affected by diet ( ≥ 0.05). For steers fed GC diets, CiP inclusion in the diet quadratically decreased the molar proportion of isovalerate ( = 0.001) but linearly increased ruminal butyrate ( = 0.006). No differences ( ≥ 0.16) were observed for total VFA concentrations, acetate:propionate ratio, and ruminal NH-N as CiP replaced GC. For steers fed FC diets, the molar proportion of acetate linearly increased ( = 0.002) whereas the proportion of propionate was linearly decreased ( < 0.001), resulting in a linear increase ( = 0.001) in the

  12. Cross-sectional Study Examining Salmonella enterica Carriage in Subiliac Lymph Nodes of Cull and Feedlot Cattle at Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Gragg, Sara E.; Loneragan, Guy H.; Brashears, Mindy M.; Arthur, Terrance M.; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wang, Rong; Schmidt, John W.; Brooks, J. Chance; Shackelford, Steven D.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Brown, Tyson R.; Edrington, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LNs), including subiliac LNs, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica, when adipose trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. In order to gain a better understanding of the burden of S. enterica in peripheral LNs of feedlot and cull cattle, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in which 3327 subiliac LNs were collected from cattle at harvest in seven plants, located in three geographically distinct regions of the United States. Samples were collected in three seasons: Fall 2010, Winter/Spring 2011, and Summer/Fall 2011. A convenience sample of 76 LNs per day, 2 days per season (approximately 1 month apart), was collected per plant, from carcasses held in the cooler for no less than 24 h. Every 10th carcass half on a rail was sampled, in an attempt to avoid oversampling any single cohort of cattle. Median point estimates of S. enterica contamination were generally low (1.3%); however, median Salmonella prevalence was found to be greater in subiliac LNs of feedlot cattle (11.8%) compared to those of cull cattle (0.65%). Enumeration analysis of a subset of 618 feedlot cattle LNs showed that 67% of those harboring S. enterica (97 of 144) did so at concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 1.8 log10 CFU/g, while 33% carried a higher burden of S. enterica, with levels ranging from 1.9 to >3.8 log10 CFU/g. Serotyping of S. enterica isolated identified 24 serotypes, with the majority being Montevideo (44.0%) and Anatum (24.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined for all isolates, and the majority (86.1%) were pansusceptible; however, multidrug-resistant isolates (8.3%) were also occasionally observed. As Salmonella contained within LNs are protected from carcass interventions, research is needed to define opportunities for mitigating the risk of Salmonella contamination in LNs of apparently healthy cattle. PMID:23566273

  13. Effect of organic matter addition to the pen surface and pen cleaning frequency on nitrogen mass balance in open feedlots.

    PubMed

    Adams, J R; Farran, T B; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Wilson, C B

    2004-07-01

    Three finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of dietary manipulation and management on N losses from open feedlots. In each experiment, 96 steers were assigned randomly to 12 nutrient balance pens. In Trial 1, calves were fed for 180 d during the winter/spring months; in Trial 2, yearlings were fed for 132 d in the summer. In Trials 1 and 2, N losses from pens were compared directly by adding OM to the pen surface or indirectly by feeding digestible ingredients designed to increase OM excretion. The dietary treatment (BRAN) included 30% corn bran (DM basis) replacing dry-rolled corn. Pens where OM was directly added received sawdust applications (SAWDUST) at a rate to match OM excretion from the BRAN diet. These two treatments were compared with a conventional, 75% dry-rolled corn diet (CON). Because CON and SAWDUST diets were identical, performance for both treatments was similar during Trials 1 and 2. The BRAN diet decreased (P < 0.10) gain efficiency during Trials 1 and 2 by 9.5% relative to CON. Fecal N excretion was greater (P < 0.01) for calves and yearlings when BRAN was fed compared with CON. Adding OM to the pen surface increased (P < 0.01) the amount of N in manure removed from pens and reduced (P < 0.10) N losses in Trial 1. Nitrogen losses were not significantly different among treatments in Trial 2. In Trial 3, calves were fed for 166 d during the winter/spring months. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used to evaluate pen cleaning frequency and diets similar to CON and BRAN. Pens were either cleaned monthly or once at the end of the feeding period. Daily DMI was greater (P = 0.01) and ADG was lower (P < 0.01) when cattle were fed BRAN compared with CON. Responses from all three trials indicate a negative effect of BRAN on gain efficiency. Dietary treatment and cleaning frequency interacted for N balance in the feedlot. Nitrogen losses decreased and manure N increased (P < 0.10) for cattle fed BRAN compared with CON when pens were cleaned

  14. Effects of two beta-adrenergic agonists on finishing performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Torres-Rodríguez, V; Meraz-Murillo, F J; Pérez-Linares, C; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Robinson, P H

    2006-12-01

    The impact of using 2 beta-adrenergic agonists in feedlot cattle fed finishing diets was evaluated using 54 steers (45 crossbred Charolais and 9 Brangus) initially weighing 424 +/- 26.6 kg in a randomized complete block design with 3 treatments and 6 blocks (i.e., 18 pens with 3 steers per pen). Response variables were feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Treatments were 1) control (no supplement added); 2) zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 60 mg.steer(-1).d(-1)); and 3) ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 300 mg.steer(-1).d(-1)). The beta-agonists were added to the diets during the final 33 d of the experiment. The groups of steers fed ZH or RH improved (P < 0.01) ADG by 26 or 24%, respectively, compared with control steers. Steers supplemented with RH consumed less (P = 0.03) DM (8.37 kg) than control steers (8.51 kg), whereas intake was similar (P = 0.37) for ZH and control steers. Addition of either beta-agonist to the diet considerably improved (P < 0.01) the G:F (ZH, 0.253 and RH, 0.248 vs. control, 0.185). Hot carcass weight and carcass yield were enhanced (P < 0.05) with both beta-agonists. The LM area was increased (P = 0.026) by ZH (75.2 cm(2)), but that of RH (72.2 cm(2)) was similar (P = 0.132) to the control steers (66.8 cm(2)). Meat from the ZH- (P = 0.0007) and RH- (P = 0.0267) supplemented steers had greater shear force values than control steers (ZH = 5.11; RH = 4.83; control = 4.39 kg/cm(2)). Variables related to meat color indicated that both beta-agonists led to a similar redness of the LM area related to the control group. In general, feedlot performance was greatly enhanced by beta-adrenergic agonists, and meat tenderness from treated animals was classified as intermediate. Furthermore, meat color was not altered by beta-agonist supplementation. PMID:17093218

