Gyrokinetic large eddy simulations
Morel, P.; Navarro, A. Banon; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Carati, D.; Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.
2011-07-15
The large eddy simulation approach is adapted to the study of plasma microturbulence in a fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic system. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is studied with the GENE code for both a standard resolution and a reduced resolution with a model for the sub-grid scale turbulence. A simple dissipative model for representing the effect of the sub-grid scales on the resolved scales is proposed and tested. Once calibrated, the model appears to be able to reproduce most of the features of the free energy spectra for various values of the ion temperature gradient.
Applied large eddy simulation.
Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain
2009-07-28
Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity. PMID:19531503
Mesoscale Ocean Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank
2015-11-01
The highest resolution global climate models (GCMs) can now resolve the largest scales of mesoscale dynamics in the ocean. This has the potential to increase the fidelity of GCMs. However, the effects of the smallest, unresolved, scales of mesoscale dynamics must still be parametrized. One such family of parametrizations are mesoscale ocean large eddy simulations (MOLES), but the effects of including MOLES in a GCM are not well understood. In this presentation, several MOLES schemes are implemented in a mesoscale-resolving GCM (CESM), and the resulting flow is compared with that produced by more traditional sub-grid parametrizations. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate flows where the largest scales of turbulent motion are resolved, but the smallest scales are not resolved. LES has traditionally been used to study 3D turbulence, but recently it has also been applied to idealized 2D and quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence. The MOLES presented here are based on 2D and QG LES schemes.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Turbulent Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, A. T.; Mansour, Nagi N.
2001-01-01
Here we present the results of a Large Eddy Simulation of a non-buoyant jet issuing from a circular orifice in a wall, and developing in neutral surroundings. The effects of the subgrid scales on the large eddies have been modeled with the dynamic large eddy simulation model applied to the fully 3D domain in spherical coordinates. The simulation captures the unsteady motions of the large-scales within the jet as well as the laminar motions in the entrainment region surrounding the jet. The computed time-averaged statistics (mean velocity, concentration, and turbulence parameters) compare well with laboratory data without invoking an empirical entrainment coefficient as employed by line integral models. The use of the large eddy simulation technique allows examination of unsteady and inhomogeneous features such as the evolution of eddies and the details of the entrainment process.
Temporal Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. D.; Thomas, B. C.
2004-01-01
In 1999, Stolz and Adams unveiled a subgrid-scale model for LES based upon approximately inverting (defiltering) the spatial grid-filter operator and termed .the approximate deconvolution model (ADM). Subsequently, the utility and accuracy of the ADM were demonstrated in a posteriori analyses of flows as diverse as incompressible plane-channel flow and supersonic compression-ramp flow. In a prelude to the current paper, a parameterized temporal ADM (TADM) was developed and demonstrated in both a priori and a posteriori analyses for forced, viscous Burger's flow. The development of a time-filtered variant of the ADM was motivated-primarily by the desire for a unifying theoretical and computational context to encompass direct numerical simulation (DNS), large-eddy simulation (LES), and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS). The resultant methodology was termed temporal LES (TLES). To permit exploration of the parameter space, however, previous analyses of the TADM were restricted to Burger's flow, and it has remained to demonstrate the TADM and TLES methodology for three-dimensional flow. For several reasons, plane-channel flow presents an ideal test case for the TADM. Among these reasons, channel flow is anisotropic, yet it lends itself to highly efficient and accurate spectral numerical methods. Moreover, channel-flow has been investigated extensively by DNS, and a highly accurate data base of Moser et.al. exists. In the present paper, we develop a fully anisotropic TADM model and demonstrate its utility in simulating incompressible plane-channel flow at nominal values of Re(sub tau) = 180 and Re(sub tau) = 590 by the TLES method. The TADM model is shown to perform nearly as well as the ADM at equivalent resolution, thereby establishing TLES as a viable alternative to LES. Moreover, as the current model is suboptimal is some respects, there is considerable room to improve TLES.
Large-Eddy Simulation and Multigrid Methods
Falgout,R D; Naegle,S; Wittum,G
2001-06-18
A method to simulate turbulent flows with Large-Eddy Simulation on unstructured grids is presented. Two kinds of dynamic models are used to model the unresolved scales of motion and are compared with each other on different grids. Thereby the behavior of the models is shown and additionally the feature of adaptive grid refinement is investigated. Furthermore the parallelization aspect is addressed.
Large eddy simulation in the ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scotti, Alberto
2010-12-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a relative newcomer to oceanography. In this review, both applications of traditional LES to oceanic flows and new oceanic LES still in an early stage of development are discussed. The survey covers LES applied to boundary layer flows, traditionally an area where LES has provided considerable insight into the physics of the flow, as well as more innovative applications, where new SGS closure schemes need to be developed. The merging of LES with large-scale models is also briefly reviewed.
Large Eddy Simulation of Transitional Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2009-11-01
A sixth order compact finite difference code is employed to investigate compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of subharmonic transition of a spatially developing zero pressure gradient boundary layer, at Ma = 0.2. The computational domain extends from Rex= 10^5, where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and sub-harmonic modes, to fully turbulent stage at Rex= 10.1x10^5. Numerical sponges are used in the neighborhood of external boundaries to provide non-reflective conditions. Our interest lies in the performance of the dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model [1] in the transition process. It is observed that in early stages of transition the eddy viscosity is much smaller than the physical viscosity. As a result the amplitudes of selected harmonics are in very good agreement with the experimental data [2]. The model's contribution gradually increases during the last stages of transition process and the dynamic eddy viscosity becomes fully active and dominant in the turbulent region. Consistent with this trend the skin friction coefficient versus Rex diverges from its laminar profile and converges to the turbulent profile after an overshoot. 1. Moin P. et. al. Phys Fluids A, 3(11), 2746-2757, 1991. 2. Kachanov Yu. S. et. al. JFM, 138, 209-247, 1983.
Statistical Ensemble of Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, Daniele; Rogers, Michael M.; Wray, Alan A.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A statistical ensemble of large eddy simulations (LES) is run simultaneously for the same flow. The information provided by the different large scale velocity fields is used to propose an ensemble averaged version of the dynamic model. This produces local model parameters that only depend on the statistical properties of the flow. An important property of the ensemble averaged dynamic procedure is that it does not require any spatial averaging and can thus be used in fully inhomogeneous flows. Also, the ensemble of LES's provides statistics of the large scale velocity that can be used for building new models for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. The ensemble averaged dynamic procedure has been implemented with various models for three flows: decaying isotropic turbulence, forced isotropic turbulence, and the time developing plane wake. It is found that the results are almost independent of the number of LES's in the statistical ensemble provided that the ensemble contains at least 16 realizations.
Large eddy simulation of longitudinal stationary vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreedhar, Madhu; Ragab, Saad
1994-07-01
The response of longitudinal stationary vortices when subjected to random perturbations is investigated using temporal large-eddy simulation. Simulations are obtained for high Reynolds numbers and at a low subsonic Mach number. The subgrid-scale stress tensor is modeled using the dynamic eddy-viscosity model. The generation of large-scale structures due to centrifugal instability and their subsequent breakdown to turbulence is studied. The following events are observed. Initially, ring-shaped structures appear around the vortex core. These structures are counter-rotating vortices similar to the donut-shaped structures observed in a Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders. These structures subsequently interact with the vortex core resulting in a rapid decay of the vortex. The turbulent kinetic energy increases rapidly until saturation, and then a period of slow decay prevails. During the period of maximum turbulent kinetic energy, the normalized mean circulation profile exhibits a logarithmic region, in agreement with the universal inner profile of Hoffman and Joubert [J. Fluid Mech. 16, 395 (1963)].
Large-eddy Advection in Evapotranspiration Estimates from an Array of Eddy Covariance Towers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, X.; Evett, S. R.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Aiken, R.
2014-12-01
Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a sorghum in Bushland, Texas in 2014. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms were integrated from the depth of soil heat flux plate to the height of eddy covariance measurement. Therefore, a comparison between the eddy covariance system and large weighing lysimeter was conducted on hourly and daily basis. The results for the discrepancy between eddy covariance towers and the lysimeter will be discussed in terms of advection and storage contributions in time domain and frequency domain.
Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.
2015-11-01
A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.
Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.
Menzies, Kevin
2009-07-28
The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle. PMID:19531505
Large eddy simulations in 2030 and beyond.
Piomelli, U
2014-08-13
Since its introduction, in the early 1970s, large eddy simulations (LES) have advanced considerably, and their application is transitioning from the academic environment to industry. Several landmark developments can be identified over the past 40 years, such as the wall-resolved simulations of wall-bounded flows, the development of advanced models for the unresolved scales that adapt to the local flow conditions and the hybridization of LES with the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Thanks to these advancements, LES is now in widespread use in the academic community and is an option available in most commercial flow-solvers. This paper will try to predict what algorithmic and modelling advancements are needed to make it even more robust and inexpensive, and which areas show the most promise. PMID:25024415
Large eddy simulations in 2030 and beyond
Piomelli, U
2014-01-01
Since its introduction, in the early 1970s, large eddy simulations (LES) have advanced considerably, and their application is transitioning from the academic environment to industry. Several landmark developments can be identified over the past 40 years, such as the wall-resolved simulations of wall-bounded flows, the development of advanced models for the unresolved scales that adapt to the local flow conditions and the hybridization of LES with the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. Thanks to these advancements, LES is now in widespread use in the academic community and is an option available in most commercial flow-solvers. This paper will try to predict what algorithmic and modelling advancements are needed to make it even more robust and inexpensive, and which areas show the most promise. PMID:25024415
Application of large eddy interaction model to a mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, S. N. B.
1989-01-01
The large eddy interaction model (LEIM) is a statistical model of turbulence based on the interaction of selected eddies with the mean flow and all of the eddies in a turbulent shear flow. It can be utilized as the starting point for obtaining physical structures in the flow. The possible application of the LEIM to a mixing layer formed between two parallel, incompressible flows with a small temperature difference is developed by invoking a detailed similarity between the spectra of velocity and temperature.
Large eddy simulations of laminar separation bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Francois
The flow over blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from ten thousand to a few hundred thousands undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region -- the laminar separation bubble. To avoid body-fitted mesh generation problems and numerical issues, an equivalent problem for flow over a flat plate is formulated by imposing boundary conditions that lead to a pressure distribution and Reynolds number that are similar to those on airfoils. Spalart & Strelet (2000) tested a number of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate. Although results with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model were encouraging, none of the turbulence models tested reliably recovered time-averaged direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. The purpose of this work is to assess whether large eddy simulation (LES) can more accurately and reliably recover DNS results using drastically reduced resolution -- on the order of 1% of DNS resolution which is commonly achievable for LES of turbulent channel flows. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate are performed using a compressible sixth-order finite-difference code and two incompressible pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solvers at resolutions corresponding to approximately 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart & Strelet (2000). The finite-difference solver is found to be dissipative due to the use of a stability-enhancing filter. Its numerical dissipation is quantified and found to be comparable to the average eddy viscosity of the dynamic Smagorinsky model, making it difficult to separate the effects of filtering versus those of explicit subgrid-scale modeling. The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral solvers allows an unambiguous
Large eddy simulation of turbulent cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanaskandan, A.; Mahesh, K.
2015-12-01
Large Eddy Simulation is employed to study two turbulent cavitating flows: over a cylinder and a wedge. A homogeneous mixture model is used to treat the mixture of water and water vapor as a compressible fluid. The governing equations are solved using a novel predictor- corrector method. The subgrid terms are modeled using the Dynamic Smagorinsky model. Cavitating flow over a cylinder at Reynolds number (Re) = 3900 and cavitation number (σ) = 1.0 is simulated and the wake characteristics are compared to the single phase results at the same Reynolds number. It is observed that cavitation suppresses turbulence in the near wake and delays three dimensional breakdown of the vortices. Next, cavitating flow over a wedge at Re = 200, 000 and σ = 2.0 is presented. The mean void fraction profiles obtained are compared to experiment and good agreement is obtained. Cavity auto-oscillation is observed, where the sheet cavity breaks up into a cloud cavity periodically. The results suggest LES as an attractive approach for predicting turbulent cavitating flows.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Aeroacoustic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David; Sochacki, James S.
1999-01-01
This report summarizes work accomplished under a one-year NASA grant from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The effort culminates three years of NASA-supported research under three consecutive one-year grants. The period of support was April 6, 1998, through April 5, 1999. By request, the grant period was extended at no-cost until October 6, 1999. Its predecessors have been directed toward adapting the numerical tool of large-eddy simulation (LES) to aeroacoustic applications, with particular focus on noise suppression in subsonic round jets. In LES, the filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse computational grid. Residual stresses, generated by scales of motion too small to be resolved on the coarse grid, are modeled. Although most LES incorporate spatial filtering, time-domain filtering affords certain conceptual and computational advantages, particularly for aeroacoustic applications. Consequently, this work has focused on the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models that incorporate time-domain filters.
Parallel Optimization with Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talnikar, Chaitanya; Blonigan, Patrick; Bodart, Julien; Wang, Qiqi; Alex Gorodetsky Collaboration; Jasper Snoek Collaboration
2014-11-01
For design optimization results to be useful, the model used must be trustworthy. For turbulent flows, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) can capture separation and other phenomena that traditional models such as RANS struggle with. However, optimization with LES can be challenging because of noisy objective function evaluations. This noise is a consequence of the sampling error of turbulent statistics, or long time averaged quantities of interest, such as the drag of an airfoil or heat transfer to a turbine blade. The sampling error causes the objective function to vary noisily with respect to design parameters for finite time simulations. Furthermore, the noise decays very slowly as computational time increases. Therefore, robustness with noisy objective functions is a crucial prerequisite to optimization candidates for LES. One way of dealing with noisy objective functions is to filter the noise using a surrogate model. Bayesian optimization, which uses Gaussian processes as surrogates, has shown promise in optimizing expensive objective functions. The following talk presents a new approach for optimization with LES incorporating these ideas. Applications to flow control of a turbulent channel and the design of a turbine blade trailing edge are also discussed.
Large eddy simulation of trailing edge noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Jacob; Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan
2015-11-01
Noise generation is an important engineering constraint to many marine vehicles. A significant portion of the noise comes from propellers and rotors, specifically due to flow interactions at the trailing edge. Large eddy simulation is used to investigate the noise produced by a turbulent 45 degree beveled trailing edge and a NACA 0012 airfoil. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy is combined with a dynamic endcapping method to compute the sound. This methodology allows for the impact of incident flow noise versus the total noise to be assessed. LES results for the 45 degree beveled trailing edge are compared to experiment at M = 0 . 1 and Rec = 1 . 9 e 6 . The effect of boundary layer thickness on sound production is investigated by computing using both the experimental boundary layer thickness and a thinner boundary layer. Direct numerical simulation results of the NACA 0012 are compared to available data at M = 0 . 4 and Rec = 5 . 0 e 4 for both the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field. Sound intensities and directivities are investigated and compared. Finally, some of the physical mechanisms of far-field noise generation, common to the two configurations, are discussed. Supported by Office of Naval research.
Large eddy simulation of powered Fontan hemodynamics.
Delorme, Y; Anupindi, K; Kerlo, A E; Shetty, D; Rodefeld, M; Chen, J; Frankel, S
2013-01-18
Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2-3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3-5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a "biventricular Fontan" circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo(TM)) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data. PMID:23177085
Large Eddy Simulation of Powered Fontan Hemodynamics
Delorme, Y.; Anupindi, K.; Kerlo, A.E.; Shetty, D.; Rodefeld, M.; Chen, J.; Frankel, S.
2012-01-01
Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2–3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3–5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a “biventricular Fontan” circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo™) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data. PMID:23177085
Large Eddy Simulation of Cirrus Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ting; Cotton, William R.
1999-01-01
The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) with mesoscale interactive nested-grids and a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) version of RAMS, coupled to two-moment microphysics and a new two-stream radiative code were used to investigate the dynamic, microphysical, and radiative aspects of the November 26, 1991 cirrus event. Wu (1998) describes the results of that research in full detail and is enclosed as Appendix 1. The mesoscale nested grid simulation successfully reproduced the large scale circulation as compared to the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System's (MAPS) analyses and other observations. Three cloud bands which match nicely to the three cloud lines identified in an observational study (Mace et al., 1995) are predicted on Grid #2 of the nested grids, even though the mesoscale simulation predicts a larger west-east cloud width than what was observed. Large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to study the dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes in the 26 November 1991 FIRE 11 cirrus event. The LES model is based on the RAMS version 3b developed at Colorado State University. It includes a new radiation scheme developed by Harrington (1997) and a new subgrid scale model developed by Kosovic (1996). The LES model simulated a single cloud layer for Case 1 and a two-layer cloud structure for Case 2. The simulations demonstrated that latent heat release can play a significant role in the formation and development of cirrus clouds. For the thin cirrus in Case 1, the latent heat release was insufficient for the cirrus clouds to become positively buoyant. However, in some special cases such as Case 2, positively buoyant cells can be embedded within the cirrus layers. These cells were so active that the rising updraft induced its own pressure perturbations that affected the cloud evolution. Vertical profiles of the total radiative and latent heating rates indicated that for well developed, deep, and active cirrus clouds, radiative cooling and latent
Effects of Eddy Viscosity on Time Correlations in Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
He, Guowei; Rubinstein, R.; Wang, Lian-Ping; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large. eddy simulation (LES) have generally been evaluated by their ability to predict single-time statistics of turbulent flows such as kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses. Recent application- of large eddy simulation to the evaluation of sound sources in turbulent flows, a problem in which time, correlations determine the frequency distribution of acoustic radiation, suggest that subgrid models should also be evaluated by their ability to predict time correlations in turbulent flows. This paper compares the two-point, two-time Eulerian velocity correlation evaluated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) with that evaluated from LES, using a spectral eddy viscosity, for isotropic homogeneous turbulence. It is found that the LES fields are too coherent, in the sense that their time correlations decay more slowly than the corresponding time. correlations in the DNS fields. This observation is confirmed by theoretical estimates of time correlations using the Taylor expansion technique. Tile reason for the slower decay is that the eddy viscosity does not include the random backscatter, which decorrelates fluid motion at large scales. An effective eddy viscosity associated with time correlations is formulated, to which the eddy viscosity associated with energy transfer is a leading order approximation.
Time Filtering in Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, Daniele; Wray, Alan A.
2000-01-01
An explicit time filter is applied to the Navier-Stokes equation prior to a space filter. The time filter is supposed to be smooth, and an exact expansion depending on the time derivatives of the velocity is derived for the associated stress tensor. On the contrary, the effect of the space filter is treated as usual and an eddy viscosity model is introduced in the LES equation. The total stress is thus represented using a new class of mixed models combining time and space derivatives of the LES field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, M.; Chao, Y.
2001-01-01
Output of an eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic is diagnosed in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream (GA), using quasigeostrophic potential voracity (QGPV), Ertel's potential voracity (PV), and particle trajectories. Time series of QGPV show strong input of QGPV by the GS in the top 100 m of the model ocean.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.
Large eddy interactions in a turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.
1985-01-01
The dynamic processes of large eddies in a turbulent channel flow have been examined by utilizing an orthogonal expansion of the velocity fluctuation, known in the literature as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem. The mathematical form of these functions is unknown in contrast to the Fourier analysis. Attention is focused on the nonlinear, turbulence-turbulence interaction process in the dynamical equation for large eddies (the first term in the expansion). The nonlinear interactions of the components of the first mode are treated exactly, but influences of higher modes are modeled. This requires adjustment of both the skewness and the effective Reynolds number so that the energy equilibrium of the large eddies is ensured when the mean velocity distribution is assumed known for experiments. Computational results show that the first mode contributes significantly to turbulent intensities and possesses a structural and statistical character similar to that of the entire flow.
Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acharya, Sumanta
1999-01-01
The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.
Large Eddy Simulations using Lattice Boltzmann algorithms. Final report
Serling, J.D.
1993-09-28
This report contains the results of a study performed to implement eddy-viscosity models for Large-Eddy-Simulations (LES) into Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithms for simulating fluid flows. This implementation requires modification of the LB method of simulating the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations to allow simulation of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations with some subgrid model for the Reynolds stress term. We demonstrate that the LB method can indeed be used for LES by simply locally adjusting the value of the BGK relaxation time to obtain the desired eddy-viscosity. Thus, many forms of eddy-viscosity models including the standard Smagorinsky model or the Dynamic model may be implemented using LB algorithms. Since underresolved LB simulations often lead to instability, the LES model actually serves to stabilize the method. An alternative method of ensuring stability is presented which requires that entropy increase during the collision step of the LB method. Thus, an alternative collision operator is locally applied if the entropy becomes too low. This stable LB method then acts as an LES scheme that effectively introduces its own eddy viscosity to damp short wavelength oscillations.
NASA's Large-Eddy Simulation Research for Jet Noise Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2009-01-01
Research into large-eddy simulation (LES) for application to jet noise is described. The LES efforts include in-house code development and application at NASA Glenn along with NASA Research Announcement sponsored work at Stanford University and Florida State University. Details of the computational methods used and sample results for jet flows are provided.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation, and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done large-eddy simulations of wind plants with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver. The simulated time-averaged power production of the turbines in the plant agrees well with field observations, except with the sixth turbine and beyond in each wind-aligned. The power produced by each of those turbines is overpredicted by 25-40%. A direct comparison between simulated and field data is difficult because we simulate one wind direction with a speed and turbulence intensity characteristic of Lillgrund, but the field observations were taken over a year of varying conditions. The simulation shows the significant 60-70% decrease in the performance of the turbines behind the front row in this plant that has a spacing of 4.3 rotor diameters in this direction. The overall plant efficiency is well predicted. This work shows the importance of using local grid refinement to simultaneously capture the meter-scale details of the turbine wake and the kilometer-scale turbulent atmospheric structures. Although this work illustrates the power of large-eddy simulation in producing a time-accurate solution, it required about one million processor-hours, showing the significant cost of large-eddy simulation.
Constrained Large Eddy Simulation of Separated Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Wang, Jianchun; Xiao, Zuoli; Yang, Yantao; Chen, Shiyi
2011-11-01
Constrained Large-eddy Simulation (CLES) has been recently proposed to simulate turbulent flows with massive separation. Different from traditional large eddy simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS/LES approaches, the CLES simulates the whole flow domain by large eddy simulation while enforcing a RANS Reynolds stress constraint on the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress models in the near-wall region. Algebraic eddy-viscosity models and one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) model have been used to constrain the Reynolds stress. The CLES approach is validated a posteriori through simulation of flow past a circular cylinder and periodic hill flow at high Reynolds numbers. The simulation results are compared with those from RANS, DES, DDES and other available hybrid RANS/LES methods. It is shown that the capability of the CLES method in predicting separated flows is comparable to that of DES. Detailed discussions are also presented about the effects of the RANS models as constraint in the near-wall layers. Our results demonstrate that the CLES method is a promising alternative towards engineering applications.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a cotton field in Bushland, Texas. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms wer...
Wall Modeled Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva
2014-11-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of airfoil trailing edge noise has largely been restricted to low Reynolds numbers due to prohibitive computational cost. Wall modeled LES (WMLES) is a computationally cheaper alternative that makes full-scale Reynolds numbers relevant to large wind turbines accessible. A systematic investigation of trailing edge noise prediction using WMLES is conducted. Detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. The stress boundary condition from a wall model does not constrain the fluctuating velocity to vanish at the wall. This limitation has profound implications for trailing edge noise prediction. The simulation over-predicts the intensity of fluctuating wall pressure and far-field noise. An improved wall model formulation that minimizes the over-prediction of fluctuating wall pressure is proposed and carefully validated. The flow configurations chosen for the study are from the workshop on benchmark problems for airframe noise computations. The large eddy simulation database is used to examine the adequacy of scaling laws that quantify the dependence of trailing edge noise on Mach number, Reynolds number and angle of attack. Simplifying assumptions invoked in engineering approaches towards predicting trailing edge noise are critically evaluated. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from GE Global Research and thank Cascade Technologies Inc. for providing access to their massively-parallel large eddy simulation framework.
Toward large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Haecheon
1993-01-01
The flow field over an airfoil contains several distinct flow characteristics, e.g. laminar, transitional, turbulent boundary layer flow, flow separation, unstable free shear layers, and a wake. This diversity of flow regimes taxes the presently available Reynolds averaged turbulence models. Such models are generally tuned to predict a particular flow regime, and adjustments are necessary for the prediction of a different flow regime. Similar difficulties are likely to emerge when the large eddy simulation technique is applied with the widely used Smagorinsky model. This model has not been successful in correctly representing different turbulent flow fields with a single universal constant and has an incorrect near-wall behavior. Germano et al. (1991) and Ghosal, Lund & Moin have developed a new subgrid-scale model, the dynamic model, which is very promising in alleviating many of the persistent inadequacies of the Smagorinsky model: the model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model has been remarkably successful in prediction of several turbulent and transitional flows. We plan to simulate turbulent flow over a '2D' airfoil using the large eddy simulation technique. Our primary objective is to assess the performance of the newly developed dynamic subgrid-scale model for computation of complex flows about aircraft components and to compare the results with those obtained using the Reynolds average approach and experiments. The present computation represents the first application of large eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest and a key demonstration of the capabilities of the large eddy simulation technique.
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuka, V.; Brechler, J.
2013-04-01
We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Larsson, Johan; Wang, Qiqi
2014-08-13
In this paper, we try to look into the future to envision how large eddy and detached eddy simulations will be used in the engineering design process about 20-30 years from now. Some key challenges specific to the engineering design process are identified, and some of the critical outstanding problems and promising research directions are discussed. PMID:25024421
Larsson, Johan; Wang, Qiqi
2014-01-01
In this paper, we try to look into the future to envision how large eddy and detached eddy simulations will be used in the engineering design process about 20–30 years from now. Some key challenges specific to the engineering design process are identified, and some of the critical outstanding problems and promising research directions are discussed. PMID:25024421
Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed and tested based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model, in terms of Favre-filtered fields, is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The two dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96(exp 3) grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. A large-eddy simulation of the decay of compressible isotropic turbulence (conducted on a coarse 32(exp 3) grid) is shown to yield results that are in excellent agreement with the fine grid direct simulation. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of more complex supersonic flows are discussed briefly.
Applications of large eddy simulation methods to gyrokinetic turbulence
Bañón Navarro, A. Happel, T.; Teaca, B. [Applied Mathematics Research Centre, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB; Max-Planck für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau; Max-Planck Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching; Max-Planck Hammett, G. W. [Max-Planck Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team
2014-03-15
The large eddy simulation (LES) approach—solving numerically the large scales of a turbulent system and accounting for the small-scale influence through a model—is applied to nonlinear gyrokinetic systems that are driven by a number of different microinstabilities. Comparisons between modeled, lower resolution, and higher resolution simulations are performed for an experimental measurable quantity, the electron density fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the validation and applicability of LES is demonstrated through a series of diagnostics based on the free energetics of the system.
A subfilter-scale stress model for large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouhi, Amirreza; Piomelli, Ugo
2013-11-01
In most large eddy simulations, the filter width is related to the grid. This method of specification, however, causes problems in complex flows where local refinement results in grid discontinuities. Following the work of Piomelli and Geurts (Proce. 8th Workshop on DLES, 2010) we propose an eddy-viscosity approach in which the filter width is based on the flow parameters only, with no explicit relationship to the grid size. This model can achieve grid-independent LES solutions, vanishing dynamically in the regions of low turbulence activity and a computational cost less than the dynamic models. The Successive Inverse Polynomial Interpolation (Geurts & Meyers Phys. Fluids 18, 2006) was used to calculate the model parameter. Calculating implicitly the eddy-viscosity at each time-step removes the numerical instabilities found in previous studies, while maintaining the local character of the model. Results of simulations of channel flow at Reτ up to 2,000, and forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence will be presented.
Minimum-dissipation models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozema, Wybe; Bae, Hyun J.; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2015-08-01
Minimum-dissipation eddy-viscosity models are a class of sub-filter models for large-eddy simulation that give the minimum eddy dissipation required to dissipate the energy of sub-filter scales. A previously derived minimum-dissipation model is the QR model. This model is based on the invariants of the resolved rate-of-strain tensor and has many desirable properties. It appropriately switches off for laminar and transitional flows, has low computational complexity, and is consistent with the exact sub-filter tensor on isotropic grids. However, the QR model proposed in the literature gives insufficient eddy dissipation. It is demonstrated that this can be corrected by increasing the model constant. The corrected QR model gives good results in simulations of decaying grid turbulence on an isotropic grid. On anisotropic grids the QR model is not consistent with the exact sub-filter tensor and requires an approximation of the filter width. It is demonstrated that the results of the QR model on anisotropic grids are primarily determined by the used filter width approximation, and that no approximation gives satisfactory results in simulations of both a temporal mixing layer and turbulent channel flow. A new minimum-dissipation model for anisotropic grids is proposed. This anisotropic minimum-dissipation (AMD) model generalizes the desirable practical and theoretical properties of the QR model to anisotropic grids and does not require an approximation of the filter width. The AMD model is successfully applied in simulations of decaying grid turbulence on an isotropic grid and in simulations of a temporal mixing layer and turbulent channel flow on anisotropic grids.
Contrail Formation in Aircraft Wakes Using Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paoli, R.; Helie, J.; Poinsot, T. J.; Ghosal, S.
2002-01-01
In this work we analyze the issue of the formation of condensation trails ("contrails") in the near-field of an aircraft wake. The basic configuration consists in an exhaust engine jet interacting with a wing-tip training vortex. The procedure adopted relies on a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach; a simple micro-physics model for ice growth has been used to couple ice and vapor phases. Large eddy simulations have carried out at a realistic flight Reynolds number to evaluate the effects of turbulent mixing and wake vortex dynamics on ice-growth characteristics and vapor thermodynamic properties.
Large-eddy simulation of trans- and supercritical injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, H.; Niedermeier, C. A.; Jarczyk, M.; Pfitzner, M.; Hickel, S.; Adams, N. A.
2016-07-01
In a joint effort to develop a robust numerical tool for the simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion in liquid rocket engines at high pressure, a real-gas thermodynamics model has been implemented into two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the density-based INCA and a pressure-based version of OpenFOAM. As a part of the validation process, both codes have been used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of trans- and supercritical nitrogen injection. Despite the different code architecture and the different subgrid scale turbulence modeling strategy, both codes yield similar results. The agreement with the available experimental data is good.
Large Eddy Simulation of Multiple Turbulent Round Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balajee, G. K.; Panchapakesan, Nagangudy
2015-11-01
Turbulent round jet flow was simulated as a large eddy simulation with OpenFoam software package for a jet Reynolds number of 11000. The intensity of the fluctuating motion in the incoming nozzle flow was adjusted so that the initial shear layer development compares well with available experimental data. The far field development of averages of higher order moments up to fourth order were compared with experiments. The agreement is good indicating that the large eddy motions were being computed satisfactorily by the simulation. Turbulent kinetic energy budget as well as the quality of the LES simulations were also evaluated. These conditions were then used to perform a multiple turbulent round jets simulation with the same initial momentum flux. The far field of the flow was compared with the single jet simulation and experiments to test approach to self similarity. The evolution of the higher order moments in the development region where the multiple jets interact were studied. We will also present FTLE fields computed from the simulation to educe structures and compare it with those educed by other scalar measures. Support of AR&DB CIFAAR, and VIRGO cluster at IIT Madras is gratefully acknowledged.
Domain nesting for multi-scale large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuka, Vladimir; Xie, Zheng-Tong
2016-04-01
The need to simulate city scale areas (O(10 km)) with high resolution within street canyons in certain areas of interests necessitates different grid resolutions in different part of the simulated area. General purpose computational fluid dynamics codes typically employ unstructured refined grids while mesoscale meteorological models more often employ nesting of computational domains. ELMM is a large eddy simulation model for the atmospheric boundary layer. It employs orthogonal uniform grids and for this reason domain nesting was chosen as the approach for simulations in multiple scales. Domains are implemented as sets of MPI processes which communicate with each other as in a normal non-nested run, but also with processes from another (outer/inner) domain. It should stressed that the duration of solution of time-steps in the outer and in the inner domain must be synchronized, so that the processes do not have to wait for the completion of their boundary conditions. This can achieved by assigning an appropriate number of CPUs to each domain, and to gain high efficiency. When nesting is applied for large eddy simulation, the inner domain receives inflow boundary conditions which lack turbulent motions not represented by the outer grid. ELMM remedies this by optional adding of turbulent fluctuations to the inflow using the efficient method of Xie and Castro (2008). The spatial scale of these fluctuations is in the subgrid-scale of the outer grid and their intensity will be estimated from the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy in the outer grid.
Finecasting for renewable energy with large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonker, Harmen; Verzijlbergh, Remco
2016-04-01
We present results of a single, continuous Large-Eddy Simulation of actual weather conditions during the timespan of a full year, made possible through recent computational developments (Schalkwijk et al, MWR, 2015). The simulation is coupled to a regional weather model in order to provide an LES dataset that is representative of the daily weather of the year 2012 around Cabauw, the Netherlands. This location is chosen such that LES results can be compared with both the regional weather model and observations from the Cabauw observational supersite. The run was made possible by porting our Large-Eddy Simulation program to run completely on the GPU (Schalkwijk et al, BAMS, 2012). GPU adaptation allows us to reach much improved time-to-solution ratios (i.e. simulation speedup versus real time). As a result, one can perform runs with a much longer timespan than previously feasible. The dataset resulting from the LES run provides many avenues for further study. First, it can provide a more statistical approach to boundary-layer turbulence than the more common case-studies by simulating a diverse but representative set of situations, as well as the transition between situations. This has advantages in designing and evaluating parameterizations. In addition, we discuss the opportunities of high-resolution forecasts for the renewable energy sector, e.g. wind and solar energy production.
Large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1978-01-01
The three-dimensional, time-dependent primitive equations of motion were numerically integrated for the case of turbulent channel flow. A partially implicit numerical method was developed. An important feature of this scheme is that the equation of continuity is solved directly. The residual field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model, while the large-scale field was obtained directly from the solution of the governing equations. An important portion of the initial velocity field was obtained from the solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The pseudospectral method was used for numerical differentiation in the horizontal directions, and second-order finite-difference schemes were used in the direction normal to the walls. The large eddy simulation technique is capable of reproducing some of the important features of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The resolvable portions of the root-mean square wall pressure fluctuations, pressure velocity-gradient correlations, and velocity pressure-gradient correlations are documented.
Large-eddy simulation of flow past a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittal, R.
1995-01-01
Some of the most challenging applications of large-eddy simulation are those in complex geometries where spectral methods are of limited use. For such applications more conventional methods such as finite difference or finite element have to be used. However, it has become clear in recent years that dissipative numerical schemes which are routinely used in viscous flow simulations are not good candidates for use in LES of turbulent flows. Except in cases where the flow is extremely well resolved, it has been found that upwind schemes tend to damp out a significant portion of the small scales that can be resolved on the grid. Furthermore, it has been found that even specially designed higher-order upwind schemes that have been used successfully in the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows produce too much dissipation when used in conjunction with large-eddy simulation. The objective of the current study is to perform a LES of incompressible flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 3900 using a solver which employs an energy-conservative second-order central difference scheme for spatial discretization and compare the results obtained with those of Beaudan & Moin (1994) and with the experiments in order to assess the performance of the central scheme for this relatively complex geometry.
Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.
1993-10-01
In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.
Large Eddy Simulation of Cryogenic Injection Processes at Supercritical Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oefelein, Joseph C.; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper highlights results from the first of a series of hierarchical simulations aimed at assessing the modeling requirements for application of the large eddy simulation technique to cryogenic injection and combustion processes in liquid rocket engines. The focus is on liquid-oxygen-hydrogen coaxial injectors at a condition where the liquid-oxygen is injected at a subcritical temperature into a supercritical environment. For this situation a diffusion dominated mode of combustion occurs in the presence of exceedingly large thermophysical property gradients. Though continuous, these gradients approach the behavior of a contact discontinuity. Significant real gas effects and transport anomalies coexist locally in colder regions of the flow, with ideal gas and transport characteristics occurring within the flame zone. The current focal point is on the interfacial region between the liquid-oxygen core and the coaxial hydrogen jet where the flame anchors itself.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent channel flow: ILLIAC 4 calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Moin, P.
1979-01-01
The three-dimensional time dependent equations of motion were numerically integrated for fully-developed turbulent channel flow. A large scale flow field was obtained directly from the solution of these equations, and small scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model. The calculations were carried out on the ILLIAC 4 computer. The computed flow patterns show that the wall layer consists of coherent structures of low speed and high speed streaks alternating in the spanwise direction. These structures were absent in the regions away from the wall. Hot spots, small localized regions of very large turbulent shear stress, were frequently observed. The profiles of the pressure velocity-gradient correlations show a significant transfer of energy from the normal to the spanwise component of turbulent kinetic energy in the immediate neighborhood of the wall ('the splatting effect').
A normal stress subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model in large eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horiuti, K.; Mansour, N. N.; Kim, John J.
1993-01-01
The Smagorinsky subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model (SGS-EVM) is commonly used in large eddy simulations (LES) to represent the effects of the unresolved scales on the resolved scales. This model is known to be limited because its constant must be optimized in different flows, and it must be modified with a damping function to account for near-wall effects. The recent dynamic model is designed to overcome these limitations but is compositionally intensive as compared to the traditional SGS-EVM. In a recent study using direct numerical simulation data, Horiuti has shown that these drawbacks are due mainly to the use of an improper velocity scale in the SGS-EVM. He also proposed the use of the subgrid-scale normal stress as a new velocity scale that was inspired by a high-order anisotropic representation model. The testing of Horiuti, however, was conducted using DNS data from a low Reynolds number channel flow simulation. It was felt that further testing at higher Reynolds numbers and also using different flows (other than wall-bounded shear flows) were necessary steps needed to establish the validity of the new model. This is the primary motivation of the present study. The objective is to test the new model using DNS databases of high Reynolds number channel and fully developed turbulent mixing layer flows. The use of both channel (wall-bounded) and mixing layer flows is important for the development of accurate LES models because these two flows encompass many characteristic features of complex turbulent flows.
Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh
2010-01-15
A large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid model is developed based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach to calculate the species instantaneous reaction rates for multi-step, multi-species chemical kinetics mechanisms. The proposed methodology depends on training the ANNs off-line on a thermo-chemical database representative of the actual composition and turbulence (but not the actual geometrical problem) of interest, and later using them to replace the stiff ODE solver (direct integration (DI)) to calculate the reaction rates in the sub-grid. The thermo-chemical database is tabulated with respect to the thermodynamic state vector without any reduction in the number of state variables. The thermo-chemistry is evolved by stand-alone linear eddy mixing (LEM) model simulations under both premixed and non-premixed conditions, where the unsteady interaction of turbulence with chemical kinetics is included as a part of the training database. The proposed methodology is tested in LES and in stand-alone LEM studies of three distinct test cases with different reduced mechanisms and conditions. LES of premixed flame-turbulence-vortex interaction provides direct comparison of the proposed ANN method against DI and ANNs trained on thermo-chemical database created using another type of tabulation method. It is shown that the ANN trained on the LEM database can capture the correct flame physics with accuracy comparable to DI, which cannot be achieved by ANN trained on a laminar premix flame database. A priori evaluation of the ANN generality within and outside its training domain is carried out using stand-alone LEM simulations as well. Results in general are satisfactory, and it is shown that the ANN provides considerable amount of memory saving and speed-up with reasonable and reliable accuracy. The speed-up is strongly affected by the stiffness of the reduced mechanism used for the computations, whereas the memory saving is considerable regardless. (author)
Scale-Similar Models for Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarghini, F.
1999-01-01
Scale-similar models employ multiple filtering operations to identify the smallest resolved scales, which have been shown to be the most active in the interaction with the unresolved subgrid scales. They do not assume that the principal axes of the strain-rate tensor are aligned with those of the subgrid-scale stress (SGS) tensor, and allow the explicit calculation of the SGS energy. They can provide backscatter in a numerically stable and physically realistic manner, and predict SGS stresses in regions that are well correlated with the locations where large Reynolds stress occurs. In this paper, eddy viscosity and mixed models, which include an eddy-viscosity part as well as a scale-similar contribution, are applied to the simulation of two flows, a high Reynolds number plane channel flow, and a three-dimensional, nonequilibrium flow. The results show that simulations without models or with the Smagorinsky model are unable to predict nonequilibrium effects. Dynamic models provide an improvement of the results: the adjustment of the coefficient results in more accurate prediction of the perturbation from equilibrium. The Lagrangian-ensemble approach [Meneveau et al., J. Fluid Mech. 319, 353 (1996)] is found to be very beneficial. Models that included a scale-similar term and a dissipative one, as well as the Lagrangian ensemble averaging, gave results in the best agreement with the direct simulation and experimental data.
A family of dynamic models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, D.; Jansen, K.; Lund, T.
1995-01-01
Since its first application, the dynamic procedure has been recognized as an effective means to compute rather than prescribe the unknown coefficients that appear in a subgrid-scale model for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The dynamic procedure is usually used to determine the nondimensional coefficient in the Smagorinsky (1963) model. In reality the procedure is quite general and it is not limited to the Smagorinsky model by any theoretical or practical constraints. The purpose of this note is to consider a generalized family of dynamic eddy viscosity models that do not necessarily rely on the local equilibrium assumption built into the Smagorinsky model. By invoking an inertial range assumption, it will be shown that the coefficients in the new models need not be nondimensional. This additional degree of freedom allows the use of models that are scaled on traditionally unknown quantities such as the dissipation rate. In certain cases, the dynamic models with dimensional coefficients are simpler to implement, and allow for a 30% reduction in the number of required filtering operations.
Film cooling from inclined cylindrical holes using large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peet, Yulia V.
2006-12-01
The goal of the present study is to investigate numerically the physics of the flow, which occurs during the film cooling from inclined cylindrical holes, Film cooling is a technique used in gas turbine industry to reduce heat fluxes to the turbine blade surface. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed modeling a realistic film cooling configuration, which consists of a large stagnation-type reservoir, feeding an array of discrete cooling holes (film holes) flowing into a flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Special computational methodology is developed for this problem, involving coupled simulations using multiple computational codes. A fully compressible LES code is used in the area above the flat plate, while a low Mach number LES code is employed in the plenum and film holes. The motivation for using different codes comes from the essential difference in the nature of the flow in these different regions. Flowfield is analyzed inside the plenum, film hole and a crossflow region. Flow inside the plenum is stagnating, except for the region close to the exit, where it accelerates rapidly to turn into the hole. The sharp radius of turning at the trailing edge of the plenum pipe connection causes the flow to separate from the downstream wall of the film hole. After coolant injection occurs, a complex flowfield is formed consisting of coherent vortical structures responsible for bringing hot crossflow fluid in contact with the walls of either the film hole or the blade, thus reducing cooling protection. Mean velocity and turbulent statistics are compared to experimental measurements, yielding good agreement for the mean flowfield and satisfactory agreement for the turbulence quantities. LES results are used to assess the applicability of basic assumptions of conventional eddy viscosity turbulence models used with Reynolds-averaged (RANS) approach, namely the isotropy of an eddy viscosity and thermal diffusivity. It is shown here that these assumptions do not hold
Time-Domain Filtering for Spatial Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David
1997-01-01
An approach to large-eddy simulation (LES) is developed whose subgrid-scale model incorporates filtering in the time domain, in contrast to conventional approaches, which exploit spatial filtering. The method is demonstrated in the simulation of a heated, compressible, axisymmetric jet, and results are compared with those obtained from fully resolved direct numerical simulation. The present approach was, in fact, motivated by the jet-flow problem and the desire to manipulate the flow by localized (point) sources for the purposes of noise suppression. Time-domain filtering appears to be more consistent with the modeling of point sources; moreover, time-domain filtering may resolve some fundamental inconsistencies associated with conventional space-filtered LES approaches.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in steam generators
Bagwell, T.G.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger D.A. )
1989-11-01
A major problem associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent-flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. Vibration can lead to tube rupture or wear, necessitating tube plugging and reducing the availability of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction phenomenon that causes fluid-elastic tube excitation is unknown at present. The current investigation defines the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow entering the Westinghouse D4 steam generator tube bundles using the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique. Due to the recent availability of supercomputers, LES is being considered as a possible engineering design analysis tool. The information from this study will provide input for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The GUST code was used to analyze the water box of a Westinghouse model D4 steam generator.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows
Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.
2002-07-01
This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.
Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle and jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Örley, F.; Trummler, T.; Hickel, S.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.
2015-12-01
We present implicit large-eddy simulations (LES) to study the primary breakup of cavitating liquid jets. The considered configuration, which consists of a rectangular nozzle geometry, adopts the setup of a reference experiment for validation. The setup is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up automotive fuel injector. Modelling of all components (i.e. gas, liquid, and vapor) is based on a barotropic two-fluid two-phase model and employs a homogenous mixture approach. The cavitating liquid model assumes thermodynamic- equilibrium. Compressibility of all phases is considered in order to capture pressure wave dynamics of collapse events. Since development of cavitation significantly affects jet break-up characteristics, we study three different operating points. We identify three main mechanisms which induce primary jet break-up: amplification of turbulent fluctuations, gas entrainment, and collapse events near the liquid-gas interface.
Implicit large eddy simulation of shock-driven material mixing.
Grinstein, F F; Gowardhan, A A; Ristorcelli, J R
2013-11-28
Under-resolved computer simulations are typically unavoidable in practical turbulent flow applications exhibiting extreme geometrical complexity and a broad range of length and time scales. An important unsettled issue is whether filtered-out and subgrid spatial scales can significantly alter the evolution of resolved larger scales of motion and practical flow integral measures. Predictability issues in implicit large eddy simulation of under-resolved mixing of material scalars driven by under-resolved velocity fields and initial conditions are discussed in the context of shock-driven turbulent mixing. The particular focus is on effects of resolved spectral content and interfacial morphology of initial conditions on transitional and late-time turbulent mixing in the fundamental planar shock-tube configuration. PMID:24146010
Large Eddy Simulation of FDA's Idealized Medical Device.
Delorme, Yann T; Anupindi, Kameswararao; Frankel, Steven H
2013-12-01
A hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and immersed boundary method (IBM) computational approach is used to make quantitative predictions of flow field statistics within the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) idealized medical device. An in-house code is used, hereafter (W enoHemo(™) ), that combines high-order finite-difference schemes on structured staggered Cartesian grids with an IBM to facilitate flow over or through complex stationary or rotating geometries and employs a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model that more naturally handles transitional flows [2]. Predictions of velocity and wall shear stress statistics are compared with previously published experimental measurements from Hariharan et al. [6] for the four Reynolds numbers considered. PMID:24187599
Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices: Atmospheric Turbulence Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.
1997-01-01
Crow instability can develop in most atmospheric turbulence levels, however, the ring vortices may not form in extremely strong turbulence cases due to strong dissipation of the vortices. It appears that strong turbulence tends to accelerate the occurrences of Crow instability. The wavelength of the most unstable mode is estimated to be about 5b(sub 0), which is less than the theoretical value of 8.6b(sub 0) (Crow, 1970) and may be due to limited domain size and highly nonlinear turbulent flow characteristics. Three-dimensional turbulence can decay wake vortices more rapidly. Axial velocity may be developed by vertical distortion of a vortex pair due to Crow instability or large turbulent eddy motion. More experiments with various non-dimensional turbulence levels are necessary to get useful statistics of wake vortex behavior due to turbulence. Need to investigate larger turbulence length scale effects by enlarging domain size or using grid nesting.
Large eddy simulation using the general circulation model ICON
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dipankar, Anurag; Stevens, Bjorn; Heinze, Rieke; Moseley, Christopher; Zängl, Günther; Giorgetta, Marco; Brdar, Slavko
2015-09-01
ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) is a unified modeling system for global numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate studies. Validation of its dynamical core against a test suite for numerical weather forecasting has been recently published by Zängl et al. (2014). In the present work, an extension of ICON is presented that enables it to perform as a large eddy simulation (LES) model. The details of the implementation of the LES turbulence scheme in ICON are explained and test cases are performed to validate it against two standard LES models. Despite the limitations that ICON inherits from being a unified modeling system, it performs well in capturing the mean flow characteristics and the turbulent statistics of two simulated flow configurations—one being a dry convective boundary layer and the other a cumulus-topped planetary boundary layer.
Large Eddy Simulation in a Channel with Exit Boundary Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cziesla, T.; Braun, H.; Biswas, G.; Mitra, N. K.
1996-01-01
The influence of the exit boundary conditions (vanishing first derivative of the velocity components and constant pressure) on the large eddy simulation of the fully developed turbulent channel flow has been investigated for equidistant and stretched grids at the channel exit. Results show that the chosen exit boundary conditions introduce some small disturbance which is mostly damped by the grid stretching. The difference between the fully developed turbulent channel flow obtained with LES with periodicity condition and the inlet and exit and the LES with fully developed flow at the inlet and the exit boundary condition is less than 10% for equidistant grids and less than 5% for the case grid stretching. The chosen boundary condition is of interest because it may be used in complex flows with backflow at exit.
Large eddy breakup devices as low Reynolds number airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, John B.
1986-01-01
Turbulent drag reduction downstream of large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices is analyzed from the viewpoint of low-Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamics. It is argued that the variability of results between different research labs is primarily due to low Reynolds number 'phenomena' associated with unsteady separation/transition of the LEBU device boundary layer. LEBU drag reduction is shown to be an extremely sensitive function of device microgeometry at the low Reynolds numbers of all current investigations, and by analogy with conventional low-Reynolds number airfoil testing, the conclusion is drawn that the full potential for LEBU drag reduction must be explored at chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000 and above.
Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) in a three dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stresses: (a) the Smagorinsky model, and (b) the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a) the actuator surface model (ASM), in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e. the actuator surface, and (b) the actuator line model (ALM), in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e. the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES is applied and validated for simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST) water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient. Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs); VAWT wake; Large-eddy simulation; Actuator surface model; Actuator line model; Smagorinsky model; Modulated gradient model
Large eddy simulation of a lifted turbulent jet flame
Ferraris, S.A.; Wen, J.X.
2007-09-15
The flame index concept for large eddy simulation developed by Domingo et al. [P. Domingo, L. Vervisch, K. Bray, Combust. Theory Modell. 6 (2002) 529-551] is used to capture the partially premixed structure at the leading point and the dual combustion regimes further downstream on a turbulent lifted flame, which is composed of premixed and nonpremixed flame elements each separately described under a flamelet assumption. Predictions for the lifted methane/air jet flame experimentally tested by Mansour [M.S. Mansour, Combust. Flame 133 (2003) 263-274] are made. The simulation covers a wide domain from the jet exit to the far flow field. Good agreement with the data for the lift-off height and the mean mixture fraction has been achieved. The model has also captured the double flames, showing a configuration similar to that of the experiment which involves a rich premixed branch at the jet center and a diffusion branch in the outer region which meet at the so-called triple point at the flame base. This basic structure is contorted by eddies coming from the jet exit but remains stable at the lift-off height. No lean premixed branches are observed in the simulation or and experiment. Further analysis on the stabilization mechanism was conducted. A distinction between the leading point (the most upstream point of the flame) and the stabilization point was made. The later was identified as the position with the maximum premixed heat release. This is in line with the stabilization mechanism proposed by Upatnieks et al. [A. Upatnieks, J. Driscoll, C. Rasmussen, S. Ceccio, Combust. Flame 138 (2004) 259-272]. (author)
Large-Eddy Simulation Code Developed for Propulsion Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2003-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) code was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide more accurate and detailed computational analyses of propulsion flow fields. The accuracy of current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods is limited primarily by their inability to properly account for the turbulent motion present in virtually all propulsion flows. Because the efficiency and performance of a propulsion system are highly dependent on the details of this turbulent motion, it is critical for CFD to accurately model it. The LES code promises to give new CFD simulations an advantage over older methods by directly computing the large turbulent eddies, to correctly predict their effect on a propulsion system. Turbulent motion is a random, unsteady process whose behavior is difficult to predict through computer simulations. Current methods are based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) analyses that rely on models to represent the effect of turbulence within a flow field. The quality of the results depends on the quality of the model and its applicability to the type of flow field being studied. LES promises to be more accurate because it drastically reduces the amount of modeling necessary. It is the logical step toward improving turbulent flow predictions. In LES, the large-scale dominant turbulent motion is computed directly, leaving only the less significant small turbulent scales to be modeled. As part of the prediction, the LES method generates detailed information on the turbulence itself, providing important information for other applications, such as aeroacoustics. The LES code developed at Glenn for propulsion flow fields is being used to both analyze propulsion system components and test improved LES algorithms (subgrid-scale models, filters, and numerical schemes). The code solves the compressible Favre-filtered Navier- Stokes equations using an explicit fourth-order accurate numerical scheme, it incorporates a compressible form of
Large Eddy Simulation and the Filtered Probability Density Function Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, W. P.; Navarro-Martinez, S.
2009-12-01
Recently there is has been increased interest in modelling combustion processes with high-levels of extinction and re-ignition. Such system often lie beyond the scope of conventional single scalar-based models. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has shown a large potential for describing turbulent reactive systems, though combustion occurs at the smallest unresolved scales of the flow and must be modelled. In the sub-grid Probability Density Function (pdf) method approximations are devised to close the evolution equation for the joint-pdf which is then solved directly. The paper describes such an approach and concerns, in particular, the Eulerian stochastic field method of solving the pdf equation. The paper examines the capabilities of the LES-pdf method in capturing auto-ignition and extinction events in different partially premixed configurations with different fuels (hydrogen, methane and n-heptane). The results show that the LES-pdf formulation can capture different regimes without any parameter adjustments, independent of Reynolds numbers and fuel type.
Large eddy simulation modelling of combustion for propulsion applications.
Fureby, C
2009-07-28
Predictive modelling of turbulent combustion is important for the development of air-breathing engines, internal combustion engines, furnaces and for power generation. Significant advances in modelling non-reactive turbulent flows are now possible with the development of large eddy simulation (LES), in which the large energetic scales of the flow are resolved on the grid while modelling the effects of the small scales. Here, we discuss the use of combustion LES in predictive modelling of propulsion applications such as gas turbine, ramjet and scramjet engines. The LES models used are described in some detail and are validated against laboratory data-of which results from two cases are presented. These validated LES models are then applied to an annular multi-burner gas turbine combustor and a simplified scramjet combustor, for which some additional experimental data are available. For these cases, good agreement with the available reference data is obtained, and the LES predictions are used to elucidate the flow physics in such devices to further enhance our knowledge of these propulsion systems. Particular attention is focused on the influence of the combustion chemistry, turbulence-chemistry interaction, self-ignition, flame holding burner-to-burner interactions and combustion oscillations. PMID:19531515
Large eddy simulation of flame flashback in a turbulent channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanaly, Malik; Lietz, Christopher; Raman, Venkat; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline; Gruber, Andrea; Computational Flow Physics Group Team
2014-11-01
In high-hydrogen content gas turbines, the propagation of a premixed flame along with boundary layers on the combustor walls is a source of failure, whereby the flame could enter the fuel-air premixing region that is not designed to hold high-temperature fluid. In order to develop models for predicting this phenomenon, a large eddy simulation (LES) based study is carried out here. The flow configuration is based on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent channel, where an initial planar flame is allowed to propagate upstream in a non-periodic channel. The LES approach uses a flamelet-based combustion model along with standard models for the unresolved subfilter flux terms. It is found that the LES are very accurate in predicting the structure of the turbulent flame front. However, there was a large discrepancy for the transient evolution of the flame, indicating that the flame-boundary layer interaction modulates flame propagation significantly, and the near-wall flame behavior may be non-flamelet like due to the anisotropic of the flow in this region.
Large Eddy Simulation of Mixing within a Hypervelocity Scramjet Combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petty, David; Wheatley, Vincent; Pantano, Carlos; Smart, Michael
2013-11-01
The turbulent mixing of parallel hypervelocity (U = 3230 m/sec, M = 3.86) air-streams with a sonic stream of gaseous hydrogen is simulated using large eddy simulation. The resultant mixing layers are characterized by a convective Mach number of 1.20. This configuration represents parallel slot injection of hydrogen via an intrusive centerbody within a constant area rectangular combustor. A hybrid shock-capturing/zero numerical dissipation (WENO/TCD) switch method designed for simulations of compressible turbulent flows was utilized. Sub-grid scale turbulence was modeled using the stretched vortex model. Visualizations of the three dimensional turbulent structures generated behind the centerbody will be presented. It has been observed that a span-wise instability of the wake behind the centerbody is initially dominant. Further downstream, the shear-layers coalesce into a mixing wake and develop the expected large-scale coherent span-wise vortices. Ph.D. Candidate, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, Centre for Hypersonics.
Large Eddy Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport over Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, G.; Smith, H. D.
2012-12-01
Understanding the nature of flow over bedforms has a great importance in fluvial and coastal environments. For example, a bedform is one source of energy dissipation in water waves outside the surf zone in coastal environments. In rivers, the migration of dunes often affects the stability of the river bed and banks. In general, when a fluid flows over a sediment bed, the sediment transport generated by the interaction of the flow field with the bed results in the periodic deformation of the bed in the form of dunes. Dunes generally reach an equilibrium shape, and slowly propagate in the direction of the flow, as sand is lifted in the high shear regions, and redeposited in the separated flow areas. Different numerical approaches have been used in the past to study the flow and sediment transport over bedforms. In most research works, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations are employed to study fluid motions over ripples and dunes. However, evidences suggests that these models can not represent key turbulent quantities in unsteady boundary layers. The use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can resolve a much larger range of smaller scales than RANS. Moreover, unsteady simulations using LES give vital turbulent quantities which can help to study fluid motion and sediment transport over dunes. For this steady, we use a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM. It is a freely available tool which has different solvers to simulate specific problems in engineering and fluid mechanics. Our objective is to examine the flow and sediment transport from numerical stand point for bed geometries that are typical of fixed dunes. At the first step, we performed Large Eddy Simulation of the flow over dune geometries based on the experimental data of Nelson et al. (1993). The instantaneous flow field is investigated with special emphasis on the occurrence of coherent structures. To assess the effect of bed geometries on near bed turbulence, we considered different
Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kysela, Bohuš; Jašíková, Darina; Konfršt, Jiří; Šulc, Radek; Ditl, Pavel
2015-05-01
The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV) measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS) model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity).
