Large eddy simultations of the atmospheric boundary layer east of the Colorado Rockies
Costigan, K.R.; Cotton, W.R.
1992-10-22
Large eddy simulation, LES, has often been carried out for the idealized situation of a simple convective boundary layer. Studies of dual Doppler radar and aircraft data from the Phoenix II experiment indicate that the boundary layer of the Colorado High Plains is not a purely convective boundary layer and it is influenced by the mountains to the west. The purpose of this study is to investigate the atmospheric boundary layer on one particular day on the Colorado High Plains. This research applies a LES nested within larger grids, which contain realistic topography and can simulate the larger-scale circulations initiated by the presence of the mountain barrier. How and to what extent the atmospheric boundary layer of the Colorado High Plains is influenced by larger scale circulations and other phenomena associated with the mountain barrier to the west is investigated. The nested grid LES reproduces the characteristics of the atmosphere for the case study day reasonably well. The mountains influence the atmospheric boundary layer over the plains to the east in several ways. The mountains contribute to the vertical shear of the horizontal winds through the thermally-induced mountain-plains circulation. As a consequence of the wind shear, the boundary layer that develops over the mountains is advected eastward over the top of the plains boundary layer, which is developing separately. This layer is marked by a mixture of gravity waves and turbulence and is atypical of a purely convective boundary layer. Just below this layer, the capping inversion of the plains boundary layer is weak and poorly defined compared to the inversions capping purely convective boundary layers. Gravity waves, triggered by the obstacle of the Rocky Mountains and by convection in the mountain boundary layer, also influence the atmosphere above the Colorado High Plains. These influences are found to have significant effects on the turbulence statistics and the energy spectra.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Turbulent Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, A. T.; Mansour, Nagi N.
2001-01-01
Here we present the results of a Large Eddy Simulation of a non-buoyant jet issuing from a circular orifice in a wall, and developing in neutral surroundings. The effects of the subgrid scales on the large eddies have been modeled with the dynamic large eddy simulation model applied to the fully 3D domain in spherical coordinates. The simulation captures the unsteady motions of the large-scales within the jet as well as the laminar motions in the entrainment region surrounding the jet. The computed time-averaged statistics (mean velocity, concentration, and turbulence parameters) compare well with laboratory data without invoking an empirical entrainment coefficient as employed by line integral models. The use of the large eddy simulation technique allows examination of unsteady and inhomogeneous features such as the evolution of eddies and the details of the entrainment process.
Temporal Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. D.; Thomas, B. C.
2004-01-01
In 1999, Stolz and Adams unveiled a subgrid-scale model for LES based upon approximately inverting (defiltering) the spatial grid-filter operator and termed .the approximate deconvolution model (ADM). Subsequently, the utility and accuracy of the ADM were demonstrated in a posteriori analyses of flows as diverse as incompressible plane-channel flow and supersonic compression-ramp flow. In a prelude to the current paper, a parameterized temporal ADM (TADM) was developed and demonstrated in both a priori and a posteriori analyses for forced, viscous Burger's flow. The development of a time-filtered variant of the ADM was motivated-primarily by the desire for a unifying theoretical and computational context to encompass direct numerical simulation (DNS), large-eddy simulation (LES), and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS). The resultant methodology was termed temporal LES (TLES). To permit exploration of the parameter space, however, previous analyses of the TADM were restricted to Burger's flow, and it has remained to demonstrate the TADM and TLES methodology for three-dimensional flow. For several reasons, plane-channel flow presents an ideal test case for the TADM. Among these reasons, channel flow is anisotropic, yet it lends itself to highly efficient and accurate spectral numerical methods. Moreover, channel-flow has been investigated extensively by DNS, and a highly accurate data base of Moser et.al. exists. In the present paper, we develop a fully anisotropic TADM model and demonstrate its utility in simulating incompressible plane-channel flow at nominal values of Re(sub tau) = 180 and Re(sub tau) = 590 by the TLES method. The TADM model is shown to perform nearly as well as the ADM at equivalent resolution, thereby establishing TLES as a viable alternative to LES. Moreover, as the current model is suboptimal is some respects, there is considerable room to improve TLES.
Large eddy simulations of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porter-Locklear, Freda
1995-01-01
An evaluation of existing models for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of incompressible turbulent flows has been completed. LES is a computation in which the large, energy-carrying structures to momentum and energy transfer is computed exactly, and only the effect of the smallest scales of turbulence is modeled. That is, the large eddies are computed and the smaller eddies are modeled. The dynamics of the largest eddies are believed to account for most of sound generation and transport properties in a turbulent flow. LES analysis is based on an observation that pressure, velocity, temperature, and other variables are the sum of their large-scale and small-scale parts. For instance, u(i) (velocity) can be written as the sum of bar-u(i) and u(i)-prime, where bar-u(i) is the large-scale and u(i)-prime is the subgrid-scale (SGS). The governing equations for large eddies in compressible flows are obtained after filtering the continuity, momentum, and energy equations, and recasting in terms of Favre averages. The filtering operation maintains only large scales. The effects of the small-scales are present in the governing equations through the SGS stress tensor tau(ij) and SGS heat flux q(i). The mathematical formulation of the Favre-averaged equations of motion for LES is complete.
Large-Eddy Simulation and Multigrid Methods
Falgout,R D; Naegle,S; Wittum,G
2001-06-18
A method to simulate turbulent flows with Large-Eddy Simulation on unstructured grids is presented. Two kinds of dynamic models are used to model the unresolved scales of motion and are compared with each other on different grids. Thereby the behavior of the models is shown and additionally the feature of adaptive grid refinement is investigated. Furthermore the parallelization aspect is addressed.
Large eddy simulation in the ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scotti, Alberto
2010-12-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a relative newcomer to oceanography. In this review, both applications of traditional LES to oceanic flows and new oceanic LES still in an early stage of development are discussed. The survey covers LES applied to boundary layer flows, traditionally an area where LES has provided considerable insight into the physics of the flow, as well as more innovative applications, where new SGS closure schemes need to be developed. The merging of LES with large-scale models is also briefly reviewed.
Statistical Ensemble of Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, Daniele; Rogers, Michael M.; Wray, Alan A.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A statistical ensemble of large eddy simulations (LES) is run simultaneously for the same flow. The information provided by the different large scale velocity fields is used to propose an ensemble averaged version of the dynamic model. This produces local model parameters that only depend on the statistical properties of the flow. An important property of the ensemble averaged dynamic procedure is that it does not require any spatial averaging and can thus be used in fully inhomogeneous flows. Also, the ensemble of LES's provides statistics of the large scale velocity that can be used for building new models for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. The ensemble averaged dynamic procedure has been implemented with various models for three flows: decaying isotropic turbulence, forced isotropic turbulence, and the time developing plane wake. It is found that the results are almost independent of the number of LES's in the statistical ensemble provided that the ensemble contains at least 16 realizations.
Large-eddy Advection in Evapotranspiration Estimates from an Array of Eddy Covariance Towers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, X.; Evett, S. R.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Aiken, R.
2014-12-01
Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a sorghum in Bushland, Texas in 2014. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms were integrated from the depth of soil heat flux plate to the height of eddy covariance measurement. Therefore, a comparison between the eddy covariance system and large weighing lysimeter was conducted on hourly and daily basis. The results for the discrepancy between eddy covariance towers and the lysimeter will be discussed in terms of advection and storage contributions in time domain and frequency domain.
Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.
2015-11-01
A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.
Large eddy simulations in 2030 and beyond
Piomelli, U
2014-01-01
Since its introduction, in the early 1970s, large eddy simulations (LES) have advanced considerably, and their application is transitioning from the academic environment to industry. Several landmark developments can be identified over the past 40 years, such as the wall-resolved simulations of wall-bounded flows, the development of advanced models for the unresolved scales that adapt to the local flow conditions and the hybridization of LES with the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. Thanks to these advancements, LES is now in widespread use in the academic community and is an option available in most commercial flow-solvers. This paper will try to predict what algorithmic and modelling advancements are needed to make it even more robust and inexpensive, and which areas show the most promise. PMID:25024415
Large eddy simulation of cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanaskandan, Aswin; Mahesh, Krishnan
2014-11-01
Large eddy simulation on unstructured grids is used to study hydrodynamic cavitation. The multiphase medium is represented using a homogeneous equilibrium model that assumes thermal equilibrium between the liquid and the vapor phase. Surface tension effects are ignored and the governing equations are the compressible Navier Stokes equations for the liquid/vapor mixture along with a transport equation for the vapor mass fraction. A characteristic-based filtering scheme is developed to handle shocks and material discontinuities in non-ideal gases and mixtures. A TVD filter is applied as a corrector step in a predictor-corrector approach with the predictor scheme being non-dissipative and symmetric. The method is validated for canonical one dimensional flows and leading edge cavitation over a hydrofoil, and applied to study sheet to cloud cavitation over a wedge. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.
Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.
Menzies, Kevin
2009-07-28
The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle. PMID:19531505
Large-eddy simulations with wall models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cabot, W.
1995-01-01
The near-wall viscous and buffer regions of wall-bounded flows generally require a large expenditure of computational resources to be resolved adequately, even in large-eddy simulation (LES). Often as much as 50% of the grid points in a computational domain are devoted to these regions. The dense grids that this implies also generally require small time steps for numerical stability and/or accuracy. It is commonly assumed that the inner wall layers are near equilibrium, so that the standard logarithmic law can be applied as the boundary condition for the wall stress well away from the wall, for example, in the logarithmic region, obviating the need to expend large amounts of grid points and computational time in this region. This approach is commonly employed in LES of planetary boundary layers, and it has also been used for some simple engineering flows. In order to calculate accurately a wall-bounded flow with coarse wall resolution, one requires the wall stress as a boundary condition. The goal of this work is to determine the extent to which equilibrium and boundary layer assumptions are valid in the near-wall regions, to develop models for the inner layer based on such assumptions, and to test these modeling ideas in some relatively simple flows with different pressure gradients, such as channel flow and flow over a backward-facing step. Ultimately, models that perform adequately in these situations will be applied to more complex flow configurations, such as an airfoil.
Application of large eddy interaction model to a mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, S. N. B.
1989-01-01
The large eddy interaction model (LEIM) is a statistical model of turbulence based on the interaction of selected eddies with the mean flow and all of the eddies in a turbulent shear flow. It can be utilized as the starting point for obtaining physical structures in the flow. The possible application of the LEIM to a mixing layer formed between two parallel, incompressible flows with a small temperature difference is developed by invoking a detailed similarity between the spectra of velocity and temperature.
Large eddy simulations of laminar separation bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Francois
The flow over blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from ten thousand to a few hundred thousands undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region -- the laminar separation bubble. To avoid body-fitted mesh generation problems and numerical issues, an equivalent problem for flow over a flat plate is formulated by imposing boundary conditions that lead to a pressure distribution and Reynolds number that are similar to those on airfoils. Spalart & Strelet (2000) tested a number of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate. Although results with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model were encouraging, none of the turbulence models tested reliably recovered time-averaged direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. The purpose of this work is to assess whether large eddy simulation (LES) can more accurately and reliably recover DNS results using drastically reduced resolution -- on the order of 1% of DNS resolution which is commonly achievable for LES of turbulent channel flows. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate are performed using a compressible sixth-order finite-difference code and two incompressible pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solvers at resolutions corresponding to approximately 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart & Strelet (2000). The finite-difference solver is found to be dissipative due to the use of a stability-enhancing filter. Its numerical dissipation is quantified and found to be comparable to the average eddy viscosity of the dynamic Smagorinsky model, making it difficult to separate the effects of filtering versus those of explicit subgrid-scale modeling. The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral solvers allows an unambiguous
Large eddy simulation of trailing edge noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Jacob; Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan
2015-11-01
Noise generation is an important engineering constraint to many marine vehicles. A significant portion of the noise comes from propellers and rotors, specifically due to flow interactions at the trailing edge. Large eddy simulation is used to investigate the noise produced by a turbulent 45 degree beveled trailing edge and a NACA 0012 airfoil. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy is combined with a dynamic endcapping method to compute the sound. This methodology allows for the impact of incident flow noise versus the total noise to be assessed. LES results for the 45 degree beveled trailing edge are compared to experiment at M = 0 . 1 and Rec = 1 . 9 e 6 . The effect of boundary layer thickness on sound production is investigated by computing using both the experimental boundary layer thickness and a thinner boundary layer. Direct numerical simulation results of the NACA 0012 are compared to available data at M = 0 . 4 and Rec = 5 . 0 e 4 for both the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field. Sound intensities and directivities are investigated and compared. Finally, some of the physical mechanisms of far-field noise generation, common to the two configurations, are discussed. Supported by Office of Naval research.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanaskandan, A.; Mahesh, K.
2015-12-01
Large Eddy Simulation is employed to study two turbulent cavitating flows: over a cylinder and a wedge. A homogeneous mixture model is used to treat the mixture of water and water vapor as a compressible fluid. The governing equations are solved using a novel predictor- corrector method. The subgrid terms are modeled using the Dynamic Smagorinsky model. Cavitating flow over a cylinder at Reynolds number (Re) = 3900 and cavitation number (σ) = 1.0 is simulated and the wake characteristics are compared to the single phase results at the same Reynolds number. It is observed that cavitation suppresses turbulence in the near wake and delays three dimensional breakdown of the vortices. Next, cavitating flow over a wedge at Re = 200, 000 and σ = 2.0 is presented. The mean void fraction profiles obtained are compared to experiment and good agreement is obtained. Cavity auto-oscillation is observed, where the sheet cavity breaks up into a cloud cavity periodically. The results suggest LES as an attractive approach for predicting turbulent cavitating flows.
Large Eddy Simulation of Powered Fontan Hemodynamics
Delorme, Y.; Anupindi, K.; Kerlo, A.E.; Shetty, D.; Rodefeld, M.; Chen, J.; Frankel, S.
2012-01-01
Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2–3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3–5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a “biventricular Fontan” circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo™) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data. PMID:23177085
Large Eddy Simulation of Cirrus Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ting; Cotton, William R.
1999-01-01
The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) with mesoscale interactive nested-grids and a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) version of RAMS, coupled to two-moment microphysics and a new two-stream radiative code were used to investigate the dynamic, microphysical, and radiative aspects of the November 26, 1991 cirrus event. Wu (1998) describes the results of that research in full detail and is enclosed as Appendix 1. The mesoscale nested grid simulation successfully reproduced the large scale circulation as compared to the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System's (MAPS) analyses and other observations. Three cloud bands which match nicely to the three cloud lines identified in an observational study (Mace et al., 1995) are predicted on Grid #2 of the nested grids, even though the mesoscale simulation predicts a larger west-east cloud width than what was observed. Large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to study the dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes in the 26 November 1991 FIRE 11 cirrus event. The LES model is based on the RAMS version 3b developed at Colorado State University. It includes a new radiation scheme developed by Harrington (1997) and a new subgrid scale model developed by Kosovic (1996). The LES model simulated a single cloud layer for Case 1 and a two-layer cloud structure for Case 2. The simulations demonstrated that latent heat release can play a significant role in the formation and development of cirrus clouds. For the thin cirrus in Case 1, the latent heat release was insufficient for the cirrus clouds to become positively buoyant. However, in some special cases such as Case 2, positively buoyant cells can be embedded within the cirrus layers. These cells were so active that the rising updraft induced its own pressure perturbations that affected the cloud evolution. Vertical profiles of the total radiative and latent heating rates indicated that for well developed, deep, and active cirrus clouds, radiative cooling and latent
Effects of Eddy Viscosity on Time Correlations in Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
He, Guowei; Rubinstein, R.; Wang, Lian-Ping; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large. eddy simulation (LES) have generally been evaluated by their ability to predict single-time statistics of turbulent flows such as kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses. Recent application- of large eddy simulation to the evaluation of sound sources in turbulent flows, a problem in which time, correlations determine the frequency distribution of acoustic radiation, suggest that subgrid models should also be evaluated by their ability to predict time correlations in turbulent flows. This paper compares the two-point, two-time Eulerian velocity correlation evaluated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) with that evaluated from LES, using a spectral eddy viscosity, for isotropic homogeneous turbulence. It is found that the LES fields are too coherent, in the sense that their time correlations decay more slowly than the corresponding time. correlations in the DNS fields. This observation is confirmed by theoretical estimates of time correlations using the Taylor expansion technique. Tile reason for the slower decay is that the eddy viscosity does not include the random backscatter, which decorrelates fluid motion at large scales. An effective eddy viscosity associated with time correlations is formulated, to which the eddy viscosity associated with energy transfer is a leading order approximation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, M.; Chao, Y.
2001-01-01
Output of an eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic is diagnosed in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream (GA), using quasigeostrophic potential voracity (QGPV), Ertel's potential voracity (PV), and particle trajectories. Time series of QGPV show strong input of QGPV by the GS in the top 100 m of the model ocean.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.
Large eddy interactions in a turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.
1985-01-01
The dynamic processes of large eddies in a turbulent channel flow have been examined by utilizing an orthogonal expansion of the velocity fluctuation, known in the literature as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem. The mathematical form of these functions is unknown in contrast to the Fourier analysis. Attention is focused on the nonlinear, turbulence-turbulence interaction process in the dynamical equation for large eddies (the first term in the expansion). The nonlinear interactions of the components of the first mode are treated exactly, but influences of higher modes are modeled. This requires adjustment of both the skewness and the effective Reynolds number so that the energy equilibrium of the large eddies is ensured when the mean velocity distribution is assumed known for experiments. Computational results show that the first mode contributes significantly to turbulent intensities and possesses a structural and statistical character similar to that of the entire flow.
Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acharya, Sumanta
1999-01-01
The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation, and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done large-eddy simulations of wind plants with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver. The simulated time-averaged power production of the turbines in the plant agrees well with field observations, except with the sixth turbine and beyond in each wind-aligned. The power produced by each of those turbines is overpredicted by 25-40%. A direct comparison between simulated and field data is difficult because we simulate one wind direction with a speed and turbulence intensity characteristic of Lillgrund, but the field observations were taken over a year of varying conditions. The simulation shows the significant 60-70% decrease in the performance of the turbines behind the front row in this plant that has a spacing of 4.3 rotor diameters in this direction. The overall plant efficiency is well predicted. This work shows the importance of using local grid refinement to simultaneously capture the meter-scale details of the turbine wake and the kilometer-scale turbulent atmospheric structures. Although this work illustrates the power of large-eddy simulation in producing a time-accurate solution, it required about one million processor-hours, showing the significant cost of large-eddy simulation.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a cotton field in Bushland, Texas. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms wer...
Toward the large-eddy simulations of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1987-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model (in terms of Favre-filtered fields) is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The three dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96 to the third power grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of supersonic aerodynamic flows are discussed briefly.
Larsson, Johan; Wang, Qiqi
2014-01-01
In this paper, we try to look into the future to envision how large eddy and detached eddy simulations will be used in the engineering design process about 20–30 years from now. Some key challenges specific to the engineering design process are identified, and some of the critical outstanding problems and promising research directions are discussed. PMID:25024421
Large-Eddy Simulations of Dust Devils and Convective Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiga, Aymeric; Barth, Erika; Gu, Zhaolin; Hoffmann, Fabian; Ito, Junshi; Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Klose, Martina; Nishizawa, Seiya; Raasch, Siegfried; Rafkin, Scot; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tyler, Daniel; Wei, Wei
2016-09-01
In this review, we address the use of numerical computations called Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to study dust devils, and the more general class of atmospheric phenomena they belong to (convective vortices). We describe the main elements of the LES methodology. We review the properties, statistics, and variability of dust devils and convective vortices resolved by LES in both terrestrial and Martian environments. The current challenges faced by modelers using LES for dust devils are also discussed in detail.
Toward large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Haecheon
1993-01-01
The flow field over an airfoil contains several distinct flow characteristics, e.g. laminar, transitional, turbulent boundary layer flow, flow separation, unstable free shear layers, and a wake. This diversity of flow regimes taxes the presently available Reynolds averaged turbulence models. Such models are generally tuned to predict a particular flow regime, and adjustments are necessary for the prediction of a different flow regime. Similar difficulties are likely to emerge when the large eddy simulation technique is applied with the widely used Smagorinsky model. This model has not been successful in correctly representing different turbulent flow fields with a single universal constant and has an incorrect near-wall behavior. Germano et al. (1991) and Ghosal, Lund & Moin have developed a new subgrid-scale model, the dynamic model, which is very promising in alleviating many of the persistent inadequacies of the Smagorinsky model: the model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model has been remarkably successful in prediction of several turbulent and transitional flows. We plan to simulate turbulent flow over a '2D' airfoil using the large eddy simulation technique. Our primary objective is to assess the performance of the newly developed dynamic subgrid-scale model for computation of complex flows about aircraft components and to compare the results with those obtained using the Reynolds average approach and experiments. The present computation represents the first application of large eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest and a key demonstration of the capabilities of the large eddy simulation technique.
Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1992-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed and tested based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model, in terms of Favre-filtered fields, is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The two dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96 (exp 3) grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. A large-eddy simulation of the decay of compressible isotropic turbulence (conducted on a coarse 32(exp 3) grid) is shown to yield results that are in excellent agreement with the fine-grid direct simulation. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of more complex supersonic flows are discussed briefly.
Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed and tested based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model, in terms of Favre-filtered fields, is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The two dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96(exp 3) grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. A large-eddy simulation of the decay of compressible isotropic turbulence (conducted on a coarse 32(exp 3) grid) is shown to yield results that are in excellent agreement with the fine grid direct simulation. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of more complex supersonic flows are discussed briefly.
Applications of large eddy simulation methods to gyrokinetic turbulence
Bañón Navarro, A. Happel, T.; Teaca, B. [Applied Mathematics Research Centre, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB; Max-Planck für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau; Max-Planck Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching; Max-Planck Hammett, G. W. [Max-Planck Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team
2014-03-15
The large eddy simulation (LES) approach—solving numerically the large scales of a turbulent system and accounting for the small-scale influence through a model—is applied to nonlinear gyrokinetic systems that are driven by a number of different microinstabilities. Comparisons between modeled, lower resolution, and higher resolution simulations are performed for an experimental measurable quantity, the electron density fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the validation and applicability of LES is demonstrated through a series of diagnostics based on the free energetics of the system.
Contrail Formation in Aircraft Wakes Using Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paoli, R.; Helie, J.; Poinsot, T. J.; Ghosal, S.
2002-01-01
In this work we analyze the issue of the formation of condensation trails ("contrails") in the near-field of an aircraft wake. The basic configuration consists in an exhaust engine jet interacting with a wing-tip training vortex. The procedure adopted relies on a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach; a simple micro-physics model for ice growth has been used to couple ice and vapor phases. Large eddy simulations have carried out at a realistic flight Reynolds number to evaluate the effects of turbulent mixing and wake vortex dynamics on ice-growth characteristics and vapor thermodynamic properties.
Large-eddy simulation of trans- and supercritical injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, H.; Niedermeier, C. A.; Jarczyk, M.; Pfitzner, M.; Hickel, S.; Adams, N. A.
2016-07-01
In a joint effort to develop a robust numerical tool for the simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion in liquid rocket engines at high pressure, a real-gas thermodynamics model has been implemented into two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the density-based INCA and a pressure-based version of OpenFOAM. As a part of the validation process, both codes have been used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of trans- and supercritical nitrogen injection. Despite the different code architecture and the different subgrid scale turbulence modeling strategy, both codes yield similar results. The agreement with the available experimental data is good.
Large Eddy Simulation of Multiple Turbulent Round Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balajee, G. K.; Panchapakesan, Nagangudy
2015-11-01
Turbulent round jet flow was simulated as a large eddy simulation with OpenFoam software package for a jet Reynolds number of 11000. The intensity of the fluctuating motion in the incoming nozzle flow was adjusted so that the initial shear layer development compares well with available experimental data. The far field development of averages of higher order moments up to fourth order were compared with experiments. The agreement is good indicating that the large eddy motions were being computed satisfactorily by the simulation. Turbulent kinetic energy budget as well as the quality of the LES simulations were also evaluated. These conditions were then used to perform a multiple turbulent round jets simulation with the same initial momentum flux. The far field of the flow was compared with the single jet simulation and experiments to test approach to self similarity. The evolution of the higher order moments in the development region where the multiple jets interact were studied. We will also present FTLE fields computed from the simulation to educe structures and compare it with those educed by other scalar measures. Support of AR&DB CIFAAR, and VIRGO cluster at IIT Madras is gratefully acknowledged.
Finecasting for renewable energy with large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonker, Harmen; Verzijlbergh, Remco
2016-04-01
We present results of a single, continuous Large-Eddy Simulation of actual weather conditions during the timespan of a full year, made possible through recent computational developments (Schalkwijk et al, MWR, 2015). The simulation is coupled to a regional weather model in order to provide an LES dataset that is representative of the daily weather of the year 2012 around Cabauw, the Netherlands. This location is chosen such that LES results can be compared with both the regional weather model and observations from the Cabauw observational supersite. The run was made possible by porting our Large-Eddy Simulation program to run completely on the GPU (Schalkwijk et al, BAMS, 2012). GPU adaptation allows us to reach much improved time-to-solution ratios (i.e. simulation speedup versus real time). As a result, one can perform runs with a much longer timespan than previously feasible. The dataset resulting from the LES run provides many avenues for further study. First, it can provide a more statistical approach to boundary-layer turbulence than the more common case-studies by simulating a diverse but representative set of situations, as well as the transition between situations. This has advantages in designing and evaluating parameterizations. In addition, we discuss the opportunities of high-resolution forecasts for the renewable energy sector, e.g. wind and solar energy production.
Domain nesting for multi-scale large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuka, Vladimir; Xie, Zheng-Tong
2016-04-01
The need to simulate city scale areas (O(10 km)) with high resolution within street canyons in certain areas of interests necessitates different grid resolutions in different part of the simulated area. General purpose computational fluid dynamics codes typically employ unstructured refined grids while mesoscale meteorological models more often employ nesting of computational domains. ELMM is a large eddy simulation model for the atmospheric boundary layer. It employs orthogonal uniform grids and for this reason domain nesting was chosen as the approach for simulations in multiple scales. Domains are implemented as sets of MPI processes which communicate with each other as in a normal non-nested run, but also with processes from another (outer/inner) domain. It should stressed that the duration of solution of time-steps in the outer and in the inner domain must be synchronized, so that the processes do not have to wait for the completion of their boundary conditions. This can achieved by assigning an appropriate number of CPUs to each domain, and to gain high efficiency. When nesting is applied for large eddy simulation, the inner domain receives inflow boundary conditions which lack turbulent motions not represented by the outer grid. ELMM remedies this by optional adding of turbulent fluctuations to the inflow using the efficient method of Xie and Castro (2008). The spatial scale of these fluctuations is in the subgrid-scale of the outer grid and their intensity will be estimated from the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy in the outer grid.
A normal stress subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model in large eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horiuti, K.; Mansour, N. N.; Kim, John J.
1993-01-01
The Smagorinsky subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model (SGS-EVM) is commonly used in large eddy simulations (LES) to represent the effects of the unresolved scales on the resolved scales. This model is known to be limited because its constant must be optimized in different flows, and it must be modified with a damping function to account for near-wall effects. The recent dynamic model is designed to overcome these limitations but is compositionally intensive as compared to the traditional SGS-EVM. In a recent study using direct numerical simulation data, Horiuti has shown that these drawbacks are due mainly to the use of an improper velocity scale in the SGS-EVM. He also proposed the use of the subgrid-scale normal stress as a new velocity scale that was inspired by a high-order anisotropic representation model. The testing of Horiuti, however, was conducted using DNS data from a low Reynolds number channel flow simulation. It was felt that further testing at higher Reynolds numbers and also using different flows (other than wall-bounded shear flows) were necessary steps needed to establish the validity of the new model. This is the primary motivation of the present study. The objective is to test the new model using DNS databases of high Reynolds number channel and fully developed turbulent mixing layer flows. The use of both channel (wall-bounded) and mixing layer flows is important for the development of accurate LES models because these two flows encompass many characteristic features of complex turbulent flows.
Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh
2010-01-15
A large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid model is developed based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach to calculate the species instantaneous reaction rates for multi-step, multi-species chemical kinetics mechanisms. The proposed methodology depends on training the ANNs off-line on a thermo-chemical database representative of the actual composition and turbulence (but not the actual geometrical problem) of interest, and later using them to replace the stiff ODE solver (direct integration (DI)) to calculate the reaction rates in the sub-grid. The thermo-chemical database is tabulated with respect to the thermodynamic state vector without any reduction in the number of state variables. The thermo-chemistry is evolved by stand-alone linear eddy mixing (LEM) model simulations under both premixed and non-premixed conditions, where the unsteady interaction of turbulence with chemical kinetics is included as a part of the training database. The proposed methodology is tested in LES and in stand-alone LEM studies of three distinct test cases with different reduced mechanisms and conditions. LES of premixed flame-turbulence-vortex interaction provides direct comparison of the proposed ANN method against DI and ANNs trained on thermo-chemical database created using another type of tabulation method. It is shown that the ANN trained on the LEM database can capture the correct flame physics with accuracy comparable to DI, which cannot be achieved by ANN trained on a laminar premix flame database. A priori evaluation of the ANN generality within and outside its training domain is carried out using stand-alone LEM simulations as well. Results in general are satisfactory, and it is shown that the ANN provides considerable amount of memory saving and speed-up with reasonable and reliable accuracy. The speed-up is strongly affected by the stiffness of the reduced mechanism used for the computations, whereas the memory saving is considerable regardless. (author)
Large Eddy Simulation of Cryogenic Injection Processes at Supercritical Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oefelein, Joseph C.; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper highlights results from the first of a series of hierarchical simulations aimed at assessing the modeling requirements for application of the large eddy simulation technique to cryogenic injection and combustion processes in liquid rocket engines. The focus is on liquid-oxygen-hydrogen coaxial injectors at a condition where the liquid-oxygen is injected at a subcritical temperature into a supercritical environment. For this situation a diffusion dominated mode of combustion occurs in the presence of exceedingly large thermophysical property gradients. Though continuous, these gradients approach the behavior of a contact discontinuity. Significant real gas effects and transport anomalies coexist locally in colder regions of the flow, with ideal gas and transport characteristics occurring within the flame zone. The current focal point is on the interfacial region between the liquid-oxygen core and the coaxial hydrogen jet where the flame anchors itself.
Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.
1993-10-01
In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent channel flow: ILLIAC 4 calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Moin, P.
1979-01-01
The three-dimensional time dependent equations of motion were numerically integrated for fully-developed turbulent channel flow. A large scale flow field was obtained directly from the solution of these equations, and small scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model. The calculations were carried out on the ILLIAC 4 computer. The computed flow patterns show that the wall layer consists of coherent structures of low speed and high speed streaks alternating in the spanwise direction. These structures were absent in the regions away from the wall. Hot spots, small localized regions of very large turbulent shear stress, were frequently observed. The profiles of the pressure velocity-gradient correlations show a significant transfer of energy from the normal to the spanwise component of turbulent kinetic energy in the immediate neighborhood of the wall ('the splatting effect').
Scale-Similar Models for Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarghini, F.
1999-01-01
Scale-similar models employ multiple filtering operations to identify the smallest resolved scales, which have been shown to be the most active in the interaction with the unresolved subgrid scales. They do not assume that the principal axes of the strain-rate tensor are aligned with those of the subgrid-scale stress (SGS) tensor, and allow the explicit calculation of the SGS energy. They can provide backscatter in a numerically stable and physically realistic manner, and predict SGS stresses in regions that are well correlated with the locations where large Reynolds stress occurs. In this paper, eddy viscosity and mixed models, which include an eddy-viscosity part as well as a scale-similar contribution, are applied to the simulation of two flows, a high Reynolds number plane channel flow, and a three-dimensional, nonequilibrium flow. The results show that simulations without models or with the Smagorinsky model are unable to predict nonequilibrium effects. Dynamic models provide an improvement of the results: the adjustment of the coefficient results in more accurate prediction of the perturbation from equilibrium. The Lagrangian-ensemble approach [Meneveau et al., J. Fluid Mech. 319, 353 (1996)] is found to be very beneficial. Models that included a scale-similar term and a dissipative one, as well as the Lagrangian ensemble averaging, gave results in the best agreement with the direct simulation and experimental data.