  15. Distribution and characterization of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle fed subtherapeutic antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Feedlot cattle in North America are routinely fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials to prevent disease and improve the efficiency of growth. This practice has been shown to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in subpopulations of intestinal microflora including Escherichia coli. To date, studies of AMR in feedlot production settings have rarely employed selective isolation, therefore yielding too few AMR isolates to enable characterization of the emergence and nature of AMR in E. coli as an indicator bacterium. E. coli isolates (n = 531) were recovered from 140 cattle that were housed (10 animals/pen) in 14 pens and received no dietary antimicrobials (control - 5 pens, CON), or were intermittently administered subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline (5 pens-T), chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine (4 pens-TS), or virginiamycin (5 pens-V) for two separate periods over a 9-month feeding period. Phenotype and genotype of the isolates were determined by susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis and distribution of characterized isolates among housed cattle reported. It was hypothesized that the feeding of subtherapeutic antibiotics would increase the isolation of distinct genotypes of AMR E. coli from cattle. Results Overall, patterns of antimicrobial resistance expressed by E. coli isolates did not change among diet groups (CON vs. antibiotic treatments), however; isolates obtained on selective plates (i.e., MA,MT), exhibited multi-resistance to sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol more frequently when obtained from TS-fed steers than from other treatments. Antibiograms and PFGE patterns suggested that AMR E. coli were readily transferred among steers within pens. Most MT isolates possessed the tet(B) efflux gene (58.2, 53.5, 40.8, and 50.6% of isolates from CON, T, TS, and V steers, respectively) whereas among the MA (ampicillin-resistant) isolates, the tem1-like determinant was predominant (occurring in 50, 66.7, 80.3, and 100

  16. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O-types and Shiga toxin genes in fecal samples from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Bai, Jianfa; Lubbers, Brian V; Kopral, Christine A; An, Baoyan; Anderson, Gary A

    2013-04-01

    While efforts to control foodborne illness associated with the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 through processes and procedures implemented at harvest facilities have been very successful, there is concern about the burden of illness associated with other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service announced plans to classify an additional six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli as adulterants. Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of these E. coli in the animal production environment. An investigation of the prevalence of O157 and the six major non-O157 E. coli serogroups was conducted in 21 feedlots over the period July 2011 to October 2011. Individual fecal swabs were collected from cattle approximately 60 days after their arrival in the feedlot and were pooled for evaluation using a polymerase chain reaction assay to identify the presence of seven E. coli O-types (O157, O45, O103, O121, O145, O26, and O111) and four virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and ehxA). Overall, 1145 fecal pools were evaluated, with 506 (44.2%) being positive for one or more of the E. coli O-serogroups. The pool prevalences for E. coli O157, O45, O26, O103, O121, O145, and O111 were 19.7%, 13.8%, 9.9%, 9.3%, 5.5%, 1.1%, and 0.5%, respectively. Nearly all pools were positive for ehxA (99.7%) or stx2 (98.6%). The pool level prevalence for stx1 and eae was 65.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Pools that were positive for one or more of the other E. coli O-serogroups were 1.37 times more likely to be positive for E. coli O157. Conversely, pools that were positive for E. coli O157 were 1.43 times more likely to be positive for at least one of the other E. coli O-serogroups evaluated. These data will be useful to understand the expected prevalence of potential Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in cattle feedlots.

  17. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  18. Commercialism in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Examines perceived threat of commercialism on the ethical foundation of the experiential education movement. Contends that relationship between humanistic values often espoused by experiential educators need not be in conflict with a commercial, profit-oriented perspective. (NEC)

  19. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccot, Sila

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  20. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  1. Liver abscesses in cattle: A review of incidence in Holsteins and of bacteriology and vaccine approaches to control in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-04-01

    Liver abscesses are the primary liver abnormality of feedlot cattle at slaughter. The incidence of liver abscesses is highly variable, but generally ranges from 10% to 20%. The incidence of total and the proportion of severely abscessed livers (A+) are greater in Holsteins fed for beef production and culled dairy cows than in beef breeds. The reason for the greater incidence of liver abscesses in Holstein steers is not known, but one of the reasons is likely because of increased days on feed. The high prevalence in cull cows is likely because no specific intervention, such as use of tylosin in the feed, is approved for use in dairy cows. Liver abscesses are generally a sequela to ruminal acidosis and rumenitis in cattle fed diets high in readily-fermentable carbohydrates and low in roughages; thus, the term "acidosis-rumenitis-liver abscess complex." Liver abscesses are almost always polymicrobial infections with Gram negative anaerobes constituting the predominant flora. Almost all studies have concluded that , a ruminal bacterium, is the primary causative agent and (formerly ) is the secondary pathogen. A limited number of studies have been done on the bacterial flora of liver abscesses of culled dairy cows and Holstein feedlot steers. A recent study has reported on isolation of from liver abscesses of Holstein cattle. The control of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle has depended on the use of antibiotics, particularly tylosin, in the feed combined with sound nutritional management to minimize occurrence of acidosis and subsequent rumenitis. Although there is no evidence of resistance development in , the future of tylosin use as a feed additive in feedlot cattle is uncertain. Regardless, beginning January 2017, the use of tylosin in feedlot cattle for the prevention of liver abscesses will be under veterinary oversight. Although tylosin is widely used in the feedlot industry, there is considerable interest in evaluating antibiotic alternatives, such as essential

  2. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and soybean oil supplementation on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of hair-breed ram lambs under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Ramírez, J L; Macías-Cruz, U; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo-Rubio, R; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2014-03-01

    Forty Dorper × Pelibuey ram lambs initially weighing 31.7 ± 2.30 kg were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to treatments under a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 0 or 10 mg/lamb daily) and soybean oil (SBO; 0 or 6%) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and wholesale cut yield of ram lambs under heat stress conditions. After a 34-d feeding period, all lambs were harvested. Climatic conditions were of moderate heat stress (average temperature 35.7°C) for lambs during the study. Interactions ZH × SBO were not observed (P ≥ 0.11) for any of the variables evaluated. During the first 17 d of experiment, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.05) BW, ADG, and G:F without affecting feed intake (P = 0.40), but from d 18 to 34 and the entire 34-d feeding period, feedlot performance was not affected (P = 0.18) by ZH. Also, ZH decreased KPH, dressing percent, LM area, LM pH at 24 h postmortem, and leg perimeter (P ≤ 0.04). Renal fat (P = 0.03) decreased with ZH while other noncarcass components were not affected (P ≥ 0.06) by ZH supplementation. Leg yield (P = 0.01) and plain loin (P = 0.04) decreased with ZH and yields of other wholesale cuts were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by ZH. Feedlot performance (P ≥ 0.20) and wholesale cut yield (P ≥ 0.21) were not affected by SBO. Additionally, dressing percentage decreased (P < 0.01) with SBO while other carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.12) were not affected by SBO. In conclusion, inclusion of both ZH and SBO in feedlot finishing diets did not improve feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, or wholesale cut yield of hair-breed ram lambs under moderate heat stress. Feedlot performance responded only to ZH and only during the first 17 d of the feeding period. In addition, some carcass characteristics of economic importance, such as dressing, LM area, and leg yield, were improved by ZH.