Large-eddy simulation of unidirectional turbulent flow over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidyeganeh, Mohammad
We performed large eddy simulation of the flow over a series of two- and three-dimensional dune geometries at laboratory scale using the Lagrangian dynamic eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model. First, we studied the flow over a standard 2D transverse dune geometry, then bedform three-dimensionality was imposed. Finally, we investigated the turbulent flow over barchan dunes. The results are validated by comparison with simulations and experiments for the 2D dune case, while the results of the 3D dunes are validated qualitatively against experiments. The flow over transverse dunes separates at the dune crest, generating a shear layer that plays a crucial role in the transport of momentum and energy, as well as the generation of coherent structures. Spanwise vortices are generated in the separated shear; as they are advected, they undergo lateral instabilities and develop into horseshoe-like structures and finally reach the surface. The ejection that occurs between the legs of the vortex creates the upwelling and downdrafting events on the free surface known as "boils". The three-dimensional separation of flow at the crestline alters the distribution of wall pressure, which may cause secondary flow across the stream. The mean flow is characterized by a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, with core radii of the order of the flow depth. Staggering the crestlines alters the secondary motion; two pairs of streamwise vortices appear (a strong one, centred about the lobe, and a weaker one, coming from the previous dune, centred around the saddle). The flow over barchan dunes presents significant differences to that over transverse dunes. The flow near the bed, upstream of the dune, diverges from the centerline plane; the flow close to the centerline plane separates at the crest and reattaches on the bed. Away from the centerline plane and along the horns, flow separation occurs intermittently. The flow in the separation bubble is routed towards the horns and leaves
Improved engine wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plengsaard, Chalearmpol
Improved wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are presented in this research. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model is used along with near-wall sub-grid scale viscosity. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy is employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To gain better heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model is also used. Because no experimental wall shear stress results are available in engines, the fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct is chosen to validate the new wall models. The model constants in the new wall models are set to 0.01 and 0.8, respectively and are kept constant throughout the investigation. The resulting time- and spatially-averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data at Re = 50,000. In order to study the effect of hot air impinging walls, jet impingement on a flat plate is also tested with the new wall models. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 21,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. As predicted by the new wall models, the time-averaged skin friction coefficient agrees well with experimental data, while the computed Nusselt number agrees fairly well when r/D > 2.0. Additionally, the model is validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion. Sixteen different operating engine conditions are simulated. The majority of the predicted heat flux results from each thermocouple location follow similar trends when compared with experimental data. The magnitude of peak heat fluxes as predicted by the new wall models is in the range of typical measured values in diesel combustion, while most heat flux results from previous LES wall models are over-predicted. The new wall models generate more accurate predictions and agree better with experimental data.
Large-eddy simulation of pulverized coal swirl jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone
2013-11-01
Coal is an important energy resource for future demand for electricity, as coal reserves are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels. In pulverized coal fired power plants, it is very important to improve the technology for the control of environmental pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and ash particles including unburned carbon. In order to achieve these requirements, understanding the pulverized coal combustion mechanism is necessary. However, the combustion process of the pulverized coal is not well clarified so far since pulverized coal combustion is a complicated phenomenon in which the maximum flame temperature exceeds 1500 degrees Celsius and some substances which can hardly be measured, for example, radical species and highly reactive solid particles are included. Accordingly, development of new combustion furnaces and burners requires high cost and takes a long period. In this study, a large-eddy simulation (LES) is applied to a pulverized coal combustion field and the results will be compared with the experiment. The results show that present LES can capture the general feature of the pulverized coal swirl jet flame.
Large eddy simulation of a pumped- storage reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Launay, Marina; Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo
2016-04-01
The last decades have seen an increasing number of pumped-storage hydropower projects all over the world. Pumped-storage schemes move water between two reservoirs located at different elevations to store energy and to generate electricity following the electricity demand. Thus the reservoirs can be subject to important water level variations occurring at the daily scale. These new cycles leads to changes in the hydraulic behaviour of the reservoirs. Sediment dynamics and sediment budgets are modified, sometimes inducing problems of erosion and deposition within the reservoirs. With the development of computer performances, the use of numerical techniques has become popular for the study of environmental processes. Among numerical techniques, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has arisen as an alternative tool for problems characterized by complex physics and geometries. This work uses the LES-COAST Code, a LES model under development in the framework of the Seditrans Project, for the simulation of an Upper Alpine Reservoir of a pumped-storage scheme. Simulations consider the filling (pump mode) and emptying (turbine mode) of the reservoir. The hydraulic results give a better understanding of the processes occurring within the reservoir. They are considered for an assessment of the sediment transport processes and of their consequences.
Large eddy simulations of a forced semiconfined circular impinging jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, M.; Fuchs, L.
1998-02-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) of a forced semiconfined circular impinging jet were carried out. The Reynolds number was 104 and the inflow was forced at a Strouhal number of 0.27. The separation between the jet inlet and the opposing wall was four jet inlet diameters. Four different simulations were made. Two simulations were performed without any explicit sub-grid-scale (SGS) model using 1283 and 963 grid points, respectively. Two simulations were performed with two different SGS-models using 963 grid points; one with a dynamic Smagorinsky based model and one with a stress-similarity model. The simulations were performed to study the mean velocity, the turbulence statistics, the SGS-model effects, the dynamic behavior of the jet with a focus on the near wall region. The existence of separation vortices in the wall jet region was confirmed. These secondary vortices were found to be related to the radially deflected primary vortices generated by the circular shear layer of the jet. It was also shown that the primary vortex structures that reach the wall were helical and not axisymmetric. A quantitative gain was found in the simulations with SGS-models. The stress-similarity model simulation correlated slightly better with the higher resolution simulation than the other coarse grid simulations. The variations in the results predicted by the different simulations were larger for the turbulence statistics than for the mean velocity. However, the variation among the different simulations in terms of the turbulence intensity was less than 10%.
Unsteady RANS and Large Eddy simulations of multiphase diesel injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philipp, Jenna; Green, Melissa; Akih-Kumgeh, Benjamin
2015-11-01
Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of two-phase flow and evaporation of high pressure diesel injection into a quiescent, high temperature environment is investigated. Unsteady RANS and LES are turbulent flow simulation approaches used to determine complex flow fields. The latter allows for more accurate predictions of complex phenomena such as turbulent mixing and physio-chemical processes associated with diesel combustion. In this work we investigate a high pressure diesel injection using the Euler-Lagrange method for multiphase flows as implemented in the Star-CCM+ CFD code. A dispersed liquid phase is represented by Lagrangian particles while the multi-component gas phase is solved using an Eulerian method. Results obtained from the two approaches are compared with respect to spray penetration depth and air entrainment. They are also compared with experimental data taken from the Sandia Engine Combustion Network for ``Spray A''. Characteristics of primary and secondary atomization are qualitatively evaluated for all simulation modes.
Large eddy simulation of controlled transition to turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2012-11-01
Large eddy simulation of H- and K-type transitions in a spatially developing zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer at Ma∞ = 0.2 is investigated using several subgrid scale (SGS) models including constant coefficient Smagorinsky and Vreman models and their dynamic extensions, dynamic mixed scale-similarity, dynamic one-equation kinetic energy model, and global coefficient Vreman models. A key objective of this study is to assess the capability of SGS models to predict the location of transition and the skin friction throughout the transition process. The constant coefficient models fail to detect transition, but the dynamic procedure allows for a negligible turbulent viscosity in the early transition region. As a result, the "point" of transition is estimated correctly. However, after secondary instabilities set in and result in the overshoot in the skin friction profile, all models fail to produce sufficient subgrid scale shear stress required for the correct prediction of skin friction and the mean velocity profile. The same underprediction of skin friction persists into the turbulent region. Spatially filtered direct numerical simulation data in the same boundary layers are used to provide guidelines for SGS model development and validation.
Large eddy simulation of boundary layer flow under cnoidal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yin-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Ji-Fu; Zhang, Qiang
2016-02-01
Water waves in coastal areas are generally nonlinear, exhibiting asymmetric velocity profiles with different amplitudes of crest and trough. The behaviors of the boundary layer under asymmetric waves are of great significance for sediment transport in natural circumstances. While previous studies have mainly focused on linear or symmetric waves, asymmetric wave-induced flows remain unclear, particularly in the flow regime with high Reynolds numbers. Taking cnoidal wave as a typical example of asymmetric waves, we propose to use an infinite immersed plate oscillating cnoidally in its own plane in quiescent water to simulate asymmetric wave boundary layer. A large eddy simulation approach with Smagorinsky subgrid model is adopted to investigate the flow characteristics of the boundary layer. It is verified that the model well reproduces experimental and theoretical results. Then a series of numerical experiments are carried out to study the boundary layer beneath cnoidal waves from laminar to fully developed turbulent regimes at high Reynolds numbers, larger than ever studied before. Results of velocity profile, wall shear stress, friction coefficient, phase lead between velocity and wall shear stress, and the boundary layer thickness are obtained. The dependencies of these boundary layer properties on the asymmetric degree and Reynolds number are discussed in detail.
Large-eddy simulation of sand dune morphodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team
2015-11-01
Sand dunes are natural features that form under complex interaction between turbulent flow and bed morphodynamics. We employ a fully-coupled 3D numerical model (Khosronejad and Sotiropoulos, 2014, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216) to perform high-resolution large-eddy simulations of turbulence and bed morphodynamics in a laboratory scale mobile-bed channel to investigate initiation, evolution and quasi-equilibrium of sand dunes (Venditti and Church, 2005, J. Geophysical Research, 110:F01009). We employ a curvilinear immersed boundary method along with convection-diffusion and bed-morphodynamics modules to simulate the suspended sediment and the bed-load transports respectively. The coupled simulation were carried out on a grid with more than 100 million grid nodes and simulated about 3 hours of physical time of dune evolution. The simulations provide the first complete description of sand dune formation and long-term evolution. The geometric characteristics of the simulated dunes are shown to be in excellent agreement with observed data obtained across a broad range of scales. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Large eddy simulation and its implementation in the COMMIX code.
Sun, J.; Yu, D.-H.
1999-02-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a numerical simulation method for turbulent flows and is derived by spatial averaging of the Navier-Stokes equations. In contrast with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) method, LES is capable of calculating transient turbulent flows with greater accuracy. Application of LES to differing flows has given very encouraging results, as reported in the literature. In recent years, a dynamic LES model that presented even better results was proposed and applied to several flows. This report reviews the LES method and its implementation in the COMMIX code, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory. As an example of the application of LES, the flow around a square prism is simulated, and some numerical results are presented. These results include a three-dimensional simulation that uses a code developed by one of the authors at the University of Notre Dame, and a two-dimensional simulation that uses the COMMIX code. The numerical results are compared with experimental data from the literature and are found to be in very good agreement.
Towards Large Eddy Simulation of gas turbine compressors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMullan, W. A.; Page, G. J.
2012-07-01
With increasing computing power, Large Eddy Simulation could be a useful simulation tool for gas turbine axial compressor design. This paper outlines a series of simulations performed on compressor geometries, ranging from a Controlled Diffusion Cascade stator blade to the periodic sector of a stage in a 3.5 stage axial compressor. The simulation results show that LES may offer advantages over traditional RANS methods when off-design conditions are considered - flow regimes where RANS models often fail to converge. The time-dependent nature of LES permits the resolution of transient flow structures, and can elucidate new mechanisms of vorticity generation on blade surfaces. It is shown that accurate LES is heavily reliant on both the near-wall mesh fidelity and the ability of the imposed inflow condition to recreate the conditions found in the reference experiment. For components embedded in a compressor this requires the generation of turbulence fluctuations at the inlet plane. A recycling method is developed that improves the quality of the flow in a single stage calculation of an axial compressor, and indicates that future developments in both the recycling technique and computing power will bring simulations of axial compressors within reach of industry in the coming years.
Possible modifications to implicit large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonough, J. M.
2009-11-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) provides an advantage over more usual LES approaches in that its construction does not involve filtering of the governing equations and, as a consequence, removal of the need to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models to represent artificial stresses arising from this filtering. At the same time, it is clear that ILES is simply an under-resolved direct numerical simulation with advanced treatments of advection terms to better control numerical stability via dissipation that otherwise would have been provided by a SGS model. As such it cannot be expected to accurately predict interactions of fluid turbulence with other physical phenomena (e.g., heat and mass transfer, chemical kinetics) on subgrid scales---as is also true of usual forms of LES. In this talk we describe a straightforward technique, based on formal multi-scale methods, whereby SGS interactions can be introduced to enhance resolved-scale results computed as in ILES, and we discuss derivation of a class of efficient models based on the ``poor man's Navier--Stokes equation'' (McDonough, Phys.Rev. E 79, 2009; McDonough and Huang, Int.J.Numer. Meth. Fluids 44, 2004). Properties of these models will be presented for a moderate-Re 3-D lid-driven cavity problem.
Large-eddy simulation of density currents on inclined beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawdhary, Saurabh; Khosronejad, Ali; Christodoulou, George; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-11-01
Density currents are stratified flow in presence of density differential and gravity field. We carry out Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to simulate the flow of a density current formed over sloped bed due to an incoming jet of heavy density salty water for two different cases of bed slope: (a) 5 degrees and (b) 15 degrees. The Reynolds and Richardson numbers based on inlet height and inlet velocity were (a) 1100 and 0.471, and (b) 2000 and 0.0355, respectively. The Schmidt number is set equal to 620, which corresponds to the value for salt-water. The computed results are compared with laboratory experiments in terms of overall shape of the heavy-density plume and its spreading rate and are shown to be in reasonable agreement. The instantaneous LES flow fields are further analyzed to gain novel insights into the rich dynamics of coherent vortical structures in the flow. The half-width of the plume is plotted as a function of downstream length and found to exhibit three different regions on a log scale, in agreement with previous experimental findings. We acknowledge computational support from the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Large-eddy simulations of contrails in a turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picot, J.; Paoli, R.; Thouron, O.; Cariolle, D.
2014-11-01
In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. This is the first paper where fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The initial flow-field is composed by the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail decent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex break-up dominates over background turbulence at the end of the vortex regime and dominates the mixing with ambient air. This results in global microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are be slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. On the other hand, the background humidity and temperature have a first order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent and ongoing studies in the literature.
Inviscid Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulations for Improved Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aikens, Kurt; Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew
2015-11-01
The accuracy of an inviscid flow assumption for wall-modeled large eddy simulations (LES) is examined because of its ability to reduce simulation costs. This assumption is not generally applicable for wall-bounded flows due to the high velocity gradients found near walls. In wall-modeled LES, however, neither the viscous near-wall region or the viscous length scales in the outer flow are resolved. Therefore, the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations have little impact on the resolved flowfield. Zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer results are presented for both viscous and inviscid simulations using a wall model developed previously. The results are very similar and compare favorably to those from another wall model methodology and experimental data. Furthermore, the inviscid assumption reduces simulation costs by about 25% and 39% for supersonic and subsonic flows, respectively. Future research directions are discussed as are preliminary efforts to extend the wall model to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Sooting Jet Diffusion Flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanquart, Guillaume; Pitsch, Heinz
2007-11-01
The understanding of soot particle dynamics in combustion systems is a key issue in the development of low emission engines. Of particular importance are the processes shaping the soot particle size distribution function (PSDF). However, it is not always necessary to represent exactly the full distribution, and often information about its moments only is sufficient. The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) allows for an efficient and accurate prediction of the moments of the soot PSDF. This method has been validated for laminar premixed and diffusion flames with detailed chemistry and is now implemented in a semi-implicit low Mach-number Navier-Stokes solver. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a piloted sooting jet diffusion flame (Delft flame) is performed to study the dynamics of soot particles in a turbulent environment. The profiles of temperature and major species are compared with the experimental measurements. Soot volume fraction profiles are compared with the recent data of Qamar et al. (2007). Aggregate properties such as the diameter and the fractal shape are studied in the scope of DQMOM.
Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"
Zikanov, Oleg
2008-06-23
To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
Large eddy simulation predictions of absolutely unstable round hot jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boguslawski, A.; Tyliszczak, A.; Wawrzak, K.
2016-02-01
The paper presents a novel view on the absolute instability phenomenon in heated variable density round jets. As known from literature the global instability mechanism in low density jets is released when the density ratio is lower than a certain critical value. The existence of the global modes was confirmed by an experimental evidence in both hot and air-helium jets. However, some differences in both globally unstable flows were observed concerning, among others, a level of the critical density ratio. The research is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method with a high-order numerical code. An analysis of the LES results revealed that the inlet conditions for the velocity and density distributions at the nozzle exit influence significantly the critical density ratio and the global mode frequency. Two inlet velocity profiles were analyzed, i.e., the hyperbolic tangent and the Blasius profiles. It was shown that using the Blasius velocity profile and the uniform density distribution led to a significantly better agreement with the universal scaling law for global mode frequency.
On the Computation of Sound by Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Streett, Craig L.; Sarkar, Sutanu
1997-01-01
The effect of the small scales on the source term in Lighthill's acoustic analogy is investigated, with the objective of determining the accuracy of large-eddy simulations when applied to studies of flow-generated sound. The distribution of the turbulent quadrupole is predicted accurately, if models that take into account the trace of the SGS stresses are used. Its spatial distribution is also correct, indicating that the low-wave-number (or frequency) part of the sound spectrum can be predicted well by LES. Filtering, however, removes the small-scale fluctuations that contribute significantly to the higher derivatives in space and time of Lighthill's stress tensor T(sub ij). The rms fluctuations of the filtered derivatives are substantially lower than those of the unfiltered quantities. The small scales, however, are not strongly correlated, and are not expected to contribute significantly to the far-field sound; separate modeling of the subgrid-scale density fluctuations might, however, be required in some configurations.
Large Eddy Simulations of Colorless Distributed Combustion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulrahman, Husam F.; Jaberi, Farhad; Gupta, Ashwani
2014-11-01
Development of efficient and low-emission colorless distributed combustion (CDC) systems for gas turbine applications require careful examination of the role of various flow and combustion parameters. Numerical simulations of CDC in a laboratory-scale combustor have been conducted to carefully examine the effects of these parameters on the CDC. The computational model is based on a hybrid modeling approach combining large eddy simulation (LES) with the filtered mass density function (FMDF) equations, solved with high order numerical methods and complex chemical kinetics. The simulated combustor operates based on the principle of high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) and has shown to significantly reduce the NOx, and CO emissions while improving the reaction pattern factor and stability without using any flame stabilizer and with low pressure drop and noise. The focus of the current work is to investigate the mixing of air and hydrocarbon fuels and the non-premixed and premixed reactions within the combustor by the LES/FMDF with the reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the same flow conditions and configurations investigated experimentally. The main goal is to develop better CDC with higher mixing and efficiency, ultra-low emission levels and optimum residence time. The computational results establish the consistency and the reliability of LES/FMDF and its Lagrangian-Eulerian numerical methodology.
Large-eddy simulations of unidirectional water flow over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Balaras, E.; Dimas, A. A.
2009-06-01
The unidirectional, subcritical flow over fixed dunes is studied numerically using large-eddy simulation, while the immersed boundary method is implemented to incorporate the bed geometry. Results are presented for a typical dune shape and two Reynolds numbers, Re = 17,500 and Re = 93,500, on the basis of bulk velocity and water depth. The numerical predictions of velocity statistics at the low Reynolds number are in very good agreement with available experimental data. A primary recirculation region develops downstream of the dune crest at both Reynolds numbers, while a secondary region develops at the toe of the dune crest only for the low Reynolds number. Downstream of the reattachment point, on the dune stoss, the turbulence intensity in the developing boundary layer is weaker than in comparable equilibrium boundary layers. Coherent vortical structures are identified using the fluctuating pressure field and the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor. Vorticity is primarily generated at the dune crest in the form of spanwise "roller" structures. Roller structures dominate the flow dynamics near the crest, and are responsible for perturbing the boundary layer downstream of the reattachment point, which leads to the formation of "horseshoe" structures. Horseshoe structures dominate the near-wall dynamics after the reattachment point, do not rise to the free surface, and are distorted by the shear layer of the next crest. The occasional interaction between roller and horseshoe structures generates tube-like "kolk" structures, which rise to the free surface and persist for a long time before attenuating.
Thermobaric cabbeling over Maud Rise: Theory and large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harcourt, Ramsey R.
2005-10-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the wintertime upper ocean below seasonal Antarctic ice cover over Maud Rise was carried out using observed time-dependent surface forcing from 1994 Antarctic Zone Flux Experiment (ANZFLUX) observations. Surface ice formation increases the density of the cold, fresher Surface Mixed Layer (SML), that overlies warmer, saltier Weddell Deep Water (WDW). This reduces the stability of the thermocline until it reaches a critical point for instabilities arising from the nonlinear equation of state (NES) for seawater density ρ. This simulation was intended to model the thermobaric detrainment of SML fluid, a NES instability predicted to result from the dependence of seawater density on the product θP of temperature and pressure. Instead, model results demonstrate a different instability arising from the combination of thermobaricity with cabbeling, the NES effect due primarily to the dependence of ρ on θ2. This combined thermobaric cabbeling instability drives turbulent convection in a deep interior mixed layer (IML) that may grow hundreds of meters thick below the thermocline, largely decoupled from SML dynamics. In the LES, thermobaric cabbeling and IML convection shoals the SML through entrainment from below until ice motion increases in the observationally-based model forcing. Increased upper ocean model heat flux due to higher ice speed melts surface ice, increasing thermocline stratification and eventually bringing the simulated instability to a halt. In an auxiliary simulation the lull preceding strong ice motion in field observations is artificially extended by temporarily holding model surface forcing constant until the SML shoals entirely, bringing the modified WDW of the IML, 2 °C above freezing, directly to the surface. Subsequently, reverting to the observed surface forcing and its attendant strong ice motion melts the ice cover entirely, demonstrating a possible mechanism for open ocean Antarctic polynya formation. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhongming; Liu, Heping; Russell, Eric S.; Huang, Jianping; Foken, Thomas; Oncley, Steven P.
2016-02-01
The effects of large eddies on turbulence structures and flux transport were studied using data collected over a flat cotton field during the Energy Balance Experiment 2000 in the San Joaquin Valley of California in August 2000. Flux convergence (FC; larger fluxes at 8.7 m than 2.7 m) and divergence (FD) in latent heat flux (LE) were observed in a disturbed, unstable atmospheric surface layer, and their magnitudes largely departed from the prediction of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. From our wavelet analysis, it was identified that large eddies affected turbulence structures, scalar distribution, and flux transport differently at 8.7 m and 2.7 m under the FC and FD conditions. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, time series data were decomposed into large eddies and small-scale background turbulence, the time-domain characteristics of large eddies were examined, and the flux contribution by large eddies was also determined quantitatively. The results suggest that large eddies over the frequency range of 0.002 Hz < f < 0.02 Hz (predominantly 300-400 m) enhanced the vertical velocity spectra more significantly at 8.7 m than 2.7 m, leading to an increased magnitude of the cospectra and thus LE at 8.7 m. In the FD case, however, these large eddies were not present and even suppressed in the vertical velocity spectra at 8.7 m. Consequently, the cospectra divergence over the low-frequency ranges primarily caused the LE divergence. This work implies that large eddies may either improve or degrade the surface energy balance closure by increasing or decreasing turbulent fluxes, respectively.
Large-eddy simulation in complex domains using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Kornblum, B.T.; Kollman, W.
1996-11-12
Finite element methods (FEM) are demonstrated in combination with large-eddy simulations (LES) as a valuable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a backward facing step.
Modelling of eddy currents related to large angle magnetic suspension test fixture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britcher, Colin P.; Foster, Lucas E.
1994-01-01
This report presents a preliminary analysis of the mathematical modelling of eddy current effects in a large-gap magnetic suspension system. It is shown that eddy currents can significantly affect the dynamic behavior and control of these systems, but are amenable to measurement and modelling. A theoretical framework is presented, together with a comparison of computed and experimental data related to the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture at NASA Langley Research Center.
Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi
2011-01-01
A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not
Large Eddy Simulation of Crashback in Marine Propulsors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Hyunchul
Crashback is an operating condition to quickly stop a propelled vehicle, where the propeller is rotated in the reverse direction to yield negative thrust. The crashback condition is dominated by the interaction of the free stream flow with the strong reverse flow. This interaction forms a highly unsteady vortex ring, which is a very prominent feature of crashback. Crashback causes highly unsteady loads and flow separation on the blade surface. The unsteady loads can cause propulsor blade damage, and also affect vehicle maneuverability. Crashback is therefore well known as one of the most challenging propeller states to analyze. This dissertation uses Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict the highly unsteady flow field in crashback. A non-dissipative and robust finite volume method developed by Mahesh et al. (2004) for unstructured grids is applied to flow around marine propulsors. The LES equations are written in a rotating frame of reference. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to understand the flow physics of crashback in marine propulsors with and without a duct, (2) to develop a finite volume method for highly skewed meshes which usually occur in complex propulsor geometries, and (3) to develop a sliding interface method for simulations of rotor-stator propulsor on parallel platforms. LES is performed for an open propulsor in crashback and validated against experiments performed by Jessup et al. (2004). The LES results show good agreement with experiments. Effective pressures for thrust and side-force are introduced to more clearly understand the physical sources of thrust and side-force. Both thrust and side-force are seen to be mainly generated from the leading edge of the suction side of the propeller. This implies that thrust and side-force have the same source---the highly unsteady leading edge separation. Conditional averaging is performed to obtain quantitative information about the complex flow physics of high- or low-amplitude events. The
Minimum-dissipation models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Hyunji Jane; Rozema, Wybe; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2015-11-01
Minimum-dissipation eddy-viscosity models are a class of subgrid scale models for LES that give the minimum eddy dissipation required to dissipate the energy of subgrid scales. The QR minimum-dissipation model [Verstappen, J. Sci. Comp., 2011] gives good results in simulations of decaying grid turbulence carried out on an isotropic grid. In particular, due to the minimum dissipation property of the model, the predicted energy spectra are in very good agreement with the DNS results up to the cut-off wave number unlike other methods. However, its results on anisotropic grids are often unsatisfactory because the model does not properly incorporate the grid anisotropy. We propose the anisotropic minimum-dissipation (AMD) model [Rozema et al., submitted for publication, 2015], a minimum-dissipation model that generalizes the QR model to anisotropic grids. The AMD model is more cost effective than the dynamic Smagorinsky model, appropriately switches off in laminar and transitional flow on anisotropic grids, and its subgrid scale model is consistent with the theoretic subgrid tensor. Experiments show that the AMD model is as accurate as the dynamic Smagorinsky model and Vreman model in simulations of isotropic turbulence, temporal mixing layer, and turbulent channel flow. H. J. Bae acknowledges support from SGF. W. Rozema and R. Verstappen acknowledge sponsoring by NWO for the use of supercomputing facilities and the financial support to attend the CTR SP 2014.
The Effects of Eddy-Induced Ekman Pumping on Mesoscale and Large-Scale Ocean Circulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chelton, D. B., Jr.; Matano, R. P.; Combes, V.; Schlax, M.
2014-12-01
The simultaneous availability of scatterometer measurements of surface winds, microwave measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) and altimeter measurements of sea surface height (SSH) allows a quantitative assessment of the two mechanisms for self-induced Ekman pumping by oceanic mesoscale eddies. Analysis of these combined satellite datasets reveals that the effects of eddy-induced surface currents on the surface stress usually dominate the effects of air-sea interaction from the influence of eddy-induced SST anomalies on the surface wind field (see figure). The former arises from the surface current effect on the relative wind that determines the surface stress. The latter arises from the effects of SST on vertical mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer. Although this SST influence is generally weaker than the surface current effect, it is not negligible. While the effects of mesoscale eddies on Ekman pumping are clearly documented from the satellite data, it is not yet known how the feedback of this Ekman pumping on the ocean affect the kinematic properties and evolution of oceanic mesoscale eddies. This is being investigated from empirically coupled numerical model simulations in which the SST and surface current effects on eddy-induced Ekman pumping are imposed individually and together, and the resulting ocean circulation is compared with a Control run in which the eddy-induced Ekman pumping is turned off. Preliminary results have found that both SST and surface currents attenuate the mesoscale eddy field. Consistent with the analysis of QuikSCAT and other satellite data, surface current effects attenuate the eddy field more than SST effects. The SST effects are not negligible, however. They alter the eddy fields in the numerical simulations in more subtle but significant ways. The effects of eddy-induced Ekman pumping on the large-scale circulation will also be investigated from the various numerical simulations. Figure Caption: Maps of Ekman pumping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, R. A.
2015-01-01
Steady-state and scale-resolving simulations have been performed for flow in and around a model scramjet combustor flameholder. The cases simulated corresponded to those used to examine this flowfield experimentally using particle image velocimetry. A variety of turbulence models were used for the steady-state Reynolds-averaged simulations which included both linear and non-linear eddy viscosity models. The scale-resolving simulations used a hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation strategy that is designed to be a large eddy simulation everywhere except in the inner portion (log layer and below) of the boundary layer. Hence, this formulation can be regarded as a wall-modeled large eddy simulation. This effort was undertaken to formally assess the performance of the hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation modeling approach in a flowfield of interest to the scramjet research community. The numerical errors were quantified for both the steady-state and scale-resolving simulations prior to making any claims of predictive accuracy relative to the measurements. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged results showed a high degree of variability when comparing the predictions obtained from each turbulence model, with the non-linear eddy viscosity model (an explicit algebraic stress model) providing the most accurate prediction of the measured values. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large eddy simulation results were carefully scrutinized to ensure that even the coarsest grid had an acceptable level of resolution for large eddy simulation, and that the time-averaged statistics were acceptably accurate. The autocorrelation and its Fourier transform were the primary tools used for this assessment. The statistics extracted from the hybrid simulation strategy proved to be more accurate than the Reynolds-averaged results obtained using the linear eddy viscosity models. However, there was no predictive improvement noted over the results obtained from the explicit
Large Eddy Simulation of Wake Vortices in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Yuh-Lang; Han, Jongil; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Feng; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
2000-01-01
The behavior of wake vortices in a convective boundary layer is investigated using a validated large eddy simulation model. Our results show that the vortices are largely deformed due to strong turbulent eddy motion while a sinusoidal Crow instability develops. Vortex rising is found to be caused by the updrafts (thermals) during daytime convective conditions and increases with increasing nondimensional turbulence intensity eta. In the downdraft region of the convective boundary layer, vortex sinking is found to be accelerated proportional to increasing eta, with faster speed than that in an ideal line vortex pair in an inviscid fluid. Wake vortices are also shown to be laterally transported over a significant distance due to large turbulent eddy motion. On the other hand, the decay rate of the, vortices in the convective boundary layer that increases with increasing eta, is larger in the updraft region than in the downdraft region because of stronger turbulence in the updraft region.
Gomez, T; Sagaut, P; Schilling, O; Zhou, Y
2006-07-05
A spectral subggrid-scale eddy viscosity and magnetic resisitivity model based on the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) spectral kinetic and magnetic energy transfer presented in [12] is used in large-eddy simulation (LES) of large kinetic and magnetic Reynold number magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The proposed model is assessed via a posteri tests on three-dimensional, incompressible, isotropic, non-helical, freely-decaying MHD turbulence at asymptotically large Reynolds numbers. Using LES with an initial condition characterized by an Alfv{acute e}n ratio of kinetic to magnetic energy {tau}{sub A} equal to unity, it is shown that at the kinetic energy spectrum E{sub K}(k) and magnetic energy spectrum E{sub M}(k) exhibit Kolmogorov -5/3 inertial subrange scalings in the LES, consistent with the EDQNM model.
Forced turbulence in large-eddy simulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Chernyshov, A. A.; Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.
2010-10-15
We present the large-eddy simulation method for studying forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The proposed method is based on a solution of the filtered basic equations of magnetohydrodynamics by finite-difference methods and on a linear representation of the driving forces in the momentum conservation equation and the magnetic induction equation. These forces supply the production of kinetic and magnetic energies. The emphasis is placed upon the important, and not investigated, question about the ability of the large-eddy simulation approach to reproduce Kolmogorov and Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scale-invariant spectra in compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows.
A posterirori study of models for large eddy simulations of drop-laden flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboissetier, A.; Okong'o, N. A.; Bellan, J.
2003-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is conducted of a three-dimensional temporal mixing layer whose stream is initially laden with liquid drops which may evaporate during the simulation. The gas-phase equations are written in Eulerian frame for two perfect gas species (carrier gas and vapor emanating from the drops), while the liquid-phase equations are written in a Lagrangian frame.
Turbulent Eddy Viscosity and Large-Scale Convection in the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, Richard B.
2000-01-01
It is suggested here that the laminar character of the large-scale deep convective flows appearing in numerical simulations of the Sun's convective envelope arises from the effect of turbulent eddy viscosity. Previously, M. Schwarzchild suggested the same idea to explain the observed surface granulation in the Sun.
Wind Energy-Related Atmospheric Boundary Layer Large-Eddy Simulation Using OpenFOAM: Preprint
Churchfield, M.J.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J.G.; Moriarty, P.J.
2010-08-01
This paper develops and evaluates the performance of a large-eddy simulation (LES) solver in computing the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over flat terrain under a variety of stability conditions, ranging from shear driven (neutral stratification) to moderately convective (unstable stratification).
Computation of turbulent channel flow using Large-Eddy Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.; Payne, F. R.
1987-01-01
The objective of the paper is to investigate the nature and values of closure parameters appearing in the proposed Large-Eddy Interaction Model for prediction of turbulent flow field. Effects of two closure parameters on predicted Reynolds stresses and other turbulence structural quantities are examined for channel flows at two Reynolds numbers.
Large-Eddy Simulations and Lidar Measurements of Vortex-Pair Breakup in Aircraft Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.; Poole, L. R.; DeCoursey, R. J.; Hansen, G. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kent, G. S.
1998-01-01
Results of large-eddy simulations of an aircraft wake are compared with results from ground-based lidar measurements made at NASA Langley Research Center during the Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interaction Flight Experiment field tests. Brief reviews of the design of the field test for obtaining the evolution of wake dispersion behind a Boeing 737 and of the model developed for simulating such wakes are given. Both the measurements and the simulations concentrate on the period from a few seconds to a few minutes after the wake is generated, during which the essentially two-dimensional vortex pair is broken up into a variety of three-dimensional eddies. The model and experiment show similar distinctive breakup eddies induced by the mutual interactions of the vortices, after perturbation by the atmospheric motions.
Large Eddy Simulation in the Computation of Jet Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, R. R.; Goldstein, M. E.; Povinelli, L. A.; Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, E.
1999-01-01
Noise can be predicted by solving Full (time-dependent) Compressible Navier-Stokes Equation (FCNSE) with computational domain. The fluctuating near field of the jet produces propagating pressure waves that produce far-field sound. The fluctuating flow field as a function of time is needed in order to calculate sound from first principles. Noise can be predicted by solving the full, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the computational domain extended to far field - but this is not feasible as indicated above. At high Reynolds number of technological interest turbulence has large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) can not capture the small scales of turbulence. The large scales are more efficient than the small scales in radiating sound. The emphasize is thus on calculating sound radiated by large scales.
Large-eddy simulation of very-large-scale motions in atmospheric boundary-layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jiannong; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
In the last few decades, laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers, performed at low to moderate Reynolds numbers, have found very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) in the logarithmic and outer regions. The size of VLSMs was found to be 10-20 times as large as the boundary-layer thickness. Recently, few studies based on field experiments examined the presence of VLSMs in neutral atmospheric boundary-layer flows, which are invariably at very high Reynolds numbers. Very large scale structures similar to those observed in laboratory-scale experiments have been found and characterized. However, it is known that field measurements are more challenging than laboratory-based measurements, and can lack resolution and statistical convergence. Such challenges have implications on the robustness of the analysis, which may be further adversely affected by the use of Taylor's hypothesis to convert time series to spatial data. We use large-eddy simulation (LES) to investigate VLSMs in atmospheric boundary-layer flows. In order to make sure that the largest flow structures are properly resolved, the horizontal domain size is chosen to be much larger than the standard domain size. It is shown that the contributions to the resolved turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress from VLSMs are significant. Therefore, the large computational domain adopted here is essential for the purpose of investigating VLSMs. The spatially coherent structures associated with VLSMs are characterized through flow visualization and statistical analysis. The instantaneous velocity fields in horizontal planes give evidence of streamwise-elongated flow structures of low-speed fluid with negative fluctuation of the streamwise velocity component, and which are flanked on either side by similarly elongated high-speed structures. The pre-multiplied power spectra and two-point correlations indicate that the scales of these streak-like structures are very large. These features
Large-eddy simulation of an infinitely large wind farm in a stable atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, H.; Porté-Agel, F.
2010-09-01
When deployed as large arrays, wind turbines interact among themselves and with atmospheric boundary layer. To optimize their geometric arrangements, accurate knowledge of wind-turbine array boundary layer is of great importance. In this study, we integrated large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique, and used it to study the characteristics of wind-turbine wake in an idealized wind farm inside a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SBL). The wind turbines, with a rotor diameter of 112m and a tower height of 119m, were placed in a well-known SBL turbulent case that has a boundary layer height of approximately 180m. The super-geostrophic nocturnal jet near the top of the boundary layer was eliminated due to the energy extraction and the enhanced mixing of momentum. Non-axisymmetric behavior of wake structure was observed in response to the non-uniform incoming turbulence, the Coriolis effects, and the rotational effects induced by blade motions. The turbulence intensity in the simulated turbine wakes was found to reach a maximum at the top-tip level and a downwind distance of approximately 3-5 rotor diameters from the turbines. The Coriolis effects caused a skewed spatial structure and drove certain amount of turbulent energy away from the center of the wake. The SBL height was increased, while the magnitudes of the surface momentum flux and the surface buoyancy flux were reduced by approximately 30%. The wind farm was also found to have a strong effect on area-averaged vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat, which highlights the potential impact of wind farms on local meteorology.
Development of Large-Eddy Interaction Model for inhomogeneous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.; Payne, F. R.
1987-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of a currently proposed model, with minimum empiricism, for calculation of the Reynolds stresses and other turbulence structural quantities in a channel. The current Large-Eddy Interaction Model not only yields Reynolds stresses but also presents an opportunity to illuminate typical characteristic motions of large-scale turbulence and the phenomenological aspects of engineering models for two Reynolds numbers.
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.
1978-01-01
The three dimensional, time dependent (incompressible) vorticity equations were used to simulate numerically the decay of isotropic box turbulence and time developing mixing layers. The vorticity equations were spatially filtered to define the large scale turbulence field, and the subgrid scale turbulence was modeled. A general method was developed to show numerical conservation of momentum, vorticity, and energy. The terms that arise from filtering the equations were treated (for both periodic boundary conditions and no stress boundary conditions) in a fast and accurate way by using fast Fourier transforms. Use of vorticity as the principal variable is shown to produce results equivalent to those obtained by use of the primitive variable equations.
Localized dynamic kinetic-energy-based models for stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Stefano, Giuliano; Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Goldstein, Daniel E.
2008-04-01
Stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation (SCALES) is an extension of the large eddy simulation approach in which a wavelet filter-based dynamic grid adaptation strategy is employed to solve for the most "energetic" coherent structures in a turbulent field while modeling the effect of the less energetic background flow. In order to take full advantage of the ability of the method in simulating complex flows, the use of localized subgrid-scale models is required. In this paper, new local dynamic one-equation subgrid-scale models based on both eddy-viscosity and non-eddy-viscosity assumptions are proposed for SCALES. The models involve the definition of an additional field variable that represents the kinetic energy associated with the unresolved motions. This way, the energy transfer between resolved and residual flow structures is explicitly taken into account by the modeling procedure without an equilibrium assumption, as in the classical Smagorinsky approach. The wavelet-filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for the velocity field, along with the additional evolution equation for the subgrid-scale kinetic energy variable, are numerically solved by means of the dynamically adaptive wavelet collocation solver. The proposed models are tested for freely decaying homogeneous turbulence at Reλ=72. It is shown that the SCALES results, obtained with less than 0.5% of the total nonadaptive computational nodes, closely match reference data from direct numerical simulation. In contrast to classical large eddy simulation, where the energetic small scales are poorly simulated, the agreement holds not only in terms of global statistical quantities but also in terms of spectral distribution of energy and, more importantly, enstrophy all the way down to the dissipative scales.
High Speed Jet Noise Prediction Using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lele, Sanjiva K.
2002-01-01
Current methods for predicting the noise of high speed jets are largely empirical. These empirical methods are based on the jet noise data gathered by varying primarily the jet flow speed, and jet temperature for a fixed nozzle geometry. Efforts have been made to correlate the noise data of co-annular (multi-stream) jets and for the changes associated with the forward flight within these empirical correlations. But ultimately these emipirical methods fail to provide suitable guidance in the selection of new, low-noise nozzle designs. This motivates the development of a new class of prediction methods which are based on computational simulations, in an attempt to remove the empiricism of the present day noise predictions.
Large Eddy Simulations of Severe Convection Induced Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred
2011-01-01
Convective storms can pose a serious risk to aviation operations since they are often accompanied by turbulence, heavy rain, hail, icing, lightning, strong winds, and poor visibility. They can cause major delays in air traffic due to the re-routing of flights, and by disrupting operations at the airports in the vicinity of the storm system. In this study, the Terminal Area Simulation System is used to simulate five different convective events ranging from a mesoscale convective complex to isolated storms. The occurrence of convection induced turbulence is analyzed from these simulations. The validation of model results with the radar data and other observations is reported and an aircraft-centric turbulence hazard metric calculated for each case is discussed. The turbulence analysis showed that large pockets of significant turbulence hazard can be found in regions of low radar reflectivity. Moderate and severe turbulence was often found in building cumulus turrets and overshooting tops.
Three regularization models as large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Jonathan; Holm, Darryl; Mininni, Pablo; Pouquet, Annick
2006-11-01
We test three regularizations, the α-model, Leray-α, and Clark-α, as sub-grid models for LES by comparison with a 1024^3 direction numerical simulation (DNS), Rλ 800, with a Taylor-Green forcing. Both the α-model and Clark-α are able to reproduce the large-scale anisotropy of the flow as well as the time scale of developing turbulence. Leray-α fails in both these regards. We study intermittency corrections through pdfs and the anomalous scaling of the velocity increment structure functions. Leray-α is somewhat less intermittent than the DNS and produces an energy spectrum that is too shallow in the inertial range, while Clark-α produces a broad k-5/3 spectrum and stronger intermittency corrections. Finally, the agreement of the DNS and α-model spectra, in disparity with results for lower Reynolds number simulations, is worse than in the Clark-α model. We conjecture that this enhanced intermittency in the α model is related to the steeper than k-5/3 spectrum now reported for the very highest Reynolds number simulations and atmospheric observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei
2011-11-01
In this investigation, we implement a high-order three-dimensional spectral difference (SD) method to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on an unstructured moving deformable grid. Presently, the SD method is used to perform simulations of compressible flow past an oscillating circular cylinder. Oscillations parallel and normal to the free stream are considered at a fixed Reynolds number of 4000, oscillation frequency of 1 Hz , and oscillation amplitude of 20% cylinder diameter. We extend this study to large eddy simulations with the integration of a Smagorinsky-type subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Computational results will be compared to experimental data. The effectiveness of the large eddy simulation in capturing the vortex dynamics in the wake is analyzed. This work is funded by the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department at George Washington University
Large eddy simulation of mixing between hot and cold sodium flows - comparison with experiments
Simoneau, J.P.; Noe, H.; Menant, B.
1995-09-01
The large eddy simulation is becoming a potential powerful tool for the calculation of turbulent flows. In nuclear liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the knowledge of the turbulence characteristics is of great interest for the prediction and the analysis of thermal stripping phenomena. The objective of this paper is to give a contribution in the evaluation of the large eddy simulation technique is an individual case. The problem chosen is the case of the mixing between hot and cold sodium flows. The computations are compared with available sodium tests. This study shows acceptable qualitative results but the simple model used is not able to predict the turbulence characteristics. More complex models including larger domains around the fluctuating zone and fluctuating boundary conditions could be necessary. Validation works are continuing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardino, J.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.
1983-01-01
The physical bases of large eddy simulation and subgrid modeling are studied. A subgrid scale similarity model is developed that can account for system rotation. Large eddy simulations of homogeneous shear flows with system rotation were carried out. Apparently contradictory experimental results were explained. The main effect of rotation is to increase the transverse length scales in the rotation direction, and thereby decrease the rates of dissipation. Experimental results are shown to be affected by conditions at the turbulence producing grid, which make the initial states a function of the rotation rate. A two equation model is proposed that accounts for effects of rotation and shows good agreement with experimental results. In addition, a Reynolds stress model is developed that represents the turbulence structure of homogeneous shear flows very well and can account also for the effects of system rotation.
Prediction and control of turbulent aero-optical distortion using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childs, Robert E.
1993-06-01
The problem of aero-optical distortion caused by turbulence in high speed mixing layers was studied using large eddy simulation (LES) as the model of turbulence. The accuracy of LES is established for global features of the mixing layer, such as mean growth rate and statistics of turbulent velocity fluctuations. LES was then used to assess two concepts for suppressing density fluctuations and aero-optical distortion, lateral convergence and streamline curvature, and one of these was found to be reasonably effective.
Structural subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hao; Rutland, Christopher J.
2016-03-01
Accurately modeling nonlinear interactions in turbulence is one of the key challenges for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence. In this article, we review recent studies on structural subgrid scale modeling, focusing on evaluating how well these models predict the effects of small scales. The article discusses a priori and a posteriori test results. Other nonlinear models are briefly discussed, and future prospects are noted.
Structural subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hao; Rutland, Christopher J.
2016-08-01
Accurately modeling nonlinear interactions in turbulence is one of the key challenges for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence. In this article, we review recent studies on structural subgrid scale modeling, focusing on evaluating how well these models predict the effects of small scales. The article discusses a priori and a posteriori test results. Other nonlinear models are briefly discussed, and future prospects are noted.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Coherent Flow Structures within a Cubical Canopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inagaki, Atsushi; Castillo, Marieta Cristina L.; Yamashita, Yoshimi; Kanda, Manabu; Takimoto, Hiroshi
2012-02-01
Instantaneous flow structures "within" a cubical canopy are investigated via large-eddy simulation. The main topics of interest are, (1) large-scale coherent flow structures within a cubical canopy, (2) how the structures are coupled with the turbulent organized structures (TOS) above them, and (3) the classification and quantification of representative instantaneous flow patterns within a street canyon in relation to the coherent structures. We use a large numerical domain (2,560 m × 2,560 m × 1,710 m) with a fine spatial resolution (2.5 m), thereby simulating a complete daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as well as explicitly resolving a regular array of cubes (40 m in height) at the surface. A typical urban ABL is numerically modelled. In this situation, the constant heat supply from roof and floor surfaces sustains a convective mixed layer as a whole, but strong wind shear near the canopy top maintains the surface layer nearly neutral. The results reveal large coherent structures in both the velocity and temperature fields "within" the canopy layer. These structures are much larger than the cubes, and their shapes and locations are shown to be closely related to the TOS above them. We classify the instantaneous flow patterns in a cavity, specifically focusing on two characteristic flow patterns: flushing and cavity-eddy events. Flushing indicates a strong upward motion, while a cavity eddy is characterized by a dominant vortical motion within a single cavity. Flushing is clearly correlated with the TOS above, occurring frequently beneath low-momentum streaks. The instantaneous momentum and heat transport within and above a cavity due to flushing and cavity-eddy events are also quantified.
A modified Darcy's law . Large eddy simulation of turbulent flows through a fractal model city
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gisinger, Sonja; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schröttle, Josef
2015-08-01
An approach to describe the turbulent flow through a complex geometry (e.g., urban area) by means of an analogy to flows through porous media is presented. Therefore, a modification of the original Darcy's law is proposed, and its application is tested in a prototype problem with an idealized complex geometry using large eddy simulations. The numerical results indicate the validity of the modified Darcy's law for the chosen setup.
Direct-Numerical and Large-Eddy Simulations of a Non-Equilibrium Turbulent Kolmogorov Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, S. L.; Shebalin, J. V.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1999-01-01
A non-equilibrium form of turbulent Kolmogorov flow is set up by making an instantaneous change in the amplitude of the spatially-periodic forcing. It is found that the response of the flow to this instantaneous change becomes more dramatic as the wavenumber of the forcing is increased, and, at the same time, that the faithfulness with which the large-eddy-simulation results agree with the direct-numerical results decreases.
Calibration of a new very large eddy simulation (VLES) methodology for turbulent flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, XingSi; Ye, TaoHong; Chen, YiLiang
2012-10-01
Following the idea of Speziale's Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) method, a new unified hybrid simulation approach was proposed which can change seamlessly from RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) to LES (Large Eddy Simulation) method depending on the numerical resolution. The model constants were calibrated in accordance with other hybrid methods. Besides being able to approach the two limits of RANS and LES, the new model also provides a proper VLES mode between the two limits, and thus can be used for a wide range of mesh resolutions. Also RANS simulation can be recovered near the wall which is similar to the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) concept. This new methodology was implemented into Wilcox's k-ω model and applications were conducted for fully developed turbulent channel flow at Re τ = 395 and turbulent flow past a square cylinder at Re = 22000. Results were compared with LES predictions and other studies. The new method is found to be quite efficient in resolving large flow structures, and can predict satisfactory results on relative coarse mesh.
Large-eddy simulation of free-surface decaying turbulence with dynamic subgrid-scale models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvetti, M. V.; Zang, Y.; Street, R. L.; Banerjee, S.
1997-08-01
This paper describes large-eddy simulations of decaying turbulence in an open channel, using different dynamic subgrade-scale models, viz. the dynamic model of Germano et al. [Phys. Fluids A 3, 1790 (1991)] (DSM), the dynamic mixed model in Zang et al. [Phys. Fluids A 5, 3186 (1993)] (DMM), and the dynamic two-parameter model of Salvetti and Banerjee [Phys. Fluids 7, 2831 (1995)] (DTM). These models are incorporated in a finite-volume solver of the Navier-Stokes equations. A direct numerical simulation of this flow conducted by Pan and Banerjee [Phys. Fluids 7, 1649 (1995)] showed that near the free surface turbulence has a quasi-two-dimensional behavior. Moreover, the quasi-two-dimensional region increases in thickness with the decay time, although the structure remains three-dimensional in the central regions of the flow. The results of the large-eddy simulations show that both the DMM and the DTM are able to reproduce the features of the decay process observed in the direct simulation and to handle the anisotropic nature of the flow. Nevertheless, the addition of the second model coefficient in the DTM improves the agreement with the direct simulation. When the DSM is used, significant discrepancies are observed between the large-eddy and the direct simulations during the decay process at the free surface.
Numerical simulation of a closed rotor-stator system using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amouyal, Solal Abraham Teva
A large eddy simulation of an enclosed annular rotor stator cavity is presented. The geometry is characterized by a large aspect ratio G = (b-a)/h = 18.32 and a small radius ratio a/b = 0.152, where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. The rotation rate o under consideration is equivalent to the rotational Reynolds number Re = o b2 /nu= 9.5x104 , where nu is the kinematic viscosity. The main objective of this study is to correctly simulate the rotor stator cavity using a low order numerical scheme on unstructured grids. The numerical simulations were run on the software AVBP developed by the Centre Europeen de Recherche et de Formation Avancee en Calcul Scientific. The results were compared to the experimental results obtained by Sebastien Poncet of Universit e Aix-Marseille. Two large eddy simulations techniques were used: the Smagorinsky and Wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity models. The simulations were run on three set of grids, each with a different cell resolution-14, 35 and 50- along the thickness of the system. Results from each mesh show a good qualitative agreement of the mean velocity field with Poncet's experimental results. It was found that the Samgorinsky model to be more appropriate for this configuration.
Nesting Large-Eddy Simulations Within Mesoscale Simulations for Wind Energy Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundquist, J. K.; Mirocha, J. D.; Chow, F. K.; Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, K. A.
2008-12-01
With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES) account for complex terrain and resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades. These small-domain high-resolution simulations are possible with a range of commercial and open- source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to "local" sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecating model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosoviæ (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Nesting large-eddy simulations within mesoscale simulations for wind energy applications
Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A
2008-09-08
With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES), which resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades and account for complex terrain, are possible with a range of commercial and open-source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to 'local' sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecasting model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schalkwijk, Jerôme; Jonker, Harm J. J.; Siebesma, A. Pier
2016-07-01
The low-frequency contribution to the systematic and random sampling errors in single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). We use a continuous LES integration that covers a full year of realistic weather conditions over Cabauw, the Netherlands, and emulate eddy-covariance measurements. We focus on the daytime flux imbalance, when the turbulent flux is sufficiently resolved. Averaged over the year, daytime single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements lead to a significant systematic underestimation of the turbulent flux. This underestimation depends on the averaging period and measurement height. For a 3600-s averaging period at 16-m height, the systematic underestimation reduces to a few percent, but for 900-s averaged tall-tower measurements at 100-m height, the fluxes are systematically underestimated by over 20 %. The year-long dataset facilitates an investigation into the environmental conditions that influence the eddy-covariance flux imbalance. The imbalance problem is found to vary widely from day to day, strongly dependent on the flow regime. In general, the imbalance problem reduces with increased mean wind speed, but days having the largest imbalance (over twice the average) are characterized by roll vortices that occur for average wind speeds, typically having a boundary-layer height (z_i) to Obukhov length ( L) ratio of 10 < -z_i/L < 100.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schalkwijk, Jerôme; Jonker, Harm J. J.; Siebesma, A. Pier
2016-03-01
The low-frequency contribution to the systematic and random sampling errors in single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). We use a continuous LES integration that covers a full year of realistic weather conditions over Cabauw, the Netherlands, and emulate eddy-covariance measurements. We focus on the daytime flux imbalance, when the turbulent flux is sufficiently resolved. Averaged over the year, daytime single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements lead to a significant systematic underestimation of the turbulent flux. This underestimation depends on the averaging period and measurement height. For a 3600-s averaging period at 16-m height, the systematic underestimation reduces to a few percent, but for 900-s averaged tall-tower measurements at 100-m height, the fluxes are systematically underestimated by over 20 %. The year-long dataset facilitates an investigation into the environmental conditions that influence the eddy-covariance flux imbalance. The imbalance problem is found to vary widely from day to day, strongly dependent on the flow regime. In general, the imbalance problem reduces with increased mean wind speed, but days having the largest imbalance (over twice the average) are characterized by roll vortices that occur for average wind speeds, typically having a boundary-layer height (z_i) to Obukhov length (L) ratio of 10 < -z_i/L < 100.
Fast solver for large scale eddy current non-destructive evaluation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Naiguang
Eddy current testing plays a very important role in non-destructive evaluations of conducting test samples. Based on Faraday's law, an alternating magnetic field source generates induced currents, called eddy currents, in an electrically conducting test specimen. The eddy currents generate induced magnetic fields that oppose the direction of the inducing magnetic field in accordance with Lenz's law. In the presence of discontinuities in material property or defects in the test specimen, the induced eddy current paths are perturbed and the associated magnetic fields can be detected by coils or magnetic field sensors, such as Hall elements or magneto-resistance sensors. Due to the complexity of the test specimen and the inspection environments, the availability of theoretical simulation models is extremely valuable for studying the basic field/flaw interactions in order to obtain a fuller understanding of non-destructive testing phenomena. Theoretical models of the forward problem are also useful for training and validation of automated defect detection systems. Theoretical models generate defect signatures that are expensive to replicate experimentally. In general, modelling methods can be classified into two categories: analytical and numerical. Although analytical approaches offer closed form solution, it is generally not possible to obtain largely due to the complex sample and defect geometries, especially in three-dimensional space. Numerical modelling has become popular with advances in computer technology and computational methods. However, due to the huge time consumption in the case of large scale problems, accelerations/fast solvers are needed to enhance numerical models. This dissertation describes a numerical simulation model for eddy current problems using finite element analysis. Validation of the accuracy of this model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental measurements of steam generator tube wall defects. These simulations generating two
A study of differentiation errors in large-eddy simulations based on the EDQNM theory
Berland, J. Bogey, C.; Bailly, C.
2008-09-10
This paper is concerned with the investigation of numerical errors in large-eddy simulations by means of two-point turbulence modeling. Based on the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) theory, a stochastic model is developed in order to predict the time evolution of the kinetic energy spectrum obtained by a large-eddy simulation (LES), including the effects of the numerics. Using this framework, the influence of the accuracy of the approximate space differencing schemes on LES quality is studied, for decaying homogeneous isotropic incompressible turbulence, with Reynolds numbers Re{sub {lambda}} based on the transverse Taylor scale equal to 780, 2500 and 8000. The results show that the discretization of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations leads to differentiation and aliasing errors. Error spectra are also presented, and indicate that the numerical errors are mainly originating from the approximate differentiation. In addition, increasing the order of accuracy of the differencing schemes or using algorithms optimized in the Fourier space is found to widen the range of well-resolved scales. Unfortunately, for all the schemes, the smaller scales with wavenumbers close to the grid cut-off wavenumber, are badly calculated and generate differentiation errors over the whole energy spectrum. The eventual use of explicit filtering to remove spurious motions with short wavelength is finally shown to significantly improve LES accuracy.
Reynolds-constrained large-eddy simulation of compressible flow over a compression ramp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Zuoli; Chen, Liang
2015-11-01
A novel large-eddy simulation (LES) method is introduced for numerical simulation of wall-bounded compressible turbulent flows. The subgrid-scale (SGS) model in this method is designed to be composed of two parts depending on the distance to the nearest wall. In the near-wall region, both the mean SGS stress and heat flux are constrained by external Reynolds stress and heat flux to ensure the total target quantities, while the fluctuating SGS stress and heat flux are closed in a traditional fashion but using residual model parameterizations. In the far-wall region, the conventional SGS model is directly employed with necessary smoothing operation in the neighborhood of the constrained-unconstrained interface, which might be different for the stress and heat flux depending on the flow configuration. Compressible flow over a compression ramp is numerically studied using the new LES technique. The results are compared with the available experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data, and those from traditional LES and detached-eddy simulation (DES). It turns out that the Reynolds-constrained large-eddy simulation (RCLES) method can predict the size of the separation bubble, mean flow profile, and friction force, etc. more accurately than traditional LES and DES techniques. Moreover, the RCLES method proves to be much less sensitive to the grid resolution than traditional LES method, and makes pure LES of flows of engineering interest feasible with moderate grids.
Application of large-eddy simulation for trailing-edge noise prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz
Turbulent boundary layers near the trailing-edge of a lifting surface are known to generate intense, broadband scattering noise as well as surface pressure fluctuations. To numerically predict the trailing-edge noise requires that the noise-generating eddies over a wide range of length scales be adequately represented. Large-eddy simulation technique provides a promising tool for obtaining the unsteady wall-pressure fields and the acoustic source functions. In the present work, a large-eddy simulation is carried out for turbulent boundary layer flow past an asymmetrically beveled trailing-edge of a flat strut at a chord Reynolds number of 2.15 × 106. The computed velocity and surface pressure statistics compare reasonably well with the experimental measurements of Blake. The far-field acoustic calculation is facilitated by the integral solution to the Lighthill equation derived by Ffowcs Williams & Hall. Computations have been carried out to determine the far-field noise spectra, the source-term characteristics, and the requirement for the integration domain size. It is found that the present LES is adequate for predicting noise radiation over a wide frequency range. At the low frequency end, however, the spanwise source coherence estimated based on surface pressure fluctuations does not decay sufficiently, suggesting the need for a wider computational domain.
Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method
Darlington, R
1999-12-01
This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X.