Large eddy simulation of mechanical mixing in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2012-03-01
A comprehensive study of anaerobic digestion requires an advanced turbulence model technique to accurately predict mixing flow patterns because the digestion process that involves mass transfer between anaerobes and their substrates is primarily dependent on detailed information about the fine structure of turbulence in the digesters. This study presents a large eddy simulation (LES) of mechanical agitation of non-Newtonian fluids in anaerobic digesters, in which the sliding mesh method is used to characterize the impeller rotation. The three subgrid scale (SGS) models investigated are: (i) Smagorinsky-Lilly model, (ii) wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model, and (iii) kinetic energy transport (KET) model. The simulation results show that the three SGS models produce very similar flow fields. A comparison of the simulated and measured axial velocities indicates that the LES profile shapes are in general agreement with the experimental data but they differ markedly in velocity magnitudes. A check of impeller power and flow numbers demonstrates that all the SGS models give excellent predictions, with the KET model performing the best. Moreover, the performance of six Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models are assessed and compared with the LES results. PMID:22038563
Film cooling from inclined cylindrical holes using large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peet, Yulia V.
2006-12-01
The goal of the present study is to investigate numerically the physics of the flow, which occurs during the film cooling from inclined cylindrical holes, Film cooling is a technique used in gas turbine industry to reduce heat fluxes to the turbine blade surface. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed modeling a realistic film cooling configuration, which consists of a large stagnation-type reservoir, feeding an array of discrete cooling holes (film holes) flowing into a flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Special computational methodology is developed for this problem, involving coupled simulations using multiple computational codes. A fully compressible LES code is used in the area above the flat plate, while a low Mach number LES code is employed in the plenum and film holes. The motivation for using different codes comes from the essential difference in the nature of the flow in these different regions. Flowfield is analyzed inside the plenum, film hole and a crossflow region. Flow inside the plenum is stagnating, except for the region close to the exit, where it accelerates rapidly to turn into the hole. The sharp radius of turning at the trailing edge of the plenum pipe connection causes the flow to separate from the downstream wall of the film hole. After coolant injection occurs, a complex flowfield is formed consisting of coherent vortical structures responsible for bringing hot crossflow fluid in contact with the walls of either the film hole or the blade, thus reducing cooling protection. Mean velocity and turbulent statistics are compared to experimental measurements, yielding good agreement for the mean flowfield and satisfactory agreement for the turbulence quantities. LES results are used to assess the applicability of basic assumptions of conventional eddy viscosity turbulence models used with Reynolds-averaged (RANS) approach, namely the isotropy of an eddy viscosity and thermal diffusivity. It is shown here that these assumptions do not hold
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows
Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.
2002-07-01
This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.
Time-Domain Filtering for Spatial Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David
1997-01-01
An approach to large-eddy simulation (LES) is developed whose subgrid-scale model incorporates filtering in the time domain, in contrast to conventional approaches, which exploit spatial filtering. The method is demonstrated in the simulation of a heated, compressible, axisymmetric jet, and results are compared with those obtained from fully resolved direct numerical simulation. The present approach was, in fact, motivated by the jet-flow problem and the desire to manipulate the flow by localized (point) sources for the purposes of noise suppression. Time-domain filtering appears to be more consistent with the modeling of point sources; moreover, time-domain filtering may resolve some fundamental inconsistencies associated with conventional space-filtered LES approaches.
Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices: Atmospheric Turbulence Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.
1997-01-01
Crow instability can develop in most atmospheric turbulence levels, however, the ring vortices may not form in extremely strong turbulence cases due to strong dissipation of the vortices. It appears that strong turbulence tends to accelerate the occurrences of Crow instability. The wavelength of the most unstable mode is estimated to be about 5b(sub 0), which is less than the theoretical value of 8.6b(sub 0) (Crow, 1970) and may be due to limited domain size and highly nonlinear turbulent flow characteristics. Three-dimensional turbulence can decay wake vortices more rapidly. Axial velocity may be developed by vertical distortion of a vortex pair due to Crow instability or large turbulent eddy motion. More experiments with various non-dimensional turbulence levels are necessary to get useful statistics of wake vortex behavior due to turbulence. Need to investigate larger turbulence length scale effects by enlarging domain size or using grid nesting.
Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle and jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Örley, F.; Trummler, T.; Hickel, S.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.
2015-12-01
We present implicit large-eddy simulations (LES) to study the primary breakup of cavitating liquid jets. The considered configuration, which consists of a rectangular nozzle geometry, adopts the setup of a reference experiment for validation. The setup is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up automotive fuel injector. Modelling of all components (i.e. gas, liquid, and vapor) is based on a barotropic two-fluid two-phase model and employs a homogenous mixture approach. The cavitating liquid model assumes thermodynamic- equilibrium. Compressibility of all phases is considered in order to capture pressure wave dynamics of collapse events. Since development of cavitation significantly affects jet break-up characteristics, we study three different operating points. We identify three main mechanisms which induce primary jet break-up: amplification of turbulent fluctuations, gas entrainment, and collapse events near the liquid-gas interface.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Wall-Pressure Fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.
1996-01-01
Large-eddy simulations of a turbulent boundary layer with Reynolds number based on displacement thickness equal to 3500 were performed with two grid resolutions. The computations were continued for sufficient time to obtain frequency spectra with resolved frequencies that correspond to the most important structural frequencies on an aircraft fuselage. The turbulent stresses were adequately resolved with both resolutions. Detailed quantitative analysis of a variety of statistical quantities associated with the wall-pressure fluctuations revealed similar behavior for both simulations. The primary differences were associated with the lack of resolution of the high-frequency data in the coarse-grid calculation and the increased jitter (due to the lack of multiple realizations for averaging purposes) in the fine-grid calculation. A new curve fit was introduced to represent the spanwise coherence of the cross-spectral density.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in steam generators
Bagwell, T.G.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger D.A. )
1989-11-01
A major problem associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent-flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. Vibration can lead to tube rupture or wear, necessitating tube plugging and reducing the availability of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction phenomenon that causes fluid-elastic tube excitation is unknown at present. The current investigation defines the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow entering the Westinghouse D4 steam generator tube bundles using the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique. Due to the recent availability of supercomputers, LES is being considered as a possible engineering design analysis tool. The information from this study will provide input for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The GUST code was used to analyze the water box of a Westinghouse model D4 steam generator.
The effect of large-scale eddies on climatic change.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, P. H.
1973-01-01
A parameterization for the fluxes of sensible heat by large-scale eddies developed in an earlier paper is incorporated into a model for the mean temperature structure of an atmosphere including only these fluxes and the radiative fluxes. The climatic changes in this simple model are then studied in order to assess the strength of the dynamical feedback and to gain insight into how dynamical parameters may change in more sophisticated climatic models. The model shows the following qualitative changes: (1) an increase in the solar constant leads to increased static stability, decreased dynamic stability, and stronger horizontal and vertical winds; (2) an increase in the amount of atmospheric absorption leads to decreased static and dynamic stability, and stronger horizontal and vertical winds; and (3) an increase in rotation rate leads to greater static and dynamic stability, weaker horizontal winds, and stronger vertical winds.
Large-eddy simulations with a dynamic explicit vegetation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohrer, G.; Maurer, K.; Chatziefstratiou, E.; Medvigy, D.
2014-12-01
We coupled the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) and a modified version of the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 (ED2) to form a dynamic, high resolution, physiologically driven large eddy simulation. RAFLES represents both drag and volume restriction by the canopy over an explicit 3-D domain. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of uplift and circulation patterns at the front and back of a rectangular barrier to the representation of the canopy volume. We then used this model to perform a virtual experiment using combinations of realistic heterogeneous canopies and virtual homogenous canopies combined with heterogeneous and homogenous patterns of soil moisture to test the effects of the spatial scaling of soil moisture on the fluxes of momentum, heat, and water in heterogeneous environments at the tree-crown scale. Further simulations were performed to test the combined effects of canopy structure, soil moisture heterogeneity, and soil water availability. We found flux dynamics of momentum, heat, and water to be significantly influenced by canopy structure, soil moisture heterogeneity, and soil water availability. During non-plant-limiting soil-water conditions, we found canopy structure to be the primary driver of tree-crown scale fluxes of momentum, heat, and water, specifically through modification of the ejection sweep dynamics. However, as soil water conditions became limiting for latent heat flux from plants, tree-crown scale fluxes of momentum and heat became influenced by the spatial pattern of soil moisture, whereas soil moisture became a significant driver of tree-crown scale fluxes of water along with canopy structure.
Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) in a three dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stresses: (a) the Smagorinsky model, and (b) the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a) the actuator surface model (ASM), in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e. the actuator surface, and (b) the actuator line model (ALM), in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e. the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES is applied and validated for simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST) water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient. Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs); VAWT wake; Large-eddy simulation; Actuator surface model; Actuator line model; Smagorinsky model; Modulated gradient model
Large eddy simulation of a lifted turbulent jet flame
Ferraris, S.A.; Wen, J.X.
2007-09-15
The flame index concept for large eddy simulation developed by Domingo et al. [P. Domingo, L. Vervisch, K. Bray, Combust. Theory Modell. 6 (2002) 529-551] is used to capture the partially premixed structure at the leading point and the dual combustion regimes further downstream on a turbulent lifted flame, which is composed of premixed and nonpremixed flame elements each separately described under a flamelet assumption. Predictions for the lifted methane/air jet flame experimentally tested by Mansour [M.S. Mansour, Combust. Flame 133 (2003) 263-274] are made. The simulation covers a wide domain from the jet exit to the far flow field. Good agreement with the data for the lift-off height and the mean mixture fraction has been achieved. The model has also captured the double flames, showing a configuration similar to that of the experiment which involves a rich premixed branch at the jet center and a diffusion branch in the outer region which meet at the so-called triple point at the flame base. This basic structure is contorted by eddies coming from the jet exit but remains stable at the lift-off height. No lean premixed branches are observed in the simulation or and experiment. Further analysis on the stabilization mechanism was conducted. A distinction between the leading point (the most upstream point of the flame) and the stabilization point was made. The later was identified as the position with the maximum premixed heat release. This is in line with the stabilization mechanism proposed by Upatnieks et al. [A. Upatnieks, J. Driscoll, C. Rasmussen, S. Ceccio, Combust. Flame 138 (2004) 259-272]. (author)
Large eddy simulation subgrid model for soot prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Asrag, Hossam Abd El-Raouf Mostafa
Soot prediction in realistic systems is one of the most challenging problems in theoretical and applied combustion. Soot formation as a chemical process is very complicated and not fully understood. The major difficulty stems from the chemical complexity of the soot formation process as well as its strong coupling with the other thermochemical and fluid processes that occur simultaneously. Soot is a major byproduct of incomplete combustion, having a strong impact on the environment as well as the combustion efficiency. Therefore, innovative methods is needed to predict soot in realistic configurations in an accurate and yet computationally efficient way. In the current study, a new soot formation subgrid model is developed and reported here. The new model is designed to be used within the context of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) framework, combined with Linear Eddy Mixing (LEM) as a subgrid combustion model. The final model can be applied equally to premixed and non-premixed flames over any required geometry and flow conditions in the free, the transition, and the continuum regimes. The soot dynamics is predicted using a Method of Moments approach with Lagrangian Interpolative Closure (MOMIC) for the fractional moments. Since no prior knowledge of the particles distribution is required, the model is generally applicable. The current model accounts for the basic soot transport phenomena as transport by molecular diffusion and Thermophoretic forces. The model is first validated against experimental results for non-sooting swirling non-premixed and partially premixed flames. Next, a set of canonical premixed sooting flames are simulated, where the effect of turbulence, binary diffusivity and C/O ratio on soot formation are studied. Finally, the model is validated against a non-premixed jet sooting flame. The effect of the flame structure on the different soot formation stages as well as the particle size distribution is described. Good results are predicted with
Large-Eddy Simulation of Supersonic Axisymmetric Bluff Body Wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tourbier, D.; Fasel, H. F.
1997-11-01
The time-dependent behavior of the turbulent wake of an axisymmetric bluff body is investigated using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The axisymmetric body is aligned with a supersonic free stream at a Mach number of M_∞ = 2.46 . It has been shown previously that this flow field is subject to an absolute instability for global Reynolds numbers higher than ReD = 30,000 . As a result of this instability large structures are present in the near wake and render the flow field highly unsteady. These structures have a strong influence on the global behavior of the flow field and thus on the overall drag of the body. Commonly used turbulence models (e.g. in RANS) fail to accurately describe the flow field and are inadequate for drag prediction. Preliminary LES calculations for global Reynolds numbers up to ReD = 400,000 using a Smagorinsky type subgrid-scale model with a fixed constant have shown qualitative agreement with experimental observations in terms of pressure distribution along the blunt base and magnitude of rms values in the wake. However, the model is too dissipative for most parts of the free shear layer emanating from the corner of the base and the evolution of structures in the close vicinity of the corner is suppressed. Therefore, a dynamic subgrid-scale model was implemented into the code and tested to evaluate the performance of the model for this flow configuration.
Large-eddy simulations of a fully appended submarine model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posa, Antonio; Balaras, Elias
2013-11-01
In the present study we report large-eddy simulations (LES) the flow around an idealized submarine geometry (DARPA SUBOFF) at a Reynolds number -based on the model length and free stream velocity- equal to 1.2 million. A finite-difference formulation on a cylindrical coordinate grid of 2.8 billion nodes is utilized, and boundary conditions on the submarine model are imposed using an immersed-boundary technique. The boundary layers are ``tripped'' near the leading edge to mimic the conditions in experiments reported in the literature. Our computations resolve the detailed dynamics of the turbulent boundary layers on the suboff body as well as their interaction with the large scale vortices generated at the sail and fin junctions. The time-averaged velocity profiles in the intermediate wake reach self-similarity, except for the region affected by the wake of the sail. The comparison with the exponential law from the experimental study in the literature is satisfactory. It is also confirmed that the flow coming from the fins causes a deviation from the self-similar profile, which is more evident than in the experiments. Details on the turbulent boundary layer on the surface of the body will be provided, showing a good qualitative agreement with the results in the literature. Supported by ONR Grant N000141110455, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.
Large eddy simulation modelling of combustion for propulsion applications.
Fureby, C
2009-07-28
Predictive modelling of turbulent combustion is important for the development of air-breathing engines, internal combustion engines, furnaces and for power generation. Significant advances in modelling non-reactive turbulent flows are now possible with the development of large eddy simulation (LES), in which the large energetic scales of the flow are resolved on the grid while modelling the effects of the small scales. Here, we discuss the use of combustion LES in predictive modelling of propulsion applications such as gas turbine, ramjet and scramjet engines. The LES models used are described in some detail and are validated against laboratory data-of which results from two cases are presented. These validated LES models are then applied to an annular multi-burner gas turbine combustor and a simplified scramjet combustor, for which some additional experimental data are available. For these cases, good agreement with the available reference data is obtained, and the LES predictions are used to elucidate the flow physics in such devices to further enhance our knowledge of these propulsion systems. Particular attention is focused on the influence of the combustion chemistry, turbulence-chemistry interaction, self-ignition, flame holding burner-to-burner interactions and combustion oscillations. PMID:19531515
Assessment of dynamic closure for premixed combustion large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langella, Ivan; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian; Gao, Yuan; Chakraborty, Nilanjan
2015-09-01
Turbulent piloted Bunsen flames of stoichiometric methane-air mixtures are computed using the large eddy simulation (LES) paradigm involving an algebraic closure for the filtered reaction rate. This closure involves the filtered scalar dissipation rate of a reaction progress variable. The model for this dissipation rate involves a parameter βc representing the flame front curvature effects induced by turbulence, chemical reactions, molecular dissipation, and their interactions at the sub-grid level, suggesting that this parameter may vary with filter width or be a scale-dependent. Thus, it would be ideal to evaluate this parameter dynamically by LES. A procedure for this evaluation is discussed and assessed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and LES calculations. The probability density functions of βc obtained from the DNS and LES calculations are very similar when the turbulent Reynolds number is sufficiently large and when the filter width normalised by the laminar flame thermal thickness is larger than unity. Results obtained using a constant (static) value for this parameter are also used for comparative evaluation. Detailed discussion presented in this paper suggests that the dynamic procedure works well and physical insights and reasonings are provided to explain the observed behaviour.
Large Eddy Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport over Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, G.; Smith, H. D.
2012-12-01
Understanding the nature of flow over bedforms has a great importance in fluvial and coastal environments. For example, a bedform is one source of energy dissipation in water waves outside the surf zone in coastal environments. In rivers, the migration of dunes often affects the stability of the river bed and banks. In general, when a fluid flows over a sediment bed, the sediment transport generated by the interaction of the flow field with the bed results in the periodic deformation of the bed in the form of dunes. Dunes generally reach an equilibrium shape, and slowly propagate in the direction of the flow, as sand is lifted in the high shear regions, and redeposited in the separated flow areas. Different numerical approaches have been used in the past to study the flow and sediment transport over bedforms. In most research works, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations are employed to study fluid motions over ripples and dunes. However, evidences suggests that these models can not represent key turbulent quantities in unsteady boundary layers. The use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can resolve a much larger range of smaller scales than RANS. Moreover, unsteady simulations using LES give vital turbulent quantities which can help to study fluid motion and sediment transport over dunes. For this steady, we use a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM. It is a freely available tool which has different solvers to simulate specific problems in engineering and fluid mechanics. Our objective is to examine the flow and sediment transport from numerical stand point for bed geometries that are typical of fixed dunes. At the first step, we performed Large Eddy Simulation of the flow over dune geometries based on the experimental data of Nelson et al. (1993). The instantaneous flow field is investigated with special emphasis on the occurrence of coherent structures. To assess the effect of bed geometries on near bed turbulence, we considered different
Improved engine wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plengsaard, Chalearmpol
Improved wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are presented in this research. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model is used along with near-wall sub-grid scale viscosity. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy is employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To gain better heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model is also used. Because no experimental wall shear stress results are available in engines, the fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct is chosen to validate the new wall models. The model constants in the new wall models are set to 0.01 and 0.8, respectively and are kept constant throughout the investigation. The resulting time- and spatially-averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data at Re = 50,000. In order to study the effect of hot air impinging walls, jet impingement on a flat plate is also tested with the new wall models. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 21,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. As predicted by the new wall models, the time-averaged skin friction coefficient agrees well with experimental data, while the computed Nusselt number agrees fairly well when r/D > 2.0. Additionally, the model is validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion. Sixteen different operating engine conditions are simulated. The majority of the predicted heat flux results from each thermocouple location follow similar trends when compared with experimental data. The magnitude of peak heat fluxes as predicted by the new wall models is in the range of typical measured values in diesel combustion, while most heat flux results from previous LES wall models are over-predicted. The new wall models generate more accurate predictions and agree better with experimental data.
Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kysela, Bohuš; Jašíková, Darina; Konfršt, Jiří; Šulc, Radek; Ditl, Pavel
2015-05-01
The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV) measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS) model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity).
Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"
Zikanov, Oleg
2008-06-23
To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
Large eddy simulation and study of the urban boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Shiguang; Jiang, Weimei
2004-08-01
Based on a pseudo-spectral large eddy simulation (LES) model, an LES model with an anisotropy turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure model and an explicit multi-stage third-order Runge-Kutta scheme is established. The modeling and analysis show that the LES model can simulate the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with a uniform underlying surface under various stratifications very well. Then, similar to the description of a forest canopy, the drag term on momentum and the production term of TKE by subgrid city buildings are introduced into the LES equations to account for the area-averaged effect of the subgrid urban canopy elements and to simulate the meteorological fields of the urban boundary layer (UBL). Numerical experiments and comparison analysis show that: (1) the result from the LES of the UBL with a proposed formula for the drag coefficient is consistent and comparable with that from wind tunnel experiments and an urban subdomain scale model; (2) due to the effect of urban buildings, the wind velocity near the canopy is decreased, turbulence is intensified, TKE, variance, and momentum flux are increased, the momentum and heat flux at the top of the PBL are increased, and the development of the PBL is quickened; (3) the height of the roughness sublayer (RS) of the actual city buildings is the maximum building height (1.5 3 times the mean building height), and a constant flux layer (CFL) exists in the lower part of the UBL.
Large Eddy Simulations of Colorless Distributed Combustion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulrahman, Husam F.; Jaberi, Farhad; Gupta, Ashwani
2014-11-01
Development of efficient and low-emission colorless distributed combustion (CDC) systems for gas turbine applications require careful examination of the role of various flow and combustion parameters. Numerical simulations of CDC in a laboratory-scale combustor have been conducted to carefully examine the effects of these parameters on the CDC. The computational model is based on a hybrid modeling approach combining large eddy simulation (LES) with the filtered mass density function (FMDF) equations, solved with high order numerical methods and complex chemical kinetics. The simulated combustor operates based on the principle of high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) and has shown to significantly reduce the NOx, and CO emissions while improving the reaction pattern factor and stability without using any flame stabilizer and with low pressure drop and noise. The focus of the current work is to investigate the mixing of air and hydrocarbon fuels and the non-premixed and premixed reactions within the combustor by the LES/FMDF with the reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the same flow conditions and configurations investigated experimentally. The main goal is to develop better CDC with higher mixing and efficiency, ultra-low emission levels and optimum residence time. The computational results establish the consistency and the reliability of LES/FMDF and its Lagrangian-Eulerian numerical methodology.
Unsteady RANS and Large Eddy simulations of multiphase diesel injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philipp, Jenna; Green, Melissa; Akih-Kumgeh, Benjamin
2015-11-01
Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of two-phase flow and evaporation of high pressure diesel injection into a quiescent, high temperature environment is investigated. Unsteady RANS and LES are turbulent flow simulation approaches used to determine complex flow fields. The latter allows for more accurate predictions of complex phenomena such as turbulent mixing and physio-chemical processes associated with diesel combustion. In this work we investigate a high pressure diesel injection using the Euler-Lagrange method for multiphase flows as implemented in the Star-CCM+ CFD code. A dispersed liquid phase is represented by Lagrangian particles while the multi-component gas phase is solved using an Eulerian method. Results obtained from the two approaches are compared with respect to spray penetration depth and air entrainment. They are also compared with experimental data taken from the Sandia Engine Combustion Network for ``Spray A''. Characteristics of primary and secondary atomization are qualitatively evaluated for all simulation modes.
Large eddy simulation of a plane turbulent wall jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dejoan, A.; Leschziner, M. A.
2005-02-01
The mean-flow and turbulence properties of a plane wall jet, developing in a stagnant environment, are studied by means of large eddy simulation. The Reynolds number, based on the inlet velocity Uo and the slot height b, is Re=9600, corresponding to recent well-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry and pulsed hot wire measurements of Eriksson et al. The relatively low Reynolds number and the high numerical resolution adopted (8.4 million nodes) allow all scales larger than about 10 Kolmogorov lengths to be captured. Of particular interest are the budgets for turbulence energy and Reynolds stresses, not available from experiments, and their inclusion sheds light on the processes which play a role in the interaction between the near-wall layer and the outer shear layer. Profiles of velocity and turbulent Reynolds stresses in the self-similar region are presented in inner and outer scaling and compared to experimental data. Included are further results for skin friction, evolution of integral quantities and third-order moments. Good agreement is observed, in most respects, between the simulated flow and the corresponding experiment. The budgets demonstrate, among a number of mechanisms, the decisive role played by turbulent transport (via the third moments) in the interaction region, across which information is transmitted between the near-wall layer and the outer layer.
Large eddy simulation of a pumped- storage reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Launay, Marina; Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo
2016-04-01
The last decades have seen an increasing number of pumped-storage hydropower projects all over the world. Pumped-storage schemes move water between two reservoirs located at different elevations to store energy and to generate electricity following the electricity demand. Thus the reservoirs can be subject to important water level variations occurring at the daily scale. These new cycles leads to changes in the hydraulic behaviour of the reservoirs. Sediment dynamics and sediment budgets are modified, sometimes inducing problems of erosion and deposition within the reservoirs. With the development of computer performances, the use of numerical techniques has become popular for the study of environmental processes. Among numerical techniques, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has arisen as an alternative tool for problems characterized by complex physics and geometries. This work uses the LES-COAST Code, a LES model under development in the framework of the Seditrans Project, for the simulation of an Upper Alpine Reservoir of a pumped-storage scheme. Simulations consider the filling (pump mode) and emptying (turbine mode) of the reservoir. The hydraulic results give a better understanding of the processes occurring within the reservoir. They are considered for an assessment of the sediment transport processes and of their consequences.
Large-eddy simulation of Hector the convector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaboureau, J.; Dauhut, T.; Escobar, J.; Mascart, P. J.
2013-12-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) with a grid mesh of 100 m was performed for a Hector thunderstorm observed on 30 November 2005 over the Tiwi Islands, north of Australia. On that day, ice particles have been measured reaching 19 km altitude. An idealized setup was build based on an early morning sounding corresponding to 0930 local time with periodic boundary conditions. The LES developed similar overshooting updrafts penetrating the stratosphere that compare well with the observation. Much of the water injected in the form of ice particles sublimates in the lower stratosphere. A net hydration is found with a 20 % increase of water vapor. While moistening appears to be robust to the grid spacing used (100, 200, 400, 800 m), grid spacing on the order of 100 m may be necessary for a reliable estimate of hydration. The model setup could help testing the hydration estimate in the frame of a cloud-resolving model intercomparaison. (a) Vertical section of total water vapor across Hector at 1400 LST along the line show in Figure 2. (b) Zoom on the upper part of (a). (c) Backscatter ratio from lidar observation; figure taken from Corti et al. (2008). In (a) and (b) the red line represents the 380-K isentrope is shown with the red (blue) line in (a) and (b) ((c), respectively Water vapor mixing ratio (shading, ppmv) and horizontal wind (vector, m/s) at 19 km-altitude at (top) 1400 and (bottom) 1800 LST.
Large-eddy simulation of sand dune morphodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team
2015-11-01
Sand dunes are natural features that form under complex interaction between turbulent flow and bed morphodynamics. We employ a fully-coupled 3D numerical model (Khosronejad and Sotiropoulos, 2014, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216) to perform high-resolution large-eddy simulations of turbulence and bed morphodynamics in a laboratory scale mobile-bed channel to investigate initiation, evolution and quasi-equilibrium of sand dunes (Venditti and Church, 2005, J. Geophysical Research, 110:F01009). We employ a curvilinear immersed boundary method along with convection-diffusion and bed-morphodynamics modules to simulate the suspended sediment and the bed-load transports respectively. The coupled simulation were carried out on a grid with more than 100 million grid nodes and simulated about 3 hours of physical time of dune evolution. The simulations provide the first complete description of sand dune formation and long-term evolution. The geometric characteristics of the simulated dunes are shown to be in excellent agreement with observed data obtained across a broad range of scales. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Large eddy simulation and its implementation in the COMMIX code.
Sun, J.; Yu, D.-H.
1999-02-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a numerical simulation method for turbulent flows and is derived by spatial averaging of the Navier-Stokes equations. In contrast with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) method, LES is capable of calculating transient turbulent flows with greater accuracy. Application of LES to differing flows has given very encouraging results, as reported in the literature. In recent years, a dynamic LES model that presented even better results was proposed and applied to several flows. This report reviews the LES method and its implementation in the COMMIX code, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory. As an example of the application of LES, the flow around a square prism is simulated, and some numerical results are presented. These results include a three-dimensional simulation that uses a code developed by one of the authors at the University of Notre Dame, and a two-dimensional simulation that uses the COMMIX code. The numerical results are compared with experimental data from the literature and are found to be in very good agreement.
Large-eddy simulation of crackle in heated supersonic jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Joseph W.; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Ham, Frank E.; Martens, Steve; Spyropoulos, John T.
2012-11-01
Crackle noise from heated supersonic jets is characterized by the presence of strong positive pressure impulses resulting in a strongly skewed far-field pressure signal (Ffowcs Williams et al., 1975). These strong positive pressure impulses are associated with N-shaped waveforms involving a shock-like compression, and thus is very annoying to observers when it occurs. In this talk, the origins of these N-shaped waveforms is investigated through high-fidelity large-eddy simulations (LES) applied to an over-expanded supersonic jet issuing from a faceted military-style nozzle. Two different levels of heating are considered. From the LES, we observe N-shaped waves associated with crackle to emerge directly from the jet turbulence. Furthermore, even at this extreme near-field location, we find that the emergent waves are already well-organized, having correlation over significant azimuthal distances. Computational resources were provided by a DoD HPCMP Challenge Project allocation at the ERDC and AFRL supercomputing centers.
Large eddy simulation of boundary layer flow under cnoidal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yin-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Ji-Fu; Zhang, Qiang
2016-02-01
Water waves in coastal areas are generally nonlinear, exhibiting asymmetric velocity profiles with different amplitudes of crest and trough. The behaviors of the boundary layer under asymmetric waves are of great significance for sediment transport in natural circumstances. While previous studies have mainly focused on linear or symmetric waves, asymmetric wave-induced flows remain unclear, particularly in the flow regime with high Reynolds numbers. Taking cnoidal wave as a typical example of asymmetric waves, we propose to use an infinite immersed plate oscillating cnoidally in its own plane in quiescent water to simulate asymmetric wave boundary layer. A large eddy simulation approach with Smagorinsky subgrid model is adopted to investigate the flow characteristics of the boundary layer. It is verified that the model well reproduces experimental and theoretical results. Then a series of numerical experiments are carried out to study the boundary layer beneath cnoidal waves from laminar to fully developed turbulent regimes at high Reynolds numbers, larger than ever studied before. Results of velocity profile, wall shear stress, friction coefficient, phase lead between velocity and wall shear stress, and the boundary layer thickness are obtained. The dependencies of these boundary layer properties on the asymmetric degree and Reynolds number are discussed in detail.
On the Computation of Sound by Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Streett, Craig L.; Sarkar, Sutanu
1997-01-01
The effect of the small scales on the source term in Lighthill's acoustic analogy is investigated, with the objective of determining the accuracy of large-eddy simulations when applied to studies of flow-generated sound. The distribution of the turbulent quadrupole is predicted accurately, if models that take into account the trace of the SGS stresses are used. Its spatial distribution is also correct, indicating that the low-wave-number (or frequency) part of the sound spectrum can be predicted well by LES. Filtering, however, removes the small-scale fluctuations that contribute significantly to the higher derivatives in space and time of Lighthill's stress tensor T(sub ij). The rms fluctuations of the filtered derivatives are substantially lower than those of the unfiltered quantities. The small scales, however, are not strongly correlated, and are not expected to contribute significantly to the far-field sound; separate modeling of the subgrid-scale density fluctuations might, however, be required in some configurations.
Study of Hydrokinetic Turbine Arrays with Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto
2014-11-01
Marine renewable energy is advancing towards commercialization, including electrical power generation from ocean, river, and tidal currents. The focus of this work is to develop numerical simulations capable of predicting the power generation potential of hydrokinetic turbine arrays-this includes analysis of unsteady and averaged flow fields, turbulence statistics, and unsteady loadings on turbine rotors and support structures due to interaction with rotor wakes and ambient turbulence. The governing equations of large-eddy-simulation (LES) are solved using a finite-volume method, and the presence of turbine blades are approximated by the actuator-line method in which hydrodynamic forces are projected to the flow field as a body force. The actuator-line approach captures helical wake formation including vortex shedding from individual blades, and the effects of drag and vorticity generation from the rough seabed surface are accounted for by wall-models. This LES framework was used to replicate a previous flume experiment consisting of three hydrokinetic turbines tested under various operating conditions and array layouts. Predictions of the power generation, velocity deficit and turbulence statistics in the wakes are compared between the LES and experimental datasets.
Mesoscale and Large-Eddy Simulations for Wind Energy
Marjanovic, N
2011-02-22
Operational wind power forecasting, turbine micrositing, and turbine design require high-resolution simulations of atmospheric flow over complex terrain. The use of both Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy (LES) simulations is explored for wind energy applications using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To adequately resolve terrain and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, grid nesting is used to refine the grid from mesoscale to finer scales. This paper examines the performance of the grid nesting configuration, turbulence closures, and resolution (up to as fine as 100 m horizontal spacing) for simulations of synoptically and locally driven wind ramping events at a West Coast North American wind farm. Interestingly, little improvement is found when using higher resolution simulations or better resolved turbulence closures in comparison to observation data available for this particular site. This is true for week-long simulations as well, where finer resolution runs show only small changes in the distribution of wind speeds or turbulence intensities. It appears that the relatively simple topography of this site is adequately resolved by all model grids (even as coarse as 2.7 km) so that all resolutions are able to model the physics at similar accuracy. The accuracy of the results is shown in this paper to be more dependent on the parameterization of the land-surface characteristics such as soil moisture rather than on grid resolution.