  3. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  4. Commercialism in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

  5. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  6. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  7. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability. PMID:26638020

  8. Risk factors for initial respiratory disease in United States’ feedlots based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael W.; Dargatz, David A.; Wagner, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of initial respiratory disease was followed for 12 weeks in 122 pens of feedlot cattle, based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts. Weekly incidence density was calculated based on the number of new cases and the population at risk. Incidence density was greatest in the 1st week after arrival and decreased in following weeks. Weekly incidence rate varied between pens and over time from 0 to 27.7 cases per 100 animal weeks at risk. A negative binomial model controlling for multiple events within pens and over time was used to model effects on the number of new cases. Mixed gender groups, cattle from multiple sources and increasing distance shipped were associated with increased risk for initial respiratory morbidity. Heavier entry weight was associated with decreased morbidity risk. These factors may be useful in categorizing groups of calves into risk groups for targeted purchase and management decision making. PMID:18481546

  9. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  10. Assessment of L-lactatemia as a predictor of respiratory disease recognition and severity in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, S; Rademacher, R D; Tripp, H M; Edmonds, M; Johnson, E G; Dufour, S

    2015-03-01

    The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) is a major health issue in feedlot cattle and one of the primary reasons for antimicrobial use in the North American feedlot industry. The purpose of the present study was to assess blood L-lactate levels of feedlot steers at high risk of developing BRD during the early feeding period. Blood samples were obtained at initial processing and again after BRD confirmation (using bronchial lavage or thoracic ultrasound exam). The study involved 232 recently weaned steers received at a single research feedlot that were processed without metaphylactic antimicrobial treatment. Blood samples were obtained for determination of L-lactatemia and temperament scores (very quiet or stoic [score 1], average [score 2] and very excited [score 3]) were systematically assigned at initial processing. A subsample of calves that were later confirmed as cases of BRD were sampled at first pull (day 0), and at subsequent observation points on days 3, 6, 9 and 15 following initial BRD diagnosis for blood lactate determination as a potential indicator of subsequent death. The clinical BRD cumulative incidence in the cohort was 38% (87/232). Temperament was associated with the probability of becoming a BRD case during the early feeding period. Stoic or very excited calves showed 2.2 times higher odds (95%CI: 1.3, 3.8) of becoming BRD cases compared to calves with average temperament. The impact of L-lactatemia differed by temperament strata. In calves with a temperament score of 2 (average temperament) every 1-log unit increase of lactatemia at processing resulted in 1.9 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1) of becoming a BRD case; this relationship was not significant in calves with a score of either 1 or 3. Twenty-nine confirmed BRD cases were studied for the dynamic lactate assessment analysis. L-lactate at first pull was not significantly different between survivors (median 3.3mmol/L; range 0.8-7.8mmol/L) and non-survivors (median 2.7mmol/L; range

  11. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... following: Electric motors and pumps; commercial HVAC and water heating equipment (small, large, and very..., for which DOE has already prescribed labeling requirements, as well as for commercial HVAC and...

  12. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  13. The intake of thermally processed soybean reduces the feedlot period of lambs independently of roughage to concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Camilo, F R; Vargas Junior, F M; Ricardo, H A; Fernandes, A R M; Seno, L O; Osório, J C S; Souza, M R; Mobiglia, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake and performance of feedlot lambs using 2 roughage to concentrate ratios and 2 types of soybean, whole (WS) or thermally processed (PS). Twenty male noncastrated market lambs weighting 23.26 ± 2.18 kg were used. The design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement of 2 × 2. Diets were formulated with 50:50 and 20:80 of roughage to concentrate ratio on DM, and the thermal processing was realized in an autoclave at 120°C during 1 h. The end of the experimental period was determined by animal BCS, that is, the animals were slaughtered with a BCS between 3 and 3.5. The animals fed with 50% of roughage spent more time consuming feed (P < 0.01) and ruminating (P < 0.01). Thermally processed soybean provided more time consuming (P < 0.05) and less leisure time (P < 0.05) compared with WS. Diet with 20% of roughage provided increased ADG (P < 0.01) and better feed conversion (FC; P < 0.01). The utilization of PS resulted in decreased feedlot period (FP; P< 0.01), increased ADG (P < 0.05), decreased DMI (P < 0.01), and consequently better FC (P < 0.01). Diet with PS decreased the intake of ADF (P < 0.01). There was interaction between the roughage to concentrate ratio and soybean, wherein the diet with 50% of roughage and WS provided increased intake of NDF (P < 0.05). The use of thermally processed soybean provided better performance of lambs, and when this feed is associated with higher concentrate proportion, it reduces the intake of fibrous fraction of the diet.

  14. Effect of subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Alexander, T W; Yanke, L J; Topp, E; Olson, M E; Read, R R; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in 300 feedlot steers receiving subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics was investigated through the collection of 3,300 fecal samples over a 314-day period. Antibiotics were selected based on the commonality of use in the industry and included chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine (TET-SUL), chlortetracycline (TET), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin, or no antibiotic supplementation (control). Steers were initially fed a barley silage-based diet, followed by transition to a barley grain-based diet. Despite not being administered antibiotics prior to arrival at the feedlot, the prevalences of steers shedding TET- and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant E. coli were >40 and <30%, respectively. Inclusion of TET-SUL in the diet increased the prevalence of steers shedding TET- and AMP-resistant E. coli and the percentage of TET- and AMP-resistant E. coli in the total generic E. coli population. Irrespective of treatment, the prevalence of steers shedding TET-resistant E. coli was higher in animals fed grain-based compared to silage-based diets. All steers shed TET-resistant E. coli at least once during the experiment. A total of 7,184 isolates were analyzed for MIC of antibiotics. Across antibiotic treatments, 1,009 (13.9%), 7 (0.1%), and 3,413 (47.1%) E. coli isolates were resistant to AMP, gentamicin, or TET, respectively. In addition, 131 (1.8%) and 143 (2.0%) isolates exhibited potential resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, as indicated by either ceftazidime or cefpodoxime resistance. No isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The findings of the present study indicated that subtherapeutic administration of tetracycline in combination with sulfamethazine increased the prevalence of tetracycline- and AMP-resistant E. coli in cattle. However, resistance to antibiotics may be related to additional environmental factors such as diet. PMID:18502931

  15. Prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter in rumen contents and feces in pasture and feedlot-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Nathan A; Anderson, Robin C; Krueger, Wimberley K; Horne, Willy J; Wesley, Irene V; Callaway, Todd R; Edrington, Tom S; Carstens, Gordon E; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2008-10-01

    Campylobacter are important human foodborne pathogens known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. The incidence of Campylobacter in cattle may be seasonal and may vary among age groups and type (beef versus dairy). Less is known about other factors that could influence the prevalence, colonization site, and shedding of Campylobacter in cattle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and enumerate Campylobacter at two sites along the digestive tract of beef and dairy type cattle consuming either grass or feedlot diets. In an initial study, Campylobacter was not recovered from rumen samples of any of 10 ruminally cannulated (six dairy and four beef type) pasture-reared cattle and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between cattle types on fecal Campylobacter recovery, with 50% of each type yielding culture-positive feces (overall mean +/- SE, 0.75 +/- 0.001 SEM log(10) colony-forming units [CFU]/g feces). When calculated from Campylobacter culture-positive animals only, mean fecal concentrations were 1.50 +/- 0.001 SEM log(10) CFU/g. In a follow-up study with feedlot and pasture-reared cattle (n = 18 head each), 78% of rumen and 94% of fecal samples from pastured cattle were positive for Campylobacter while 50% of the rumen and 72% of the fecal samples were positive in concentrate-fed animals. Overall mean concentration of Campylobacter was greater in feces than ruminal fluid (p < 0.05). When only Campylobacter-positive animals were analyzed, concentrations recovered from feces were higher (p < 0.05) in concentrate-fed than in pasture-fed cattle (4.29 vs. 3.34 log(10) CFU/g, respectively; SEM = 0.29). Our results suggest that the rumen environment and its microbial population are less favorable for the growth of Campylobacter and that concentrate diets may provide a more hospitable lower gastrointestinal tract for Campylobacter.