2014-12-01
Thermal stratification of the atmospheric surface layer has strong impact on the land-atmosphere exchange of turbulent, heat, and pollutant fluxes. Few studies have been carried out for the interaction of the weakly to moderately stable stratified atmosphere and the urban canopy. This study performs a large-eddy simulation of a modeled street canyon within a weakly to moderately stable atmosphere boundary layer. To better resolve the smaller eddy size resulted from the stable stratification, a higher spatial and temporal resolution is used. The detailed flow structure and turbulence inside the street canyon are analyzed. The relationship of pollutant dispersion and Richardson number of the atmosphere is investigated. Differences between these characteristics and those under neutral and unstable atmosphere boundary layer are emphasized.
Developments and applications of dynamic models for large eddy simulation of complex flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moin, P.; Carati, D.; Lund, T.; Ghosal, S.; Akselvoll, K.
1994-12-01
The dynamic modeling procedure for large eddy simulation of turbulent flows is reviewed and recent developments in the theoretical aspects and applications are described. Methods for inclusion of backscatter of energy from small to large scale motions are presented. New formulations of the dynamic procedure are proposed which are optimized based on the subgrid scale flux vector or the energy dissipation rate instead of the subgrid scale stress tensor. Recent results from application of the model to forced isotropic turbulence with an inertial subrange, flow over a backward facing step at Reynolds number of 28000, and flow over a concave curved surface are presented.
Effect of large eddies on atmospheric surface layer turbulence and the underlying wave field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savtchenko, Andrey
1999-02-01
To improve existing models for air-sea interaction, a better understanding of the energy transfer across the boundary layer and in particular of the coupling of large atmospheric eddies with the air-sea interface is needed. Recent investigations have already shown a possible coupling of large structures in atmospheric turbulence and surface ripples. This was done using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of ocean surface and almost simultaneous advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) imagery of cloud streets at a cold-air outbreak. The intent of our study is to further validate this hypothesis in a general case of coastal circulation. For this purpose we analyze a suite of collocated simultaneous records of airflow, radar return, and surface elevations from a coastal platform. We investigate the influence of large eddies (20-60 min) on the turbulent properties of the airflow in the first 2 m above the ocean surface. The analysis shows very prominent peaks in the magnitude of 12- to 16-min fluctuations which are further modulated in 20- to 40-min intervals. These scales and modulations are characteristic for all variables of interest here. The detected scales and their modulation suggest significant interaction of surface layer within the first 1-2 m with large eddies of scales of O(1) and O(10) km. The intermittent structure of turbulence responds by alternating contributions from bursts and sweeps; the frequency of occurrence of bursts and sweeps also reveals the influence of large structures. The instantaneous cross correlation between the shorter scales of momentum flux and radar return, corresponding to the individual burst events, can be 4 times as strong as the overall cross correlation.
Coelho, P.J.
2009-05-15
An analysis of the relevance of turbulence-radiation interaction in the numerical simulation of turbulent reactive flows is presented. A semi-causal stochastic model was used to generate a time-series of turbulent scalar fluctuations along optical paths of Sandia flame D, a widely studied piloted turbulent jet nonpremixed flame. The radiative transfer equation was integrated along these paths for every realization using a grid resolution typical of a direct numerical simulation. The correlated k-distribution method was employed to compute the radiative properties of the medium. The results were used to determine the ensemble average, as well as the extreme values, of quantities that indicate the importance of the turbulence-radiation interaction. Several approximate methods are then proposed to solve the filtered radiative transfer equation in the framework of large eddy simulations. The proposed methods are applicable along with combustion models that either assume the filtered probability density function of a conserved scalar or solve a transport equation for a joint scalar or joint scalar/velocity filtered density function. It is concluded that the errors resulting from neglecting the turbulence-radiation interaction in large eddy simulations are much lower than those found in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations. The optically thin fluctuation approximation may be extended to large eddy simulations yielding predictions in excellent agreement with the reference solution. If the turbulence-radiation interaction is accounted for using this approximation, the average relative error of the filtered total radiation intensity is generally below 0.3% for the studied flame. (author)
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Coaxial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, Robert A.; Edwards, Jack R.
2010-01-01
Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment was designed to study compressible mixing flow phenomenon under conditions that are representative of those encountered in scramjet combustors. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The initial value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was observed when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations also over-predicted the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, while under-predicting the rate of mixing when argon was used as the injectant. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions were suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Second-order turbulence statistics were also compared to their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts to evaluate the effectiveness of common turbulence closure
Large eddy simulation of vortex shedding and pressure fluctuation in aerostatic bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jincheng; Chen, Han; Chen, Xuedong
2013-07-01
In aerostatic bearings, high speed air flow may induce small vibration, which has been harmful to the improvement of moving and positioning accuracy of aerostatically supported devices in ultra-precision applications. In this paper, the transient flow field in the aerostatic bearing is numerically investigated using the large eddy simulation method. Turbulent structures are studied and vortex shedding phenomenon is discovered in the bearing recess. Our computational results demonstrate that vortex shedding causes pressure fluctuation in the bearing clearance. Relationship between pressure fluctuation and bearing vibration is established based on our simulation results and experimentally measured vibration strength.
Dynamic optimization methodology based on subgrid-scale dissipation for large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Changping; Xiao, Zuoli; Li, Xinliang
2016-01-01
A dynamic procedure based on subgrid-scale dissipation is proposed for large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. In the new method, the model coefficients are determined by minimizing the square error of the resolved dissipation rate based on the Germano identity. A dynamic two-term mixed model is tested and evaluated both a priori and a posteriori in simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The new dynamic procedure proves to be more effective to optimize the model coefficients as compared with traditional method. The corresponding dynamic mixed model can predict the physical quantities more accurately than traditional dynamic mixed model.
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at high Reynolds number stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Lou; Raessi, Mehdi
2015-11-01
Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz Instabilities (KHI) at high Reynolds numbers are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation technique. Reynolds numbers up to 100,000 are achieved using our model. The resulting data set is used to examine the effect of Reynolds number on various statistics, including dissipation flux coefficient, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and Thorpe length scale. It is shown that KHI are qualitatively different at high Re, up to and including the onset of vortex pairing and billow collapse and quantitatively different afterward. The effect of Richardson number is also examined. The results are discussed as they apply to ocean experiments.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, Craig J.
1990-01-01
This research is involved with the implementation of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program to extend the present capabilities of this method was initiated for the treatment of chemically reacting flows. In the DNS efforts, the focus is on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and non-equilibrium kinetics modelings in high speed reacting flows. Emphasis was on the simulations of simple flows, namely homogeneous compressible flows, and temporally developing high speed mixing layers.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavitating Multiphase Flow for Liquid Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cailloux, M.; Helie, J.; Reveillon, J.; Demoulin, F. X.
2015-12-01
This paper presents a numerical method for modelling a compressible multiphase flow that involves phase transition between liquid and vapour in the context of gasoline injection. A discontinuous compressible two fluid mixture based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) implementation is employed to represent the phases of liquid, vapour and air. The mass transfer between phases is modelled by standard models such as Kunz or Schnerr-Sauer but including the presence of air in the gas phase. Turbulence is modelled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to catch instationnarities and coherent structures. Eventually the modelling approach matches favourably experimental data concerning the effect of cavitation on atomisation process.
Evidence of Organized Large Eddies by Ground-Based Doppler Lidar, Sonic Anemometer and Sodar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drobinski, Philippe; Brown, Robert A.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Pelon, Jacques
In an experiment investigating the planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind and temperature fields, and PBL inversion height recorded by various instruments, the results reveal the presence of organized large eddies (OLE) or rolls. The measurements by lidars, anemometers, soundings and sodar gave an overview of the characteristics of the rolls and sources of energy production that maintain them. The experimental results obtained on two consecutive days are compared to model outputs. The agreement is excellent, showing that thermal stratification and wind shear are important factors in the structure and dynamics of OLE. A heterodyne Doppler lidar (HDL) is shown to be a useful tool in the study of OLE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nouri Gheimassi, Arash; Givi, Peyman; Nik, Mehdi B.; Pope, Stephen B.
2015-11-01
A new model is developed which accounts for the effects of subgrid scale pressure in the context of the filtered density function (FDF) formulation. This results in a pressure-velocity-scalar filtered mass density function (PVS-FMDF), which is suitable for large eddy simulation of compressible turbulence. Following its mathematical definition, an exact transport equation is derived for the PVS-FMDF. This equation is modeled in a probabilistic manner by a system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The consistency and the predictive capability of the model are established by conducting LES of a three-dimensional compressible mixing layer, and comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juhui, Chen; Yanjia, Tang; Dan, Li; Pengfei, Xu; Huilin, Lu
2013-07-01
Flow behavior of gas and particles is predicted by the large eddy simulation of gas-second order moment of solid model (LES-SOM model) in the simulation of flow behavior in CFB. This study shows that the simulated solid volume fractions along height using a two-dimensional model are in agreement with experiments. The velocity, volume fraction and second-order moments of particles are computed. The second-order moments of clusters are calculated. The solid volume fraction, velocity and second order moments are compared at the three different model constants.
Large eddy simulation model for wind-driven sea circulation in coastal areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petronio, A.; Roman, F.; Nasello, C.; Armenio, V.
2013-12-01
In the present paper a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model (LES-COAST), suited for the analysis of water circulation and mixing in closed or semi-closed areas, is presented and applied to the study of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Muggia bay, the industrial harbor of the city of Trieste, Italy. The model solves the non-hydrostatic, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, under the Boussinesq approximation for temperature and salinity buoyancy effects, using a novel, two-eddy viscosity Smagorinsky model for the closure of the subgrid-scale momentum fluxes. The model employs: a simple and effective technique to take into account wind-stress inhomogeneity related to the blocking effect of emerged structures, which, in turn, can drive local-scale, short-term pollutant dispersion; a new nesting procedure to reconstruct instantaneous, turbulent velocity components, temperature and salinity at the open boundaries of the domain using data coming from large-scale circulation models (LCM). Validation tests have shown that the model reproduces field measurement satisfactorily. The analysis of water circulation and mixing in the Muggia bay has been carried out under three typical breeze conditions. Water circulation has been shown to behave as in typical semi-closed basins, with an upper layer moving along the wind direction (apart from the anti-cyclonic veering associated with the Coriolis force) and a bottom layer, thicker and slower than the upper one, moving along the opposite direction. The study has shown that water vertical mixing in the bay is inhibited by a large level of stable stratification, mainly associated with vertical variation in salinity and, to a minor extent, with temperature variation along the water column. More intense mixing, quantified by sub-critical values of the gradient Richardson number, is present in near-coastal regions where upwelling/downwelling phenomena occur. The analysis of instantaneous fields has detected the presence of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monod, R.; Brillant, G.; Toutant, A.; Bataille, F.
2012-11-01
Thermal striping is one of the possible initiator of pipe rupture. In this framework, thermal fluctuations in a heated periodic channel have been calculated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The fluid Prandtl number is set to 0.01 and the friction Reynolds number to 395. The Werner and Wengle Wall Function is used with the Navier-Stokes equations to reduce the computational cost. Satisfactory results can be noticed on the temperature fluctuations for low Prandtl number fluids. Several boundary conditions are considered, namely isothermal, isoflux, and conjugate heat transfer. The impacts of the wall properties on the temperature statistics for conjugated heat transfer boundary conditions are deeply analysed.
Large eddy simulation of plume dispersion in a convective boundary layer
Fosberry, L.P.; Tsang, T.T.H.
1996-12-31
Plume dispersion in a convective boundary layer is dependent on release height. When a neutrally buoyant contaminant is released from an elevated point in the convective boundary layer at z {approximately} 0.5h, where h is the height of the boundary layer, the plume descends and a concentration maximum is observed at ground level. Alternately, when the contaminant is released from a surface source at z < {approximately} 0.2h, the plume lifts off and a maximum concentration is observed near the inversion layer. Neutrally buoyant plume dispersion in the convective atmospheric boundary layer were simulated by a mixed pseudospectral finite difference Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Around a NACA 4412 Airfoil Using Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jansen, Kenneth
1996-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has matured to the point where application to complex flows is described. The extension to higher Reynolds numbers leads to an impractical number of grid points with existing structured-grid methods. Furthermore, most real world flows are rather difficult to represent geometrically with structured grids. Unstructured-grid methods offer a release from both of these constraints. However, just as it took many years for structured-grid methods to be well understood and reliable tools for LES, unstructured-grid methods must be carefully studied before we can expect them to attain their full potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Flow induced vibration in primary cooling system of the Japan Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been investigated. The primary cooling system consists of a large diameter pipe and a pipe elbow with short curvature radius corresponding to its diameter (short-elbow). Flow-induced vibration by flow through the short-elbow is an important issue in design study of the JSFR, because it may affect to structural integrity of the piping. In this paper, numerical simulations for several pipe elbows with different pipe diameters and curvature radii in literature were conducted at Reynolds number conditions from Re=500 to 1.47x107 to investigate unsteady flow behavior through the short-elbow, including validation study of an in-house LES code (MUGTHES). Numerical results in each condition were compared with the experimental results in literature. Unsteady flow characteristics and pressure fluctuation generation mechanism in the short-elbow were clarified in relation to the large-scale eddy motion.
Two-Fluid Large-Eddy Simulation Approach for Two-Phase Turbulent Flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashayek, F.; Pandya, R. V. R.
2002-11-01
In recent years, large-eddy simulation (LES) is emerging as a predictive tool for particle/droplet-laden turbulent flows. In common practice, LES of two-phase flows involves tracking a large number of particles in a Lagrangian framework while using the Eulerian flow field generated by LES of the carrier fluid phase and proper forms for various forces acting on the particle. The two-way coupling effects (i.e. the effects of the particles on the LES flow field and subgrid scales motion and vice versa) have yet to be accounted for fully and in rigorous manner in these Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches. Recently, a new Eulerian-Eulerian approach has been proposed(R.V.R. Pandya and F. Mashayek, ``Two-fluid large-eddy simulation approach for particle-laden turbulent flows,'' to appear in Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer.) in which Eulerian `fluid' equations are derived for the dispersed phase using the kinetic or probability density function (pdf) modeling approach after solving the closure problems arising in the filtered pdf equation. The solution to the closure accounts properly for the effects of the subgrid scales on the particles. The two-way coupling effects are modeled in a rigorous manner and included in the dynamic localization model for the subgrid stresses of the carrier phase. The `fluid' equations are supposed to capture the preferential distribution of the particles.
ENDLESS: An extended nonperiodic domain large-eddy simulation approach for scalar plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bicheng; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles; Chamecki, Marcelo
2016-05-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has proven to be a valuable tool for high-fidelity modeling of environmental and geophysical turbulent flows. An important application of LES is to study the transport of effluents (e.g. oils from a subsea blowout) in the ocean mixed layer (OML). Oil plumes being transported in the OML experience the action of shear-generated turbulence, Langmuir circulations, Ekman transport and submesoscale quasi-geostrophic eddies. To resolve such turbulent processes, grid sizes of a few meters are desirable while horizontal domain sizes of LES are typically restricted from hundreds of meters to a few kilometers, for LES to remain practically affordable. Yet transported oil plumes evolve to large scales extending to tens or even hundreds of kilometers. In this study, the Extended Nonperiodic Domain LES for Scalar transport (ENDLESS) is proposed as a multi-scale approach to tackle this challenge while being computationally affordable. The basic idea is to simulate the shear turbulence and Langmuir circulations on a small horizontal domain with periodic boundary conditions while the resulting transport velocity field is replicated periodically following adaptively the large-scale plume as it evolves spatially towards much larger scales. This approach also permits the superposition of larger-scale quasi two-dimensional flow motions on the oil advection, allowing for coupling with regional circulation models. A validation case and two sample applications to oil plume evolution in the OML are presented in order to demonstrate key features and computational speedup associated with the ENDLESS method.
Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, S.; Yashiro, H.; Sato, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tomita, H.
2015-10-01
We examine the influence of the grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing on turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in a large-eddy simulation (LES). In order to clarify and distinguish them from other artificial effects caused by numerical schemes, we used a fully compressible meteorological LES model with a fully explicit scheme of temporal integration. The influences are investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with parameter sweeps of spatial resolution and grid aspect ratio. We confirmed that the mixing length of the eddy viscosity and diffusion due to sub-grid-scale turbulence plays an essential role in reproducing the theoretical -5/3 slope of the energy spectrum. If we define the filter length in LES modeling based on consideration of the numerical scheme, and introduce a corrective factor for the grid aspect ratio into the mixing length, the theoretical slope of the energy spectrum can be obtained; otherwise, spurious energy piling appears at high wave numbers. We also found that the grid aspect ratio has influence on the turbulent statistics, especially the skewness of the vertical velocity near the top of the PBL, which becomes spuriously large with large aspect ratio, even if a reasonable spectrum is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2013-11-01
We present results of large eddy simulation (LES) for a smooth-wall, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. We employ the stretched vortex sub-grid-scale model in the simulations augmented by a wall model. Our wall model is based on the virtual-wall model introduced by Chung & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech 2009). An essential component of their wall model is an ODE governing the local wall-normal velocity gradient obtained using inner-scaling ansatz. We test two variants of the wall model based on different similarity laws: one is based on a log-law and the other on a power-law. The specific form of the power law scaling utilized is that proposed by George & Castillo (Appl. Mech. Rev. 1997), dubbed the ``GC Law''. Turbulent inflow conditions are generated by a recycling method, and applying scaling laws corresponding to the two variants of the wall model, and a uniform way to determine the inlet friction velocity. For Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ , ranging from 104 to 1012 it is found that the velocity profiles generally follow the log law form rather than the power law. For large Reynolds number asymptotic behavior, LES based on different scaling laws the boundary layer thickness and turbulent intensities do not show much difference. Supported by a KAUST funded project on large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. The IBM Blue Gene P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awasthi, Ankit; Anderson, William
2015-11-01
Large-scale motions in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers amplitude modulate the viscous sublayer (Marusic et al., 2010: Science; Mathis et al., 2009: J. Fluid Mech.). This finding has promising implications for large-eddy simulation of wall-bounded turbulence at high Reynolds number (wherein the turbulence integral length exhibits linear proportionality with wall-normal elevation). Existing amplitude modulation studies have addressed smooth wall flows, though high Reynolds number rough wall flows are ubiquitous. Under such conditions, roughness-scale vortices ablate the viscous sublayer and result in the roughness sublayer. The roughness sublayer depth scales with aggregate element height, k, and is typically 2k ~ 3k. Above this, Townsend's Hypothesis dictates that the logarithmic layer is unaffected by the roughness sublayer. Here, we present large-eddy simulation results of turbulent channel flow over rough walls. We follow the decoupling procedure of Mathis et al., 2009: J. Fluid Mech., and present evidence that outer-layer dynamics amplitude modulate the roughness sublayer. Below the roughness element height, we report enormous sensitivity to element proximity. Above the elements, but within the roughness sublayer, topography dependence rapidly declines. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Turbulence and Transition Program (PM: Dr. R. Ponnoppan) under Grant # FA9550-14-1-0101. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.
Shifted periodic boundary conditions for large-eddy simulation of wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan
2015-11-01
In wall-bounded turbulent flow simulations, periodic boundary conditions combined with insufficiently long domains lead to persistent spanwise locking of large-scale turbulent structures. In the context of wind-farm large-eddy simulations, this effect induces artificial spanwise inhomogeneities in the time-averaged local wind conditions as seen by the wind turbines, leading to spurious differences in power prediction between otherwise equivalent columns of wind turbines in a wind farm (a column is defined here as a set of turbines parallel to the mean flow direction). We propose a shifted periodic boundary condition that eliminates this effect without the need for excessive streamwise domain lengths. Instead of straightforwardly reintroducing the velocity from the outlet plane back at the inlet, as in classic periodic boundary conditions, this plane is first shifted in the spanwise direction by a predefined and constant distance. The method is tested based on a set of direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow, and large-eddy simulations of a high Reynolds number rough-wall half-channel flow. Finally, we apply the method in a precursor simulation, generating inlet conditions for a spatially developing wind-farm boundary layer. WM and JM are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). CM acknowledges support by the NSF (grant IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).
Analysis of subgrid models using direct and large-eddy simulations of isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, S.; Yeung, P. K.
1994-12-01
Direct and large eddy simulations of forced and decaying isotropic turbulence have been performed using a pseudospectral and a finite-difference code. Subgrid models that include a one-equation subgrid kinetic energy model with and without a stochastic backscatter forcing term and a new scale similarity model have been analyzed in both Fourier space and physical space. The Fourier space analysis showed that the energy transfer across the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) is dominated by local interaction. The correlation between the exact and the modeled (by a spectral eddy viscosity) nonlinear terms and the subgrid energy transfer in physical space was found to be quite low. In physical space, a similar correlation analysis was carried out using top hat filtering. Results show that the subgrid stress and the energy flux predicted by the subgrid models correlates very well with the exact data. The scale similarity model showed very high correlation for reasonable grid resolution. However, with decrease in grid resolution, the scale similarity model became more uncorrelated, when compared to the kinetic energy subgrid model. The subgrid models were then used for large-eddy simulations for a range of Reynolds number. It was determined that the dissipation was modeled poorly and that the correlation with the exact results was quite low for all the models. In general, for coarse grid resolution, the scale similarity model consistently showed very low correlation while the kinetic energy model showed a relatively higher correlation. These results suggest that to use the scale similarity model relatively fine grid resolution may be required, whereas, the kinetic energy model could be used even in coarse grid.
Extraction of the large eddy structure of a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemmerman, L. A.; Payne, F. R.
1977-01-01
Much attention is currently being focused on turbulence modeling by separation of large-scale and small-scale turbulence. One major difficulty with this method is the problem of separating and defining the large-scale structure. In this paper, a method is presented which does this separation by analyzing time-averaged, two-point double velocity correlation measurements. The basis of the method is a maximization of the inner product of a candidate velocity field with the measured turbulent velocity field. An eigenvalue problem results, whose solution provides a set of orthogonal eigenfunctions associated with specific modes of turbulent motion. The large-scale eddy, containing most of the turbulent energy, is associated with the first (largest) mode. The turbulent velocity field is then represented as a sum of the eigenfunctions. A short description of the equations is given, the methods of solution are discussed, and some results for a two-dimensional fully developed turbulent boundary layer are presented.
Kogan, Y.L.; Kogan, Z.N.; Lilly, D.K.; Khairoutdinov, M.F.
1995-04-01
Stratocumulus clouds in the marine boundary layer exert a tremendous impact on the planetary radiation balance because of their persistence and large cover. Even small biases in the representation of their radiative parameters can produce large errors in the simulated planetary radiation balance. General circulation models (GCMs) and climate models most commonly use two parameterizations of cloud optical depth. The first employs as input parameters the climatological or in some other way averaged cloud droplet effective radius and liquid water path. The second concerns droplet concentration, mean droplet radius and cloud geometrical thickness. Both parameterizations are obtained from a general theoretical expression for cloud optical depth. This paper contrasts these two parameterizations with the general theoretical definition, using a set of cloud drop distribution functions generated by the CIMMS three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) stratocumulus cloud microphysical model.
Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.
2015-04-30
Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Trung; Khosronejad, Ali; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Peterson, Bonnie; Dewall, Petronella; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team; Minnesota Department of Transportation Team
2015-11-01
We study the dynamics of a river confluence on Mississippi River branch in the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. Field measurements by Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler using on-board GPS tracking were carried out for five campaigns in the summer of 2014 and 2015 to collect both river bed elevation data and flow fields. Large Eddy Simulation is carried out to simulate the flow field with the total of 100 million grid points for the domain length of 3.2 km. The simulation results agree well with field measurements at measured cross-sections. The results show the existence of wake mode on the mixing interface of two branches near the upstream junction corner. The mutual interaction between the shear layers emanating from the river banks leading to the formation of large scale energetic structures that leads to ``switching'' side of the flow coherent structures. Our result here is a feasibility study for the use of eddy-resolving simulations in predicting complex flow dynamics in medium-size natural rivers. This work is funded by Minnesota Dept. Transportation and Minnesota Institute of Supercomputing.
Large-eddy simulation of the generation and propagation of internal solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hai; Wang, LingLing; Tang, HongWu
2014-06-01
A modified large-eddy simulation model, the dynamic coherent eddy model (DCEM) is employed to simulate the generation and propagation of internal solitary waves (ISWs) of both depression and elevation type, with wave amplitudes ranging from small, medium to large scales. The simulation results agree well with the existing experimental data. The generation process of ISWs is successfully captured by the DCEM method. Shear instabilities and diapycnal mixing in the initial wave generation phase are observed. The dissipation rate is not equal at different locations of an ISW. ISW-induced velocity field is analyzed in the present study. The structure of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) of internal wave packets is found to be different from that of a single ISW. A reverse boundary jet instead of a separation bubble exists behind the leading internal wave while separation bubbles appear in other parts of the wave-induced velocity field. The boundary jet flow resulting from the adverse pressure gradients has distinctive dynamics compared with free shear jets.
An Examination of Parameters Affecting Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Past a Square Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, M. R.; Georgiadis, N. J.
2014-01-01
Separated flow over a bluff body is analyzed via large eddy simulations. The turbulent flow around a square cylinder features a variety of complex flow phenomena such as highly unsteady vortical structures, reverse flow in the near wall region, and wake turbulence. The formation of spanwise vortices is often times artificially suppressed in computations by either insufficient depth or a coarse spanwise resolution. As the resolution is refined and the domain extended, the artificial turbulent energy exchange between spanwise and streamwise turbulence is eliminated within the wake region. A parametric study is performed highlighting the effects of spanwise vortices where the spanwise computational domain's resolution and depth are varied. For Re=22,000, the mean and turbulent statistics computed from the numerical large eddy simulations (NLES) are in good agreement with experimental data. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the wake of the cylinder. Mesh independence is illustrated by comparing a mesh resolution of 2 million to 16 million. Sensitivities to time stepping were minimized and sampling frequency sensitivities were nonpresent. While increasing the spanwise depth and resolution can be costly, this practice was found to be necessary to eliminating the artificial turbulent energy exchange.
A spectral-element dynamic model for the Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapelier, J.-B.; Lodato, G.
2016-09-01
A spectral dynamic modeling procedure for Large-Eddy simulation is introduced in the context of discontinuous finite element methods. The proposed sub-grid scale model depends on a turbulence sensor built from the computation of a polynomial energy spectrum in each of the discretization elements. The evaluation of the energy decay gives an estimation of the quality of the resolution in each element and allows for adapting the intensity of the sub-grid dissipation locally. This approach is simple, robust, efficient and it is shown that the sub-grid model adapts to the amount of numerical dissipation in order to provide an accurate representation of the true sub-grid stresses. The present approach is tested for the large-eddy simulation of transitional, fully-developed and wall-bounded turbulence. In particular, results are reported for the Taylor-Green vortex and periodic turbulent channel flows at moderate Reynolds number. For these configurations, the new model shows an accurate description of turbulent phenomena at relatively coarse resolutions.
Evaluation of Subgrid-Scale Models for Large Eddy Simulation of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blaisdell, Gregory A.
1996-01-01
The objective of this project was to evaluate and develop subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models for large eddy simulations (LES) of compressible flows. During the first phase of the project results from LES using the dynamic SGS model were compared to those of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible homogeneous turbulence. The second phase of the project involved implementing the dynamic SGS model in a NASA code for simulating supersonic flow over a flat-plate. The model has been successfully coded and a series of simulations has been completed. One of the major findings of the work is that numerical errors associated with the finite differencing scheme used in the code can overwhelm the SGS model and adversely affect the LES results. Attached to this overview are three submitted papers: 'Evaluation of the Dynamic Model for Simulations of Compressible Decaying Isotropic Turbulence'; 'The effect of the formulation of nonlinear terms on aliasing errors in spectral methods'; and 'Large-Eddy Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Compressible Boundary Layer Flow'.
Large-eddy simulation of a solid-particles suspension in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
We decribe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer. The underlying approach to simulate the solid-particle laden flow is Eulerian-Eulerian in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of sand in desert sandstorms. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of sandstorms.
Trailing-edge noise reduction using derivative-free optimization and large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsden, Alison L.; Wang, Meng; Dennis, J. E.; Moin, Parviz
Derivative-free optimization techniques are applied in conjunction with large-eddy simulation (LES) to reduce the noise generated by turbulent flow over a hydrofoil trailing edge. A cost function proportional to the radiated acoustic power is derived based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hall solution to Lighthill's equation. Optimization is performed using the surrogate-management framework with filter-based constraints for lift and drag. To make the optimization more efficient, a novel method has been developed to incorporate Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations for constraint evaluation. Separation of the constraint and cost-function computations using this method results in fewer expensive LES computations. This work demonstrates the ability to fully couple optimization to large-eddy simulation for time-accurate turbulent flow. The results demonstrate an 89% reduction in noise power, which comes about primarily by the elimination of low-frequency vortex shedding. The higher-frequency broadband noise is reduced as well, by a subtle change in the lower surface near the trailing edge.
Large Eddy Simulations Of A Turbulent Auto-Igniting C2H4 Flame DNS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Edward; Shashank; Pitsch, Heinz; Richardson, Ed; Chen, Jackie
2010-11-01
Large eddy simulations of a turbulent auto-igniting flame are performed to analyze the interaction of different combustion regimes in a flamelet modeling framework. The case that is considered is a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a non-premixed jet flame at Re=10,000 with heated co-flow. This DNS was performed by Yoo et al. (Proc. Comb. Inst., 2010) using 1.29 billion cells and a 22 species mechanism. A series of flamelet-type approaches are applied in successive large eddy simulations of the flame to understand the importance and interaction of dissipation and auto-ignition. Simulations are first performed by relying either on purely 0-D auto-ignition chemistry or on purely steady non-premixed flamelet chemistry. These simulations significantly under- and over-predict the lift-off height, respectively. Two approaches are then considered that simultaneously account for these processes: a well known tabulated unsteady flamelet formulation and a multi-regime formulation that combines the limiting steady and auto-ignition solutions according to a regime indicator. Comparisons with the DNS demonstrate that these approaches lead to improved liff-off height predictions.
Large-eddy numerical simulation of an array of three-dimensional impinging jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizk, M. H.; Menon, S.
1987-04-01
Numerical simulations of a row of impinging jets are performed. Both the impinging jets and the fountains caused by the collision of the wall jets are modeled in the simulations. The problem considered contains the essential features of twin jets impinging on the ground, simulating the hovering configuration of a VTOL aircraft. The flow is assumed to be governed by the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The large-eddy simulation approach is followed in which all scales resolvable by the grid resolution are computed explicitly, while the small-scale turbulence structures, which are nearly universal in character, are modeled by an eddy viscosity formulation that simulates the energy cascade into the small scales. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a staggered computational mesh. Central finite differencing is used to discretize all terms except the convective terms, which are discretized using the QUICK scheme. The Adams-Bashforth scheme is used to advance the solution in time. The pressure Poisson equation is used in place of the continuity equation. Efficient direct solutions are obtained for the pressure field, which allows the continuity equation to be satisfied at each time step. This study focuses on the motion and dynamics of large-scale structures that have been experimentally observed in jet flows. The behavior of the jets and the fountain due to introducing axisymmetric, azimuthal and random disturbances at the jet exits is investigated.
A dynamic wall model for Large-Eddy simulations of wind turbine dedicated airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
J, Calafell; O, Lehmkuhl; A, Carmona; D, Pérez-Segarra C.; A, Oliva
2014-06-01
This work aims at modelling the flow behavior past a wind turbine dedicated airfoil at high Reynolds number and large angle of attack (AoA). The DU-93-W-210 airfoil has been selected. To do this, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed. Momentum equations have been solved with a parallel unstructured symmetry preserving formulation while the wall-adapting local-eddy viscosity model within a variational multi-scale framework (VMS- WALE) is used as the subgrid-scales model. Since LES calculations are still very expensive at high Reynolds Number, specially at the near-wall region, a dynamic wall model has been implemented in order to overcome this limitation. The model has been validated with a very unresolved Channel Flow case at Reτ = 2000. Afterwards, the model is also tested with the Ahmed Car case, that from the flow physics point of view is more similar to an stalled airfoil than the Channel Flow is, including flow features as boundary layer detachment and recirculations. This case has been selected because experimental results of mean velocity profiles are available. Finally, a flow around a DU-93-W-210 airfoil is computed at Re = 3 x 106 and with an AoA of 15°. Numerical results are presented in comparison with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or experimental data for all cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichkoohi, Ali Lohrasbi; Tousi, Abolghasem Mesgarpour
2014-10-01
Today, with nonstop improvement in computational power, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a high demanding research tool for predicting engineering flows. Such flows on high pressure condition like diesel engines is extensively employed in ground and marine transportation, oblige the designer to control and predict toxic pollutants, while maintaining or improving their high thermal efficiency. This becomes one of the main challenging issues in decades. In the present work, numerical investigation of diffusion flame dynamics is performed in the near-field of high-Reynolds jet flow on high pressure condition encountered in diesel engine applications. This work discusses the implementation of Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) combustion model by the approaches of large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation results show that LES, in comparison with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation predicts and captures transient phenomena very well. These phenomena such as unsteadiness and curvature are inherent in the near-field of high Reynolds diffusion flame. The outcomes of this research are compared and validated by other researchers' results. Detailed comparisons of the statistics show good agreement with the corresponding experiments.
Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.
2014-11-27
Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow in a street canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Zhiqiang; Cai, Xiaoming; Baker, J. Chris
2004-04-01
The turbulent flow inside an idealized urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of one is studied by means of large-eddy simulation. The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System is configured to simulate the turbulent flow in a neutrally stratified atmosphere with the initial wind perpendicular to the street canyon axis. The mean velocity components, resolved-scale turbulent kinetic energy (RS-TKE), the skewness and kurtosis of the resolved-scale velocity components (u along the canyon and w vertically) are compared with wind-tunnel measurements. The comparison indicates that a reasonable agreement is achieved. The simulation slightly underestimates the intensity of the primary eddy. It is found that distribution of the RS-TKE is very asymmetric: high in the vicinity of the downstream wall, and uniformly low in the vicinity of the upstream wall. The analyses of skewness and kurtosis indicate that there is a layer just below the rooftop in the canyon where ejection events dominate. Quadrant analysis of resolved-scale velocity fluctuations, u and w, under the rooftop at the centre of the canyon reveals that the exchange of momentum across the canyon top is contributed unevenly by different events. Weak ejection events dominate the frequency of occurrences, but fewer strong sweep events contribute the majority of the total momentum transfer. The features of momentum transfer are further investigated by analysing the spatial-temporal variations of u, w, and uw at the roof level. It is found that the variation of these variables is highly intermittent and is associated with multi-scale turbulent events. The period of eddies containing high RS-TKE is attributed to the Kelvin-Helmhotz instabilities. These results improve our understanding of the turbulent structure in street canyon flow.
Large Eddy Simulation study of fully developed thermal wind-turbine array boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, Charles; Calaf, Marc; Parlange, Marc B.
2010-05-01
It is well known that when wind turbines are deployed in large arrays, their efficiency decreases due to complex interactions among themselves and with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For wind farms whose length exceeds the height of the ABL by over an order of magnitude, a "fully developed" flow regime can be established. In this asymptotic regime, changes in the stream-wise direction can be neglected and the relevant exchanges occur in the vertical direction. Such a fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layer (WTABL) has recently been studied using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) under neutral stability conditions (Calaf et al. Physics of Fluids 22, 2010). Related wind-tunnel experiments on the WTABL are reported in Cal et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 2, 2010). The simulations showed the existence of two log-laws, one above and one below the wind turbine region. These results confirm basic assumptions made in prior work by Frandsen (J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 39, 1992) and Frandsen et al. (Wind Energy 9, 2006), and have enabled the development of more accurate parameterizations of the effective roughness scale for a wind farm. Now, a suite of Large Eddy Simulations, in which wind turbines are also modeled using the classical "drag disk" concept are performed but for non-neutral conditions. The aim is to study the effects of different thermal ABL stratifications, and thus to better understand the efficiency and characteristics of large wind farms and the associated land-atmosphere interactions for realistic atmospheric flow regimes. Such studies help to unravel the physics involved in extensive aggregations of wind turbines, allowing us to design better wind farm arrangements. By considering various turbine loading factors, surface roughness values and different atmospheric stratifications, it is possible to analyze the influence of these on the induced surface roughness, and the sensible heat roughness length. These last two can be used to
Large eddy simulation of flows after a bluff body: Coherent structures and mixing properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Pei; Han, Chao; Chen, Yiliang
2013-10-01
This paper performs large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate coherent structures in the flows after the Sydney bluff-body burner, a circular bluff body with an orifice at its center. The simulations are validated by comparison to existing experimental data. The Q function method is used to visualize the instantaneous vortex structures. Three kinds of structures are found, a cylindrical shell structure in the outer shear layer, a ring structure and some hairpin-like structures in the inner shear layer. An eduction scheme is employed to investigate the coherent structures in this flow. Some large streaks constituted by counter-rotating vortices are found in the outer shear layer and some well-organized strong structures are found in the inner shear layer. Finally, the influences of coherent structures on scalar mixing are studied and it is shown that scalar in the recirculation region is transported outward by coherent structures.
Large eddy simulation of fine water sprays: comparative analysis of two models and computer codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoy, A. S.; Snegirev, A. Yu.
2015-09-01
The model and the computer code FDS, albeit widely used in engineering practice to predict fire development, is not sufficiently validated for fire suppression by fine water sprays. In this work, the effect of numerical resolution of the large scale turbulent pulsations on the accuracy of predicted time-averaged spray parameters is evaluated. Comparison of the simulation results obtained with the two versions of the model and code, as well as that of the predicted and measured radial distributions of the liquid flow rate revealed the need to apply monotonic and yet sufficiently accurate discrete approximations of the convective terms. Failure to do so delays jet break-up, otherwise induced by large turbulent eddies, thereby excessively focuses the predicted flow around its axis. The effect of the pressure drop in the spray nozzle is also examined, and its increase has shown to cause only weak increase of the evaporated fraction and vapor concentration despite the significant increase of flow velocity.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in the free atmosphere and behind aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumann, U.; Dörnbrack, A.; Dürbeck, T.; Gerz, T.
1997-02-01
The method of large-eddy simulation has been used for a wide variety of atmospheric flow problems. This paper gives an overview on recent applications of this method to turbulence in the free atmosphere under stably stratified conditions. In particular, flows in the wake of aircraft are studied in light of the potential impact of aircraft exhausts on the chemical and climatological state of the atmosphere. It is shown that different profiles of heat and moisture in the initial conditions of a jet representing engine exhaust gases may cause larger water saturation and hence earlier contrail formation than assumed up to now. The instability of trailing vortices in the wake of an aircraft is simulated up to the fully turbulent regime. The vertical diffusivity of aircraft exhaust is large in the vortex regime and much smaller than horizontal diffusivities in the later diffusion regime. The three-dimensional formation of a critical layer and breaking of gravity waves is simulated.
Artificial Fluid Properties for Large-Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Mixing
Cook, A W
2007-01-08
An alternative methodology is described for Large-Eddy Simulation of flows involving shocks, turbulence and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of an ''LES'' fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a 10th-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in crisp fashion.
Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.
Zhou, Ye; Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Haines, Brian M
2014-01-01
In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest. PMID:24580356
Artificial fluid properties for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Andrew W.
2007-05-01
An alternative methodology is described for large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows involving shocks, turbulence, and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of a LES fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a tenth-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in a crisp fashion.
Large-eddy simulations of axisymmetric excitation effects on a row of impinging jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizk, Magdi H.; Menon, Suresh
1988-07-01
Numerical simulations of a row of impinging jets are performed. Both the impinging jets and the fountains caused by the collision of the wall jets are modeled in the simulation. The problem considered contains the essential features of twin jets impinging on the ground, simulating the hovering configuration of a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. The flow is assumed to be governed by the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The large-eddy simulation approach is followed. The present study focuses on the motion and dynamics of large-scale structures that have been experimentally observed in jet flows. The behavior of the jets and the fountain caused by the introduction of axisymmetric disturbances at the jet exits are investigated.
Martian dust devil statistics from high-resolution large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, Seiya; Odaka, Masatsugu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Sato, Yousuke; Tomita, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki
2016-05-01
Dust devils are one of the key elements in the Martian atmospheric circulation. In order to examine their statistics, we conducted high-resolution (up to 5 m) and wide-domain (about 20 × 20 km2) large-eddy simulations of the Martian daytime convective layer. Large numbers of dust devils developed spontaneously in the simulations, which enabled us to represent a quantitative consideration of Martian dust devil frequency distributions. We clarify the distributions of size and intensity, a topic of debate, and conclude that the maximum vertical vorticity of an individual dust devil has an exponential distribution, while the radius and circulation have power law distributions. A grid refinement experiment shows that the rate parameter of the vorticity distribution and the exponent of the circulation distribution are robust. The mode of the size distribution depends on the resolution, and it is suggested that the mode is less than 5 m.
Implicit Large Eddy Simulation of a wingtip vortex at Rec =1.2x106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer; SherwinLab Team
2015-11-01
We present recent developments in numerical methods for performing a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the formation and evolution of a wingtip vortex. The development of these vortices in the near wake, in combination with the large Reynolds numbers present in these cases, make these types of test cases particularly challenging to investigate numerically. To demonstrate the method's viability, we present results from numerical simulations of flow over a NACA 0012 profile wingtip at Rec = 1.2 x106 and compare them against experimental data, which is to date the highest Reynolds number achieved for a LES that has been correlated with experiments for this test case. Our model correlates favorably with experiment, both for the characteristic jetting in the primary vortex and pressure distribution on the wing surface. The proposed method is of general interest for the modeling of transitioning vortex dominated flows over complex geometries. McLaren Racing/Royal Academy of Engineering Research Chair.
Large-eddy simulation of plume dispersion under various thermally stratified boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, H.; Takemi, T.; Nagai, H.
2014-07-01
Contaminant gas dispersion in atmospheric boundary layer is of great concern to public health. For the accurate prediction of the dispersion problem, the present study numerically investigates the behavior of plume dispersion by taking into account the atmospheric stability which is classified into three types; neutral, stable, and convective boundary layers. We first proposed an efficient method to generate spatially-developing, thermally-stratified boundary layers and examined the usefulness of our approach by comparing to wind tunnel experimental data for various thermal boundary layers. The spreads of plume in the spanwise direction are quantitatively underestimated especially at large downwind distances from the point source, owing to the underestimation of turbulence intensities for the spanwise component; however, the dependence of the spanwise spreads to atmospheric stability is well represented in a qualitative sense. It was shown that the large-eddy simulation (LES) model provides physically reasonable results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiesset, Fabien; Maurice, Guillaume; Halter, Fabien; Mazellier, Nicolas; Chauveau, Christian; Gökalp, Iskender
2016-05-01
We propose a model for assessing the unresolved wrinkling factor in the large eddy simulation of turbulent premixed combustion. It relies essentially on a power-law dependence of the wrinkling factor on the filter size and an original expression for the 'active' corrugating strain rate. The latter is written as the turbulent strain multiplied by an efficiency function that accounts for viscous effects and the kinematic constraint of Peters. This yields functional expressions for the fractal dimension and the inner cut-off length scale, the latter being (i) filter-size independent and (ii) consistent with the Damköhler asymptotic behaviours at both large and small Karlovitz numbers. A new expression for the wrinkling factor that incorporates finite Reynolds number effects is further proposed. Finally, the model is successfully assessed on an experimental filtered database.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Jaberi, Farhad A.
2001-01-01
The basic objective of this work is to assess the influence of gravity on "the compositional and the spatial structures" of transitional and turbulent diffusion flames via large eddy simulation (LES), and direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS is conducted for appraisal of the various closures employed in LES, and to study the effect of buoyancy on the small scale flow features. The LES is based on our "filtered mass density function"' (FMDF) model. The novelty of the methodology is that it allows for reliable simulations with inclusion of "realistic physics." It also allows for detailed analysis of the unsteady large scale flow evolution and compositional flame structure which is not usually possible via Reynolds averaged simulations.
Large Eddy Simulation of AN Elliptic Jet Injected Into a Supersonic Crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guo-Lei; Lu, Xi-Yun
A transverse jet issuing from an elliptic injector into a supersonic crossflow has been investigated using large eddy simulation. The complex flow structures and the relevant flow features are analyzed to exhibit the evolution of shock structures, vertical structures and jet shear layer. A horseshoe vortex is formed in the upstream of the jet and the shock structures exhibit small fluctuations due to the flow interaction. The kidney-shaped counter-rotating vortex pair dominates the flow field in the downstream of the jet. The elliptic jet spreads rapidly in the spanwise direction and then the axis-switching phenomenon occurs. Intense turbulent fluctuations are identified behind the Mach disk because of the large velocity gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Joon Sang
The compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a second order accurate finite volume method with low Mach number preconditioning. A dynamic subgrid-scale stress model accounted for the subgrid-scale turbulence. The study focused on the effects of buoyancy and rotation on the structure of turbulence and transport processes including heat transfer. Several different physical arrangements were studied as outlined below. The effects of buoyancy were first studied in a vertical channel using large eddy simulation (LES). The walls were maintained at constant temperatures, one heated and the other cooled. Results showed that aiding and opposing buoyancy forces emerge near the heated and cooled walls, respectively. In the aiding flow, the turbulent intensities and heat transfer were suppressed at large values of Grashof number. In the opposing flow, however, turbulence was enhanced with increased velocity fluctuations. Another buoyancy study considered turbulent flow in a vertically oriented annulus. Isoflux wall boundary conditions with low and high heating were imposed on the inner wall while the outer wall was adiabatic. The results showed that the strong heating and buoyancy force caused distortions of the flow structure resulting in reduction of turbulent intensities, shear stress, and turbulent heat flux, particularly near the heated wall. Flow in an annular pipe with and without an outer wall rotation about its axis was first investigated at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the outer pipe wall was rotated, a significant reduction of turbulent kinetic energy was realized near the rotating wall. Secondly, a large eddy simulation has been performed to investigate the effect of swirl on the heat and momentum transfer in an annular pipe flow with a rotating inner wall. The simulations indicated that the Nusselt number and the wall friction coefficient increased with increasing rotation speed of the wall. It was also observed that the axial velocity
Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation Computations of Variable-Speed Power Turbine Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.
2016-01-01
Variable-speed power turbines (VSPTs) operate at low Reynolds numbers and with a wide range of incidence angles. Transition, separation, and the relevant physics leading to them are important to VSPT flow. Higher fidelity tools such as large eddy simulation (LES) may be needed to resolve the flow features necessary for accurate predictive capability and design of such turbines. A survey conducted for this report explores the requirements for such computations. The survey is limited to the simulation of two-dimensional flow cases and endwalls are not included. It suggests that a grid resolution necessary for this type of simulation to accurately represent the physics may be of the order of Delta(x)+=45, Delta(x)+ =2 and Delta(z)+=17. Various subgrid-scale (SGS) models have been used and except for the Smagorinsky model, all seem to perform well and in some instances the simulations worked well without SGS modeling. A method of specifying the inlet conditions such as synthetic eddy modeling (SEM) is necessary to correctly represent the inlet conditions.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Transition to Turbulence in Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huai, Xiao-Li; Joslin, Ronald D.; Piomelli, Ugo
1997-01-01
Large-eddy simulation results for laminar-to-turbulent transition in a spatially developing boundary layer are presented. The disturbances are ingested into a laminar flow through an unsteady suction-and-blowing strip. The filtered, three-dimensional time- dependent Navier-Stokes equations are integrated numerically using spectral, high-order finite-difference, and three-stage low-storage Runge-Kutta methods. The buffer-domain technique is used for the outflow boundary condition. The localized dynamic model used to parameterize the subgrid-scale stresses begins to have a significant impact at the beginning of the nonlinear transition (or intermittency) region. The flow structures commonly found in experiments are also observed in the present simulation; the computed linear instability modes and secondary instability lambda-vortex structures are in agreement with the experiments, and the streak-like-structures and turbulent statistics compare with both the experiments and the theory. The physics captured in the present LES are consistent with the experiments and the full Navier-Stokes simulation (DNS), at a significant fraction of the DNS cost. A comparison of the results obtained with several SGS models shows that the localized model gives accurate results both in a statistical sense and in terms of predicting the dynamics of the energy-carrying eddies, without ad hoc adjustments.
Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.
2015-10-29
In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate themore » evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.« less
Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.
2015-10-29
In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate the evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.
Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A.
2012-10-15
Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.
A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion
Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.
2008-09-15
Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)
Large-Eddy Simulation of Trailing-Edge Turbulence and Aeroacoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz
1997-11-01
Turbulent boundary layers near the trailing-edge of a lifting surface are known to generate intense, broadband scattering noise as well as surface pressure fluctuations. To numerically predict the trailing-edge noise requires that the noise-generating eddies over a wide range of length scales be adequately represented. Large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques provide a promising tool for obtaining the unsteady wall-pressure fields and the near-field turbulence quantities. The latter serve as acoustic source functions in a Lighthill-analogy based aeroacoustic formulation. In the present work, LES is carried out for a flow past a flat strut with an asymmetrically beveled trailing edge, at a chord Reynolds number of 2.15 × 10^6, in a computational domain containing the aft section of the strut and the near-wake. The asymmetric edge shape produces a separated boundary layer on the upper side and an attached boundary layer on the lower side. The simulation is based on the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and employs the dynamic subgrid-scale model. The general methodology for the near-field LES and acoustic calculation will be discussed and preliminary results presented.
Large-eddy simulations of impinging jets at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wen; Piomelli, Ugo
2013-11-01
We have performed large-eddy simulations of an impinging jet with embedded azimuthal vortices. We used a hybrid approach in which the near-wall layer is modelled using the RANS equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model, while away from the wall Lagrangian-averaged dynamic eddy-viscosity modelled LES is used. This method allowed us to reach Reynolds numbers that would be prohibitively expensive for wall-resolving LES. First, we compared the results of the hybrid calculation with a wall-resolved one at moderate Reynolds number, Re = 66 , 000 (based on jet diameter and velocity). The mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were in good agreement between the simulations, and, in particular, the generation of secondary vorticity at the wall and its liftup were captured well. The simulation cost was reduced by 86%. We then carried out simulations at Re = 266 , 000 and 1.3 million. The effect of Reynolds number on vortex development will be discussed. Canada Research Chair in Computational Turbulence, HPCVL-Sun Microsystems Chair in Computational Science and Engineering.
Investigations of Subsonic Compressible Boundary Layer Flows using Hybrid Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Sara Jo
The objective of this thesis is to investigate the spatially developing turbulent compressible boundary layer on a flat plate using the Spalart-Allmaras Detached Eddy Simulation (SA-DES) model [22] and the Nichols-Nelson hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) model [13] which have been implemented into the Wind-US 3.0 computational fluid dynamics code [30]; both of the hybrid approaches involve RANS modeling in the near-wall region and LES treatment in the outer region. Generation of unsteady turbulent inflow data is achieved via the prescribed energy spectrum method. The studies illustrated dependence on Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ, ranging from 3018 to 19430, and dependence on Mach number,
Large Eddy Simulation of Dilute Sediment Suspension in an Open Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, Getnet; Smith, Heather D.
2012-11-01
Flow and suspended sediment transport in fully developed turbulent open channel flow has been investigated using Large Eddy Simulation. We used a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM for this study. Pre-evaluation of three existing turbulence closure schemes is performed by comparing the mean flow and turbulent quantities with the direct numerical simulation results of Moser et al. (1999). It is found that the Dynamic Mixed Smagorinsky model underestimates the wall shear stress compared to the Dynamic Smagorinsky and one equation Eddy Viscosity schemes. Moreover, the Dynamic Smagorinsky scheme gives relatively better results in both the mean and turbulent quantities. The advection-diffusion equation is solved for suspended sediment transport and the effect of sediment roughness is included in the momentum equation based on the rough wall formulation proposed by Cebeci and Bradshaw (1977). A pick up function based on van Rijn (1984) is used to determine the sediment erosion. The settling process is taken into account with a settling velocity appearing in the concentration equation. Sediment and flow quantities are validated by comparing with the experimental data of Lyn (1988). The coupled hydrodynamics results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Philip E.
2004-01-01
This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.
A grid-independent length scale for large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piomelli, U.; Geurts, B. J.
2009-11-01
In most large-eddy simulations a length-scale related to the grid size is used in the subgrid-scale models. Rapid variations of the mesh may cause errors and unphysical results. We propose a new length scale for small-scale turbulence models that is decoupled from the grid, and is determined dynamically from the velocity field itself. It is based on an approximation to a local integral scale used in turbulence models. The resulting eddy-viscosity model has many features of dynamic models (it vanishes near a wall or in laminar flows, and senses the local small scales of the flow) but does not require the use of spatial filtering operations, which are costly and may be difficult to perform on unstructured grids. The model coefficient is determined by a Successive Inverse Polynomial Interpolation procedure (Geurts & Meyers, 2006), in which the coefficient is optimized computationally to minimize a specified cost function. Since this procedure can be performed on coarse grids, it adds little to the computational cost of the method. A set of 4-6 coarse simulations with the new model is required to approximate the optimum with fair accuracy, and the total cost of a simulation is comparable to that of a single simulation with a dynamic model. The new length scale also has the desirable feature that refining the mesh does not result in a DNS, but in a grid-converged LES. Applications to plane channel and mixing layers will be presented.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Through an Array of Cubes with Local Grid Refinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodfriend, Elijah; Katopodes Chow, Fotini; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias
2016-05-01
High resolution simulations of the transport of urban contaminants are important for disaster response and city planning. Large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesh refinement can each be used to decrease the computational cost of modelling, but combining these techniques can result in additional errors at grid-refinement interfaces. Here, we study the effect of the turbulence closure on the accuracy of LES results, for grids with mesh refinement, in a test case of flow through a periodic array of cubes. It is found that a mixed-model turbulence closure, using both an eddy viscosity and a scale similarity component, reduces energy accumulation at grid-refinement interfaces when used with explicit filtering of the advection term. The mixed model must be used with explicit filtering to control high wavenumber errors generated by the non-linear scale-similarity model. The results demonstrate that the turbulence closure mitigates errors associated with using LES on block-structured grids for urban-flow simulations.
Large-eddy simulation of 3-D corner separation in a linear compressor cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Feng; Ma, Wei; Zambonini, Gherardo; Boudet, Jérôme; Ottavy, Xavier; Lu, Lipeng; Shao, Liang
2015-08-01
The increase of the thrust/weight ratio of aircraft engines is extremely restricted by different 3-D flow loss mechanisms. One of them is the corner separation that can form at the junction between a blade suction side and a hub or shroud. In this paper, in order to further investigate the turbulent characteristics of corner separation, large-eddy simulation (LES) is conducted on a compressor cascade configuration using NACA65 blade profiles (chord based Reynolds number: 3.82 × 105), in comparison with the previous obtained experimental data. Using the shear-improved Smagorinsky model as subgrid-scale model, the LES gives a good description of the mean aerodynamics of the corner separation, especially for the blade surface static pressure coefficient and the total pressure losses. The turbulent dynamics is then analyzed in detail, in consideration of the turbulent structures, the one-point velocity spectra, and the turbulence anisotropy. Within the recirculation region, the energy appears to concentrate around the largest turbulent eddies, with fairly isotropic characteristics. Concerning the dynamics, an aperiodic shedding of hairpin vortices seems to induce an unsteadiness of the separation envelope.
Aero-Thermal Prediction in High Pressure Turbine Cascade using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaskaran, Rathakrishnan; Lele, Sanjiva
2008-11-01
The aero-thermal performance of an uncooled, smooth high pressure (HP) turbine cascade in the presence of free-stream turbulence is studied using a high-order overset mesh Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure. A HP vane cascade designed at the von Karman Institute (VKI) for fluid dynamics, Belgium, is used as the model geometry. Simulations matching experimental conditions, except for the Reynolds number which is about half of the experimental value, have been carried out. Significant enhancement in the blade heat-transfer is seen in the presence of inflow turbulence. Eddies from the free-stream turbulence get stretched around the blade, creating long streaky structures in the blade boundary layer. These structures quickly break down on the suction side, while they persist on the pressure side. The blade heat transfer signature from the simulations does not show transition of the boundary layer at the Reynolds number of the simulation. This is consistent with the trend seen in the experiments where transition is delayed by lowering the Reynolds number. New simulations matching the experimental Reynolds number are currently under way.
Formation mechanism of dust devil-like vortices in a large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, J.; Niino, H.; Nakanishi, M.
2012-12-01
Dust devils are small-scale vertical vortices that often occur over deserts in fine weather conditions in which a convective mixed layer develops. Why such strong vortices are generated remains an issue in the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, and several hypotheses for the origin of strong vertical vorticity in dust devils have been proposed. However, no quantitative study on the source of vertical vorticity of dust devils has been made. In this study, a large eddy simulation model with grid spacing of 5m is used to simulate dust devil-like vortices (DDVs) embedded in a convective mixed layer and a quantitative analysis on their source of its vertical vorticity is made. In order to investigate the origin of vertical vorticity in the simulated DDV, the circulation, which is a conserved quantity in the absence of turbulent transport and baroclinic production of horizontal vorticity, is examined, where the circulation is calculated as a surface integral of vorticity vector on a material surface. The deformation of the material surface as it flows into the DDV shows gives quantitative information about how stretching and tilting of vorticity contribute to the formation of the DDV. Material surface is initially placed horizontally in the core of the simulated DDV. It is divided into about 20000 triangular patches and vertices of the patches are tracked backward for 128 seconds. Our analysis shows that the material surface converges, while approximately conserving circulation, toward the DDV from a wide horizontal plane. A standard deviation of circulations over horizontal circles of several hundred meters in radius near the surface shows that presence of circulations is an inherent property of the convective mixed layer and its magnitude is reasonably scaled by the product of the depth of convective mixed layer and the convective velocity. As a result of horizontal convergence of the circulation, strength of formed DDVs can be scaled with the convective
Large-eddy simulation of flow past urban-like surfaces: A model validation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2013-04-01
Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows inside and above urban canopies. This study focuses on developing and validating an LES framework to simulate flow past urban-like surfaces. In particular, large-eddy simulations were performed of flow past an infinite long two-dimensional (2D) building and an array of 3D cubic buildings. An immersed boundary (IB) method was employed to simulate both 2D and 3D buildings. Four subgrid-scale (SGS) models, including (i) the traditional Smagorinsky model, (ii) the Lagrangian dynamic model, (iii) the Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic model, and (iv) the modulated gradient model, were evaluated using the 2D building case. The simulated velocity streamlines and the vertical profiles of the mean velocities and variances were compared with experimental results. The modulated gradient model shows the best overall agreement with the experimental results among the four SGS models. In particular, the flow recirculation, the reattachment position and the vertical profiles are accurately reproduced with a grid resolution of (Nx)x(Ny)x(Nz) =160x40x160 ((nx)x(nz) =13x16 covering the block). After validating the LES framework with the 2D building case, it was further applied to simulate a boundary-layer flow past a 3D building array. A regular aligned building array with seven rows of cubic buildings was simulated. The building spacings in the streamwise and spanwise directions were both equal to the building height. A developed turbulent boundary-layer flow was used as the incoming flow. The results were
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carriedmore » out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.« less
Wall modeling for implicit large-eddy simulation and immersed-interface methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhen Li; Hickel, Stefan; Devesa, Antoine; Berland, Julien; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2014-02-01
We propose and analyze a wall model based on the turbulent boundary layer equations (TBLE) for implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) of high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows in conjunction with a conservative immersed-interface method for mapping complex boundaries onto Cartesian meshes. Both implicit subgrid-scale model and immersed-interface treatment of boundaries offer high computational efficiency for complex flow configurations. The wall model operates directly on the Cartesian computational mesh without the need for a dual boundary-conforming mesh. The combination of wall model and implicit LES is investigated in detail for turbulent channel flow at friction Reynolds numbers from Re τ = 395 up to Re τ =100,000 on very coarse meshes. The TBLE wall model with implicit LES gives results of better quality than current explicit LES based on eddy viscosity subgrid-scale models with similar wall models. A straightforward formulation of the wall model performs well at moderately large Reynolds numbers. A logarithmic-layer mismatch, observed only at very large Reynolds numbers, is removed by introducing a new structure-based damping function. The performance of the overall approach is assessed for two generic configurations with flow separation: the backward-facing step at Re h = 5,000 and the periodic hill at Re H = 10,595 and Re H = 37,000 on very coarse meshes. The results confirm the observations made for the channel flow with respect to the good prediction quality and indicate that the combination of implicit LES, immersed-interface method, and TBLE-based wall modeling is a viable approach for simulating complex aerodynamic flows at high Reynolds numbers. They also reflect the limitations of TBLE-based wall models.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carried out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.