Large-eddy simulation of pulverized coal swirl jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone
2013-11-01
Coal is an important energy resource for future demand for electricity, as coal reserves are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels. In pulverized coal fired power plants, it is very important to improve the technology for the control of environmental pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and ash particles including unburned carbon. In order to achieve these requirements, understanding the pulverized coal combustion mechanism is necessary. However, the combustion process of the pulverized coal is not well clarified so far since pulverized coal combustion is a complicated phenomenon in which the maximum flame temperature exceeds 1500 degrees Celsius and some substances which can hardly be measured, for example, radical species and highly reactive solid particles are included. Accordingly, development of new combustion furnaces and burners requires high cost and takes a long period. In this study, a large-eddy simulation (LES) is applied to a pulverized coal combustion field and the results will be compared with the experiment. The results show that present LES can capture the general feature of the pulverized coal swirl jet flame.
Large eddy simulation for aerodynamics: status and perspectives.
Sagaut, Pierre; Deck, Sébastien
2009-07-28
The present paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of large eddy simulation (LES) and sequels for engineering applications related to aerodynamics. Most recent landmark achievements are presented. Two categories of problem may be distinguished whether the location of separation is triggered by the geometry or not. In the first case, LES can be considered as a mature technique and recent hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-LES methods do not allow for a significant increase in terms of geometrical complexity and/or Reynolds number with respect to classical LES. When attached boundary layers have a significant impact on the global flow dynamics, the use of hybrid RANS-LES remains the principal strategy to reduce computational cost compared to LES. Another striking observation is that the level of validation is most of the time restricted to time-averaged global quantities, a detailed analysis of the flow unsteadiness being missing. Therefore, a clear need for detailed validation in the near future is identified. To this end, new issues, such as uncertainty and error quantification and modelling, will be of major importance. First results dealing with uncertainty modelling in unsteady turbulent flow simulation are presented.
Large-eddy simulations of contrails in a turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picot, J.; Paoli, R.; Thouron, O.; Cariolle, D.
2014-11-01
In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. This is the first paper where fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The initial flow-field is composed by the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail decent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex break-up dominates over background turbulence at the end of the vortex regime and dominates the mixing with ambient air. This results in global microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are be slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. On the other hand, the background humidity and temperature have a first order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent and ongoing studies in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhongming; Liu, Heping; Russell, Eric S.; Huang, Jianping; Foken, Thomas; Oncley, Steven P.
2016-02-01
The effects of large eddies on turbulence structures and flux transport were studied using data collected over a flat cotton field during the Energy Balance Experiment 2000 in the San Joaquin Valley of California in August 2000. Flux convergence (FC; larger fluxes at 8.7 m than 2.7 m) and divergence (FD) in latent heat flux (LE) were observed in a disturbed, unstable atmospheric surface layer, and their magnitudes largely departed from the prediction of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. From our wavelet analysis, it was identified that large eddies affected turbulence structures, scalar distribution, and flux transport differently at 8.7 m and 2.7 m under the FC and FD conditions. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, time series data were decomposed into large eddies and small-scale background turbulence, the time-domain characteristics of large eddies were examined, and the flux contribution by large eddies was also determined quantitatively. The results suggest that large eddies over the frequency range of 0.002 Hz < f < 0.02 Hz (predominantly 300-400 m) enhanced the vertical velocity spectra more significantly at 8.7 m than 2.7 m, leading to an increased magnitude of the cospectra and thus LE at 8.7 m. In the FD case, however, these large eddies were not present and even suppressed in the vertical velocity spectra at 8.7 m. Consequently, the cospectra divergence over the low-frequency ranges primarily caused the LE divergence. This work implies that large eddies may either improve or degrade the surface energy balance closure by increasing or decreasing turbulent fluxes, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Payne, Fred R.
1992-01-01
Lumley's 1967 Moscow paper provided, for the first time, a completely rational definition of the physically-useful term 'large eddy', popular for a half-century. The numerical procedures based upon his results are: (1) PODT (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem), which extracts the Large Eddy structure of stochastic processes from physical or computer simulation two-point covariances, and 2) LEIM (Large-Eddy Interaction Model), a predictive scheme for the dynamical large eddies based upon higher order turbulence modeling. Earlier Lumley's work (1964) forms the basis for the final member of the triad of numerical procedures: this predicts the global neutral modes of turbulence which have surprising agreement with both structural eigenmodes and those obtained from the dynamical equations. The ultimate goal of improved engineering design tools for turbulence may be near at hand, partly due to the power and storage of 'supermicrocomputer' workstations finally becoming adequate for the demanding numerics of these procedures.
Large-eddy simulation in complex domains using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Kornblum, B.T.; Kollman, W.
1996-11-12
Finite element methods (FEM) are demonstrated in combination with large-eddy simulations (LES) as a valuable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a backward facing step.
Large eddy simulation of soot evolution in an aircraft combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz
2013-11-01
An integrated kinetics-based Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach for soot evolution in turbulent reacting flows is applied to the simulation of a Pratt & Whitney aircraft gas turbine combustor, and the results are analyzed to provide insights into the complex interactions of the hydrodynamics, mixing, chemistry, and soot. The integrated approach includes detailed models for soot, combustion, and the unresolved interactions between soot, chemistry, and turbulence. The soot model is based on the Hybrid Method of Moments and detailed descriptions of soot aggregates and the various physical and chemical processes governing their evolution. The detailed kinetics of jet fuel oxidation and soot precursor formation is described with the Radiation Flamelet/Progress Variable model, which has been modified to account for the removal of soot precursors from the gas-phase. The unclosed filtered quantities in the soot and combustion models, such as source terms, are closed with a novel presumed subfilter PDF approach that accounts for the high subfilter spatial intermittency of soot. For the combustor simulation, the integrated approach is combined with a Lagrangian parcel method for the liquid spray and state-of-the-art unstructured LES technology for complex geometries. Two overall fuel-to-air ratios are simulated to evaluate the ability of the model to make not only absolute predictions but also quantitative predictions of trends. The Pratt & Whitney combustor is a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor in which combustion first occurs in a fuel-rich primary zone characterized by a large recirculation zone. Dilution air is then added downstream of the recirculation zone, and combustion continues in a fuel-lean secondary zone. The simulations show that large quantities of soot are formed in the fuel-rich recirculation zone, and, furthermore, the overall fuel-to-air ratio dictates both the dominant soot growth process and the location of maximum soot volume fraction. At the higher fuel
Modelling of eddy currents related to large angle magnetic suspension test fixture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britcher, Colin P.; Foster, Lucas E.
1994-01-01
This report presents a preliminary analysis of the mathematical modelling of eddy current effects in a large-gap magnetic suspension system. It is shown that eddy currents can significantly affect the dynamic behavior and control of these systems, but are amenable to measurement and modelling. A theoretical framework is presented, together with a comparison of computed and experimental data related to the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture at NASA Langley Research Center.
Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi
2011-01-01
A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not
Large Eddy Simulation of Crashback in Marine Propulsors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Hyunchul
Crashback is an operating condition to quickly stop a propelled vehicle, where the propeller is rotated in the reverse direction to yield negative thrust. The crashback condition is dominated by the interaction of the free stream flow with the strong reverse flow. This interaction forms a highly unsteady vortex ring, which is a very prominent feature of crashback. Crashback causes highly unsteady loads and flow separation on the blade surface. The unsteady loads can cause propulsor blade damage, and also affect vehicle maneuverability. Crashback is therefore well known as one of the most challenging propeller states to analyze. This dissertation uses Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict the highly unsteady flow field in crashback. A non-dissipative and robust finite volume method developed by Mahesh et al. (2004) for unstructured grids is applied to flow around marine propulsors. The LES equations are written in a rotating frame of reference. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to understand the flow physics of crashback in marine propulsors with and without a duct, (2) to develop a finite volume method for highly skewed meshes which usually occur in complex propulsor geometries, and (3) to develop a sliding interface method for simulations of rotor-stator propulsor on parallel platforms. LES is performed for an open propulsor in crashback and validated against experiments performed by Jessup et al. (2004). The LES results show good agreement with experiments. Effective pressures for thrust and side-force are introduced to more clearly understand the physical sources of thrust and side-force. Both thrust and side-force are seen to be mainly generated from the leading edge of the suction side of the propeller. This implies that thrust and side-force have the same source---the highly unsteady leading edge separation. Conditional averaging is performed to obtain quantitative information about the complex flow physics of high- or low-amplitude events. The
Large eddy simulation of a high aspect ratio combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirtas, Mehmet
The present research investigates the details of mixture preparation and combustion in a two-stroke, small-scale research engine with a numerical methodology based on large eddy simulation (LES) technique. A major motivation to study such small-scale engines is their potential use in applications requiring portable power sources with high power density. The investigated research engine has a rectangular planform with a thickness very close to quenching limits of typical hydrocarbon fuels. As such, the combustor has a high aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of surface area to volume) that makes it different than the conventional engines which typically have small aspect ratios to avoid intense heat losses from the combustor in the bulk flame propagation period. In most other aspects, this engine involves all the main characteristics of traditional reciprocating engines. A previous experimental work has identified some major design problems and demonstrated the feasibility of cyclic combustion in the high aspect ratio combustor. Because of the difficulty of carrying out experimental studies in such small devices, resolving all flow structures and completely characterizing the flame propagation have been an enormously challenging task. The numerical methodology developed in this work attempts to complement these previous studies by providing a complete evolution of flow variables. Results of the present study demonstrated strengths of the proposed methodology in revealing physical processes occuring in a typical operation of the high aspect ratio combustor. For example, in the scavenging phase, the dominant flow structure is a tumble vortex that forms due to the high velocity reactant jet (premixed) interacting with the walls of the combustor. Since the scavenging phase is a long process (about three quarters of the whole cycle), the impact of the vortex is substantial on mixture preparation for the next combustion phase. LES gives the complete evolution of this flow
Minimum-dissipation models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Hyunji Jane; Rozema, Wybe; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2015-11-01
Minimum-dissipation eddy-viscosity models are a class of subgrid scale models for LES that give the minimum eddy dissipation required to dissipate the energy of subgrid scales. The QR minimum-dissipation model [Verstappen, J. Sci. Comp., 2011] gives good results in simulations of decaying grid turbulence carried out on an isotropic grid. In particular, due to the minimum dissipation property of the model, the predicted energy spectra are in very good agreement with the DNS results up to the cut-off wave number unlike other methods. However, its results on anisotropic grids are often unsatisfactory because the model does not properly incorporate the grid anisotropy. We propose the anisotropic minimum-dissipation (AMD) model [Rozema et al., submitted for publication, 2015], a minimum-dissipation model that generalizes the QR model to anisotropic grids. The AMD model is more cost effective than the dynamic Smagorinsky model, appropriately switches off in laminar and transitional flow on anisotropic grids, and its subgrid scale model is consistent with the theoretic subgrid tensor. Experiments show that the AMD model is as accurate as the dynamic Smagorinsky model and Vreman model in simulations of isotropic turbulence, temporal mixing layer, and turbulent channel flow. H. J. Bae acknowledges support from SGF. W. Rozema and R. Verstappen acknowledge sponsoring by NWO for the use of supercomputing facilities and the financial support to attend the CTR SP 2014.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, R. A.
2015-01-01
Steady-state and scale-resolving simulations have been performed for flow in and around a model scramjet combustor flameholder. The cases simulated corresponded to those used to examine this flowfield experimentally using particle image velocimetry. A variety of turbulence models were used for the steady-state Reynolds-averaged simulations which included both linear and non-linear eddy viscosity models. The scale-resolving simulations used a hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation strategy that is designed to be a large eddy simulation everywhere except in the inner portion (log layer and below) of the boundary layer. Hence, this formulation can be regarded as a wall-modeled large eddy simulation. This effort was undertaken to formally assess the performance of the hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation modeling approach in a flowfield of interest to the scramjet research community. The numerical errors were quantified for both the steady-state and scale-resolving simulations prior to making any claims of predictive accuracy relative to the measurements. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged results showed a high degree of variability when comparing the predictions obtained from each turbulence model, with the non-linear eddy viscosity model (an explicit algebraic stress model) providing the most accurate prediction of the measured values. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large eddy simulation results were carefully scrutinized to ensure that even the coarsest grid had an acceptable level of resolution for large eddy simulation, and that the time-averaged statistics were acceptably accurate. The autocorrelation and its Fourier transform were the primary tools used for this assessment. The statistics extracted from the hybrid simulation strategy proved to be more accurate than the Reynolds-averaged results obtained using the linear eddy viscosity models. However, there was no predictive improvement noted over the results obtained from the explicit
Large Eddy Simulation of Wake Vortices in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Yuh-Lang; Han, Jongil; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Feng; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
2000-01-01
The behavior of wake vortices in a convective boundary layer is investigated using a validated large eddy simulation model. Our results show that the vortices are largely deformed due to strong turbulent eddy motion while a sinusoidal Crow instability develops. Vortex rising is found to be caused by the updrafts (thermals) during daytime convective conditions and increases with increasing nondimensional turbulence intensity eta. In the downdraft region of the convective boundary layer, vortex sinking is found to be accelerated proportional to increasing eta, with faster speed than that in an ideal line vortex pair in an inviscid fluid. Wake vortices are also shown to be laterally transported over a significant distance due to large turbulent eddy motion. On the other hand, the decay rate of the, vortices in the convective boundary layer that increases with increasing eta, is larger in the updraft region than in the downdraft region because of stronger turbulence in the updraft region.
Discussion of the potential and limitations of direct and large-eddy simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, Charles G.; Zang, Thomas A.
1989-01-01
The full text of the discussion paper presented at the Whither Turbulence Workshop on the potential and limitations of direct and large-eddy simulations is provided. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing the role of numerics and mathematical theory in direct simulations of both compressible and incompressible flows. A variety of unresolved issues with large-eddy simulations such as their implementation in high-order finite difference codes, problems with defiltering, and modifications to accommodate integrations to solid boundaries are elaborated on. These as well as other points are discussed in detail along with the authors' views concerning the prospects for future research.
Turbulent Eddy Viscosity and Large-Scale Convection in the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, Richard B.
2000-01-01
It is suggested here that the laminar character of the large-scale deep convective flows appearing in numerical simulations of the Sun's convective envelope arises from the effect of turbulent eddy viscosity. Previously, M. Schwarzchild suggested the same idea to explain the observed surface granulation in the Sun.
Wind Energy-Related Atmospheric Boundary Layer Large-Eddy Simulation Using OpenFOAM: Preprint
Churchfield, M.J.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J.G.; Moriarty, P.J.
2010-08-01
This paper develops and evaluates the performance of a large-eddy simulation (LES) solver in computing the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over flat terrain under a variety of stability conditions, ranging from shear driven (neutral stratification) to moderately convective (unstable stratification).
Computation of turbulent channel flow using Large-Eddy Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.; Payne, F. R.
1987-01-01
The objective of the paper is to investigate the nature and values of closure parameters appearing in the proposed Large-Eddy Interaction Model for prediction of turbulent flow field. Effects of two closure parameters on predicted Reynolds stresses and other turbulence structural quantities are examined for channel flows at two Reynolds numbers.
Large-Eddy Simulations and Lidar Measurements of Vortex-Pair Breakup in Aircraft Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.; Poole, L. R.; DeCoursey, R. J.; Hansen, G. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kent, G. S.
1998-01-01
Results of large-eddy simulations of an aircraft wake are compared with results from ground-based lidar measurements made at NASA Langley Research Center during the Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interaction Flight Experiment field tests. Brief reviews of the design of the field test for obtaining the evolution of wake dispersion behind a Boeing 737 and of the model developed for simulating such wakes are given. Both the measurements and the simulations concentrate on the period from a few seconds to a few minutes after the wake is generated, during which the essentially two-dimensional vortex pair is broken up into a variety of three-dimensional eddies. The model and experiment show similar distinctive breakup eddies induced by the mutual interactions of the vortices, after perturbation by the atmospheric motions.
Large-eddy simulation of very-large-scale motions in atmospheric boundary-layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jiannong; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
In the last few decades, laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers, performed at low to moderate Reynolds numbers, have found very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) in the logarithmic and outer regions. The size of VLSMs was found to be 10-20 times as large as the boundary-layer thickness. Recently, few studies based on field experiments examined the presence of VLSMs in neutral atmospheric boundary-layer flows, which are invariably at very high Reynolds numbers. Very large scale structures similar to those observed in laboratory-scale experiments have been found and characterized. However, it is known that field measurements are more challenging than laboratory-based measurements, and can lack resolution and statistical convergence. Such challenges have implications on the robustness of the analysis, which may be further adversely affected by the use of Taylor's hypothesis to convert time series to spatial data. We use large-eddy simulation (LES) to investigate VLSMs in atmospheric boundary-layer flows. In order to make sure that the largest flow structures are properly resolved, the horizontal domain size is chosen to be much larger than the standard domain size. It is shown that the contributions to the resolved turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress from VLSMs are significant. Therefore, the large computational domain adopted here is essential for the purpose of investigating VLSMs. The spatially coherent structures associated with VLSMs are characterized through flow visualization and statistical analysis. The instantaneous velocity fields in horizontal planes give evidence of streamwise-elongated flow structures of low-speed fluid with negative fluctuation of the streamwise velocity component, and which are flanked on either side by similarly elongated high-speed structures. The pre-multiplied power spectra and two-point correlations indicate that the scales of these streak-like structures are very large. These features
Development of Large-Eddy Interaction Model for inhomogeneous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.; Payne, F. R.
1987-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of a currently proposed model, with minimum empiricism, for calculation of the Reynolds stresses and other turbulence structural quantities in a channel. The current Large-Eddy Interaction Model not only yields Reynolds stresses but also presents an opportunity to illuminate typical characteristic motions of large-scale turbulence and the phenomenological aspects of engineering models for two Reynolds numbers.
Large Eddy Simulations of Severe Convection Induced Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred
2011-01-01
Convective storms can pose a serious risk to aviation operations since they are often accompanied by turbulence, heavy rain, hail, icing, lightning, strong winds, and poor visibility. They can cause major delays in air traffic due to the re-routing of flights, and by disrupting operations at the airports in the vicinity of the storm system. In this study, the Terminal Area Simulation System is used to simulate five different convective events ranging from a mesoscale convective complex to isolated storms. The occurrence of convection induced turbulence is analyzed from these simulations. The validation of model results with the radar data and other observations is reported and an aircraft-centric turbulence hazard metric calculated for each case is discussed. The turbulence analysis showed that large pockets of significant turbulence hazard can be found in regions of low radar reflectivity. Moderate and severe turbulence was often found in building cumulus turrets and overshooting tops.
High Speed Jet Noise Prediction Using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lele, Sanjiva K.
2002-01-01
Current methods for predicting the noise of high speed jets are largely empirical. These empirical methods are based on the jet noise data gathered by varying primarily the jet flow speed, and jet temperature for a fixed nozzle geometry. Efforts have been made to correlate the noise data of co-annular (multi-stream) jets and for the changes associated with the forward flight within these empirical correlations. But ultimately these emipirical methods fail to provide suitable guidance in the selection of new, low-noise nozzle designs. This motivates the development of a new class of prediction methods which are based on computational simulations, in an attempt to remove the empiricism of the present day noise predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei
2011-11-01
In this investigation, we implement a high-order three-dimensional spectral difference (SD) method to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on an unstructured moving deformable grid. Presently, the SD method is used to perform simulations of compressible flow past an oscillating circular cylinder. Oscillations parallel and normal to the free stream are considered at a fixed Reynolds number of 4000, oscillation frequency of 1 Hz , and oscillation amplitude of 20% cylinder diameter. We extend this study to large eddy simulations with the integration of a Smagorinsky-type subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Computational results will be compared to experimental data. The effectiveness of the large eddy simulation in capturing the vortex dynamics in the wake is analyzed. This work is funded by the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department at George Washington University
Large eddy simulation of mixing between hot and cold sodium flows - comparison with experiments
Simoneau, J.P.; Noe, H.; Menant, B.
1995-09-01
The large eddy simulation is becoming a potential powerful tool for the calculation of turbulent flows. In nuclear liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the knowledge of the turbulence characteristics is of great interest for the prediction and the analysis of thermal stripping phenomena. The objective of this paper is to give a contribution in the evaluation of the large eddy simulation technique is an individual case. The problem chosen is the case of the mixing between hot and cold sodium flows. The computations are compared with available sodium tests. This study shows acceptable qualitative results but the simple model used is not able to predict the turbulence characteristics. More complex models including larger domains around the fluctuating zone and fluctuating boundary conditions could be necessary. Validation works are continuing.
Structural subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hao; Rutland, Christopher J.
2016-08-01
Accurately modeling nonlinear interactions in turbulence is one of the key challenges for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence. In this article, we review recent studies on structural subgrid scale modeling, focusing on evaluating how well these models predict the effects of small scales. The article discusses a priori and a posteriori test results. Other nonlinear models are briefly discussed, and future prospects are noted.
Direct-Numerical and Large-Eddy Simulations of a Non-Equilibrium Turbulent Kolmogorov Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, S. L.; Shebalin, J. V.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1999-01-01
A non-equilibrium form of turbulent Kolmogorov flow is set up by making an instantaneous change in the amplitude of the spatially-periodic forcing. It is found that the response of the flow to this instantaneous change becomes more dramatic as the wavenumber of the forcing is increased, and, at the same time, that the faithfulness with which the large-eddy-simulation results agree with the direct-numerical results decreases.
Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors of stacked large-eddy breakup devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindemann, A. M.
1986-01-01
Direct measurements are made of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors, referenced to a flat plate, for turbulent boundary layer flows altered by stacked arrays of large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs). These are of interest as drag reducers when inserted into a boundary layer transverse to the flow. The data thus obtained furnish evidence that heat transfer, skin friction drag, and LEBU performance factors in low Reynolds number flows are sensitive to flow history. Attention is given to the apparatus and measurement procedures used.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Premixed Turbulent Combustion Using the G-Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duchamp de Lageneste, Laurent; Pitsch, Heinz
2000-11-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of premixed turbulent combustion is now considered to be a promising field. It has the potential to improve predictions of reacting flows over classical Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approaches which lack precision. The difficulties associated with large eddy simulations of such flows are related to the fact that the reaction zone is usually much smaller than the LES grid. In the present study, a level-set approach is used to describe turbulent flame propagation. In this method, the flame is represented by an iso-surface of a scalar field described by the G-equation. The main problem in this method is to specify the turbulent burning velocity which replaces the chemical source term appearing in progress variable approaches. An expression for this quantity, valid in both the corrugated flamelet and thin reaction zone regime has recently been proposed in the context of RANS by Peters (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 1999). In the present work a formulation of the G-equation and the subgrid part of the turbulent burning velocity will be given. In particular, the G-field is treated as a distance function in order to be able to define quantities as strain or curvature. Periodic reinitializations are performed to maintain this structure and avoid the use of an artificial diffusion term. To validate the model, computational results from the large eddy simulation of a bunsen-burner flame is compared with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schalkwijk, Jerôme; Jonker, Harm J. J.; Siebesma, A. Pier
2016-07-01
The low-frequency contribution to the systematic and random sampling errors in single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). We use a continuous LES integration that covers a full year of realistic weather conditions over Cabauw, the Netherlands, and emulate eddy-covariance measurements. We focus on the daytime flux imbalance, when the turbulent flux is sufficiently resolved. Averaged over the year, daytime single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements lead to a significant systematic underestimation of the turbulent flux. This underestimation depends on the averaging period and measurement height. For a 3600-s averaging period at 16-m height, the systematic underestimation reduces to a few percent, but for 900-s averaged tall-tower measurements at 100-m height, the fluxes are systematically underestimated by over 20 %. The year-long dataset facilitates an investigation into the environmental conditions that influence the eddy-covariance flux imbalance. The imbalance problem is found to vary widely from day to day, strongly dependent on the flow regime. In general, the imbalance problem reduces with increased mean wind speed, but days having the largest imbalance (over twice the average) are characterized by roll vortices that occur for average wind speeds, typically having a boundary-layer height (z_i) to Obukhov length ( L) ratio of 10 < -z_i/L < 100.
Nesting large-eddy simulations within mesoscale simulations for wind energy applications
Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A
2008-09-08
With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES), which resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades and account for complex terrain, are possible with a range of commercial and open-source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to 'local' sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecasting model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain.
Fast solver for large scale eddy current non-destructive evaluation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Naiguang
Eddy current testing plays a very important role in non-destructive evaluations of conducting test samples. Based on Faraday's law, an alternating magnetic field source generates induced currents, called eddy currents, in an electrically conducting test specimen. The eddy currents generate induced magnetic fields that oppose the direction of the inducing magnetic field in accordance with Lenz's law. In the presence of discontinuities in material property or defects in the test specimen, the induced eddy current paths are perturbed and the associated magnetic fields can be detected by coils or magnetic field sensors, such as Hall elements or magneto-resistance sensors. Due to the complexity of the test specimen and the inspection environments, the availability of theoretical simulation models is extremely valuable for studying the basic field/flaw interactions in order to obtain a fuller understanding of non-destructive testing phenomena. Theoretical models of the forward problem are also useful for training and validation of automated defect detection systems. Theoretical models generate defect signatures that are expensive to replicate experimentally. In general, modelling methods can be classified into two categories: analytical and numerical. Although analytical approaches offer closed form solution, it is generally not possible to obtain largely due to the complex sample and defect geometries, especially in three-dimensional space. Numerical modelling has become popular with advances in computer technology and computational methods. However, due to the huge time consumption in the case of large scale problems, accelerations/fast solvers are needed to enhance numerical models. This dissertation describes a numerical simulation model for eddy current problems using finite element analysis. Validation of the accuracy of this model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental measurements of steam generator tube wall defects. These simulations generating two
Wind turbine wakes in forest and neutral plane wall boundary layer large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröttle, Josef; Piotrowski, Zbigniew; Gerz, Thomas; Englberger, Antonia; Dörnbrack, Andreas
2016-09-01
Wind turbine wake flow characteristics are studied in a strongly sheared and turbulent forest boundary layer and a neutral plane wall boundary layer flow. The reference simulations without wind turbine yield similar results as earlier large-eddy simulations by Shaw and Schumann (1992) and Porte-Agel et al. (2000). To use the fields from the homogeneous turbulent boundary layers on the fly as inflow fields for the wind turbine wake simulations, a new and efficient methodology was developed for the multiscale geophysical flow solver EULAG. With this method fully developed turbulent flow fields can be achieved upstream of the wind turbine which are independent of the wake flow. The large-eddy simulations reproduce known boundary-layer statistics as mean wind profile, momentum flux profile, and eddy dissipation rate of the plane wall and the forest boundary layer. The wake velocity deficit is more asymmetric above the forest and recovers faster downstream compared to the velocity deficit in the plane wall boundary layer. This is due to the inflection point in the mean streamwise velocity profile with corresponding turbulent coherent structures of high turbulence intensity in the strong shear flow above the forest.
Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method
Darlington, R
1999-12-01
This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.
Large-eddy simulation of the turbulent flow in the downstream region of a backward-facing step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silveira Neto, A.; Grand, D.; Metais, O.; Lesieur, M.
1991-05-01
A numerical simulation of a complex turbulent shear flow using large-eddy simulation techniques is carried out. The filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a finite-volume method. The subgrid model is a local adaptation to the physical space of isotropic spectral eddy-viscosity models. The statistics of the mean field are in good agreement with the experimental data available, corresponding to a low step. Calculations in a high-step case show that the eddy structure of the flow presents striking analogies with the plane shear layers, with large billows shed behind the step, and longitudinal hairpin vortices strained between these billows.
Modeling dilute sediment suspension using large-eddy simulation with a dynamic mixed model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Yi-Ju; Fringer, Oliver B.
2008-11-01
Transport of suspended sediment in high Reynolds number channel flows [Re=O(600 000)] is simulated using large-eddy simulation along with a dynamic-mixed model (DMM). Because the modeled sediment concentration is low and the bulk Stokes' number (Stb) is small during the simulation, the sediment concentration is calculated through the use of the Eulerian approach. In order to employ the DMM for the suspended sediment, we formulate a generalized bottom boundary condition in a finite-volume formulation that accounts for sediment flux from the bed without requiring specific details of the underlying turbulence model. This enables the use of the pickup function without requiring any assumptions about the behavior of the eddy viscosity. Using our new boundary condition, simulations indicate that the resolved component of the vertical flux is one order of magnitude greater than the resolved subfilter-scale flux, which is in turn one order of magnitude greater than the eddy-diffusive flux. Analysis of the behavior of the suspended sediment above the bed indicates the existence of three basic time scales that arise due to varying degrees of competition between the upward turbulent flux and downward settling flux. Instantaneous sediment concentration and velocity fields indicate that streamwise vortices account for a bulk of the resolved flux of sediment from the bed.
Oil droplet plume evolution in Langmuir turbulence: a Large Eddy Simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2014-11-01
When the oil plumes from deep water blowouts reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), their fates on the sea surface are highly affected by the interactions with wind and wave-generated Langmuir turbulence in the OML. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) to quantify the complex oil dispersion phenomena. We find that although the instantaneous surface oil slick patterns are very complex, the time-averaged surface oil plume can be parameterized as a Gaussian-type plume. The centerline of the surface plume is inclined clockwise (in the Northern Hemisphere) with respect to the wind and wave direction due to Ekman transport. The initial width of the mean surface plume and the inclination angle increase as the droplet size decreases. The surface plume width grows downstream, with a growth rate that varies non-monotonically with oil droplet size. Using LES data, we evaluate the eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity following the K-profile parameterization (KPP) framework. We also evaluate stress-strain misalignments caused by Stokes drift and evaluate means of parameterizing these effects. Improvements to the KPP model will be discussed. This study is supported by a Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative research grant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neilley, Peter Paul
1990-03-01
Through the entire life cycles of the PAs, the maxima in eddy activity (i.e. storm tracks) closely follow but are somewhat downstream of the regions of large-scale 700mb baroclinicity. The primary maxima are shifted well north of the climatological-mean storm track during the blocking cases (positive PAs) and well to the south during the zonal cases (negative PAs). Anomalous eddy activity is generally stronger at upper levels than at the surface. At least 6 days prior to the onset of positive PAs in both regions, significantly enhanced eddy activity appears well upstream of the point where the block subsequently forms, and spreads eastward in time reaching the key region by the time of onset. About a week prior to decay, the upstream eddy activity anomalies begin to weaken. Eddy activity is suppressed within the blocked region throughout the life cycle of the PA. Negative PAs are similar, but of opposite sign with the Pacific cases having the least anomalous eddy activity observed. During blocking, significant anomalous eddy anticyclonic forcing is found upstream (Atlantic cases) or near (Pacific cases) the block during all phases of the life cycles. The upper-level horizontal (barotropic) component is strongest during the mature phase suggesting that strong eddy vorticity forcing is playing a significant role in maintaining the block. The total eddy forcing is found to lead the development of both the positive and negative Atlantic cases by about five days suggesting that, in these cases, forcing by synoptic -scale eddies may also play an important role in the development of the flow anomalies. The results for the Atlantic positive cases are somewhat reminiscent of some sudden stratospheric warming events. For the Pacific cases, no clear temporal differences are found between the large-scale flow and the eddy forcings although the forcing patterns are broadly similar to the corresponding patterns during the Atlantic cases. Again, the Pacific negative cases appear
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Coaxial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, Robert A.; Edwards, Jack R.
2010-01-01
Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment was designed to study compressible mixing flow phenomenon under conditions that are representative of those encountered in scramjet combustors. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The initial value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was observed when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations also over-predicted the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, while under-predicting the rate of mixing when argon was used as the injectant. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions were suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Second-order turbulence statistics were also compared to their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts to evaluate the effectiveness of common turbulence closure
Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavitating Multiphase Flow for Liquid Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cailloux, M.; Helie, J.; Reveillon, J.; Demoulin, F. X.
2015-12-01
This paper presents a numerical method for modelling a compressible multiphase flow that involves phase transition between liquid and vapour in the context of gasoline injection. A discontinuous compressible two fluid mixture based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) implementation is employed to represent the phases of liquid, vapour and air. The mass transfer between phases is modelled by standard models such as Kunz or Schnerr-Sauer but including the presence of air in the gas phase. Turbulence is modelled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to catch instationnarities and coherent structures. Eventually the modelling approach matches favourably experimental data concerning the effect of cavitation on atomisation process.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, Craig J.
1990-01-01
This research is involved with the implementation of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program to extend the present capabilities of this method was initiated for the treatment of chemically reacting flows. In the DNS efforts, the focus is on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and non-equilibrium kinetics modelings in high speed reacting flows. Emphasis was on the simulations of simple flows, namely homogeneous compressible flows, and temporally developing high speed mixing layers.