  16. Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia flux from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K. A.; Ham, J. M.

    Improved measurements of ammonia losses from cattle feedlots are needed to quantify the national NH 3 emissions inventory and evaluate management techniques for reducing emissions. Speciation cartridges composed of glass honeycomb denuders and filter packs were adapted to measure gaseous NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+ fluxes using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). Laboratory testing showed that a cartridge equipped with four honeycomb denuders had a total capture capacity of 1800 μg of NH 3. In the field, a pair of cartridges was deployed adjacent to a sonic anemometer and an open-path gas analyzer on a mobile tower. High-speed valves were attached to the inlets of the cartridges and controlled by a datalogger so that up- and down-moving eddies were independently sampled based on direction of the vertical wind speed and a user-defined deadband. Air flowed continuously through the cartridges even when not sampling by means of a recirculating air handling system. Eddy covariance measurement of CO 2 and H 2O, as measured by the sonic and open-path gas analyzer, were used to determine the relaxation factor needed to compute REA-based fluxes. The REA system was field tested at the Beef Research Unit at Kansas State University in the summer and fall of 2007. Daytime NH 3 emissions ranged between 68 and 127 μg m -2 s -1; fluxes tended to follow a diurnal pattern correlated with latent heat flux. Daily fluxes of NH 3 were between 2.5 and 4.7 g m -2 d -1 and on average represented 38% of fed nitrogen. Aerosol NH 4+ fluxes were negligible compared with NH 3 emissions. An REA system designed around the high-capacity speciation cartridges can be used to measure NH 3 fluxes from cattle feedlots and other strong sources. The system could be adapted to measure fluxes of other gases and aerosols.

  17. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  18. Transient Fecal Shedding and Limited Animal-to-Animal Transmission of Clostridium difficile by Naturally Infected Finishing Feedlot Cattle ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Pickworth, Carrie; Loerch, Steve; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P < 0.001), and remained low (<3.6%) until immediately prior to shipment for harvest (1.2%). Antimicrobial use did not increase fecal shedding, despite treatment of 53% of animals for signs of respiratory disease. Animals shedding C. difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants. PMID:21441320

  19. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  20. NASA's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

  1. Bulk electrical conductivity as an indicator of spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous at feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez Molina, J. J.; Sainato, C. M.; Urricariet, A. S.; Losinno, B. N.; Heredia, O. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing demands of producing beef for domestic and international consumption is leading to the development of feedlots in Argentina. Unfortunately, the great amount of manure produces leachate of nitrates and other ions which may affect groundwater quality. The objective of this paper was to identify the spatial distribution of bulk electrical conductivity (ECb) of non-saturated zone and its association with variability of nitrates and bioavailable phosphorous, water content, topography and electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract (EC). The analysis of the impact was done at two pens with different time of confinement of the animals (Pen1 and Pen 2, with 16 months and 7 years of animal occupation, respectively). The initial exploration phase was done by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys were subsequently performed at a subarea for studying the spatial distribution of ECb. A grid of soil sampling up to 1 m depth was done at the same subarea of the EMI survey. A geostatistical interpolation of data was performed in order to map ECb, water content, nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorous and EC. Anomalies of higher conductivity (between 6 and 10 times the background values) were found near the feedbunk and the water trough, being greater on soils with larger period of manure recharge. Water content, nitrogen of nitrates (N-NO3-), bioavailable phosphorous (Pavail.) and EC showed patterns of spatial distribution similar to ECb. These patterns are mainly associated with the runoff movement of water to the lower zones in the case of a steeper slope and the soil compaction as in the Pen 1. In the Pen 2, the patterns of spatial variability are similar for ECb and water content while anomalies of high ECb were found along an abandoned feedbunk. High values of N-NO3-, Pavail. and EC were found at this site. A longer period of manure recharge resulted in higher values of nitrogen and bioavailable phosphorous in

  2. Effect of shade area on performance and welfare of short-fed feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L; Cawdell-Smith, A J; Mader, T L; Gaughan, J B

    2011-09-01

    One hundred twenty-six Black Angus yearling heifers were used in a 119-d study to assess the effect of shade allocation (0, 2.0, 3.3, or 4.7 m(2)/animal) on the performance and welfare of feedlot cattle. Shade treatments were replicated 4 times and the no-shade treatment was replicated twice. Shade was provided by 70% solar block shade cloth, attached to a 4-m-high frame with a north-south orientation. Cattle were randomly allocated to a pen (9/pen; 19.2 m(2)/animal) within treatment. Performance was assessed using DMI, G:F, ADG, HCW, dressing percentage, and rump fat depth. Climatic data (ambient and black globe temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, relative humidity, and rainfall) were recorded. From these data, the heat load index (HLI) was calculated. When the daily maximum HLI (HLI(Max)) was <86, individual panting score (0 = no panting; 4 = open mouth, tongue extended), animal location (eating, drinking, under shade), and animal posture (standing or lying) were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h. When HLI(Max) was ≥ 86, these data were collected every 2 h between 0600 and 1800 h. Feed intake was recorded weekly and water intake was recorded daily on a pen basis. When HLI(Max) was ≥ 86, mean panting score (MPS: mean of animals within treatment) was greatest (1.02; P < 0.001) for unshaded cattle compared with cattle in the shade treatments, which were similar (0.82; P = 0.81). During heat waves, the MPS of unshaded cattle was greater (2.66; P < 0.001) than that for shaded cattle. The MPS of cattle in the 2.0 m(2)/animal treatment (2.43 ± 0.13) was greater (P < 0.001) than that of cattle in the 3.3 (2.11 ± 0.13) and 4.7 m(2)/animal (2.03 ± 0.13) treatments. The MPS of cattle in the 3.3 and 4.7 m(2)/animal treatments were similar (P = 0.09). Number standing was similar (P = 0.98) between unshaded and shaded at 2.0 m(2)/animal treatments with 4.75 and 4.76 animals/pen, respectively. Fewer (P < 0.0001) were standing in the 3.3 (4.19 animals/pen) and 4

  3. Impact of sorting before feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, F H; Hussey, E M; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Vander Pol, K J; Hutcheson, J P; Erickson, G E

    2015-05-01

    Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed -CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier ( P< 0.01) HCW than -CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than -CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between -CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for -CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that

  4. Using Sweet Bran instead of forage during grain adaptation in finishing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huls, T J; Luebbe, M K; Watson, A K; Meyer, N F; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A; Erickson, G E

    2016-03-01

    ). Treatments were applied only during grain adaptation (26 d) and all steers were finished on a common diet containing 35% Sweet Bran for an additional 147 d. Steers adapted using SB had greater ( ≤ 0.01) final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW compared with steers adapted using CON, even though treatments differed only the first 26 d. Grain adaptation treatment had no effect ( ≥ 0.13) on carcass quality. These results indicate that Sweet Bran can be used to adapt cattle to finishing diets instead of forage and improves ADG and G:F while decreasing the forage needs of feedlots.