The role of large eddy fluctuations in the magnetic dynamics of the Madison Dynamo Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, Elliot
The Madison Dynamo Experiment (MDE), a liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamics experiment in a 1 m diameter sphere at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, had measured [in Spence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Bonin, Timothy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Palmer, Robert D.
2015-05-01
Small-scale turbulent fluctuations of temperature are known to affect the propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Within the inertial-subrange scale, where the turbulence is locally homogeneous and isotropic, these temperature perturbations can be described, in a statistical sense, using the structure-function parameter for temperature, . Here we investigate different methods of evaluating , using data from a numerical large-eddy simulation together with atmospheric observations collected by an unmanned aerial system and a sodar. An example case using data from a late afternoon unmanned aerial system flight on April 24 2013 and corresponding large-eddy simulation data is presented and discussed.
Large Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of CUBRC Base Heating Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salazar, Giovanni; Edwards, Jack R.; Amar, Adam J.
2012-01-01
ven with great advances in computational techniques and computing power during recent decades, the modeling of unsteady separated flows, such as those encountered in the wake of a re-entry vehicle, continues to be one of the most challenging problems in CFD. Of most interest to the aerothermodynamics community is accurately predicting transient heating loads on the base of a blunt body, which would result in reduced uncertainties and safety margins when designing a re-entry vehicle. However, the prediction of heat transfer can vary widely depending on the turbulence model employed. Therefore, selecting a turbulence model which realistically captures as much of the flow physics as possible will result in improved results. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models have become increasingly popular due to their good performance with attached flows, and the relatively quick turnaround time to obtain results. However, RANS methods cannot accurately simulate unsteady separated wake flows, and running direct numerical simulation (DNS) on such complex flows is currently too computationally expensive. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques allow for the computation of the large eddies, which contain most of the Reynolds stress, while modeling the smaller (subgrid) eddies. This results in models which are more computationally expensive than RANS methods, but not as prohibitive as DNS. By complimenting an LES approach with a RANS model, a hybrid LES/RANS method resolves the larger turbulent scales away from surfaces with LES, and switches to a RANS model inside boundary layers. As pointed out by Bertin et al., this type of hybrid approach has shown a lot of promise for predicting turbulent flows, but work is needed to verify that these models work well in hypersonic flows. The very limited amounts of flight and experimental data available presents an additional challenge for researchers. Recently, a joint study by NASA and CUBRC has focused on collecting heat transfer data
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Tsai, A.
1991-01-01
This research is involved with the implementations of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program was initiated to extend the present capabilities of this method for the treatment of chemically reacting flows, whereas in the DNS efforts, focus was on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and nonequilibrium kinetics modeling in high speed reacting flows. The efforts to date were primarily focussed on simulations of simple flows, namely, homogeneous compressible flows and temporally developing hign speed mixing layers. A summary of the accomplishments is provided.
Large-eddy simulations of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobke, Alexandra; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2016-04-01
Adverse pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) are studied by performing well-resolved large-eddy simulations. The pressure gradient is imposed by defining the free-stream velocity distribution with the description of a power law. Different inflow conditions, box sizes and upper boundary conditions are tested in order to determine the final set-up. The statistics of turbulent boundary layers with two different power-law coefficients and thus magnitudes of adverse pressure gradients are then compared to zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) data. The effect of the APG on TBLs is manifested in the mean flow through a much more prominent wake region and in the Reynolds stresses through the existence of an outer peak. The pre-multiplied energy budgets show that more energy is transported from the near-wall region to farther away from the wall.
Large-eddy simulation of flow around an airfoil on a structured mesh
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob; Choi, Haecheon
1995-01-01
The diversity of flow characteristics encountered in a flow over an airfoil near maximum lift taxes the presently available statistical turbulence models. This work describes our first attempt to apply the technique of large-eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest. The challenge for this simulation comes from the high Reynolds number of the flow as well as the variety of flow regimes encountered, including a thin laminar boundary layer at the nose, transition, boundary layer growth under adverse pressure gradient, incipient separation near the trailing edge, and merging of two shear layers at the trailing edge. The flow configuration chosen is a NACA 4412 airfoil near maximum lift. The corresponding angle of attack was determined independently by Wadcock (1987) and Hastings & Williams (1984, 1987) to be close to 12 deg. The simulation matches the chord Reynolds number U(sub infinity)c/v = 1.64 x 10(exp 6) of Wadcock's experiment.
Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A.
1990-01-01
Excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation is one of the main problems associated with steam generators. Vibration can lead to rupture of tubes within the steam generator, necessitating plugging, and perhaps even replacement of the component. Turbulence buffeting, and resulting excitation, is believed to be one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The present investigation uses LES to calculate the flow field for an array of tubes subject to turbulent flow and to compare the fluctuating lift and drag forces on a central tube with experimental findings. Predictions to date using LES methodology compare quite favorably with experimental data.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in a square pitched tube array
Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A. )
1990-06-01
One of the main problems associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. This vibration can lead to the rupture of the tubes within the steam generator, causing reduced availability due to tube plugging, and can eventually force replacement of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction that causes fluid-elastic excitation is unknown at this time, but it is believed that turbulence buffeting and resulting excitation is one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The investigation describes in this paper utilizes LES in calculating the flow field for a square pitched tube array in cross flow. A good comparison has been obtained between calculated and measured values of the power spectral density (PSD) of the lift and drag forces.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow with a surface-mounted two-dimensional obstacle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Kyung-Soo; Ferziger, Joel H.
1993-01-01
In this paper, we perform a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in a channel containing a two-dimensional obstacle on one wall using a dynamic subgrid-scale model (DSGSM) at Re = 3210, based on bulk velocity above the obstacle and obstacle height; the wall layers are fully resolved. The low Re enables us to perform a DNS (Case 1) against which to validate the LES results. The LES with the DSGSM is designated Case 2. In addition, an LES with the conventional fixed model constant (Case 3) is conducted to allow identification of improvements due to the DSGSM. We also include LES at Re = 82,000 (Case 4) using conventional Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model and a wall-layer model. The results will be compared with the experiment of Dimaczek et al.
Large Eddy Simulation of diesel injector opening with a two phase cavitation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Li, J.; Wang, L.
2015-12-01
In the current paper, indicative results of the flow simulation during the opening phase of a Diesel injector are presented. In order to capture the complex flow field and cavitation structures forming in the injector, Large Eddy Simulation has been employed, whereas compressibility of the liquid was included. For taking into account cavitation effects, a two phase homogenous mixture model was employed. The mass transfer rate of the mixture model was adjusted to limit as much as possible the occurrence of negative pressures. During the simulation, pressure peaks have been found in areas of vapour collapse, with magnitude beyond 4000bar, which is higher that the yield stress of common materials. The locations of such pressure peaks corresponds well with the actual erosion location as found from X ray scans.
Using Large Eddy Simulation for understanding vented gas explosions in the presence of obstacles.
Di Sarli, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Almerinda; Russo, Gennaro
2009-09-30
In this work, a validated Large Eddy Simulation model of unsteady premixed flame propagation is used to study the phenomenology underlying vented gas explosions in the presence of obstacles. Computations are run of deflagrating flames in a small-scale combustion chamber closed at the bottom end and open at the opposite face. A single obstacle is centred inside the chamber. Methane-air mixtures of various compositions (ranging from lean to stoichiometric and rich), and obstacles with different area blockage ratios (30, 50 and 70%) and shapes (circular, rectangular and square cross-section in the flow direction) are investigated. All cases are initialized from stagnation. The competition between combustion rate and venting rate allows explaining both number and intensity of the overpressure peaks observed. PMID:19409700
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubev, Vladimir V.
2003-01-01
The summer fellowship research project focused on further developing an advanced computational technique based on Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) for analysis and control of major sources of noise in turbomachinery and propulsion systems, including jet noise and fan noise. Major part of the work during the 10-week tenure dealt with implementing a low-order, implicit A-stable time-stepping scheme in the existing explicit VLES code of Dr. Ray Hixon. The preliminary plan of the work also included application of a new time marching formulation to the problem of viscous gust-airfoil interaction. Other research items selected for implementation (possibly in the future) included investigating a set of new subgrid turbulent models for the code, and code application to a number of test cases, including a supersonic jet and swirling flow downstream of a rotor stage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spyropoulos, Evangelos T.; Holmes, Bayard S.
1997-01-01
The dynamic subgrid-scale model is employed in large-eddy simulations of flow over a cylinder at a Reynolds number, based on the diameter of the cylinder, of 90,000. The Centric SPECTRUM(trademark) finite element solver is used for the analysis. The far field sound pressure is calculated from Lighthill-Curle's equation using the computed fluctuating pressure at the surface of the cylinder. The sound pressure level at a location 35 diameters away from the cylinder and at an angle of 90 deg with respect to the wake's downstream axis was found to have a peak value of approximately 110 db. Slightly smaller peak values were predicted at the 60 deg and 120 deg locations. A grid refinement study suggests that the dynamic model demands mesh refinement beyond that used here.
Technical note: Large-eddy simulation of cloudy boundary layer with the Advanced Research WRF model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Feingold, Graham
2012-03-01
A thorough evaluation of the large-eddy simulation (LES) mode of the Advanced Research WRF model is performed with use of three cloudy boundary layer cases developed as LES intercomparison cases by the GEWEX Cloud System Study. Our evaluation reveals two problems that must be recognized and carefully addressed before proceeding with production runs. These are (i) sensitivity of results to the prescribed number of acoustic time steps per physical time step; and (ii) the assumption of saturation adjustment in the initial cloudy state. A temporary, but effective method of how to cope with these issues is suggested. With the proper treatment, the simulation results are comparable to the ensemble mean of the other LES models, and sometimes closer to the observational estimate than the ensemble mean. In order to ease the burden for configuration and post-processing, two new packages are developed and implemented. A detailed description of each package is presented. These packages are freely available to the public.
Intensity of thunderstorm-generated turbulence revealed by large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Todd P.; Sharman, Robert D.
2014-03-01
Thunderstorms are characterized by turbulent processes that constitute an important aviation hazard and cause vertical transport of atmospheric constituents. Turbulence occurs within cloud and in the surrounding clear air, but, despite its importance, the characteristics of thunderstorm-generated turbulence and its spatial distribution are poorly understood, especially outside of cloud. Here we use large-eddy simulation to characterize turbulence generated by a canonical thunderstorm. The simulation identifies regions of notable three-dimensional anisotropic turbulence more than 5 km above the storm, in a shallow layer above the storm's anvil, and a horizontally asymmetric pattern of weaker turbulence that extends more than 50 km horizontally away from the cloud. Our results provide the first continuous estimate of turbulence intensity in and around thunderstorms and represent a major step toward improved turbulence avoidance methods. The results have broader implications for understanding the fundamental aspects of how thunderstorms affect their environment through vertical exchange processes.
A consistent approach to large eddy simulation using adaptive mesh refinement
Cook, A.W.
1999-09-01
The large eddy simulation of turbulent flows is discussed with particular attention paid to the issue of commutation of differentiation and filtering. Multi-level adaptive mesh refinement is proposed as a means of mostly avoiding commutation errors where increased grid resolution is required to capture key flow features. The strategy is to employ multiple uniform grids in a nested hierarchy using a constant-width filter for each grid. It is shown that commutivity of fine and coarse grid filters must be enforced in order to consistently relate variables at different refinement levels. Methods for treating fine grid boundaries and walls are also discussed. It is shown that errors associated with boundary treatments are small and localized.
Wall-modeling for large-eddy simulation of high Reynolds number supersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Soshi; Larsson, Johan; Lele, Sanjiva
2010-11-01
We present an idea of approximate wall-boundary-condition approach with dynamic procedure for large-eddy simulation of Mach 3 supersonic turbulent boundary layer at various Reynolds numbers (Reδ=2 x10^4, 10^5 and 10^6) on a flat plate. This wall-model is the extension of previous work by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluid, 14, 2043 (2002)] for incompressible flows to compressible flows. We note that the present study is both the first extension of the dynamic concept to compressible flows and also the first test at high Reynolds number flows. The present study also revisits the issue of numerical errors near wall-region on outer-layer coarse LES mesh. The numerical results are compared with wall-resolved LES data (at low Reynolds number case) and available experimental data (at high Reynolds number case).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunno, A. Cody; Mueller, Michael E.
2015-11-01
Radiation effects are examined in turbulent premixed flames using a detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The approach combines a tabulated premixed flamelet model (Flamelet Generated Manifolds) with an optically thin radiation model. Radiation heat loss is tracked using an enthalpy deficit coordinate. Heat loss in the flamelets is calculated by varying a coefficient on the radiation source term, ranging from zero (adiabatic) to unity (full optically thin heat loss). NOx emissions are modeled with an additional transport equation that is able to capture unsteady effects resulting from slow kinetics. The model is compared against experimental measurements of methane-air piloted turbulent premixed planar jet flames with increasing levels of water dilution that maintain a constant adiabatic flame temperature. The effects of water dilution on global flame structure and NO emissions resulting directly and indirectly from radiation are examined in detail.
Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows in an Opposed-Piston Two Stroke Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Shalabh; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad
2013-11-01
The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale model has been used for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in a generic single cylinder, opposed-piston, two-stroke engine configuration. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme, and the spray and FMDF are implemented with stochastic Lagrangian methods. The reliability and consistency of the numerical methods are established for the engine configuration by comparing the Eulerian and Lagrangian components of the LES/FMDF. The effects of various operating conditions like boost pressure, heat transfer model, fuel spray temperature, nozzle diameter, injection pressure, and injector configuration on the flow field, heat loss and the evolution of spray and combustion are studied.
Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rizzetta, Donald P.; Fureby, Christer
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results of an activity by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Working Group of the AIAA Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee to (1) address the current capabilities of LES, (2) outline recommended practices and key considerations for using LES, and (3) identify future research needs to advance the capabilities and reliability of LES for analysis of turbulent flows. To address the current capabilities and future needs, a survey comprised of eleven questions was posed to LES Working Group members to assemble a broad range of perspectives on important topics related to LES. The responses to these survey questions are summarized with the intent not to be a comprehensive dictate on LES, but rather the perspective of one group on some important issues. A list of recommended practices is also provided, which does not treat all aspects of a LES, but provides guidance on some of the key areas that should be considered.
Large-eddy simulation in an anelastic framework with closed water and entropy balances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pressel, Kyle G.; Kaul, Colleen M.; Schneider, Tapio; Tan, Zhihong; Mishra, Siddhartha
2015-09-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) framework is developed for simulating the dynamics of clouds and boundary layers with closed water and entropy balances. The framework is based on the anelastic equations in a formulation that remains accurate for deep convection. As prognostic variables, it uses total water and entropy, which are conserved in adiabatic and reversible processes, including reversible phase changes of water. This has numerical advantages for modeling clouds, in which reversible phase changes of water occur frequently. The equations of motion are discretized using higher-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) discretization schemes with strong stability preserving time stepping. Numerical tests demonstrate that the WENO schemes yield simulations superior to centered schemes, even when the WENO schemes are used at coarser resolution. The framework is implemented in a new LES code written in Python and Cython, which makes the code transparent and easy to use for a wide user group.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaberi, Farhad A.; Givi, Peyman
2003-01-01
The influence of gravity on the spatial and the compositional structures of transitional and turbulent hydrocarbon diffusion flames are studies via large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of round and planar jets. The subgrid-scale (SGS) closures in LES are based on the filtered mass density function (FMDF) methodology. The FMDF represents the joint probability density function (PDF) of the SGS scalars, and is obtained by solving its transport equation. The fundamental advantage of LES/FMDF is that it accounts for the effects of chemical reaction and buoyancy exactly. The methodology is employed for capturing some of the fundamental influences of gravity in equilibrium flames via realistic chemical kinetic schemes. Some preliminary investigation of the gravity effects in non-equilibrium flames is also conducted, but with idealized chemical kinetics models.
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities in Stratified Ocean Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Louis; Raessi, Mehdi
2012-11-01
Numerical simulations of turbulence in the ocean environment are used to supplement and enhance understanding of observational data. Here, using the NGA framework (Dejardins et al., JCP 2008), direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are employed to study turbulence in presence of density stratification. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities have been shown to be a common source of turbulence in the ocean. Past DNS studies of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities have compared favorably with observational data, but were limited to moderate Reynolds numbers. Here, LES is used to solve the filtered incompressible NS equations at a higher Reynolds number, Re = 10,000. The effect of increased Reynolds number on the turbulence behavior is examined in terms of velocity spectra and energy budgets.
Large Eddy Simulation of complex sidearms subject to solar radiation and surface cooling.
Dittko, Karl A; Kirkpatrick, Michael P; Armfield, Steven W
2013-09-15
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to model two lake sidearms subject to heating from solar radiation and cooling from a surface flux. The sidearms are part of Lake Audrey, NJ, USA and Lake Alexandrina, SA, Australia. The simulation domains are created using bathymetry data and the boundary is modelled with an Immersed Boundary Method. We investigate the cooling and heating phases with separate quasi-steady state simulations. Differential heating occurs in the cavity due to the changing depth. The resulting temperature gradients drive lateral flows. These flows are the dominant transport process in the absence of wind. Study in this area is important in water quality management as the lateral circulation can carry particles and various pollutants, transporting them to and mixing them with the main lake body. PMID:23863384
Large Eddy Simulation and PIV Visualization of a Vertical Hydrogen Jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedro, G.; Peneau, F.; Wu, T. C.; Oshkai, P.; Djilali, N.
2006-11-01
Increasing concerns about green house gas emissions and deteriorating local air quality will necessitate substantial emission reductions, particularly from road vehicles. Canada has made important contributions in paving the way for the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector, which could lead to a substantial reduction of urban pollution and CO2 emissions. However production and storage issues, as well as the absence of specific standards for hydrogen are regarded as obstacles to the introduction of hydrogen in the energy market. A hydrogen jet exiting into quiescent air in both the supersonic and subsonic regimes is simulated using large eddy simulation with a Smagorinski subgrid model. The subsonic results are compared with experimental results obtained by Panchapakesan et al. and So et al. Using a high speed PIV system, a subsonic air-in-air jet is studied and the time averaged flow-field is compared to the one obtained in the simulation.
A Three-Dimensional Vortex Sheet Method for Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, Mark; Dahm, Werner; Tryggvason, Gretar
2001-11-01
Continuing work on a three-dimensional vortex-in-cell method for large eddy simulations is presented. A Lagrangian approach is used to track the evolution of sheets of vorticity in an otherwise irrotational and inviscid fluid. The sheet surface is represented by a triangulated mesh upon which the vorticity evolves, and which maintains its resolution via automatic insertion and deletion of elements. The vortex sheet maintains its connectivity during the simulation, allowing element-wise calculation of weak stratification effects. In addition, the basic and dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid scale models are used to allow energy to properly transfer from the resolved to the unresolved scales of motion. Results from simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence as well as other flows are presented.
Large eddy simulation of spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet
Lacaze, G.; Richardson, E.; Poinsot, T.
2009-10-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to compute the spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet flowing into air. Full ignition sequences are calculated for a series of ignition locations using a one-step chemical scheme for methane combustion coupled with the thickened flame model. The spark ignition is modeled in the LES as an energy deposition term added to the energy equation. Flame kernel formation, the progress and topology of the flame propagating upstream, and stabilization as a tubular edge flame are analyzed in detail and compared to experimental data for a range of ignition parameters. In addition to ignition simulations, statistical analysis of nonreacting LES solutions is carried out to discuss the ignition probability map established experimentally. (author)
Large Eddy Simulation of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.
2007-11-01
The development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and contamination of natural plant populations enhanced the importance of understanding wind dispersion of airborne pollen. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using large eddy simulation. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of great importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. The velocity field is discretized using a pseudospectral approach. However the application of the same discretization scheme to the pollen equation generates unphysical solutions (i.e. negative concentrations). The finite-volume bounded scheme SMART is used for the pollen equation. A conservative interpolation scheme to determine the velocity field on the finite volume surfaces was developed. The implementation is validated against field experiments of point source and area field releases of pollen.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.; Vidoni, T. J.
1991-01-01
The main objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. In the efforts related to LES, we were concerned with developing reliable subgrid closures for modeling of the fluctuation correlations of scalar quantities in reacting turbulent flows. In the work on DNS, we focused our attention to further investigation of the effects of exothermicity in compressible turbulent flows. In our previous work, in the first year of this research, we have considered only 'simple' flows. Currently, we are in the process of extending our analyses for the purpose of modeling more practical flows of current interest at LaRC. A summary of our accomplishments during the third six months of the research is presented.
Further Aspects of Large Eddy Simulation Model Statistics and Inconsistencies with Field Data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agee, Ernest; Gluhovsky, Alexander
1999-08-01
This study has employed the concept of bandpass filtering of aircraft field data that are obtained within convective planetary boundary layers, for the purpose of comparing the characteristic turbulence statistics with the results of large eddy simulation (LES) models. Field data from Project LESS (10 January 1984) conducted over Lake Michigan in wintertime cold air outbreaks have been used to demonstrate the validity of the concept presented. These results show excellent agreement in variance statistics for LESS filtered data and LES model simulations; however, agreement in the skewness statistics is unsatisfactory. This is attributed to either the authors' inability to design a proper bandpass filter or the lack of an adequate dataset for computing third-moment statistics.
A metric for assessing the dynamic content of large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastac, Gabriel; Ihme, Matthias
2015-11-01
Current metrics used to identify the quality of large-eddy simulations commonly rely on a statistical assessment of the solution. While these metrics are valuable, turbulence is inherently a dynamic phenomenon, so a dynamic measure is desirable to characterize the quality of a numerical prediction. A dynamic metric utilizing a form of Lyapunov exponents and error growth rates is proposed and applied to two test cases: homogenous isotropic turbulence and a turbulent jet diffusion flame. A grid refinement analysis is performed for each test case utilizing this dynamic metric and current results show monotonic trends versus LES filter width. Results for the homogenous isotropic turbulence show insights into the effect of LES-resolution on the initial rapid error growth rate.
Large-Eddy Simulation of plume dispersion within various actual urban areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, H.; Jurcakova, K.; Nagai, H.
2013-02-01
Plume dispersion of hazardous materials within urban area resulting from accidental or intentional releases is of great concern to public health. Many researchers have developed local-scale atmospheric dispersion models using building-resolving computational fluid dynamics. However, an important issue is encountered when determining a reasonable domain size of the computational model in order to capture concentration distribution patterns influenced by urban surface geometries. In this study, we carried out Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of plume dispersion within various urban areas with a wide range of obstacle density and building height variability. The difference of centerline mean and r.m.s. concentration distributions among various complex urban surface geometries becomes small for downwind distances from the point source greater than 1.0 km. From these results, it can be concluded that a length of a computational model should be at least 1.0 km from a point source.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Mesoscale Circulations Forced by Inhomogeneous Urban Heat Island
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xueyuan; Peng, Zhen
2014-04-01
The large-eddy simulation mode of the Weather Research and Forecasting model is employed to simulate the planetary boundary-layer characteristics and mesoscale circulations forced by an ideal urban heat island (UHI). In our simulations, the horizontal heterogeneity of the UHI intensity distribution in urban areas is considered and idealized as a cosine function. Results indicate that the UHI heating rate and the UHI intensity heterogeneity affect directly the spatial distribution of the wind field; a stronger UHI intensity produces a maximum horizontal wind speed closer to the urban centre. The strong advection of warm air from the urban area to the rural area in the upper part of the planetary boundary-layer causes a more stable atmospheric stratification over both the urban and rural areas. The mesoscale sensible heat flux caused by the UHI circulation increases with UHI intensity but vanishes when the background wind speed is sufficiently high 3.0.
Large Eddy Simulation of an URBAN 2000 Experiment with Various Time-Dependent Forcing
Chan, S T; Leach, M J
2004-06-15
Under the sponsorship of the U.S. DOE and DHS, we have developed a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for simulating airflow and dispersion of chemical/biological agents released in the urban environment. Our model, FEM3MP, is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm uses the finite element method for accurate representation of complex building shapes and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection method and modern iterative solvers for efficient time integration (Gresho and Chan, 1998). Physical processes treated in our code include turbulence modeling via the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) approaches, atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budget, and vegetative canopies, etc.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho
2013-04-01
Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.
Large-eddy simulation and multiscale modelling of a Richtmyer Meshkov instability with reshock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, D. J.; Pantano, C.; Pullin, D. I.
2006-06-01
Large-eddy simulations of the Richtmyer Meshkov instability with reshock are pre- sented and the results are compared with experiments. Several configurations of shocks initially travelling from light (air) to heavy (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) have been simulated to match previous experiments and good agreement is found in the growth rates of the turbulent mixing zone (TMZ). The stretched-vortex subgrid model used in this study allows for subgrid continuation modelling, where statistics of the unresolved scales of the flow are estimated. In particular, this multiscale modelling allows the anisotropy of the flow to be extended to the dissipation scale, eta, and estimates to be formed for the subgrid probability density function of the mixture fraction of air/SF6 based on the subgrid variance, including the effect of Schmidt number.
Large-eddy simulation of heavy particle dispersion in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Salvetti, M.V.
2015-03-10
Capabilities and accuracy issues in Lagrangian tracking of heavy particles in velocity fields obtained from large-eddy simulations (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows are reviewed. In particular, it is shown that, if no subgrid scale (SGS) model is added to the particle motion equations, particle preferential concentration and near-wall accumulation are significantly underestimated. Results obtained with SGS modeling for the particle motion equations based on approximate deconvolution are briefly recalled. Then, the error purely due to filtering in particle tracking in LES flow fields is singled out and analyzed. The statistical properties of filtering errors are characterized in turbulent channel flow both from an Eulerian and a Lagrangian viewpoint. Implications for stochastic SGS modeling in particle motion equations are briefly outlined.
Coherent-vortex dynamics in large-eddy simulations of turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesieur, M.; Begou, P.; Briand, E.; Danet, A.; Delcayre, F.; Aider, J. L.
2003-04-01
We present a review of coherent-vortex dynamics obtained thanks to large-eddy simulations (LES) associated with simple and effective vortex-identification and animation techniques. LES of a large class of constant-density or weakly compressible three-dimensional flows have been carried out. In isotropic turbulence, we present the formation and evolution of spaghetti-type vortices, seen thanks toQ, vorticity and pressure, together with the time evolution of the kinetic energy, enstrophy and skewness. In a spatially growing boundary layer on a flat plate, one observes during transition big ? vortices lying on the wall (with very well correlated oblique induced low- and high-speed streaks) shedding smaller hairpin vortices around their tips. In the developed boundary layer, we show animations of the purely longitudinal low- and high-speed streaks, as well as animations of low-pressure regions. In a backwards-facing step, we examine the influence of upstream conditions upon the flow structure, by comparing two inflow conditions: a white noise superposed on a mean velocity profile and a realistic turbulent boundary layer. The latter three-dimensionalizes the flow downstream of the step and reduces the reattachment length. In both cases big staggered arch vortices form, impinge the lower wall and are carried away downstream. In a two-dimensional(2D) square cavity, spanwisely oriented vortices are shed behind the upstream edge, and impinge the downstream edge, transforming into arch vortices very similar to the back-step case. These arch vortices are also found behind a 2D rectangular obstacle with wall effect. We discuss the relevance of the vortices found with respect to reality. All these eddies are very important in terms of drag and noise reduction in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.
Large eddy simulations as a parameterization tool for canopy-structure X VOC-flux interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenny, William; Bohrer, Gil; Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia
2015-04-01
We have been working to develop a new post-processing model - High resolution VOC Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) - which resolves the dispersion and chemistry of reacting chemical species given their emission rates from the vegetation and soil, driven by high resolution meteorological forcing and wind fields from various high resolution atmospheric regional and large-eddy simulations. Hi-VACC reads in fields of pressure, temperature, humidity, air density, short-wave radiation, wind (3-D u, v and w components) and sub-grid-scale turbulence that were simulated by a high resolution atmospheric model. This meteorological forcing data is provided as snapshots of 3-D fields. We have tested it using a number of RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) runs. This can then be used for parameterization of the effects of canopy structure on VOC fluxes. RAFLES represents both drag and volume restriction by the canopy over an explicit 3-D domain. We have used these features to show the effects of canopy structure on fluxes of momentum, heat, and water in heterogeneous environments at the tree-crown scale by modifying the canopy structure representing it as both homogeneous and realistically heterogeneous. We combine this with Hi-VACC's capabilities to model dispersion and chemistry of reactive VOCs to parameterize the fluxes of these reactive species with respect to canopy structure. The high resolution capabilities of Hi-VACC coupled with RAFLES allows for sensitivity analysis to determine important structural considerations in sub-grid-scale parameterization of these phenomena in larger models.
Premixed and nonpremixed generated manifolds in large-eddy simulation of Sandia flame D and F
Vreman, A.W.; Albrecht, B.A.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.
2008-05-15
Premixed and nonpremixed flamelet-generated manifolds have been constructed and applied to large-eddy simulation of the piloted partially premixed turbulent flames Sandia Flame D and F. In both manifolds the chemistry is parameterized as a function of the mixture fraction and a progress variable. Compared to standard nonpremixed flamelets, premixed flamelets cover a much larger part of the reaction domain. Comparison of the results for the two manifolds with experimental data of flame D show that both manifolds yield predictions of comparable accuracy for the mean temperature, mixture fraction, and a number of chemical species, such as CO{sub 2}. However, the nonpremixed manifold outperforms the premixed manifold for other chemical species, the most notable being CO and H{sub 2}. If the mixture is rich, CO and H{sub 2} in a premixed flamelet are larger than in a nonpremixed flamelet, for a given value of the progress variable. Simulations have been performed for two different grids to address the effect of the large-eddy filter width. The inclusion of modeled subgrid variances of mixture fraction and progress variable as additional entries to the manifold have only small effects on the simulation of either flame. An exception is the prediction of NO, which (through an extra transport equation) was found to be much closer to experimental results when modeled subgrid variances were included. The results obtained for flame D are satisfactory, but despite the unsteadiness of the LES, the extinction measured in flame F is not properly captured. The latter finding suggests that the extinction in flame F mainly occurs on scales smaller than those resolved by the simulation. With the presumed {beta}-pdf approach, significant extinction does not occur, unless the scalar subgrid variances are overestimated. A thickened flame model, which maps unresolved small-scale dynamics upon resolved scales, is able to predict the experimentally observed extinction to some extent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jielun; Lenschow, Donald H.; LeMone, Margaret A.; Mahrt, Larry
2016-07-01
The analysis of momentum and heat fluxes from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99) field experiment is extended throughout the diurnal cycle following the investigation of nighttime turbulence by Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69:338-351, 2012). Based on the observations, limitations of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) are examined in detail. The analysis suggests that strong turbulent mixing is dominated by relatively large coherent eddies that are not related to local vertical gradients as assumed in MOST. The HOckey-Stick Transition (HOST) hypothesis is developed to explain the generation of observed large coherent eddies over a finite depth and the contribution of these eddies to vertical variations of turbulence intensity and atmospheric stratification throughout the diurnal cycle. The HOST hypothesis emphasizes the connection between dominant turbulent eddies and turbulence generation scales, and the coupling between the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence potential energy within the turbulence generation layer in determining turbulence intensity. For turbulence generation directly influenced by the surface, the HOST hypothesis recognizes the role of the surface both in the vertical variation of momentum and heat fluxes and its boundary effect on the size of the dominant turbulence eddies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W.; Morin, T. H.
2015-12-01
We used the RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulations (RAFLES) to evaluate the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to land-surface discontinuity. While the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to surface heterogeneity is well known, it is, in most cases, no feasible to restrict measurements only to sites where the surface include undisturbed and homogeneous land cover over vast distances around the observation tower. The common approach to handle surface heterogeneity is to use a footprint model and reject observations obtained while the source of observed signal is from a mixture of land-use types, and maintain only measurements where the signal originates mostly from the land-use type of interest. We simulated two scenarios - measurements of fluxes from a small forest-surrounded lake, and measurements near a forest edge. These are two very common scenarios where measurements are bound to be affected by heterogeneity - measurements in small lakes, will, by definition, be in some non-negligible proximity or the lake edge; forest edges are common in any forest, near the forest patch edge but also around disturbed patches and forest gaps. We identify regions where the surface heterogeneity is creating persistent updraft or downdraft. A non-zero mean vertical wind is typically neglected in eddy-covariance measurements. We find that these circulations lead to both vertical and horizontal advection that cannot be easily measured by a single eddy-covariance tower. We identify downwind effects, which are well known, but also quantify the upwind effects. We find that surface-induced circulations may affect the flux measured from a tower up to several canopy heights ahead of the discontinuity. We used the High-resolution Volatile Organic Compound Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) model to determine the actual measurement footprints throughout the RAFLES domain. We estimated the land-cover type distribution of the source signal at different virtual
Investigation of downstream and sideline subsonic jet noise using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogey, Christophe; Bailly, Christophe
2006-02-01
The sound fields radiated by Mach number 0.6 and 0.9, circular jets with Reynolds numbers varying from 1.7×103 to 4×105 are investigated using Large Eddy Simulations. As the Reynolds number decreases, the properties of the sound radiation do not change significantly in the downstream direction, whereas they are modified in the sideline direction. At low Reynolds numbers, for large angles downstream from the jet axis, the acoustic levels are indeed remarkably lower and a large high-frequency part of the sound spectra vanishes. For all Reynolds numbers, the downstream and the sideline sound spectra both appear to scale in frequency with the Strouhal number. However their peak amplitudes vary following two different velocity exponents according to the radiation direction. The present observations suggest the presence of two sound sources: a Reynolds number-dependent source, predominant for large radiation angles, connected to the randomly-developing turbulence, and a deterministic source, radiating downstream, related to a mechanism intrinsic to the jet geometry, which is still to be comprehensively described. This view agrees well with the experimental results displaying two distinguishable components in turbulent mixing noise [1, 2].
An experimental search for near-wall boundary conditions for large eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, S. K.
1982-01-01
Instantaneous wall shear stress and streamwise velocities have been measured simultaneously in a flat plate, turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number in an effort to provide experimental support for large eddy simulations. Data were obtained by using a buried-wire wall shear gage and a hot-wire rake positioned in the log region of the flow. All data processing was accomplished with digital data analysis techniques on a minicomputer. Fluctuations of the instantaneous U plus versus Y plus profiles about a mean law of the wall are shown to be significant and complex. Peak cross-correlation values between wall shear stress and the velocities are high and reflect the passage of a large structure inclined at a small angle to the wall. Estimates of this angle are consistent with those made by other investigators. Conditional sampling techniques were used to detect the passage of various sizes and types of flow disturbances (events) and to estimate their mean frequency of occurrence. Events characterized by large and sudden streamwise accelerations were found to be highly coherent throughout the log region and were strongly correlated with large fluctuations in wall shear-stress. Phase randomness between the near-wall quantities and the outer velocities was small. The results suggest that the flow events detected by conditional sampling applied to velocities in the log region may be related to the bursting process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanda, Manabu; Moriwaki, Ryo; Kasamatsu, Fumi
Large-eddy simulations have been performed for fullydeveloped turbulent flow within and above explicitly resolved simple cube arrays. Theresults from our model, hereafter LES-CITY, are shown to agree with laboratory experiments.We investigated the systematic influence of cube density on turbulent flow characteristicsby performing numerical experiments for cube areal densities from 0 to 44%. The followingresults were obtained: (1) The dispersive momentum flux was quite large within the canopylayer due to a mean stream re-circulation, whereas it was smaller above thecanopy. The spatial variation of temporally averaged momentum in the roughness sub-layer was20% or less of the total kinematic surface drag. (2) The temporally and spatially-averagedflow structure confirmed the existence of conventionally described canyon flow regimes;isolated, interfacial, and wake. However, the intermittency of the canyon flow for allcube densities was quite large and the stream patterns were never persistent. (3)Turbulent organized structures (TOS) similar to those observed in turbulent surface-layer flows were simulated, which are characterized bylongitudinally-elongated low speed streaks and thecorresponding shorter streamwise vortices. The streaks in sparse and dense canopy flows werelikely to be aligned to the street line and to the roof lines, respectively. Such heterogeneityof TOS partially accounts for the large spatial variation of momentum flux. (4) In contrastto the mixing layer analogy of vegetation flows, the TOS and the resulting turbulentstatistics of urban flow above the canopy resembled those in surface layers. The recirculationwithin the canopy significantly influenced the turbulent statistical properties.
Large eddy simulation of interacting barchan dunes in a steady, unidirectional flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Piomelli, Ugo; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Best, James L.
2013-12-01
Barchan dunes are bed forms found in many sedimentary environments with a limited supply of sediment, and may occur in isolation or in more complex dune fields. Barchans have a crescentic planform morphology with horns elongated in the downflow direction. To study flow over barchan dunes, we performed large eddy simulations in a channel with different interdune spacings at a flow Reynolds number, Re∞≃26,000 (based on the free stream velocity and channel height). The largest interdune spacing (2.38λ, where λ is the wavelength of the barchan dune) presents similar characteristics to a solitary dune in isolation, indicating that, at this distance, the sheltering effect of the upstream dune is rather weak. Barchan dunes induce two counterrotating streamwise vortices, one along each of the horns, which direct high-momentum fluid toward the symmetry plane and low-momentum fluid near the bed away from the centerline. The flow close to the centerline plane separates at the crest, but away from the centerline plane, and along the horns, flow separation occurs intermittently. The flow in the separation bubble is directed toward the horns and leaves the dune at its tips. The internal boundary layer developing on the bed downstream of the reattachment region develops similarly for various interdune spacings; the development slows down 14.5 dune heights downstream. The turbulent kinetic energy budgets show the importance of pressure transport and mean flow advection in transferring energy from the overlying wake layer to the internal boundary layer over the stoss side. For closely spaced dunes, the bed shear stress is 30% larger than at the largest spacing, and instantaneous coherent high- and low-speed streaks are shorter but stronger. Coherent eddies in the separated shear layer are generated more frequently for smaller interdune spacing, where they move farther away from the bed, toward the free surface, and remain located between the horns.
Large-Eddy Simulation of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer Over Flat Terrain
Townsend, R
2002-01-02
The stable boundary layer (SBL) in the atmosphere is of considerable interest because it is often the worse case scenario for air pollution studies and health effect assessments associated with the accidental release of toxic material. Traditional modeling approaches used in such studies do not simulate the non-steady character of the velocity field, and hence often overpredict concentrations while underpredicting spatial coverage of potentially harmful concentrations of airborne material. The challenge for LES is to be able to resolve the rather small energy-containing eddies of the SBL while still maintaining an adequate domain size. This requires that the subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization of turbulence incorporate an adequate representation of turbulent energy transfer. Recent studies have shown that both upscale and downscale energy transfer can occur simultaneously, but that overall the net transfer is downscale. Including the upscale transfer of turbulent energy (energy backscatter) is particularly important near the ground and under stably-stratified conditions. The goal of this research is to improve the ability to realistically simulate the SBL. The large-eddy simulation (LES) approach with its subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model does a better job of capturing the temporally and spatially varying features of the SBL than do Reynolds-averaging models. The scientific objectives of this research are: (1) to characterize features of the evolving SBL structure for a range of meteorological conditions (wind speed and surface cooling), (2) to simulate realistically the transfer of energy between resolved and subgrid scales, and (3) to apply results to improve simulation of dispersion in the SBL.
Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh; Hawkes, Evatt R.
2010-03-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) of a non-premixed, temporally evolving, syngas/air flame is performed with special emphasis on speeding-up the sub-grid chemistry computations using an artificial neural networks (ANN) approach. The numerical setup for the LES is identical to a previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) study, which reported considerable local extinction and reignition physics, and hence, offers a challenging test case. The chemical kinetics modeling with ANN is based on a recent approach, and replaces the stiff ODE solver (DI) to predict the species reaction rates in the subgrid linear eddy mixing (LEM) model based LES (LEMLES). In order to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the current approach, additional information on conditional statistics of some of the key species and temperature are extracted from the previous DNS study and are compared with the LEMLES using ANN (ANN-LEMLES, hereafter). The results show that the current approach can detect the correct extinction and reignition physics with reasonable accuracy compared to the DNS. The syngas flame structure and the scalar dissipation rate statistics obtained by the current ANN-LEMLES are provided to further probe the flame physics. It is observed that, in contrast to H{sub 2}, CO exhibits a smooth variation within the region enclosed by the stoichiometric mixture fraction. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the scalar dissipation rates calculated based on the mixture fraction and CO demonstrate that the mean value of the PDF is insensitive to extinction and reignition. However, this is not the case for the scalar dissipation rate calculated by the OH mass fraction. Overall, ANN provides considerable computational speed-up and memory saving compared to DI, and can be used to investigate turbulent flames in a computationally affordable manner. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, K.; Yum, S. S.
2009-09-01
The marine stratocumulus topped boundary layer, which prevails in the subtropical oceanic regions where the subsidence inversion associated with the descending branch of the Hadley-Walker cell dominates, is thought to be an important component of the climate system. High albedo (30-40%) of stratocumulus clouds compared to the ocean background (10%) gives rise to large deficits in the absorbed solar radiation flux. Since cloud radiative properties are highly dependent on cloud microphysical properties, which are in turn dependent on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) distribution, understanding the influence of anthropogenic CCN on cloud microphysics and dynamics is a key to accurately assess the climatic impact of marine stratocumulus clouds. A large eddy simulation (LES) model is good for studying stratocumulus clouds in the boundary layer because it explicitly resolves turbulent scale eddies and can provide information on detailed microphysical structure that is difficult to be measured over the ocean. We employ the CIMMS (Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma) 3D LES model with explicit bin microphysics. We examine the microphysical and dynamical evolution of stratocumulus clouds under different CCN loadings for four different thermodynamic conditions (the key differences are in moisture content and temperature inversion height). Contrasting results of daytime and nocturnal simulations are also examined. Three different measured CCN spectra that represent maritime, continental, and polluted air masses are used as input CCN spectra for the model; the concentrations at 1% supersaturation are 163, 1023, and 5292 cm-3, respectively. The grid spacing is 75 m in the horizontal and 25 m in the vertical, to make the total domain size of 3×3×1.25 km. Total simulation time is 6 hrs. The large-scale subsidence is prescribed by w= -Dz, where the large-scale divergence D = 5×10-6 s-1 is assumed. For the clouds formed under
Feasibility study of a large-scale tuned mass damper with eddy current damping mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhihao; Chen, Zhengqing; Wang, Jianhui
2012-09-01
Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) have been widely used in recent years to mitigate structural vibration. However, the damping mechanisms employed in the TMDs are mostly based on viscous dampers, which have several well-known disadvantages, such as oil leakage and difficult adjustment of damping ratio for an operating TMD. Alternatively, eddy current damping (ECD) that does not require any contact with the main structure is a potential solution. This paper discusses the design, analysis, manufacture and testing of a large-scale horizontal TMD based on ECD. First, the theoretical model of ECD is formulated, then one large-scale horizontal TMD using ECD is constructed, and finally performance tests of the TMD are conducted. The test results show that the proposed TMD has a very low intrinsic damping ratio, while the damping ratio due to ECD is the dominant damping source, which can be as large as 15% in a proper configuration. In addition, the damping ratios estimated with the theoretical model are roughly consistent with those identified from the test results, and the source of this error is investigated. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the damping ratio in the proposed TMD can be easily adjusted by varying the air gap between permanent magnets and conductive plates. In view of practical applications, possible improvements and feasibility considerations for the proposed TMD are then discussed. It is confirmed that the proposed TMD with ECD is reliable and feasible for use in structural vibration control.
All-speed Roe scheme for the large eddy simulation of homogeneous decaying turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xue-song; Li, Xin-liang
2016-01-01
As a type of shock-capturing scheme, the traditional Roe scheme fails in large eddy simulation (LES) because it cannot reproduce important turbulent characteristics, such as the famous k-5/3 spectral law, as a consequence of the large numerical dissipation. In this work, the Roe scheme is divided into five parts, namely, ξ, δUp, δpp, δUu, and δpu, which denote basic upwind dissipation, pressure difference-driven modification of interface fluxes, pressure difference-driven modification of pressure, velocity difference-driven modification of interface fluxes, and velocity difference-driven modification of pressure, respectively. Then, the role of each part in the LES of homogeneous decaying turbulence with a low Mach number is investigated. Results show that the parts δUu, δpp, and δUp have little effect on LES. Such minimal effect is integral to computational stability, especially for δUp. The large numerical dissipation is due to ξ and δpu, each of which features a larger dissipation than the sub-grid scale model. On the basis of these conditions, an improved all-speed Roe scheme for LES is proposed. This scheme can provide satisfactory LES results even for coarse grid resolutions with usually adopted second-order reconstructions for the finite volume method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W. Q.; Hao, D. W.; Zhang, L. X.; Guo, Y. K.
2012-11-01
In the present study, the subgrid-scale (SGS) eddy-viscosity model developed by Vreman [Phys. Fluids 16 (2004) 3670] and its dynamic version [Phys. Fluids 19 (2007) 065110] are tested in large-eddy simulations (LES) of the inhomogeneous turbulent flow in a full passage of Francis turbine. Distributions of pressure, velocity and vortices as well as some flow structure are gained, which is helpful to examine the performance of SGS model for complex turbulent flow and understand the flow characters in full passage of Francis turbine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.
1992-01-01
The principal objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. A summary of work accomplished during the last six months is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suga, T.; Sukigara, C.; Saino, T.; Toyama, K.; Yanagimoto, D.; Hanawa, K.; Shikama, N.; Ishizu, M.
2008-12-01
Based on the extensive profiling float observation carried out as part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS), Qiu et al. (2006) reported large vertical eddy diffusivity (2-5 x10-4 m2s-1) near the upper boundary of Subtropical Mode Water (STMW). This large diffusivity possibly have an impact on subsurface redistribution of heat, nutrients and dissolved gas components, etc., in the subtropical ocean. On the other hand, recent measurement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate by Mori et al. (2008) indicates much smaller vertical eddy diffusivity (10-7 - 10-5 m2s-1) over the whole depth range of STMW. However, the direct comparison between the estimation by Qiu et al. and that by Mori et al. is possibly inappropriate because the former is based on the PV change over a couple of months and the latter on the instantaneous turbulent measurements. We carried out physical and biogeochemical observation to examine the vertical diffusivity near the top of STMW using a profiling float. The profiling float, which was equipped with a fluorometer and a dissolved oxygen sensor along with temperature and salinity sensors, was deployed in the STMW formation region and acquired quasi-Lagrangian, 5-day-interval time-series records from March to July in 2006. The time-series distribution of chl.a showed a sustained and sizable deep chlorophyll maximum just above the upper boundary of the STMW throughout early summer. Vertically integrated chlorophyll in this period was consistently ranging from 15-30 mgm-2, indicating sustained primary production and a continuous supply of nutrients ranging from 10-20 mgNm-2day-1. The time-series data indicate no sporadic events to supply nutrients and instead support, along with vertical profiles of nitrate obtained by ship-board measurements near the float, the large vertical diffusivity reported by Qiu et al. Since our estimation of vertical diffusivity is based on temporal evolution of primary production over several weeks, it is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neilley, Peter P.; Dole, Randall M.
1991-01-01
Earlier studies of blocking are extended by examining the interactions that occur between the synoptic-scale eddies and the large-scale flow during the development of wintertime blocking events over the North Atlantic Ocean. In particular, attention is given to the change of synoptic-scale eddy activity during the development of blocking and to the role of anomalous forcing by synoptic-scale eddies in the development of large-scale flow anomalies. The dynamical mechanisms accounting for the observed variations in eddy activity are identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinn, Aaron F.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations can be very computationally expensive, especially for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent ows. In LES the large, energy containing eddies are resolved by the computational mesh, but the smaller (sub-grid) scales are modeled. In DNS, all scales of turbulence are resolved, including the smallest dissipative (Kolmogorov) scales. Clusters of CPUs have been the standard approach for such simulations, but an emerging approach is the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which deliver impressive computing performance compared to CPUs. Recently there has been great interest in the scientific computing community to use GPUs for general-purpose computation (such as the numerical solution of PDEs) rather than graphics rendering. To explore the use of GPUs for CFD simulations, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver was developed for a GPU. This solver is capable of simulating unsteady laminar flows or performing a LES or DNS of turbulent ows. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a fractional-step method and are spatially discretized using the finite volume method on a Cartesian mesh. An immersed boundary method based on a ghost cell treatment was developed to handle flow past complex geometries. The implementation of these numerical methods had to suit the architecture of the GPU, which is designed for massive multithreading. The details of this implementation will be described, along with strategies for performance optimization. Validation of the GPU-based solver was performed for fundamental bench-mark problems, and a performance assessment indicated that the solver was over an order-of-magnitude faster compared to a CPU. The GPU-based Navier-Stokes solver was used to study film-cooling flows via Large Eddy Simulation. In modern gas turbine engines, the film-cooling method is used to protect turbine blades from hot combustion gases. Therefore, understanding the physics of
ON THE MODE OF DYNAMO ACTION IN A GLOBAL LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION OF SOLAR CONVECTION
Racine, Etienne; Charbonneau, Paul; Ghizaru, Mihai; Bouchat, Amelie; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2011-07-01
In this paper, we examine the mode of dynamo action in the implicit large-eddy magnetohydrodynamical simulation of solar convection reported upon in Ghizaru et al. Motivated by the presence of a strong and well-defined large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component undergoing regular polarity reversals, we define the fluctuating component of the magnetic field as the difference between the total field and its zonal average. The subsequent analysis follows the physical logic and mathematical formulation of mean-field electrodynamics, whereby a turbulent electromotive force (EMF) is computed by the suitable averaging of cross-correlations between fluctuating flow and field components and expressed in terms of the mean field via a linear truncated tensorial expansion. We use singular value decomposition to perform a linear least-squares fit of the temporal variation of the EMF to that of the large-scale magnetic component, which yields the components of the full {alpha}-tensor. Its antisymmetric component, describing general turbulent pumping, is also extracted. The {alpha}-tensor so calculated reproduces a number of features already identified in local, Cartesian simulations of magnetohydrodynamical rotating convection, including an {alpha}{sub {phi}{phi}} component positive in the northern solar hemisphere, peaking at high latitudes, and reversing sign near the bottom of the convection zone; downward turbulent pumping throughout the convecting layer; and significant equatorward turbulent pumping at mid latitudes, and poleward at high latitudes in subsurface layers. We also find that the EMF contributes significantly to the regeneration of the large-scale toroidal magnetic component, which from the point of view of mean-field dynamo models would imply that the simulation operates as an {alpha}{sup 2}{Omega} dynamo. We find little significant evidence of {alpha}-quenching by the large-scale magnetic field. The amplitude of the magnetic cycle appears instead to be
On the Mode of Dynamo Action in a Global Large-eddy Simulation of Solar Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Racine, Étienne; Charbonneau, Paul; Ghizaru, Mihai; Bouchat, Amélie; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2011-07-01
In this paper, we examine the mode of dynamo action in the implicit large-eddy magnetohydrodynamical simulation of solar convection reported upon in Ghizaru et al. Motivated by the presence of a strong and well-defined large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component undergoing regular polarity reversals, we define the fluctuating component of the magnetic field as the difference between the total field and its zonal average. The subsequent analysis follows the physical logic and mathematical formulation of mean-field electrodynamics, whereby a turbulent electromotive force (EMF) is computed by the suitable averaging of cross-correlations between fluctuating flow and field components and expressed in terms of the mean field via a linear truncated tensorial expansion. We use singular value decomposition to perform a linear least-squares fit of the temporal variation of the EMF to that of the large-scale magnetic component, which yields the components of the full α-tensor. Its antisymmetric component, describing general turbulent pumping, is also extracted. The α-tensor so calculated reproduces a number of features already identified in local, Cartesian simulations of magnetohydrodynamical rotating convection, including an αphiphi component positive in the northern solar hemisphere, peaking at high latitudes, and reversing sign near the bottom of the convection zone; downward turbulent pumping throughout the convecting layer; and significant equatorward turbulent pumping at mid latitudes, and poleward at high latitudes in subsurface layers. We also find that the EMF contributes significantly to the regeneration of the large-scale toroidal magnetic component, which from the point of view of mean-field dynamo models would imply that the simulation operates as an α2Ω dynamo. We find little significant evidence of α-quenching by the large-scale magnetic field. The amplitude of the magnetic cycle appears instead to be regulated primarily by a magnetically driven
Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Karelsky, Kirill V.; Petrosyan, Arakel S.
2010-06-16
Using advantages of large eddy simulation method, nontrivial regime of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of space plasma when initially supersonic fluctuations become weakly compressible is studied. Establishment of weakly compressible limit with Kolmogorov-like density fluctuations spectrum is shown in present work. We use our computations results to study dynamics of the turbulent plasma beta and anisotropic properties of the magnetoplasma fluctuations in the local interstellar medium. An outstanding, as yet unexplained, observation is that density fluctuations in the local interstellar medium exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum over an extraordinary range of scales with a spectral index close to -5/3. In spite of the compressibility and the presence of magnetic field in the local interstellar medium, density fluctuations nevertheless admit a Kolmogorov-like power law. Supersonic flows with high value of large-scale Mach numbers are characterized in interstellar medium, nevertheless, there are subsonic fluctuations of weakly compressible components of interstellar medium. These weakly compressible subsonic fluctuations are responsible for emergence of a Kolmogorov-type spectrum in interstellar turbulence which is observed from experimental data. It is shown that density fluctuations are a passive scalar in a velocity field in weakly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and demonstrate Kolmogorov-like spectrum.
Underwater Oil Plume Intrusion from Deepwater Blowouts - A Large-Eddy Simulation Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, D.; Chen, B.; Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C. V.
2015-12-01
The interaction of buoyancy-driven hydrocarbon plumes with the stably stratified deep-ocean environment plays a crucial role in the formation of underwater oil intrusions. As gas bubbles and oil droplets are released from an underwater oil well blowout, they induce a strong buoyancy flux that lifts entrained sea water to form an upward plume. Towards higher elevations, the stratification-induced negative buoyancy increases and eventually exceeds the gas/oil-induced buoyancy, causing the plume to decelerate and a large fraction of entrained sea water to peel off from the rising plume to form a fountain-like downward outer plume. During this peeling process, weakly buoyant particles (e.g. small oil droplets) are trapped and fall together with the detrained fluid, and then migrate horizontally at the equilibrium buoyancy depth, forming underwater oil intrusion layers. In this study, the complex plume dynamics and oil intrusion are studied using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The LES model captures the essential characteristics of the plume structure and the peeling/intrusion processes, and yields good agreement with prior laboratory experiments. Applying to the Deepwater Horizon oil well blowout condition, the LES model shows considerable underwater trapping and intrusion of oil droplets under various conditions, with the trapping rate significantly affected by the diameter of the oil droplet. This study is supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative RFP-II research grant.
Large eddy simulations of vertical axis wind turbines to optimize farm design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hezaveh, Seyed Hossein; Bou-Zeid, Elie
2013-11-01
Wind energy production, and research have expanded considerably in the past decade. These efforts aim to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with current modes of energy production. However, with expanding wind farms, the land areas occupied by such farms become a limitation. Recently, interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) has increased due to key advantages of this technology: compared to horizontal axis turbines, VAWTs can be built with larger scales, their performance is not sensitive to wind direction, and the ability to place their generators at the bottom of the mast can make them more stable offshore. In this study, we focus on how the Aspheric Boundary Layer (ABL) will react to the presence of large VAWT farms. We present a state-of-art representation of VAWTs using an actuator line model in a Large Eddy Simulations code for the ABL. Validations are made against several experimental datasets, which include flow details and power coefficient curves, the wake of an individual turbine is visualized and analyzed, and the interaction of adjacent turbines is investigated in view of optimizing their interactions and the configuration of VAWT farms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seifert, Axel; Heus, Thijs; Pincus, Robert; Stevens, Bjorn
2015-12-01
Large-eddy simulation is used to study the sensitivity of trade wind cumulus clouds to perturbations in cloud droplet number concentrations. We find that the trade wind cumulus system approaches a radiative-convective equilibrium state, modified by net warming and drying from imposed large-scale advective forcing. The system requires several days to reach equilibrium when cooling rates are specified but much less time, and with less sensitivity to cloud droplet number density, when radiation depends realistically on the vertical distribution of water vapor. The transient behavior and the properties of the near-equilibrium cloud field depend on the microphysical state and therefore on the cloud droplet number density, here taken as a proxy for the ambient aerosol. The primary response of the cloud field to changes in the cloud droplet number density is deepening of the cloud layer. This deepening leads to a decrease in relative humidity and a faster evaporation of small clouds and cloud remnants constituting a negative lifetime effect. In the near-equilibrium regime, the decrease in cloud cover compensates much of the Twomey effect, i.e., the brightening of the clouds, and the overall aerosol effect on the albedo of the organized precipitating cumulus cloud field is small.
Large-eddy simulation of sea breeze at an idealized peninsular site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Anabor, Vagner; Degrazia, Gervasio A.; Maldaner, Silvana
2015-08-01
A high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) has been performed to simulate a sea-breeze circulation over an idealized peninsular domain. The simulation is forced with the surface latent/sensible heat fluxes and the large-scale horizontal pressure gradient that are obtained from a mesoscale simulation. This methodology allows the investigation of the physical phenomena that are peculiar for a sea-breeze circulation and that generally require spatial resolution approximately equal to 100 m or less. Here, small-scale dynamical effects associated to these phenomena, i.e. the interaction between the sea-breeze front with the convective turbulence generated over-land, the formation of the zero-velocity layer, and the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, are investigated. Results from the present numerical study have revealed the formation of a zero-velocity layer that is initially near the ground then it rises to define a well-marked sea-breeze depth. Scaling analysis applied to the LES output fields reveals that during the phase of inland penetration the scaling laws for sea-breeze strength and depth have both a proportionality coefficient equal to 0.15.