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at high Reynolds number stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Lou; Raessi, Mehdi
2015-11-01
Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz Instabilities (KHI) at high Reynolds numbers are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation technique. Reynolds numbers up to 100,000 are achieved using our model. The resulting data set is used to examine the effect of Reynolds number on various statistics, including dissipation flux coefficient, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and Thorpe length scale. It is shown that KHI are qualitatively different at high Re, up to and including the onset of vortex pairing and billow collapse and quantitatively different afterward. The effect of Richardson number is also examined. The results are discussed as they apply to ocean experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nouri Gheimassi, Arash; Givi, Peyman; Nik, Mehdi B.; Pope, Stephen B.
2015-11-01
A new model is developed which accounts for the effects of subgrid scale pressure in the context of the filtered density function (FDF) formulation. This results in a pressure-velocity-scalar filtered mass density function (PVS-FMDF), which is suitable for large eddy simulation of compressible turbulence. Following its mathematical definition, an exact transport equation is derived for the PVS-FMDF. This equation is modeled in a probabilistic manner by a system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The consistency and the predictive capability of the model are established by conducting LES of a three-dimensional compressible mixing layer, and comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.
Large-eddy simulation of spectral coherence in a wind turbine wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez, A.; Crespo, A.; Migoya, E.; Garcia, J.
2008-01-01
This work is mainly dedicated to the study of the characteristics of spectral coherence of turbulence fluctuations in wind turbine wakes. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been implemented using a large-eddy simulation (LES) approach, which is thought to be conceptually more suitable for studying the turbulence evolution in a wind turbine wake. Comparisons with experimental data from the Nørrekær Enge II Windfarm, in Denmark, and with an analytical model proposed by Panofsky and Dutton have been performed, and the results are found to be in reasonable agreement with both.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Flow induced vibration in primary cooling system of the Japan Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been investigated. The primary cooling system consists of a large diameter pipe and a pipe elbow with short curvature radius corresponding to its diameter (short-elbow). Flow-induced vibration by flow through the short-elbow is an important issue in design study of the JSFR, because it may affect to structural integrity of the piping. In this paper, numerical simulations for several pipe elbows with different pipe diameters and curvature radii in literature were conducted at Reynolds number conditions from Re=500 to 1.47x107 to investigate unsteady flow behavior through the short-elbow, including validation study of an in-house LES code (MUGTHES). Numerical results in each condition were compared with the experimental results in literature. Unsteady flow characteristics and pressure fluctuation generation mechanism in the short-elbow were clarified in relation to the large-scale eddy motion.
Sunset decay of the convective turbulence with Large-Eddy Simulation under realistic conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizza, U.; Miglietta, M. M.; Degrazia, G. A.; Acevedo, O. C.; Marques Filho, E. P.
2013-10-01
Large-Eddy Simulation is performed for a single day from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) field program. This study investigates an observed case of evening transition boundary layer over land. Parameters of the ambient atmosphere in the LES-decay studies conducted so far were typically prescribed in an idealized form. To provide suitable data under the wide range of the PBL weather conditions, the LES should be able to adequately reproduce the PBL turbulence dynamics including-if possible-baroclinicity, radiation, large scale advection and not only be related to a decreasing surface heating. In addition LES-decay studies usually assume that the sensible heat flux decreases instantaneously or with a very short time scale. The main purpose of this investigation is to study the decay of boundary-layer average turbulent kinetic energy at sunset with Large-Eddy Simulation that is forced with realistic environment conditions. This allows investigating the Turbulent Kinetic Energy decay over the realistic time scale that is observed in the atmosphere. During the intermediate and last stage of decay of the boundary-layer average Turbulent Kinetic Energy the exponents of the decay power law t go from 2 to 6, as evidenced by experimental results and recent analytical modeling in the surface layer.
ENDLESS: An extended nonperiodic domain large-eddy simulation approach for scalar plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bicheng; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles; Chamecki, Marcelo
2016-05-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has proven to be a valuable tool for high-fidelity modeling of environmental and geophysical turbulent flows. An important application of LES is to study the transport of effluents (e.g. oils from a subsea blowout) in the ocean mixed layer (OML). Oil plumes being transported in the OML experience the action of shear-generated turbulence, Langmuir circulations, Ekman transport and submesoscale quasi-geostrophic eddies. To resolve such turbulent processes, grid sizes of a few meters are desirable while horizontal domain sizes of LES are typically restricted from hundreds of meters to a few kilometers, for LES to remain practically affordable. Yet transported oil plumes evolve to large scales extending to tens or even hundreds of kilometers. In this study, the Extended Nonperiodic Domain LES for Scalar transport (ENDLESS) is proposed as a multi-scale approach to tackle this challenge while being computationally affordable. The basic idea is to simulate the shear turbulence and Langmuir circulations on a small horizontal domain with periodic boundary conditions while the resulting transport velocity field is replicated periodically following adaptively the large-scale plume as it evolves spatially towards much larger scales. This approach also permits the superposition of larger-scale quasi two-dimensional flow motions on the oil advection, allowing for coupling with regional circulation models. A validation case and two sample applications to oil plume evolution in the OML are presented in order to demonstrate key features and computational speedup associated with the ENDLESS method.
Shifted periodic boundary conditions for large-eddy simulation of wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan
2015-11-01
In wall-bounded turbulent flow simulations, periodic boundary conditions combined with insufficiently long domains lead to persistent spanwise locking of large-scale turbulent structures. In the context of wind-farm large-eddy simulations, this effect induces artificial spanwise inhomogeneities in the time-averaged local wind conditions as seen by the wind turbines, leading to spurious differences in power prediction between otherwise equivalent columns of wind turbines in a wind farm (a column is defined here as a set of turbines parallel to the mean flow direction). We propose a shifted periodic boundary condition that eliminates this effect without the need for excessive streamwise domain lengths. Instead of straightforwardly reintroducing the velocity from the outlet plane back at the inlet, as in classic periodic boundary conditions, this plane is first shifted in the spanwise direction by a predefined and constant distance. The method is tested based on a set of direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow, and large-eddy simulations of a high Reynolds number rough-wall half-channel flow. Finally, we apply the method in a precursor simulation, generating inlet conditions for a spatially developing wind-farm boundary layer. WM and JM are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). CM acknowledges support by the NSF (grant IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).
Sea salt aerosol deposition in the coastal zone: A large eddy simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Tinghao; Chamecki, Marcelo; Yu, Xiping
2016-11-01
Inland deposition of sea salt aerosol (SSA) particles emitted over the ocean is studied via numerical and theoretical models. The focus is on the large particles that contribute most to the total mass deposition. Large eddy simulations of idealized sea wind are used to investigate the development of the particle plume over land for different particle sizes and to validate some of the assumptions in the theoretical model. An existing theoretical modeling framework for particle dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer is adapted to the problem of SSA deposition and it is shown to be adequate for the large particles of interest here. The decay of monodisperse SSA particle deposition flux with distance from the shoreline is shown to have a power-law behavior far from the shoreline. A complete model for predicting mass deposition as a function of distance is formulated and shown to present reasonable agreement with existing data.
Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.
2015-04-30
Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at
Study of Tip-Clearance Flow Using Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Donghyun; Mittal, Rajat; Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz
2002-11-01
In liquid handling systems such as ducted propellers and pumps, low pressure fluctuations downstream of the rotor tip-gap region can induce cavitation which can lead to undesirable noise and structural vibration and erosion. The objective of this study is to represent the wide range of important flow scales, from the large structures associated with the blade wake and the rotor tip-leakage vortex to the broadband turbulent boundary-layer eddies. For this purpose a newly developed large-eddy simulation (LES) solver which combines an immersed-boundary technique with a generalized curvilinear structured grid is being employed. The computations are being benchmarked against experiments that have been conducted at Virginia Tech. Data from the ongoing simulations shows qualitative agreement with the experiments. The simulations also show that the interaction of the moving end-wall boundary layer, blade boundary layers and tip-leakage flow creates an extremely complicated flow downstream of the rotor tip which is dominated by a number of distinct vortex structures. The characteristics of the pressure fluctuations and their connections to the end-wall vortex structures is being analyzed in detail. We will provide a brief overview of the key flow statistics and features extracted from the simulations.
A spectral-element dynamic model for the Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapelier, J.-B.; Lodato, G.
2016-09-01
A spectral dynamic modeling procedure for Large-Eddy simulation is introduced in the context of discontinuous finite element methods. The proposed sub-grid scale model depends on a turbulence sensor built from the computation of a polynomial energy spectrum in each of the discretization elements. The evaluation of the energy decay gives an estimation of the quality of the resolution in each element and allows for adapting the intensity of the sub-grid dissipation locally. This approach is simple, robust, efficient and it is shown that the sub-grid model adapts to the amount of numerical dissipation in order to provide an accurate representation of the true sub-grid stresses. The present approach is tested for the large-eddy simulation of transitional, fully-developed and wall-bounded turbulence. In particular, results are reported for the Taylor-Green vortex and periodic turbulent channel flows at moderate Reynolds number. For these configurations, the new model shows an accurate description of turbulent phenomena at relatively coarse resolutions.
Large-eddy simulation of a solid-particles suspension in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
We decribe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer. The underlying approach to simulate the solid-particle laden flow is Eulerian-Eulerian in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of sand in desert sandstorms. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of sandstorms.
An Examination of Parameters Affecting Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Past a Square Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, M. R.; Georgiadis, N. J.
2014-01-01
Separated flow over a bluff body is analyzed via large eddy simulations. The turbulent flow around a square cylinder features a variety of complex flow phenomena such as highly unsteady vortical structures, reverse flow in the near wall region, and wake turbulence. The formation of spanwise vortices is often times artificially suppressed in computations by either insufficient depth or a coarse spanwise resolution. As the resolution is refined and the domain extended, the artificial turbulent energy exchange between spanwise and streamwise turbulence is eliminated within the wake region. A parametric study is performed highlighting the effects of spanwise vortices where the spanwise computational domain's resolution and depth are varied. For Re=22,000, the mean and turbulent statistics computed from the numerical large eddy simulations (NLES) are in good agreement with experimental data. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the wake of the cylinder. Mesh independence is illustrated by comparing a mesh resolution of 2 million to 16 million. Sensitivities to time stepping were minimized and sampling frequency sensitivities were nonpresent. While increasing the spanwise depth and resolution can be costly, this practice was found to be necessary to eliminating the artificial turbulent energy exchange.
Evaluation of Subgrid-Scale Models for Large Eddy Simulation of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blaisdell, Gregory A.
1996-01-01
The objective of this project was to evaluate and develop subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models for large eddy simulations (LES) of compressible flows. During the first phase of the project results from LES using the dynamic SGS model were compared to those of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible homogeneous turbulence. The second phase of the project involved implementing the dynamic SGS model in a NASA code for simulating supersonic flow over a flat-plate. The model has been successfully coded and a series of simulations has been completed. One of the major findings of the work is that numerical errors associated with the finite differencing scheme used in the code can overwhelm the SGS model and adversely affect the LES results. Attached to this overview are three submitted papers: 'Evaluation of the Dynamic Model for Simulations of Compressible Decaying Isotropic Turbulence'; 'The effect of the formulation of nonlinear terms on aliasing errors in spectral methods'; and 'Large-Eddy Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Compressible Boundary Layer Flow'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichkoohi, Ali Lohrasbi; Tousi, Abolghasem Mesgarpour
2014-10-01
Today, with nonstop improvement in computational power, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a high demanding research tool for predicting engineering flows. Such flows on high pressure condition like diesel engines is extensively employed in ground and marine transportation, oblige the designer to control and predict toxic pollutants, while maintaining or improving their high thermal efficiency. This becomes one of the main challenging issues in decades. In the present work, numerical investigation of diffusion flame dynamics is performed in the near-field of high-Reynolds jet flow on high pressure condition encountered in diesel engine applications. This work discusses the implementation of Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) combustion model by the approaches of large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation results show that LES, in comparison with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation predicts and captures transient phenomena very well. These phenomena such as unsteadiness and curvature are inherent in the near-field of high Reynolds diffusion flame. The outcomes of this research are compared and validated by other researchers' results. Detailed comparisons of the statistics show good agreement with the corresponding experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Steven; Sahni, Onkar; RPI Team
2015-11-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) provide high fidelity in which the large-scale turbulent structures are resolved while their interactions with the subgrid scales are modeled. In a Smagorinsky-based LES approach, the unresolved stresses are modeled using an eddy viscosity which in-turn involves a model parameter that is unknown a priori and varies in space and time for complex problems. Therefore, dynamic procedures are employed to determine this parameter where averaging is applied to make the procedure robust. When applicable, spatial averaging is applied across homogeneous directions. However, for complex flows the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model employing averaging over pathlines becomes attractive. In contrast to the dynamic Smagorinsky model, variational multiscale (VMS) models have also been developed for LES. In this study, we investigate dynamic mixed models for LES based on the combinations of the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model and the residual-based VMS (RBVMS) approach to study complex, inhomogeneous turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. Applications range from flow through a channel to flow over an airfoil at a moderate angle of attack. Experimental and DNS data are used to make comparisons.
A dynamic wall model for Large-Eddy simulations of wind turbine dedicated airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
J, Calafell; O, Lehmkuhl; A, Carmona; D, Pérez-Segarra C.; A, Oliva
2014-06-01
This work aims at modelling the flow behavior past a wind turbine dedicated airfoil at high Reynolds number and large angle of attack (AoA). The DU-93-W-210 airfoil has been selected. To do this, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed. Momentum equations have been solved with a parallel unstructured symmetry preserving formulation while the wall-adapting local-eddy viscosity model within a variational multi-scale framework (VMS- WALE) is used as the subgrid-scales model. Since LES calculations are still very expensive at high Reynolds Number, specially at the near-wall region, a dynamic wall model has been implemented in order to overcome this limitation. The model has been validated with a very unresolved Channel Flow case at Reτ = 2000. Afterwards, the model is also tested with the Ahmed Car case, that from the flow physics point of view is more similar to an stalled airfoil than the Channel Flow is, including flow features as boundary layer detachment and recirculations. This case has been selected because experimental results of mean velocity profiles are available. Finally, a flow around a DU-93-W-210 airfoil is computed at Re = 3 x 106 and with an AoA of 15°. Numerical results are presented in comparison with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or experimental data for all cases.
Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.
2014-11-27
Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than
Large Eddy Simulation study of fully developed thermal wind-turbine array boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, Charles; Calaf, Marc; Parlange, Marc B.
2010-05-01
It is well known that when wind turbines are deployed in large arrays, their efficiency decreases due to complex interactions among themselves and with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For wind farms whose length exceeds the height of the ABL by over an order of magnitude, a "fully developed" flow regime can be established. In this asymptotic regime, changes in the stream-wise direction can be neglected and the relevant exchanges occur in the vertical direction. Such a fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layer (WTABL) has recently been studied using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) under neutral stability conditions (Calaf et al. Physics of Fluids 22, 2010). Related wind-tunnel experiments on the WTABL are reported in Cal et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 2, 2010). The simulations showed the existence of two log-laws, one above and one below the wind turbine region. These results confirm basic assumptions made in prior work by Frandsen (J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 39, 1992) and Frandsen et al. (Wind Energy 9, 2006), and have enabled the development of more accurate parameterizations of the effective roughness scale for a wind farm. Now, a suite of Large Eddy Simulations, in which wind turbines are also modeled using the classical "drag disk" concept are performed but for non-neutral conditions. The aim is to study the effects of different thermal ABL stratifications, and thus to better understand the efficiency and characteristics of large wind farms and the associated land-atmosphere interactions for realistic atmospheric flow regimes. Such studies help to unravel the physics involved in extensive aggregations of wind turbines, allowing us to design better wind farm arrangements. By considering various turbine loading factors, surface roughness values and different atmospheric stratifications, it is possible to analyze the influence of these on the induced surface roughness, and the sensible heat roughness length. These last two can be used to
Implicit Large Eddy Simulation of a wingtip vortex at Rec =1.2x106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer; SherwinLab Team
2015-11-01
We present recent developments in numerical methods for performing a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the formation and evolution of a wingtip vortex. The development of these vortices in the near wake, in combination with the large Reynolds numbers present in these cases, make these types of test cases particularly challenging to investigate numerically. To demonstrate the method's viability, we present results from numerical simulations of flow over a NACA 0012 profile wingtip at Rec = 1.2 x106 and compare them against experimental data, which is to date the highest Reynolds number achieved for a LES that has been correlated with experiments for this test case. Our model correlates favorably with experiment, both for the characteristic jetting in the primary vortex and pressure distribution on the wing surface. The proposed method is of general interest for the modeling of transitioning vortex dominated flows over complex geometries. McLaren Racing/Royal Academy of Engineering Research Chair.
Martian dust devil statistics from high-resolution large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, Seiya; Odaka, Masatsugu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Sato, Yousuke; Tomita, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki
2016-05-01
Dust devils are one of the key elements in the Martian atmospheric circulation. In order to examine their statistics, we conducted high-resolution (up to 5 m) and wide-domain (about 20 × 20 km2) large-eddy simulations of the Martian daytime convective layer. Large numbers of dust devils developed spontaneously in the simulations, which enabled us to represent a quantitative consideration of Martian dust devil frequency distributions. We clarify the distributions of size and intensity, a topic of debate, and conclude that the maximum vertical vorticity of an individual dust devil has an exponential distribution, while the radius and circulation have power law distributions. A grid refinement experiment shows that the rate parameter of the vorticity distribution and the exponent of the circulation distribution are robust. The mode of the size distribution depends on the resolution, and it is suggested that the mode is less than 5 m.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiesset, Fabien; Maurice, Guillaume; Halter, Fabien; Mazellier, Nicolas; Chauveau, Christian; Gökalp, Iskender
2016-05-01
We propose a model for assessing the unresolved wrinkling factor in the large eddy simulation of turbulent premixed combustion. It relies essentially on a power-law dependence of the wrinkling factor on the filter size and an original expression for the 'active' corrugating strain rate. The latter is written as the turbulent strain multiplied by an efficiency function that accounts for viscous effects and the kinematic constraint of Peters. This yields functional expressions for the fractal dimension and the inner cut-off length scale, the latter being (i) filter-size independent and (ii) consistent with the Damköhler asymptotic behaviours at both large and small Karlovitz numbers. A new expression for the wrinkling factor that incorporates finite Reynolds number effects is further proposed. Finally, the model is successfully assessed on an experimental filtered database.
Artificial Fluid Properties for Large-Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Mixing
Cook, A W
2007-01-08
An alternative methodology is described for Large-Eddy Simulation of flows involving shocks, turbulence and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of an ''LES'' fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a 10th-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in crisp fashion.
Idealized gas turbine combustor for performance research and validation of large eddy simulations.
Williams, Timothy C; Schefer, Robert W; Oefelein, Joseph C; Shaddix, Christopher R
2007-03-01
This paper details the design of a premixed, swirl-stabilized combustor that was designed and built for the express purpose of obtaining validation-quality data for the development of large eddy simulations (LES) of gas turbine combustors. The combustor features nonambiguous boundary conditions, a geometrically simple design that retains the essential fluid dynamics and thermochemical processes that occur in actual gas turbine combustors, and unrestrictive access for laser and optical diagnostic measurements. After discussing the design detail, a preliminary investigation of the performance and operating envelope of the combustor is presented. With the combustor operating on premixed methane/air, both the equivalence ratio and the inlet velocity were systematically varied and the flame structure was recorded via digital photography. Interesting lean flame blowout and resonance characteristics were observed. In addition, the combustor exhibited a large region of stable, acoustically clean combustion that is suitable for preliminary validation of LES models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Jaberi, Farhad A.
2001-01-01
The basic objective of this work is to assess the influence of gravity on "the compositional and the spatial structures" of transitional and turbulent diffusion flames via large eddy simulation (LES), and direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS is conducted for appraisal of the various closures employed in LES, and to study the effect of buoyancy on the small scale flow features. The LES is based on our "filtered mass density function"' (FMDF) model. The novelty of the methodology is that it allows for reliable simulations with inclusion of "realistic physics." It also allows for detailed analysis of the unsteady large scale flow evolution and compositional flame structure which is not usually possible via Reynolds averaged simulations.
Artificial fluid properties for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Andrew W.
2007-05-01
An alternative methodology is described for large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows involving shocks, turbulence, and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of a LES fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a tenth-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in a crisp fashion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Philip E.
2004-01-01
This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.
Large-eddy simulation of 3-D corner separation in a linear compressor cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Feng; Ma, Wei; Zambonini, Gherardo; Boudet, Jérôme; Ottavy, Xavier; Lu, Lipeng; Shao, Liang
2015-08-01
The increase of the thrust/weight ratio of aircraft engines is extremely restricted by different 3-D flow loss mechanisms. One of them is the corner separation that can form at the junction between a blade suction side and a hub or shroud. In this paper, in order to further investigate the turbulent characteristics of corner separation, large-eddy simulation (LES) is conducted on a compressor cascade configuration using NACA65 blade profiles (chord based Reynolds number: 3.82 × 105), in comparison with the previous obtained experimental data. Using the shear-improved Smagorinsky model as subgrid-scale model, the LES gives a good description of the mean aerodynamics of the corner separation, especially for the blade surface static pressure coefficient and the total pressure losses. The turbulent dynamics is then analyzed in detail, in consideration of the turbulent structures, the one-point velocity spectra, and the turbulence anisotropy. Within the recirculation region, the energy appears to concentrate around the largest turbulent eddies, with fairly isotropic characteristics. Concerning the dynamics, an aperiodic shedding of hairpin vortices seems to induce an unsteadiness of the separation envelope.
Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation Computations of Variable-Speed Power Turbine Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.
2016-01-01
Variable-speed power turbines (VSPTs) operate at low Reynolds numbers and with a wide range of incidence angles. Transition, separation, and the relevant physics leading to them are important to VSPT flow. Higher fidelity tools such as large eddy simulation (LES) may be needed to resolve the flow features necessary for accurate predictive capability and design of such turbines. A survey conducted for this report explores the requirements for such computations. The survey is limited to the simulation of two-dimensional flow cases and endwalls are not included. It suggests that a grid resolution necessary for this type of simulation to accurately represent the physics may be of the order of Delta(x)+=45, Delta(x)+ =2 and Delta(z)+=17. Various subgrid-scale (SGS) models have been used and except for the Smagorinsky model, all seem to perform well and in some instances the simulations worked well without SGS modeling. A method of specifying the inlet conditions such as synthetic eddy modeling (SEM) is necessary to correctly represent the inlet conditions.
Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A.
2012-10-15
Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.
Large Eddy Simulation of Dilute Sediment Suspension in an Open Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, Getnet; Smith, Heather D.
2012-11-01
Flow and suspended sediment transport in fully developed turbulent open channel flow has been investigated using Large Eddy Simulation. We used a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM for this study. Pre-evaluation of three existing turbulence closure schemes is performed by comparing the mean flow and turbulent quantities with the direct numerical simulation results of Moser et al. (1999). It is found that the Dynamic Mixed Smagorinsky model underestimates the wall shear stress compared to the Dynamic Smagorinsky and one equation Eddy Viscosity schemes. Moreover, the Dynamic Smagorinsky scheme gives relatively better results in both the mean and turbulent quantities. The advection-diffusion equation is solved for suspended sediment transport and the effect of sediment roughness is included in the momentum equation based on the rough wall formulation proposed by Cebeci and Bradshaw (1977). A pick up function based on van Rijn (1984) is used to determine the sediment erosion. The settling process is taken into account with a settling velocity appearing in the concentration equation. Sediment and flow quantities are validated by comparing with the experimental data of Lyn (1988). The coupled hydrodynamics results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.
2015-10-29
In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate themore » evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.« less
Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.
2015-10-29
In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate the evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.
A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion
Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.
2008-09-15
Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)
Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Through an Array of Cubes with Local Grid Refinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodfriend, Elijah; Katopodes Chow, Fotini; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias
2016-05-01
High resolution simulations of the transport of urban contaminants are important for disaster response and city planning. Large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesh refinement can each be used to decrease the computational cost of modelling, but combining these techniques can result in additional errors at grid-refinement interfaces. Here, we study the effect of the turbulence closure on the accuracy of LES results, for grids with mesh refinement, in a test case of flow through a periodic array of cubes. It is found that a mixed-model turbulence closure, using both an eddy viscosity and a scale similarity component, reduces energy accumulation at grid-refinement interfaces when used with explicit filtering of the advection term. The mixed model must be used with explicit filtering to control high wavenumber errors generated by the non-linear scale-similarity model. The results demonstrate that the turbulence closure mitigates errors associated with using LES on block-structured grids for urban-flow simulations.
Three Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation Model of Turbulence in a Meandering Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M. W.
2002-12-01
Recent research has shown that intermittency caused by large-scale turbulence structures in rivers can be critical to accurate prediction of the sediment transport field. These large-scale turbulence structures are inherently three-dimensional. This is especially true in a river meander where strong secondary flows affect not only the three-dimensional, time-averaged flow structure, but also the process of large-scale turbulent eddy generation. It is very difficult to directly measure the turbulence field in a river except at the water surface or a few points in the interior of the flow. Numerical simulation of turbulence is a powerful tool, because it can provide information about the non-averaged flow at each grid point. Many previous researchers have calculated the time-averaged flow in a meandering channel, and obtained useful results. However, simulations of turbulence in meandering channels have been restricted to two dimensions. Therefore, they have a problem in accurately reproducing important features of the flow. We present a 3-dimenstional turbulent model for the numerical calculation of channel flow. The turbulence cannot be resolved at scales smaller than the channel grid, and we therefore parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence using standard Large Eddy Simulation (LES) assumptions. A Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system is employed to fit the irregular boundaries of natural channels. To solve the Navier-Stokes equations on the finite difference mesh, we employ the Cubic-Interpolated Propagation (CIP) method. The CIP method precisely solves the convective acceleration terms without numerical diffusion.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carried out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carriedmore » out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bing; Musculus, Mark P. B.; Oefelein, Joseph C.
2012-04-01
To provide a better understanding of the fluid mechanical mechanisms governing entrainment in decelerating jets, we performed a large eddy simulation (LES) of a transient air jet. The ensemble-averaged LES calculations agree well with the available measurements of centerline velocity, and they reveal a region of increased entrainment that grows as it propagates downstream during deceleration. Within the temporal and spatial domains of the simulation, entrainment during deceleration temporarily increases by roughly a factor of two over that of the quasi-steady jet, and thereafter decays to a level lower than the quasi-steady jet. The LES results also provide large-structure flow details that lend insight into the effects of deceleration on entrainment. The simulations show greater growth and separation of large vortical structures during deceleration. Ambient fluid is engulfed into the gaps between the large-scale structures, causing large-scale indentations in the scalar jet boundary. The changes in the growth and separation of large structures during deceleration are attributed to changes in the production and convection of vorticity. Both the absolute and normalized scalar dissipation rates decrease during deceleration, implying that changes in small-scale mixing during deceleration do not play an important role in the increased entrainment. Hence, the simulations predict that entrainment in combustion devices may be controlled by manipulating the fuel-jet boundary conditions, which affect structures at large scales much more than at small scales.
The role of large eddy fluctuations in the magnetic dynamics of the Madison Dynamo Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, Elliot
The Madison Dynamo Experiment (MDE), a liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamics experiment in a 1 m diameter sphere at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, had measured [in Spence
Large Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of CUBRC Base Heating Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salazar, Giovanni; Edwards, Jack R.; Amar, Adam J.
2012-01-01
ven with great advances in computational techniques and computing power during recent decades, the modeling of unsteady separated flows, such as those encountered in the wake of a re-entry vehicle, continues to be one of the most challenging problems in CFD. Of most interest to the aerothermodynamics community is accurately predicting transient heating loads on the base of a blunt body, which would result in reduced uncertainties and safety margins when designing a re-entry vehicle. However, the prediction of heat transfer can vary widely depending on the turbulence model employed. Therefore, selecting a turbulence model which realistically captures as much of the flow physics as possible will result in improved results. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models have become increasingly popular due to their good performance with attached flows, and the relatively quick turnaround time to obtain results. However, RANS methods cannot accurately simulate unsteady separated wake flows, and running direct numerical simulation (DNS) on such complex flows is currently too computationally expensive. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques allow for the computation of the large eddies, which contain most of the Reynolds stress, while modeling the smaller (subgrid) eddies. This results in models which are more computationally expensive than RANS methods, but not as prohibitive as DNS. By complimenting an LES approach with a RANS model, a hybrid LES/RANS method resolves the larger turbulent scales away from surfaces with LES, and switches to a RANS model inside boundary layers. As pointed out by Bertin et al., this type of hybrid approach has shown a lot of promise for predicting turbulent flows, but work is needed to verify that these models work well in hypersonic flows. The very limited amounts of flight and experimental data available presents an additional challenge for researchers. Recently, a joint study by NASA and CUBRC has focused on collecting heat transfer data
Large-eddy simulation of heavy particle dispersion in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Salvetti, M.V.
2015-03-10
Capabilities and accuracy issues in Lagrangian tracking of heavy particles in velocity fields obtained from large-eddy simulations (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows are reviewed. In particular, it is shown that, if no subgrid scale (SGS) model is added to the particle motion equations, particle preferential concentration and near-wall accumulation are significantly underestimated. Results obtained with SGS modeling for the particle motion equations based on approximate deconvolution are briefly recalled. Then, the error purely due to filtering in particle tracking in LES flow fields is singled out and analyzed. The statistical properties of filtering errors are characterized in turbulent channel flow both from an Eulerian and a Lagrangian viewpoint. Implications for stochastic SGS modeling in particle motion equations are briefly outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Britton
2015-11-01
The shock induced mixing of two gases separated by a perturbed interface is investigated through Large Eddy Simulation using two different high-order numerical methods. Results from a recently published collaborative study are presented which show remarkable similarities between quantities and metrics representing mixing and turbulence. Small differences between the results, however, do elucidate the differences in the two numerical methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Results from two-dimensional calculations of the same problem are also shown to highlight differences from the three-dimensional case. Finally, the feasibility in a hybrid compressible/incompressible calculation is discussed, which shows considerable computational savings as compared to the fully compressible case. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Large Eddy Simulation of diesel injector opening with a two phase cavitation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Li, J.; Wang, L.
2015-12-01
In the current paper, indicative results of the flow simulation during the opening phase of a Diesel injector are presented. In order to capture the complex flow field and cavitation structures forming in the injector, Large Eddy Simulation has been employed, whereas compressibility of the liquid was included. For taking into account cavitation effects, a two phase homogenous mixture model was employed. The mass transfer rate of the mixture model was adjusted to limit as much as possible the occurrence of negative pressures. During the simulation, pressure peaks have been found in areas of vapour collapse, with magnitude beyond 4000bar, which is higher that the yield stress of common materials. The locations of such pressure peaks corresponds well with the actual erosion location as found from X ray scans.
Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rizzetta, Donald P.; Fureby, Christer
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results of an activity by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Working Group of the AIAA Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee to (1) address the current capabilities of LES, (2) outline recommended practices and key considerations for using LES, and (3) identify future research needs to advance the capabilities and reliability of LES for analysis of turbulent flows. To address the current capabilities and future needs, a survey comprised of eleven questions was posed to LES Working Group members to assemble a broad range of perspectives on important topics related to LES. The responses to these survey questions are summarized with the intent not to be a comprehensive dictate on LES, but rather the perspective of one group on some important issues. A list of recommended practices is also provided, which does not treat all aspects of a LES, but provides guidance on some of the key areas that should be considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaberi, Farhad A.; Givi, Peyman
2003-01-01
The influence of gravity on the spatial and the compositional structures of transitional and turbulent hydrocarbon diffusion flames are studies via large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of round and planar jets. The subgrid-scale (SGS) closures in LES are based on the filtered mass density function (FMDF) methodology. The FMDF represents the joint probability density function (PDF) of the SGS scalars, and is obtained by solving its transport equation. The fundamental advantage of LES/FMDF is that it accounts for the effects of chemical reaction and buoyancy exactly. The methodology is employed for capturing some of the fundamental influences of gravity in equilibrium flames via realistic chemical kinetic schemes. Some preliminary investigation of the gravity effects in non-equilibrium flames is also conducted, but with idealized chemical kinetics models.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.; Vidoni, T. J.
1991-01-01
The main objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. In the efforts related to LES, we were concerned with developing reliable subgrid closures for modeling of the fluctuation correlations of scalar quantities in reacting turbulent flows. In the work on DNS, we focused our attention to further investigation of the effects of exothermicity in compressible turbulent flows. In our previous work, in the first year of this research, we have considered only 'simple' flows. Currently, we are in the process of extending our analyses for the purpose of modeling more practical flows of current interest at LaRC. A summary of our accomplishments during the third six months of the research is presented.
Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows in an Opposed-Piston Two Stroke Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Shalabh; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad
2013-11-01
The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale model has been used for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in a generic single cylinder, opposed-piston, two-stroke engine configuration. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme, and the spray and FMDF are implemented with stochastic Lagrangian methods. The reliability and consistency of the numerical methods are established for the engine configuration by comparing the Eulerian and Lagrangian components of the LES/FMDF. The effects of various operating conditions like boost pressure, heat transfer model, fuel spray temperature, nozzle diameter, injection pressure, and injector configuration on the flow field, heat loss and the evolution of spray and combustion are studied.
Large Eddy Simulation and PIV Visualization of a Vertical Hydrogen Jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedro, G.; Peneau, F.; Wu, T. C.; Oshkai, P.; Djilali, N.
2006-11-01
Increasing concerns about green house gas emissions and deteriorating local air quality will necessitate substantial emission reductions, particularly from road vehicles. Canada has made important contributions in paving the way for the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector, which could lead to a substantial reduction of urban pollution and CO2 emissions. However production and storage issues, as well as the absence of specific standards for hydrogen are regarded as obstacles to the introduction of hydrogen in the energy market. A hydrogen jet exiting into quiescent air in both the supersonic and subsonic regimes is simulated using large eddy simulation with a Smagorinski subgrid model. The subsonic results are compared with experimental results obtained by Panchapakesan et al. and So et al. Using a high speed PIV system, a subsonic air-in-air jet is studied and the time averaged flow-field is compared to the one obtained in the simulation.
Large eddy simulation of spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet
Lacaze, G.; Richardson, E.; Poinsot, T.
2009-10-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to compute the spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet flowing into air. Full ignition sequences are calculated for a series of ignition locations using a one-step chemical scheme for methane combustion coupled with the thickened flame model. The spark ignition is modeled in the LES as an energy deposition term added to the energy equation. Flame kernel formation, the progress and topology of the flame propagating upstream, and stabilization as a tubular edge flame are analyzed in detail and compared to experimental data for a range of ignition parameters. In addition to ignition simulations, statistical analysis of nonreacting LES solutions is carried out to discuss the ignition probability map established experimentally. (author)
Large-eddy simulation and multiscale modelling of a Richtmyer Meshkov instability with reshock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, D. J.; Pantano, C.; Pullin, D. I.
2006-06-01
Large-eddy simulations of the Richtmyer Meshkov instability with reshock are pre- sented and the results are compared with experiments. Several configurations of shocks initially travelling from light (air) to heavy (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) have been simulated to match previous experiments and good agreement is found in the growth rates of the turbulent mixing zone (TMZ). The stretched-vortex subgrid model used in this study allows for subgrid continuation modelling, where statistics of the unresolved scales of the flow are estimated. In particular, this multiscale modelling allows the anisotropy of the flow to be extended to the dissipation scale, eta, and estimates to be formed for the subgrid probability density function of the mixture fraction of air/SF6 based on the subgrid variance, including the effect of Schmidt number.
A metric for assessing the dynamic content of large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastac, Gabriel; Ihme, Matthias
2015-11-01
Current metrics used to identify the quality of large-eddy simulations commonly rely on a statistical assessment of the solution. While these metrics are valuable, turbulence is inherently a dynamic phenomenon, so a dynamic measure is desirable to characterize the quality of a numerical prediction. A dynamic metric utilizing a form of Lyapunov exponents and error growth rates is proposed and applied to two test cases: homogenous isotropic turbulence and a turbulent jet diffusion flame. A grid refinement analysis is performed for each test case utilizing this dynamic metric and current results show monotonic trends versus LES filter width. Results for the homogenous isotropic turbulence show insights into the effect of LES-resolution on the initial rapid error growth rate.
Large-Eddy Simulation of combustion instabilities in a variable-length combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garby, Romain; Selle, Laurent; Poinsot, Thierry
2013-01-01
This article presents a simulation of a model rocket combustor with continuously variable acoustic properties thanks to a variable-length injector tube. Fully compressible Large-Eddy Simulations are conducted using the AVBP code. An original flame stabilization mechanism is uncovered where the recirculation of hot gases in the corner recirculation zone creates a triple flame structure. An unstable operating point is then chosen to investigate the mechanism of the instability. The simulations are compared to experimental results in terms of frequency and mode structure. Two-dimensional axi-symmetric computations are compared to full 3D simulations in order to assess the validity of the axi-symmetry assumption for the prediction of mean and unsteady features of this flow. Despite the inaccuracies inherent to the 2D description of a turbulent flow, for this configuration and the particular operating point investigated, the axi-symmetric simulation qualitatively reproduces some features of the instability.
A study of turbulence in an evolving stable atmospheric boundary layer using large-eddy simulation
Cederwall, R; Street, R L
1999-05-01
A study is made of the effects of stable stratification on the fine-scale features of the flow in an evolving stable boundary layer (SBL). Large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques are used so that spatially and temporally varying and intermittent features of the turbulence can be resolved; traditional Reynolds-averaging approaches are not well suited to this. The LES model employs a subgrid turbulence model that allows upscale energy transfer (backscatter) and incorporates the effects of buoyancy. The afternoon, evening transition, and nighttime periods are simulated. Highly anisotropic turbulence is found in the developed SBL, with occasional periods of enhanced turbulence. Energy backscatter occurs in a fashion similar to that found in DNS, and is an important capability in LES of the SBL. Coherent structures are dominant in the SBL, as the damping of turbulent energy occurs more at the smaller, less organized scales.
Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A.
1990-01-01
Excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation is one of the main problems associated with steam generators. Vibration can lead to rupture of tubes within the steam generator, necessitating plugging, and perhaps even replacement of the component. Turbulence buffeting, and resulting excitation, is believed to be one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The present investigation uses LES to calculate the flow field for an array of tubes subject to turbulent flow and to compare the fluctuating lift and drag forces on a central tube with experimental findings. Predictions to date using LES methodology compare quite favorably with experimental data.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in a square pitched tube array
Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A. )
1990-06-01
One of the main problems associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. This vibration can lead to the rupture of the tubes within the steam generator, causing reduced availability due to tube plugging, and can eventually force replacement of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction that causes fluid-elastic excitation is unknown at this time, but it is believed that turbulence buffeting and resulting excitation is one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The investigation describes in this paper utilizes LES in calculating the flow field for a square pitched tube array in cross flow. A good comparison has been obtained between calculated and measured values of the power spectral density (PSD) of the lift and drag forces.
Development of the Large Eddy Simulation Approach for Modeling Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, R. C.; Smith, T. M.; DesJardin, P. E.; Voth, T. E.; Christon, M. A.
2002-03-01
This report describes research and development of the large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling approach conducted as part of Sandia's laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) program. The emphasis of the work described here has been toward developing the capability to perform accurate and computationally affordable LES calculations of engineering problems using unstructured-grid codes, in wall-bounded geometries and for problems with coupled physics. Specific contributions documented here include (1) the implementation and testing of LES models in Sandia codes, including tests of a new conserved scalar--laminar flamelet SGS combustion model that does not assume statistical independence between the mixture fraction and the scalar dissipation rate, (2) the development and testing of statistical analysis and visualization utility software developed for Exodus II unstructured grid LES, and (3) the development and testing of a novel new LES near-wall subgrid model based on the one-dimensional Turbulence (ODT) model.
SCHMIDT, RODNEY C.; SMITH, THOMAS M.; DESJARDIN, PAUL E.; VOTH, THOMAS E.; CHRISTON, MARK A.; KERSTEIN, ALAN R.; WUNSCH, SCOTT E.
2002-03-01
This report describes research and development of the large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling approach conducted as part of Sandia's laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) program. The emphasis of the work described here has been toward developing the capability to perform accurate and computationally affordable LES calculations of engineering problems using unstructured-grid codes, in wall-bounded geometries and for problems with coupled physics. Specific contributions documented here include (1) the implementation and testing of LES models in Sandia codes, including tests of a new conserved scalar--laminar flamelet SGS combustion model that does not assume statistical independence between the mixture fraction and the scalar dissipation rate, (2) the development and testing of statistical analysis and visualization utility software developed for Exodus II unstructured grid LES, and (3) the development and testing of a novel new LES near-wall subgrid model based on the one-dimensional Turbulence (ODT) model.
A Three-Dimensional Vortex Sheet Method for Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, Mark; Dahm, Werner; Tryggvason, Gretar
2001-11-01
Continuing work on a three-dimensional vortex-in-cell method for large eddy simulations is presented. A Lagrangian approach is used to track the evolution of sheets of vorticity in an otherwise irrotational and inviscid fluid. The sheet surface is represented by a triangulated mesh upon which the vorticity evolves, and which maintains its resolution via automatic insertion and deletion of elements. The vortex sheet maintains its connectivity during the simulation, allowing element-wise calculation of weak stratification effects. In addition, the basic and dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid scale models are used to allow energy to properly transfer from the resolved to the unresolved scales of motion. Results from simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence as well as other flows are presented.
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.
Large-eddy simulation of flow around an airfoil on a structured mesh
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob; Choi, Haecheon
1995-01-01
The diversity of flow characteristics encountered in a flow over an airfoil near maximum lift taxes the presently available statistical turbulence models. This work describes our first attempt to apply the technique of large-eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest. The challenge for this simulation comes from the high Reynolds number of the flow as well as the variety of flow regimes encountered, including a thin laminar boundary layer at the nose, transition, boundary layer growth under adverse pressure gradient, incipient separation near the trailing edge, and merging of two shear layers at the trailing edge. The flow configuration chosen is a NACA 4412 airfoil near maximum lift. The corresponding angle of attack was determined independently by Wadcock (1987) and Hastings & Williams (1984, 1987) to be close to 12 deg. The simulation matches the chord Reynolds number U(sub infinity)c/v = 1.64 x 10(exp 6) of Wadcock's experiment.
Effect of submerged vegetation on solute transport in an open channel using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, J.; Dai, HC
2016-11-01
Existence of vegetation plays a significant effect on the flow velocity distributions, turbulence structures and solute mixing in an open channel. This paper has implemented a 3D large eddy simulation model for the flow and scalar transport in the open channel with vegetation. The model can produce a typical turbulence characteristics and concentration distribution with vegetation. The scalar transport mechanism is quantitatively explained by the turbulent Schmidt number, Reynolds flux, coherent structures and quadrant conditional analysis. A dominance of ejection-sweeping events occurs in the process of the momentum and scalar flux transport. The spectral analysis is used to identify the Kelvin-Helmholtz frequency. The turbulence characteristics of the length scale of vortexes, Kelvin-Helmholtz frequency and Reynolds stress etc. are analyzed with the vegetation density. The model quantitatively predicts the trend of decreasing in the concentration distribution along the flow direction with the increasing of vegetation density.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Tsai, A.
1991-01-01
This research is involved with the implementations of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program was initiated to extend the present capabilities of this method for the treatment of chemically reacting flows, whereas in the DNS efforts, focus was on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and nonequilibrium kinetics modeling in high speed reacting flows. The efforts to date were primarily focussed on simulations of simple flows, namely, homogeneous compressible flows and temporally developing hign speed mixing layers. A summary of the accomplishments is provided.
Coherent-vortex dynamics in large-eddy simulations of turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesieur, M.; Begou, P.; Briand, E.; Danet, A.; Delcayre, F.; Aider, J. L.
2003-04-01
We present a review of coherent-vortex dynamics obtained thanks to large-eddy simulations (LES) associated with simple and effective vortex-identification and animation techniques. LES of a large class of constant-density or weakly compressible three-dimensional flows have been carried out. In isotropic turbulence, we present the formation and evolution of spaghetti-type vortices, seen thanks toQ, vorticity and pressure, together with the time evolution of the kinetic energy, enstrophy and skewness. In a spatially growing boundary layer on a flat plate, one observes during transition big ? vortices lying on the wall (with very well correlated oblique induced low- and high-speed streaks) shedding smaller hairpin vortices around their tips. In the developed boundary layer, we show animations of the purely longitudinal low- and high-speed streaks, as well as animations of low-pressure regions. In a backwards-facing step, we examine the influence of upstream conditions upon the flow structure, by comparing two inflow conditions: a white noise superposed on a mean velocity profile and a realistic turbulent boundary layer. The latter three-dimensionalizes the flow downstream of the step and reduces the reattachment length. In both cases big staggered arch vortices form, impinge the lower wall and are carried away downstream. In a two-dimensional(2D) square cavity, spanwisely oriented vortices are shed behind the upstream edge, and impinge the downstream edge, transforming into arch vortices very similar to the back-step case. These arch vortices are also found behind a 2D rectangular obstacle with wall effect. We discuss the relevance of the vortices found with respect to reality. All these eddies are very important in terms of drag and noise reduction in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.
Large eddy simulations as a parameterization tool for canopy-structure X VOC-flux interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenny, William; Bohrer, Gil; Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia
2015-04-01
We have been working to develop a new post-processing model - High resolution VOC Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) - which resolves the dispersion and chemistry of reacting chemical species given their emission rates from the vegetation and soil, driven by high resolution meteorological forcing and wind fields from various high resolution atmospheric regional and large-eddy simulations. Hi-VACC reads in fields of pressure, temperature, humidity, air density, short-wave radiation, wind (3-D u, v and w components) and sub-grid-scale turbulence that were simulated by a high resolution atmospheric model. This meteorological forcing data is provided as snapshots of 3-D fields. We have tested it using a number of RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) runs. This can then be used for parameterization of the effects of canopy structure on VOC fluxes. RAFLES represents both drag and volume restriction by the canopy over an explicit 3-D domain. We have used these features to show the effects of canopy structure on fluxes of momentum, heat, and water in heterogeneous environments at the tree-crown scale by modifying the canopy structure representing it as both homogeneous and realistically heterogeneous. We combine this with Hi-VACC's capabilities to model dispersion and chemistry of reactive VOCs to parameterize the fluxes of these reactive species with respect to canopy structure. The high resolution capabilities of Hi-VACC coupled with RAFLES allows for sensitivity analysis to determine important structural considerations in sub-grid-scale parameterization of these phenomena in larger models.
Vortex control in large-eddy simulations of compressible round jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maidi, Mohamed; Lesieur, Marcel; Métais, Olivier
We investigate through large-eddy simulations the effects of different types of upstream forcing in subsonic (Mach 0.7) and supersonic (Mach 1.4) round jets. We have reproduced and tested the different methods of forcing developed in incompressible round jets by Urbin and Métais In Direct and Large-Eddy Simulations II, 1997, P. R. Chollet, J. P. Voke, and L. Kleiser, Kluwer: Dordrecht, pp. 539 542, Danaila and Boersma, Physics of Fluids A, 12, 1255 1257, da Silva and Métais Physics of Fluids, 14, 3798 3819, (see also Lee and Reynolds Bifurcating and blooming jets at high Reynolds number 5th Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, New York). Our strategy is to search the optimal excitation that maximizes the jet spreading at Reynolds number Re = 36 000. Four different forcings based on information obtained both instantaneously and statistically. In the subsonic case, and as in the incompressible one, we aimed to favour the flow spreading along one particular plane (bifurcating plane), while maintaining a standard or reduced spreading rate along the bisecting plane, perpendicular to the bifurcating one. The flow response to the excitations is analysed both instantaneously and statistically. In the subsonic case, and as in the incompressible one, the maximum jet spreading is obtained with inlet varicose flapping perturbations at preferred and first subharmonic frequencies, respectively. The potential core length is reduced by 27% with respect to the natural jet. These results are in good agreement with several laboratory experiments and numerical simulations carried out in incompressible round jets. Indeed, the subsonic jet has a convective Mach number of 0.35, and is weakly affected by compressibility. In the supersonic jet case, on the other hand, the highest spreading rate is found with a flapping excitation at the second subharmonic. The potential core length is now reduced by 28% with respect to the unforced jet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jielun; Lenschow, Donald H.; LeMone, Margaret A.; Mahrt, Larry
2016-07-01
The analysis of momentum and heat fluxes from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99) field experiment is extended throughout the diurnal cycle following the investigation of nighttime turbulence by Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69:338-351, 2012). Based on the observations, limitations of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) are examined in detail. The analysis suggests that strong turbulent mixing is dominated by relatively large coherent eddies that are not related to local vertical gradients as assumed in MOST. The HOckey-Stick Transition (HOST) hypothesis is developed to explain the generation of observed large coherent eddies over a finite depth and the contribution of these eddies to vertical variations of turbulence intensity and atmospheric stratification throughout the diurnal cycle. The HOST hypothesis emphasizes the connection between dominant turbulent eddies and turbulence generation scales, and the coupling between the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence potential energy within the turbulence generation layer in determining turbulence intensity. For turbulence generation directly influenced by the surface, the HOST hypothesis recognizes the role of the surface both in the vertical variation of momentum and heat fluxes and its boundary effect on the size of the dominant turbulence eddies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W.; Morin, T. H.
2015-12-01
We used the RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulations (RAFLES) to evaluate the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to land-surface discontinuity. While the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to surface heterogeneity is well known, it is, in most cases, no feasible to restrict measurements only to sites where the surface include undisturbed and homogeneous land cover over vast distances around the observation tower. The common approach to handle surface heterogeneity is to use a footprint model and reject observations obtained while the source of observed signal is from a mixture of land-use types, and maintain only measurements where the signal originates mostly from the land-use type of interest. We simulated two scenarios - measurements of fluxes from a small forest-surrounded lake, and measurements near a forest edge. These are two very common scenarios where measurements are bound to be affected by heterogeneity - measurements in small lakes, will, by definition, be in some non-negligible proximity or the lake edge; forest edges are common in any forest, near the forest patch edge but also around disturbed patches and forest gaps. We identify regions where the surface heterogeneity is creating persistent updraft or downdraft. A non-zero mean vertical wind is typically neglected in eddy-covariance measurements. We find that these circulations lead to both vertical and horizontal advection that cannot be easily measured by a single eddy-covariance tower. We identify downwind effects, which are well known, but also quantify the upwind effects. We find that surface-induced circulations may affect the flux measured from a tower up to several canopy heights ahead of the discontinuity. We used the High-resolution Volatile Organic Compound Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) model to determine the actual measurement footprints throughout the RAFLES domain. We estimated the land-cover type distribution of the source signal at different virtual
Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh; Hawkes, Evatt R.
2010-03-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) of a non-premixed, temporally evolving, syngas/air flame is performed with special emphasis on speeding-up the sub-grid chemistry computations using an artificial neural networks (ANN) approach. The numerical setup for the LES is identical to a previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) study, which reported considerable local extinction and reignition physics, and hence, offers a challenging test case. The chemical kinetics modeling with ANN is based on a recent approach, and replaces the stiff ODE solver (DI) to predict the species reaction rates in the subgrid linear eddy mixing (LEM) model based LES (LEMLES). In order to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the current approach, additional information on conditional statistics of some of the key species and temperature are extracted from the previous DNS study and are compared with the LEMLES using ANN (ANN-LEMLES, hereafter). The results show that the current approach can detect the correct extinction and reignition physics with reasonable accuracy compared to the DNS. The syngas flame structure and the scalar dissipation rate statistics obtained by the current ANN-LEMLES are provided to further probe the flame physics. It is observed that, in contrast to H{sub 2}, CO exhibits a smooth variation within the region enclosed by the stoichiometric mixture fraction. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the scalar dissipation rates calculated based on the mixture fraction and CO demonstrate that the mean value of the PDF is insensitive to extinction and reignition. However, this is not the case for the scalar dissipation rate calculated by the OH mass fraction. Overall, ANN provides considerable computational speed-up and memory saving compared to DI, and can be used to investigate turbulent flames in a computationally affordable manner. (author)
Large-Eddy Simulation of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer Over Flat Terrain
Townsend, R
2002-01-02
The stable boundary layer (SBL) in the atmosphere is of considerable interest because it is often the worse case scenario for air pollution studies and health effect assessments associated with the accidental release of toxic material. Traditional modeling approaches used in such studies do not simulate the non-steady character of the velocity field, and hence often overpredict concentrations while underpredicting spatial coverage of potentially harmful concentrations of airborne material. The challenge for LES is to be able to resolve the rather small energy-containing eddies of the SBL while still maintaining an adequate domain size. This requires that the subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization of turbulence incorporate an adequate representation of turbulent energy transfer. Recent studies have shown that both upscale and downscale energy transfer can occur simultaneously, but that overall the net transfer is downscale. Including the upscale transfer of turbulent energy (energy backscatter) is particularly important near the ground and under stably-stratified conditions. The goal of this research is to improve the ability to realistically simulate the SBL. The large-eddy simulation (LES) approach with its subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model does a better job of capturing the temporally and spatially varying features of the SBL than do Reynolds-averaging models. The scientific objectives of this research are: (1) to characterize features of the evolving SBL structure for a range of meteorological conditions (wind speed and surface cooling), (2) to simulate realistically the transfer of energy between resolved and subgrid scales, and (3) to apply results to improve simulation of dispersion in the SBL.
The role of large-scale eddies in the climate equilibrium. I - Fixed static stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Shuntai; Stone, Peter H.
1993-01-01
An efficient two-level model on a sphere that is based on the balance equations with fixed static stability is developed and used to study how eddies arising from baroclinic instability interact with the temperature structure. The model gives a much better simulation of the eddy momentum flux and of the total eddy forcing of the zonal-mean temperature and zonal wind fields than do quasi-geostrophic beta-plane models. Nonetheless, the results are qualitatively similar. The midlatitude eddy regimes range between two extreme cases. In one, the eddies have no effect on the temperature and zonal wind fields, and in the other (similar to the observed atmosphere), the eddy forcing of the temperature and zonal wind fields is dominated by the eddy heat flux. Quantitatively, some of the model's results differ significantly from those based on the quasi-geostrophic beta-plane. For example, the temperature structure is much more sensitive to the external forcing, and the eddy heat flux is less sensitive to the temperature structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, K.; Yum, S. S.
2009-09-01
The marine stratocumulus topped boundary layer, which prevails in the subtropical oceanic regions where the subsidence inversion associated with the descending branch of the Hadley-Walker cell dominates, is thought to be an important component of the climate system. High albedo (30-40%) of stratocumulus clouds compared to the ocean background (10%) gives rise to large deficits in the absorbed solar radiation flux. Since cloud radiative properties are highly dependent on cloud microphysical properties, which are in turn dependent on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) distribution, understanding the influence of anthropogenic CCN on cloud microphysics and dynamics is a key to accurately assess the climatic impact of marine stratocumulus clouds. A large eddy simulation (LES) model is good for studying stratocumulus clouds in the boundary layer because it explicitly resolves turbulent scale eddies and can provide information on detailed microphysical structure that is difficult to be measured over the ocean. We employ the CIMMS (Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma) 3D LES model with explicit bin microphysics. We examine the microphysical and dynamical evolution of stratocumulus clouds under different CCN loadings for four different thermodynamic conditions (the key differences are in moisture content and temperature inversion height). Contrasting results of daytime and nocturnal simulations are also examined. Three different measured CCN spectra that represent maritime, continental, and polluted air masses are used as input CCN spectra for the model; the concentrations at 1% supersaturation are 163, 1023, and 5292 cm-3, respectively. The grid spacing is 75 m in the horizontal and 25 m in the vertical, to make the total domain size of 3×3×1.25 km. Total simulation time is 6 hrs. The large-scale subsidence is prescribed by w= -Dz, where the large-scale divergence D = 5×10-6 s-1 is assumed. For the clouds formed under
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muller, Yann-Aël; Masson, Christian; Aubrun, Sandrine
2014-06-01
Wind turbine wakes are known to be affected by the large atmospheric turbulent scales, which can cause trajectory variations within a wide frequency band. This phenomenon, called meandering, is suspected to be a cause of premature wear on turbines located inside wind farms. This work proposes a method to generate and apply synthetic turbulent velocity series as boundary conditions in a Large Eddy Simulation of an actuator disk in a flow with realistic turbulence characteristics. The stochastic generation method relies on the inverse Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) of a random vector field correlated in Fourier space according to the covariance tensor calculated from the homogeneous isotropic spectral tensor. In contrast with a single Fourier transform, the STFT allows the generation of arbitrarily large velocity fields. The generated series are used as boundary values on the inlet as well as on the lateral boundaries of the domain. This allows for sustained turbulent forcing on the whole length of the domain which is especially useful for a small computational domain relative to the size of the dominant turbulent scales.
All-speed Roe scheme for the large eddy simulation of homogeneous decaying turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xue-song; Li, Xin-liang
2016-01-01
As a type of shock-capturing scheme, the traditional Roe scheme fails in large eddy simulation (LES) because it cannot reproduce important turbulent characteristics, such as the famous k-5/3 spectral law, as a consequence of the large numerical dissipation. In this work, the Roe scheme is divided into five parts, namely, ξ, δUp, δpp, δUu, and δpu, which denote basic upwind dissipation, pressure difference-driven modification of interface fluxes, pressure difference-driven modification of pressure, velocity difference-driven modification of interface fluxes, and velocity difference-driven modification of pressure, respectively. Then, the role of each part in the LES of homogeneous decaying turbulence with a low Mach number is investigated. Results show that the parts δUu, δpp, and δUp have little effect on LES. Such minimal effect is integral to computational stability, especially for δUp. The large numerical dissipation is due to ξ and δpu, each of which features a larger dissipation than the sub-grid scale model. On the basis of these conditions, an improved all-speed Roe scheme for LES is proposed. This scheme can provide satisfactory LES results even for coarse grid resolutions with usually adopted second-order reconstructions for the finite volume method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.
1992-01-01
The principal objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. A summary of work accomplished during the last six months is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinn, Aaron F.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations can be very computationally expensive, especially for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent ows. In LES the large, energy containing eddies are resolved by the computational mesh, but the smaller (sub-grid) scales are modeled. In DNS, all scales of turbulence are resolved, including the smallest dissipative (Kolmogorov) scales. Clusters of CPUs have been the standard approach for such simulations, but an emerging approach is the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which deliver impressive computing performance compared to CPUs. Recently there has been great interest in the scientific computing community to use GPUs for general-purpose computation (such as the numerical solution of PDEs) rather than graphics rendering. To explore the use of GPUs for CFD simulations, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver was developed for a GPU. This solver is capable of simulating unsteady laminar flows or performing a LES or DNS of turbulent ows. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a fractional-step method and are spatially discretized using the finite volume method on a Cartesian mesh. An immersed boundary method based on a ghost cell treatment was developed to handle flow past complex geometries. The implementation of these numerical methods had to suit the architecture of the GPU, which is designed for massive multithreading. The details of this implementation will be described, along with strategies for performance optimization. Validation of the GPU-based solver was performed for fundamental bench-mark problems, and a performance assessment indicated that the solver was over an order-of-magnitude faster compared to a CPU. The GPU-based Navier-Stokes solver was used to study film-cooling flows via Large Eddy Simulation. In modern gas turbine engines, the film-cooling method is used to protect turbine blades from hot combustion gases. Therefore, understanding the physics of
Underwater Oil Plume Intrusion from Deepwater Blowouts - A Large-Eddy Simulation Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, D.; Chen, B.; Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C. V.
2015-12-01
The interaction of buoyancy-driven hydrocarbon plumes with the stably stratified deep-ocean environment plays a crucial role in the formation of underwater oil intrusions. As gas bubbles and oil droplets are released from an underwater oil well blowout, they induce a strong buoyancy flux that lifts entrained sea water to form an upward plume. Towards higher elevations, the stratification-induced negative buoyancy increases and eventually exceeds the gas/oil-induced buoyancy, causing the plume to decelerate and a large fraction of entrained sea water to peel off from the rising plume to form a fountain-like downward outer plume. During this peeling process, weakly buoyant particles (e.g. small oil droplets) are trapped and fall together with the detrained fluid, and then migrate horizontally at the equilibrium buoyancy depth, forming underwater oil intrusion layers. In this study, the complex plume dynamics and oil intrusion are studied using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The LES model captures the essential characteristics of the plume structure and the peeling/intrusion processes, and yields good agreement with prior laboratory experiments. Applying to the Deepwater Horizon oil well blowout condition, the LES model shows considerable underwater trapping and intrusion of oil droplets under various conditions, with the trapping rate significantly affected by the diameter of the oil droplet. This study is supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative RFP-II research grant.
Unstructured Large Eddy Simulations of Hot Supersonic Jets from a Chevron Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brès, Guillaume; Nichols, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva; Ham, Frank
2012-11-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) are performed for heated supersonic turbulent jets issued from a converging-diverging round nozzle with chevrons. The unsteady flow processes and shock/turbulence interactions are investigated with the unstructured compressible flow solver ``Charles'' developed at Cascade Technologies. In this study, the complex geometry of the nozzle and chevrons (12 counts, 6° penetration) are explicitly included in the computational domain using unstructured body-fitted mesh and adaptive grid refinement. Sound radiation from the jet is computed using an efficient frequency-domain implementation of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Noise predictions are compared to experimental measurements carried out at the United Technologies Research Center for the same nozzle and operating conditions. The initial blind comparisons show good agreement in terms of spectra shape and levels for both the near-field and far-field noise. The current results show that the simulations accurately capture the main flow and noise features, including the shock cells, broadband shock-associated noise and turbulent mixing noise. Additional analysis of the large database generated by the LES is ongoing, to further investigate jet noise sources and chevron effects. This work is supported by NAVAIR grant N68335-11-C-0026 managed by Dr. John Spyropoulos. The simulations were carried out at DoD supercomputer facilities in ERDC and AFRL as part of the HPC Challenge Project NAWCP30952C5.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Heliophysics and Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miesch, Mark; Matthaeus, William; Brandenburg, Axel; Petrosyan, Arakel; Pouquet, Annick; Cambon, Claude; Jenko, Frank; Uzdensky, Dmitri; Stone, James; Tobias, Steve; Toomre, Juri; Velli, Marco
2015-11-01
We live in an age in which high-performance computing is transforming the way we do science. Previously intractable problems are now becoming accessible by means of increasingly realistic numerical simulations. One of the most enduring and most challenging of these problems is turbulence. Yet, despite these advances, the extreme parameter regimes encountered in space physics and astrophysics (as in atmospheric and oceanic physics) still preclude direct numerical simulation. Numerical models must take a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach, explicitly computing only a fraction of the active dynamical scales. The success of such an approach hinges on how well the model can represent the subgrid-scales (SGS) that are not explicitly resolved. In addition to the parameter regime, heliophysical and astrophysical applications must also face an equally daunting challenge: magnetism. The presence of magnetic fields in a turbulent, electrically conducting fluid flow can dramatically alter the coupling between large and small scales, with potentially profound implications for LES/SGS modeling. In this review article, we summarize the state of the art in LES modeling of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. After discussing the nature of MHD turbulence and the small-scale processes that give rise to energy dissipation, plasma heating, and magnetic reconnection, we consider how these processes may best be captured within an LES/SGS framework. We then consider several specific applications in heliophysics and astrophysics, assessing triumphs, challenges, and future directions.
Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoil Self-Noise at High Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva
2015-11-01
The trailing edge noise section (Category 1) of the Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC) workshop features five canonical problems. No first-principles based approach free of empiricism and tunable coefficients has successfully predicted trailing edge noise for the five configurations to date. Our simulations predict trailing edge noise accurately for all five configurations. The simulation database is described in detail, highlighting efforts undertaken to validate the results through systematic comparison with dedicated experiments and establish insensitivity to grid resolution, domain size, alleatory uncertainties such as the tripping mechanism used to force transition to turbulence and epistemic uncertainties such as models for unresolved near-wall turbulence. Ongoing efforts to extend the predictive capability to non-canonical configurations featuring flow separation are summarized. A novel, large-span calculation that predicts the flow past a wind turbine airfoil in deep stall with unprecedented accuracy is presented. The simulations predict airfoil noise in the near-stall regime accurately. While the post-stall noise predictions leave room for improvement, significant uncertainties in the experiment might preclude a fair comparison in this regime. We thank Cascade Technologies Inc. for providing access to the CharLES toolkit - a massively-parallel, unstructured large eddy simulation framework.
Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus
Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C
2008-03-03
This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.
Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Karelsky, Kirill V.; Petrosyan, Arakel S.
2010-06-16
Using advantages of large eddy simulation method, nontrivial regime of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of space plasma when initially supersonic fluctuations become weakly compressible is studied. Establishment of weakly compressible limit with Kolmogorov-like density fluctuations spectrum is shown in present work. We use our computations results to study dynamics of the turbulent plasma beta and anisotropic properties of the magnetoplasma fluctuations in the local interstellar medium. An outstanding, as yet unexplained, observation is that density fluctuations in the local interstellar medium exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum over an extraordinary range of scales with a spectral index close to -5/3. In spite of the compressibility and the presence of magnetic field in the local interstellar medium, density fluctuations nevertheless admit a Kolmogorov-like power law. Supersonic flows with high value of large-scale Mach numbers are characterized in interstellar medium, nevertheless, there are subsonic fluctuations of weakly compressible components of interstellar medium. These weakly compressible subsonic fluctuations are responsible for emergence of a Kolmogorov-type spectrum in interstellar turbulence which is observed from experimental data. It is shown that density fluctuations are a passive scalar in a velocity field in weakly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and demonstrate Kolmogorov-like spectrum.