  5. Growing rate of gain on subsequent feedlot performance, meat, and carcass quality of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Loken, B A; Maddock, R J; Stamm, M M; Schauer, C S; Rush, I; Quinn, S; Lardy, G P

    2009-11-01

    Eighty Angus and Angus x Simmental steer calves were used in a completely random design to determine the effect of rate of BW gain during the backgrounding period on subsequent feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory analysis. Animals were stratified by BW and allotted randomly to 1 of 10 pens (5 pens/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated for an ADG of 0.91 kg/d [low BW gain (LG), 1.06 Mcal of NE(g)/kg] diets and 1.25 kg/d [high BW gain (HG), 1.19 Mcal of NE(g)/kg]. Steers were fed 70 d during the growing period. The LG diet consisted of 52.5% barley silage, 39.0% whole shell corn, and 8.5% supplement, whereas the HG diet contained 43.9% barley silage, 47.4% whole shell corn, and 8.7% supplement (DM basis). Initial BW (226 kg) was not different (P = 0.70) between treatments. Steers fed the HG diet had increased ADG (1.67 vs. 1.40 kg/d; P < 0.001) compared with steers fed LG diet. Dry matter intake was greater (9.49 vs. 8.35 kg/d; P < 0.001) for steers fed the HG vs. LG diet. Total backgrounding cost ($/animal) was less (P < 0.001) for those steers fed LG diet compared with HG diet ($126.00 vs. $140.35, respectively); however, total cost per kilogram of BW gain was not different (P = 0.24; $0.485/kg of BW gain). After the backgrounding period, steers were fed a common finishing diet for 135 d. During the finishing period, LG steers had similar (P = 0.12; 10.73 vs. 10.35 kg/d) DMI compared with those fed HG diets; however, ADG was not different (1.55 kg; P = 0.72) among treatments. Hot carcass weight, marbling score, 12th-rib fat, LM area, and USDA yield grade were not different (P > 0.12) between treatments and averaged 363 kg, Sm(30), 1.33 cm, 83.8 cm(2), and 2.7, respectively. There were no differences (P = 0.77; 3.63 +/- 0.12 kg) in WBSF tenderness of rib-eye steaks. Percent cooking loss was increased in LG diets (P = 0.017). No differences were observed in consumer sensory analysis of tenderness

  6. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride duration of feeding on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Elam, N A; Vasconcelos, J T; Hilton, G; VanOverbeke, D L; Lawrence, T E; Montgomery, T H; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Galyean, M L

    2009-06-01

    Four trials, each with a randomized complete block design, were conducted with 8,647 beef steers (initial BW = 346 +/- 29.6 kg) in 3 different locations in the United States to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Treatments consisted of feeding ZH (8.33 mg/kg of dietary DM) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, at the end of the feeding period, followed by a 3-d withdrawal period before slaughter. Cattle were weighed on d 0 and 50 before slaughter (in 3 of the 4 studies), and on the day of slaughter. Data from the 4 trials were pooled for statistical analyses. No differences (P > or = 0.78) were detected among treatments for ADG and G:F from the start of the study until the final 50 d on feed. Final BW was greater for the average of the 3 ZH-treated groups (P < 0.01) than for the 0-d group. Average daily gain was greater for ZH-treated vs. control cattle during the final 50 d on feed (P < 0.01) and for the entire feeding period (P < 0.01). No differences in DMI were noted for any periods of the experiment (P > or = 0.42) for ZH-treated cattle vs. controls. No differences were noted for DMI among the ZH-treated groups for the final 50 d on feed (P = 0.81) or for the overall feeding period (P = 0.31). Feeding ZH for any length of time increased G:F (P < 0.01) for the final 50 d and overall compared with 0-d cattle. In addition, a linear increase with more days of ZH feeding was observed for G:F during the period that ZH was fed (P = 0.01), as well as for the overall feeding period (P = 0.01). The ZH-treated cattle had heavier HCW (P < 0.01), greater dressing percent (P < 0.01), reduced marbling scores (P < 0.01), less 12th-rib fat (P < 0.01), larger LM area (P < 0.01), less KPH (P = 0.01), and a lower USDA yield grade (P < 0.01) than the 0-d cattle, regardless of the duration of ZH feeding. Dressing percent increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increased duration of ZH feeding, whereas 12th-rib fat (P = 0

  7. Impact of sorting before feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, F H; Hussey, E M; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Vander Pol, K J; Hutcheson, J P; Erickson, G E

    2015-05-01

    Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed -CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier ( P< 0.01) HCW than -CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than -CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between -CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for -CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that

  8. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Shiga Toxin-Negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain C1-057, Isolated from Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Carlson, Brandon; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale; Sofos, John; Belk, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the major foodborne pathogens in the United States. We isolated a variant Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain from feedlot cattle. We report here the draft genome sequence of this isolate, consisting of a chromosome of ~4.8 Mb and two plasmids of ~96 kb and ~14 kb. PMID:26941140

  10. Impact of management practices and distillers' grains feeding on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ryan C; Popowski, Jackie M; Anderson, Jon E; Dahlberg, Johanna L; Kalyanikutty, Sudha; Crawford, Grant I; DiCostanzo, Alfredo; Cox, Ryan B; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted by contaminated ground beef and is shed naturally in cattle feces. Recent reports indicated that feeding distillers' grains (DG) to cattle increased fecal shedding and prevalence of E. coli O157. In Minnesota, feeding DG with solubles (DGS) to livestock became widespread within the last 10 years, but there is no report about the prevalence of E. coli O157 in beef cattle in this state. This study was undertaken to survey the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle fed diets containing DG and its association with environmental conditions and management practices. Fecal samples were collected from three feedlots during a 1-year period. All animals in those feedlots were fed different DGS levels. E. coli O157 presence was determined using a combination of enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar, and confirmation of isolates by immunoassay and multiplex virulence genes polymerase chain reaction analysis. Overall, E. coli O157 was confirmed in 9.7% of samples. Prevalence during summer was 30% and declined to less than 10% the rest of the year. In animals grouped by dietary DGS concentration, no significant difference in prevalence (12.0 and 5.5%) was detected between the low and the high average groups (less and more than 20%). Previous feeding of DGS before arriving to the feedlot also had no influence on fecal prevalence. The presence of several interacting variables, uncontrolled in a real-life feedlot environment, was the likely reason for our observation and suggested that at the levels studied, DGS had no effect on the STEC O157 prevalence in cattle populations.