Large-eddy simulation for the prediction of supersonic rectangular jet noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Joseph W.; Ham, Frank E.; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Bridges, James E.
2011-11-01
We investigate the noise from isothermal and heated under-expanded supersonic turbulent jets issuing from a rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4:1 using high-fidelity unstructured large-eddy simulation (LES) and acoustic projection based on the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings (FWH) equations. The nozzle/flow interaction is directly included by simulating the flow in and around the nozzle in addition to the jet plume downstream. A grid resolution study is performed and results are shown for unstructured meshes containing up to 300 million control volumes, generated by a massively parallel code scaled to as many as 65,536 processors. Validated against laboratory measurements using a nozzle of precisely the same geometry, we find that mesh isotropy is a key factor in determining the quality of the far-field aeroacoustic predictions. The full flow fields produced by the simulation, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data measured from experiment, allow for a detailed examination of the interaction of large-scale coherent flow features and the resultant far-field noise, and its subsequent modification in the presence of heating. Supported by NASA grant NNX07AC94A and PSAAP, with computational resources from a DoD HPCMP CAP-2 project.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Heliophysics and Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miesch, Mark; Matthaeus, William; Brandenburg, Axel; Petrosyan, Arakel; Pouquet, Annick; Cambon, Claude; Jenko, Frank; Uzdensky, Dmitri; Stone, James; Tobias, Steve; Toomre, Juri; Velli, Marco
2015-11-01
We live in an age in which high-performance computing is transforming the way we do science. Previously intractable problems are now becoming accessible by means of increasingly realistic numerical simulations. One of the most enduring and most challenging of these problems is turbulence. Yet, despite these advances, the extreme parameter regimes encountered in space physics and astrophysics (as in atmospheric and oceanic physics) still preclude direct numerical simulation. Numerical models must take a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach, explicitly computing only a fraction of the active dynamical scales. The success of such an approach hinges on how well the model can represent the subgrid-scales (SGS) that are not explicitly resolved. In addition to the parameter regime, heliophysical and astrophysical applications must also face an equally daunting challenge: magnetism. The presence of magnetic fields in a turbulent, electrically conducting fluid flow can dramatically alter the coupling between large and small scales, with potentially profound implications for LES/SGS modeling. In this review article, we summarize the state of the art in LES modeling of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. After discussing the nature of MHD turbulence and the small-scale processes that give rise to energy dissipation, plasma heating, and magnetic reconnection, we consider how these processes may best be captured within an LES/SGS framework. We then consider several specific applications in heliophysics and astrophysics, assessing triumphs, challenges, and future directions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
We present results of solid particles suspension and transport in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow using large-eddy simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We adopt the Eulerian-Eulerian approach to simulating particle laden flow with a large number of particles, in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the particulate phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The underlying approach in modeling the turbulence of fluid phase utilizes the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work proposed by Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). The solver is verified against simple analytical solutions and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with these. The capability of the new numerical solver will be exercised to investigate turbulent transport of sand in sandstorms. Finally, the adequacy and limitations of the solver will be discussed. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1704-01.
Large eddy simulation of the FDA benchmark nozzle for a Reynolds number of 6500.
Janiga, Gábor
2014-04-01
This work investigates the flow in a benchmark nozzle model of an idealized medical device proposed by the FDA using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It was in particular shown that a proper modeling of the transitional flow features is particularly challenging, leading to large discrepancies and inaccurate predictions from the different research groups using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling. In spite of the relatively simple, axisymmetric computational geometry, the resulting turbulent flow is fairly complex and non-axisymmetric, in particular due to the sudden expansion. The resulting flow cannot be well predicted with simple modeling approaches. Due to the varying diameters and flow velocities encountered in the nozzle, different typical flow regions and regimes can be distinguished, from laminar to transitional and to weakly turbulent. The purpose of the present work is to re-examine the FDA-CFD benchmark nozzle model at a Reynolds number of 6500 using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES results are compared with published experimental data obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and an excellent agreement can be observed considering the temporally averaged flow velocities. Different flow regimes are characterized by computing the temporal energy spectra at different locations along the main axis. PMID:24561349
The emerging role of large eddy simulation in industrial practice: challenges and opportunities.
Hutton, A G
2009-07-28
That class of methods for treating turbulence gathered under the banner of large eddy simulation is poised to enter mainstream engineering practice. There is a growing body of evidence that such methods offer a significant stretch in industrial capability over solely Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based modelling. A key enabling development will be the adaptation of innovative processor architectures, resulting from the huge investment in the gaming industry, to engineering analysis. This promises to reduce the computational burden to practicable levels. However, there are many lessons to be learned from the history of the past three decades. These lessons should be analysed in order to inform, if not modulate, the unfolding of this next cycle in the development of industrial modelling capability. This provides the theme for this paper, which is written very much from the standpoint of the informed practitioner rather than the innovator; someone with a strong motivation to improve significantly the competence with which industrial turbulent flows are treated. It is asserted that the reliable deployment of the methodology in the industrial context will prove to be a knowledge-based discipline, as was the case with RANS-based modelling, if not more so. The community at large should collectively make great efforts to put in place that knowledge base from which best practice advice can be derived at the very start of this cycle of advancement and continue to enrich it as the cycle progresses. PMID:19531504
Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoil Self-Noise at High Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva
2015-11-01
The trailing edge noise section (Category 1) of the Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC) workshop features five canonical problems. No first-principles based approach free of empiricism and tunable coefficients has successfully predicted trailing edge noise for the five configurations to date. Our simulations predict trailing edge noise accurately for all five configurations. The simulation database is described in detail, highlighting efforts undertaken to validate the results through systematic comparison with dedicated experiments and establish insensitivity to grid resolution, domain size, alleatory uncertainties such as the tripping mechanism used to force transition to turbulence and epistemic uncertainties such as models for unresolved near-wall turbulence. Ongoing efforts to extend the predictive capability to non-canonical configurations featuring flow separation are summarized. A novel, large-span calculation that predicts the flow past a wind turbine airfoil in deep stall with unprecedented accuracy is presented. The simulations predict airfoil noise in the near-stall regime accurately. While the post-stall noise predictions leave room for improvement, significant uncertainties in the experiment might preclude a fair comparison in this regime. We thank Cascade Technologies Inc. for providing access to the CharLES toolkit - a massively-parallel, unstructured large eddy simulation framework.
Large-eddy simulations of excitation effects on a VTOL upwash fountain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizk, Magdi H.; Menon, Suresh
1989-04-01
The responses of an upwash fountain to various azimuthal and axisymmetric excitations, applied at the exits of its neighboring jets, are investigated. Kinematic arguments are used to determine the interactions of large-scale structures in the fountain and the effects of these interactions on the fountain's characteristics. Numerical simulations of a row of impinging jets, which contain the essential features of twin jets impinging on the ground, are used to simulate the hovering configuration of a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. The flow is assumed to be governed by the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The large-eddy simulation approach is followed. Distinct fountain characteristics are shared among the cases in which azimuthal perturbations are applied at both jet exits in the same direction. These include a high fountain spreading rate, a strong lateral interaction with the neighboring jets, and a weak upload at the aircraft's undersurface. A strong similarity in fountain characteristics also exists for the cases of axisymmetric forcing and azimuthal forcing in opposite directions at the two jet exits. The similar characteristics here include a low fountain spreading rate and a strong upload at the aircraft's undersurface.
Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus
Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C
2008-03-03
This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.
Large eddy simulation study of spanwise spacing effects on secondary flows in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliakbarimiyanmahaleh, Mohammad; Anderson, William
2015-11-01
The structure of turbulent flow over a complex topography composed of streamwise-aligned rows of cones with varying spanwise spacing, s is studied with large-eddy simulation (LES). Similar to the experimental study of Vanderwel and Ganapathisubramani, 2015: J. Fluid Mech., we investigate the relationship between secondary flow and s, for 0 . 25 <= s / δ <= 5 . For cases with s / δ > 2 , domain-scale rollers freely exist. These had previously been called ``turbulent secondary flows'' (Willingham et al., 2014: Phys. Fluids; Barros and Christensen, 2014: J. Fluid Mech.; Anderson et al., 2015: J. Fluid Mech.), but closer inspection of the statistics indicates these are a turbulent tertiary flow: they only remain ``anchored'' to the conical roughness elements for s / δ > 2 . For s / δ < 2 , turbulent tertiary flows are prevented from occupying the domain by virtue of proximity to adjacent, counter-rotating tertiary flows. Turbulent secondary flows are associated with the conical roughness elements. These turbulent secondary flows emanate from individual conical topographic elements and set the roughness sublayer depth. The turbulent secondary flows remain intact for large and small spacing. For s / δ < 1 , a mean tertiary flow is not present. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Sci. Research, Young Inv. Program (PM: Dr. R. Ponnoppan and Ms. E. Montomery) under Grant # FA9550-14-1-0394. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.
Properties of young contrails - a parametrisation based on large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unterstrasser, S.
2015-10-01
Contrail-cirrus is probably the largest climate forcing of aviation. The evolution of contrail-cirrus and their radiative impact depends on a multitude of atmospheric parameters, but also on the geometric and microphysical properties of the young contrails evolving into contrail-cirrus. The early evolution of contrails (t < 5 min) is dominated by an interplay of ice microphysics and wake vortex dynamics. Young contrails may undergo a fast vertical expansion due to a descent of the wake vortices and may lose a substantial fraction of their ice crystals due to adiabatic heating. The geometric depth H and total ice crystal number N of young contrails are highly variable and depend on many environmental and aircraft parameters. Both properties, H and N, affect the later properties of the evolving contrail-cirrus, as they control the extent of shear-induced spreading and sedimentation losses. In this study, we provide parametrisations of H and N after 5 min taking into account the effects of temperature, relative humidity, thermal stratification and aircraft type (mass, wing span, fuel burn). The parametrisations rely on a large data set of recent large-eddy simulations of young contrails. They are suited to be incorporated in larger-scale models in order to refine the present day contrail initialisations by considering the processes that strongly affect the contrail evolution during the vortex phase.
Properties of young contrails - a parametrisation based on large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unterstrasser, Simon
2016-02-01
Contrail-cirrus is probably the largest climate forcing from aviation. The evolution of contrail-cirrus and its radiative impact depends not only on a multitude of atmospheric parameters, but also on the geometric and microphysical properties of the young contrails evolving into contrail-cirrus. The early evolution of contrails (t < 5 min) is dominated by an interplay of ice microphysics and wake vortex dynamics. Young contrails may undergo a fast vertical expansion due to a descent of the wake vortices and may lose a substantial fraction of their ice crystals due to adiabatic heating. The geometric depth H and total ice crystal number N of young contrails are highly variable and depend on many environmental and aircraft parameters. Both properties, H and N, affect the later properties of the evolving contrail-cirrus, as they control the extent of shear-induced spreading and sedimentation losses. In this study, we provide parametrisations of H and N after 5 min taking into account the effects of temperature, relative humidity, thermal stratification and aircraft type (mass, wing span, fuel burn). The parametrisations rely on a large data set of recent large-eddy simulations of young contrails. They are suited to be incorporated in larger-scale models in order to refine the present-day contrail initialisations by considering the processes that strongly affect the contrail evolution during the vortex phase.
On the large-eddy simulation of transitional wall-bounded flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Zang, Thomas A.; Speziale, Charles G.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1989-01-01
The structure of the subgrid scale fields in plane channel flow has been studied at various stages of the transition process to turbulence. The residual stress and subgrid scale dissipation calculated using velocity fields generated by direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations are significantly different from their counterparts in turbulent flows. The subgrid scale dissipation changes sign over extended areas of the channel, indicating energy flow from the small scales to the large scales. This reversed energy cascade becomes less pronounced at the later stages of transition. Standard residual stress models of the Smagorinsky type are excessively dissipative. Rescaling the model constant improves the prediction of the total (integrated) subgrid scale dissipation, but not that of the local one. Despite the somewhat excessive dissipation of the rescaled Smagorinsky model, the results of a large eddy simulation of transition on a flat-plate boundary layer compare quite well with those of a direct simulation, and require only a small fraction of the computational effort. The inclusion of non-dissipative models, which could lead to further improvements, is proposed.
Large eddy simulation of unsteady wind farm behavior using advanced actuator disk models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe
2014-11-01
The present project aims at improving the level of fidelity of unsteady wind farm scale simulations through an effort on the representation and the modeling of the rotors. The chosen tool for the simulations is a Fourth Order Finite Difference code, developed at Universite catholique de Louvain; this solver implements Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The wind turbines are modeled as advanced actuator disks: these disks are coupled with the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM method) and also take into account the turbine dynamics and controller. A special effort is made here to reproduce the specific wake behaviors. Wake decay and expansion are indeed initially governed by vortex instabilities. This is an information that cannot be obtained from the BEM calculations. We thus aim at achieving this by matching the large scales of the actuator disk flow to high fidelity wake simulations produced using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method. It is obtained by adding a controlled excitation at the disk. We apply this tool to the investigation of atmospheric turbulence effects on the power production and on the wake behavior at a wind farm level. A turbulent velocity field is then used as inflow boundary condition for the simulations. We gratefully acknowledge the support of GDF Suez for the fellowship of Mrs Maud Moens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michioka, T.; Sato, A.; Sada, K.
2013-08-01
A microscale large-eddy simulation (LES) model coupled to a mesoscale LES model is implemented to estimate a ground concentration considering the meteorological influence in an actual urban district. The microscale LES model is based on a finite volume method with an unstructured grid system to resolve the flow structure in a complex geometry. The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) is used for mesoscale meteorological simulation. To evaluate the performance of the LES model, 1-h averaged concentrations are compared with those obtained by field measurements, which were conducted for tracer gas dispersion from a point source on the roof of a tall building in Tokyo. The concentrations obtained by the LES model without combing the mesoscale LES model are in quite good agreement with the wind-tunnel experimental data, but overestimates the 1 h averaged ground concentration in the field measurements. On the other hand, the ground concentrations using the microscale LES model coupled to the mesoscale LES are widely distributed owing to large-scale turbulent motions generated by the mesoscale LES, and the concentrations are nearly equal to the concentrations from the field measurements.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Pollutant Removal from a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michioka, Takenobu; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ayumu
2013-10-01
Large-eddy simulations were conducted to investigate the mechanism of pollutant removal from a three-dimensional street canyon. Five block configurations with aspect ratios (building height to length) of 1, 2, 4, 8 and infty were used to create an urban-like array. A pollutant was released from a ground-level line source at the centre of the target canyon floor. For smaller aspect ratios, the relative contribution of the turbulent mass flux to net mass flux at the roof level, which was spatially averaged along the roof-level ventilation area, was closer to unity, indicating that turbulent motions mainly affected pollutant removal from the top of the canyon. As aspect ratio increased, the relative contribution became smaller, owing to strong upwind motions. However, the relative contribution again reached near unity for the infinite aspect ratio (i.e. a two-dimensional street canyon) because of lowered lateral flow convergence. At least 75 % of total emissions from the three-dimensional street canyon were attributable to turbulent motions. Pollutant removal by turbulent motions was related to the coherent structures of low-momentum fluid above the canyons. Though the coherent structure size of the low-momentum fluid differed, the positions of low-momentum fluid largely corresponded to instantaneous high concentrations of pollutant above the target canyon, irrespective of canyon geometry.
Large Eddy Simulation of Stagnation Point Heat Transfer Under Free-Stream Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Zhongmin; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2001-11-01
An implicit dual time stepping scheme with linearized subiterations is developed for efficient solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The LU decomposition is employed in the subiteration scheme in conjunction with spatially varying pseudo time step; the resultant algorithm is five times faster in comparison with the conventional approximate factorization method. Large eddy simulation based on this method is performed to investigate the effect of free stream turbulence on the stagnation point heat transfer. The pre-computed homogeneous isotropic turbulence is introduced upstream of a compressible leading edge impinging flow. The interaction between free-stream turbulence and the leading edge involves three distinct processes: free turbulence decay, inviscid distortion and viscous interaction. The energetic streamwise vortical structures formed near the surface are found to be temporally persistent, and spatially characterized by a spanwise scale of the order of the local boundary layer thickness. They are identified as the direct cause of the large heat transfer enhancement in the presence of free-stream turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Ramnik; Thomas, Brian G.; Vanka, Surya P.
2014-06-01
Transient flow during nominally steady conditions is responsible for many intermittent defects during the continuous casting of steel. The double-ruler electromagnetic field configuration, or "FC-Mold EMBr," is popular in commercial slab casting as it provides independent control of the applied static field near the jet and free surface regions of the mold. In the current study, transient flow in a typical commercial caster is simulated in the absence and in the presence of a double-ruler magnetic field, with rulers of equal strengths. Large eddy simulations with the in-house code CU-FLOW resolve the important transient behavior, using grids of over five million cells with a fast parallel solver. In the absence of a magnetic field, a double-roll pattern is observed, with transient unbalanced behavior, high surface velocities (~0.5 m/s), surface vortex formation, and very large surface-level fluctuations (~±12 mm). Applying the magnetic field suppresses the unbalanced behavior, producing a more complex mold flow pattern, but with much lower surface velocities (~0.1 m/s), and a flat surface level with small level fluctuations (<±1 mm). Nail board measurements taken at this commercial caster, in the absence of the field, matched reasonably well with the calculated results, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedel, Julien
The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high
Large eddy simulation of turbulence and solute transport in a forested headwater stream
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, A.; Hansen, A. T.; Kozarek, J. L.; Guentzel, K.; Hondzo, M.; Guala, M.; Wilcock, P.; Finlay, J. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2016-01-01
The large eddy simulation (LES) module of the Virtual StreamLab (VSL3D) model is applied to simulate the flow and transport of a conservative tracer in a headwater stream in Minnesota, located in the south Twin Cities metropolitan area. The detailed geometry of the stream reach, which is ˜135 m long, ˜2.5 m wide, and ˜0.15 m deep, was surveyed and used as input to the computational model. The detailed geometry and location of large woody debris and bed roughness elements up to ˜0.1 m in size were also surveyed and incorporated in the numerical simulation using the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary approach employed in VSL3D. The resolution of the simulation, which employs up to a total of 25 million grid nodes to discretize the flow domain, is sufficiently fine to directly account for the effect of large woody debris and small cobbles (on the streambed) on the flow patterns and transport processes of conservative solutes. Two tracer injection conditions, a pulse and a plateau release, and two cross sections of measured velocity were used to validate the LES results. The computed results are shown to be in good agreement with the field measurements and tracer concentration time series. To our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt to simulate via high-resolution LES solute transport in a natural stream environment taking into account a range of roughness length scales spanning an order of magnitude: from small cobbles on the streambed (˜0.1 m in diameter) to large woody debris up to ˜3 m long.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Khosronejad, Ali
2016-02-01
Sand waves arise in subaqueous and Aeolian environments as the result of the complex interaction between turbulent flows and mobile sand beds. They occur across a wide range of spatial scales, evolve at temporal scales much slower than the integral scale of the transporting turbulent flow, dominate river morphodynamics, undermine streambank stability and infrastructure during flooding, and sculpt terrestrial and extraterrestrial landscapes. In this paper, we present the vision for our work over the last ten years, which has sought to develop computational tools capable of simulating the coupled interactions of sand waves with turbulence across the broad range of relevant scales: from small-scale ripples in laboratory flumes to mega-dunes in large rivers. We review the computational advances that have enabled us to simulate the genesis and long-term evolution of arbitrarily large and complex sand dunes in turbulent flows using large-eddy simulation and summarize numerous novel physical insights derived from our simulations. Our findings explain the role of turbulent sweeps in the near-bed region as the primary mechanism for destabilizing the sand bed, show that the seeds of the emergent structure in dune fields lie in the heterogeneity of the turbulence and bed shear stress fluctuations over the initially flatbed, and elucidate how large dunes at equilibrium give rise to energetic coherent structures and modify the spectra of turbulence. We also discuss future challenges and our vision for advancing a data-driven simulation-based engineering science approach for site-specific simulations of river flooding.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Noise Generation in Supersonic Jets at Realistic Engine Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Junhui; Corrigan, Andrew; Kailasanath, K.; Taylor, Brian
2015-11-01
Large-eddy simulations (LES) have been carried out to investigate the noise generation in highly heated supersonic jets at temperatures similar to those observed in high-performance jet engine exhausts. It is found that the exhaust temperature of high-performance jet engines can range from 1000K at an intermediate power to above 2000K at a maximum afterburning power. In low-temperature jets, the effects of the variation of the specific heat ratio as well as the radial temperature profile near the nozzle exit are small and are ignored, but it is not clear whether those effects can be also ignored in highly heated jets. The impact of the variation of the specific heat ratio is assessed by comparing LES results using a variable specific heat ratio with those using a constant specific heat ratio. The impact on both the flow field and the noise distributions are investigated. Because the total temperature near the nozzle wall can be substantially lower than the nozzle total temperature either due to the heating loss through the nozzle wall or due to the cooling applied near the wall, this lower wall temperature may impact the temperature in the shear layer, and thus impact the noise generation. The impact of the radial temperature profile on the jet noise generation is investigated by comparing results of lower nozzle wall temperatures with those of the adiabatic wall condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Staffelbach, G.; Sanjose, M.; Boileau, M.
2009-12-01
Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many aeronautical gas turbine manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are two phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work presents on-going and past Large Eddy Simulations (LES) on this specific subject and as investigated at CERFACS (European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) located in Toulouse, France. Validation steps and potential difficulties are underlined to ensure reliability of LES for such problems. Preliminary LES results on simple burners are then presented, followed by simulations of a complete ignition sequence in an annular helicopter chamber. For all cases and when possible, two-phase or purely gaseous LES have been applied to the experimentally simplified or the full geometries. For the latter, massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform the computation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times and the rate at which the flame progresses from burner to burner. The propagation speed characteristic of these phenomena is much higher than the turbulent flame speed. Based on an in-depth analysis of the computational data, the difference in speed is mainly identified as being due to thermal expansion and the flame speed is strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics issued by the swirled injection.
Large-eddy simulation of flow over the Great Plains under stable atmospheric conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, B.; Chow, F. K.
2010-12-01
The Great Plains in the central part of North America hosts enormous wind resources. One of the key meteorological features over the Great Plains is the frequent occurrence of nocturnal low-level jets under stably-stratified conditions. The flow speed up due to the formation of the low-level jets represents great wind power potential. In this study, large-eddy simulations (LES) will be performed over the site where the Cooperative Atmospheric-surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) field experiment took place. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulations driven by both strongly and weakly forced synoptic flows under stable atmospheric conditions will be investigated. While continuous turbulence is expected under strongly forced conditions, the weakly forced scenario is likely intermittent in nature, with occasional elevated turbulent bursts. The focus of this study includes vertical wind shear profiles, as well as turbulent statistics under stable conditions over the relatively flat, yet complex terrain. We will use an explicit filtering and reconstruction turbulence modeling LES approach. This approach has been proven advantageous in our previous work in terms of turbulence representation and agreement with similarity theory in neutral and stable atmospheric boundary layer flow over flat terrain. The dynamic reconstruction turbulence closure is capable of handling strong atmospheric stability, and predicting intermittent turbulence burst events in previous idealized simulations. This LES study ill provide detailed flow features under stable conditions over the Great Plains that can be valuable to the wind energy industry.
Wall modeled large eddy simulation of supersonic flow physics over compression-expansion ramp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goshtasbi Rad, Ebrahim; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmood
2015-12-01
In the present work, wall modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) in the Fluent software is used to investigate the flow physics of a three-dimensional shock-turbulent boundary layer interaction, as an important phenomenon in aerospace science, on a compression-expansion ramp with the angle of 25°. Fine flow structures are obtained via Laplacian of density that called shadowgraph, in which shock wave structures are visible distinctly. The results are compared with the experimental data of Zheltovodov et al., 1990 [33], in the same condition regarding geometry, boundary conditions, etc. as those used by them. Results show that not only there are a good agreement with experimental trends concerning wall pressure, friction coefficient distribution and mean velocity profiles, but also in comparison with those presented by Grilli et al., 2013 [24]. LES simulation, used in this study, presents more accurate results with fewer computational costs. Afterwards, we investigated the influence of discontinuity in wall temperature, varying stagnation pressure and Reynolds number on physics of flow in order to control the shock behavior. Our simulations shows that, discontinuity in wall temperature, varying free stream stagnation pressure and Reynolds number (the free stream Mach number remained essentially constant) influences the starting point of shock, shock strength, separation length and the collision angle of separated and reattachment shock waves.
Large eddy simulation for predicting turbulent heat transfer in gas turbines.
Tafti, Danesh K; He, Long; Nagendra, K
2014-08-13
Blade cooling technology will play a critical role in the next generation of propulsion and power generation gas turbines. Accurate prediction of blade metal temperature can avoid the use of excessive compressed bypass air and allow higher turbine inlet temperature, increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions. Large eddy simulation (LES) has been established to predict heat transfer coefficients with good accuracy under various non-canonical flows, but is still limited to relatively simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers. It is envisioned that the projected increase in computational power combined with a drop in price-to-performance ratio will make system-level simulations using LES in complex blade geometries at engine conditions accessible to the design process in the coming one to two decades. In making this possible, two key challenges are addressed in this paper: working with complex intricate blade geometries and simulating high-Reynolds-number (Re) flows. It is proposed to use the immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with LES wall functions. A ribbed duct at Re=20 000 is simulated using the IBM, and a two-pass ribbed duct is simulated at Re=100 000 with and without rotation (rotation number Ro=0.2) using LES with wall functions. The results validate that the IBM is a viable alternative to body-conforming grids and that LES with wall functions reproduces experimental results at a much lower computational cost. PMID:25024418
Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.
Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil
2016-08-01
The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail. PMID:27146288
Implicit large eddy simulation of a scalar mixing layer in fractal grid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoaki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nagata, Kouji; Ito, Yasumasa; Hayase, Toshiyuki
2016-07-01
A scalar mixing layer in fractal grid turbulence is simulated by the implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) using low-pass filtering as an implicit subgrid-scale model. The square-type fractal grid with three fractal iterations is used for generating turbulence. The streamwise evolutions of the streamwise velocity statistics obtained in the ILES are in good agreement with the experimental results. The ILES results are used for investigating the development of the scalar mixing layer behind the fractal grid. The results show that the vertical development of the scalar mixing layer strongly depends on the spanwise location. Near the fractal grid, the scalar mixing layer rapidly develops just behind the largest grid bars owing to the vertical turbulent transport. The scalar mixing layer near the fractal grid also develops outside the largest grid bars because the scalar is transported between the outside and back of the largest grid bars by the spanwise turbulent transport. In the downstream region, the scalar mixing layer develops more rapidly near the grid centerline by the vertical turbulent transport and by the spanwise one which transports the scalar between the back of the largest grid bars and both the centerline and outer edge of the fractal grid. Then, the mean scalar profile becomes close to be homogeneous in the spanwise direction.
A Parallel, Finite-Volume Algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1999-01-01
A parallel, finite-volume algorithm has been developed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows. This algorithm includes piecewise linear least-square reconstruction, trilinear finite-element interpolation, Roe flux-difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. Parallel implementation is done using the message-passing programming model. In this paper, the numerical algorithm is described. To validate the numerical method for turbulence simulation, LES of fully developed turbulent flow in a square duct is performed for a Reynolds number of 320 based on the average friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter of the duct. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) results are available for this test case, and the accuracy of this algorithm for turbulence simulations can be ascertained by comparing the LES solutions with the DNS results. The effects of grid resolution, upwind numerical dissipation, and subgrid-scale dissipation on the accuracy of the LES are examined. Comparison with DNS results shows that the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation adversely affects the accuracy of the turbulence simulation. For accurate turbulence simulations, only 3-5 percent of the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation is needed.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent plane and radial wall-jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banyassady, Rayhaneh; Piomelli, Ugo
2014-11-01
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent plane and radial wall-jets were conducted at different Reynolds numbers. The results were validated with the available experimental data. The radial wall-jets decay faster compared to the plane ones, due to the extra expansion in the azimuthal direction. This causes the pressure-gradient distributions to be different in radial and plane wall-jets (e.g. the inner layer in the plane case is under a favorable pressure-gradient, while in the radial case it subjected to an adverse pressure-gradient). However, these pressure gradients are not strong enough to cause any structural difference between plane and radial wall-jets. In both cases, the local Reynolds number (based on the local maximum velocity and local boundary-layer thickness) is an important determining factor in characterization of the flow. The joint probability-density function analysis shows that the local Reynolds number determines the level of intrusion of the outer layer into the inner layer: the lower the local Reynolds number the stronger is the interaction of inner and outer layers. These results were used to clarify some of the observations reported in literature; as an example the scatter of the reported log-law constants can be explained using the above-mentioned results.
Large-eddy simulation of separation-reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wan; Pullin, Dale; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
We describe large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of three-dimensional flow separation. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the bulk of the flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that described by Chung and Pullin [J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281 (2009)]. Wall-normal averaging of the wall-parallel, stream-wise momentum equations combined with local inner scaling for the resolved-scale velocity gives an ordinary differential equation describing the wall shear-stress vector at each wall point. Together with a specification of a slip velocity at a raised, wall-parallel plane, this provides a boundary condition for the outer LES that allows local backflow. The present LES is motivated by experiments on flows exhibiting separation induced by the response of a turbulent boundary layer to an adverse-favorable pressure-gradient profile. Detailed discussion of detachment and reattachment of the separation bubble will be presented.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sone, Kazuo; Menon, Suresh
2000-11-01
Past studies of internal combustion (IC) engine steady-state flow field have employed the well-known KIVA code for steady-state predictions. However, it is also well known that this code is incapable of accurately capturing the impact of unsteady fuel-air mixing on the combustion process. Here, the latest KIVA-3V code has been modified to carry out large-eddy simulations (LES). In particular, the RANS k-e model has been replaced by a subgrid kinetic energy model and a fourth-order ENO scheme has been implemented to increase the accuracy of the discretization of the advection term. Finally, a subgrid model to simulate the small-scale turbulent mixing, combustion and heat release is implemented for reacting flows. Simulations using the new version of KIVA3V denoted here as KIVALES of temporal mixing layers and flows past rearward facing step demonstrate the improved accuracy of the LES model. Accuracy of the prediction is demonstrated by comparing with DNS, LES and experimental results obtained in the past. Finally, the new code is employed to simulate fuel-air mixing and combustion in a typical IC engine. Comparison with predictions using the conventional KIVA is used to demonstrate the ability of the new code.
Large eddy simulation of fuel injection and mixing process in a diesel engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lei; Xie, Mao-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Shi, Jun-Rui
2011-08-01
The large eddy simulation (LES) approach implemented in the KIVA-3V code and based on one-equation sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy model are employed for numerical computation of diesel sprays in a constant volume vessel and in a Caterpillar 3400 series diesel engine. Computational results are compared with those obtained by an RANS (RNG k- ɛ) model as well as with experimental data. The sensitivity of the LES results to mesh resolution is also discussed. The results show that LES generally provides flow and spray characteristics in better agreement with experimental data than RANS; and that small-scale random vortical structures of the in-cylinder turbulent spray field can be captured by LES. Furthermore, the penetrations of fuel droplets and vapors calculated by LES are larger than the RANS result, and the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and sub-grid turbulent viscosity provided by the LES model are evidently less than those calculated by the RANS model. Finally, it is found that the initial swirl significantly affects the spray penetration and the distribution of fuel vapor within the combustion chamber.
Large-eddy and unsteady RANS simulations of a shock-accelerated heavy gas cylinder
Morgan, B. E.; Greenough, J. A.
2015-04-08
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the Richtmyer–Meshkov unstable “shock-jet” problem are conducted using both large-eddy simulation (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approaches in an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrodynamics code. Turbulence statistics are extracted from LES by running an ensemble of simulations with multimode perturbations to the initial conditions. Detailed grid convergence studies are conducted, and LES results are found to agree well with both experiment and high-order simulations conducted by Shankar et al. (Phys Fluids 23, 024102, 2011). URANS results using a k–L approach are found to be highly sensitive to initialization of the turbulence lengthscale L and to the time at which L becomes resolved on the computational mesh. As a result, it is observed that a gradient diffusion closure for turbulent species flux is a poor approximation at early times, and a new closure based on the mass-flux velocity is proposed for low-Reynolds-number mixing.
Large-eddy and unsteady RANS simulations of a shock-accelerated heavy gas cylinder
Morgan, B. E.; Greenough, J. A.
2015-04-08
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the Richtmyer–Meshkov unstable “shock-jet” problem are conducted using both large-eddy simulation (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approaches in an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrodynamics code. Turbulence statistics are extracted from LES by running an ensemble of simulations with multimode perturbations to the initial conditions. Detailed grid convergence studies are conducted, and LES results are found to agree well with both experiment and high-order simulations conducted by Shankar et al. (Phys Fluids 23, 024102, 2011). URANS results using a k–L approach are found to be highly sensitive to initialization of the turbulence lengthscale L and to the timemore » at which L becomes resolved on the computational mesh. As a result, it is observed that a gradient diffusion closure for turbulent species flux is a poor approximation at early times, and a new closure based on the mass-flux velocity is proposed for low-Reynolds-number mixing.« less
Hybrid Large-Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Simulation of a Supersonic Cavity Using VULCAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinlan, Jesse; McDaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.
2013-01-01
Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters a three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and the effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case and indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. Simulations are performed with and without inflow turbulence recycling on the coarse grid to isolate the effect of the recycling procedure, which is demonstrably critical to capturing the relevant shear layer dynamics. Shock sensor formulations of Ducros and Larsson are found to predict mean flow statistics equally well.
Modifications to WRFs dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; et al
2015-10-29
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in themore » acoustic sub-stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub-steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. In conclusion, this modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.« less
Large-Eddy Simulations of Plasma Control for Separated Supersonic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisek, Nicholas; Poggie, Jonathan
2012-11-01
The Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a high-fidelity time-implicit numerical scheme and an implicit large-eddy simulation approach to investigate plasma-based flow control for supersonic flow over a compression ramp. The configuration includes a flat-plate region to develop an equilibrium turbulent boundary-layer at Mach 2.25, which was validated against a set of experimental measurements. The fully turbulent boundary-layer flow traveled over a 24° ramp and produced an unsteady shock-induced separation. A control strategy to suppress the separation through a magnetically-driven gliding-arc actuator was explored. The size, strength, and placement of the actuator were developed based on recent experiments. Three control scenarios were examined: steady control, pulsing with a 50% duty cycle, and Joule heating. The results show the control mechanism reduced the time-mean separation length for all three situations. The case without pulsing and Joule heating was the most effective, with a reduction in the separation length by more than 75%. The controller was also found to significantly reduce the low-frequency content of the turbulent kinetic energy spectra within the separated region and reduce the total kinetic energy downstream of reattachment. Funded in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under a laboratory task monitored by Dr. J. Schmisseur, AFOSR/RSA. The computational resources were supported by a grant of supercomputer time from the U.S. Department of Defense.
Modifications to WRFs dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin
2015-10-29
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic sub-stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub-steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. In conclusion, this modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Frankel, S. H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Sabini, G.; Madnia, C. K.
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to extend current capabilities of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first two years of this research have been concentrated on a priori investigations of single-point Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for providing subgrid closures in reacting turbulent flows. In the efforts initiated in the third year, our primary focus has been on performing actual LES by means of PDF methods. The approach is based on assumed PDF methods and we have performed extensive analysis of turbulent reacting flows by means of LES. This includes simulations of both three-dimensional (3D) isotropic compressible flows and two-dimensional reacting planar mixing layers. In addition to these LES analyses, some work is in progress to assess the extent of validity of our assumed PDF methods. This assessment is done by making detailed companions with recent laboratory data in predicting the rate of reactant conversion in parallel reacting shear flows. This report provides a summary of our achievements for the first six months of the third year of this program.
Recent advances in large-eddy simulation of spray and coal combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, L. X.
2013-07-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is under its rapid development and is recognized as a possible second generation of CFD methods used in engineering. Spray and coal combustion is widely used in power, transportation, chemical and metallurgical, iron and steel making, aeronautical and astronautical engineering, hence LES of spray and coal two-phase combustion is particularly important for engineering application. LES of two-phase combustion attracts more and more attention; since it can give the detailed instantaneous flow and flame structures and more exact statistical results than those given by the Reynolds averaged modeling (RANS modeling). One of the key problems in LES is to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models, including SGS stress models and combustion models. Different investigators proposed or adopted various SGS models. In this paper the present author attempts to review the advances in studies on LES of spray and coal combustion, including the studies done by the present author and his colleagues. Different SGS models adopted by different investigators are described, some of their main results are summarized, and finally some research needs are discussed.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interaction and its Control Using Sparkjet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guang; Yao, Yufeng; Fang, Jian; Gan, Tian; Lu, Lipeng
2016-06-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of an oblique shock-wave generated by an 8° sharp wedge impinging onto a spatially-developing Mach 2.3 turbulent boundary layer and their interactions has been carried out in this study. The Reynolds number based on the incoming flow property and the boundary layer displacement thickness at the impinging point without shock-wave is 20,000. The detailed numerical approaches are described and the inflow turbulence is generated using the digital filter method to avoid artificial temporal or streamwise periodicity. Numerical results are compared with the available wind tunnel PIV measurements of the same flow conditions. Further LES study on the control of flow separation due to the strong shock-viscous interaction is also conducted by using an active control actuator “SparkJet” concept. The single-pulsed characteristics of the control device are obtained and compared with the experiments. Instantaneous flowfield shows that the “SparkJet” promotes the flow mixing in the boundary layer and enhances its ability to resist the flow separation. The time and spanwise averaged skin friction coefficient distribution demonstrates that the separation bubble length is reduced by maximum 35% with the control exerted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin
2015-12-01
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic substepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1 + 1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic substeps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. This modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.
High-resolution large-eddy simulation of turbulent mixing of a river plume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, X.; Hsu, T. J.; Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.
2014-12-01
A non-hydrostatic sigma-coordinate numerical model (NHWave) is applied to study the structure of a river plume, and the vertical mixing due to shear instabilities. A 3D large-eddy simulation approach is used with the aim to resolve the flow turbulence in the stratified ambient fluid at high Reynolds number. The domain is of depth 10m, length 500m and width 25m, and initially quiescent containing saltwater of salinity 26 psu. Fresh water plume is sent from the left boundary with a range of internal Froude number. Simulation resulting using Standard Smagorinsky closure demonstrates that the model is able to predict shear instabilities although it could not resolve the secondary instability at high Reynolds number. The characteristic length scale of the shear instabilities is around 10 m, which is consistent with field observation of Connecticut River plume using a 4-channel broadband echo sounder (Geyer et al. 2010, Geophy. Res. Lett., 37, L22607). The mixing efficiency and dissipation rate are obtained from the numerical simulation results, and these results are used to investigate and evaluate the Richardson-number-dependent parameterization of the mixing process. The model can also provide the information on fine structures of surface elevation variations, which enables us to correlate the surface signature with the turbulent billow underneath. The model therefore may be useful to help interpret surface signatures observed using various remote sensing techniques. Supported by Office of Naval Research.
Large eddy simulation for predicting turbulent heat transfer in gas turbines
Tafti, Danesh K.; He, Long; Nagendra, K.
2014-01-01
Blade cooling technology will play a critical role in the next generation of propulsion and power generation gas turbines. Accurate prediction of blade metal temperature can avoid the use of excessive compressed bypass air and allow higher turbine inlet temperature, increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions. Large eddy simulation (LES) has been established to predict heat transfer coefficients with good accuracy under various non-canonical flows, but is still limited to relatively simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers. It is envisioned that the projected increase in computational power combined with a drop in price-to-performance ratio will make system-level simulations using LES in complex blade geometries at engine conditions accessible to the design process in the coming one to two decades. In making this possible, two key challenges are addressed in this paper: working with complex intricate blade geometries and simulating high-Reynolds-number (Re) flows. It is proposed to use the immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with LES wall functions. A ribbed duct at Re=20 000 is simulated using the IBM, and a two-pass ribbed duct is simulated at Re=100 000 with and without rotation (rotation number Ro=0.2) using LES with wall functions. The results validate that the IBM is a viable alternative to body-conforming grids and that LES with wall functions reproduces experimental results at a much lower computational cost. PMID:25024418
Analysis on Turbulent Flows using Large-eddy Simulation on the Seaside Complex Terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamio, T.; Iida, M.; Arakawa, C.
2014-12-01
The purpose of this study is the Large-eddy Simulation (LES) of the turbulent wind on the complex terrain, and the first results of the simulation are described. The authors tried to apply the LES code, which was developed as an atmospheric simulator in Japan Agency for the Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), to the wind prediction for the wind energy. On the wind simulation, the highest problem would be the boundary conditions, and the case in this paper was simplified one. The case study in this paper is the west wind on a complex terrain site, which is the wind from sea for the site. The steady flow was employed for the inlet condition, because the wind on the sea is the low turbulent wind, and almost all the turbulence would be generated by the roughness of the ground surface. The wall function was employed as the surface condition on the ground surface. The computational domain size was about 8 × 3 × 2.5 km3, and the minimum cell size was about 10 × 10 × 3 m3. The computational results, the vertical profile of the averaged wind speed and the turbulence intensity, agreed with the measurement by the meteorological masts. Moreover, the authors tried the analysis of the turbulence characteristics. The power spectrum density model, and the cross spectrum analyses gave the knowledge of the turbulent characteristics on the complex terrain and the hints for the domain and grid of the numerical analysis.
Influence of Inflow Forcing on Large-Eddy Simulation of High Subsonic Jet Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, Yuya; Teramoto, Susumu; Okamoto, Koji; Nakanishi, Yuta; Nagashima, Toshio
Subsonic jets at Mach number Mj = 0.9 are computed using compressible Large Eddy Simulation and Kirchhoff method in order to investigate the effects of the inflow forcing on the flow and sound field. Four parameters are varied in the jet inflow: the use of the first modes in the ring vortex excitation involving several azimuthal modes, the forcing amplitude, the thickness of disturbances, and the existence of the inflow forcing. It is confirmed that there are significant differences whether the disturbances are added or not. The inflow forcing parameter that has the most influence on the flow and sound field is the azimuthal modes. It is shown that the inflow forcing takes an important role to destroy the coherence of velocity disturbances on the shear layer and prevents high amplitude velocity and pressure fluctuations that are caused due to axisymmetric vortices. When first modes in several azimuthal modes are removed, the flow field and far field sound pressure levels are relatively consistent with experimental data.
Investigation of particle-laden flow in a straight duct using large eddy simulation
Fairweather, M.; Yao, J.
2007-07-01
A particle-laden turbulent flow in a square duct is predicted using large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation is performed for a Reynolds number of 35,500, and correctly predicts the existence of secondary flows and their effects on the mean flow. The results are also in good qualitative agreement with experimental data obtained at different Reynolds numbers. One-way coupling is assumed between solid particles and the fluid, and a particle equation of motion, including Stokes drag, lift, buoyancy and gravity force terms, solved using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique. Three sizes of particle (1, 50 and 100 {mu}m) are considered, and results demonstrate that size has a significant effect on particle dispersion and deposition in the duct flow. As particle size increases, therefore, they tend to settle on the floor of the duct, with less dispersion in the fluid phase. The study demonstrates the usefulness of LES for nuclear waste processing applications since secondary flows occur in many practically-relevant flows, and since it is desirable that the two-phase waste mixture is kept as homogeneous as possible to prevent, or at least discourage, the settling out of solid particles to form a bed which can promote pipe blockages. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2013-11-01
In view of the ongoing longtime pursuit of numerical approaches that can capture important flow physics of high Reynolds number flows with fewest degrees of freedom, two important wavelet-based multi-resolution schemes are thoroughly examined, namely, the Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) and the Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) with constant and spatially/temporarily variable thresholding. Reynolds number scaling of active spatial modes for CVS and SCALES of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is investigated in dynamic study for the first time. This dynamic computational complexity study demonstrates that wavelet-based methods can capture flow-physics while using substantially fewer degrees of freedom than both direct numerical simulation and marginally resolved LES with the same level of fidelity or turbulence resolution, defined as ratio of subgrid scale and the total dissipations. The study provides four important observations: (1) the linear Reynolds number scaling of energy containing structures at a fixed level of kinetic energy, (2) small, close to unity, fractal dimension for constant-threshold CVS and SCALES simulations, (3) constant, close to two, fractal dimension for constant-dissipation SCALES that is insensitive to the level of fidelity, and (4) faster than quadratic decay of the compression ratio as a function of turbulence resolution. The very promising slope for Reynolds number scaling of CVS and SCALES demonstrates the potential of the wavelet-based methodologies for hierarchical multiscale space/time adaptive variable fidelity simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows.
Large-eddy Simulation of Boundary Layer Flow over Desert Sand Dune Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlrich, S.; Anderson, W.; Passalacqua, P.; Mohrig, D. C.; Kocurek, G.
2012-12-01
Complex spatiotemporal coupling exists between desert sand dune topography and surface layer physics of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Although the interactions of individual desert sand dunes have been extensively studied, with categorical interaction mechanisms identified, the aero-mechanical coupling associated with these dune interactions remains an open problem. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate turbulent boundary layer flow over dune structures from White Sands, NM. The dunes are resolved with an immersed boundary method (IBM). The flow-forcing (imposed pressure gradient) is varied to simulate the three common prevailing wind conditions at White Sands (southwest, southeast, and northwest, with southwest being the most common). In the present research, comparison between flow statistics (dune wall pressure distribution retrieved from the IBM) and time-difference dune elevation data are used to characterize the mechanisms responsible for erosion (stoss side) and deposition (lee side) of sand. Additionally, statistical details of time series of aerodynamic forcing at different locations on the dune face are evaluated, which may be used to deepen understanding of erosion and deposition events observed in the time-difference lidar data.
Lantz, Jonas; Gårdhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts
2012-10-01
In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is employed to calculate the disturbed flow field and the wall shear stress (WSS) in a subject specific human aorta. Velocity and geometry measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are taken as input to the model to provide accurate boundary conditions and to assure the physiological relevance. In total, 50 consecutive cardiac cycles were simulated from which a phase average was computed to get a statistically reliable result. A decomposition similar to Reynolds decomposition is introduced, where the WSS signal is divided into a pulsating part (due to the mass flow rate) and a fluctuating part (originating from the disturbed flow). Oscillatory shear index (OSI) is plotted against time-averaged WSS in a novel way, and locations on the aortic wall where elevated values existed could easily be found. In general, high and oscillating WSS values were found in the vicinity of the branches in the aortic arch, while low and oscillating WSS were present in the inner curvature of the descending aorta. The decomposition of WSS into a pulsating and a fluctuating part increases the understanding of how WSS affects the aortic wall, which enables both qualitative and quantitative comparisons. PMID:22209366
Reduction of Cloud Water in Ship Tracks: Observations and Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Ship tracks represent a natural laboratory to study the effects of aerosols on clouds. A number of observations and simulations have shown that increased droplet concentrations in ship tracks increase their total cross-sectional area, thereby enhancing cloud albedo and providing a negative radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere. In some cases, cloud water has been found to be enhanced in ship tracks, which has been attributed to suppression of drizzle and implies an enhanced susceptibility of cloud albedo to droplet concentrations. However, more recently compiled observations indicate that cloud water is instead reduced in daytime ship tracks on average. Such a response is consistent with cloud-burning due to solar absorption by soot (the semi-direct radiative forcing of aerosols), recently suggested to be suppressing trade cumulus cloud coverage over the Indian Ocean. We will summarize observational evidence and present large-eddy simulations that consider these competing mechanisms in the effects of aerosols on cloud albedo.
Large eddy simulation of flows in industrial compressors: a path from 2015 to 2035.
Gourdain, N; Sicot, F; Duchaine, F; Gicquel, L
2014-08-13
A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows is a necessary step towards a breakthrough in the design of modern compressors. Owing to high Reynolds numbers and very complex geometry, the flow that develops in such industrial machines is extremely hard to predict. At this time, the most popular method to simulate these flows is still based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. However, there is some evidence that this formalism is not accurate for these components, especially when a description of time-dependent turbulent flows is desired. With the increase in computing power, large eddy simulation (LES) emerges as a promising technique to improve both knowledge of complex physics and reliability of flow solver predictions. The objective of the paper is thus to give an overview of the current status of LES for industrial compressor flows as well as to propose future research axes regarding the use of LES for compressor design. While the use of wall-resolved LES for industrial multistage compressors at realistic Reynolds number should not be ready before 2035, some possibilities exist to reduce the cost of LES, such as wall modelling and the adaptation of the phase-lag condition. This paper also points out the necessity to combine LES to techniques able to tackle complex geometries. Indeed LES alone, i.e. without prior knowledge of such flows for grid construction or the prohibitive yet ideal use of fully homogeneous meshes to predict compressor flows, is quite limited today. PMID:25024422
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A number of observations and simulations have shown that increased droplet concentrations in ship tracks increase their total cross-sectional area, thereby enhancing cloud albedo and providing a negative (cooling) radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere. In some cases cloud water has been found to be enhanced in ship tracks, which has been attributed to suppression of drizzle and implies an enhanced susceptibility of cloud albedo to droplet concentrations. However, observations from aircraft and satellite indicate that on average cloud water is instead reduced in daytime ship tracks. Such a reduction in liquid water may be attributable to cloud-burning caused by solar heating by soot within the ship exhaust, or by increased precipitation resulting from giant nuclei in the ship exhaust. We will summarize the observational evidence and present results from large-eddy simulations that evaluate these mechanisms. Along the way we will present our insights into the interpretation of satellite retrievals of cloud microphysical properties.
A High-Resolution Capability for Large-Eddy Simulation of Jet Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2011-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) code that utilizes high-resolution numerical schemes is described and applied to a compressible jet flow. The code is written in a general manner such that the accuracy/resolution of the simulation can be selected by the user. Time discretization is performed using a family of low-dispersion Runge-Kutta schemes, selectable from first- to fourth-order. Spatial discretization is performed using central differencing schemes. Both standard schemes, second- to twelfth-order (3 to 13 point stencils) and Dispersion Relation Preserving schemes from 7 to 13 point stencils are available. The code is written in Fortran 90 and uses hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization. The code is applied to the simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet flow. Four-stage third-order Runge-Kutta time stepping and the 13 point DRP spatial discretization scheme of Bogey and Bailly are used. The high resolution numerics used allows for the use of relatively sparse grids. Three levels of grid resolution are examined, 3.5, 6.5, and 9.2 million points. Mean flow, first-order turbulent statistics and turbulent spectra are reported. Good agreement with experimental data for mean flow and first-order turbulent statistics is shown.
Large Eddy Simulation of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis
2015-11-01
In this talk we report on Large Eddy Simulations of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent channel flow. The impinging jet enters the turbulent stream in an oblique direction. This type of flow is relevant to the so-called ``Pressurized Thermal Shock'' phenomenon that can occur in pressurized water reactors. First we elaborate on issues related to the set-up of the simulations of the flow of interest such as, imposition of turbulent inflows, choice of subgrid-scale model and others. Also, the issue of the commutator error due to the anisotropy of the spatial cut-off filter induced by non-uniform grids is being discussed. In the second part of the talk we present results of our simulations. In particular, we focus on the high-shear and recirculation zones that are developed and on the characteristics of the temperature field. The budget for the mean kinetic energy of the resolved-scale turbulent velocity fluctuations is also discussed and analyzed. Financial support has been provided by Bel V, a subsidiary of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control of Belgium.
Large eddy simulation of wind-induced interunit dispersion around multistory buildings.
Ai, Z T; Mak, C M
2016-04-01
Previous studies regarding interunit dispersion used Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models and thus obtained only mean dispersion routes and re-entry ratios. Given that the envelope flow around a building is highly fluctuating, mean values could be insufficient to describe interunit dispersion. This study investigates the wind-induced interunit dispersion around multistory buildings using the large eddy simulation (LES) method. This is the first time interunit dispersion has been investigated transiently using a LES model. The quality of the selected LES model is seriously assured through both experimental validation and sensitivity analyses. Two aspects are paid special attention: (i) comparison of dispersion routes with those provided by previous RANS simulations and (ii) comparison of timescales with those of natural ventilation and the survival times of pathogens. The LES results reveal larger dispersion scopes than the RANS results. Such larger scopes could be caused by the fluctuating and stochastic nature of envelope flows, which, however, is canceled out by the inherent Reynolds-averaged treatment of RANS models. The timescales of interunit dispersion are comparable with those of natural ventilation. They are much shorter than the survival time of most pathogens under ordinary physical environments, indicating that interunit dispersion is a valid route for disease transmission. PMID:25787963
Large eddy simulation of flows in industrial compressors: a path from 2015 to 2035
Gourdain, N.; Sicot, F.; Duchaine, F.; Gicquel, L.
2014-01-01
A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows is a necessary step towards a breakthrough in the design of modern compressors. Owing to high Reynolds numbers and very complex geometry, the flow that develops in such industrial machines is extremely hard to predict. At this time, the most popular method to simulate these flows is still based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach. However, there is some evidence that this formalism is not accurate for these components, especially when a description of time-dependent turbulent flows is desired. With the increase in computing power, large eddy simulation (LES) emerges as a promising technique to improve both knowledge of complex physics and reliability of flow solver predictions. The objective of the paper is thus to give an overview of the current status of LES for industrial compressor flows as well as to propose future research axes regarding the use of LES for compressor design. While the use of wall-resolved LES for industrial multistage compressors at realistic Reynolds number should not be ready before 2035, some possibilities exist to reduce the cost of LES, such as wall modelling and the adaptation of the phase-lag condition. This paper also points out the necessity to combine LES to techniques able to tackle complex geometries. Indeed LES alone, i.e. without prior knowledge of such flows for grid construction or the prohibitive yet ideal use of fully homogeneous meshes to predict compressor flows, is quite limited today. PMID:25024422
Large-eddy simulation of a spatially-evolving turbulent mixing layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capuano, Francesco; Catalano, Pietro; Mastellone, Andrea
2015-11-01
Large-eddy simulations of a spatially-evolving turbulent mixing layer have been performed. The flow conditions correspond to those of a documented experimental campaign (Delville, Appl. Sci. Res. 1994). The flow evolves downstream of a splitter plate separating two fully turbulent boundary layers, with Reθ = 2900 on the high-speed side and Reθ = 1200 on the low-speed side. The computational domain starts at the trailing edge of the splitter plate, where experimental mean velocity profiles are prescribed; white-noise perturbations are superimposed to mimic turbulent fluctuations. The fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by means of a finite-volume method implemented into the in-house code SPARK-LES. The results are mainly checked in terms of the streamwise evolution of the vorticity thickness and averaged velocity profiles. The combined effects of inflow perturbations, numerical accuracy and subgrid-scale model are discussed. It is found that excessive levels of dissipation may damp inlet fluctuations and delay the virtual origin of the turbulent mixing layer. On the other hand, non-dissipative, high-resolution computations provide results that are in much better agreement with experimental data.
Trailing-edge noise control using surrogate-based optimization and large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Dennis, John E., Jr.; Moin, Parviz
2004-11-01
Derivative-free shape optimization is applied to minimize aerodynamic noise in the flow over an airfoil trailing-edge. Optimization is performed using the surrogate management framework (SMF) with constraints (Audet and Dennis 2000, SIAM J. Optim, to appear). In this method, design space exploration is performed with an inexpensive surrogate function, and the use of a poll step guarantees convergence to a local minimum of the cost function on a mesh. Constraints on lift and drag are enforced using a filter, and as much as 70% reduction in laminar vortex-shedding noise has been achieved. For optimization in turbulent flow, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to compute the acoustic cost function based on Lighthill stress source terms. By incorporating RANS into the optimization procedure, the constraint violation is determined pha priori, and unnecessary costly LES evaluations can be avoided. Additionally, mesh adaptive direct search (Audet and Dennis 2004, Rice TR04-02) is used for polling in the turbulent case, offering stronger convergence properties.
Large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly turbulent flows for aerating hydrofoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajit, Mohammad; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-11-01
We have proposed a formulation for the large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly flows by converting the governing equations to a more loosely-coupled form. This formulation provides an efficient numerical procedure for two-way coupling of bubbly flows at low gas holdups. Subgrid-scale turbulence modeling is based on the dynamic procedure of Germano for the liquid phase and the Jakobson approach for the gas phase. Wall-modeling is implemented using the method of Cabot & Moin. Our approach is employed to simulate flow over aerating hydrofoils at different angles of attack. A structured body-fitted C-grid is employed for domain discretization. Validation of our computational code, for C-grids, is carried out by simulating single-phase flows over a NACA0012 airfoil (20° AOA) with laminar flow and an E387 airfoil (6° AOA) with turbulent flow. Comparisons with available computational and experimental data in terms of time averaged drag coefficient, lift coefficient, separation bubble length, and reattachment point proves the validity of our computational code. The aerating hydrofoil simulation utilizes a NACA0015 hydrofoil, for which experiments were carried out at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Comparisons between computational and experimental datasets show promising results. This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and the Hydro Reasearch Foundation.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Plasma Flow Control on a GOE735 Wind Turbine Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czulak, Alexander; Franck, Jennifer
2015-11-01
Active flow control using plasma actuation was studied for the GOE735 airfoil and compared to non-actuated baseline cases using numerical simulations. This investigation considers two-dimensional simulations at a Reynolds number of 1,000 using direct numerical simulation (DNS) as well as three-dimensional simulations at a Reynolds number of 50,000 and 100,000 using large-eddy simulation (LES). Plasma actuation is applied in terms of a source term within the boundary layer close to the airfoil surface. Angles of attack of 0°, 5° and 15° were considered, and control is shown to be effective at increasing the lift coefficient, decreasing the drag coefficient and reducing the root mean squared deviation of both lift and drag. An analysis of the flow physics reveals that the actuated cases delay the point of separation, reduce the wake width and diminish the size and strength of the shed vortices. For this particular airfoil, there are significant differences in Reynolds number in terms of the baseline flow, control effectiveness and performance factors such as lift and drag.
From large-eddy simulation to multi-UAVs sampling of shallow cumulus clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamraoui, Fayçal; Roberts, Greg; Burnet, Frédéric
2016-04-01
In-situ sampling of clouds that can provide simultaneous measurements at satisfying spatio-temporal resolutions to capture 3D small scale physical processes continues to present challenges. This project (SKYSCANNER) aims at bringing together cloud sampling strategies using a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on Large-eddy simulation (LES). The multi-UAV-based field campaigns with a personalized sampling strategy for individual clouds and cloud fields will significantly improve the understanding of the unresolved cloud physical processes. An extensive set of LES experiments for case studies from ARM-SGP site have been performed using MesoNH model at high resolutions down to 10 m. The carried out simulations led to establishing a macroscopic model that quantifies the interrelationship between micro- and macrophysical properties of shallow convective clouds. Both the geometry and evolution of individual clouds are critical to multi-UAV cloud sampling and path planning. The preliminary findings of the current project reveal several linear relationships that associate many cloud geometric parameters to cloud related meteorological variables. In addition, the horizontal wind speed indicates a proportional impact on cloud number concentration as well as triggering and prolonging the occurrence of cumulus clouds. In the framework of the joint collaboration that involves a Multidisciplinary Team (including institutes specializing in aviation, robotics and atmospheric science), this model will be a reference point for multi-UAVs sampling strategies and path planning.