Large eddy simulation of the FDA benchmark nozzle for a Reynolds number of 6500.
Janiga, Gábor
2014-04-01
This work investigates the flow in a benchmark nozzle model of an idealized medical device proposed by the FDA using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It was in particular shown that a proper modeling of the transitional flow features is particularly challenging, leading to large discrepancies and inaccurate predictions from the different research groups using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling. In spite of the relatively simple, axisymmetric computational geometry, the resulting turbulent flow is fairly complex and non-axisymmetric, in particular due to the sudden expansion. The resulting flow cannot be well predicted with simple modeling approaches. Due to the varying diameters and flow velocities encountered in the nozzle, different typical flow regions and regimes can be distinguished, from laminar to transitional and to weakly turbulent. The purpose of the present work is to re-examine the FDA-CFD benchmark nozzle model at a Reynolds number of 6500 using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES results are compared with published experimental data obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and an excellent agreement can be observed considering the temporally averaged flow velocities. Different flow regimes are characterized by computing the temporal energy spectra at different locations along the main axis.
Large-eddy simulation for the prediction of supersonic rectangular jet noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Joseph W.; Ham, Frank E.; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Bridges, James E.
2011-11-01
We investigate the noise from isothermal and heated under-expanded supersonic turbulent jets issuing from a rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4:1 using high-fidelity unstructured large-eddy simulation (LES) and acoustic projection based on the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings (FWH) equations. The nozzle/flow interaction is directly included by simulating the flow in and around the nozzle in addition to the jet plume downstream. A grid resolution study is performed and results are shown for unstructured meshes containing up to 300 million control volumes, generated by a massively parallel code scaled to as many as 65,536 processors. Validated against laboratory measurements using a nozzle of precisely the same geometry, we find that mesh isotropy is a key factor in determining the quality of the far-field aeroacoustic predictions. The full flow fields produced by the simulation, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data measured from experiment, allow for a detailed examination of the interaction of large-scale coherent flow features and the resultant far-field noise, and its subsequent modification in the presence of heating. Supported by NASA grant NNX07AC94A and PSAAP, with computational resources from a DoD HPCMP CAP-2 project.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
We present results of solid particles suspension and transport in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow using large-eddy simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We adopt the Eulerian-Eulerian approach to simulating particle laden flow with a large number of particles, in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the particulate phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The underlying approach in modeling the turbulence of fluid phase utilizes the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work proposed by Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). The solver is verified against simple analytical solutions and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with these. The capability of the new numerical solver will be exercised to investigate turbulent transport of sand in sandstorms. Finally, the adequacy and limitations of the solver will be discussed. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1704-01.
Large eddy simulation of subsonic and supersonic channel flow at moderate Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenormand, E.; Sagaut, P.; Phuoc, L. Ta
2000-02-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible periodic channel flow is performed using a fourth-order finite difference scheme for a Reynolds number based on bulk density, bulk velocity and channel half-width equal to 3000. Two configurations are studied: a subsonic case (M0=0.5) that corresponds to the experiments of Niederschulte et al. [Measurements of turbulent flow in a channel at low Reynolds numbers, Exp. Fluids, 9, 222-230 (1990)] and a supersonic case (M0=1.5) that corresponds to the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results by Coleman et al. [A numerical study of turbulent supersonic isothermal-wall channel flow, J. Fluid Mech., 305, 159-183 (1995); Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modeling, J. Fluid Mech., 305, 185-218 (1995)]. In order to determine the influence of the discretization, two cases are computed using two different meshes, a coarse one and a fine one. Two subgrid-scale models are tested: the first one is an extension to compressible flows of the Smagorinsky model, while the second one is a model based both on large and small scales of turbulence, a hybrid Bardina-selective mixed scale model. Various statistical comparisons are made with experimental and DNS data at similar Reynolds numbers, including higher-order statistics. Copyright
Large eddy simulation study of spanwise spacing effects on secondary flows in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliakbarimiyanmahaleh, Mohammad; Anderson, William
2015-11-01
The structure of turbulent flow over a complex topography composed of streamwise-aligned rows of cones with varying spanwise spacing, s is studied with large-eddy simulation (LES). Similar to the experimental study of Vanderwel and Ganapathisubramani, 2015: J. Fluid Mech., we investigate the relationship between secondary flow and s, for 0 . 25 <= s / δ <= 5 . For cases with s / δ > 2 , domain-scale rollers freely exist. These had previously been called ``turbulent secondary flows'' (Willingham et al., 2014: Phys. Fluids; Barros and Christensen, 2014: J. Fluid Mech.; Anderson et al., 2015: J. Fluid Mech.), but closer inspection of the statistics indicates these are a turbulent tertiary flow: they only remain ``anchored'' to the conical roughness elements for s / δ > 2 . For s / δ < 2 , turbulent tertiary flows are prevented from occupying the domain by virtue of proximity to adjacent, counter-rotating tertiary flows. Turbulent secondary flows are associated with the conical roughness elements. These turbulent secondary flows emanate from individual conical topographic elements and set the roughness sublayer depth. The turbulent secondary flows remain intact for large and small spacing. For s / δ < 1 , a mean tertiary flow is not present. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Sci. Research, Young Inv. Program (PM: Dr. R. Ponnoppan and Ms. E. Montomery) under Grant # FA9550-14-1-0394. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.
Large eddy simulation of unsteady wind farm behavior using advanced actuator disk models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe
2014-11-01
The present project aims at improving the level of fidelity of unsteady wind farm scale simulations through an effort on the representation and the modeling of the rotors. The chosen tool for the simulations is a Fourth Order Finite Difference code, developed at Universite catholique de Louvain; this solver implements Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The wind turbines are modeled as advanced actuator disks: these disks are coupled with the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM method) and also take into account the turbine dynamics and controller. A special effort is made here to reproduce the specific wake behaviors. Wake decay and expansion are indeed initially governed by vortex instabilities. This is an information that cannot be obtained from the BEM calculations. We thus aim at achieving this by matching the large scales of the actuator disk flow to high fidelity wake simulations produced using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method. It is obtained by adding a controlled excitation at the disk. We apply this tool to the investigation of atmospheric turbulence effects on the power production and on the wake behavior at a wind farm level. A turbulent velocity field is then used as inflow boundary condition for the simulations. We gratefully acknowledge the support of GDF Suez for the fellowship of Mrs Maud Moens.
Large Eddy Simulation of suspended sediment transport in wall bounded turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armenio, Vincenzo; Dallali, Marjan
2014-11-01
Large eddy simulation is used to investigate suspended sediment transport and its effect on the dynamic of the turbulent boundary layer. We use an Euler-Euler methodology based on single-phase approach. Sediment-induced buoyancy on momentum is considered through a buoyancy term in the Boussinesq form of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. We consider four sediment sizes and the simulations are performed for both one-way and two-way coupling approach. The level of stratification for each particle size is qualified by the bulk Richardson number which increases by decreasing the grain size. We calculated first and second order statistics and compared our results with available literature experimental studies. The analysis reveals that the reduction of sediment size produces a larger resuspension and sediment concentration in the flow field, due to the concurrence of increased available concentration at the wall and reduced deposition velocity. Our study also shows that the one-way coupling approach is valid for relatively large sediments, that on the other hand, are more likely transported according to the bed-load mode. For smaller particles, transported according to the suspension-load mode, the two-way coupling approach should be preferred. Financial support from the University of Trieste under Grant FRA 2013.
Properties of young contrails - a parametrisation based on large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unterstrasser, S.
2015-10-01
Contrail-cirrus is probably the largest climate forcing of aviation. The evolution of contrail-cirrus and their radiative impact depends on a multitude of atmospheric parameters, but also on the geometric and microphysical properties of the young contrails evolving into contrail-cirrus. The early evolution of contrails (t < 5 min) is dominated by an interplay of ice microphysics and wake vortex dynamics. Young contrails may undergo a fast vertical expansion due to a descent of the wake vortices and may lose a substantial fraction of their ice crystals due to adiabatic heating. The geometric depth H and total ice crystal number N of young contrails are highly variable and depend on many environmental and aircraft parameters. Both properties, H and N, affect the later properties of the evolving contrail-cirrus, as they control the extent of shear-induced spreading and sedimentation losses. In this study, we provide parametrisations of H and N after 5 min taking into account the effects of temperature, relative humidity, thermal stratification and aircraft type (mass, wing span, fuel burn). The parametrisations rely on a large data set of recent large-eddy simulations of young contrails. They are suited to be incorporated in larger-scale models in order to refine the present day contrail initialisations by considering the processes that strongly affect the contrail evolution during the vortex phase.
Properties of young contrails - a parametrisation based on large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unterstrasser, Simon
2016-02-01
Contrail-cirrus is probably the largest climate forcing from aviation. The evolution of contrail-cirrus and its radiative impact depends not only on a multitude of atmospheric parameters, but also on the geometric and microphysical properties of the young contrails evolving into contrail-cirrus. The early evolution of contrails (t < 5 min) is dominated by an interplay of ice microphysics and wake vortex dynamics. Young contrails may undergo a fast vertical expansion due to a descent of the wake vortices and may lose a substantial fraction of their ice crystals due to adiabatic heating. The geometric depth H and total ice crystal number N of young contrails are highly variable and depend on many environmental and aircraft parameters. Both properties, H and N, affect the later properties of the evolving contrail-cirrus, as they control the extent of shear-induced spreading and sedimentation losses. In this study, we provide parametrisations of H and N after 5 min taking into account the effects of temperature, relative humidity, thermal stratification and aircraft type (mass, wing span, fuel burn). The parametrisations rely on a large data set of recent large-eddy simulations of young contrails. They are suited to be incorporated in larger-scale models in order to refine the present-day contrail initialisations by considering the processes that strongly affect the contrail evolution during the vortex phase.
Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedel, Julien
The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high
Large eddy simulation of turbulence and solute transport in a forested headwater stream
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, A.; Hansen, A. T.; Kozarek, J. L.; Guentzel, K.; Hondzo, M.; Guala, M.; Wilcock, P.; Finlay, J. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2016-01-01
The large eddy simulation (LES) module of the Virtual StreamLab (VSL3D) model is applied to simulate the flow and transport of a conservative tracer in a headwater stream in Minnesota, located in the south Twin Cities metropolitan area. The detailed geometry of the stream reach, which is ˜135 m long, ˜2.5 m wide, and ˜0.15 m deep, was surveyed and used as input to the computational model. The detailed geometry and location of large woody debris and bed roughness elements up to ˜0.1 m in size were also surveyed and incorporated in the numerical simulation using the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary approach employed in VSL3D. The resolution of the simulation, which employs up to a total of 25 million grid nodes to discretize the flow domain, is sufficiently fine to directly account for the effect of large woody debris and small cobbles (on the streambed) on the flow patterns and transport processes of conservative solutes. Two tracer injection conditions, a pulse and a plateau release, and two cross sections of measured velocity were used to validate the LES results. The computed results are shown to be in good agreement with the field measurements and tracer concentration time series. To our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt to simulate via high-resolution LES solute transport in a natural stream environment taking into account a range of roughness length scales spanning an order of magnitude: from small cobbles on the streambed (˜0.1 m in diameter) to large woody debris up to ˜3 m long.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Khosronejad, Ali
2016-02-01
Sand waves arise in subaqueous and Aeolian environments as the result of the complex interaction between turbulent flows and mobile sand beds. They occur across a wide range of spatial scales, evolve at temporal scales much slower than the integral scale of the transporting turbulent flow, dominate river morphodynamics, undermine streambank stability and infrastructure during flooding, and sculpt terrestrial and extraterrestrial landscapes. In this paper, we present the vision for our work over the last ten years, which has sought to develop computational tools capable of simulating the coupled interactions of sand waves with turbulence across the broad range of relevant scales: from small-scale ripples in laboratory flumes to mega-dunes in large rivers. We review the computational advances that have enabled us to simulate the genesis and long-term evolution of arbitrarily large and complex sand dunes in turbulent flows using large-eddy simulation and summarize numerous novel physical insights derived from our simulations. Our findings explain the role of turbulent sweeps in the near-bed region as the primary mechanism for destabilizing the sand bed, show that the seeds of the emergent structure in dune fields lie in the heterogeneity of the turbulence and bed shear stress fluctuations over the initially flatbed, and elucidate how large dunes at equilibrium give rise to energetic coherent structures and modify the spectra of turbulence. We also discuss future challenges and our vision for advancing a data-driven simulation-based engineering science approach for site-specific simulations of river flooding.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent channel flows with conservative IDO scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onodera, Naoyuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiromichi
2011-06-01
The resolution of a numerical scheme in both physical and Fourier spaces is one of the most important requirements to calculate turbulent flows. A conservative form of the interpolated differential operator (IDO-CF) scheme is a multi-moment Eulerian scheme in which point values and integrated average values are separately defined in one cell. Since the IDO-CF scheme using high-order interpolation functions is constructed with compact stencils, the boundary conditions are able to be treated as easy as the 2nd-order finite difference method (FDM). It is unique that the first-order spatial derivative of the point value is derived from the interpolation function with 4th-order accuracy and the volume averaged value is based on the exact finite volume formulation, so that the IDO-CF scheme has higher spectral resolution than conventional FDMs with 4th-order accuracy. The computational cost to calculate the first-order spatial derivative with non-uniform grid spacing is one-third of the 4th-order FDM. For a large-eddy simulation (LES), we use the coherent structure model (CSM) in which the model coefficient is locally obtained from a turbulent structure extracted from a second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor, and the model coefficient correctly satisfies asymptotic behaviors to walls. The results of the IDO-CF scheme with the CSM for turbulent channel flows are compared to the FDM with the CSM and dynamic Smagorinsky model as well as the direct numerical simulation (DNS) by Moser et al. Adding the sub-grid scale stress tensor of LES to the IDO-CF scheme improves the profile of the mean velocity in comparison with an implicit eddy viscosity of the IDO-CF upwind scheme. The IDO-CF scheme with the CSM gives better turbulent intensities than conventional FDMs with the same number of grid points. The turbulent statistics calculated by IDO-CF scheme are in good agreement with the DNS at the various values of Reynolds number Reτ = 180,395, and 590. It is found that
Large eddy simulation of forced ignition of an annular bluff-body burner
Subramanian, V.; Domingo, P.; Vervisch, L.
2010-03-15
The optimization of the ignition process is a crucial issue in the design of many combustion systems. Large eddy simulation (LES) of a conical shaped bluff-body turbulent nonpremixed burner has been performed to study the impact of spark location on ignition success. This burner was experimentally investigated by Ahmed et al. [Combust. Flame 151 (2007) 366-385]. The present work focuses on the case without swirl, for which detailed measurements are available. First, cold-flow measurements of velocities and mixture fractions are compared with their LES counterparts, to assess the prediction capabilities of simulations in terms of flow and turbulent mixing. Time histories of velocities and mixture fractions are recorded at selected spots, to probe the resolved probability density function (pdf) of flow variables, in an attempt to reproduce, from the knowledge of LES-resolved instantaneous flow conditions, the experimentally observed reasons for success or failure of spark ignition. A flammability map is also constructed from the resolved mixture fraction pdf and compared with its experimental counterpart. LES of forced ignition is then performed using flamelet fully detailed tabulated chemistry combined with presumed pdfs. Various scenarios of flame kernel development are analyzed and correlated with typical flow conditions observed in this burner. The correlations between, velocities and mixture fraction values at the sparking time and the success or failure of ignition, are then further discussed and analyzed. (author)
Lorteau, Mathieu Cléro, Franck Vuillot, François
2015-07-15
In the framework of jet noise computation, a numerical simulation of a subsonic turbulent hot jet is performed using large-eddy simulation. A geometrical tripping is used in order to trigger the turbulence at the nozzle exit. In a first part, the validity of the simulation is assessed by comparison with experimental measurements. The mean and rms velocity fields show good agreement, so do the azimuthal composition of the near pressure field and the far field spectra. Discrepancies remain close to the nozzle exit which lead to a limited overestimation of the pressure levels in both near and far fields, especially near the 90{sup ∘} angular sector. Two point correlation analyses are then applied to the data obtained from the simulation. These enable to link the downstream acoustic radiation, which is the main direction of radiation, to pressure waves developing in the shear layer and propagating toward the potential core end. The intermittency of the downstream acoustic radiation is evidenced and related to the coherent structures developing in the shear layer.
An investigation of the dynamics of marine propeller tip vortices using large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroeder, Seth; Balaras, Elias
2012-11-01
The ability to capture the dynamics of tip vortices, which are generated by marine propellers, is of major interest to naval hydrodynamics designers. The tip vortex of a propeller has a direct impact on performance and acoustics. Additionally, the tip vortex is a major source of erosion damage on downstream components such as rudders and stators. In the present study we utilize large-eddy simulations to compute the flow around a generic, 7-bladed, right-handed submarine propeller in open water testing configuration. We considered three different advance coefficients at Reynolds number (based on the radius and advance speed) of the order of 300,000. The governing equations are discretized on a structured grid in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions on the surface of the propeller, which is not aligned with the grid lines, are introduced using an immersed boundary method. Approximately 1 billion points is used in the computation box. Tip vortices are identified by low pressure areas and the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor (Q-criterium). In general, the vortex core radius contracts with the acceleration in the wake, and then maintains a constant radius for a certain distance before becoming unstable. Stability is affected by the advance ratio. Work supported by ONR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaure, S.; Duchaine, F.; Staffelbach, G.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.
2013-01-01
Optimizing gas turbines is a complex multi-physical and multi-component problem that has long been based on expensive experiments. Today, computer simulation can reduce design process costs and is acknowledged as a promising path for optimization. However, performing such computations using high-fidelity methods such as a large eddy simulation (LES) on gas turbines is challenging. Nevertheless, such simulations become accessible for specific components of gas turbines. These stand-alone simulations face a new challenge: to improve the quality of the results, new physics must be introduced. Therefore, an efficient massively parallel coupling methodology is investigated. The flow solver modeling relies on the LES code AVBP which has already been ported on massively parallel architectures. The conduction solver is based on the same data structure and thus shares its scalability. Accurately coupling these solvers while maintaining their scalability is challenging and is the actual objective of this work. To obtain such goals, a methodology is proposed and different key issues to code the coupling are addressed: convergence, stability, parallel geometry mapping, transfers and interpolation. This methodology is then applied to a real burner configuration, hence demonstrating the possibilities and limitations of the solution.
Large-eddy simulation of airflow and heat transfer in a general ward of hospital
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Md. Farhad; Himika, Taasnim Ahmed; Molla, Md. Mamun
2016-07-01
In this paper, a very popular alternative computational technique, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been used for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of airflow and heat transfer in general ward of hospital. Different Reynolds numbers have been used to study the airflow pattern. In LES, Smagorinsky turbulence model has been considered and a discussion has been conducted in brief. A code validation has been performed comparing the present results with benchmark results for lid-driven cavity problem and the results are found to agree very well. LBM is demonstrated through simulation in forced convection inside hospital ward with six beds with a partition in the middle, which acted like a wall. Changes in average rate of heat transfer in terms of average Nusselt numbers have also been recorded in tabular format and necessary comparison has been showed. It was found that partition narrowed the path for airflow and once the air overcame this barrier, it got free space and turbulence appeared. For higher turbulence, the average rate of heat transfer increased and patients near the turbulence zone released maximum heat and felt more comfortable.
Implicit large eddy simulation of a scalar mixing layer in fractal grid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoaki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nagata, Kouji; Ito, Yasumasa; Hayase, Toshiyuki
2016-07-01
A scalar mixing layer in fractal grid turbulence is simulated by the implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) using low-pass filtering as an implicit subgrid-scale model. The square-type fractal grid with three fractal iterations is used for generating turbulence. The streamwise evolutions of the streamwise velocity statistics obtained in the ILES are in good agreement with the experimental results. The ILES results are used for investigating the development of the scalar mixing layer behind the fractal grid. The results show that the vertical development of the scalar mixing layer strongly depends on the spanwise location. Near the fractal grid, the scalar mixing layer rapidly develops just behind the largest grid bars owing to the vertical turbulent transport. The scalar mixing layer near the fractal grid also develops outside the largest grid bars because the scalar is transported between the outside and back of the largest grid bars by the spanwise turbulent transport. In the downstream region, the scalar mixing layer develops more rapidly near the grid centerline by the vertical turbulent transport and by the spanwise one which transports the scalar between the back of the largest grid bars and both the centerline and outer edge of the fractal grid. Then, the mean scalar profile becomes close to be homogeneous in the spanwise direction.
Large eddy simulation of fuel injection and mixing process in a diesel engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lei; Xie, Mao-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Shi, Jun-Rui
2011-08-01
The large eddy simulation (LES) approach implemented in the KIVA-3V code and based on one-equation sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy model are employed for numerical computation of diesel sprays in a constant volume vessel and in a Caterpillar 3400 series diesel engine. Computational results are compared with those obtained by an RANS (RNG k- ɛ) model as well as with experimental data. The sensitivity of the LES results to mesh resolution is also discussed. The results show that LES generally provides flow and spray characteristics in better agreement with experimental data than RANS; and that small-scale random vortical structures of the in-cylinder turbulent spray field can be captured by LES. Furthermore, the penetrations of fuel droplets and vapors calculated by LES are larger than the RANS result, and the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and sub-grid turbulent viscosity provided by the LES model are evidently less than those calculated by the RANS model. Finally, it is found that the initial swirl significantly affects the spray penetration and the distribution of fuel vapor within the combustion chamber.
Wall-Resolved Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA0012 Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a NACA0012 airfoil is performed at angle of attack (AoA) 3o and Rec = 2 . 3 ×104 . The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are spatially discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order scheme developed by Morinishi et al. (J. of Comput. Phys., 1998), and the subgrid-scale (SGS) tensor is modeled by the stretched-vortex SGS model developed by Pullin and co-workers (Phys. of Fluids, 2000, J. of Fluid Mech., 2009). An extension of the original stretched-vortex SGS model is utilized to resolve the streak-like structures in the near-wall flow regions. The mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles on airfoil surface and in wake are validated against experimental data reported in Dong-Ha Kim et al. (AIAA, 2009). To further verify our LES capacity, some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the DNS results produced by our in-house DNS code. The effect of grid-refinement on the wall-resolved LES approach is also discussed. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of turbulent flows over bluff bodies and airfoils.
Large-eddy simulations of a turbulent Coanda jet on a circulation control airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim
2010-12-01
Large-eddy simulations are performed of a turbulent Coanda jet separating from a rounded trailing edge of a simplified circulation control airfoil model. The freestream Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord is 0.49×106, the jet Reynolds number based on the jet slot height is 4470, and the ratio of the peak jet velocity to the freestream velocity is 3.96. Three different grid resolutions are used to show that their effect is very small on the mean surface pressure distribution, which agrees very well with experiments, as well as on the mean velocity profiles over the Coanda surface. It is observed that the Coanda jet becomes fully turbulent just downstream of the jet exit, accompanied by asymmetric alternating vortex shedding behind a thin (but blunt) jet blade splitting the jet and the external flow. A number of "backward-tilted" hairpin vortices (i.e., the head of each hairpin being located upstream of the legs) are observed around the outer edge of the jet over the Coanda surface. These hairpins create strong upwash between the legs and weak downwash around them, contributing to turbulent mixing of the high-momentum jet below the hairpins and the low-momentum external flow above them. The probability density distribution of velocity fluctuations is shown to be highly asymmetric in this region, consistent with the observation that the hairpin vortices create strong upwash and weak downwash. Turbulent structures inside the jet, its spreading rate, and self-similarity are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin
2015-12-01
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic substepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1 + 1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic substeps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. This modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.
Hybrid Large-Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Simulation of a Supersonic Cavity Using VULCAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinlan, Jesse; McDaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.
2013-01-01
Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters a three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and the effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case and indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. Simulations are performed with and without inflow turbulence recycling on the coarse grid to isolate the effect of the recycling procedure, which is demonstrably critical to capturing the relevant shear layer dynamics. Shock sensor formulations of Ducros and Larsson are found to predict mean flow statistics equally well.
Large-eddy simulations of stratification layer erosion by a jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obabko, Aleksandr; Merzari, Elia; Tomboulides, Ananias; Aithal, Shashi; Fischer, Paul
2014-11-01
Following Fukushima disaster, the OECD/NEA has chosen the PANDA experiment for 2014 benchmark exercise where predictive capabilities of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are tested for multispecies convection in notorious regime of transition from turbulent to laminar flow and from forced to natural convection. Accurate prediction of these phenomena will beneficial for a range of applications including reactor thermal-hydraulics where it will further our understanding of reactor behavior during accidents and help design safer and more efficient reactors for a carbon-free energy option. In fact, the convection and mixing flow in the containment played an important role in the Fukushima accident as the buoyant hydrogen gas mixed with oxygen and detonated resulting in significant destruction and radioactive pollution. Here we present the three-dimensional large-eddy (LES) simulations of the PANDA experiment with the spectral-element open-source code Nek5000. The results are compared and contrasted for a range of parameters using Boussinesq and low-Mach number approximations. Partially funded by DOE NE NEAMS Program and used ALCF resources supported by the DOE Office of Science under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
From large-eddy simulation to multi-UAVs sampling of shallow cumulus clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamraoui, Fayçal; Roberts, Greg; Burnet, Frédéric
2016-04-01
In-situ sampling of clouds that can provide simultaneous measurements at satisfying spatio-temporal resolutions to capture 3D small scale physical processes continues to present challenges. This project (SKYSCANNER) aims at bringing together cloud sampling strategies using a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on Large-eddy simulation (LES). The multi-UAV-based field campaigns with a personalized sampling strategy for individual clouds and cloud fields will significantly improve the understanding of the unresolved cloud physical processes. An extensive set of LES experiments for case studies from ARM-SGP site have been performed using MesoNH model at high resolutions down to 10 m. The carried out simulations led to establishing a macroscopic model that quantifies the interrelationship between micro- and macrophysical properties of shallow convective clouds. Both the geometry and evolution of individual clouds are critical to multi-UAV cloud sampling and path planning. The preliminary findings of the current project reveal several linear relationships that associate many cloud geometric parameters to cloud related meteorological variables. In addition, the horizontal wind speed indicates a proportional impact on cloud number concentration as well as triggering and prolonging the occurrence of cumulus clouds. In the framework of the joint collaboration that involves a Multidisciplinary Team (including institutes specializing in aviation, robotics and atmospheric science), this model will be a reference point for multi-UAVs sampling strategies and path planning.
Large-eddy simulation of bubble-driven plume in stably stratified flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di; Chen, Bicheng; Socolofsky, Scott; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2015-11-01
The interaction between a bubble-driven plume and stratified water column plays a vital role in many environmental and engineering applications. As the bubbles are released from a localized source, they induce a positive buoyancy flux that generates an upward plume. As the plume rises, it entrains ambient water, and when the plume rises to a higher elevation where the stratification-induced negative buoyancy is sufficient, a considerable fraction of the entrained fluid detrains, or peels, to form a downward outer plume and a lateral intrusion layer. In the case of multiphase plumes, the intrusion layer may also trap weakly buoyant particles (e.g., oil droplets in the case of a subsea accidental blowout). In this study, the complex plume dynamics is studied using large-eddy simulation (LES), with the flow field simulated by hybrid pseudospectral/finite-difference scheme, and the bubble and dye concentration fields simulated by finite-volume scheme. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the buoyant plume are studied, with a focus on the effects of different bubble buoyancy levels. The LES data provide useful mean plume statistics for evaluating the accuracy of 1-D engineering models for entrainment and peeling fluxes. Based on the insights learned from the LES, a new continuous peeling model is developed and tested. Study supported by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).
Effects of mesh resolution on large eddy simulation of reacting flows in complex geometry combustors
Boudier, G.; Gicquel, L.Y.M.; Poinsot, T.J.
2008-10-15
The power of current parallel computers is becoming sufficient to apply large eddy simulation (LES) tools to reacting flows not only in academic configurations but also in real gas turbine chambers. The most limiting factor in performing LES of real systems is the mesh size, which directly controls the overall cost of the simulation, so that the effects of mesh resolution on LES results become a key issue. In the present work, an unstructured compressible LES solver is used to compute the reacting flow in a domain corresponding to a sector of a realistic helicopter chamber. Three grids ranging from 1.2 to 44 million elements are used for LES and results are compared in terms of mean and fluctuating fields as well as of pressure spectra. Results show that the mean temperature, reaction rate, and velocity fields are almost insensitive to the grid size. The RMS field of the resolved velocity is also reasonably independent of the mesh, while the RMS fields of temperature exhibit more sensitivity to the grid, as expected from the fact that most of the combustion process proceeds at small scales. The acoustic field exhibits a limited sensitivity to the mesh, suggesting that LES is adapted to the computation of combustion instabilities in complex systems. (author)
Large eddy simulation for predicting turbulent heat transfer in gas turbines
Tafti, Danesh K.; He, Long; Nagendra, K.
2014-01-01
Blade cooling technology will play a critical role in the next generation of propulsion and power generation gas turbines. Accurate prediction of blade metal temperature can avoid the use of excessive compressed bypass air and allow higher turbine inlet temperature, increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions. Large eddy simulation (LES) has been established to predict heat transfer coefficients with good accuracy under various non-canonical flows, but is still limited to relatively simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers. It is envisioned that the projected increase in computational power combined with a drop in price-to-performance ratio will make system-level simulations using LES in complex blade geometries at engine conditions accessible to the design process in the coming one to two decades. In making this possible, two key challenges are addressed in this paper: working with complex intricate blade geometries and simulating high-Reynolds-number (Re) flows. It is proposed to use the immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with LES wall functions. A ribbed duct at Re=20 000 is simulated using the IBM, and a two-pass ribbed duct is simulated at Re=100 000 with and without rotation (rotation number Ro=0.2) using LES with wall functions. The results validate that the IBM is a viable alternative to body-conforming grids and that LES with wall functions reproduces experimental results at a much lower computational cost. PMID:25024418
Large-Eddy Simulations of Plasma Flow Control on a GOE735 Wind Turbine Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czulak, Alexander; Franck, Jennifer
2015-11-01
Active flow control using plasma actuation was studied for the GOE735 airfoil and compared to non-actuated baseline cases using numerical simulations. This investigation considers two-dimensional simulations at a Reynolds number of 1,000 using direct numerical simulation (DNS) as well as three-dimensional simulations at a Reynolds number of 50,000 and 100,000 using large-eddy simulation (LES). Plasma actuation is applied in terms of a source term within the boundary layer close to the airfoil surface. Angles of attack of 0°, 5° and 15° were considered, and control is shown to be effective at increasing the lift coefficient, decreasing the drag coefficient and reducing the root mean squared deviation of both lift and drag. An analysis of the flow physics reveals that the actuated cases delay the point of separation, reduce the wake width and diminish the size and strength of the shed vortices. For this particular airfoil, there are significant differences in Reynolds number in terms of the baseline flow, control effectiveness and performance factors such as lift and drag.
A dynamic slip boundary condition for wall-modeled large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, S. T.; Moin, P.
2014-01-01
Wall models for large-eddy simulation (LES) are a necessity to remove the prohibitive resolution requirements of near-wall turbulence in high Reynolds turbulent flows. Traditional wall models often rely on assumptions about the local state of the boundary layer (e.g., logarithmic velocity profiles) and require a priori prescription of tunable model coefficients. In the present study, a slip velocity boundary condition for the filtered velocity field is obtained from the derivation of the LES equations using a differential filter. A dynamic procedure for the local slip length is additionally formulated making the slip velocity wall model free of any a priori specified coefficients. The accuracy of the dynamic slip velocity wall model is tested in a series of turbulent channel flows at varying Reynolds numbers and in the LES of a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 airfoil at near-stall conditions. The wall-modeled simulations are able to accurately predict mean flow characteristics, including the formation of a trailing-edge separation bubble in NACA 4412 configuration. The validation cases demonstrate the effectiveness of this wall-modeling approach in both attached and separated flow regimes.