  11. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K; Markham, Philip F; Kanci, Anna; Schibrowski, Meghan; Oswin, Sally; Barnes, Tamsin S; Firestone, Simon M; Mahony, Timothy J; Browning, Glenn F

    2016-05-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen of emerging significance in cattle throughout the world that is causing a range of diseases, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. The limited availability and efficacy of current diagnostic and prophylactic tools for its control and its increasing antimicrobial resistance are contributing to its increasing importance in beef and dairy cattle. We have developed an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant fragment of the MilA protein and have shown its potential as an effective diagnostic tool. To more comprehensively estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this IgG ELISA for detection of infection with M. bovis in cattle and to define a suitable cutoff for use in the field, we further assessed its performance in experimentally infected calves in a closed beef herd and by applying Bayesian latent class modeling to laboratory testing results from 7,448 cattle entering Australian feedlots. The most effective cutoff points were estimated to be 68.6 antibody units (AU) for experimentally infected calves and to be 58.7 AU for a closed adult herd. Under field conditions, in feedlot cattle the globally optimal cutoff was estimated to be 105 AU. At this cutoff, the diagnostic sensitivity was 94.3% (95% probability interval [PI], 89.9% to 99.6%) with a diagnostic specificity of 94.4% (95% PI, 90.3% to 99.6%). Applying this 105 AU cutoff, 13.1% of cattle were seropositive for infection with M. bovis on entry into feedlots, and 73.5% were seropositive when followed up approximately 6 weeks later suggesting a high risk of infection shortly after entry into feedlots.

  12. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K.; Markham, Philip F.; Kanci, Anna; Schibrowski, Meghan; Oswin, Sally; Barnes, Tamsin S.; Firestone, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen of emerging significance in cattle throughout the world that is causing a range of diseases, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. The limited availability and efficacy of current diagnostic and prophylactic tools for its control and its increasing antimicrobial resistance are contributing to its increasing importance in beef and dairy cattle. We have developed an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant fragment of the MilA protein and have shown its potential as an effective diagnostic tool. To more comprehensively estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this IgG ELISA for detection of infection with M. bovis in cattle and to define a suitable cutoff for use in the field, we further assessed its performance in experimentally infected calves in a closed beef herd and by applying Bayesian latent class modeling to laboratory testing results from 7,448 cattle entering Australian feedlots. The most effective cutoff points were estimated to be 68.6 antibody units (AU) for experimentally infected calves and to be 58.7 AU for a closed adult herd. Under field conditions, in feedlot cattle the globally optimal cutoff was estimated to be 105 AU. At this cutoff, the diagnostic sensitivity was 94.3% (95% probability interval [PI], 89.9% to 99.6%) with a diagnostic specificity of 94.4% (95% PI, 90.3% to 99.6%). Applying this 105 AU cutoff, 13.1% of cattle were seropositive for infection with M. bovis on entry into feedlots, and 73.5% were seropositive when followed up approximately 6 weeks later suggesting a high risk of infection shortly after entry into feedlots. PMID:26912757

  13. Immunocastration improves carcass traits and beef color attributes in Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus crossbred animals finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Giulianna Z; Faria, Marcelo H; Roça, Roberto O; Santos, Carolina T; Suman, Surendranath P; Faitarone, Ana B G; Delbem, Nara L C; Girao, Lucio V C; Homem, Juliana M; Barbosa, Erika K; Su, Leticia S; Resende, Flavio D; Siqueira, Gustavo R; Moreira, Aline D; Savian, Taciana V

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of immunocastration on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus male animals finished in feedlot. Surgically castrated, immunocastrated, and intact animals were finished in feedlot for 90 days. The animals were harvested, and carcass traits were evaluated. Carcasses were chilled, and one 2.5-cm steak was fabricated from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The steaks were individually vacuum packaged and frozen at -18 °C. Frozen steaks were thawed, and pH, instrumental color, cooking loss, and shear force were determined. Immunocastrated animals demonstrated greater (P<0.05) hot dressing percentage and cold dressing percentage than their surgically castrated counterparts. Furthermore, steaks from immunocastrated and surgically castrated animals exhibited greater redness (P<0.05) and lower darkness (P<0.05) than steaks from intact animals, indicating possible advantage in retailing. The results suggested that immunocastration may be utilized to improve carcass traits and beef color in feedlot-finished Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus males. PMID:24211546

  14. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  15. Effect of feed delivery fluctuations and feeding time on ruminal acidosis, growth performance, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Streeter, M; Kennedy, A D

    2004-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine whether fluctuations in the amount of feed delivered and timing of feeding affect ruminal pH and growth of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, the effects of constant (C) vs. fluctuating (F) daily feed delivery on ruminal pH were assessed in a crossover experiment (two 28-d periods) involving six mature, ruminally cannulated steers. The diet consisted of 86.8% barley grain, 4.9% supplement, and 8.3% barley silage (DM basis) and was offered ad libitum for 2 wk to estimate DMI by individual steers. Steers in group C were offered a constant amount of feed daily equal to their predetermined DMI, whereas steers in group F were offered 10% more or less than their predetermined DMI on a rotating 3-d schedule. Ruminal pH of each steer was measured continuously via an indwelling electrode placed in the rumen during the last 6 d of each period. Mean pH tended to be lower (0.10 units) for F than C (5.63 vs. 5.73; P = 0.15), and ruminal pH of steers in group F tended to remain below 5.8 (P = 0.03) or 5.5 (P = 0.14) for greater proportions of the day than steers in group C. Inconsistent delivery of feed lowered ruminal pH, suggesting increased risk of subclinical acidosis. In Exp. 2, a 2 x 2 factorial was used to study the effects of pattern (C vs. F) and feeding time (morning [0900] vs. evening [2100]) on the feeding behavior and performance of 234 (310 +/- 23 kg) Charolais x Hereford beef steers during backgrounding and finishing phases over 209 d. One pen per treatment was equipped with a radio frequency identification (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Canada) system that monitored bunk attendance by each steer throughout the trial. Pattern of feed delivery did not affect (P = 0.16) DMI (7.36 kg/d), ADG (1.23 kg/d), G:F (0.17), or time spent at the bunk (141 min/d), nor were pattern of feed delivery x time of feeding interactions observed (P = 0.18). Late feeding increased (P < 0.05) daily DMI (7.48 vs. 7.26 kg), ADG (1.28 vs. 1.00 kg/d), and G:F (0

  16. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems.

  17. Effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B W; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1996-11-01

    Seventy-two Simmental-cross growing steers (219 +/- 2.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture (G/P) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of beef liver and muscle. Animals were allotted by weight to 12 pens (six/pen). Each pen was assigned one of three dietary treatments: 1) 0% G/P (control), 2) 20% G/P, or 3) 30% G/P (% G/P on a DM basis). Steers were fed their respective diets for an 84-d growing phase and a 112-d finishing phase. The G/P replaced corn silage and corn in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Eighteen steers (six/treatment) were randomly selected for slaughter at the end of the finishing phase, and carcass measurements, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of liver and longissimus muscle were measured. During the growing phase, steers fed G/P-containing diets had improved (P < .01) daily DMI, ADG, and gain:feed ratios (G:F) compared with controls. However, due to compensatory gain and the fact that G/P replaced corn in the finishing phase, control steers had increased (P < .01) ADG and improved (P < .05) G:F vs steers fed G/P-containing diets. Over the entire study (growing and finishing phases) steers fed diets containing G/P and the control had similar performance. Amount of G/P in the diet had no effect (P > .05) on carcass characteristics. Steaks from steers fed 20% G/P had improved (P < .01) juiciness compared with steaks from steers fed 30% G/P; no other sensory attributes were affected. Aluminum, zinc, and barium content of longissimus muscle and liver were within the normal expected ranges for all treatments. These data indicate that G/P can safely replace at least 30% of growing and finishing diets without impairing feedlot performance or carcass merit. PMID:8923170