Large-eddy simulation of airflow and heat transfer in a general ward of hospital
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Md. Farhad; Himika, Taasnim Ahmed; Molla, Md. Mamun
2016-07-01
In this paper, a very popular alternative computational technique, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been used for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of airflow and heat transfer in general ward of hospital. Different Reynolds numbers have been used to study the airflow pattern. In LES, Smagorinsky turbulence model has been considered and a discussion has been conducted in brief. A code validation has been performed comparing the present results with benchmark results for lid-driven cavity problem and the results are found to agree very well. LBM is demonstrated through simulation in forced convection inside hospital ward with six beds with a partition in the middle, which acted like a wall. Changes in average rate of heat transfer in terms of average Nusselt numbers have also been recorded in tabular format and necessary comparison has been showed. It was found that partition narrowed the path for airflow and once the air overcame this barrier, it got free space and turbulence appeared. For higher turbulence, the average rate of heat transfer increased and patients near the turbulence zone released maximum heat and felt more comfortable.
Effects of mesh resolution on large eddy simulation of reacting flows in complex geometry combustors
Boudier, G.; Gicquel, L.Y.M.; Poinsot, T.J.
2008-10-15
The power of current parallel computers is becoming sufficient to apply large eddy simulation (LES) tools to reacting flows not only in academic configurations but also in real gas turbine chambers. The most limiting factor in performing LES of real systems is the mesh size, which directly controls the overall cost of the simulation, so that the effects of mesh resolution on LES results become a key issue. In the present work, an unstructured compressible LES solver is used to compute the reacting flow in a domain corresponding to a sector of a realistic helicopter chamber. Three grids ranging from 1.2 to 44 million elements are used for LES and results are compared in terms of mean and fluctuating fields as well as of pressure spectra. Results show that the mean temperature, reaction rate, and velocity fields are almost insensitive to the grid size. The RMS field of the resolved velocity is also reasonably independent of the mesh, while the RMS fields of temperature exhibit more sensitivity to the grid, as expected from the fact that most of the combustion process proceeds at small scales. The acoustic field exhibits a limited sensitivity to the mesh, suggesting that LES is adapted to the computation of combustion instabilities in complex systems. (author)
Large-eddy simulation of flow past a real-life stream restoration structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Seokkoo; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2011-11-01
We carry out high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow around a rock vane, which is a widely used stream restoration structure. Mean velocities and turbulence statistics collected downstream of the rock vane installed in a laboratory flume are compared with the LES results. The comparisons demonstrate that the LES is able to accurately predict the measured mean velocities and turbulence statistics. The simulation shows that the rock vane effectively directs the oncoming flow away from the structure and creates a reduced velocity region in the downstream region. The computed results also reveal that the rock vane creates strong secondary helical flow that directs the near-bed flow toward the sidewall to which the rock vane is attached. This finding points to the conclusion that the downstream secondary flow can create deposition of sediments near the sidewall in a mobile bed condition, which can serve as an important mechanism for protecting near-bank scour in natural streams. This work was supported by National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics (NCED), ECORIVER21 project in South Korea, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Minnesota Supercomputing Institue (MSI).
Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up
Örley, F. Trummler, T.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.; Hickel, S.
2015-08-15
We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating fluid model is based on a thermodynamic-equilibrium assumption. Compressibility of all phases enables full resolution of collapse-induced pressure wave dynamics. The thermodynamic model is embedded into an implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) environment. The considered configuration follows the general setup of a reference experiment and is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up fuel injector or control valve as found in an automotive engine. Due to the experimental conditions, it operates, however, at significantly lower pressures. LES results are compared to the experimental reference for validation. Three different operating points are studied, which differ in terms of the development of cavitation regions and the jet break-up characteristics. Observed differences between experimental and numerical data in some of the investigated cases can be caused by uncertainties in meeting nominal parameters by the experiment. The investigation reveals that three main mechanisms promote primary jet break-up: collapse-induced turbulent fluctuations near the outlet, entrainment of free gas into the nozzle, and collapse events inside the jet near the liquid-gas interface.
Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Guang J.; Wu, Xianghua; Endo, Satoshi; Cao, Le; Li, Yueqing; Guo, Xiaohao
2016-02-01
This work examines the relationships of entrainment rate to vertical velocity, buoyancy, and turbulent dissipation rate by applying stepwise principal component regression to observational data from shallow cumulus clouds collected during the Routine AAF [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The cumulus clouds during the RACORO campaign simulated using a large eddy simulation (LES) model are also examined with the same approach. The analysis shows that a combination of multiple variables can better represent entrainment ratemore » in both the observations and LES than any single-variable fitting. Three commonly used parameterizations are also tested on the individual cloud scale. A new parameterization is therefore presented that relates entrainment rate to vertical velocity, buoyancy and dissipation rate; the effects of treating clouds as ensembles and humid shells surrounding cumulus clouds on the new parameterization are discussed. Physical mechanisms underlying the relationships of entrainment rate to vertical velocity, buoyancy and dissipation rate are also explored.« less
Large-eddy simulation of flow through a plane, asymmetric diffuser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob
1994-01-01
A challenge for traditional turbulence modeling, based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, remains the accurate prediction of 'mild', adverse pressure-gradient driven separation from a smooth surface. With this study we want to explore the capability of large-eddy simulation to predict the separation which occurs on the deflected wall of an asymmetric, plane diffuser with opening angle of 10 deg. The flow through the plane diffuser exhibits some additional interesting physical phenomena which make it a challenging test case. In addition to 'mild' separation about halfway down the deflected ramp, the flow is characterized by a small backflow zone with stalled fluid in the rear part of the expanding section. The turbulent flow entering the diffuser is subject to combined adverse and radial pressure gradients stemming from the convex curvature. Finally the flow recovers into a developed, turbulent channel flow in the outlet section. Obi et al. provide measurements of mean flow, Reynolds stresses, and pressure recovery, which were obtained by means of LDV in a wind tunnel. The objective of this study is to investigate whether LES with the standard dynamic model is able to accurately predict the flow in the one-sided diffuser and to explore the resolution requirements and associated costs.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent cavitating flow in a micro channel
Egerer, Christian P. Hickel, Stefan; Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2014-08-15
Large-eddy simulations (LES) of cavitating flow of a Diesel-fuel-like fluid in a generic throttle geometry are presented. Two-phase regions are modeled by a parameter-free thermodynamic equilibrium mixture model, and compressibility of the liquid and the liquid-vapor mixture is taken into account. The Adaptive Local Deconvolution Method (ALDM), adapted for cavitating flows, is employed for discretizing the convective terms of the Navier-Stokes equations for the homogeneous mixture. ALDM is a finite-volume-based implicit LES approach that merges physically motivated turbulence modeling and numerical discretization. Validation of the numerical method is performed for a cavitating turbulent mixing layer. Comparisons with experimental data of the throttle flow at two different operating conditions are presented. The LES with the employed cavitation modeling predicts relevant flow and cavitation features accurately within the uncertainty range of the experiment. The turbulence structure of the flow is further analyzed with an emphasis on the interaction between cavitation and coherent motion, and on the statistically averaged-flow evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa
2014-07-01
The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.
Large-eddy simulations of a turbulent Coanda jet on a circulation control airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim
2010-12-01
Large-eddy simulations are performed of a turbulent Coanda jet separating from a rounded trailing edge of a simplified circulation control airfoil model. The freestream Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord is 0.49×106, the jet Reynolds number based on the jet slot height is 4470, and the ratio of the peak jet velocity to the freestream velocity is 3.96. Three different grid resolutions are used to show that their effect is very small on the mean surface pressure distribution, which agrees very well with experiments, as well as on the mean velocity profiles over the Coanda surface. It is observed that the Coanda jet becomes fully turbulent just downstream of the jet exit, accompanied by asymmetric alternating vortex shedding behind a thin (but blunt) jet blade splitting the jet and the external flow. A number of "backward-tilted" hairpin vortices (i.e., the head of each hairpin being located upstream of the legs) are observed around the outer edge of the jet over the Coanda surface. These hairpins create strong upwash between the legs and weak downwash around them, contributing to turbulent mixing of the high-momentum jet below the hairpins and the low-momentum external flow above them. The probability density distribution of velocity fluctuations is shown to be highly asymmetric in this region, consistent with the observation that the hairpin vortices create strong upwash and weak downwash. Turbulent structures inside the jet, its spreading rate, and self-similarity are also discussed.
Dynamic dose assessment by Large Eddy Simulation of the near-range atmospheric dispersion.
Vervecken, Lieven; Camps, Johan; Meyers, Johan
2015-03-01
In order to improve the simulation of the near-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, computational fluid dynamics is becoming increasingly popular. In the current study, Large-Eddy Simulation is used to examine the time-evolution of the turbulent dispersion of radioactive gases in the atmospheric boundary layer, and it is coupled to a gamma dose rate model that is based on the point-kernel method with buildup factors. In this way, the variability of radiological dose rate from cloud shine due to instantaneous turbulent mixing processes can be evaluated. The steady release in an open field of (41)Ar and (133)Xe for 4 different release heights is studied, thus covering radionuclides that decay with a high-energy gamma and a low-energy gamma, respectively. Based on these simulations, the variability of dose rates at ground level for different averaging times in the dose measurements is analyzed. It is observed that turbulent variability in the wind field can lead to dose estimates that are underestimated by up to a factor of four when conventional long-term measurements are used to estimate the dose from short-term exposures. PMID:25634888
Large-eddy simulation of bubble-driven plume in stably stratified flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di; Chen, Bicheng; Socolofsky, Scott; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2015-11-01
The interaction between a bubble-driven plume and stratified water column plays a vital role in many environmental and engineering applications. As the bubbles are released from a localized source, they induce a positive buoyancy flux that generates an upward plume. As the plume rises, it entrains ambient water, and when the plume rises to a higher elevation where the stratification-induced negative buoyancy is sufficient, a considerable fraction of the entrained fluid detrains, or peels, to form a downward outer plume and a lateral intrusion layer. In the case of multiphase plumes, the intrusion layer may also trap weakly buoyant particles (e.g., oil droplets in the case of a subsea accidental blowout). In this study, the complex plume dynamics is studied using large-eddy simulation (LES), with the flow field simulated by hybrid pseudospectral/finite-difference scheme, and the bubble and dye concentration fields simulated by finite-volume scheme. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the buoyant plume are studied, with a focus on the effects of different bubble buoyancy levels. The LES data provide useful mean plume statistics for evaluating the accuracy of 1-D engineering models for entrainment and peeling fluxes. Based on the insights learned from the LES, a new continuous peeling model is developed and tested. Study supported by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).
Large-eddy simulation of heat transfer from impinging slot jets
Cziesla, T.; Tandogan, E.; Mitra, N.K.
1997-07-01
Impinging jet flows have become a well-established object of investigation in recent years because of their increasing significance in both fundamental and applied fluid mechanics. Examples of a wide range of applications, are the drying of textiles, film, and paper; annealing of glass; processing of some metals and glass; cooling of gas turbine components and the outer wall of combustors and electronic equipment; and freezing of tissue. Here Nusselt number distributions are presented for impinging jet flow of an array of slot nozzles (rectangular jets). The tools to calculate the present turbulent flow are large-eddy simulation (LES) using a dynamic subgrid stress model and the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical code has been validated by comparing computed Nusselt number distributions on the impingement plate for two-dimensional flow with experimental results. A comparison between LES using a logarithmic law of the wall and the DNS shows good agreement of Nusselt number in the Reynolds number range of 600--3,000. The velocity profile at the feed tube exit strongly influences the maximum heat transfer at the stagnation point.
Dynamic non-equilibrium wall-modeling for large eddy simulation at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Soshi; Larsson, Johan
2013-01-01
A dynamic non-equilibrium wall-model for large-eddy simulation at arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers is proposed and validated on equilibrium boundary layers and a non-equilibrium shock/boundary-layer interaction problem. The proposed method builds on the prior non-equilibrium wall-models of Balaras et al. [AIAA J. 34, 1111-1119 (1996)], 10.2514/3.13200 and Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluids 14, 2043-2051 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1476668: the failure of these wall-models to accurately predict the skin friction in equilibrium boundary layers is shown and analyzed, and an improved wall-model that solves this issue is proposed. The improvement stems directly from reasoning about how the turbulence length scale changes with wall distance in the inertial sublayer, the grid resolution, and the resolution-characteristics of numerical methods. The proposed model yields accurate resolved turbulence, both in terms of structure and statistics for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium flows without the use of ad hoc corrections. Crucially, the model accurately predicts the skin friction, something that existing non-equilibrium wall-models fail to do robustly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlegel, Fabian; Stiller, Jörg; Bienert, Anne; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Queck, Ronald; Bernhofer, Christian
2012-02-01
The effect of sub-tree forest heterogeneity in the flow past a clearing is investigated by means of large-eddy simulation (LES). For this purpose, a detailed representation of the canopy has been acquired by terrestrial laser scanning for a patch of approximately 190 m length in the field site "Tharandter Wald", near the city of Dresden, Germany. The scanning data are used to produce a high resolution plant area distribution (PAD) that is averaged over approximately one tree height (30 m) along the transverse direction, in order to simplify the LES study. Despite the smoothing involved with this procedure, the resulting two-dimensional PAD maintains a rich vertical and horizontal structure. For the LES study, the PAD is embedded in a larger domain covered with an idealized, horizontally homogeneous canopy. Simulations are performed for neutral conditions and compared to a LES with homogeneous PAD and recent field measurements. The results reveal a considerable influence of small-scale plant distribution on the mean velocity field as well as on turbulence data. Particularly near the edges of the clearing, where canopy structure is highly variable, usage of a realistic PAD appears to be crucial for capturing the local flow structure. Inside the forest, local variations in plant density induce a complex pattern of upward and downward motions, which remain visible in the mean flow and make it difficult to identify the "adjustment zone" behind the windward edge of the clearing.
Large eddy simulation of forced ignition of an annular bluff-body burner
Subramanian, V.; Domingo, P.; Vervisch, L.
2010-03-15
The optimization of the ignition process is a crucial issue in the design of many combustion systems. Large eddy simulation (LES) of a conical shaped bluff-body turbulent nonpremixed burner has been performed to study the impact of spark location on ignition success. This burner was experimentally investigated by Ahmed et al. [Combust. Flame 151 (2007) 366-385]. The present work focuses on the case without swirl, for which detailed measurements are available. First, cold-flow measurements of velocities and mixture fractions are compared with their LES counterparts, to assess the prediction capabilities of simulations in terms of flow and turbulent mixing. Time histories of velocities and mixture fractions are recorded at selected spots, to probe the resolved probability density function (pdf) of flow variables, in an attempt to reproduce, from the knowledge of LES-resolved instantaneous flow conditions, the experimentally observed reasons for success or failure of spark ignition. A flammability map is also constructed from the resolved mixture fraction pdf and compared with its experimental counterpart. LES of forced ignition is then performed using flamelet fully detailed tabulated chemistry combined with presumed pdfs. Various scenarios of flame kernel development are analyzed and correlated with typical flow conditions observed in this burner. The correlations between, velocities and mixture fraction values at the sparking time and the success or failure of ignition, are then further discussed and analyzed. (author)
A hybrid stochastic-deconvolution model for large-eddy simulation of particle-laden flow
Michałek, W. R.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; Liew, R.; Pozorski, J.; Geurts, B. J.
2013-12-15
We develop a hybrid model for large-eddy simulation of particle-laden turbulent flow, which is a combination of the approximate deconvolution model for the resolved scales and a stochastic model for the sub-grid scales. The stochastic model incorporates a priori results of direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow, which showed that the parameters in the stochastic model are quite independent of Reynolds and Stokes number. In order to correctly predict the flux of particles towards the walls an extra term should be included in the stochastic model, which corresponds to the term related to the well-mixed condition in Langevin models for particle dispersion in inhomogeneous turbulent flow. The model predictions are compared with results of direct numerical simulation of channel flow at a frictional Reynolds number of 950. The inclusion of the stochastic forcing is shown to yield a significant improvement over the approximate deconvolution model for the particles alone when combined with a Stokes dependent weight-factor for the well-mixed term.
Large-eddy simulations of stratification layer erosion by a jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obabko, Aleksandr; Merzari, Elia; Tomboulides, Ananias; Aithal, Shashi; Fischer, Paul
2014-11-01
Following Fukushima disaster, the OECD/NEA has chosen the PANDA experiment for 2014 benchmark exercise where predictive capabilities of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are tested for multispecies convection in notorious regime of transition from turbulent to laminar flow and from forced to natural convection. Accurate prediction of these phenomena will beneficial for a range of applications including reactor thermal-hydraulics where it will further our understanding of reactor behavior during accidents and help design safer and more efficient reactors for a carbon-free energy option. In fact, the convection and mixing flow in the containment played an important role in the Fukushima accident as the buoyant hydrogen gas mixed with oxygen and detonated resulting in significant destruction and radioactive pollution. Here we present the three-dimensional large-eddy (LES) simulations of the PANDA experiment with the spectral-element open-source code Nek5000. The results are compared and contrasted for a range of parameters using Boussinesq and low-Mach number approximations. Partially funded by DOE NE NEAMS Program and used ALCF resources supported by the DOE Office of Science under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Turbulent inflow conditions for large-eddy simulation based on low-order empirical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perret, Laurent; Delville, Joël; Manceau, Rémi; Bonnet, Jean-Paul
2008-07-01
Generation of turbulent inflow boundary conditions is performed by interfacing an experimental database acquired by particle image velocimetry to a computational code. The proposed method ensures that the velocity fields introduced as inlet conditions in the computational code present correct one- and two-point spatial statistics and a realistic temporal dynamics. This approach is based on the use of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to interpolate and extrapolate the experimental data onto the numerical mesh and to model both the temporal dynamics and the spatial organization of the flow in the inlet section. Realistic representation of the flow is achieved by extracting and modeling independently its coherent and incoherent parts. A low-order dynamical model is derived from the experimental database in order to provide the temporal evolution of the most energetic structures. The incoherent motion is modeled by employing time series of Gaussian random numbers to mimic the temporal evolution of higher order POD modes. Validation of the proposed method is provided by performing a large-eddy simulation of a turbulent plane mixing layer, which is compared to experimental results.
Large-eddy simulation of nitrogen injection at trans- and supercritical conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Hagen; Niedermeier, Christoph A.; Matheis, Jan; Pfitzner, Michael; Hickel, Stefan
2016-01-01
Large-eddy simulations (LESs) of cryogenic nitrogen injection into a warm environment at supercritical pressure are performed and real-gas thermodynamics models and subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models are evaluated. The comparison of different SGS models — the Smagorinsky model, the Vreman model, and the adaptive local deconvolution method — shows that the representation of turbulence on the resolved scales has a notable effect on the location of jet break-up, whereas the particular modeling of unresolved scales is less important for the overall mean flow field evolution. More important are the models for the fluid's thermodynamic state. The injected fluid is either in a supercritical or in a transcritical state and undergoes a pseudo-boiling process during mixing. Such flows typically exhibit strong density gradients that delay the instability growth and can lead to a redistribution of turbulence kinetic energy from the radial to the axial flow direction. We evaluate novel volume-translation methods on the basis of the cubic Peng-Robinson equation of state in the framework of LES. At small extra computational cost, their application considerably improves the simulation results compared to the standard formulation. Furthermore, we found that the choice of inflow temperature is crucial for the reproduction of the experimental results and that heat addition within the injector can affect the mean flow field in comparison to results with an adiabatic injector.
Large-eddy simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition in atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, Roberto; Thouron, Odile; Picot, Joris; Cariolle, Daniel
2012-11-01
Contrails are ice clouds that form by condensation of water vapor exhaust from aircraft engines and develop further in the wake as they are entrained by the airplane trailing vortices. When contrails spread to form cirrus clouds, they can persist for hours and become almost indistinguishable from natural cirrus. This talk focuses on the role of atmospheric turbulence in determining the characteristics of these ``contrail cirrus.'' Large-eddy simulations are carried out using the atmospheric model Meso-NH with the goal of identifying the processes driving the contrail-to-cirrus transition as a function of contrail age. To that end, the effects of atmospheric turbulence, microphysics, and radiative transfer are analyzed separately. Turbulent fields are first generated by means of a stochastic forcing technique that reproduces the atmospheric conditions encountered in the upper troposphere. Contrails generated by a model aircraft are then inserted on the top of these fields. Finally, ice microphysics and radiative transfer are activated to find out on which spatial and temporal scales the vertical motion prevails over the essentially horizontal motion induced by atmospheric turbulent diffusion.
Study of microphysical and radiative properties of contrail cirrus using large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, Roberto; Thouron, Odile; Cariolle, Daniel
2013-11-01
Contrails are ice clouds that form by condensation of water vapor exhaust from aircraft engines and develop further in the wake as they are entrained by the airplane trailing vortices. When contrails spread to form contrail cirrus, they can persist for hours resulting in additional (artificial) cloud cover that adds to the cover due to natural cirrus. This talk presents recent results from large-eddy situations (LES) of contrail cirrus dispersion that are carried out using the atmospheric model Méso-NH. The objective is to investigate whether and how the ambient conditions and the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals (e.g. shape, albedo), affect the three-dimensional structure and the overall microphysical and radiative characteristics of the contrail. The analysis is carried out by changing the radiative properties of the atmosphere (e.g. day/night conditions) for a given level of atmospheric turbulence. The turbulent field is generated by means of a stochastic forcing technique that reproduces the atmospheric conditions encountered in the upper troposphere. In addition to helping understanding the physics of contrails, the LES data retrieved from this study may provide useful inputs to the parameterization of contrail cirrus into global or climate models.
Large Eddy Simulations of Two-phase Turbulent Reactive Flows in IC Engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaeizadeh, Araz; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad
2008-11-01
The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method. In this method, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinate systems are solved with a generalized, high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme. The spray and the FMDF are implemented with Lagrangian methods. The reliability and the consistency of the numerical methods are established for different IC engines and the complex interactions among mean and turbulent velocity fields, fuel droplets and combustion are shown to be well captured with the LES/FMDF. In both spark-ignition/direct-injection and diesel engines, the droplet size and velocity distributions are found to be modified by the unsteady, vortical motions generated by the incoming air during the intake stroke. In turn, the droplets are found to change the in-cylinder flow structure. In the spark-ignition engine, flame propagation is similar to the experiment. In the diesel engine, the maximum evaporated fuel concentration is near the cylinder wall where the flame starts, which is again consistent with the experiment.
Large-eddy simulation of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with re-shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, D. J.; Pullin, D. I.; Deiterding, R.
2004-11-01
We present results from large-eddy simulations (LES) of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in a rectangular three-dimensional channel with re-shock following shock reflection off an end wall. Simulation parameters were tailored to match the experimental conditions of Vetter and Sturtevant (1995). The LES used the stretched-vortex (SV) subgrid-scale (SGS) model (Misra and Pullin 1997). The numerical method is a hybrid scheme, consisting of WENO in regions containing shock waves matched to a tuned centered-difference stencil in regions of smooth flow where the SGS model is activated. The LES shows the initial interface growth produced by the first shock-interface interaction followed by transition to a turbulent mixing layer after reshock. The SV model allows multi-scale modeling through the self-consistent calculation of the subgrid portions of the velocity spectra. This is done in a plane through the center of the mixing layer for both the in-plane (homogeneous) and out-of-plane (inhomogeneous) velocity components. These spectra extend to the viscous regime and mesh well with the corresponding resolved-scale spectra.
Wall-Resolved Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA0012 Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a NACA0012 airfoil is performed at angle of attack (AoA) 3o and Rec = 2 . 3 ×104 . The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are spatially discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order scheme developed by Morinishi et al. (J. of Comput. Phys., 1998), and the subgrid-scale (SGS) tensor is modeled by the stretched-vortex SGS model developed by Pullin and co-workers (Phys. of Fluids, 2000, J. of Fluid Mech., 2009). An extension of the original stretched-vortex SGS model is utilized to resolve the streak-like structures in the near-wall flow regions. The mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles on airfoil surface and in wake are validated against experimental data reported in Dong-Ha Kim et al. (AIAA, 2009). To further verify our LES capacity, some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the DNS results produced by our in-house DNS code. The effect of grid-refinement on the wall-resolved LES approach is also discussed. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of turbulent flows over bluff bodies and airfoils.
Large Eddy Simulations of Suspended Sediment Transport over Bedforms with a New Boundary Treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayamatullah, M. M.; Liu, X.
2013-12-01
In many geophysical flows the motion of a turbulent fluid over bedforms (i.e., ripples, dunes etc.) considerably affects some important features, such as the coherent structures of flow, momentum flux, mixing, and transport of sediment. This paper presents details of hydrodynamics, turbulence characteristic, and suspended sediment transport over ripples in an open channel. A well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) has been employed to investigate the implication of hydrodynamics to sediment transport in fully developed turbulent flow. The model solves the Navier-Sotkes equations for fluid and an advection-diffusion equation for the sediment considering appropriate boundary conditions. The transport of suspended sediment is a highly nonlinear process that is profoundly affected by complex near-bed boundary condition. For relaxing the near-bed complexities, a novel approach of near-wall treatment for suspended sediment boundary-layer has been introduced which eliminates the need of use two different meshes for fluid and sediment, thus a dynamic exchange of sediment mass across the bottom can be evaluated correctly in the model, yields reduction of accuracy loss. The simulated sediment concentrations are compared to available measurements from literature covering the situations of two dimensional, three dimensional ripples with different Reynolds numbers, which demonstrate the model's capability to simulate the flow interactions as well as associated sediment transport processes with reasonably good accuracy. Velocity component after fully developed turbulent flow Vortex contour plotted as Lambda2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Jeffrey A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Fisher, Travis C.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Black, William S.
2012-01-01
The 2nd-order upwind inviscid flux scheme implemented in the multi-block, structured grid, cell centered, finite volume, high-speed reacting flow code VULCAN has been modified to reduce numerical dissipation. This modification was motivated by the desire to improve the codes ability to perform large eddy simulations. The reduction in dissipation was accomplished through a hybridization of non-dissipative and dissipative discontinuity-capturing advection schemes that reduces numerical dissipation while maintaining the ability to capture shocks. A methodology for constructing hybrid-advection schemes that blends nondissipative fluxes consisting of linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms discretized using 4th-order symmetric operators, with dissipative, 3rd or 4th-order reconstruction based upwind flux schemes was developed and implemented. A series of benchmark problems with increasing spatial and fluid dynamical complexity were utilized to examine the ability of the candidate schemes to resolve and propagate structures typical of turbulent flow, their discontinuity capturing capability and their robustness. A realistic geometry typical of a high-speed propulsion system flowpath was computed using the most promising of the examined schemes and was compared with available experimental data to demonstrate simulation fidelity.
Investigation of Rossby-number similarity in the neutral boundary layer using large-eddy simulation
Ohmstede, W.D.; Cederwall, R.T.; Meyers, R.E.
1988-01-01
One special case of particular interest, especially to theoreticians, is the steady-state, horizontally homogeneous, autobarotropic (PLB), hereafter referred to as the neutral boundary layer (NBL). The NBL is in fact a 'rare' atmospheric phenomenon, generally associated with high-wind situations. Nevertheless, there is a disproportionate interest in this problem because Rossby-number similarity theory provides a sound approach for addressing this issue. Rossby-number similarity theory has rather wide acceptance, but because of the rarity of the 'true' NBL state, there remains an inadequate experimental database for quantifying constants associated with the Rossby-number similarity concept. Although it remains a controversial issue, it has been proposed that large-eddy simulation (LES) is an alternative to physical experimentation for obtaining basic atmospherc 'data'. The objective of the study reported here is to investigate Rossby-number similarity in the NBL using LES. Previous studies have not addressed Rossby-number similarity explicitly, although they made use of it in the interpretation of their results. The intent is to calculate several sets of NBL solutions that are ambiguous relative to the their respective Rossby numbers and compare the results for similarity, or the lack of it. 14 refs., 1 fig.
Applications of large-eddy simulation: Synthesis of neutral boundary layer models
Ohmstede, W.D.
1987-12-01
The object of this report is to describe progress made towards the application of large-eddy simulation (LES), in particular, to the study of the neutral boundary layer (NBL). The broad purpose of the study is to provide support to the LES project currently underway at LLNL. The specific purpose of this study is to lay the groundwork for the simulation of the SBL through the establishment and implementation of model criteria for the simulation of the NBL. The idealistic NBL is never observed in the atmosphere and therefore has little practical significance. However, it is of considerable theoretical interest for several reasons. The report discusses the concept of Rossby-number similarity theory as it applies to the NBL. A particular implementation of the concept is described. Then, the results from prior simulations of the NBL are summarized. Model design criteria for two versions of the Brost LES (BLES) model are discussed. The general guidelines for the development of Version 1 of the Brost model (BV1) were to implement the model with a minimum of modifications which would alter the design criteria as established by Brost. Two major modifications of BLES incorporated into BV1 pertain to the initialization/parameterization of the model and the generalization of the boundary conditions at the air/earth interface. 18 refs., 4 figs.
Lorteau, Mathieu Cléro, Franck Vuillot, François
2015-07-15
In the framework of jet noise computation, a numerical simulation of a subsonic turbulent hot jet is performed using large-eddy simulation. A geometrical tripping is used in order to trigger the turbulence at the nozzle exit. In a first part, the validity of the simulation is assessed by comparison with experimental measurements. The mean and rms velocity fields show good agreement, so do the azimuthal composition of the near pressure field and the far field spectra. Discrepancies remain close to the nozzle exit which lead to a limited overestimation of the pressure levels in both near and far fields, especially near the 90{sup ∘} angular sector. Two point correlation analyses are then applied to the data obtained from the simulation. These enable to link the downstream acoustic radiation, which is the main direction of radiation, to pressure waves developing in the shear layer and propagating toward the potential core end. The intermittency of the downstream acoustic radiation is evidenced and related to the coherent structures developing in the shear layer.
Dust devil characteristics and associated dust entrainment based on large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klose, Martina; Kwidzinski, Nick; Shao, Yaping
2015-04-01
The characteristics of dust devils, such as occurrence frequency, lifetime, size, and intensity, are usually inferred from in situ field measurements and remote sensing. Numerical models, e.g. large-eddy simulation (LES) models, have also been established as a tool to investigate dust devils and their structures. However, most LES models do not contain a dust module. Here, we present results from simulations using the WRF-LES model coupled to the convective turbulent dust emission (CTDE) scheme of Klose et al. (2014). The scheme describes the stochastic process of aerodynamic dust entrainment in the absence of saltation. It therefore allows for dust emission even below the threshold friction velocity for saltation. Numerical experiments have been conducted for different atmospheric stability and background wind conditions at 10 m horizontal resolution. A dust devil tracking algorithm is used to identify dust devils in the simulation results. The detected dust devils are statistically analyzed with regard to e.g. radius, pressure drop, lifetime, and turbulent wind speeds. An additional simulation with higher horizontal resolution (2 m) is conducted for conditions, which are especially favorable for dust devil development, i.e. unstable atmospheric stratification and weak mean winds. The higher resolution enables the identification of smaller dust devils and a more detailed structure analysis. Dust emission fluxes, dust concentrations, and dust mass budgets are calculated from the simulations. The results are compared to field observations reported in literature.
Large-eddy simulations of flow around a circulation control airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim
2008-11-01
Circulation control, proposed in NASA's Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) concept, has the potential to increase air-traffic throughput and reduce the noise footprint. Circulation control obtains a substantial increase in lift coefficient by using a wall-jet that blows tangentially on a rounded (Coanda) surface deflected at the trailing edge. The flow has proven to be difficult to reliably predict using Reynolds-averaged models. We undertake large-eddy simulations to better understand underlying mechanisms and create a database for modelers. Simulations are patterned after Novak et al.'s (1987) experiment, which, despite its faults, is the best documented to date. A Reynolds number of 10̂6 and two cases with low and high blowing are considered using Stanford's unstructured solver CDP. The upper surface begins with laminar to turbulent transition following a region of weak shear stress. Then strong favorable pressure gradient as the jet slot is approached leads to a raised log-law. There exists a region over the Coanda surface where the mean flow development collapses very well in wall-jet similarity coordinates, indicating that a portion of the near-wall region maintains classical wall-jet characteristics. At the present time, the lower surface has delayed transition due to lack of tripping in the simulations and considerable discrepancies with the experiments for second-order statistics.
Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph
2012-01-01
Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.
Large-eddy simulation of dispersion: comparison between elevated and ground-level sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhengtong; Hayden, Paul; Voke, Peter R.; Robins, Alan G.
2004-08-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to calculate the concentration fluctuations of passive plumes from an elevated source (ES) and a ground-level source (GLS) in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall. The mean concentration, relative fluctuations and spectra are found to be in good agreement with the wind-tunnel measurements for both ES and GLS. In particular, the calculated relative fluctuation level for GLS is quite satisfactory, suggesting that the LES is reliable and the calculated instantaneous data can be used for further post-processing. Animations are shown of the meandering of the plumes, which is one of the main features to the numerical simulations. Extreme value theory (EVT), in the form of the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), is applied to model the upper tail of the probability density function of the concentration time series collected at many typical locations for GLS and ES from both LES and experiments. The relative maxima (defined as maximum concentration normalized by the local mean concentration) and return levels estimated from the numerical data are in good agreement with those from the experimental data. The relative maxima can be larger than 50. The success of the comparisons suggests that we can achieve significant insight into the physics of dispersion in turbulent flows by combining LES and EVT.
Wall-Modeled Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
We present wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) for turbulent flows incompressible past an airfoil. The virtual wall model, originally developed by Chung & Pullin (J. of Fluid Mech., 2009), is extended to generalized curvilinear coordinates and implemented using a body-fitted structured C-grid for airfoils. This model dynamically couples the outer resolved region with the wall region, and imposes a slip velocity boundary condition for the filtered velocity field on the ``virtual'' wall. The virtual wall model is combined with the stretched spiral vortex sub-grid scale model in a self-consistent framework, which is tested in WMLES of flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at different Reynolds number (Re) and angle of attack. The numerical results show that the wall model is able to accurately predict mean flow characteristics, including the formation of the separation bubble. Some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the direct numerical simulation results (Re =104) of flow past the same airfoil. We will present verification test cases to quantify the effectiveness of the wall model in both attached and separated flow regimes. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The IBM Blue Gene/P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
Large-eddy simulation of vortex streets and dispersion behind high-rise buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Beom-Soon; Park, Seung-Bu; Baik, Jong-Jin
2015-11-01
Understanding flow and dispersion in densely built-up urban areas is one of the important problems in the field of urban fluid mechanics. Nowadays, sophisticated numerical models and high-resolution urban morphology data enable us to study detailed flow structures in real urban areas. Simulations with high-resolution urban morphology data show very complex flow structures in several studies. Here, we examine turbulent flow patterns and associated pollutant dispersion near and, particularly, behind high-rise buildings using the parallelized large-eddy simulation model (PALM) and high-resolution urban morphology data. The study area selected is a highly built-up area of Seoul, South Korea. It is shown that turbulent wakes are produced behind high-rise buildings and vortex streets appear in the places where turbulent wakes occur. The vortex street seems to be related to strong updrafts and ejections that appear downwind of high-rise buildings. The vortex street is found to affect pollutant dispersion. Various factors that influence the evolution and structure of vortex streets will be presented and discussed along with involved dispersion mechanisms.
Large-eddy simulations of a single vertical axis wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahromostaqim, Mahsa; Posa, Antonio; Balaras, Elias; Leftwich, Megan
2013-11-01
Recently vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have been receiving increased attention due to various potential advantages over the more common horizontal axis wind turbines. They can be placed for example in urban areas where space is limited, since they are moderately sized and virtually silent. In this study we will report large-eddy simulations (LES) of a Windspire VAWT. Computations will be conducted using an immersed boundary formulation, where the equations of motion are solved on a fixed Cartesian grid and the turbine blades rotate with a fixed tip speed ratio. The primary objective of this first series of LES is to understand the interaction between the wakes generated by the individual airfoils. To keep the computational cost low and increase the parametric regime we can examine, we will consider only part of the turbine hight and utilize periodic boundary conditions along the turbine axis. The computations will exactly mimic the conditions of closely coordinated experiments of a scaled down VAWT, which will enable us to access the impact of features that will not be captured, such as the tip vortices for example, on the results. Preliminary results reveal a complex interaction of the wakes created by the rotating airfoils and the boundary layer on the airfoils.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Dispersion in Urban Areas and Forest Canopies
Chan, S T
2004-04-09
Under the sponsorship of the U.S. DOE and DHS, we have developed a CFD model for simulating flow and dispersion of chemical and biological agents released in the urban environment. Our model, FEM3MP (Chan and Stevens, 2000), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The model uses the finite element method for accurate representation of complex building shapes and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection method and modern iterative solvers for efficient time integration (Gresho and Chan, 1998). Physical processes treated include turbulence modeling via the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) approaches, atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budget, and vegetative canopies, etc. Predictions from our model are continuously being verified and validated against data from wind tunnel (Chan and Stevens, 2000; Chan, et al., 2001) and field experiments (Chan, et al., 2002, 2003; Lee, et al., 2002; Humphreys, et al., 2003; and Calhoun, et al., 2004). Discussed below are several examples to illustrate the use of FEM3MP in simulating flow and dispersion in urban areas and forest canopies, with model results compared against available field measurements.
Large-eddy simulation of the tidal-cycle variations of an estuarine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming; Radhakrishnan, Senthilkumaran; Piomelli, Ugo; Rockwell Geyer, W.
2010-08-01
The estuarine boundary layer affected by a horizontal density gradient exhibits temporal evolution over a tidal cycle, in a manner similar to the diurnal cycle of the ocean surface mixed layer. A large eddy simulation (LES) model is developed to investigate the physics controlling the growth of the boundary layer during the flood tide and restratification during the ebb tide. Turbulent kinetic energy, momentum and salt fluxes, bottom stress, and energy dissipation rates calculated from the LES model all show a strong flood-ebb asymmetry. Analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget shows a primary balance between shear production and dissipation in the well-mixed boundary layer over the tidal cycle. However, TKE transport term is found to be important across the edge of the boundary layer during the flood tide so turbulent energy generated in the bottom boundary layer can be transferred to the stratified pycnocline region. Tidal straining leads to a small and weakly convective region inside the boundary layer during the flood tide but the strain-induced buoyancy flux does not make a significant contribution to the turbulence generation. Additional LES runs are conducted by switching off the baroclinic pressure gradient term in the momentum equation and the tidal straining term in the salinity equation to show that the baroclinic pressure gradient is the main mechanism responsible for generating the flood-ebb mixing asymmetry.
Development of an advanced actuator disk model for Large-Eddy Simulation of wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe
2015-11-01
This work aims at improving the fidelity of the wind turbine modelling for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind farms, in order to accurately predict the loads, the production, and the wake dynamics. In those simulations, the wind turbines are accounted for through actuator disks. i.e. a body-force term acting over the regularised disk swept by the rotor. These forces are computed using the Blade Element theory to estimate the normal and tangential components (based on the local simulated flow and the blade characteristics). The local velocities are modified using the Glauert tip-loss factor in order to account for the finite number of blades; the computation of this correction is here improved thanks to a local estimation of the effective upstream velocity at every point of the disk. These advanced actuator disks are implemented in a 4th order finite difference LES solver and are compared to a classical Blade Element Momentum method and to high fidelity wake simulations performed using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method in uniform and turbulent flows.
A Year-Long Large-Eddy Simulation of the Weather over the Cabauw Site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siebesma, P.
2015-12-01
Results are presented of two large-eddy simulation (LES) runs of the entire year 2012 centered at the Cabauw observational supersite in the Netherlands. The LES is coupled to a regional weather model that provides the large-scale information. The simulations provide three-dimensional continuous time series of LES-generated turbulence and clouds, which can be compared in detail to the extensive observational dataset of Cabauw. The LES dataset is available from the authors on request. This type of LES setup has a number of advantages. First, it can provide a more statistical approach to the study of turbulent atmospheric flow than the more common case studies, since a diverse but representative set of conditions is covered, including numerous transitions. This has advantages in the design and evaluation of parameterizations. Second, the setup can provide valuable information on the quality of the LES model when applied to such a wide range of conditions. Last, it also provides the possibility to emulate observation techniques. This might help detect limitations and potential problems of a variety of measurement techniques. The LES runs are evaluated through a comparison with observations from the observational supersite and with results from the ''parent'' large-scale model. The long time series that are generated, in combination with information on the spatial structure, provide a novel opportunity to study time scales ranging from seconds to seasons. This facilitates a study of the power spectrum of horizontal and vertical wind speed variance to identify the dominant variance-containing time scales.
Amplification of turbulent exchange over wide Arctic leads: Large-eddy simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esau, I. N.
2007-04-01
Leads (narrow openings in the sea ice cover) are perhaps the most pronounced examples of heat islands naturally occurring on Earth. Large air-water temperature differences induce strong turbulent convection. In addition, large ice-water temperature differences induce more regular, breeze-like circulation at ice edges. Both the turbulent convection and the breeze result in intensive turbulent heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. This study describes a series of turbulence-resolving experiments with the Large Eddy Simulation Nansen Center Improved Code (LESNIC). The numerical experiments quantify the turbulent heat exchange over leads of different widths. Contrary to the expected gradual decrease of the surface heat flux per unit area of open water, a strong amplification of the heat flux has been discovered for certain leads. This amplification results from a positive feedback between the horizontal entrainment of cool air in breeze and the turbulent heat exchange. Gradual reduction of the turbulent exchange for wider leads is thought to be due to development of self-organized structures in the convection. Pressure anomalies induced by the convective overturning could be comparable with the pressure anomalies due to the surface temperature difference. Their superposition limits the penetration of the cold breeze into the lead area. Without the horizontal entrainment, the near-surface temperature rises, reducing the average turbulent fluxes. In addition, the structures use the available kinetic energy to drive convective overturning. It also reduces the near-surface velocity and therefore fluxes. The maximum heat flux over open water was obtained for 2 km to 4 km leads. The maximum flux exceeds five-fold the flux in the homogeneous convection case. The revealed flux enhancement may have significant impact on the Arctic climate and more generally on the climate of urban areas and other heat islands. Therefore direct confirmation of the results from
Large-Eddy Simulations of the Sensitivity of Polar Clouds to Climate Change and Sea Ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X.; Schneider, T.; Pressel, K.; Tan, Z.; Kaul, C. M.; Teixeira, J.
2014-12-01
Because of polar and in particular Arctic amplification of global warming, high latitudes are sensitive to climate change. How sensitive they are depends, among factors, on how sea ice, clouds, and boundary layer processes respond to climate change. For example, the uncertainties in the Arctic cloud fraction simulated by current GCMs contribute to the inter-model spread in sea ice states through their impact on the surface energy budget (Eisenman et al. 2007), and they potentially exert feedbacks on sea ice cover. It is questionable whether the widely used semi-empirical cloud parameterizations, developed primarily for low latitudes, can be applied to polar regions to capture their climate change response. Here we use a newly-developed large-eddy simulations model (PyCLES) to study Arctic clouds and how they respond to a wide range of climate changes, including seasonal sea ice loss. PyCLES resolves motions that are relevant to cloud processes, but its domain size is limited. Therefore, we apply large-scale dynamics from an idealized GCM as forcings to PyCLES, and vary the climate by changing the longwave optical thickness. We study the statistically steady states that eventually ensue to elucide the processes governing Arctic clouds in different climates. We also include bulk mixed-phased microphysics and a simple (thermodynamic) sea ice model, which modifies the surface energy balance. Our primary results show that without a low-level temperature inversion, low cloud fraction decreases as the climate warms. As sea ice melts, low cloud fraction also decreases as a result of increased surface temperature, assuming that the large-scale advection of water vapor remains unchanged.
High-order large-eddy simulation of flow over the ``Ahmed body'' car model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minguez, M.; Pasquetti, R.; Serre, E.
2008-09-01
The structure of the turbulent flow over a simplified automotive model, the Ahmed body (S. R. Ahmed and G. Ramm, SAE Paper No. 8403001, 1984) with a 25° slanted back face, is investigated using high-order large-eddy simulations (LESs) at Reynolds number Re =768000. The numerical approach is carried out with a multidomain spectral Chebyshev-Fourier solver and the bluff body is modeled with a pseudopenalization method. The LES capability is implemented thanks to a spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV) technique, with particular attention to the near wall region. Such a SVV-LES approach is extended for the first time to an industrial three-dimensional turbulent flow over a complex geometry. In order to better understand the interactions between flow separations and the dynamic behavior of the released vortex wake, a detailed analysis of the flow structures is provided. The topology of the flow is well captured showing a partial separation of the boundary layer over the slanted face and the occurrence of two strong contrarotating trailing vortices expanding farther in the wake. The interactions of these large vortices with smaller structures reminiscent of horseshoe vortices, within the shear layer over the slanted face, form large helical structures providing strong unsteady phenomena in the wake. Mean velocity fields and turbulence statistics show a global agreement with the reference experiments of Lienhart et al. (DGLR Fach Symposium der AG SRAB, Stuttgart University, 15-17 November 2000). In order to provide a deeper insight into the nature of turbulence, the flow is analyzed using power spectra and the invariant theory of turbulence of Lumley [Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123 (1978)].
Large eddy simulation for evaluating scale-aware subgrid cloud parameterizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Chen, Baode; Bao, Jian-Wen
2016-04-01
We present results from an ongoing project that uses a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model to simulate deep organized convection in the extratropics for the purpose of evaluating scale-aware subgrid convective parameterizations. The simulation is carried out for a classical idealized supercell thunderstorm (Weisman and Klemp, 1982), using a total of 1201 × 1201 × 200 grid points at 100 m spacing in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The characteristics of simulated clouds exhibit a multi-mode vertical distribution ranging from deep to shallow clouds, which is similar to that observed in the real world. To use the LES dataset for evaluating scale-aware subgrid cloud parameterizations, the same case is also run with progressively larger grid sizes of 200 m, 400 m, 600 m, 1 km and 3 km. These simulations show a reasonable agreement with the benchmark LES in statistics such as convective available potential energy, convective inhibition, cloud fraction and precipitation rates. They provide useful information about the effect of horizontal grid resolution on the subgrid convective parameterizations. All these simulations reveal a similar multi-mode cloud distribution in the vertical direction. However, there are differences in the updraft-core cloud statistics, and convergence of statistical properties is found only between the LES benchmark and the simulation with grid size smaller than 400 m. Analysis of the LES results indicates that (1) the average subgrid mass flux increases as the horizontal grid size increases; (2) the vertical scale of subgrid transport varies spatially, suggesting a system dependence; and (3) at even 1 km, sub-grid convective transport is still large enough to be accounted for through parameterization.
Spatial large-eddy simulations of contrail formation in the wake of an airliner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, R.
2015-12-01
Contrails and contrail-cirrus are the most uncertain contributors to aviation radiative forcing. In order to reduce this uncertainty one needs to gain more knowledge on the physicochemical processes occurring in the aircraft plume, which eventually lead to the transformation of contrails into cirrus. To that end, the accurate prediction of the number of activated particles and their spatial and size distributions at the end of the jet regime may be helpful to initialize simulations in the following vortex regime. We present the results from spatial large-eddy simulations (LES) of contrail formation in the near-field wake of a generic (but full-scale) airliner that is representative of those used in long-haul flights in current fleets. The flow around the aircraft has been computed using a RANS code taking into account the full geometry that include the engines and the aerodynamic set-up for cruise conditions. The data have been reconstructed at a plane closely behind the trailing edge of the wing and used as inflow boundary conditions for the LES. We employ fully compressible 3D LES coupled to Lagrangian microphysical module that tracks parcels of ice particles individually. The ice microphysical model is simple yet it contains the basic thermodynamic ingredients to model soot activation and water vapor deposition. Compared to one-dimensional models or even RANS, LES allow for more accurate predictions of the mixing between exhaust and ambient air. Hence, the number of activated particles and the ice growth rate can be also determined with higher accuracy. This is particularly crucial for particles located at the edge of the jet that experience large gradients of temperature and humidity. The results of the fully coupled LES (where the gas phase and the particles are solved together) are compared to offline simulations where the ice microphysics model is run using thermodynamic data from pre-calculated particle trajectories extracted from inert LES (where ice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
1999-01-01
The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.
Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.
2006-12-01
Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the
Collective phenomena in large-eddy simulations of extended wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Richard; Meneveau, Charles
2012-11-01
A major issue with respect to the incorporation of large wind farms in power grids is that their power output strongly fluctuates over time. Understanding these fluctuations, especially its spatio-temporal characteristics, is important for the design of the backup power that must be available. The power fluctuations of the turbines depend on the effect of the wakes, created by a prior row of turbines, on the operation of the turbines, the inter-turbine correlations, and the interaction between the turbines and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). We analyze the power fluctuations in large eddy simulations of extended wind-parks in the ABL. We consider various aggregates of wind turbines such as the total average power signal, or sub-averages within the wind farm. In particular, we find that the power variations of the total wind park decreases more than one would expect if one assumes the power output of the turbines to be uncorrelated. The non-trivial correlations are due to the interactions between turbines placed down-stream from each other. Surprisingly, the frequency spectra of the total wind-farm output show a decay that follows approximately a -5/3 power-law scaling regime, qualitatively consistent with observations made in field-scale operational wind parks (Apt, 2007). RS is supported by a ``Fellowship for Young Energy Scientists'' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). CM is supported by NSF-CBET 1133800.
Large eddy simulations of a transcritical round jet submitted to transverse acoustic modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Flesca, M.; Schmitt, T.; Ducruix, S.; Candel, S.
2016-05-01
This article reports numerical computations of a turbulent round jet of transcritical fluid (low temperature nitrogen injected under high pressure conditions) surrounded by the same fluid at rest under supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) and submitted to transverse acoustic modulations. The numerical framework relies on large eddy simulation in combination with a real-gas description of thermodynamics and transport properties. A stationary acoustic field is obtained by modulating the normal acoustic velocity at the lateral boundaries of the computational domain. This study specifically focuses on the interaction of the jet with the acoustic field to investigate how the round transcritical jet changes its shape and mixes with the surrounding fluid. Different modulation amplitudes and frequencies are used to sweep a range of conditions. When the acoustic field is established in the domain, the jet length is notably reduced and the jet is flattened in the spanwise direction. Two regimes of oscillation are identified: for low Strouhal numbers a large amplitude motion is observed, while for higher Strouhal numbers the jet oscillates with a small amplitude around the injector axis. The minimum length is obtained for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and the jet length increases with increasing Strouhal numbers after reaching this minimum value. The mechanism of spanwise deformation is shown to be linked with dynamical effects resulting from reduction of the pressure in the transverse direction in relation with increased velocities on the two sides of the jet. A propagative wave is then introduced in the domain leading to similar effects on the jet, except that a bending is also observed in the acoustic propagation direction. A kinematic model, combining hydrodynamic and acoustic contributions, is derived in a second stage to represent the motion of the jet centerline. This model captures details of the numerical simulations quite well. These various
Large-eddy simulations of wind farm production and long distance wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.
2015-06-01
The future development of offshore wind power will include many wind farms built in the same areas. It is known that wind farms produce long distance wakes, which means that we will see more occasions of farm to farm interaction, namely one wind farm operating in the wake of another wind farm. This study investigates how to perform accurate power predictions on large wind farms and how to assess the long distance wakes generated by these farms. The focus of this paper is the production's and wake's sensitivity to the extension of the grid as well as the turbulence when using Large-eddy simulations (LES) with pregenerated Mann turbulence. The aim is to determine an optimal grid which minimizes blockage effects and ensures constant resolution in the entire wake region at the lowest computational cost. The simulations are first performed in the absence of wind turbines in order to assess how the atmospheric turbulence and wind profile are evolving downstream (up to 12,000 m behind the position where the turbulence is imposed). In the second step, 10 turbines are added in the domain (using an actuator disc method) and their production is analyzed alongside the mean velocities in the domain. The blockage effects are tested using grids with different vertical extents. An equidistant region is used in order to ensure high resolution in the wake region. The importance of covering the entire wake structure inside the equidistant region is analyzed by decreasing the size of this region. In this step, the importance of the lateral size of the Mann turbulence box is also analyzed. In the results it can be seen that the flow is acceptably preserved through the empty domain if a larger turbulence box is used. The relative production is increased (due to blockage effects) for the last turbines using a smaller vertical domain, increased for a lower or narrower equidistant region (due to the smearing of the wake in the stretched area) and decreased when using a smaller turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2015-06-01
Under conventionally neutral conditions, the boundary layer is frequently capped by an inversion layer, which counteracts vertical entrainment of kinetic energy. Very large wind farms are known to depend on vertical entrainment to transport energy from above the farm towards the turbines. In this study, large eddy simulations of an infinite wind-turbine array in a conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layer are performed. By carefully selecting the initial potential-temperature profile, the influence of the height and the strength of a capping inversion on the power output of a wind farm is investigated. Results indicate that both the height and the strength have a significant effect on the boundary layer flow, and that the height of the neutral boundary layer is effectively controlled by the capping inversion. In addition, it is shown that the vertical entrainment rate decreases for increasing inversion strength or height. In our infinite wind-farm simulations, varying the inversion characteristics leads to differences in power extraction on the order of 13% ± 0.2% (for increasing the strength from 2.5 to 10 K), and 31% ± 0.4% (for increasing the height from 500 to 1500 m). A detailed analysis of the mean kinetic-energy equation is included, showing that the variation in power extraction originates from the work done by the driving pressure gradient related to the boundary layer height and the geostrophic angle, while entrainment of kinetic energy from the free atmosphere does not play a significant role. Also, the effect of inversion strength on power extraction is energetically not related to different amounts of energy entrained, but explained by a difference in boundary layer growth, leading to higher boundary layers for lower inversion strengths. We further present a simple analytical model that allows to obtain wind-farm power output and driving power for the fully developed regime as function of Rossby number and boundary layer height.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Senocak, I.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Stevens, D. E.; Mansour, N. N.
2004-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a widely used technique in armospheric modeling research. In LES, large, unsteady, three dimensional structures are resolved and small structures that are not resolved on the computational grid are modeled. A filtering operation is applied to distinguish between resolved and unresolved scales. We present two near-surface models that have found use in atmospheric modeling. We also suggest a simpler eddy viscosity model that adopts Prandtl's mixing length model (Prandtl 1925) in the vicinity of the surface and blends with the dynamic Smagotinsky model (Germano et al, 1991) away from the surface. We evaluate the performance of these surface models by simulating a neutraly stratified atmospheric boundary layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canuto, V. M.
1994-06-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 108 for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 1014 for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re9/4 exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The latter phenomenon
Investigation of natural gas plume dispersion using mobile observations and large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulton, Dana R.; Li, Qi; Golston, Levi; Pan, Da; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Fitts, Jeff; Lane, Haley; Lu, Jessica; Zondlo, Mark A.
2016-04-01
Recent work suggests the distribution of methane emissions from fracking operations is skewed with a small percentage of emitters contributing a large proportion of the total emissions. These sites are known as 'super-emitters.' The Marcellus shale, the most productive natural gas shale field in the United States, has received less intense focus for well-level emissions and is here used as a test site for targeted analysis between current standard trace-gas advection practices and possible improvements via advanced modeling techniques. The Marcellus shale is topographically complex, making traditional techniques difficult to implement and evaluate. For many ground based mobile studies, the inverse Gaussian plume method (IGM) is used to produce emission rates. This method is best applied to well-mixed plumes from strong point sources and may not currently be well-suited for use with disperse weak sources, short-time frame measurements or data collected in complex terrain. To assess the quality of IGM results and to improve source-strength estimations, a robust study that combines observational data with a hierarchy of models of increasing complexity will be presented. The field test sites were sampled with multiple passes using a mobile lab as well as a stationary tower. This mobile lab includes a Garmin GPS unit, Vaisala weather station (WTX520), LICOR 7700 CH4 open path sensor and LICOR 7500 CO2/H2O open path sensor. The sampling tower was constructed consisting of a Metek uSonic-3 Class A sonic anemometer, and an additional LICOR 7700 and 7500. Data were recorded for at least one hour at these sites. The modeling will focus on large eddy simulations (LES) of the wind and CH4 concentration fields for these test sites. The LES model used 2 m horizontal and 1 m vertical resolution and was integrated in time for 45 min for various test sites under stable, neutral and unstable conditions. It is here considered as the reference to which various IGM approaches can be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2015-07-01
Once oil plumes such as those originating from underwater blowouts reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), their near-surface dispersion is influenced heavily by wind and wave-generated Langmuir turbulence. In this study, the complex oil spill dispersion process is modeled using large-eddy simulation (LES). The mean plume dispersion is characterized by performing statistical analysis of the resulting fields from the LES data. Although the instantaneous oil concentration exhibits high intermittency with complex spatial patterns such as Langmuir-induced striations, it is found that the time-averaged oil distribution can still be described quite well by smooth Gaussian-type plumes. LES results show that the competition between droplet rise velocity and vertical turbulent diffusion due to Langmuir turbulence is crucial in determining both the dilution rate and overall direction of transport of oil plumes in the OML. The smoothness of the mean plume makes it feasible to aim at modeling the oil dispersion using Reynolds-averaged type formulations, such as the K-profile parameterization (KPP) with sufficient vertical resolution to capture vertical profiles in the OML. Using LES data, we evaluate the eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity following the KPP framework. We assess the performance of previous KPP models for pure shear turbulence and Langmuir turbulence by comparing them with the LES data. Based on the assessment a modified KPP model is proposed, which shows improved overall agreement with the LES results for both the eddy viscosity and the eddy diffusivity of the oil dispersion under a variety of flow conditions and droplet sizes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carper, Matthew A.; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2008-04-01
The ability of subfilter-scale (SFS) models to reproduce the statistical properties of SFS stresses and energy transfers over heterogeneous surface roughness is key to improving the accuracy of large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. In this study, several SFS models are evaluated a priori using experimental data acquired downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition in a wind tunnel. The SFS models studied include the eddy-viscosity, similarity, non-linear and a mixed model consisting of a combination of the eddy-viscosity and non-linear models. The dynamic eddy-viscosity model is also evaluated. The experimental data consist of vertical and horizontal planes of high-spatial-resolution velocity fields measured using particle image velocimetry. These velocity fields are spatially filtered and used to calculate SFS stresses and SFS transfer rates of resolved kinetic energy. Coefficients for each SFS model are calculated by matching the measured and modelled SFS energy transfer rates. For the eddy-viscosity model, the Smagorinsky coefficient is also evaluated using a dynamic procedure. The model coefficients are found to be scale dependent when the filter scales are larger than the vertical measurement height and fall into the production subrange of the turbulence where the flow scales are anisotropic. Near the surface, the Smagorinsky coefficient is also found to decrease with distance downwind from the transition, in response to the increase in mean shear as the flow adjusts to the smooth surface. In a priori tests, the ability of each model to reproduce statistical properties of the SFS stress is assessed. While the eddy-viscosity model has low spatial correlation with the measured stress, it predicts mean stresses with the same accuracy as the other models. However, the deficiency of the eddy-viscosity model is apparent in the underestimation of the standard deviation of the SFS stresses and the inability to predict transfers of kinetic energy from
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.