Large eddy simulations of the Richtmyer Meshkov instability in a converging geometry
Deiterding, Ralf; Lombardini, Manuel; Pullin, Dale I
2008-01-01
This work presents on-going research on large-eddy simulations of shock-generated mixing in Richtmyer-Meshkov flow in converging geometries. A hybrid numerical method is used on each subgrid of the mesh hierarchy within the AMROC (adaptive mesh refinement object oriented C++) framework: it is a shock capturing method but reverts to a centered scheme with low numerical viscosity in regions of smoother flow. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model allows for the capturing of the small-scale mixing process between the two fluids. Results presented focus on the evolution of the mixing layer and its internal statistics including various spectra and p.d.f.s of mixed molar and mass fractions. A detailed quantitative analysis has also been conducted including space-time histories of instantaneous cylindrical shell-averages of diverse quantities, taken concentrically to the main shocks.Comparisons are made with the planar Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock studied by Vetter and Sturtevant (1995) and Hill et al. (2006).
Large-eddy simulation of dispersion: comparison between elevated and ground-level sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhengtong; Hayden, Paul; Voke, Peter R.; Robins, Alan G.
2004-08-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to calculate the concentration fluctuations of passive plumes from an elevated source (ES) and a ground-level source (GLS) in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall. The mean concentration, relative fluctuations and spectra are found to be in good agreement with the wind-tunnel measurements for both ES and GLS. In particular, the calculated relative fluctuation level for GLS is quite satisfactory, suggesting that the LES is reliable and the calculated instantaneous data can be used for further post-processing. Animations are shown of the meandering of the plumes, which is one of the main features to the numerical simulations. Extreme value theory (EVT), in the form of the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), is applied to model the upper tail of the probability density function of the concentration time series collected at many typical locations for GLS and ES from both LES and experiments. The relative maxima (defined as maximum concentration normalized by the local mean concentration) and return levels estimated from the numerical data are in good agreement with those from the experimental data. The relative maxima can be larger than 50. The success of the comparisons suggests that we can achieve significant insight into the physics of dispersion in turbulent flows by combining LES and EVT.
A High-Resolution Capability for Large-Eddy Simulation of Jet Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2011-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) code that utilizes high-resolution numerical schemes is described and applied to a compressible jet flow. The code is written in a general manner such that the accuracy/resolution of the simulation can be selected by the user. Time discretization is performed using a family of low-dispersion Runge-Kutta schemes, selectable from first- to fourth-order. Spatial discretization is performed using central differencing schemes. Both standard schemes, second- to twelfth-order (3 to 13 point stencils) and Dispersion Relation Preserving schemes from 7 to 13 point stencils are available. The code is written in Fortran 90 and uses hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization. The code is applied to the simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet flow. Four-stage third-order Runge-Kutta time stepping and the 13 point DRP spatial discretization scheme of Bogey and Bailly are used. The high resolution numerics used allows for the use of relatively sparse grids. Three levels of grid resolution are examined, 3.5, 6.5, and 9.2 million points. Mean flow, first-order turbulent statistics and turbulent spectra are reported. Good agreement with experimental data for mean flow and first-order turbulent statistics is shown.
Large-eddy simulation of oil slicks from deep water blowouts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2013-11-01
Deep water blowouts generate plumes of oil droplets and gas bubbles that rise through, and interact with various layers of the ocean. When plumes reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), the interactions among plume, Ekman Spiral and Langmuir turbulence strongly affect the final rates of dilution and bio-degradation. The present study aims at developing a large-eddy simulation (LES) capability for the study of the physical distribution and dispersion of petroleum (oil and gas) under the action of physical oceanographic processes in the OML. In the current LES, the velocity and temperature fields are simulated using a hybrid pseudo-spectral and finite-difference scheme; the oil/gas field is described by an Eulerian concentration field and it is simulated using a bounded finite-volume scheme. A variety of subgrid-scale models for the flow solver are implemented and tested. The LES capability is then applied to the simulation of oil plume dispersion in the OML, which is initially released from a point source below the thermocline. Graphical visualization of the LES results shows surface oil slick distribution consistent with the satellite and aerial images of surface oil slicks reported in the literature. Funding from the GoMRI RFP-II is gratefully acknowledged.
Large eddy simulation for predicting turbulent heat transfer in gas turbines.
Tafti, Danesh K; He, Long; Nagendra, K
2014-08-13
Blade cooling technology will play a critical role in the next generation of propulsion and power generation gas turbines. Accurate prediction of blade metal temperature can avoid the use of excessive compressed bypass air and allow higher turbine inlet temperature, increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions. Large eddy simulation (LES) has been established to predict heat transfer coefficients with good accuracy under various non-canonical flows, but is still limited to relatively simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers. It is envisioned that the projected increase in computational power combined with a drop in price-to-performance ratio will make system-level simulations using LES in complex blade geometries at engine conditions accessible to the design process in the coming one to two decades. In making this possible, two key challenges are addressed in this paper: working with complex intricate blade geometries and simulating high-Reynolds-number (Re) flows. It is proposed to use the immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with LES wall functions. A ribbed duct at Re=20 000 is simulated using the IBM, and a two-pass ribbed duct is simulated at Re=100 000 with and without rotation (rotation number Ro=0.2) using LES with wall functions. The results validate that the IBM is a viable alternative to body-conforming grids and that LES with wall functions reproduces experimental results at a much lower computational cost.
Large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly turbulent flows for aerating hydrofoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajit, Mohammad; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-11-01
We have proposed a formulation for the large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly flows by converting the governing equations to a more loosely-coupled form. This formulation provides an efficient numerical procedure for two-way coupling of bubbly flows at low gas holdups. Subgrid-scale turbulence modeling is based on the dynamic procedure of Germano for the liquid phase and the Jakobson approach for the gas phase. Wall-modeling is implemented using the method of Cabot & Moin. Our approach is employed to simulate flow over aerating hydrofoils at different angles of attack. A structured body-fitted C-grid is employed for domain discretization. Validation of our computational code, for C-grids, is carried out by simulating single-phase flows over a NACA0012 airfoil (20° AOA) with laminar flow and an E387 airfoil (6° AOA) with turbulent flow. Comparisons with available computational and experimental data in terms of time averaged drag coefficient, lift coefficient, separation bubble length, and reattachment point proves the validity of our computational code. The aerating hydrofoil simulation utilizes a NACA0015 hydrofoil, for which experiments were carried out at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Comparisons between computational and experimental datasets show promising results. This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and the Hydro Reasearch Foundation.
Recent advances in large-eddy simulation of spray and coal combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, L. X.
2013-07-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is under its rapid development and is recognized as a possible second generation of CFD methods used in engineering. Spray and coal combustion is widely used in power, transportation, chemical and metallurgical, iron and steel making, aeronautical and astronautical engineering, hence LES of spray and coal two-phase combustion is particularly important for engineering application. LES of two-phase combustion attracts more and more attention; since it can give the detailed instantaneous flow and flame structures and more exact statistical results than those given by the Reynolds averaged modeling (RANS modeling). One of the key problems in LES is to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models, including SGS stress models and combustion models. Different investigators proposed or adopted various SGS models. In this paper the present author attempts to review the advances in studies on LES of spray and coal combustion, including the studies done by the present author and his colleagues. Different SGS models adopted by different investigators are described, some of their main results are summarized, and finally some research needs are discussed.
Scalar Filtered Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of a Bunsen Burner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, S. Levent; Givi, Peyman; Strakey, Peter
2008-11-01
The scalar filtered density function (SFDF) methodology is extended for large eddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent, stoichiometric premixed methane/air flame. The SFDF takes account of subgrid scales (SGS) by considering the mass weighted probability density function (PDF) of the SGS scalar quantities. A transport equation is derived for the SFDF in which the effects of chemical reactions appear in closed form. The SGS mixing is modeled via the linear mean square estimation (LMSE) model, and the convective fluxes are modeled via a SGS viscosity. The modeled SFDF transport equation is solved by a hybrid finite-difference/Monte Carlo scheme. A novel irregular domain decomposition procedure is employed for scalable parallelization which facilitates affordable simulations with realistic chemical reactions and flow parameters. Oxidation chemistry is modeled via a 5-step reduced, and a 15-step augmented reduced mechanism. Results are presented of the mean and rms values of the velocity, the temperature, and mass fractions of the major and the minor species. These results are assessed by comparison against laboratory data.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Bunsen Flames at Different Turbulence Levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duchampde Lageneste, Laurent; Pitsch, Heinz
2002-11-01
In a recent study we have formulated a level-set method based on the G-equation for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of premixed turbulent combustion and applied the model successfully in a simulation of the turbulent Bunsen flame,F3, experimentally investigated by Chen et al. (1996). This flame is nominally in the thin reaction zones regime. As a further validation of the model and to demonstrate the benefits of LES in turbulent combustion modeling, in the present work, we report on an LES of the F2-flame from the same series of experiments, which has a higher turbulence level and hence a higher Karlovitz number. This flame is still in the thin reaction zones regime, but locally reveals regions burning in the broken reaction zones regime. Results from the simulation will be compared with experimental data for temperature and axial velocity. The experimental data shows substantial differences between flames F2 and F3, which is well described by the simulation. Flame F2, for instance, shows an almost linear increase of the flame brush thickness with downstream distance from the nozzle, whereas flame F3 shows almost constant flame brush thickness.
Large-eddy and unsteady RANS simulations of a shock-accelerated heavy gas cylinder
Morgan, B. E.; Greenough, J. A.
2015-04-08
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the Richtmyer–Meshkov unstable “shock-jet” problem are conducted using both large-eddy simulation (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approaches in an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrodynamics code. Turbulence statistics are extracted from LES by running an ensemble of simulations with multimode perturbations to the initial conditions. Detailed grid convergence studies are conducted, and LES results are found to agree well with both experiment and high-order simulations conducted by Shankar et al. (Phys Fluids 23, 024102, 2011). URANS results using a k–L approach are found to be highly sensitive to initialization of the turbulence lengthscale L and to the time at which L becomes resolved on the computational mesh. As a result, it is observed that a gradient diffusion closure for turbulent species flux is a poor approximation at early times, and a new closure based on the mass-flux velocity is proposed for low-Reynolds-number mixing.
Large-eddy and unsteady RANS simulations of a shock-accelerated heavy gas cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, B. E.; Greenough, J. A.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable "shock-jet" problem are conducted using both large-eddy simulation (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approaches in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics code. Turbulence statistics are extracted from LES by running an ensemble of simulations with multimode perturbations to the initial conditions. Detailed grid convergence studies are conducted, and LES results are found to agree well with both experiment and high-order simulations conducted by Shankar et al. (Phys Fluids 23, 024102, 2011). URANS results using a k- L approach are found to be highly sensitive to initialization of the turbulence lengthscale L and to the time at which L becomes resolved on the computational mesh. It is observed that a gradient diffusion closure for turbulent species flux is a poor approximation at early times, and a new closure based on the mass-flux velocity is proposed for low-Reynolds-number mixing.
Large-eddy and unsteady RANS simulations of a shock-accelerated heavy gas cylinder
Morgan, B. E.; Greenough, J. A.
2015-04-08
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the Richtmyer–Meshkov unstable “shock-jet” problem are conducted using both large-eddy simulation (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approaches in an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrodynamics code. Turbulence statistics are extracted from LES by running an ensemble of simulations with multimode perturbations to the initial conditions. Detailed grid convergence studies are conducted, and LES results are found to agree well with both experiment and high-order simulations conducted by Shankar et al. (Phys Fluids 23, 024102, 2011). URANS results using a k–L approach are found to be highly sensitive to initialization of the turbulence lengthscale L and to the timemore » at which L becomes resolved on the computational mesh. As a result, it is observed that a gradient diffusion closure for turbulent species flux is a poor approximation at early times, and a new closure based on the mass-flux velocity is proposed for low-Reynolds-number mixing.« less
Large-eddy simulations of a solid-rocket booster jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, Roberto; Poubeau, Adele; Cariolle, Daniel
2014-11-01
Emissions from solid-rocket boosters are responsible for a severe decrease in ozone concentration in the rocket plume during the first hours after a launch. The main source of ozone depletion is due to hydrogen chloride that is converted into chlorine in the high temperature regions of the jet (afterburning). The objective of this study is to evaluate the active chlorine concentration in the plume of a solid-rocket booster using large-eddy simulations. The gas is injected through the entire nozzle of the booster and a local time-stepping method based on coupling multi-instances of a fluid solver is used to extend the computational domain up to 600 nozzle exit diameters. The methodology is validated for a non-reactive case by analyzing the flow characteristics of supersonic co-flowing under expanded jets. Then, the chemistry of chlorine is studied offline using a complex chemistry solver and the LES data extracted from the mean trajectories of sample fluid particles. Finally, the online chemistry is analyzed by means of the multispecies version of the LES solver using a reduced chemistry scheme. The LES are able to capture the mixing of the exhaust with ambient air and the species concentrations, which is also useful to initialize atmospheric simulations on larger domains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa
2014-07-01
The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.
Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Guang J.; Wu, Xianghua; Endo, Satoshi; Cao, Le; Li, Yueqing; Guo, Xiaohao
2016-02-01
This work examines the relationships of entrainment rate to vertical velocity, buoyancy, and turbulent dissipation rate by applying stepwise principal component regression to observational data from shallow cumulus clouds collected during the Routine AAF [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The cumulus clouds during the RACORO campaign simulated using a large eddy simulation (LES) model are also examined with the same approach. The analysis shows that a combination of multiple variables can better represent entrainment ratemore » in both the observations and LES than any single-variable fitting. Three commonly used parameterizations are also tested on the individual cloud scale. A new parameterization is therefore presented that relates entrainment rate to vertical velocity, buoyancy and dissipation rate; the effects of treating clouds as ensembles and humid shells surrounding cumulus clouds on the new parameterization are discussed. Physical mechanisms underlying the relationships of entrainment rate to vertical velocity, buoyancy and dissipation rate are also explored.« less
Large eddy simulation for predicting turbulent heat transfer in gas turbines.
Tafti, Danesh K; He, Long; Nagendra, K
2014-08-13
Blade cooling technology will play a critical role in the next generation of propulsion and power generation gas turbines. Accurate prediction of blade metal temperature can avoid the use of excessive compressed bypass air and allow higher turbine inlet temperature, increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions. Large eddy simulation (LES) has been established to predict heat transfer coefficients with good accuracy under various non-canonical flows, but is still limited to relatively simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers. It is envisioned that the projected increase in computational power combined with a drop in price-to-performance ratio will make system-level simulations using LES in complex blade geometries at engine conditions accessible to the design process in the coming one to two decades. In making this possible, two key challenges are addressed in this paper: working with complex intricate blade geometries and simulating high-Reynolds-number (Re) flows. It is proposed to use the immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with LES wall functions. A ribbed duct at Re=20 000 is simulated using the IBM, and a two-pass ribbed duct is simulated at Re=100 000 with and without rotation (rotation number Ro=0.2) using LES with wall functions. The results validate that the IBM is a viable alternative to body-conforming grids and that LES with wall functions reproduces experimental results at a much lower computational cost. PMID:25024418
Large-eddy simulation of shock-cooling-film interaction at helium and hydrogen injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopka, Martin; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang
2013-10-01
Laminar helium and hydrogen films at a Mach number 1.3 are injected through a slot into a fully turbulent freestream air flow at a Mach number 2.44. To numerically study by large-eddy simulations the impact of an impinging shock on various cooling films, first, reference solutions without shock impingement are computed and then, the helium and hydrogen cooling films interacting with an oblique shock at a pressure ratio of p3/p1 = 2.5 are analyzed. The comparison of the helium and hydrogen injections without shock shows the hydrogen injection to have a 1.14-fold better cooling effectiveness at 60% of the blowing rate of the helium injection. The shock-cooling-film interaction causes a massive separation bubble that is 23% larger at the hydrogen than at the helium injection. Nevertheless, the shock influenced cooling effectiveness at the hydrogen injection is only 30% reduced compared to a 40% decrease at the helium injection 100 slot heights downstream of the injection. The intense mixing in the shock-cooling-film interaction region shows a more rapid reduction of the helium and hydrogen mass fractions than in the zero-pressure gradient reference configurations. Overall, the cooling effectiveness of the hydrogen film is superior to that of the helium film independent from the streamwise pressure gradient.
Large-eddy simulation of the stable boundary layer and implications for transport and dispersion
Cederwall, R T; Street, R L
1999-02-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the evolving stable boundary layer (SBL) provides unique data sets for assessing the effects of stable stratification on transport and dispersion. The simulations include the initial development of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in the afternoon, followed by the development of an SBL after sunset with a strong, surface-based temperature inversion. The structure of the turbulence is modified significantly by negative buoyancy associated with the temperature inversion. The magnitude of velocity variances is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to that in the CBL, and the vertical velocity variance is damped further as the static stability preferentially damps vertical motions. The advanced subgrid-scale turbulence model allows simulation of intermittently enhanced periods of turbulence in the SBL that am often observed. During these turbulent episodes, mixing is increased within the SBL. Air pollution models that account only for the long-term mean structure of the SBL do not include the effects of these episodes. In contrast, our LES results imply that material released near the surface and mixed to higher elevations would be transported by stronger winds and in different directions, due to the vertical shear of horizontal wind speed and direction. Material released at altitude in the SBL will tend to be mixed downward toward the surface during these turbulent episodes in a fumigation-like scenario at night.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Noise Generation in Supersonic Jets at Realistic Engine Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Junhui; Corrigan, Andrew; Kailasanath, K.; Taylor, Brian
2015-11-01
Large-eddy simulations (LES) have been carried out to investigate the noise generation in highly heated supersonic jets at temperatures similar to those observed in high-performance jet engine exhausts. It is found that the exhaust temperature of high-performance jet engines can range from 1000K at an intermediate power to above 2000K at a maximum afterburning power. In low-temperature jets, the effects of the variation of the specific heat ratio as well as the radial temperature profile near the nozzle exit are small and are ignored, but it is not clear whether those effects can be also ignored in highly heated jets. The impact of the variation of the specific heat ratio is assessed by comparing LES results using a variable specific heat ratio with those using a constant specific heat ratio. The impact on both the flow field and the noise distributions are investigated. Because the total temperature near the nozzle wall can be substantially lower than the nozzle total temperature either due to the heating loss through the nozzle wall or due to the cooling applied near the wall, this lower wall temperature may impact the temperature in the shear layer, and thus impact the noise generation. The impact of the radial temperature profile on the jet noise generation is investigated by comparing results of lower nozzle wall temperatures with those of the adiabatic wall condition.
Effect of stable stratification on dispersion within urban street canyons: A large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex; Norford, Leslie K.
2016-11-01
This study employs a validated large-eddy simulation (LES) code with high tempo-spatial resolution to investigate the effect of a stably stratified roughness sublayer (RSL) on scalar transport within an urban street canyon. The major effect of stable stratification on the flow and turbulence inside the street canyon is that the flow slows down in both streamwise and vertical directions, a stagnant area near the street level emerges, and the vertical transport of momentum is weakened. Consequently, the transfer of heat between the street canyon and overlying atmosphere also gets weaker. The pollutant emitted from the street level 'pools' within the lower street canyon, and more pollutant accumulates within the street canyon with increasing stability. Under stable stratification, the dominant mechanism for pollutant transport within the street canyon has changed from ejections (flow carries high-concentration pollutant upward) to unorganized motions (flow carries high-concentration pollutant downward), which is responsible for the much lower dispersion efficiency under stable stratifications.
Large-eddy simulation of nitrogen injection at trans- and supercritical conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Hagen; Niedermeier, Christoph A.; Matheis, Jan; Pfitzner, Michael; Hickel, Stefan
2016-01-01
Large-eddy simulations (LESs) of cryogenic nitrogen injection into a warm environment at supercritical pressure are performed and real-gas thermodynamics models and subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models are evaluated. The comparison of different SGS models — the Smagorinsky model, the Vreman model, and the adaptive local deconvolution method — shows that the representation of turbulence on the resolved scales has a notable effect on the location of jet break-up, whereas the particular modeling of unresolved scales is less important for the overall mean flow field evolution. More important are the models for the fluid's thermodynamic state. The injected fluid is either in a supercritical or in a transcritical state and undergoes a pseudo-boiling process during mixing. Such flows typically exhibit strong density gradients that delay the instability growth and can lead to a redistribution of turbulence kinetic energy from the radial to the axial flow direction. We evaluate novel volume-translation methods on the basis of the cubic Peng-Robinson equation of state in the framework of LES. At small extra computational cost, their application considerably improves the simulation results compared to the standard formulation. Furthermore, we found that the choice of inflow temperature is crucial for the reproduction of the experimental results and that heat addition within the injector can affect the mean flow field in comparison to results with an adiabatic injector.
Large eddy simulation of flows in industrial compressors: a path from 2015 to 2035
Gourdain, N.; Sicot, F.; Duchaine, F.; Gicquel, L.
2014-01-01
A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows is a necessary step towards a breakthrough in the design of modern compressors. Owing to high Reynolds numbers and very complex geometry, the flow that develops in such industrial machines is extremely hard to predict. At this time, the most popular method to simulate these flows is still based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach. However, there is some evidence that this formalism is not accurate for these components, especially when a description of time-dependent turbulent flows is desired. With the increase in computing power, large eddy simulation (LES) emerges as a promising technique to improve both knowledge of complex physics and reliability of flow solver predictions. The objective of the paper is thus to give an overview of the current status of LES for industrial compressor flows as well as to propose future research axes regarding the use of LES for compressor design. While the use of wall-resolved LES for industrial multistage compressors at realistic Reynolds number should not be ready before 2035, some possibilities exist to reduce the cost of LES, such as wall modelling and the adaptation of the phase-lag condition. This paper also points out the necessity to combine LES to techniques able to tackle complex geometries. Indeed LES alone, i.e. without prior knowledge of such flows for grid construction or the prohibitive yet ideal use of fully homogeneous meshes to predict compressor flows, is quite limited today. PMID:25024422
Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up
Örley, F. Trummler, T.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.; Hickel, S.
2015-08-15
We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating fluid model is based on a thermodynamic-equilibrium assumption. Compressibility of all phases enables full resolution of collapse-induced pressure wave dynamics. The thermodynamic model is embedded into an implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) environment. The considered configuration follows the general setup of a reference experiment and is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up fuel injector or control valve as found in an automotive engine. Due to the experimental conditions, it operates, however, at significantly lower pressures. LES results are compared to the experimental reference for validation. Three different operating points are studied, which differ in terms of the development of cavitation regions and the jet break-up characteristics. Observed differences between experimental and numerical data in some of the investigated cases can be caused by uncertainties in meeting nominal parameters by the experiment. The investigation reveals that three main mechanisms promote primary jet break-up: collapse-induced turbulent fluctuations near the outlet, entrainment of free gas into the nozzle, and collapse events inside the jet near the liquid-gas interface.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Dispersion in Urban Areas and Forest Canopies
Chan, S T
2004-04-09
Under the sponsorship of the U.S. DOE and DHS, we have developed a CFD model for simulating flow and dispersion of chemical and biological agents released in the urban environment. Our model, FEM3MP (Chan and Stevens, 2000), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The model uses the finite element method for accurate representation of complex building shapes and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection method and modern iterative solvers for efficient time integration (Gresho and Chan, 1998). Physical processes treated include turbulence modeling via the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) approaches, atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budget, and vegetative canopies, etc. Predictions from our model are continuously being verified and validated against data from wind tunnel (Chan and Stevens, 2000; Chan, et al., 2001) and field experiments (Chan, et al., 2002, 2003; Lee, et al., 2002; Humphreys, et al., 2003; and Calhoun, et al., 2004). Discussed below are several examples to illustrate the use of FEM3MP in simulating flow and dispersion in urban areas and forest canopies, with model results compared against available field measurements.
Large-eddy simulation of flow through a plane, asymmetric diffuser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob
1994-01-01
A challenge for traditional turbulence modeling, based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, remains the accurate prediction of 'mild', adverse pressure-gradient driven separation from a smooth surface. With this study we want to explore the capability of large-eddy simulation to predict the separation which occurs on the deflected wall of an asymmetric, plane diffuser with opening angle of 10 deg. The flow through the plane diffuser exhibits some additional interesting physical phenomena which make it a challenging test case. In addition to 'mild' separation about halfway down the deflected ramp, the flow is characterized by a small backflow zone with stalled fluid in the rear part of the expanding section. The turbulent flow entering the diffuser is subject to combined adverse and radial pressure gradients stemming from the convex curvature. Finally the flow recovers into a developed, turbulent channel flow in the outlet section. Obi et al. provide measurements of mean flow, Reynolds stresses, and pressure recovery, which were obtained by means of LDV in a wind tunnel. The objective of this study is to investigate whether LES with the standard dynamic model is able to accurately predict the flow in the one-sided diffuser and to explore the resolution requirements and associated costs.
Large Eddy Simulation of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis
2015-11-01
In this talk we report on Large Eddy Simulations of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent channel flow. The impinging jet enters the turbulent stream in an oblique direction. This type of flow is relevant to the so-called ``Pressurized Thermal Shock'' phenomenon that can occur in pressurized water reactors. First we elaborate on issues related to the set-up of the simulations of the flow of interest such as, imposition of turbulent inflows, choice of subgrid-scale model and others. Also, the issue of the commutator error due to the anisotropy of the spatial cut-off filter induced by non-uniform grids is being discussed. In the second part of the talk we present results of our simulations. In particular, we focus on the high-shear and recirculation zones that are developed and on the characteristics of the temperature field. The budget for the mean kinetic energy of the resolved-scale turbulent velocity fluctuations is also discussed and analyzed. Financial support has been provided by Bel V, a subsidiary of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control of Belgium.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interaction and its Control Using Sparkjet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guang; Yao, Yufeng; Fang, Jian; Gan, Tian; Lu, Lipeng
2016-06-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of an oblique shock-wave generated by an 8° sharp wedge impinging onto a spatially-developing Mach 2.3 turbulent boundary layer and their interactions has been carried out in this study. The Reynolds number based on the incoming flow property and the boundary layer displacement thickness at the impinging point without shock-wave is 20,000. The detailed numerical approaches are described and the inflow turbulence is generated using the digital filter method to avoid artificial temporal or streamwise periodicity. Numerical results are compared with the available wind tunnel PIV measurements of the same flow conditions. Further LES study on the control of flow separation due to the strong shock-viscous interaction is also conducted by using an active control actuator “SparkJet” concept. The single-pulsed characteristics of the control device are obtained and compared with the experiments. Instantaneous flowfield shows that the “SparkJet” promotes the flow mixing in the boundary layer and enhances its ability to resist the flow separation. The time and spanwise averaged skin friction coefficient distribution demonstrates that the separation bubble length is reduced by maximum 35% with the control exerted.
Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph
2012-01-01
Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Jeffrey A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Fisher, Travis C.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Black, William S.
2012-01-01
The 2nd-order upwind inviscid flux scheme implemented in the multi-block, structured grid, cell centered, finite volume, high-speed reacting flow code VULCAN has been modified to reduce numerical dissipation. This modification was motivated by the desire to improve the codes ability to perform large eddy simulations. The reduction in dissipation was accomplished through a hybridization of non-dissipative and dissipative discontinuity-capturing advection schemes that reduces numerical dissipation while maintaining the ability to capture shocks. A methodology for constructing hybrid-advection schemes that blends nondissipative fluxes consisting of linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms discretized using 4th-order symmetric operators, with dissipative, 3rd or 4th-order reconstruction based upwind flux schemes was developed and implemented. A series of benchmark problems with increasing spatial and fluid dynamical complexity were utilized to examine the ability of the candidate schemes to resolve and propagate structures typical of turbulent flow, their discontinuity capturing capability and their robustness. A realistic geometry typical of a high-speed propulsion system flowpath was computed using the most promising of the examined schemes and was compared with available experimental data to demonstrate simulation fidelity.
Large eddy simulation and laser diagnostic studies on a low swirl stratified premixed flame
Nogenmyr, K.-J.; Bai, X.S.; Fureby, C.; Petersson, P.; Collin, R.; Linne, M.
2008-11-15
This paper presents numerical simulations and laser diagnostic experiments of a swirling lean premixed methane/air flame with an aim to compare different Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models for reactive flows. An atmospheric-pressure laboratory swirl burner has been developed wherein lean premixed methane/air is injected in an unconfined low-speed flow of air. The flame is stabilized above the burner rim in a moderate swirl flow, triggering weak vortex breakdown in the downstream direction. Both stereoscopic (3-component) PIV and 2-component PIV are used to investigate the flow. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to examine the temperature field in the leading flame front. Acetone-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to examine the fuel distribution. The experimental data are used to assess two different LES models; one based on level-set G-equation and flamelet chemistry, and the other based on finite rate chemistry with reduced kinetics. The two LES models treat the chemistry differently, which results in different predictions of the flame dynamic behavior and statistics. Yet, great similarity of flame structures was predicted by both models. The LES and experimental data reveal several intrinsic features of the low swirl flame such as the W-shape at the leading front, the highly wrinkled fronts in the shear layers, and the existence of extinction holes in the trailing edge of the flame. The effect of combustion models, the numerical solvers and boundary conditions on the flame and flow predictions was systematically examined. (author)
Large eddy simulation and laser diagnostic studies on a low swirl stratified premixed flame
Nogenmyr, K.-J.; Bai, X.S.; Fureby, C.; Petersson, P.; Collin, R.; Linne, M.
2009-01-15
This paper presents numerical simulations and laser diagnostic experiments of a swirling lean premixed methane/air flame with an aim to compare different Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models for reactive flows. An atmospheric-pressure laboratory swirl burner has been developed wherein lean premixed methane/air is injected in an unconfined low-speed flow of air. The flame is stabilized above the burner rim in a moderate swirl flow, triggering weak vortex breakdown in the downstream direction. Both stereoscopic (3-component) PIV and 2-component PIV are used to investigate the flow. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to examine the temperature field in the leading flame front. Acetone-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to examine the fuel distribution. The experimental data are used to assess two different LES models; one based on level-set G-equation and flamelet chemistry, and the other based on finite rate chemistry with reduced kinetics. The two LES models treat the chemistry differently, which results in different predictions of the flame dynamic behavior and statistics. Yet, great similarity of flame structures was predicted by both models. The LES and experimental data reveal several intrinsic features of the low swirl flame such as the W-shape at the leading front, the highly wrinkled fronts in the shear layers, and the existence of extinction holes in the trailing edge of the flame. The effect of combustion models, the numerical solvers and boundary conditions on the flame and flow predictions was systematically examined. (author)
Minimum-dissipation scalar transport model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, Mahdi; Bae, Hyun J.; Moin, Parviz
2016-08-01
Minimum-dissipation models are a simple alternative to the Smagorinsky-type approaches to parametrize the subfilter turbulent fluxes in large-eddy simulation. A recently derived model of this type for subfilter stress tensor is the anisotropic minimum-dissipation (AMD) model [Rozema et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 085107 (2015), 10.1063/1.4928700], which has many desirable properties. It is more cost effective than the dynamic Smagorinsky model, it appropriately switches off in laminar and transitional flows, and it is consistent with the exact subfilter stress tensor on both isotropic and anisotropic grids. In this study, an extension of this approach to modeling the subfilter scalar flux is proposed. The performance of the AMD model is tested in the simulation of a high-Reynolds-number rough-wall boundary-layer flow with a constant and uniform surface scalar flux. The simulation results obtained from the AMD model show good agreement with well-established empirical correlations and theoretical predictions of the resolved flow statistics. In particular, the AMD model is capable of accurately predicting the expected surface-layer similarity profiles and power spectra for both velocity and scalar concentration.
Modifications to WRFs dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; et al
2015-10-29
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in themore » acoustic sub-stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub-steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. In conclusion, this modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.« less
Large Eddy Simulation of wind turbines using the actuator line model and immersed boundary method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoni, Christian; Carrasquillo-Solís, Kenneth; Leonardi, Stefano
2014-11-01
Despite the growth of the energy extracted from wind turbines, the flow physics is still not fully understood even under ideal operational conditions. Large Eddy Simulations of the turbulent flow past a wind turbine in a channel have been performed. The numerical setup reproduces the experiment performed in a wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NUST). The code is based on a finite difference scheme with a fractional step and Runge-Kutta, which couples the actuator line model (ALM) and the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). Two simulations were performed, one neglecting the tower and nacelle resulting in the rotating blades only, the other modeling both the rotating blades as well as the tower and nacelle with IBM. Results relative to the simulation with tower and nacelle have a very good agreement with experiments. Profiles of turbulent kinetic energy shows that the effect of the tower and nacelle is not confined to the hub region but extend to the entire rotor. In addition we placed the wind turbine over an undulated topography to understand how it affects the performances and wake of a wind turbine. Comparison with the results obtained for the smooth wall show an interaction between the rough wall and the wake. The numerical simulations were performed on XSEDE TACC under Grant No. CTS070066. The present work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Grant IIA-1243482 (WINDINSPIRE).