  18. Effects of pain mitigation and method of castration on behavior and feedlot performance in cull beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Repenning, P E; Ahola, J K; Callan, R J; Fox, J T; French, J T; Giles, R L; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Engle, T E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A multimodal analgesia (MMA) protocol was used and consisted of sutcutaneous ketamine stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered intravenously on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included 1) band castration without analgesia (BND), 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA), 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG), and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d precastration and 28 d postcastration. There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for ADG to be greater in cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P < 0.001) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared to BND treatments. Postcastration DMI was greater (P = 0.02) in MMA treatments compared with nonmedicated treatments throughout the trial. Meal duration was greater (P < 0.05) in BND than SURG castrates during the first week postcastration. Results

  19. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems. PMID:25461102

  20. The Commercial Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (CVDA) STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Commercial Vapor Diffusion Apparatus will be used to perform 128 individual crystal growth investigations for commercial and science research. These experiments will grow crystals of several different proteins, including HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Glycogen Phosphorylase A, and NAD Synthetase. The Commercial Vapor Diffusion Apparatus supports multiple commercial investigations within a controlled environment. The goal of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth payload on STS-95 is to grow large, high-quality crystals of several different proteins of interest to industry, and to continue to refine the technology and procedures used in microgravity for this important commercial research.

  1. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion. PMID:23963949

  2. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  3. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  4. Effects of supplemental lysine and methionine with zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in finishing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hosford, A D; Hergenreder, J E; Kim, J K; Baggerman, J O; Ribeiro, F R B; Anderson, M J; Spivey, K S; Rounds, W; Johnson, B J

    2015-09-01

    Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with ruminally protected AA was evaluated in a small-pen feeding trial. Crossbred steers ( = 180; initial BW = 366 kg) were blocked by weight and then randomly assigned to treatments (45 pens; 9 pens/treatment). Treatment groups consisted of no ZH and no AA (Cont-), ZH and no AA (Cont+), ZH and a ruminally protected lysine supplement (Lys), ZH and a ruminally protected methionine supplement (Met), and ZH and ruminally protected lysine and methionine (Lys+Met). Zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg DM) was fed for the last 20 d of the finishing period with a 3-d withdrawal period. Lysine and Met were top dressed daily for the 134-d feeding trial to provide 12 or 4 g·hd·d, respectively, to the small intestine. Carcass characteristics, striploins, and prerigor muscle samples were collected following harvest at a commercial facility. Steaks from each steer were aged for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined as an indicator of tenderness. Prerigor muscle samples were used for immunohistological analysis. Cattle treated with Met and Lys+Met had increased final BW ( < 0.3) and ADG ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- and Cont+. Supplementation of Lys, Met, and Lys+Met improved G:F ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- during the ZH feeding period (d 111 to 134) as well as the entire feeding period ( < 0.05). Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass ADG ( < 0.05) when compared to non-ZH-fed steers. Methionine and Lys+Met treatments had heavier HCW ( < 0.02) than that of Cont-. Yield grade was decreased ( < 0.04) for Cont+ steers compared to steers treated with Lys, Lys+Met, and Cont-. Tenderness was reduced ( < 0.05) with ZH regardless of AA supplementation. Lysine, Met, Lys+Met, and Cont+ had less tender steaks ( < 0.05) throughout all aging groups compared to Cont-. Steaks from Lys-treated steers were less tender ( < 0.05) than those of Cont+ during the 7- and 14-d aging periods. Nuclei density was the greatest

  5. Commercial energy audits: headache or opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hanneman, J.C.; Crandall, G.C.

    1984-04-12

    A summary of Michigan's 1982 commercial energy audit pilot program illustrates that utilities, shareholders, ratepayers, and private businesses can all benefit from large-scale audit services. Specific benefits to the utilities include market preservation, enhanced community and customer relations, and access to important customer demographic information. The federal Commercial and Apartment Conservation Service (CACS) rules can be more useful than burdensome because they confirm the right and duty of energy utilities to offer energy audits to nonresidential customers. 5 footnotes and references.

  6. Comparison of the effects of different transport conditions and lairage times in a Mediterranean climate in South Africa on the meat quality of commercially crossbred Large white x Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Fisher, P

    2010-12-01

    Information on the effect of road transportation conditions and lairage times on the meat quality of pork under South African conditions is very sparse. In this investigation, the effects of 2 road conditions (rough road with frequent stops - A; smooth road, few stops - B) and 2 lairage holding periods (2 h and 24 h) on the physical meat quality attributes of commercially produced pigs during summer (ambient temperatures > 30 degrees C) in the Western Cape (South Africa) were investigated. Pig meat from pigs transported on a road that caused more stress (A), had lower pH 45 (measured 45 min post mortem) values after 2 h lairage than pigs transported over a smoother road. Pigs B had a lower muscle pH 24 (measured 24 h post mortem) than group A, indicating that they had more glycogen reserves available for post mortem glycolysis. Road conditions A were more stressful resulting in a higher incidence of PSE pork, as shown by the percentage drip loss and the L* values. When the lairage period was increased to 24 h prior to slaughter, pigs transported under road conditions A had time to replenish their energy reserves and the pH 45, drip loss and L* values were within an acceptable range. However, pigs transported under road conditions B had lower pH 45 and higher pH 24 values, indicating that the lairage period was too long and that energy reserves were depleted in order to adapt to the stressful conditions. Results from this investigation indicate that improvement of the transport/road conditions will result in better pork quality.

  7. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  8. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  9. Influence of Therapeutic Ceftiofur Treatments of Feedlot Cattle on Fecal and Hide Prevalences of Commensal Escherichia coli Resistant to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins, and Molecular Characterization of Resistant Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dee; Kuehn, Larry A.; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, the blaCMY-2 gene contained within incompatibility type A/C (IncA/C) plasmids is frequently identified in extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant (ESCr) Escherichia coli strains from both human and cattle sources. Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of ceftiofur in cattle may increase the prevalence of ESCr E. coli. We report that herd ESCr E. coli fecal and hide prevalences throughout the residency of cattle at a feedlot, including during the period of greatest ceftiofur use at the feedlot, were either not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) or significantly less (P < 0.05) than the respective prevalences at arrival. Longitudinal sampling of cattle treated with ceftiofur demonstrated that once the transient increase of ESCr E. coli shedding that follows ceftiofur injection abated, ceftiofur-injected cattle were no more likely than untreated members of the same herd to shed ESCr E. coli. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, screening for presence of the blaCMY-2 gene, and plasmid replicon typing were performed on 312 ESCr E. coli isolates obtained during six sampling periods spanning the 10-month residence of cattle at the feedlot. The identification of only 26 unique PFGE genotypes, 12 of which were isolated during multiple sampling periods, suggests that clonal expansion of feedlot-adapted blaCMY-2 E. coli strains contributed more to the persistence of blaCMY-2 than horizontal transfer of IncA/C plasmids between E. coli strains at this feedlot. We conclude that therapeutic use of ceftiofur at this cattle feedlot did not significantly increase the herd prevalence of ESCr E. coli. PMID:23354706