1998-01-01
The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with (i) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models, and (ii) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models.
Second-moment budgets in cloud topped boundary layers: A large-eddy simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Rieke; Mironov, Dmitrii; Raasch, Siegfried
2015-06-01
A detailed analysis of second-order moment budgets for cloud topped boundary layers (CTBLs) is performed using high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES). Two CTBLs are simulated—one with trade wind shallow cumuli, and the other with nocturnal marine stratocumuli. Approximations to the ensemble-mean budgets of the Reynolds-stress components, of the fluxes of two quasi-conservative scalars, and of the scalar variances and covariance are computed by averaging the LES data over horizontal planes and over several hundred time steps. Importantly, the subgrid scale contributions to the budget terms are accounted for. Analysis of the LES-based second-moment budgets reveals, among other things, a paramount importance of the pressure scrambling terms in the Reynolds-stress and scalar-flux budgets. The pressure-strain correlation tends to evenly redistribute kinetic energy between the components, leading to the growth of horizontal-velocity variances at the expense of the vertical-velocity variance which is produced by buoyancy over most of both CTBLs. The pressure gradient-scalar covariances are the major sink terms in the budgets of scalar fluxes. The third-order transport proves to be of secondary importance in the scalar-flux budgets. However, it plays a key role in maintaining budgets of TKE and of the scalar variances and covariance. Results from the second-moment budget analysis suggest that the accuracy of description of the CTBL structure within the second-order closure framework strongly depends on the fidelity of parameterizations of the pressure scrambling terms in the flux budgets and of the third-order transport terms in the variance budgets. This article was corrected on 26 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.
Convection During SEAC4RS: Comparing Aircraft Observations to WRF Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heath, N.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Tanelli, S.
2014-12-01
Deep convection remains a challenge to accurately parameterize in global and climate models. Increases in computer power recently have allowed large-eddy simulations (LES; grid spacing of O(100 m)) of deep convection, which are beginning to increase our understanding of this unresolved issue. Our research examined the Weather Research and Forecasting model in LES mode (WRF-LES) as a potential tool to further our understanding of deep convective cloud dynamics and microphysics. Idealized and nested WRF-LESs were made for 02 September 2013, a day on which 3 aircraft from the recent NASA SEAC4RS campaign extensively sampled deep convection during all phases of its lifecycle. When modeling deep convection at the LES scale, one of the greatest uncertainties is the choice of cloud microphysical parameterization. Thus, we tested the sensitivity of the WRF-LESs to several microphysical schemes. Simulated flight tracks were used to evaluate the WRF-LESs against the dynamical and microphysical data gathered during the SEAC4RS aircraft cloud penetrations. Results indicated the importance of cloud microphysical parameterizations when making deep convective LESs, especially if they are used to develop cumulus parameterizations. Results from the idealized WRF-LESs then were used to "tune" a real-data run in which the WRF-LES domain was nested within a mesoscale domain. This multi-scale nesting of an LES provides a framework for making detailed simulations of case studies when high-resolution observed data are available for evaluation. This nesting approach also might provide a new method, which uses more realistic atmospheric forcing for the LES, to develop cumulus parameterizations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anupindi, Kameswararao; Delorme, Yann; Shetty, Dinesh A.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-12-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are becoming a reliable tool to understand hemodynamics, disease progression in pathological blood vessels and to predict medical device performance. Immersed boundary method (IBM) emerged as an attractive methodology because of its ability to efficiently handle complex moving and rotating geometries on structured grids. However, its application to study blood flow in complex, branching, patient-specific anatomies is scarce. This is because of the dominance of grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain over the useful grid nodes in the interior, rendering an inevitable memory and computational overhead. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose a novel multiblock based IBM that preserves the simplicity and effectiveness of the IBM on structured Cartesian meshes and enables handling of complex, anatomical geometries at a reduced memory overhead by minimizing the grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain. As pathological and medical device hemodynamics often involve complex, unsteady transitional or turbulent flow fields, a scale resolving turbulence model such as large eddy simulation (LES) is used in the present work. The proposed solver (here after referred as WenoHemo), is developed by enhancing an existing in-house high-order incompressible flow solver that was previously validated for its numerics and several LES models by Shetty et al. (2010) [33]. In the present work, WenoHemo is systematically validated for additional numerics introduced, such as IBM and the multiblock approach, by simulating laminar flow over a sphere and laminar flow over a backward facing step respectively. Then, we validate the entire solver methodology by simulating laminar and transitional flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Finally, we perform blood flow simulations in the challenging clinically relevant thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), to gain insights into the type of fluid flow patterns that exist in pathological
Large eddy simulations and experiments of nonlinear flow interactions in hybrid rocket combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Y.; Lee, C.
2013-03-01
Nonlinear combustion phenomenon was investigated through an experiment in a hybrid rocket motor. A poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) / gaseous oxygen (GOx) combination was used with several types of disks equipped in a prechamber with the aim of modifying the local turbulent flow. By allowing this disturbance generated in a prechamber to interact with the shedding vortex inherently produced in the main chamber, a possibility of commonly observed nonlinear combustion feature such as DC-shift was analyzed. In a baseline test, a vortex shedding occurs due to the interaction of a main oxidizer flow with the evaporated fuel stream coming out of the surface during the regression process. Among the several types of disks, it turned out that only the disk4 produced the excitation which subsequently suppressed the vortex shedding phenomenon in the main chamber. This descent interaction was reflected in a sudden pressure drop (which may be described as direct current (DC) shift) of about 10 psi in the time history of the pressure during the nominal combustion. The present result with the disk4 suggests the possibility of phase cancellation between the excitation induced by the disk4 and the shedding vortex but much more work should be conducted to extract more accurate correlation of the phase information. In order to understand the baseline flow physics, a compressible large eddy simulation (LES) was conducted with the prescribed wall blowing boundary condition. The result clearly exhibited the existence of vortex shedding phenomenon with a specified frequency. The fact that important flow features of the present computation are quite similar to those obtained with an incompressible assumption in a flat channel suggests that both compressibility and curvature effects do not dominate in the present flow configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretherton, C. S.; Blossey, P. N.
2013-12-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has uncovered competing mechanisms affecting the albedo response of subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers to idealized forcing perturbations representing different facets of global warming. Two stratocumulus-reducing mechanisms involve moist thermodynamic effects of warming on cloud-driven turbulence, and a more emissive free troposphere stifling cloud-top radiative cooling. Two cloud-enhancing effects involve increased inversion stability and reduced mean subsidence. Other effects such as changes in wind speed or free-tropospheric relative humidity may also induce regionally important cloud changes. LES simulations based on the CGILS intercomparison are used to quantify these effects in coupled and decoupled stratocumulus layers. They predict that the net result is a reduction of stratocumulus albedo (positive low cloud feedback) in a greenhouse climate, due mainly to the thermodynamic mechanism. This mechanism is explained in terms of temperature dependence of the moist thermodynamics underlying entrainment liquid-flux (ELF) adjustment, a rapid equilibration between the entrainment rate, the cloud-layer structure, and the turbulence within this layer. The latter mechanism may apply to a broad range of subtropical boundary layer cloud types, including shallow cumulus as well as stratocumulus. The LES-predicted response of shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE) in subtropical stratocumulus regimes to these mechanisms are compared with some recent observational and GCM studies. The fractional changes of SWCRE are found to be qualitatively comparable between the LES and observations. This suggests that idealized LES studies are a useful guide to boundary-layer cloud response mechanisms to climate change, and such studies can help bridge between observations and GCMs.
Large-eddy simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a mixing tee junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tao; Wang, Yongwei; Wang, Kuisheng
2012-11-01
The temperature fluctuation caused by thermal striping phenomena of hot and cold fluids mixing results in cyclical thermal stress fatigue failure of the pipe wall. Mean temperature difference between hot and cold fluids was often used as thermal load in previous analysis of thermal fatigue failure, thereby the influences of the amplitude and frequency of temperature fluctuation on thermal fatigue failure were neglected. Based on the mechanism of flow and heat transfer which induces thermal fatigue, the turbulent mixing of hot and cold water in a tee junction is simulated with FLUENT platform by using the Large-eddy simulation(LES) turbulent flow model with the sub-grid scale(SGS) model of Smagorinsky-Lilly(SL) to capture the amplitude and frequency of temperature fluctuation. In a simulation case, hot water with temperature of 343.48 K and velocity of 0.15 m/s enters the horizontal main duct with the side length of 100 mm, while cold water with temperature of 296.78 K and velocity of 0.3 m/s enters the vertical branch duct with the side length of 50 mm. The numerical results show that the mean and fluctuating temperatures are in good agreement with the previous experimental data, which describes numerical simulation with high reliability and accuracy; the power spectrum density(PSD) on top wall is higher than that on bottom wall(as the frequency less than 1 Hz), while the PSD on bottom wall is relatively higher than that on top wall (as the frequency of 1-10Hz). The temperature fluctuations in full mixing region of the tee junction can be accurately captured by LES and can provide the theoretical basis for the thermal stress and thermal fatigue analyses.
Refined subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation of helical turbulence.
Yu, Changping; Xiao, Zuoli
2013-01-01
A refined two-term helical subgrid-scale (SGS) stress model with respect to that suggested by Li et al. [Phys. Rev. E 74, 026310 (2006)] is designed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of helical turbulence. The model coefficients in the new model are verified a priori to be scale invariant in inertial range, which proves that our model is local in scale. A dynamic method based on minimizing the residual resolved energy and helicity dissipations is suggested to simultaneously evaluate the coefficients of the mixed SGS model as the simulation progresses. In addition, an SGS helicity dissipation (or helicity flux) constraint condition is proposed to optimize the mixed two-term model. Both techniques are first tested and validated in the LES of forced isotropic helical turbulence. The statistical results are analyzed and compared with those obtained from the dynamic Smagorinsky model, the traditional dynamic mixed model, and the direct numerical simulation. It is found that the introduction of this dynamic procedure can help overcome the drawback of the traditional dynamic method which can not capture the negative helicity fluxes and SGS dissipations. The probability density functions of the energy flux and the conditioned helicity flux and SGS stress demonstrate that the helicity flux constrained dynamic SGS model can effectively predict the real SGS helical effects on the resolved scales, such as backscatters of energy and helicity, accurate helicity dissipation rate, and so on. The present models are also applied to the simulation of freely decaying isotropic turbulence with no apparent improvement observed in comparison with the traditional SGS models. The underlying reasons for these issues are addressed in detail. PMID:23410425
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Mansour, N. N.; Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.
2003-01-01
The use of large eddy simulation, or LES, to study the atmospheric boundary layer dates back to the early 1970s when Deardor (1972) used a three-dimensional simulation to determine velocity and temperature scales in the convective boundary layer. In 1974 he applied LES to the problem of mixing layer entrainment (Deardor 1974) and in 1980 to the cloud-topped boundary layer (Deardor 1980b). Since that time the LES approach has been applied to atmospheric boundary layer problems by numerous authors. While LES has been shown to be relatively robust for simple cases such as a clear, convective boundary layer (Mason 1989), simulation of the cloud-topped boundary layer has proved more of a challenge. The combination of small length scales and anisotropic turbulence coupled with cloud microphysics and radiation effects places a heavy burden on the turbulence model, especially in the cloud-top region. Consequently, over the past few decades considerable effort has been devoted to developing turbulence models that are better able to parameterize these processes. Much of this work has involved taking parameterizations developed for neutral boundary layers and deriving corrections to account for buoyancy effects associated with the background stratification and local buoyancy sources due to radiative and latent heat transfer within the cloud (see Lilly 1962; Deardor 1980a; Mason 1989; MacVean & Mason 1990, for example). In this paper we hope to contribute to this effort by presenting a number of turbulence models in which the model coefficients are calculated dynamically during the simulation rather than being prescribed a priori.
Joint-constraint model for large-eddy simulation of helical turbulence.
Yu, Changping; Xiao, Zuoli; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi
2014-04-01
A three-term mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) stress model is proposed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of helical turbulence. The new model includes a Smagorinsky-Lilly term, a velocity gradient term, and a symmetric vorticity gradient term. The model coefficients are determined by minimizing the mean square error between the realistic and modeled Leonard stresses under a joint constraint of kinetic energy and helicity fluxes. The model formulated as such is referred to as joint-constraint dynamic three-term model (JCD3TM). First, the new model is evaluated a priori using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of homogeneous isotropic turbulence with helical forcing. It is shown that the SGS dissipation fractions from all three terms in JCD3TM have the properties of length-scale invariance in inertial subrange. JCD3TM can predict the SGS stresses, energy flux, and helicity flux more accurately than the dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) and dynamic mixed helical model (DMHM) in both pointwise and statistical senses. Then, the performance of JCD3TM is tested a posteriori in LESs of both forced and freely decaying helical isotropic turbulence. It is found that JCD3TM possesses certain features of superiority over the other two models in predicting the energy spectrum, helicity spectrum, high-order statistics, etc. It is also noteworthy that JCD3TM is capable of simulating the evolutions of both energy and helicity spectra more precisely than other models in decaying helical turbulence. We claim that the present SGS model can capture the main helical features of turbulent motions and may serve as a useful tool for LES of helical turbulent flows. PMID:24827346
Performance of subgrid-scale models in coarse large eddy simulations of a laminar separation bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Francois; Domaradzki, Julian A.
2015-04-01
The flow over many blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from 104 to 105 undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region—the laminar separation bubble. An equivalent problem is formulated by imposing suitable boundary conditions for flow over a flat plate to avoid numerical and mesh generation issues. Recent work demonstrated that accurate large eddy simulation (LES) of such a flow is possible using only O(1%) of the direct numerical simulation (DNS) resolution but the performance of different subgrid-scale models could not be properly assessed because of the effects of unquantified numerical dissipation. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate is performed using a pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver at resolutions corresponding to 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart and Strelets (2000). The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral code allows an unambiguous assessment of the performance of subgrid-scale models. Three explicit subgrid-scale models—dynamic Smagorinsky, σ, and truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS)—are compared to a no-model simulation (under-resolved DNS) and evaluated against benchmark DNS data focusing on two quantities of critical importance to airfoil and blade designers: time-averaged pressure (Cp) and skin friction (Cf) predictions used in lift and drag calculations. Results obtained with explicit subgrid-scale models confirm that accurate LES of laminar separation bubble flows is attainable with as low as 1% of DNS resolution, and the poor performance of the no-model simulation underscores the necessity of subgrid-scale modeling in coarse LES with low numerical dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, E.; Richardson, E. S.; Doran, E. M.; Pitsch, H.; Chen, J. H.
2012-05-01
Scalar dissipation rates and subfilter scalar variances are important modeling parameters in large eddy simulations (LES) of reacting flows. Currently available models capture the general behavior of these parameters, but these models do not always perform with the degree of accuracy that is needed for predictive LES. Here, two direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to analyze LES dissipation rate and variance models, and to propose a new model for the dissipation rate that is based on a transport equation. The first DNS that is considered is a non-premixed auto-igniting C2H4 jet flame simulation originally performed by Yoo et al. [Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 1619-1627 (2011)], 10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.147. A LES of this case is run using algebraic models for the dissipation rate and subfilter variance. It is shown that the algebraic models fail to adequately reproduce the DNS results. This motivates the introduction of a transport equation model for the LES dissipation rate. Closure of the equation is addressed by formulating a new adapted dynamic approach. This approach borrows dynamically computed information from LES quantities that, unlike the dissipation rate, do not reside on the smallest flow length scales. The adapted dynamic approach is analyzed by considering a second DNS of scalar mixing in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Data from this second DNS are used to confirm that the adapted dynamic approach successfully closes the dissipation rate equation over a wide range of LES filter widths. The first reacting jet case is then returned to and used to test the LES transport equation models. The transport equation model for the dissipation rate is shown to be more accurate than its algebraic counterpoint, and the dissipation rate is eliminated as a source of error in the transported variance model.
Large eddy simulation of flow development and noise generation of free and swirling jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Lin; Yang, Hai-Hua; Sun, De-Jun
2013-12-01
Large eddy simulation is performed for investigating the local and far-field behaviors of free and swirling jets at moderate Reynolds number. By solving compressible boundary layer equations, the inflow profiles with different swirl number are calculated, and then their stability characteristics are analyzed based on linear stability theory. The amplification rates of swirling jets are higher than the free one, particularly for higher or negative azimuthal wavenumber modes. Multiple unstable modes are superimposed to construct inflow forcing. The quantities of flow and acoustic are presented and compared against the results of existed experiments and other computations, besides, the comparisons are also made among themselves. For swirling jets, the spreadings of jet half-width and vorticity thickness at the initial and transition stage are enhanced, but they are surpassed by the free jet at turbulent mixing stage. In all cases, the development of mixing layer initially is greatly influenced by frequencies f0 and f0/2 associated with upstream forcing. As the swirl intensity is increased, the growth rates of fluctuation quantities on the centerline and the nozzle lip line are raised, but the peak levels on the centerline are reduced substantially. In swirling jets, the strength of vortex pairing is decreased, and the pairing noise is weakened correspondingly. The overall sound pressure levels are lower than that of the free jet at all observation angles (ϕ), and about 3 decibels (dB) is reduced at ϕ ≃ 30° in the strong swirling case at a distance of 60 radii. The Fourier analyses of pressure and acoustic sources show that the modes are varied greatly, which suggests that the noise reduction should be corresponding to the change of instability waves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeCroix, David; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.; Shen, S.
1997-01-01
The vortices produced by an aircraft in flight are a complex phenomena created from a 'sheet of vorticity' leaving the trailing edge of the aircraft surfaces. This sheet tends to roll-up into two counter-rotating vortices. After a few spans downstream of the aircraft, the roll-up process is complete and the vortex pair may be characterized in a simple manner for modeling purposes. Our research will focus on what happens to these post roll-up vortices in the vicinity of an airport terminal. As the aircraft wake vortices descend, they are transported by the air mass which they are embedded and are decayed by both internal and external processes. In the vicinity of the airport, these external influences are usually due to planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. Using large-eddy simulation (LES), one may simulate a variety of PBL conditions. In the LES method, turbulence is generated in the PBL as a response to surface heat flux, horizontal pressure gradient, wind shear, and/or stratification, and may produce convective or unstably stratified, neutral, or stably stratified PBL's. Each of these PBL types can occur during a typical diurnal cycle of the PBL. Thus it is important to be able to characterize these conditions with the LES method. Once this turbulent environment has been generated, a vortex pair will be introduced and the interactions are observed. The objective is to be able to quantify the PBL turbulence vortex interaction and be able to draw some conclusions of vortex behavior from the various scale interactions. This research is ongoing, and we will focus on what has been accomplished to date and the future direction of this research. We will discuss the model being used, show results that validate its use in the PBL, and present a nested-grid method proposed to analyze the entire PBL and vortex pair simultaneously.
Discrete filters for large-eddy simulation of forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshov, A. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.
2016-06-01
We discuss results of the applicability of discrete filters for the large-eddy simulation (LES) method of forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows with the scale-similarity model. New results are obtained for cross-helicity and residual energy. Cross-helicity and residual energy are important quantities in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and have no hydrodynamic counterpart. The influences and effects of discrete filter shapes on the scale-similarity model are examined in physical space using finite-difference numerical schemes. We restrict ourselves to the Gaussian filter and the top-hat filter. Representations of this subgrid-scale model, which correspond to various 3- and 5-point approximations of both Gaussian and top-hat filters for different values of parameter ε (the ratio of the cut-off length-scale of the filter to the mesh size), are investigated. Discrete filters produce more discrepancies for the magnetic field. It is shown that the Gaussian filter is more sensitive to the parameter ɛ than the top-hat filter in compressible forced MHD turbulence. The 3-point filters at ε =2 and ε =3 give the least accurate results whereas the 5-point Gaussian filter shows the best results at ε =2 and ε =3. There are only very small differences deep into the dissipation region in favor of ε =2. For cross-helicity, the 5-point discrete filters are in good agreement with the results of direct numerical simulation (DNS), while the 3-point filter produces the largest discrepancies with DNS results. There is no strong dependence on the choice of the parameter ε and order approximation is a much more important factor for the cross-helicity. The difference between the filters is less for the residual energy compared with total energy. Thus, the total energy is more sensitive to the choice of discrete filter in the modeling of compressible MHD turbulence using the LES method.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent buoyant flow in a confined cavity with conjugate heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cintolesi, C.; Petronio, A.; Armenio, V.
2015-09-01
Turbulent natural convection in enclosure is a paradigmatic case for wide class of processes of great interest for industrial and environmental problems. The solid-fluid thermal interaction, the anisotropy of the turbulence intensity in the flow field along with the transient nature of heat transfer processes, pose challenges regarding the numerical modeling. The case of a square cavity with differently heated vertical walls and two horizontal conductive plates is studied at Ra = 1.58 × 109. The study is carried out numerically, using large-eddy simulation together with a dynamic Lagrangian turbulence model and a conjugate heat transfer method to take into account heat transfer at the solid surfaces. First, validation is carried out against the literature experimental and numerical data. The results of validation tests evidence the limitations of using the adiabatic conditions as a model for reproducing an insulator. In fact, the adiabatic condition represents the asymptotic behavior which is often difficult to reach in real conditions. Successively, the model is used to investigate the effect on the flow field of different materials composing the horizontal walls. Initial conditions representative of physical experiment are used. In order to reduce the computational time required for a simulation with insulating materials at the walls, a four-step temperature advancement strategy is proposed, based on the artificial reduction-first and recover-later of the specific heat coefficient Cp of the materials at different stages of the simulation. The conductivity of the solid media is found to influence the flow configuration since heat transfer at the solid walls substantially modifies the turbulent field and makes the flow field less homogeneous along the horizontal direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endo, S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Lin, W.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.; Liu, Y.
2013-12-01
Three cases of boundary layer clouds are analyzed in the FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project, based on continental boundary-layer-cloud observations during the RACORO Campaign [Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations] at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The three 60-hour case study periods are selected to capture the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary-layer cloud systems under a range of conditions, intentionally including those that are relatively more mixed or transitional in nature versus being of a purely canonical type. Multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles are derived from aircraft observations. Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed for the three case study periods using the GISS Distributed Hydrodynamic Aerosol and Radiative Modeling Application (DHARMA) model and the WRF-FASTER model, which is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model implemented with forcing ingestion and other functions to constitute a flexible LES. The two LES models commonly capture the significant transitions of cloud-topped boundary layers in the three periods: diurnal evolution of cumulus layers repeating over multiple days, nighttime evolution/daytime diminution of thick stratus, and daytime breakup of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. Simulated transitions of thermodynamic structures of the cloud-topped boundary layers are examined by balloon-borne soundings and ground-based remote sensors. Aircraft observations are then used to statistically evaluate the predicted cloud droplet number size distributions under varying aerosol and cloud conditions. An ensemble approach is used to refine the model configuration for the combined use of observations with parallel LES and single-column model simulations. See Lin et al. poster for single
Large-eddy simulation of 3D turbulent flow past a complete marine hydrokinetic turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
A high-resolution computational framework was recently developed by Kang et al (Adv. Water Resour., submitted) for simulating three-dimensional (3D), turbulent flow past real-life, complete marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine configurations. In this model the complex turbine geometry is resolved by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method, which solves the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear domains with embedded arbitrarily complex, moving and/or stationary immersed boundaries (Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007). Turbulence is simulated using the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach adapted in the context of the CURVIB method, with a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations used to reconstruct boundary conditions near all solid surfaces (Kang et al., 2011). The model can resolve the flow patterns generated by the rotor and all stationary components of the turbine as well as the interactions of the flow structures with the channel bed. We apply this model to carry out LES of the flow past the model-size hydrokinetic turbine deployed in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory main channel. The mean velocities and second-order turbulence statistics measured in the downstream wake using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) are compared with the LES results. The comparisons show that the computed mean velocities and turbulent stresses are in good agreement with the measurements. The high-resolution LES data are used to explore physically important downstream flow characteristics such as the time-averaged wake structure, recovery of cross-sectionally averaged power potential, near-bed scour potential, etc. This work is supported by Verdant Power.
Influence of atmospheric stability on wind-turbine wakes: A large-eddy simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
In this study, large-eddy simulation is combined with a turbine model to investigate the influence of atmospheric stability on wind-turbine wakes. In the simulations, subgrid-scale turbulent fluxes are parameterized using tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic models. These models optimize the local value of the model coefficients based on the dynamics of the resolved scales. The turbine-induced forces are parameterized with an actuator-disk model with rotation. In this technique, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces acting on the blades. Emphasis is placed on the structure and characteristics of wind-turbine wakes in the cases where the incident flows to the turbine have the same mean velocity at the hub height but different stability conditions. The simulation results show that atmospheric stability has a significant effect on the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit and turbulent fluxes in the wake region. In particular, the magnitude of the velocity deficit increases with increasing stability in the atmosphere. In addition, the locations of the maximum turbulence intensity and turbulent stresses are closer to the turbine in convective boundary layer compared with neutral and stable ones. Detailed analysis of the resolved turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget inside the wake reveals also that the thermal stratification of the incoming wind considerably affects the magnitude and spatial distribution of the turbulent production, transport term and dissipation rate (transfer of energy to the subgrid scales). It is also shown that the near-wake region can be extended to a farther distance downstream in stable condition compared with neutral and unstable counterparts. In order to isolate the effect of atmospheric stability, additional simulations of neutrally-stratified atmospheric boundary layers are performed with the same turbulence intensity at hub height as convective and stable ones. The results show that the
Parametric Study of Decay of Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence Using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Rubinstein, Robert; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Zang, Thomas A.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence are performed with both low-order and high-order spatial discretization schemes. The turbulent Mach and Reynolds numbers for the simulations are 0.2 and 250, respectively. For the low-order schemes we use either second-order central or third-order upwind biased differencing. For higher order approximations we apply weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes, both with linear and nonlinear weights. There are two objectives in this preliminary effort to investigate possible schemes for large eddy simulation (LES). One is to explore the capability of a widely used low-order computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to perform LES computations. The other is to determine the effect of higher order accuracy (fifth, seventh, and ninth order) achieved with high-order upwind biased WENO-based schemes. Turbulence statistics, such as kinetic energy, dissipation, and skewness, along with the energy spectra from simulations of the decaying turbulence problem are used to assess and compare the various numerical schemes. In addition, results from the best performing schemes are compared with those from a spectral scheme. The effects of grid density, ranging from 32 cubed to 192 cubed, on the computations are also examined. The fifth-order WENO-based scheme is found to be too dissipative, especially on the coarser grids. However, with the seventh-order and ninth-order WENO-based schemes we observe a significant improvement in accuracy relative to the lower order LES schemes, as revealed by the computed peak in the energy dissipation and by the energy spectrum.
Large-eddy simulation of biogenic VOC chemistry during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Barth, Mary C.; Chen, Gao; Patton, Edward G.; Kim, Si-Wan; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Fried, Alan; Clark, Richard; Steiner, Allison L.
2016-07-01
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are oxidized quickly in the atmosphere to form oxygenated VOC (OVOC) and play crucial roles in the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. We use the National Center for Atmospheric Research's large-eddy simulation model and Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2011 flight data to understand the role of boundary layer turbulence on the atmospheric chemistry of key BVOC species and their oxidation products. We simulate three distinct convective environments during the campaign, representing fair weather conditions (case 1: 1 July), a convective event dominated by southwesterly flow (case 2: 11 July), and a polluted event with high temperature and convection (case 3: 29 July). Isoprene segregation is greatest in the lower boundary layer under warm and convective conditions, reaching up to a 10% reduction in the isoprene-OH reaction rate. Under warm and convective conditions, the BVOC lifetimes lengthen due to increased isoprene emission, elevated initial chemical concentrations, and OH competition. Although turbulence-driven segregation has less influence on the OVOC species, convection mixes more OVOC into the upper atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and increases the total OH reactivity. Production and loss rates of ozone above 2 km in all the three cases indicate in situ ozone formation in addition to vertical convective transport of ozone from the surface and aloft, consistent with the increased contribution of OH reactivity from OVOC. Together, these results show that total OH reactivity in the ABL increases under warmer and stronger convective conditions due to enhanced isoprene emission and the OVOC contribution to ozone formation.
Unstructured-grid large-eddy simulation of flow over an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jansen, Kenneth
1994-01-01
Historically, large-eddy simulations (LES) have been restricted to simple geometries where spectral or finite difference methods have dominated due to their efficient use of structured grids. Structured grids, however, not only difficulty representing complex domains and adapting to complicated flow features, but also are rather inefficient for simulating flows at high Reynolds numbers. The lack of efficiency stems from the need to resolve the viscous sublayer, which requires very fine resolution in all three directions near the wall. Structured grids make use of a stretching to reduce the normal grid spacing but must carry the fine resolution in the streamwise and spanwise directions throughout the domain. The unnecessarily fine grid for much of the domain leads to disturbingly high grid estimates. Chapman (1979), and later Moin & Jimenez (1993), pointed out that, in order to advance the technology to airfoils at flight Reynolds numbers, structured grids must be abandoned in lieu of what are known as nested or unstructured grids. The finite element method can efficiently solve the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. Although the CPU cost per time step per element is somewhat higher than structured grid methods, this effect is more than offset by the reduction in the number of elements. The use of unstructured grids, coupled with the advances in dynamic subgrid-scale modeling such as those made by Germano et al. (1991) and Ghosal et al. (1994), make LES of an airfoil tractable. We have chosen the NACA 4412 airfoil at maximum lift as the first simulation since this flow has not been successfully simulated with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.
Direct and Large Eddy Simulations of Three Dimensional Round Turbulent Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lienau, Jeffrey Jay
1994-01-01
The turbulent flow in a spatially developing three dimensional incompressible round jet is simulated numerically. High order accurate finite difference methods are developed using compact differencing with formal accuracy varying from second to seventh order in the spatial directions. A large eddy simulation model is used to simulate the effect of the unresolved part of the motion. The spatially developing flow in a round jet is computed starting with the inviscid solution and structural and statistical properties of the flow are established. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is induced with small disturbances at the jet pipe. The vortex sheet rolls up into rings that interact and produce a variety of structures. The structures emerging in the development of the flow are analyzed using the local and global properties of kinetic energy and vorticity. It is found that the dynamics of breakdown in the round turbulent jet consists of four mechanisms. The first is the evolution of the vortex rings via the Kelvin Helmholtz instability. The second is the instability of the vorticity between the rings which develops into the braid region. The third is the interaction of the braids with the rings and the final is the transition to turbulent flow. The transport of particles is simulated numerically in the round turbulent jet. The particles investigated were the fluid particles, hexadecane particles ranging in size from 35 to 160 μm and vaporizing pentane particles in both heated and non-heated environments. For the heated environments, limiting cases of zero and infinite heat conductivity within the droplet were investigated. Particle dispersion, time of flight, average velocity and droplet diameter are presented for the first sixty diameters of the jet and compared to experimental data. The comparisons are good which provides support for the computational results.
Direct and large eddy simulations of three dimensional round turbulent jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lienau, Jeffrey Jay
1994-01-01
The turbulent flow in a spatially developing three dimensional incompressible round jet is simulated numerically. High order accurate finite difference methods are developed using compact differencing with formal accuracy varying from second to seventh order in the spatial directions. A large eddy simulation model is used to simulate the effect of the unresolved part of the motion. The spatially developing flow in a round jet is computed starting with the inviscid solution and structural and statistical properties of the flow are established. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is induced with small disturbances at the jet pipe. The vortex sheet rolls up into rings that interact and produce a variety of structures. The structures emerging in the development of the flow are analyzed using the local and global properties of kinetic energy and vorticity. It is found that the dynamics of breakdown in the round turbulent jet consists of four mechanisms. The first is the evolution of the vortex rings via the Kelvin Helmholtz instability. The second is the instability of the vorticity between the rings which develops into the braid region. The third is the interaction of the braids with the rings and the final is the transition to turbulent flow. The transport of particles is simulated numerically in the round turbulent jet. The particles investigated were the fluid particles, hexadecane particles ranging in size from 35 to 160 micrometers and vaporizing pentane particles in both heated and nonheated environments. For the heated environments, limiting cases of zero and infinite heat conductivity within the droplet were investigated. Particle dispersion time of flight, average velocity and droplet diameter are presented for the first sixty diameters of the jet and compared to experimental data. The comparisons are good which provides support for the computational results.
Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation.
Tseng, Yu-Heng; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B
2006-04-15
Modeling air pollutant transport and dispersion in urban environments is especially challenging due to complex ground topography. In this study, we describe a large eddy simulation (LES) tool including a new dynamic subgrid closure and boundary treatment to model urban dispersion problems. The numerical model is developed, validated, and extended to a realistic urban layout. In such applications fairly coarse grids must be used in which each building can be represented using relatively few grid-points only. By carrying out LES of flow around a square cylinder and of flow over surface-mounted cubes, the coarsest resolution required to resolve the bluff body's cross section while still producing meaningful results is established. Specifically, we perform grid refinement studies showing that at least 6-8 grid points across the bluff body are required for reasonable results. The performance of several subgrid models is also compared. Although effects of the subgrid models on the mean flow are found to be small, dynamic Lagrangian models give a physically more realistic subgrid-scale (SGS) viscosity field. When scale-dependence is taken into consideration, these models lead to more realistic resolved fluctuating velocities and spectra. These results set the minimum grid resolution and subgrid model requirements needed to apply LES in simulations of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow and scalar transport over a realistic urban geometry. The results also illustrate the advantages of LES over traditional modeling approaches, particularly its ability to take into account the complex boundary details and the unsteady nature of atmospheric boundary layer flow. Thus LES can be used to evaluate probabilities of extreme events (such as probabilities of exceeding threshold pollutant concentrations). Some comments about computer resources required for LES are also included. PMID:16683605
Explicit filtering in large eddy simulation using a discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazell, Matthew J.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a formulation of the finite element method (FEM). DG provides the ability for a high order of accuracy in complex geometries, and allows for highly efficient parallelization algorithms. These attributes make the DG method attractive for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for large eddy simulation (LES). The main goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of adopting an explicit filter in the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with DG. Explicit filtering has been shown to increase the numerical stability of under-resolved simulations and is needed for LES with dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) models. The explicit filter takes advantage of DG's framework where the solution is approximated using a polyno- mial basis where the higher modes of the solution correspond to a higher order polynomial basis. By removing high order modes, the filtered solution contains low order frequency content much like an explicit low pass filter. The explicit filter implementation is tested on a simple 1-D solver with an initial condi- tion that has some similarity to turbulent flows. The explicit filter does restrict the resolution as well as remove accumulated energy in the higher modes from aliasing. However, the ex- plicit filter is unable to remove numerical errors causing numerical dissipation. A second test case solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of the Taylor-Green vortex flow (TGV). The TGV is useful for SGS model testing because it is initially laminar and transitions into a fully turbulent flow. The SGS models investigated include the constant coefficient Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model, and dynamic Heinz model. The constant coefficient Smagorinsky model is over dissipative, this is generally not desirable however it does add stability. The dynamic Smagorinsky model generally performs better, especially during the laminar-turbulent transition region as expected. The dynamic Heinz model which is
Large Eddy Simulation of a Near Sonic Turbulent Jet and Its Radiated Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Constantinescu, G. S.; Lele, S. K.
2001-01-01
In this paper numerical simulations are used to calculate the turbulence dynamics simultaneously with the sound field for a high-speed near-sonic (Ma=0.9) compressible jet at two Reynolds numbers of 3,600 and 72,000. LES (Large Eddy Simulation) in conjunction with accurate numerical schemes is used to calculate the unsteady flow and sound in the near field of the jet. It is shown that the jet mean parameters, mean velocity fields and turbulence statistics are in good agreement with experimental data and results from other simulations. The sound in the near-field is calculated directly from the simulations. The calculations are shown to capture the peak in the dilatation and pressure spectra around a Strouhal number St=0.25-0.3, in agreement with typical jet-noise spectra measured in experiments. Dilatation contours in the near-field show the formation of acoustic waves with a dominant wavelength of 3.2-4 jet diameters, corresponding to the peak in the dilatation spectra. As expected, the non-compact noise sources are found to be most dominant in the region corresponding to the end of the potential core. The contribution of the LES model to the radiated noise appears to be weak and does not contaminate the sound field with spurious high-frequency noise. However, the frequency spectra of the sound show a rapid falloff away from the peak frequency. This is attributed to the quasi-laminar state of the shear-layers in the region prior to potential core closure, and a possible effect of insufficient azimuthal resolution at the observed location. Further analysis of the effect of the LES model, especially at high frequencies, is needed.
Large-eddy simulation of street canyons and urban microclimate using Uintah:MPMICE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemati Hayati, A.; Stoll, R., II; Harman, T.; Pardyjak, E.
2014-12-01
Urban microclimate plays an important role in urban water use, energy use, pollutant transport, and the general comfort and well-being of urban inhabitants. The microclimate interacts locally with urban morphology, water levels, properties of urban surfaces, and vegetation cover all of which contribute significantly to the strong spatial variability observed in urban areas. Considerable parts of urban open spaces take the form of street canyons. These urban street canyons play a remarkable role in creating urban microclimates. Within street canyons themselves, a wide variety of phenomena contribute to complex flow patterns. These include various flow structures such as wake fields, circulation zones, isolated roughness flow, wake interference and skimming flows. In addition, heat fluxes from the buildings and the surrounding area enhance the complexity of the flow field inside the canyon. Here, we introduce Uintah:MPMICE for the simulation of fluid structure interactions in urban flows. Uintah:MPMICE has been developed in a massively parallel computational infrastructure, uses material points to represent buildings, and the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique to represent momentum and scalar transport. To validate Uintah:MPMICE, simulations of typical street canyons are compared against published wind tunnel particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) data for the cases of step-up and step-down street canyons. Our findings show promising results in capturing major flow features, namely wake fields, recirculation zones, wake interference, vortex structures, and flow separation in street canyons. LES results demonstrate the ability of the simulations to predict flow topology details such as secondary circulation zones and wall-originating elevated shear layers in step-up and step-down cases, respectively. Furthermore, mean flow and variance statistics indicate sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions; upstream turbulence generation method, in particular, has a significant
Large-eddy Simulation of the Nighttime Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bowen
A stable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) develops over land at night due to radiative surface cooling. The state of turbulence in the stable boundary layer (SBL) is determined by the competing forcings of shear production and buoyancy destruction. When both forcings are comparable in strength, the SBL falls into an intermittently turbulent state, where intense turbulent bursts emerge sporadically from an overall quiescent background. This usually occurs on clear nights with weak winds when the SBL is strongly stable. Although turbulent bursts are generally short-lived (half an hour or less), their impact on the SBL is significant since they are responsible for most of the turbulent mixing. The nighttime SBL can be modeled with large-eddy simulation (LES). LES is a turbulence-resolving numerical approach which separates the large-scale energy-containing eddies from the smaller ones based on application of a spatial filter. While the large eddies are explicitly resolved, the small ones are represented by a subfilter-scale (SFS) stress model. Simulation of the SBL is more challenging than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) because nighttime turbulent motions are limited by buoyancy stratification, thus requiring fine grid resolution at the cost of immense computational resources. The intermittently turbulent SBL adds additional levels of complexity, requiring the model to not only sustain resolved turbulence during quiescent periods, but also to transition into a turbulent state under appropriate conditions. As a result, LES of the strongly stable SBL potentially requires even finer grid resolution, and has seldom been attempted. This dissertation takes a different approach. By improving the SFS representation of turbulence with a more sophisticated model, intermittently turbulent SBL is simulated, to our knowledge, for the first time in the LES literature. The turbulence closure is the dynamic reconstruction model (DRM), applied under an explicit filtering
A Numerical Study of Self-Similarity in a Turbulent Plane Wake Using Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosal, Sandip; Rogers, Michael M.
1996-01-01
Turbulent wakes are known to develop self-similarly sufficiently far downstream from obstacles that generate them. It has long been assumed that the spreading rate of the wake in the self-similar regime is independent of the details of the body generating the wake, being dependent only on the total drag (or momentum deficit). This assumption seems to be in contradiction with some recent experiments. In this study we attempt to complement these experimental investigations through a numerical study of a time-developing wake. A numerical study has the advantage of eliminating many of the uncontrolled factors present in experiments and allowing precise control of initial conditions. Large-eddy simulations employing the recently developed dynamic localization model are used to extend previous results from direct numerical simulations. The large-eddy simulation results are compared to the direct numerical simulation database, wherever such comparisons are feasible, as a check of the method. Like the experiments, the large-eddy simulations suggest that non-unique self-similar states, characterized by different spreading rates and turbulent statistics, are possible and that they can be maintained for significant time periods. The study also demonstrates the predictive capability of the dynamic localization subgrid model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witte, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Wang, L. P.; Ayala, O.
2014-12-01
Drizzle occurs frequently in shallow, warm boundary layer clouds. For example, in stratocumulus it occurs approximately 1/3 of the time in full cloud cover conditions (Wood 2012). Drizzle affects moisture and energy budgets, and cloud albedo, morphology and lifetime. At the cloud scale, processes that control drizzle formation include turbulence production via radiative cooling and/or shear, entrainment, and surface moisture fluxes. At the micro-scale, collision-coalescence is the primary process relevant to warm drizzle formation. Differential gravitational sedimentation and turbulent air motions cause cloud droplets to collide, creating drops much larger than can be formed by condensation alone. Other factors, such as preferential concentration and entrainment mixing may also be relevant. The process is typically subdivided into three regimes: autoconversion (small drops self-collide), accretion (large drops collect small drops), and hydrometeor self-collection (large drops self-collide). Of these regimes, autoconversion is the rate-limiting step in existing analytical representations. This study (i) evaluates whether our best theoretical understanding of collision-coalescence in the autoconversion regime can replicate observations, with a broader goal of (ii) exploring which cloud-scale factors are most important for drizzle initiation. A state-of-the-art turbulent collisional growth model is applied to a bin microphysics scheme within a large-eddy simulation such that the full range of cloud drop growth mechanisms are represented (i.e. CCN activation, condensation, collision-coalescence, mixing, etc.) at realistic atmospheric conditions. We compare cloud drop spectra produced by the LES with observations to assess the quality and limits of our theoretical knowledge. The comparison will be performed over a range of observational cases that span a range of drizzle rates. These cases differ in their radiative cooling rates, shear, cloud-top temperature and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schowalter, D. G.; DeCroix, D. S.; Lin, Y. L.; Arya, S. P.; Kaplan, M. L.
1996-01-01
It was found that the homogeneity of the surface drag coefficient plays an important role in the large scale structure of turbulence in large-eddy simulation of the convective atmospheric boundary layer. Particularly when a ground surface temperature was specified, large horizontal anisotropies occurred when the drag coefficient depended upon local velocities and heat fluxes. This was due to the formation of streamwise roll structures in the boundary layer. In reality, these structures have been found to form when shear is approximately balanced by buoyancy. The present cases, however, were highly convective. The formation was caused by particularly low values of the drag coefficient at the entrance to thermal plume structures.
Large Eddy Simulations to determine the role of dispersive stresses in the urban canopy layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christen, Andreas; Giometto, Marco; Parlange, Marc
2013-04-01
Urban-scale weather and air pollution forecasting models need to realistically predict conditions in the urban canopy layer (UCL) - the atmosphere in-between buildings where people live and most activities take place. Nevertheless, for performance reasons, forecasting models cannot resolve every detail of the flow field around individual buildings and obstacles in a city. In common urban canopy parameterizations (UCPs), exchange processes between the UCL and the overlying atmosphere - including momentum transfer - are simplified to one-dimensional bulk flow representations, where the time-averaged flow field is also horizontally averaged over a larger spatial subset of the urban canopy. In the spatial averaging process of RANS equations, additional covariance terms arise in the time-averaged momentum balance, called 'dispersive stresses'. Physically, a dispersive stress can be explained as spatial correlation between the mean horizontal flow and mean vertical flow around buildings at a given height layer. Due to lack of knowledge on the role of dispersive fluxes, they are neglected in all current UCPs and transfer formulations. Only limited CFD studies for idealized cubical arrays show that dispersive fluxes are relevant and important to properly describe the overall momentum transfer in those specific rigid canopies. The current contribution determines the role of dispersive stresses to the overall momentum transfer for a more realistic urban canopy by means of large eddy simulation (LES). LES takes into account the unsteadiness that characterizes canopy layer flows, offering indisputably superior performances in predicting momentum exchange with respect to traditional methods, in particular when the effects of canopy elements play a major role. LES also showed to be able to properly represent the flow in areas of strong separation and in wakes, features that are strongly present in urban canopies, where most RANS and URANS models fail due to their under
Large Eddy Simulation of Sound Generation by Turbulent Reacting and Nonreacting Shear Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najafi-Yazdi, Alireza
The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation by subsonic jets. Large eddy simulations were performed along with bandpass filtering of the flow and sound in order to gain further insight into the pole of coherent structures in subsonic jet noise generation. A sixth-order compact scheme was used for spatial discretization of the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Time integration was performed through the use of the standard fourth-order, explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. An implicit low dispersion, low dissipation Runge-Kutta (ILDDRK) method was developed and implemented for simulations involving sources of stiffness such as flows near solid boundaries, or combustion. A surface integral acoustic analogy formulation, called Formulation 1C, was developed for farfield sound pressure calculations. Formulation 1C was derived based on the convective wave equation in order to take into account the presence of a mean flow. The formulation was derived to be easy to implement as a numerical post-processing tool for CFD codes. Sound radiation from an unheated, Mach 0.9 jet at Reynolds number 400, 000 was considered. The effect of mesh size on the accuracy of the nearfield flow and farfield sound results was studied. It was observed that insufficient grid resolution in the shear layer results in unphysical laminar vortex pairing, and increased sound pressure levels in the farfield. Careful examination of the bandpass filtered pressure field suggested that there are two mechanisms of sound radiation in unheated subsonic jets that can occur in all scales of turbulence. The first mechanism is the stretching and the distortion of coherent vortical structures, especially close to the termination of the potential core. As eddies are bent or stretched, a portion of their kinetic energy is radiated. This mechanism is quadrupolar in nature, and is responsible for strong sound radiation at aft angles. The second sound generation mechanism
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Eddy covariance (EC) systems are being used to assess the accuracy of remote sensing methods in mapping surface heat fluxes and evapotranspiration from local to regional scales; as well as in crop coefficients development. Therefore, the evaluation of the accuracy of EC heat flux measurements is fu...
Large eddy simulation and measurements of turbulent enclosed rotor-stator flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Séverac, Éric; Poncet, Sébastien; Serre, Éric; Chauve, Marie-Pierre
2007-08-01
Turbulent flows are studied in an actual enclosed rotor-stator configuration with a rotating hub and a stationary shroud. Besides its fundamental importance—the disk boundary layer is one of the simplest platforms for investigating the underlying structure of three-dimensional boundary layers—this cavity models more complex configurations relevant to rotating machinery. Large eddy simulation is performed using a spectral vanishing viscosity technique that is shown leading to stable discretizations without sacrificing the formal accuracy of the spectral approximation. Numerical results and velocity measurements have been favorably compared for a large range of rotational Reynolds numbers (105⩽Re=Ωb2/ν⩽106) in an annular cavity of curvature parameter Rm=(b+a)/(b-a)=1.8 and of aspect ratio G =(b-a)/h=5, where a and b are, respectively, the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. In the detailed picture of the flow structure that emerges, the turbulence is confined mainly in the boundary layers including in the Stewartson layer along the external cylinder. For Reynolds numbers Re ⩾105, the stator boundary layer is turbulent over most of the cavity. On the other hand, the rotor layer becomes progressively turbulent from the outer radial locations, although the rotating hub is shown to destabilize the inner part of the boundary layers. The isosurface maps of the Re =106, the flow is fully turbulent and the anisotropy invariant map highlights turbulence structuring, which can be either a "cigar-shaped" structuring aligned on the tangential direction or a "pancake-shaped" structuring depending on the axial location. The reduction of the structural parameter a1 (the ratio of the magnitude of the shear stress vector to twice the turbulence kinetic energy) under the typical limit 0.15, as well as the misalignment between the shear stress vector and the mean velocity gradient vector, highlight the three-dimensional nature of both
Large eddy simulation of smooth-wall, transitional and fully rough-wall channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Namiko; Pullin, Dale I.; Inoue, Michio
2012-07-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is reported for both smooth and rough-wall channel flows at resolutions for which the roughness is subgrid. The stretched vortex, subgrid-scale model is combined with an existing wall-model that calculates the local friction velocity dynamically while providing a Dirichlet-like slip velocity at a slightly raised wall. This wall model is presently extended to include the effects of subgrid wall roughness by the incorporation of the Hama's roughness function Δ U^+(k_{sinfty }^+) that depends on some geometric roughness height ks∞ scaled in inner variables. Presently Colebrook's empirical roughness function is used but the model can utilize any given function of an arbitrary number of inner-scaled, roughness length parameters. This approach requires no change to the interior LES and can handle both smooth and rough walls. The LES is applied to fully turbulent, smooth, and rough-wall channel flow in both the transitional and fully rough regimes. Both roughness and Reynolds number effects are captured for Reynolds numbers Reb based on the bulk flow speed in the range 104-1010 with the equivalent Reτ, based on the wall-drag velocity uτ varying from 650 to 108. Results include a Moody-like diagram for the friction factor f = f(Reb, ɛ), ɛ = ks∞/δ, mean velocity profiles, and turbulence statistics. In the fully rough regime, at sufficiently large Reb, the mean velocity profiles show collapse in outer variables onto a roughness modified, universal, velocity-deficit profile. Outer-flow stream-wise turbulence intensities scale well with uτ for both smooth and rough-wall flow, showing a log-like profile. The infinite Reynolds number limits of both smooth and rough-wall flows are explored. An assumption that, for smooth-wall flow, the turbulence intensities scaled on uτ are bounded above by the sum of a logarithmic profile plus a finite function across the whole channel suggests that the infinite Reb limit is inviscid slip flow without
Large Eddy Simulation of Transonic Flow Field in NASA Rotor 37
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2009-01-01
The current paper reports on numerical investigations on the flow characteristics in a transonic axial compressor, NASA Rotor 37. The flow field was used previously as a CFD blind test case conducted by American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1994. Since the CFD blind-test exercise, many numerical studies on the flow field in the NASA Rotor 37 have been reported. Although steady improvements have been reported in both numerical procedure and turbulence closure, it is believed that all the important aspects of the flow field have not been fully explained with numerical studies based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Experimental data show large dip in total pressure distribution near the hub at downstream of the rotor at 100% rotor speed. Most original numerical solutions from the blind test exercise did not predict this total pressure deficit correctly. This total pressure deficit at the rotor exit was attributed to a hub corner flow separation by the author. Several subsequent numerical studies with different turbulence closure model also calculated this dip in total pressure rise. Also, several studies attributed this total pressure deficit to a small leakage flow coming from the hub in the test article. As the experimental study cannot be repeated, either explanation cannot be validated. The primary purpose of the current investigation is to investigate the transonic flow field with both RANS and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The RANS approach gives similar results presented at the original blind test exercise. Although the RANS calculates higher overall total pressure rise, the total pressure deficit near the hub is calculated correctly. The numerical solution shows that the total pressure deficit is due to a hub corner flow separation. The calculated pressure rise from the LES agrees better with the measured total pressure rise especially near the casing area where the passage shock interacts with the tip clearance vortex and flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoldi, Giacomo; Kustas, William P.; Albertson, John D.
2013-05-01
The estimation of spatial patterns in surface fluxes from aircraft observations poses several challenges in the presence of heterogeneous land cover. In particular, the effects of turbulence on scalar transport and the different behaviour of passive (e.g. water vapour) versus active (e.g. temperature) scalars may lead to large uncertainties in the source area/flux-footprint estimation for sensible ( H) and latent ( LE) heat-flux fields. This study uses large-eddy simulation (LES) of the land-atmosphere interactions to investigate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) processes that are likely to create differences in airborne-estimated H and LE footprints. We focus on 32~m altitude aircraft flux observations collected over a study site in central Oklahoma during the Southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97). Comparison between the aircraft data and traditional model estimates provide evidence of a difference in source area for turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes. The LES produces reasonable representations of the observed fluxes, and hence provides credible evidence and explanation of the observed differences in the H and LE footprints. Those differences can be quantified by analyzing the change in the sign of the spatial correlation of the H and LE fields provided by the LES model as a function of height. Dry patterns in relatively moist surroundings are able to generate strong, but localized, sensible heating. However, whereas H at the aircraft altitude is still in phase with the surface, LE presents a more complicated connection to the surface as the dry updrafts force a convergence of the surrounding moist air. Both the observational and LES model evidence support the concept that under strongly advective conditions, H and LE measured at the top of the surface layer (≈50 m) can be associated with very different upwind source areas, effectively contradicting surface-layer self-similarity theory for scalars. The results indicate that, under certain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denev, Jordan A.; Fröhlich, Jochen; Bockhorn, Henning
2009-01-01
The flow field of a turbulent jet emerging from a straight round pipe into a laminar crossflow is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. The concentration of a passive scalar, introduced with the jet, is calculated in order to quantify the mixing of the jet and the crossflow. In the jet, swirl is introduced by means of body forces and a range of jet swirl numbers from S =0 up to S =0.6 is studied. The impact of the jet swirl on the flow field, on the coherent structures, and on the mixing efficiency is investigated and quantified by means of various analyses. It is found that for all swirl numbers larger than zero a clear asymmetry appears in all quantities studied. Additional to the two hanging vortices at both sides of the jet a third vortex is introduced by the swirling pipe flow which interacts with the former. This feature is described in detail as it is not mentioned in the literature. For the strongest swirl investigated a recirculation zone near the jet exit is observed. Despite the asymmetry and even with a recirculation zone at the outlet, the counter-rotating vortex pair still exists in all cases in the downstream flow, where it entrains a large amount of crossflow fluid into the jet. The near field, however, is altered by the jet swirl in several respects. The jet more and more approaches the bottom wall with increasing swirl. As a result, the entrainment is gradually attenuated due to the larger blocking of the secondary flow by the wall. Increased swirl increases both the turbulent kinetic energy in the pipe and the vorticity of the average flow field near the jet exit, and thus stimulates the mixing in these regions. However, this stimulating effect is overwhelmed by the closer position of the jet trajectory to the wall of the channel with increasing swirl, which in turn reduces entrainment of fresh crossflow fluid into the jet. As a final result of these two competing effects, the overall mixing efficiency of a jet into a crossflow is
Preliminary large-eddy simulations of flow around a NACA 4412 airfoil using unstructured grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jansen, Kenneth
1995-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has matured to the point where application to complex flows is desirable. The extension to higher Reynolds numbers leads to an impractical number of grid points with existing structured-grid methods. Furthermore, most real world flows are rather difficult to represent geometrically with structured grids. Unstructured-grid methods offer a release from both of these constraints. However, just as it took many years for structured-grid methods to be well understood and reliable tools for LES, unstructured-grid methods must be carefully studied before we can expect them to attain their full potential. In the past two years, important building blocks have been put into place making possible a careful study of LES on unstructured grids. The first building block was an efficient mesh generator which allowed the placement of points according to smooth variation of physical length scales. This variation of length scales is in all three directions independently, which allows a large reduction in points when compared to structured-grid methods, which can only vary length scales in one direction at a time. The second building block was the development of a dynamic model appropriate for unstructured grids. The principle obstacle was the development of an unstructured-grid filtering operator. In the past year, some of the new filters developed by Jansen have been implemented into a highly parallelized finite element code based on the Galerkin/least-squares finite element method. We have chosen the NACA 4412 airfoil at maximum lift as the first simulation for a variety of reasons. First, it is a problem of significant interest since it would be the first LES of an aircraft component. Second, this flow has been the subject of three experimental studies. The third reason for considering this flow is the variety of flow features which provide an important test of the dynamic model. Only the dynamic model can be expected to perform satisfactorily in this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deiterding, Ralf; Fragner, Moritz M.
2015-11-01
Numerical investigations in order to determine the forces induced by side wind onto a train geometry are generally not sufficiently accurate to be used as a predictive tool for regulatory safety assessment. Especially for larger yaw angles, the turbulent cross-wind flow is characterized by highly instationary behavior, driven primarily by vortex shedding on the roof and underside geometric details, i.e., the bogie and wheel systems. While industry-typical Reynolds-averaged turbulence models are not well suited for this scenario, better results are obtained when large eddy simulation (LES) techniques are applied. Here, we employ a recently self-developed weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with Smagorinsky LES model on hierarchically adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes. Using a train front-car of 1:25 scale at yaw angle 30° and Re = 250 , 000 as main test case, we compare the LBM results with incompressible large eddy and detached eddy simulations on unstructured boundary-layer type meshes using the OpenFOAM package. It is found that time averaged force and moment predictions from our LBM code compare better to available wind tunnel data, while mesh adaptation and explicit nature of the LBM approach reduce the computational costs considerably.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palastanga, V.; van Leeuwen, P. J.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.
2006-09-01
A connection is shown to exist between the mesoscale eddy activity around Madagascar and the large-scale interannual variability in the Indian Ocean. We use the combined TOPEX/Poseidon-ERS sea surface height (SSH) data for the period 1993-2003. The SSH-fields in the Mozambique Channel and east of Madagascar exhibit a significant interannual oscillation. This is related to the arrival of large-scale anomalies that propagate westward along 10°-15°S in response to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events. Positive (negative) SSH anomalies associated to a positive (negative) IOD phase induce a shift in the intensity and position of the tropical and subtropical gyres. A weakening (strengthening) results in the intensity of the South Equatorial Current and its branches along east Madagascar. In addition, the flow through the narrows of the Mozambique Channel around 17°S increases (decreases) during periods of a stronger and northward (southward) extension of the subtropical (tropical) gyre. Interaction between the currents in the narrows and southward propagating eddies from the northern Channel leads to interannual variability in the eddy kinetic energy of the central Channel in phase with the one in the SSH-field.