  10. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  11. Long-term effects of sustained beef feedlot manure application on soil nutrients, corn silage yield, and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Richard B; Nienaber, John A; Eigenberg, Roger A; Woodbury, Brian L

    2005-01-01

    A field study was initiated in 1992 to investigate the long-term impacts of beef feedlot manure application (composted and uncomposted) on nutrient accumulation and movement in soil, corn silage yield, and nutrient uptake. Two application strategies were compared: providing the annual crop nitrogen (N) requirement (N-based rate) or crop phosphorus (P) removal (P-based rate), as well as a comparison to inorganic fertilizer. Additionally, effects of a winter cover crop were evaluated. Irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) was produced annually from 1993 through 2002. Average silage yield and crop nutrient removal were highest with N-based manure treatments, intermediate with P-based manure treatments, and least with inorganic N fertilizer. Use of a winter cover crop resulted in silage yield reductions in four of ten years, most likely due to soil moisture depletion in the spring by the cover crop. However, the cover crop did significantly reduce NO3-N accumulation in the shallow vadose zone, particularly in latter years of the study. The composted manure N-based treatment resulted in significantly greater soil profile NO3-N concentration and higher soil P concentration near the soil surface. The accounting procedure used to calculate N-based treatment application rates resulted in acceptable soil profile NO3-N concentrations over the short term. While repeated annual manure application to supply the total crop N requirement may be acceptable for this soil for several years, sustained application over many years carries the risk of unacceptable soil P concentrations.

  12. Hierarchal clustering yields insight into multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from a cattle feedlot wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Jahne, Michael A; Rogers, Shane W; Ramler, Ivan P; Holder, Edith; Hayes, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Forty-two percent of Escherichia coli and 58% of Enterococcus spp. isolated from cattle feedlot runoff and associated infiltration basin and constructed wetland treatment system were resistant to at least one antibiotic of clinical importance; a high level of multidrug resistance (22% of E. coli and 37% of Enterococcus spp.) was observed. Hierarchical clustering revealed a closely associated resistance cluster among drug-resistant E. coli isolates that included cephalosporins (ceftiofur, cefoxitin, and ceftriaxone), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, and amikacin), and quinolone nalidixic acid; antibiotics from these classes were used at the study site, and cross-resistance may be associated with transferrable multiple-resistance elements. For Enterococcus spp., co-resistance among vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin was common; these antibiotics are reserved for complicated clinical infections and have not been approved for animal use. Vancomycin resistance (n = 49) only occurred when isolates were resistant to linezolid, daptomycin, and all four of the MLSB (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B) antibiotics tested (tylosin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and quinipristin/dalfopristin). This suggests that developing co-resistance to MLSB antibiotics along with cyclic lipopeptides and oxazolidinones may result in resistance to vancomycin as well. Effects of the treatment system on antibiotic resistance were pronounced during periods of no rainfall and low flow (long residence time). Increased hydraulic loading (short residence time) under the influence of rain caused antibiotic-resistant bacteria to be flushed through the treatment system. This presents concern for environmental discharge of multidrug-resistant organisms relevant to public health.

  13. Effect of subcutaneous selenium injection and supplementary selenium source on blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase in feedlot heifers

    PubMed Central

    Chorfi, Younes; Girard, Vincent; Fournier, Alain; Couture, Yvon

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the effect on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium (Se) in whole blood and plasma associated with subcutaneous Se injections in beef heifers fed organic or inorganic Se. Heifers (n = 120) were randomly divided into 2 groups, 1 of which received subcutaneous Se injections. Both groups were given the same total mixed ration with 3 mg of organic or inorganic Se daily. Until week 2, heifers that had received Se injections showed higher concentrations of plasma Se and GSH-Px and whole blood Se (P < 0.001) than those having had no injections. Concentrations of plasma Se and GSH-Px were higher in the group receiving organic Se than the group receiving inorganic Se. Whole blood GSH-Px concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.001) throughout a 12-week period but were not affected by Se source. Combination of Se injections and supplementation could help maintain normal Se and GSH-Px blood status in beef heifers during the first few weeks in the feedlot. PMID:22467963

  14. Hierarchal clustering yields insight into multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from a cattle feedlot wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Jahne, Michael A; Rogers, Shane W; Ramler, Ivan P; Holder, Edith; Hayes, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Forty-two percent of Escherichia coli and 58% of Enterococcus spp. isolated from cattle feedlot runoff and associated infiltration basin and constructed wetland treatment system were resistant to at least one antibiotic of clinical importance; a high level of multidrug resistance (22% of E. coli and 37% of Enterococcus spp.) was observed. Hierarchical clustering revealed a closely associated resistance cluster among drug-resistant E. coli isolates that included cephalosporins (ceftiofur, cefoxitin, and ceftriaxone), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, and amikacin), and quinolone nalidixic acid; antibiotics from these classes were used at the study site, and cross-resistance may be associated with transferrable multiple-resistance elements. For Enterococcus spp., co-resistance among vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin was common; these antibiotics are reserved for complicated clinical infections and have not been approved for animal use. Vancomycin resistance (n = 49) only occurred when isolates were resistant to linezolid, daptomycin, and all four of the MLSB (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B) antibiotics tested (tylosin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and quinipristin/dalfopristin). This suggests that developing co-resistance to MLSB antibiotics along with cyclic lipopeptides and oxazolidinones may result in resistance to vancomycin as well. Effects of the treatment system on antibiotic resistance were pronounced during periods of no rainfall and low flow (long residence time). Increased hydraulic loading (short residence time) under the influence of rain caused antibiotic-resistant bacteria to be flushed through the treatment system. This presents concern for environmental discharge of multidrug-resistant organisms relevant to public health. PMID:25504186

  15. Effects of pen bedding and feeding high crude protein diets on manure composition and greenhouse gas emissions from a feedlot pen surface.

    PubMed

    Borhan, M S; Gautam, D P; Engel, C; Anderson, V L; Rahman, S

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations vary by stage of production and management practices. The objective of this research was to study the effect of two dietary crude protein levels (12 and 16%) fed to beef steers in pens with or without corn stover bedding. Manure characteristics and GHG emissions were measured from feedlot pen surfaces. Sixteen equal-sized feedlot pens (19 x 23 m) were used. Eight were bedded approximately twice a week with corn stover and the remaining eight feedlot pens were not bedded. Angus steers (n = 138) were blocked by live weights (lighter and heavier) with 7 to 10 animals per pen. The trial was a 2 x 2 factorial design with factors of two protein levels and two bedding types (bedding vs. non bedding), with four replicates. The study was conducted from June through September and consisted of four -28-day periods. Manure from each pen was scrapped once every 28 days and composite manure samples from each pen were collected. Air samples from pen surfaces were sampled in Tedlar bags using a Va