Wall-models for large eddy simulation based on a generic additive-filter formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez Rocha, Martin
Based on the philosophy of only resolving the large scales of turbulent motion, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has demonstrated potential to provide high-fidelity turbulence simulations at low computational cost. However, when the scales that control the turbulence in a particular flow are not large, LES has to increase significantly its computational cost to provide accurate predictions. This is the case in wall-bounded flows, where the grid resolution required by LES to resolve the near-wall structures is close to the requirements to resolve the smallest dissipative scales in turbulence. Therefore, to reduce this demanding requirement, it has been proposed to model the near-wall region with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, in what is known as hybrid RANS/LES approach. In this work, the mathematical implications of merging two different turbulence modeling approaches are addressed by deriving the exact hybrid RANS/LES Navier-Stokes equations. These equations are derived by introducing an additive-filter, which linearly combines the RANS and LES operators with a blending function. The equations derived with the additive-filter predict additional hybrid terms, which represent the interactions between RANS and LES formulations. Theoretically, the prediction of the hybrid terms demonstrates that the hybridization of the two approaches cannot be accomplished only by the turbulence model equations, as it is claimed in current hybrid RANS/LES models. The importance of the exact hybrid RANS/LES equations is demonstrated by conducting numerical calculations on a turbulent flat-plate boundary layer. Results indicate that the hybrid terms help to maintain an equilibrated model transition when the hybrid formulation switches from RANS to LES. Results also indicate, that when the hybrid terms are not included, the accuracy of the calculations strongly relies on the blending function implemented in the additive-filter. On the other hand, if the exact equations are
Subfilter Scale Combustion Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence- chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The mod- elling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
Boundary-Layer Separation Regimes: An Analysis Based on Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachsperger, J.; Serafin, S.; Grubisic, V.
2013-12-01
Boundary layer separation (BLS) may occur when a strong adverse pressure gradient force is imposed on boundary layer flow. The strong deceleration caused by the pressure gradient results, through mass continuity, in the detachment of streamlines from the surface. In neutrally stratified flow, the boundary layer commonly separates at the salient edge of very sharp obstacles. In the case of stratified flow, pressure perturbations strong enough to cause BLS can also be induced by internal gravity waves. A well-known phenomenon related to wave-induced BLS is that of atmospheric rotors. Laboratory experiments in a stratified water tank show that the key governing parameters for BLS over a two-dimensional obstacle are the airflow speed U, the stratification N, the height H and half-width L of the mountain. These quantities can be combined to form the non-dimensional numbers NH/U (non-dimensional mountain height) and H/L (vertical aspect ratio), which can be used for a concise characterization of the flow regime. Wave-induced BLS was shown to occur preferentially for relatively high non-dimensional mountain height and for relatively low aspect ratio. Linear theory suggests similar results. The behavior of BLS in strongly nonlinear flow regimes and its response to variable surface friction is less known. In this study, the CM1 model is used to perform large eddy simulations (LES) under free-slip and quasi-no-slip lower boundary conditions. Conditions favorable for BLS are investigated under different combinations of NH/U, H/L and the surface momentum flux. Results confirm the importance of NH/U and H/L as key parameters in defining the flow regime in the free-slip case, and show the expected transition from subcritical to supercritical flow associated with wave breaking and downslope windstorms. Findings from quasi-no-slip simulations show that rotors downstream are able to induce secondary non-hydrostatic waves even if the flow over the mountain upstream is within the
Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.
1993-01-01
The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the
Atmospheric turbulence in urban environments: large-eddy simulation and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertwig, D.; Nguyen van yen, R.; Patnaik, G.; Leitl, B.
2012-04-01
The description of atmospheric turbulence in densely built urban environments is a major theoretical challenge, which has wide-ranging practical implications - regarding for example pollutant dispersion, wind comfort, and many other micro-climatic issues. The traditional approach to adopt obstacle-resolving micro-scale meteorological models based on Reynolds-averaged equations is strongly limited by its inherent inability to provide spatio-temporal data. Although more advanced models, such as large-eddy simulation (LES), are now technically applicable to this problem, the precise validation of their output is still a matter of ongoing investigation, which is particularly challenging due to the time-dependent nature of the problem. In this work, we undertake a systematic comparison between results of urban LES computations and boundary-layer wind-tunnel measurements of turbulent flow in the inner city of Hamburg, Germany. The experimental data were acquired for neutral atmospheric stratification within an urban model on a scale of 1:350, under well-defined and documented boundary constraints. Background information about the atmospheric inflow conditions for both the physical and numerical model was deduced from suburban field site measurements. LES computations were conducted by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory using the code FAST3D-CT that is based on the monotone integrated LES methodology (MILES). The validation focuses on the comparison of time-series information and the characterization of turbulent flow structures within and above the urban canopy. Densely spaced measurements in vertical profiles and horizontal flow layers allow for the investigation of the urban boundary-layer development across the city. Typical obstacle-induced urban flow scenarios provide further test cases for detailed analyses. Besides mean flow and turbulence statistics, velocity histograms, fluctuation time scales, spectral information and statistics of the Reynolds stress
Large eddy simulation of surface pressure fluctuations generated by elevated gusts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, Jericho E.
Wind gusts cause substantial damage to wind turbines. If these damaging winds could be detected prior to their interaction with the turbine, the turbine rotor can be decoupled from the generator and gearing system to prevent damage during the gust event. This would significantly reduce wind turbine repair costs. Wind gusts can also create unsafe conditions for aircraft landing. A ground based detection system that monitored elevated wind gusts can provide new information for pilots to use when determining whether or not it is safe to land. In addition, the ability to monitor elevated gust events would provide a new probe to study features in the atmospheric boundary layer. Previous research indicates that elevated velocity events, such as gusts, may trigger pressure fluctuations on the ground. If that is true, it should be possible to monitor elevated wind gusts by measuring these pressure fluctuations. The goal of this project is to develop a ground based detector that monitors the behavior of pressure fluctuations on the ground for indicators that a gust event may be taking place at higher altitudes. In order to recognize these indicators from the pressure measurements on the ground, cross-correlation analysis between the time evolution of the frequency structures corresponding to elevated wind gusts and the pressure on the ground below were investigated. The data for these analysis was generated using a large eddy simulation. This numerical approach was chosen because the nature of the cross-correlation analysis demanded full field wind velocities and pressures at several altitudes. Collecting this data outdoors would be impractical. Correlation coefficients between 0.75 - 0.90 were found. These high correlations indicate that the two signals are causally related. Several common features of the pressures caused by elevated gusts were identified. These features were used to develop a tracking program that monitors fast moving high amplitude pressure fluctuations
A wetter stratosphere in Large-Eddy Simulations of Hector the convector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauhut, Thibaut; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Escobar, Juan; Mascart, Patrick
2014-05-01
The trend of stratospheric water vapour during the past decades is not correctly reproduced by current GCMs. This may be due to lack of representation of rapid water transfers from troposphere to stratosphere. Our modeling study focused on a particular case of tropical deep convection which takes an active part in this transport. We aimed at understanding its dynamics and the stratosphere moistening processes. We selected a Hector thunderstorm observed on 30 November 2005 over Tiwi Islands, Australia, during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Plumes of ice particles reaching 19 km altitude were measured by lidar aboard the Geophysica stratospheric aircraftt. We performed a Large-Eddy Simulation of Hector (100 m horizontal resolution) using cutting-edge computing resources, as well as a series of simulations with coarser and coarser resolutions, from 200 m to 1600 m. Strong morning sea breeze deviated boundary layer westerlies and led to intense convergence of humid air over Tiwi Islands. Deep convection triggered around 1 pm. The most intense upward transport started straight after and lasted around 2 hours. Updraft cores statistics show that stronger upward winds in the boundary layer and at the cloud base lead to weaker cloud fraction aloft and higher hydrometeor content in updraft cores. Turbulence analysis also shows that the faster the updrafts are, the lower the dilution and the more efficient the vertical transfer of water. As a result, some updrafts overshooted the tropopause and carried ice crystals in the stratosphere. Overshoots in the LES compared well with the observations. Part of the ice particles precipitated then whereas the remainder sublimated in lower stratosphere. The consequent vapour pockets were transported and diluted within the stratosphere by easterlies. In total, 2776 tonnes of water were transported from troposphere to stratosphere. Associated net hydration of the lower stratosphere was found with a 16 % increase in water vapour. Upscaling
Anupindi, Kameswararao; Delorme, Yann; Shetty, Dinesh A; Frankel, Steven H
2013-12-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are becoming a reliable tool to understand hemodynamics, disease progression in pathological blood vessels and to predict medical device performance. Immersed boundary method (IBM) emerged as an attractive methodology because of its ability to efficiently handle complex moving and rotating geometries on structured grids. However, its application to study blood flow in complex, branching, patient-specific anatomies is scarce. This is because of the dominance of grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain over the useful grid nodes in the interior, rendering an inevitable memory and computational overhead. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose a novel multiblock based IBM that preserves the simplicity and effectiveness of the IBM on structured Cartesian meshes and enables handling of complex, anatomical geometries at a reduced memory overhead by minimizing the grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain. As pathological and medical device hemodynamics often involve complex, unsteady transitional or turbulent flow fields, a scale resolving turbulence model such as large eddy simulation (LES) is used in the present work. The proposed solver (here after referred as WenoHemo), is developed by enhancing an existing in-house high order incompressible flow solver that was previously validated for its numerics and several LES models by Shetty et al. [Journal of Computational Physics 2010; 229 (23), 8802-8822]. In the present work, WenoHemo is systematically validated for additional numerics introduced, such as IBM and the multiblock approach, by simulating laminar flow over a sphere and laminar flow over a backward facing step respectively. Then, we validate the entire solver methodology by simulating laminar and transitional flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Finally, we perform blood flow simulations in the challenging clinically relevant thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), to gain insights into the type of
Large-eddy simulation of a three-dimensional compressible tornado vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Jianjun
Large-Eddy simulation (LES) has become a very useful tool for investigating tornadoes, one of the more spectacular and destructive phenomena of nature. A new three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible model is generated to determine how significant the differences between compressible and incompressible LES simulations may be in some extremely violent tornadoes. In particular, this study seeks to determine how high the Mach number within the tornado may become before significant changes occur due to compressibility, and what the major effects of these changes may be expected to be. After developing and verifying the compressible LES model, three different patterns of tornadic corner flows cataloged by local swirl ratio are simulated under quasisteady conditions for different Mach numbers. Simulation comparisons have demonstrated that the compressibility effects are different for different corner flow structures. At peak average Mach numbers less than approximately 0.5, the compressibility effects are not very significant and may be accounted for to leading order by an appropriate isentropic transformation applied to the incompressible results. As the maximum Mach number is increased to more than 1.0, the compressibility effects for low-swirl-ratio corner flows are dramatic, with significant increase in peak vertical velocity and the height of the vortex breakdown above the surface. The effects are much weaker for medium swirl conditions, and expected to be still weaker for high swirl corner flow where the effects are essentially limited to influencing the secondary vortices. In general, compressibility effects would not change the basic dynamics of tornadic corner flows even if Mach numbers greater than one are achieved. This study also shows that during the sharp temporal overshoot in near-surface intensity that can sometimes occur during a tornado's evolution, the maximum pressure drop will tend to be restricted by supersonic velocities, and thus limit the
Shetty, Dinesh A.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are becoming a reliable tool to understand hemodynamics, disease progression in pathological blood vessels and to predict medical device performance. Immersed boundary method (IBM) emerged as an attractive methodology because of its ability to efficiently handle complex moving and rotating geometries on structured grids. However, its application to study blood flow in complex, branching, patient-specific anatomies is scarce. This is because of the dominance of grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain over the useful grid nodes in the interior, rendering an inevitable memory and computational overhead. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose a novel multiblock based IBM that preserves the simplicity and effectiveness of the IBM on structured Cartesian meshes and enables handling of complex, anatomical geometries at a reduced memory overhead by minimizing the grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain. As pathological and medical device hemodynamics often involve complex, unsteady transitional or turbulent flow fields, a scale resolving turbulence model such as large eddy simulation (LES) is used in the present work. The proposed solver (here after referred as WenoHemo), is developed by enhancing an existing in-house high order incompressible flow solver that was previously validated for its numerics and several LES models by Shetty et al. [Journal of Computational Physics 2010; 229 (23), 8802-8822]. In the present work, WenoHemo is systematically validated for additional numerics introduced, such as IBM and the multiblock approach, by simulating laminar flow over a sphere and laminar flow over a backward facing step respectively. Then, we validate the entire solver methodology by simulating laminar and transitional flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Finally, we perform blood flow simulations in the challenging clinically relevant thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), to gain insights into the type of
Large-Eddy Simulations of Wind Turbine Wakes Subject to Different Atmospheric Stabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churchfield, M.; Lundquist, J. K.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.
2014-12-01
As a byproduct of energy extraction, wind turbines create a low-speed, turbulent wake that propagate downwind. When wind turbines are situated in a group, as in a wind plant, the interactions of these wakes with other turbines are important because wake effects decrease the efficiency of the wind plant, and they increase mechanical loads on individual turbines. Wakes propagate downstream differently depending on the inflow conditions, and these conditions are heavily dominated by atmospheric stability. For example, we know that wakes are more persistent in stable conditions than in unstable conditions. Also, stable conditions often have significant wind veer which skews wakes laterally. Different levels of turbulence intensity are associated with different atmospheric stability levels, and turbulence intensity acts to diffuse wakes and to cause wake meandering. Wake physics are complex, and to understand them better, a high-resolution representation of the flow is necessary. Measurements are difficult with current sensing equipment because of the sheer size of wakes and the unsteady atmospheric environment in which they are found. Numerical simulations complement measurements and provide a high-resolution representation of the entire three-dimensional, unsteady flow field. In this work, we use large-eddy simulation (LES), the highest fidelity type of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) feasible for high-Reynolds-number wake flow. LES directly resolves the larger, energy-containing turbulent scales and models the effects of the subgrid scales that the computational mesh cannot resolve. Our solver is based on the OpenFOAM open-source CFD toolbox. Turbines are modeled using rotating actuator lines. Here, we present our LES of the wake behind a modern 1.5 MW turbine subject to different inflow atmospheric stability. We will present results of wakes subject to stable (strongly and weakly stable), neutral, and unstable conditions. We are particularly interested in how
Large Eddy Simulations of Volume Restriction Effects on Canopy-Induced Increased-Uplift Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatziefstratiou, E.; Bohrer, G.; Velissariou, V.
2012-12-01
ABSTRACT Previous modeling and empirical work have shown the development of important areas of increased uplift past forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones past backward-facing steps. Forests edges represent a special kind of step - a semi-porous one. Current models of the effects of forest edges on the flow represent the forest with a prescribed drag term and does not account for the effects of the solid volume in the forest that restrict the airflow. The RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) resolves flows inside and above forested canopies. RAFLES is spatially explicit, and uses the finite volume method to solve a descretized set of Navier-Stokes equations. It accounts for vegetation drag effects on the flow and on the flux exchange between the canopy and the canopy air, proportional to the local leaf density. For a better representation of the vegetation structure in the numerical grid within the canopy sub-domain, the model uses a modified version of the cut cell coordinate system. The hard volume of vegetation elements, in forests, or buildings, in urban environments, within each numerical grid cell is represented via a sub-grid-scale process that shrinks the open apertures between grid cells and reduces the open cell volume. We used RAFLES to simulate the effects of a canopy of varying foliage and stem densities on flow over virtual qube-shaped barriers under neutrally buoyant conditions. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the leaf drag by comparing drag-only simulations, where we prescribed no volume or aperture restriction to the flow, restriction-only simulations, where we prescribed no drag, and control simulations, where both drag and volume plus aperture restriction were included. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to obstacles to flow is important (figure 1) and leads to differences in the
Study of tip clearance flow in a turbomachinery cascade using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Donghyun
In liquid handling systems like pumps and ducted propulsors, low pressure events in the vicinity and downstream of the rotor tip gap can induce tip-leakage cavitation which leads to noise, vibration, performance loss, and erosions of blade and casing wall. In order to analyze the dynamics of the tip-clearance flow and determine the underlying mechanism for the low pressure events, a newly developed large-eddy simulation (LES) solver which combines an immersed-boundary method with a generalized curvilinear structured grid has been employed. An analysis of the LES results has been performed to understand the mean flow field, turbulence characteristics, vortex dynamics, and pressure fluctuations in the turbomachinery cascade with tip gap. In the cascade passage, the tip-leakage jet, which is generated by the pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of the blade tip, is found to produce highly enhanced vorticity magnitude and significant levels of turbulent kinetic energy. Based on the understanding of the flow field, a guideline for reducing viscous loss in the cascade is provided. Analyses of the energy spectra and space-time correlations of the velocity fluctuations suggest that the tip-leakage vortex is subject to pitchwise wandering motion. The largest pressure drop and most intense pressure fluctuations due to the formation of the tip-leakage vortex are found at the location where the strongest portion of the tip-leakage vortex is found. Present study suggests that the tip-leakage vortex needs to be controlled in its origin to reduce cavitation in the present configuration. The effects of tip-gap size on the end-wall vortical structures and on the velocity and pressure fields have been investigated. The present analysis indicates that the mechanism for the generation of the vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy is mostly unchanged by the tip-gap size variation. However, larger tip-gap sizes are found to be more inductive to tip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, D.; Chen, B.; Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C. V.
2014-12-01
As the oil plumes from deep water blowouts reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), their near-surface dispersions are highly influenced by the wind and wave-generated submesoscale Langmuir turbulence in the OML. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) to model the oil dispersion at scales < 1 km. We find that despite the complex patterns of the instantaneous surface oil slick, the time-averaged surface oil plume can be parameterized as a Gaussian-type plume. The mean surface plume grows linearly downstream, with the centerline inclined clockwise (in the Northern Hemisphere) with respect to the wind and wave direction due to the Ekman transport. The inclination angle increase as the droplet size decreases, while the plume growth rate varies non-monotonically with oil droplet size. Using LES data, we evaluate the eddy viscosity and diffusivity following the K-profile parameterization (KPP) framework. We also evaluate the stress-strain misalignments caused by Stokes drift and the enhancement of eddy viscosity and diffusivity caused by Langmuir circulations. Improvements to the KPP model will be discussed. This study is supported by a Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative research grant.
Quantifying and Reducing Uncertainty in Eddy Covariance CO2 Exchange Estimates With Large Data Gaps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodeur, J. J.; Arain, M. A.; Peichl, M.
2009-05-01
Roving eddy covariance (rEC) applications involve cycling a single, portable rEC system through numerous ecosystems of interest at frequencies of weeks to months. This approach provides capability to measure energy, water and carbon exchanges in many more ecosystems with minimum resources. This approach has been adopted at many flux stations with multiple towers or sites. However, data gaps introduce large uncertainty when sums of annual exchanges are estimated from these measurements. Quantifying reliable carbon uptake/loss estimates, and reducing uncertainty is challenging. Analyses were performed with 5 years of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements made over an age-sequence of managed eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) forests in southern Ontario, Canada. Measurements and synthetic data produced from a permanent closed-path EC system at the 70-year-old site were used to assess uncertainty on annual NEE sums caused by open-path rEC operation at three younger sites (35, 20 and 7 years old). Data was removed both randomly (to simulate short gaps due to typical EC operation), and systematically (to simulate 2-week to 2-month long gaps associated with rEC operation). Numerous gap scenarios were created, with annual data coverage ranging from 35 to 70%. Both Ameriflux Howland (HOW) and Fluxnet Canada Research Network (FCRN) gap-filling models were applied to the gapped-data to produce annual NEE estimates. Both gap-filling methods estimated a baseline uncertainty of ± 25 g C m-2 yr-1, that was associated with short gaps from regular EC operation only. However, when applied to datasets with long rEC gaps, a large discrepancy in gap-filling model performance was evident. The HOW method produced much less overall uncertainty (± 30 to 45 g C m-2 yr-1) in annual sums than the FCRN method (± 45 to > 200 g C m-2 yr-1). Uncertainty in annual sums increased with increases to overall gap frequency and length, as a result of inadequate parameterization of gap
Large eddy simulation of turbulent flow and of pollutant transport in a street canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starchenko, Alexander V.; Danilkin, Evgeniy A.
2015-11-01
The work presents a non-steady three-dimensional eddy resolving model intended for the simulation of non-isothermal turbulent separation flows in street canyons. For a subgrid-scale turbulence parameterization, the Smagorinsky gradient model is used. The calculation results demonstrate the effects of pollutant source location, street canyon size, basic stream rate and wall temperature difference on air pollution in the canyon.
Large-eddy simulations of Richtmyer Meshkov instability in a converging geometry
Lombardini, Manuel; Deiterding, Ralf
2010-01-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) refers to the baroclinic generation of vorticity at a perturbed density interface when impacted by a shock wave. It is often thought of as the impulsive limit of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. While the RMI has been widely covered in planar geometries, the present simulations investigate the mixing of materials resulting from the interaction of an imploding cylindrical shock wave with a concentric interface, perturbed in both axial and azimuthal directions, which separates outside air from SF{sub 6} (initially 5 times denser) confined in a 90{sup o} wedge. Two incident shocks of Mach numbers M{sub i} = 1.3 and 2.0 at initial impact are tested. These canonical simulations support recent work on understanding the compressible turbulent mixing in converging geometries relevant to both inertial confinement fusion and core-collapse supernova dynamics. Initial irregularities in the density interface form the misalignment between density and pressure gradients required to initiate a first RMI. A second RMI occurs after the initial shock has converged down the wedge, reflected off the axis and reshocks the distorted interface. Reshock interactions of decreasing intensity follow successively. Due to the converging geometry, the accelerated or decelerated motion of the interface also generates Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities develop along the sides of the interpenetrating fingering structures. The energetic reshock produces a large dynamical range of turbulent scales, requiring the utilization of large-eddy simulation (LES). We employed the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model of turbulent and scalar transport based on an explicit structural modeling of small-scale dynamics. The imploding nature of the flow is particularly suitable for the use of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) provided by the parallel block-structured AMR framework AMROC. The Favre-filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved on
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows in internal combustion engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaeizadeh, Araz
The two-phase compressible scalar filtered mass density function (FMDF) model is further developed and employed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system with high-order, multi-block, compact differencing schemes for the turbulent velocity and pressure. However, turbulent mixing and combustion are computed with a new two-phase compressible scalar FMDF model. The spray and droplet dispersion/evaporation are modeled with a Lagrangian method. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian-Lagrangian computational method is employed for solving the flow, spray and scalar equation. The pressure effect in the energy equation, as needed in compressible flows, is included in the FMDF formulation. The performance of the new compressible LES/FMDF model is assessed by simulating the flow field and scalar mixing in a rapid compression machine (RCM), in a shock tube and in a supersonic co-axial jet. Consistency of temperatures predicted by the Eulerian finite-difference (FD) and Lagrangian Monte Carlo (MC) parts of the LES/FMDF model are established by including the pressure on the FMDF. It is shown that the LES/FMDF model is able to correctly capture the scalar mixing in both compressible subsonic and supersonic flows. Using the new two-phase LES/FMDF model, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, spray and combustion in the RCM with flat and crevice piston are studied. It is shown that the temperature distribution in the RCM with crevice piston is more uniform than the RCM with flat piston. The fuel spray characteristics and the spray parameters affecting the fuel mixing inside the RCM in reacting and non-reacting flows are also studied. The predicted liquid penetration and flame lift-off lengths for respectively non-reacting and reacting sprays are found to compare well with the available experimental data. Temperatures and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenny, W.; Bohrer, G.; Garrity, S. R.; Wyslouzil, B.; Zhao, L.; Eichinger, W. E.
2011-12-01
We model dispersion of an arbitrary scalar over a vegetated windbreak. We compare the results of a vegetation-resolving large-eddy simulation model (RAFLES) with a state-of-the-art Gaussian plume model (AERMOD). Observations from sonic anemometers, dust-tracks and Particulate Matter-sensing Lidar during a week-long field campaign around a large-scale poultry farm are used to evaluate the simulation results. The large-eddy simulation results suggest a potential uplift of the dispersing plume due to interactions with the windbreak. However, the observations indicate that large uplift already occurs near the source due to heat flux from the facility, and that interactions between the dispersing scalar plume (in this case, small radius particulate matter) and the windbreak are rather limited. These results suggest that gaussian plume models, which cannot resolve interactions with vegetation, can be easily improved in cases where the plume is uplifted near the source. This can be achieved by prescribing a strong heat flux at the scalar emission point, or by prescribing the emission at a high effective release height. Typically, Gaussian plume models such as AERMOD are used to relate point measurements to general rates of emission and air quality around sources of air pollution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuchiara, Gustavo; Rappenglück, Bernhard
2016-04-01
The transition from the convective boundary layer during the daytime to the stable stratified boundary layer during nighttime after sunset plays an important role in the transport and dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. However, our knowledge regarding this transition and its feedback on the structure of the subsequent nocturnal boundary layer is still restricted. This also prevents forecast models from accurate prediction of the onset and development of the nighttime boundary layer, which determines the redistribution of pollutants within the nocturnal surface layer and the residual layer aloft. In the present study, the well-known case of day 33 of the Wangara experiment is resimulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in an idealized single-column mode to assess the performance of a frequently used planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme, the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme. These results are compared with two large eddy simulations (LES) for the same case study imposing different surface fluxes: one using previous surface fluxes calculated for the Wangara experiment and a second one using output from the WRF model. The results show a reasonable agreement of the PBL scheme in WRF with the LES. Overall, all the simulations presented a cold bias of ~3 Kelvin for the potential temperature and underestimation of the wind speed, especially after the transition to nighttime conditions (biases were up to 4 ms-1). Finally, an alternative set of eddy diffusivity equations was tested to represent the transition characteristics of a sunset period, with a stable layer below and a new parameterization for the convective decay regime typically observed in the RL aloft. This set of equations led to a gradual decrease of the eddy diffusivity, which replaces the instantaneous collapse of traditional diagnostics for eddy diffusivities. More appreciable changes were observed in air temperature, wind speed and specific humidity (up to 0.5 K, 0.6 ms-1, and 0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beeler, G. B.
1986-01-01
An initial measurement of turbulent wall pressure fluctuations downstream of tandem large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs) indicates a significant reduction by comparison with the reference case of a flat plate; the average magnitude of the reduction is 12.5 percent. Peak reduction is at 7-8 kHz, and is of the order of the C(f) reduction due to the tandem LEBUs. These data indicate a secondary benefit derivable from LEBUs, in addition to their skin friction reduction effect.
Large-eddy simulation of a backward facing step flow using a least-squares spectral element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Daniel C.; Mittal, Rajat
1996-01-01
We report preliminary results obtained from the large eddy simulation of a backward facing step at a Reynolds number of 5100. The numerical platform is based on a high order Legendre spectral element spatial discretization and a least squares time integration scheme. A non-reflective outflow boundary condition is in place to minimize the effect of downstream influence. Smagorinsky model with Van Driest near wall damping is used for sub-grid scale modeling. Comparisons of mean velocity profiles and wall pressure show good agreement with benchmark data. More studies are needed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method on numerical parameters before it is applied to complex engineering problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, S.; Archer, C. L.
2013-12-01
In this study, a new large-eddy simulation code, the Wind Turbine and Turbulence Simulator (WiTTS), is developed to study the wake generated from a single wind turbine in the neutral ABL. The WiTTS formulation is based on a scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamical model of the sub-grid shear stress and uses actuator lines to simulate the effects of the rotating blades. WiTTS is first tested against wind tunnel experiments and then used to study the commonly-used assumptions of self-similarity and axis-symmetry of the wake under neutral conditions for a variety of wind speeds and turbine properties. The mean velocity deficit shows good self-similarity properties following a normal distribution in the horizontal plane at the hub-height level. Self-similarity is a less valid approximation in the vertical near the ground, due to strong wind shear and ground effects. The mean velocity deficit is strongly dependent on the thrust coefficient or induction factor. A new relationship is proposed to model the mean velocity deficit along the centerline at the hub-height level to fit the LES results piecewise throughout the wake. A logarithmic function is used in the near and intermediate wake regions whereas a power function is used in the far-wake. These two functions provide a better fit to both simulated and observed wind velocity deficits than other functions previously used in wake models such as WAsP. The wind shear and impact with the ground cause an anisotropy in the expansion of the wake such that the wake grows faster horizontally than vertically. The wake deforms upon impact with the ground and spreads laterally. WiTTS is also used to study the turbulence characteristics in the wake. Aligning with the mean wind direction, the streamwise component of turbulence intensity is the dominant among the three components and thus it is further studied. The highest turbulence intensity occurs near the top-tip level. The added turbulence intensity increases fast in the near
Large-eddy simulation, fuel rod vibration and grid-to-rod fretting in pressurized water reactors
Christon, Mark A.; Lu, Roger; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Karoutas, Zeses; Berndt, Markus
2016-06-29
Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration phenomenon that results in wear and fretting of the cladding material on fuel rods. GTRF is responsible for over 70% of the fuel failures in pressurized water reactors in the United States. Predicting the GTRF wear and concomitant interval between failures is important because of the large costs associated with reactor shutdown and replacement of fuel rod assemblies. The GTRF-induced wear process involves turbulent flow, mechanical vibration, tribology, and time-varying irradiated material properties in complex fuel assembly geometries. This paper presents a new approach for predicting GTRF induced fuelmore » rod wear that uses high-resolution implicit large-eddy simulation to drive nonlinear transient dynamics computations. The GTRF fluid–structure problem is separated into the simulation of the turbulent flow field in the complex-geometry fuel-rod bundles using implicit large-eddy simulation, the calculation of statistics of the resulting fluctuating structural forces, and the nonlinear transient dynamics analysis of the fuel rod. Ultimately, the methods developed here, can be used, in conjunction with operational management, to improve reactor core designs in which fuel rod failures are minimized or potentially eliminated. Furthermore, robustness of the behavior of both the structural forces computed from the turbulent flow simulations and the results from the transient dynamics analyses highlight the progress made towards achieving a predictive simulation capability for the GTRF problem.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
2003-01-01
This report summarizes the progress made in the first 8 to 9 months of this research. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE) methodology for Large-eddy Simulations (LES) of microblowing has been validated using a jet-in-crossflow test configuration. In this study, the flow intake is also simulated to allow the interaction to occur naturally. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation Large-eddy Simulations (LBELES) approach is capable of capturing not only the flow features associated with the flow, such as hairpin vortices and recirculation behind the jet, but also is able to show better agreement with experiments when compared to previous RANS predictions. The LBELES is shown to be computationally very efficient and therefore, a viable method for simulating the injection process. Two strategies have been developed to simulate multi-hole injection process as in the experiment. In order to allow natural interaction between the injected fluid and the primary stream, the flow intakes for all the holes have to be simulated. The LBE method is computationally efficient but is still 3D in nature and therefore, there may be some computational penalty. In order to study a large number or holes, a new 1D subgrid model has been developed that will simulate a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equation in these holes.
Pal, Abhro; Anupindi, Kameswararao; Delorme, Yann; Ghaisas, Niranjan; Shetty, Dinesh A; Frankel, Steven H
2014-07-01
In the present study, we performed large eddy simulation (LES) of axisymmetric, and 75% stenosed, eccentric arterial models with steady inflow conditions at a Reynolds number of 1000. The results obtained are compared with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data (Varghese et al., 2007, "Direct Numerical Simulation of Stenotic Flows. Part 1. Steady Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 582, pp. 253-280). An inhouse code (WenoHemo) employing high-order numerical methods for spatial and temporal terms, along with a 2nd order accurate ghost point immersed boundary method (IBM) (Mark, and Vanwachem, 2008, "Derivation and Validation of a Novel Implicit Second-Order Accurate Immersed Boundary Method," J. Comput. Phys., 227(13), pp. 6660-6680) for enforcing boundary conditions on curved geometries is used for simulations. Three subgrid scale (SGS) models, namely, the classical Smagorinsky model (Smagorinsky, 1963, "General Circulation Experiments With the Primitive Equations," Mon. Weather Rev., 91(10), pp. 99-164), recently developed Vreman model (Vreman, 2004, "An Eddy-Viscosity Subgrid-Scale Model for Turbulent Shear Flow: Algebraic Theory and Applications," Phys. Fluids, 16(10), pp. 3670-3681), and the Sigma model (Nicoud et al., 2011, "Using Singular Values to Build a Subgrid-Scale Model for Large Eddy Simulations," Phys. Fluids, 23(8), 085106) are evaluated in the present study. Evaluation of SGS models suggests that the classical constant coefficient Smagorinsky model gives best agreement with the DNS data, whereas the Vreman and Sigma models predict an early transition to turbulence in the poststenotic region. Supplementary simulations are performed using Open source field operation and manipulation (OpenFOAM) ("OpenFOAM," http://www.openfoam.org/) solver and the results are inline with those obtained with WenoHemo. PMID:24801556
A priori tests of a new dynamic subgrid-scale model for finite-difference large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvetti, M. V.; Banerjee, S.
1995-11-01
This work focuses on subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling for finite-difference large-eddy simulations, employing filters in physical space. When a filter in physical space is used, an overlap is allowed between the unresolved and the resolved scales. For such a filter, all the three terms in the classical decomposition of the SGS stress tensor are present: the Leonard and cross-terms, due to the overlap between scales, and the true SGS Reynolds tensor, expressing the pure effect of the small scales. A dynamic subgrid-scale stress model is proposed, for finite-difference large-eddy simulation of incompressible and compressible flows in which the Leonard and cross-parts of the SGS stress tensor are assumed to be proportional to the resolved part (the ``modified Leonard term''), which is computed explicity. The SGS Reynolds stress is modeled by the eddy-viscosity Smagorinsky model. The two unknown parameters in this model are computed dynamically, as in Germano et al. [Phys. Fluids A 3, 1790 (1991)], but using a least squares technique. The model is tested using direct numerical simulation data for fully developed turbulent incompressible flows in presence of solid boundaries and free surfaces, and for compressible homogeneous turbulence. A ``box filter'' in physical space is used. Other SGS models are also tested, viz. the dynamic model of Germano et al. (DSM), and its compressible extension by Moin et al. [Phys. Fluids A 3, 2746 (1991)], and the dynamic mixed model in Zang et al. [Phys. Fluids A 5, 3186 (1993)] (DMM) and its compressible version developed here. Results on the behavior of the different models with regard to energy exchanges and correlation with the exact SGS stresses are presented for different filter widths. In particular high correlation is found between the modified Leonard and cross-terms thus justifying the basic assumption made in the model.
A wall-layer model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows with/out pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duprat, C.; Balarac, G.; Métais, O.; Congedo, P. M.; Brugière, O.
2011-01-01
In this work, modeling of the near-wall region in turbulent flows is addressed. A new wall-layer model is proposed with the goal to perform high-Reynolds number large-eddy simulations of wall bounded flows in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The model applies both in the viscous sublayer and in the inertial region, without any parameter to switch from one region to the other. An analytical expression for the velocity field as a function of the distance from the wall is derived from the simplified thin-boundary equations and by using a turbulent eddy coefficient with a damping function. This damping function relies on a modified van Driest formula to define the mixing-length taking into account the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The model is first validated by a priori comparisons with direct numerical simulation data of various flows with and without streamwise pressure gradient and with eventual flow separation. Large-eddy simulations are then performed using the present wall model as wall boundary condition. A plane channel flow and the flow over a periodic arrangement of hills are successively considered. The present model predictions are compared with those obtained using the wall models previously proposed by Spalding, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech 28, 243 (2008) and Manhart et al., Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 22, 243 (2008). It is shown that the new wall model allows for a good prediction of the mean velocity profile both with and without streamwise pressure gradient. It is shown than, conversely to the previous models, the present model is able to predict flow separation even when a very coarse grid is used.
An improved dynamic non-equilibrium wall-model for large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2013-11-01
A non-equilibrium wall-model based on unsteady 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been implemented in an unstructured mesh environment. The method is similar to that of the wall-model described by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluids 14, 2043-2051, (2002)], but is supplemented by a new dynamic eddy viscosity/conductivity model that corrects the effect of the resolved Reynolds stress (resolved turbulent heat flux) on the skin friction (wall heat flux). This correction is crucial for accurate prediction of the skin friction and wall heat flux. Unlike earlier models, this eddy viscosity/conductivity model does not have a stress-matching procedure or a tunable free parameter, and it shows consistent performance over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The wall-model is validated against canonical (attached) transitional and fully turbulent flows at moderate to very high Reynolds number: a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 2000, an H-type transitional boundary layer up to Reθ = 3300, and a high Reynolds number boundary layer at Reθ = 31000. An application to the flow over NACA4412 airfoil is ongoing and hopefully will be presented. This work was supported by the Winston and Fu-Mei Stanford Graduate Fellowship, NASA Aeronautics Scholarship Program, and NASA under the Subsonic Fixed-Wing Program and the Boeing Company.
An improved dynamic non-equilibrium wall-model for large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2014-01-01
A non-equilibrium wall-model based on unsteady 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been implemented in an unstructured mesh environment. The method is similar to that of the wall-model for structured mesh described by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluids 14, 2043-2051 (2002)], but is supplemented by a new dynamic eddy viscosity/conductivity model that corrects the effect of the resolved Reynolds stress (resolved turbulent heat flux) on the skin friction (wall heat flux). This correction is crucial in predicting the correct level of the skin friction. Unlike earlier models, this eddy viscosity/conductivity model does not have a stress-matching procedure or a tunable free parameter, and it shows consistent performance over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The wall-model is validated against canonical (attached) transitional and fully turbulent flows at moderate to very high Reynolds numbers: a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 2000, an H-type transitional boundary layer up to Reθ = 3300, and a high Reynolds number boundary layer at Reθ = 31 000. Application to a separated flow over a NACA4412 airfoil operating close to maximum lift is also considered to test the performance of the wall-model in complex non-equilibrium flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan
2016-05-01
A major challenge in turbulence-resolving flow simulations is the generation of unsteady and coherent turbulent inflow conditions. Precursor methods have proven to be reliable inflow generators but are limited in applicability and flexibility especially when attempting to couple boundary-layer dynamics with large-scale temporal variations in the direction of the inflow. Here, we propose a methodology that is capable of providing fully developed turbulent inflow for time-varying mean-flow directions. The method is a generalization of a concurrent precursor inflow technique, in which a fully developed boundary-layer simulation that uses periodic boundary conditions is dynamically rotated with the large-scale wind direction that drives the simulation in the domain of interest. The proposed inflow method is applied to large-eddy simulations of boundary-layer flow through the Horns Rev wind farm when subjected to a sinusoidal variation in wind direction at the hourly time scale.
Barsamian, H.R.; Hassan, Y.A.
1996-12-01
Turbulence is one of the most commonly occurring phenomena of engineering interest in the field of fluid mechanics. Since most flows are turbulent, there is a significant payoff for improved predictive models of turbulence. One area of concern is the turbulent buffeting forces experienced by the tubes in steam generators of nuclear power plants. Although the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe turbulent flow fields, the large number of scales of turbulence limit practical flow field calculations with current computing power. The dynamic subgrid scale closure model of Germano et. al (1991) is used in the large eddy simulation code GUST for incompressible isothermal flows. Tube bundle geometries of staggered and non-staggered arrays are considered in deep bundle simulations. The advantage of the dynamic subgrid scale model is the exclusion of an input model coefficient. The model coefficient is evaluated dynamically for each nodal location in the flow domain. Dynamic subgrid scale results are obtained in the form of power spectral densities and flow visualization of turbulent characteristics. Comparisons are performed among the dynamic subgrid scale model, the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity model (Smagorinsky, 1963) (that is used as the base model for the dynamic subgrid scale model) and available experimental data. Spectral results of the dynamic subgrid scale model correlate better with experimental data. Satisfactory turbulence characteristics are observed through flow visualization.
A Large-eddy Simulation Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2016-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer some advantages over their horizontal axis counterparts, and are being considered as a viable alternative to conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Nevertheless, a relative shortage of scientific, academic and technical investigations of VAWTs is observed in the wind energy community with respect to HAWTs. Having this in mind, in this work, we aim to study the wake of a single VAWT, placed in the atmospheric boundary layer, using large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled with actuator line model (ALM). It is noteworthy that this is the first time that such a study is being performed. To do this, for a typical 1 MW VAWT design, first, the variation of power coefficient with both the chord length of the blades and the tip-speed ratio is analyzed using LES-ALM, and an optimum combination of chord length and tip-speed ratio is obtained. Subsequently, the wake of a VAWT with these optimum specifications is thoroughly examined by showing different relevant mean and turbulent wake flow statistics. Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT); VAWT wake; Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL); large eddy simulation (LES); actuator line model (ALM); turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. J.
2009-11-01
Implicit large eddy simulations of flow over a corrugated dragonfly wing at a Reynolds number of 34,000 at high angles of attack have been investigated with a high-order unstructured spectral difference Navier-Stokes solver. The computational results are compared with a recent experimental study by Hu et al. Both 2D and 3D simulations are carried out to assess how realistic and reliable the 2D simulations are in comparison with 3D simulations. At the angle of attack of 16 degrees, the 2D simulation failed to predict the stall observed in the experiment, while the 3D simulation correctly predicted the stall. In addition, the 3D simulation predicted a mean lift coefficient within 5% of the experimental data. We plan to compute at least another angle of attack and compare with the experimental data. The numerical simulations demonstrated the potential of the high-order SD method in large eddy simulation of physically complex problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matheou, G.; Kahn, B. H.; Teixeira, J.
2014-12-01
The representation of marine shallow clouds in global models is recognized as a significant source of uncertainty in climate projections according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The synergy between space-borne observations and high-resolution simulation is investigated through a series of large-eddy simulations (LES) that are based on A-Train observations of marine cloudy boundary layers. The main aims of the study are to advance the understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer physics and increase the utility of both observations and modeling. Using a combination of multi-sensor A-train data and model reanalysis, high resolution, cloud regime-type large-eddy simulations of selected scenes are carried out. For instance, temperature, humidity profiles and sea surface temperature from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and geostrophic wind from reanalysis are used in the LES. Although the AIRS soundings lack fine structure in the boundary layer and often exhibit small deviations from the actual atmospheric state, the simulations show that a more precise profile can be obtained. The quantitative characteristics of the cloud structure are used to compare the LES results with reflectances from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Implications related to the dynamics of the boundary layer and its modeling in global models are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, Nabil M.
1993-01-01
The laminar-turbulent breakdown of a boundary-layer flow along a hollow cylinder at Mach 4.5 is investigated with large-eddy simulation. The subgrid scales are modeled dynamically, where the model coefficients are determined from the local resolved field. The behavior of the dynamic-model coefficients is investigated through both an a priori test with direct numerical simulation data for the same case and a complete large-eddy simulation. Both formulations proposed by Germano et al. and Lilly are used for the determination of unique coefficients for the dynamic model and their results are compared and assessed. The behavior and the energy cascade of the subgrid-scale field structure are investigated at various stages of the transition process. The investigations are able to duplicate a high-speed transition phenomenon observed in experiments and explained only recently by the direct numerical simulations of Pruett and Zang, which is the appearance of 'rope-like' waves. The nonlinear evolution and breakdown of the laminar boundary layer and the structure of the flow field during the transition process were also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows and scalar transport inside and above urban canopies. In this study, LES is used to simulate the dispersion of passive scalar over idealized urban surfaces represented by uniform arrays of cubes. A modulated gradient subgird-scale (SGS) model is used to parametrize the SGS fluxes of momentum and scalar, and an immersed boundary method is used to model the presence of cubes. A similar LES framework for flow was validated in our previous studies in simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow past a 2D block and a uniform array of cubes. Here, the LES framework is further validated with wind tunnel experimental data of passive scalar dispersion within and above a staggered array of cubes with a localized scalar source at ground level. Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data are found in the vertical and horizontal profiles of scalar concentration in different streamwise locations. After the validation, the LES framework is used to simulate the scalar transport at rural-to-urban flow transition region and the results obtained are presented.
F-16XL Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa
2015-01-01
This study continues the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Program, International (CAWAPI) investigation with the FUN3D and USM3D flow solvers. CAWAPI was established to study the F-16XL, because it provides a unique opportunity to fuse fight test, wind tunnel test, and simulation to understand the aerodynamic features of swept wings. The high-lift performance of the cranked-arrow wing planform is critical for recent and past supersonic transport design concepts. Simulations of the low speed high angle of attack Flight Condition 25 are compared: Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), Modi ed Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (MDDES), and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) RANS model. Iso- surfaces of Q criterion show the development of coherent primary and secondary vortices on the upper surface of the wing that spiral, burst, and commingle. SA produces higher pressure peaks nearer to the leading-edge of the wing than flight test measurements. Mean DES and MDDES pressures better predict the flight test measurements, especially on the outer wing section. Vorticies and vortex-vortex interaction impact unsteady surface pressures. USM3D showed many sharp tones in volume points spectra near the wing apex with low broadband noise and FUN3D showed more broadband noise with weaker tones. Spectra of the volume points near the outer wing leading-edge was primarily broadband for both codes. Without unsteady flight measurements, the flight pressure environment can not be used to validate the simulations containing tonal or broadband spectra. Mean forces and moment are very similar between FUN3D models and between USM3D models. Spectra of the unsteady forces and moment are broadband with a few sharp peaks for USM3D.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.
2002-01-01
The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with: (1) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models; and (2) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type, and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models. The principal achievements of the project were as follows: (1) Development of a novel boundary layer parameterization for large-scale models that better represents the physical processes in marine boundary layer clouds; and (2) Comparison of column output from the ECMWF global forecast model with observations from the SHEBA experiment. Overall the forecast model did predict most of the major precipitation events and synoptic variability observed over the year of observation of the SHEBA ice camp.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizk, Magdi H.; Menon, Suresh
Numerical simulations of a row of impinging jets are performed. Both the impinging jets and the fountains caused by the collision of the wall jets are modeled in the simulations. The problem considered contains the essential features of twin jets impinging on the ground, simulating the hovering configuration of a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. The flow is assumed to be governed by the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The large-eddy simulation approach is followed. The present study focuses on the motion and dynamics of large-scale structures that have been experimentally observed in jet flows. The behavior of the jets and the fountain due to the introduction of axisymmetric disturbances at the jet exits is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2011-11-01
With the recent development of parallel adaptive wavelet collocation method, adaptive numerical simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows have become feasible. The integration of turbulence modeling of different fidelity with adaptive wavelet methods results in a hierarchical approach for modeling and simulating turbulent flows in which all or most energetic parts of coherent eddies are dynamically resolved on self-adaptive computational grids, while modeling the effect of the unresolved incoherent or less energetic modes. This talk is the first attempt to estimate how spatial modes of both Coherent Vortex Simulations (CVS) and Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulations (SCALES) scale with Reynolds number. The computational complexity studies for both CVS and SCALES of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence are performed at effective non-adaptive resolutions of 2563, 5123, 10243, and 20483 corresponding to approximate Reλ of 70, 120, 190, 320. The details of the simulations are discussed and the results of compression achieved by CVS and SCALES as well as scalability studies of the parallel algorithm for the aforementioned Taylor micro-scale Reynolds numbers are presented. This work was supported by NSF under grant No. CBET-0756046.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyot, Adrien; Gray, Michael; Riesenkamp, Michiel; Lockington, David; McGowan, Hamish
2016-04-01
Subtropical coastal wetlands are particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate variability: their recharge rates strongly depend on rainfall, and the occurrence of prolonged droughts or wet periods have direct consequences for wetland health and bio-diversity. There is therefore a need to close the water budget of these ecosystems and this requires the quantification of rates of evaporation/evapotranspiration. However, few studies have documented land-atmosphere exchanges over wetlands for which water level varies considerably during a typical annual cycle. Here, we present a year of turbulent flux observations over a wetland on the subtropical coast of eastern Australia. Large Aperture Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance are used to derive sensible heat fluxes. Latent heat fluxes are also derived through an energy balance for both instruments' observations and also directly through Eddy Covariance. Careful sensitivity analysis of the instrumental footprints, seasonal variations of land surface parameters such as roughness length and displacement height are examined and subsequent uncertainties in the derived turbulent fluxes are discussed. Finally we show how these observations can also help better understand hydrological processes at the catchment scale.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent dispersion from a localized source in a build-up environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bing-Chen; Saeedi, Mohammad
2013-11-01
Turbulent dispersion from a continuous ground-level point-source within an array of 16x16 cubes has been simulated using wall-modelling large-eddy simulations. The major challenges associated with this problem involve obtaining a deeper understanding of the interaction of the dynamically evolving flow structures with the complex boundary conditions, coupling of the momentum and scalar transport processes, and a high Reynolds number tested for an modeled urban atmospheric boundary layer (Re = 12,005 based on the free stream velocity and obstacle height). A fully-parallelized in-house computer code was used for performing the simulation. An advanced dynamic nonlinear model (DNM) and dynamic full linear eddy diffusivity model (DFLTDM) have been used for closure of the filtered momentum and scalar transport equations, respectively. A non-equilibrium thin boundary-layer wall model is applied to all solid surfaces. Inlet boundary conditions based on solid grids have also been investigated in order to generate high turbulence levels typical for an approaching urban atmospheric boundary-layer flow. The predicted results for the flow and concentration field have been thoroughly validated against a set of high-quality water-channel measurement data.
Liou, T.M.; Lien, W.Y.; Hwang, P.W. . Dept of Power Mechanical Engineering)
1994-12-01
Large-eddy simulations were performed to study the turbulent reacting flows in a simulated solid-fuel combustion chamber. The time-dependent axisymmetric compressible conservation equations were solved directly without using subgrid-scale turbulence models. The combustion process considered was a one-step, irreversible, and infinitely fast chemical reaction and the pyrolizing solid fuel was simulated by gaseous ethylene injected through a porous wall for a practical range of fuel blowing velocity encountered in solid-fuel combustion chambers for the first time. The numerical code used the finite-volume technique which involved alternating in time the second-order, explicit MacCormack's and Godunov's methods. Characteristic-based boundary conditions were applied on inflow and outflow boundaries, which allow outlet boundary conditions to be nonzero gradients, and in turn, a practical length of computational domain to be realized. The effects of combustion on the large-scale unsteady flow structure and the mean flameholder recirculation zone were documented in terms of the density contours, vorticity dynamics, streamlines, mean-velocity vector fields, temperature profiles, flame position, and fuel blowing velocity. A comparison of the distributions of instantaneous and mean mass fractions of reactants shows that the present method appropriately reveals the effects of large-scale turbulent motions on combustion. Furthermore, the present large-eddy simulations have achieved a significant improvement in predicting the mean effective reattachment length over the previous calculations incorporating with turbulence models. The physical insight regarding the decrease of the mean effective reattachment length with combustion was also addressed.
On the Computation of Space-Time Correlations by Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
He, Guo-Wei; Wang, Meng; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2003-01-01
Numerical comparisons in decaying isotropic turbulence suggest that there exist discrepancies in time correlations evaluated by DNS and LES using eddy-viscosity-type SGS models. This is consistent with the previous observations in forced isotropic turbulence. Therefore, forcing is not the main cause of the discrepancies. Comparisons among different SGS models in the LES also indicate that the model choice affects the time correlations in the LES. The multi-scale LES method using the dynamic Smagorinsky model on the small scale equation is the most accurate of the all models, the classic Smagorinsky model is the least accurate and the dynamic Smagorinsky model and spectral eddy viscosity model give intermediate results with small differences. The generalized sweeping hypothesis implies that time correlations in decaying isotropic turbulence are mainly determined by the instantaneous energy spectra and sweeping velocities. The analysis based on the sweeping hypothesis explains the discrepancies in our numerical simulations: the LES overpredicts the decorrelation time scales because the sweeping velocities are smaller than the DNS values, and underpredicts the magnitudes of time correlations because the energy spectrum levels are lower than the DNS ones. Since the sweeping velocity is determined by the energy spectra, one concludes that an accurate prediction of the instantaneous energy spectra guarantees the accuracy of time correlations. An analytical expression of sound power spectra based on Lighthill's theory and the quasi-normal closure assumption suggests that the sound power spectra are sensitive to errors in time correlations. Small errors in time correlations can cause significant errors in the sound power spectra, which exhibit a sizable drop at moderate to high frequencies accompanied by a shift of the peaks to lower frequencies. Based on the above analysis, two possible ways to improve the acoustic power spectrum predictions can be considered. The first
A dynamic regularized gradient model of the subgrid-scale stress tensor for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollant, A.; Balarac, G.; Corre, C.
2016-02-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) solves only the large scales part of turbulent flows by using a scales separation based on a filtering operation. The solution of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations requires then to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress tensor to take into account the effect of scales smaller than the filter size. In this work, a new model is proposed for the SGS stress model. The model formulation is based on a regularization procedure of the gradient model to correct its unstable behavior. The model is developed based on a priori tests to improve the accuracy of the modeling for both structural and functional performances, i.e., the model ability to locally approximate the SGS unknown term and to reproduce enough global SGS dissipation, respectively. LES is then performed for a posteriori validation. This work is an extension to the SGS stress tensor of the regularization procedure proposed by Balarac et al. ["A dynamic regularized gradient model of the subgrid-scale scalar flux for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 25(7), 075107 (2013)] to model the SGS scalar flux. A set of dynamic regularized gradient (DRG) models is thus made available for both the momentum and the scalar equations. The second objective of this work is to compare this new set of DRG models with direct numerical simulations (DNS), filtered DNS in the case of classic flows simulated with a pseudo-spectral solver and with the standard set of models based on the dynamic Smagorinsky model. Various flow configurations are considered: decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, turbulent plane jet, and turbulent channel flows. These tests demonstrate the stable behavior provided by the regularization procedure, along with substantial improvement for velocity and scalar statistics predictions.
Large Eddy Simulation for round jet in cross-flow using Local Mesh Refinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cevheri, Mehtap; Stoesser, Thorsten
2013-11-01
The aim of this research is the simulation of near field multi-phase plumes in cross-flows to understand the physical processes of oil spill in Gulf of Mexico. Since this is a multi-phase and multi-scale problem, a local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been coupled to the multi-grid method to solve the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes problem on a Cartesian grid with staggered variable arrangement. Wall-Adapting Local Eddy Viscosity (WALE) subgrid model has been used to simulate the turbulent flow. In this current study, the verification of the developed code will be presented before the simulation of multi-phase plumes. The accuracy of local mesh refinement and the subgrid model are presented with two test cases: moderate Reynolds number turbulent channel flow and a round turbulent jet into a laminar cross-flow. For the first test case, turbulence statistics for the fully developed turbulent flow are compared with the DNS data. For the second test case, a simulation with a 3.3 velocity ratio and 6930 jet Reynolds number is tested and compared with the experimental and other computational data.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.
1995-02-15
The equations of motion describing turbulent flows (in both the low and high Reynolds-number regimes) are well established. However, present day computers cannot meet the enormous computational requirement for numerically solving the governing equations for common engineering flows in the high Reynolds number turbulent regime. The characteristics that make turbulent, high Reynolds number flows difficult to simulate is the extreme range of time and space scales of motion. Most current engineering calculations are performed using semi-empirical equations, developed in terms of the flow mean (average) properties. These turbulence{open_quote} models{close_quote} (semi-empirical/analytical approximations) do not explicitly account for the eddy structures and thus, the temporal and spatial flow fluctuations are not resolved. In these averaging approaches, it is necessary to approximate all the turbulent structures using semi-empirical relations, and as a result, the turbulence models must be tailored for specific flow conditions and geometries with parameters obtained (usually) from physical experiments. The motivation for this research is the development of a finite element turbulence modeling approach which will ultimately be used to predict the wind flow around buildings. Accurate turbulence models of building flow are needed to predict the dispersion of airborne pollutants. The building flow turbulence models used today are not capable of predicting the three-dimensional separating and reattaching flows without the manipulation of many empirical parameters. These empirical parameters must be set by experimental data and they may vary unpredictably with building geometry, building orientation, and upstream flow conditions.
Large-eddy simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on a massively parallel computer
Amala, P.A.K.
1995-03-01
A computational model for the solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is developed. This model includes a turbulence model: a modified Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity with a stochastic backscatter extension. The resultant equations are solved using finite difference techniques: the second-order explicit Lax-Wendroff schemes. This computational model is implemented on a massively parallel computer. Programming models on massively parallel computers are next studied. It is desired to determine the best programming model for the developed computational model. To this end, three different codes are tested on a current massively parallel computer: the CM-5 at Los Alamos. Each code uses a different programming model: one is a data parallel code; the other two are message passing codes. Timing studies are done to determine which method is the fastest. The data parallel approach turns out to be the fastest method on the CM-5 by at least an order of magnitude. The resultant code is then used to study a current problem of interest to the computational fluid dynamics community. This is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Lax-Wendroff methods handle shocks and sharp interfaces poorly. To this end, the Rayleigh-Taylor linear analysis is modified to include a smoothed interface. The linear growth rate problem is then investigated. Finally, the problem of the randomly perturbed interface is examined. Stochastic backscatter breaks the symmetry of the stationary unstable interface and generates a mixing layer growing at the experimentally observed rate. 115 refs., 51 figs., 19 tabs.
Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-06-18
In this work we report on results from a detailed comparative numerical study from two Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes using the Actuator Line Model (ALM). The study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes and their breakdown when subject to uniform inflow. Previous studies have shown relative insensitivity to subgrid modeling in the context of a finite-volume code. The present study uses the low dissipation pseudo-spectral LES code from Johns Hopkins University (LESGO) and the second-order, finite-volume OpenFOAMcode (SOWFA) from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. When subject to uniform inflow, the loads on the blades are found to be unaffected by subgrid models or numerics, as expected. The turbulence in the wake and the location of transition to a turbulent state are affected by the subgrid-scale model and the numerics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantano, Carlos
2005-11-01
We describe a hybrid finite difference method for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible flows with a low-numerical dissipation scheme and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Numerical experiments and validation calculations are presented including a turbulent jet and the strongly shock-driven mixing of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The approach is a conservative flux-based SAMR formulation and as such, it utilizes refinement to computational advantage. The numerical method for the resolved scale terms encompasses the cases of scheme alternation and internal mesh interfaces resulting from SAMR. An explicit centered scheme that is consistent with a skew-symmetric finite difference formulation is used in turbulent flow regions while a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is employed to capture shocks. The subgrid stresses and transports are calculated by means of the streched-vortex model, Misra & Pullin (1997)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantano, C.; Deiterding, R.; Hill, D. J.; Pullin, D. I.
2007-01-01
We present a methodology for the large-eddy simulation of compressible flows with a low-numerical dissipation scheme and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). A description of a conservative, flux-based hybrid numerical method that uses both centered finite-difference and a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is given, encompassing the cases of scheme alternation and internal mesh interfaces resulting from SAMR. In this method, the centered scheme is used in turbulent flow regions while WENO is employed to capture shocks. One-, two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments and example simulations are presented including homogeneous shock-free turbulence, a turbulent jet and the strongly shock-driven mixing of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.
Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-06-18
In this work we report on results from a detailed comparative numerical study from two Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes using the Actuator Line Model (ALM). The study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes and their breakdown when subject to uniform inflow. Previous studies have shown relative insensitivity to subgrid modeling in the context of a finite-volume code. The present study uses the low dissipation pseudo-spectral LES code from Johns Hopkins University (LESGO) and the second-order, finite-volume OpenFOAMcode (SOWFA) from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. When subject to uniform inflow, the loads on the blades are found to bemore » unaffected by subgrid models or numerics, as expected. The turbulence in the wake and the location of transition to a turbulent state are affected by the subgrid-scale model and the numerics.« less