Development of an advanced actuator disk model for Large-Eddy Simulation of wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe
2015-11-01
This work aims at improving the fidelity of the wind turbine modelling for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind farms, in order to accurately predict the loads, the production, and the wake dynamics. In those simulations, the wind turbines are accounted for through actuator disks. i.e. a body-force term acting over the regularised disk swept by the rotor. These forces are computed using the Blade Element theory to estimate the normal and tangential components (based on the local simulated flow and the blade characteristics). The local velocities are modified using the Glauert tip-loss factor in order to account for the finite number of blades; the computation of this correction is here improved thanks to a local estimation of the effective upstream velocity at every point of the disk. These advanced actuator disks are implemented in a 4th order finite difference LES solver and are compared to a classical Blade Element Momentum method and to high fidelity wake simulations performed using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method in uniform and turbulent flows.
A Parallel, Finite-Volume Algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1999-01-01
A parallel, finite-volume algorithm has been developed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows. This algorithm includes piecewise linear least-square reconstruction, trilinear finite-element interpolation, Roe flux-difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. Parallel implementation is done using the message-passing programming model. In this paper, the numerical algorithm is described. To validate the numerical method for turbulence simulation, LES of fully developed turbulent flow in a square duct is performed for a Reynolds number of 320 based on the average friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter of the duct. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) results are available for this test case, and the accuracy of this algorithm for turbulence simulations can be ascertained by comparing the LES solutions with the DNS results. The effects of grid resolution, upwind numerical dissipation, and subgrid-scale dissipation on the accuracy of the LES are examined. Comparison with DNS results shows that the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation adversely affects the accuracy of the turbulence simulation. For accurate turbulence simulations, only 3-5 percent of the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation is needed.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Frankel, S. H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Sabini, G.; Madnia, C. K.
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to extend current capabilities of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first two years of this research have been concentrated on a priori investigations of single-point Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for providing subgrid closures in reacting turbulent flows. In the efforts initiated in the third year, our primary focus has been on performing actual LES by means of PDF methods. The approach is based on assumed PDF methods and we have performed extensive analysis of turbulent reacting flows by means of LES. This includes simulations of both three-dimensional (3D) isotropic compressible flows and two-dimensional reacting planar mixing layers. In addition to these LES analyses, some work is in progress to assess the extent of validity of our assumed PDF methods. This assessment is done by making detailed companions with recent laboratory data in predicting the rate of reactant conversion in parallel reacting shear flows. This report provides a summary of our achievements for the first six months of the third year of this program.
Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.
Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil
2016-08-01
The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail. PMID:27146288
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent cavitating flow in a micro channel
Egerer, Christian P. Hickel, Stefan; Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2014-08-15
Large-eddy simulations (LES) of cavitating flow of a Diesel-fuel-like fluid in a generic throttle geometry are presented. Two-phase regions are modeled by a parameter-free thermodynamic equilibrium mixture model, and compressibility of the liquid and the liquid-vapor mixture is taken into account. The Adaptive Local Deconvolution Method (ALDM), adapted for cavitating flows, is employed for discretizing the convective terms of the Navier-Stokes equations for the homogeneous mixture. ALDM is a finite-volume-based implicit LES approach that merges physically motivated turbulence modeling and numerical discretization. Validation of the numerical method is performed for a cavitating turbulent mixing layer. Comparisons with experimental data of the throttle flow at two different operating conditions are presented. The LES with the employed cavitation modeling predicts relevant flow and cavitation features accurately within the uncertainty range of the experiment. The turbulence structure of the flow is further analyzed with an emphasis on the interaction between cavitation and coherent motion, and on the statistically averaged-flow evolution.
Large eddy simulations of time-dependent and buoyancy-driven channel flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cabot, William H.
1993-01-01
The primary goal of this work has been to assess the performance of the dynamic SGS model in the large eddy simulation (LES) of channel flows in a variety of situations, viz., in temporal development of channel flow turned by a transverse pressure gradient and especially in buoyancy-driven turbulent flows such as Rayleigh-Benard and internally heated channel convection. For buoyancy-driven flows, there are additional buoyant terms that are possible in the base models, and one objective has been to determine if the dynamic SGS model results are sensitive to such terms. The ultimate goal is to determine the minimal base model needed in the dynamic SGS model to provide accurate results in flows with more complicated physical features. In addition, a program of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of fully compressible channel convection has been undertaken to determine stratification and compressibility effects. These simulations are intended to provide a comparative base for performing the LES of compressible (or highly stratified, pseudo-compressible) convection at high Reynolds number in the future.
Large-eddy simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition in atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, Roberto; Thouron, Odile; Picot, Joris; Cariolle, Daniel
2012-11-01
Contrails are ice clouds that form by condensation of water vapor exhaust from aircraft engines and develop further in the wake as they are entrained by the airplane trailing vortices. When contrails spread to form cirrus clouds, they can persist for hours and become almost indistinguishable from natural cirrus. This talk focuses on the role of atmospheric turbulence in determining the characteristics of these ``contrail cirrus.'' Large-eddy simulations are carried out using the atmospheric model Meso-NH with the goal of identifying the processes driving the contrail-to-cirrus transition as a function of contrail age. To that end, the effects of atmospheric turbulence, microphysics, and radiative transfer are analyzed separately. Turbulent fields are first generated by means of a stochastic forcing technique that reproduces the atmospheric conditions encountered in the upper troposphere. Contrails generated by a model aircraft are then inserted on the top of these fields. Finally, ice microphysics and radiative transfer are activated to find out on which spatial and temporal scales the vertical motion prevails over the essentially horizontal motion induced by atmospheric turbulent diffusion.
Study of microphysical and radiative properties of contrail cirrus using large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, Roberto; Thouron, Odile; Cariolle, Daniel
2013-11-01
Contrails are ice clouds that form by condensation of water vapor exhaust from aircraft engines and develop further in the wake as they are entrained by the airplane trailing vortices. When contrails spread to form contrail cirrus, they can persist for hours resulting in additional (artificial) cloud cover that adds to the cover due to natural cirrus. This talk presents recent results from large-eddy situations (LES) of contrail cirrus dispersion that are carried out using the atmospheric model Méso-NH. The objective is to investigate whether and how the ambient conditions and the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals (e.g. shape, albedo), affect the three-dimensional structure and the overall microphysical and radiative characteristics of the contrail. The analysis is carried out by changing the radiative properties of the atmosphere (e.g. day/night conditions) for a given level of atmospheric turbulence. The turbulent field is generated by means of a stochastic forcing technique that reproduces the atmospheric conditions encountered in the upper troposphere. In addition to helping understanding the physics of contrails, the LES data retrieved from this study may provide useful inputs to the parameterization of contrail cirrus into global or climate models.
Modifications to WRFs dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin
2015-10-29
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic sub-stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub-steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. In conclusion, this modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.
Large-eddy simulation of shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loginov, Maxim S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.; Zheltovodov, Alexander A.
2006-10-01
Well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed in order to investigate flow phenomena and turbulence structure of the boundary layer along a supersonic compression ramp. The numerical simulations directly reproduce an available experimental result. The compression ramp has a deflection angle of beta {=} 25(°) . The mean free-stream Mach number is M_infty {=} 2.95. The Reynolds number based on the incoming boundary-layer thickness is Re_{delta_0} {=} 63 560 in accordance with the reference experiment. These simulations overcome deficiencies of earlier direct numerical simulations (DNS) and LES in terms of ramp-deflection angle, Reynolds number and spanwise size of the computational domain which is required for capturing the essential flow phenomena. The filtered conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy are solved with a high-order finite-difference scheme. The effect of subgrid scales is modelled by the approximate deconvolution model. About 18.5 {×} 10(6) grid points are used for discretizing the computational domain. To obtain mean flow and turbulence structure the flow is sampled 1272 times over 703 characteristic time scales of the incoming boundary layer. Statistical data are computed from these samples. An analysis of the data shows good agreement with the experiment in terms of mean quantities such as shock position, separation and reattachment location, skin-friction and surface-pressure distributions, and turbulence structure. The computational data confirm theoretical and experimental results on fluctuation amplification across the interaction region. In the wake of the main shock a shedding of shocklets is observed. The temporal behaviour of the coupled shock separation system agrees well with experimental data. Unlike previous DNS the present simulation data provide indications of a large-scale shock motion. Also, evidence for the existence of three-dimensional large-scale streamwise structures, commonly referred to as G
A Year-Long Large-Eddy Simulation of the Weather over the Cabauw Site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siebesma, P.
2015-12-01
Results are presented of two large-eddy simulation (LES) runs of the entire year 2012 centered at the Cabauw observational supersite in the Netherlands. The LES is coupled to a regional weather model that provides the large-scale information. The simulations provide three-dimensional continuous time series of LES-generated turbulence and clouds, which can be compared in detail to the extensive observational dataset of Cabauw. The LES dataset is available from the authors on request. This type of LES setup has a number of advantages. First, it can provide a more statistical approach to the study of turbulent atmospheric flow than the more common case studies, since a diverse but representative set of conditions is covered, including numerous transitions. This has advantages in the design and evaluation of parameterizations. Second, the setup can provide valuable information on the quality of the LES model when applied to such a wide range of conditions. Last, it also provides the possibility to emulate observation techniques. This might help detect limitations and potential problems of a variety of measurement techniques. The LES runs are evaluated through a comparison with observations from the observational supersite and with results from the ''parent'' large-scale model. The long time series that are generated, in combination with information on the spatial structure, provide a novel opportunity to study time scales ranging from seconds to seasons. This facilitates a study of the power spectrum of horizontal and vertical wind speed variance to identify the dominant variance-containing time scales.
Discontinuous Galerkin methodology for Large-Eddy Simulations of wind turbine airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frére, A.; Sørensen, N. N.; Hillewaert, K.; Winckelmans, G.
2016-09-01
This paper aims at evaluating the potential of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methodology for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind turbine airfoils. The DG method has shown high accuracy, excellent scalability and capacity to handle unstructured meshes. It is however not used in the wind energy sector yet. The present study aims at evaluating this methodology on an application which is relevant for that sector and focuses on blade section aerodynamics characterization. To be pertinent for large wind turbines, the simulations would need to be at low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0.3) where compressible approaches are often limited and at large Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 106) where wall-resolved LES is still unaffordable. At these high Re, a wall-modeled LES (WMLES) approach is thus required. In order to first validate the LES methodology, before the WMLES approach, this study presents airfoil flow simulations at low and high Reynolds numbers and compares the results to state-of-the-art models used in industry, namely the panel method (XFOIL with boundary layer modeling) and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). At low Reynolds number (Re = 6 x 104), involving laminar boundary layer separation and transition in the detached shear layer, the Eppler 387 airfoil is studied at two angles of attack. The LES results agree slightly better with the experimental chordwise pressure distribution than both XFOIL and RANS results. At high Reynolds number (Re = 1.64 x 106), the NACA4412 airfoil is studied close to stall condition. In this case, although the wall model approach used for the WMLES is very basic and not supposed to handle separation nor adverse pressure gradients, all three methods provide equivalent accuracy on averaged quantities. The present work is hence considered as a strong step forward in the use of LES at high Reynolds numbers.
High-order large-eddy simulation of flow over the ``Ahmed body'' car model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minguez, M.; Pasquetti, R.; Serre, E.
2008-09-01
The structure of the turbulent flow over a simplified automotive model, the Ahmed body (S. R. Ahmed and G. Ramm, SAE Paper No. 8403001, 1984) with a 25° slanted back face, is investigated using high-order large-eddy simulations (LESs) at Reynolds number Re =768000. The numerical approach is carried out with a multidomain spectral Chebyshev-Fourier solver and the bluff body is modeled with a pseudopenalization method. The LES capability is implemented thanks to a spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV) technique, with particular attention to the near wall region. Such a SVV-LES approach is extended for the first time to an industrial three-dimensional turbulent flow over a complex geometry. In order to better understand the interactions between flow separations and the dynamic behavior of the released vortex wake, a detailed analysis of the flow structures is provided. The topology of the flow is well captured showing a partial separation of the boundary layer over the slanted face and the occurrence of two strong contrarotating trailing vortices expanding farther in the wake. The interactions of these large vortices with smaller structures reminiscent of horseshoe vortices, within the shear layer over the slanted face, form large helical structures providing strong unsteady phenomena in the wake. Mean velocity fields and turbulence statistics show a global agreement with the reference experiments of Lienhart et al. (DGLR Fach Symposium der AG SRAB, Stuttgart University, 15-17 November 2000). In order to provide a deeper insight into the nature of turbulence, the flow is analyzed using power spectra and the invariant theory of turbulence of Lumley [Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123 (1978)].
Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flat-plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Michio
The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model [Chung and Pullin, "Large-eddy simulation and wall-modeling of turbulent channel flow'', J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281--309 (2009)] is used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. This is then used to study several aspects of zero- and adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. First, LES of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are performed at Reynolds numbers Retheta based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Retheta = 103-1012. Results include the inverse skin friction coefficient, 2/Cf , velocity profiles, the shape factor H, the Karman "constant", and the Coles wake factor as functions of Re theta. Comparisons with some direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment are made, including turbulent intensity data from atmospheric-layer measurements at Retheta = O (106). At extremely large Retheta , the empirical Coles-Fernholz relation for skin-friction coefficient provides a reasonable representation of the LES predictions. While the present LES methodology cannot of itself probe the structure of the near-wall region, the present results show turbulence intensities that scale on the wall-friction velocity and on the Clauser length scale over almost all of the outer boundary layer. It is argued that the LES is suggestive of the asymptotic, infinite Reynolds-number limit for the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer and different ways in which this limit can be approached are discussed. The maximum Retheta of the present simulations appears to be limited by machine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
1999-01-01
The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.
Collective phenomena in large-eddy simulations of extended wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Richard; Meneveau, Charles
2012-11-01
A major issue with respect to the incorporation of large wind farms in power grids is that their power output strongly fluctuates over time. Understanding these fluctuations, especially its spatio-temporal characteristics, is important for the design of the backup power that must be available. The power fluctuations of the turbines depend on the effect of the wakes, created by a prior row of turbines, on the operation of the turbines, the inter-turbine correlations, and the interaction between the turbines and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). We analyze the power fluctuations in large eddy simulations of extended wind-parks in the ABL. We consider various aggregates of wind turbines such as the total average power signal, or sub-averages within the wind farm. In particular, we find that the power variations of the total wind park decreases more than one would expect if one assumes the power output of the turbines to be uncorrelated. The non-trivial correlations are due to the interactions between turbines placed down-stream from each other. Surprisingly, the frequency spectra of the total wind-farm output show a decay that follows approximately a -5/3 power-law scaling regime, qualitatively consistent with observations made in field-scale operational wind parks (Apt, 2007). RS is supported by a ``Fellowship for Young Energy Scientists'' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). CM is supported by NSF-CBET 1133800.
Spatial large-eddy simulations of contrail formation in the wake of an airliner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoli, R.
2015-12-01
Contrails and contrail-cirrus are the most uncertain contributors to aviation radiative forcing. In order to reduce this uncertainty one needs to gain more knowledge on the physicochemical processes occurring in the aircraft plume, which eventually lead to the transformation of contrails into cirrus. To that end, the accurate prediction of the number of activated particles and their spatial and size distributions at the end of the jet regime may be helpful to initialize simulations in the following vortex regime. We present the results from spatial large-eddy simulations (LES) of contrail formation in the near-field wake of a generic (but full-scale) airliner that is representative of those used in long-haul flights in current fleets. The flow around the aircraft has been computed using a RANS code taking into account the full geometry that include the engines and the aerodynamic set-up for cruise conditions. The data have been reconstructed at a plane closely behind the trailing edge of the wing and used as inflow boundary conditions for the LES. We employ fully compressible 3D LES coupled to Lagrangian microphysical module that tracks parcels of ice particles individually. The ice microphysical model is simple yet it contains the basic thermodynamic ingredients to model soot activation and water vapor deposition. Compared to one-dimensional models or even RANS, LES allow for more accurate predictions of the mixing between exhaust and ambient air. Hence, the number of activated particles and the ice growth rate can be also determined with higher accuracy. This is particularly crucial for particles located at the edge of the jet that experience large gradients of temperature and humidity. The results of the fully coupled LES (where the gas phase and the particles are solved together) are compared to offline simulations where the ice microphysics model is run using thermodynamic data from pre-calculated particle trajectories extracted from inert LES (where ice
Wake meandering statistics of a model wind turbine: Insights gained by large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-08-01
Wind tunnel measurements in the wake of an axial flow miniature wind turbine provide evidence of large-scale motions characteristic of wake meandering [Howard et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 075103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4923334]. A numerical investigation of the wake, using immersed boundary large eddy simulations able to account for all geometrical details of the model wind turbine, is presented here to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the wake and the mechanisms controlling near and far wake instabilities. Similar to the findings of Kang et al. [Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.82], an energetic coherent helical hub vortex is found to form behind the turbine nacelle, which expands radially outward downstream of the turbine and ultimately interacts with the turbine tip shear layer. Starting from the wake meandering filtering used by Howard et al., a three-dimensional spatiotemporal filtering process is developed to reconstruct a three-dimensional meandering profile in the wake of the turbine. The counterwinding hub vortex undergoes a spiral vortex breakdown and the rotational component of the hub vortex persists downstream, contributing to the rotational direction of the wake meandering. Statistical characteristics of the wake meandering profile, along with triple decomposition of the flow field separating the coherent and incoherent turbulent fluctuations, are used to delineate the near and far wake flow structures and their interactions. In the near wake, the nacelle leads to mostly incoherent turbulence, while in the far wake, turbulent coherent structures, especially the azimuthal velocity component, dominate the flow field.
Large eddy simulation for evaluating scale-aware subgrid cloud parameterizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Chen, Baode; Bao, Jian-Wen
2016-04-01
We present results from an ongoing project that uses a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model to simulate deep organized convection in the extratropics for the purpose of evaluating scale-aware subgrid convective parameterizations. The simulation is carried out for a classical idealized supercell thunderstorm (Weisman and Klemp, 1982), using a total of 1201 × 1201 × 200 grid points at 100 m spacing in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The characteristics of simulated clouds exhibit a multi-mode vertical distribution ranging from deep to shallow clouds, which is similar to that observed in the real world. To use the LES dataset for evaluating scale-aware subgrid cloud parameterizations, the same case is also run with progressively larger grid sizes of 200 m, 400 m, 600 m, 1 km and 3 km. These simulations show a reasonable agreement with the benchmark LES in statistics such as convective available potential energy, convective inhibition, cloud fraction and precipitation rates. They provide useful information about the effect of horizontal grid resolution on the subgrid convective parameterizations. All these simulations reveal a similar multi-mode cloud distribution in the vertical direction. However, there are differences in the updraft-core cloud statistics, and convergence of statistical properties is found only between the LES benchmark and the simulation with grid size smaller than 400 m. Analysis of the LES results indicates that (1) the average subgrid mass flux increases as the horizontal grid size increases; (2) the vertical scale of subgrid transport varies spatially, suggesting a system dependence; and (3) at even 1 km, sub-grid convective transport is still large enough to be accounted for through parameterization.
Large-eddy simulations of wind farm production and long distance wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.
2015-06-01
The future development of offshore wind power will include many wind farms built in the same areas. It is known that wind farms produce long distance wakes, which means that we will see more occasions of farm to farm interaction, namely one wind farm operating in the wake of another wind farm. This study investigates how to perform accurate power predictions on large wind farms and how to assess the long distance wakes generated by these farms. The focus of this paper is the production's and wake's sensitivity to the extension of the grid as well as the turbulence when using Large-eddy simulations (LES) with pregenerated Mann turbulence. The aim is to determine an optimal grid which minimizes blockage effects and ensures constant resolution in the entire wake region at the lowest computational cost. The simulations are first performed in the absence of wind turbines in order to assess how the atmospheric turbulence and wind profile are evolving downstream (up to 12,000 m behind the position where the turbulence is imposed). In the second step, 10 turbines are added in the domain (using an actuator disc method) and their production is analyzed alongside the mean velocities in the domain. The blockage effects are tested using grids with different vertical extents. An equidistant region is used in order to ensure high resolution in the wake region. The importance of covering the entire wake structure inside the equidistant region is analyzed by decreasing the size of this region. In this step, the importance of the lateral size of the Mann turbulence box is also analyzed. In the results it can be seen that the flow is acceptably preserved through the empty domain if a larger turbulence box is used. The relative production is increased (due to blockage effects) for the last turbines using a smaller vertical domain, increased for a lower or narrower equidistant region (due to the smearing of the wake in the stretched area) and decreased when using a smaller turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapaka, Narsimha R.; Sarkar, Sutanu
2016-10-01
A sharp-interface Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is developed to simulate density-stratified turbulent flows in complex geometry using a Cartesian grid. The basic numerical scheme corresponds to a central second-order finite difference method, third-order Runge-Kutta integration in time for the advective terms and an alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme for the viscous and diffusive terms. The solver developed here allows for both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) approaches. Methods to enhance the mass conservation and numerical stability of the solver to simulate high Reynolds number flows are discussed. Convergence with second-order accuracy is demonstrated in flow past a cylinder. The solver is validated against past laboratory and numerical results in flow past a sphere, and in channel flow with and without stratification. Since topographically generated internal waves are believed to result in a substantial fraction of turbulent mixing in the ocean, we are motivated to examine oscillating tidal flow over a triangular obstacle to assess the ability of this computational model to represent nonlinear internal waves and turbulence. Results in laboratory-scale (order of few meters) simulations show that the wave energy flux, mean flow properties and turbulent kinetic energy agree well with our previous results obtained using a body-fitted grid (BFG). The deviation of IBM results from BFG results is found to increase with increasing nonlinearity in the wave field that is associated with either increasing steepness of the topography relative to the internal wave propagation angle or with the amplitude of the oscillatory forcing. LES is performed on a large scale ridge, of the order of few kilometers in length, that has the same geometrical shape and same non-dimensional values for the governing flow and environmental parameters as the laboratory-scale topography, but significantly larger Reynolds number. A non-linear drag law
The role of large-scale eddies in the climate equilibrium. Part 2: Variable static stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Shuntai; Stone, Peter H.
1993-01-01
Lorenz's two-level model on a sphere is used to investigate how the results of Part 1 are modified when the interaction of the vertical eddy heat flux and static stability is included. In general, the climate state does not depend very much on whether or not this interaction is included, because the poleward eddy heat transport dominates the eddy forcing of mean temperature and wind fields. However, the climatic sensitivity is significantly affected. Compared to two-level model results with fixed static stability, the poleward eddy heat flux is less sensitive to the meridional temperature gradient and the gradient is more sensitive to the forcing. For example, the logarithmic derivative of the eddy flux with respect to the gradient has a slope that is reduced from approximately 15 on a beta-plane with fixed static stability and approximately 6 on a sphere with fixed static stability, to approximately 3 to 4 in the present model. This last result is more in line with analyses from observations. The present model also has a stronger baroclinic adjustment than that in Part 1, more like that in two-level beta-plane models with fixed static stability, that is, the midlatitude isentropic slope is very insensitive to the forcing, the diabatic heating, and the friction, unless the forcing is very weak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2015-06-01
Under conventionally neutral conditions, the boundary layer is frequently capped by an inversion layer, which counteracts vertical entrainment of kinetic energy. Very large wind farms are known to depend on vertical entrainment to transport energy from above the farm towards the turbines. In this study, large eddy simulations of an infinite wind-turbine array in a conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layer are performed. By carefully selecting the initial potential-temperature profile, the influence of the height and the strength of a capping inversion on the power output of a wind farm is investigated. Results indicate that both the height and the strength have a significant effect on the boundary layer flow, and that the height of the neutral boundary layer is effectively controlled by the capping inversion. In addition, it is shown that the vertical entrainment rate decreases for increasing inversion strength or height. In our infinite wind-farm simulations, varying the inversion characteristics leads to differences in power extraction on the order of 13% ± 0.2% (for increasing the strength from 2.5 to 10 K), and 31% ± 0.4% (for increasing the height from 500 to 1500 m). A detailed analysis of the mean kinetic-energy equation is included, showing that the variation in power extraction originates from the work done by the driving pressure gradient related to the boundary layer height and the geostrophic angle, while entrainment of kinetic energy from the free atmosphere does not play a significant role. Also, the effect of inversion strength on power extraction is energetically not related to different amounts of energy entrained, but explained by a difference in boundary layer growth, leading to higher boundary layers for lower inversion strengths. We further present a simple analytical model that allows to obtain wind-farm power output and driving power for the fully developed regime as function of Rossby number and boundary layer height.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Senocak, I.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Stevens, D. E.; Mansour, N. N.
2004-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a widely used technique in armospheric modeling research. In LES, large, unsteady, three dimensional structures are resolved and small structures that are not resolved on the computational grid are modeled. A filtering operation is applied to distinguish between resolved and unresolved scales. We present two near-surface models that have found use in atmospheric modeling. We also suggest a simpler eddy viscosity model that adopts Prandtl's mixing length model (Prandtl 1925) in the vicinity of the surface and blends with the dynamic Smagotinsky model (Germano et al, 1991) away from the surface. We evaluate the performance of these surface models by simulating a neutraly stratified atmospheric boundary layer.
Investigation of natural gas plume dispersion using mobile observations and large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulton, Dana R.; Li, Qi; Golston, Levi; Pan, Da; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Fitts, Jeff; Lane, Haley; Lu, Jessica; Zondlo, Mark A.
2016-04-01
Recent work suggests the distribution of methane emissions from fracking operations is skewed with a small percentage of emitters contributing a large proportion of the total emissions. These sites are known as 'super-emitters.' The Marcellus shale, the most productive natural gas shale field in the United States, has received less intense focus for well-level emissions and is here used as a test site for targeted analysis between current standard trace-gas advection practices and possible improvements via advanced modeling techniques. The Marcellus shale is topographically complex, making traditional techniques difficult to implement and evaluate. For many ground based mobile studies, the inverse Gaussian plume method (IGM) is used to produce emission rates. This method is best applied to well-mixed plumes from strong point sources and may not currently be well-suited for use with disperse weak sources, short-time frame measurements or data collected in complex terrain. To assess the quality of IGM results and to improve source-strength estimations, a robust study that combines observational data with a hierarchy of models of increasing complexity will be presented. The field test sites were sampled with multiple passes using a mobile lab as well as a stationary tower. This mobile lab includes a Garmin GPS unit, Vaisala weather station (WTX520), LICOR 7700 CH4 open path sensor and LICOR 7500 CO2/H2O open path sensor. The sampling tower was constructed consisting of a Metek uSonic-3 Class A sonic anemometer, and an additional LICOR 7700 and 7500. Data were recorded for at least one hour at these sites. The modeling will focus on large eddy simulations (LES) of the wind and CH4 concentration fields for these test sites. The LES model used 2 m horizontal and 1 m vertical resolution and was integrated in time for 45 min for various test sites under stable, neutral and unstable conditions. It is here considered as the reference to which various IGM approaches can be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles
2015-07-01
Once oil plumes such as those originating from underwater blowouts reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), their near-surface dispersion is influenced heavily by wind and wave-generated Langmuir turbulence. In this study, the complex oil spill dispersion process is modeled using large-eddy simulation (LES). The mean plume dispersion is characterized by performing statistical analysis of the resulting fields from the LES data. Although the instantaneous oil concentration exhibits high intermittency with complex spatial patterns such as Langmuir-induced striations, it is found that the time-averaged oil distribution can still be described quite well by smooth Gaussian-type plumes. LES results show that the competition between droplet rise velocity and vertical turbulent diffusion due to Langmuir turbulence is crucial in determining both the dilution rate and overall direction of transport of oil plumes in the OML. The smoothness of the mean plume makes it feasible to aim at modeling the oil dispersion using Reynolds-averaged type formulations, such as the K-profile parameterization (KPP) with sufficient vertical resolution to capture vertical profiles in the OML. Using LES data, we evaluate the eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity following the KPP framework. We assess the performance of previous KPP models for pure shear turbulence and Langmuir turbulence by comparing them with the LES data. Based on the assessment a modified KPP model is proposed, which shows improved overall agreement with the LES results for both the eddy viscosity and the eddy diffusivity of the oil dispersion under a variety of flow conditions and droplet sizes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carper, Matthew A.; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2008-04-01
The ability of subfilter-scale (SFS) models to reproduce the statistical properties of SFS stresses and energy transfers over heterogeneous surface roughness is key to improving the accuracy of large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. In this study, several SFS models are evaluated a priori using experimental data acquired downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition in a wind tunnel. The SFS models studied include the eddy-viscosity, similarity, non-linear and a mixed model consisting of a combination of the eddy-viscosity and non-linear models. The dynamic eddy-viscosity model is also evaluated. The experimental data consist of vertical and horizontal planes of high-spatial-resolution velocity fields measured using particle image velocimetry. These velocity fields are spatially filtered and used to calculate SFS stresses and SFS transfer rates of resolved kinetic energy. Coefficients for each SFS model are calculated by matching the measured and modelled SFS energy transfer rates. For the eddy-viscosity model, the Smagorinsky coefficient is also evaluated using a dynamic procedure. The model coefficients are found to be scale dependent when the filter scales are larger than the vertical measurement height and fall into the production subrange of the turbulence where the flow scales are anisotropic. Near the surface, the Smagorinsky coefficient is also found to decrease with distance downwind from the transition, in response to the increase in mean shear as the flow adjusts to the smooth surface. In a priori tests, the ability of each model to reproduce statistical properties of the SFS stress is assessed. While the eddy-viscosity model has low spatial correlation with the measured stress, it predicts mean stresses with the same accuracy as the other models. However, the deficiency of the eddy-viscosity model is apparent in the underestimation of the standard deviation of the SFS stresses and the inability to predict transfers of kinetic energy from
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.
1998-01-01
The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with (i) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models, and (ii) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models.
A nested large-eddy simulation study of the Ora del Garda wind in the Alps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Lorenzo; Laiti, Lavinia; Zardi, Dino
2015-04-01
High-resolution numerical simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are analyzed to investigate the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structures associated with the development of a lake-breeze and valley-wind coupled system developing in the southeastern Italian Alps, the so-called "Ora del Garda" wind. Five domains were nested for the simulations: three mesoscale domains, forced by reanalysis data field, are used to drive the finest two domains, in which the large-eddy technique is used, achieving a final horizontal resolution of 80 m. Model results complement an existing dataset composed of a series of measurement flights and surface observations. The flights explored specific valley sections at key locations in the study area, namely over the lake's shore, at half valley and at the end of the valley where the breeze blows. Model results display a good agreement with the experimental dataset. In particular, the surface diurnal cycles of radiation, wind, air temperature and sensible heat flux are satisfactorily reproduced, despite some discrepancies in the timing of thermally-driven circulation onset and offset. The typical structure of the valley ABL, characterized by shallow or even absent mixed layers surmounted by slightly stable layers extending up to the lateral crest level, is also well reproduced in the simulated fields. Moreover, the simulations confirm characteristic local-scale features of the thermally-driven wind field suggested by the analysis of the airborne dataset as well as from previous observations in the area. For example, the model shows the development of inhomogeneities in the cross-valley thermal field, caused by the propagation of the lake breeze and by the different heating between the sidewalls of the valley, as well as the formation of a hydraulic jump in the area where the Ora del Garda flows down into an adjacent valley from an elevated saddle.
Discrete filters for large-eddy simulation of forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshov, A. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.
2016-06-01
We discuss results of the applicability of discrete filters for the large-eddy simulation (LES) method of forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows with the scale-similarity model. New results are obtained for cross-helicity and residual energy. Cross-helicity and residual energy are important quantities in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and have no hydrodynamic counterpart. The influences and effects of discrete filter shapes on the scale-similarity model are examined in physical space using finite-difference numerical schemes. We restrict ourselves to the Gaussian filter and the top-hat filter. Representations of this subgrid-scale model, which correspond to various 3- and 5-point approximations of both Gaussian and top-hat filters for different values of parameter ε (the ratio of the cut-off length-scale of the filter to the mesh size), are investigated. Discrete filters produce more discrepancies for the magnetic field. It is shown that the Gaussian filter is more sensitive to the parameter ɛ than the top-hat filter in compressible forced MHD turbulence. The 3-point filters at ε =2 and ε =3 give the least accurate results whereas the 5-point Gaussian filter shows the best results at ε =2 and ε =3. There are only very small differences deep into the dissipation region in favor of ε =2. For cross-helicity, the 5-point discrete filters are in good agreement with the results of direct numerical simulation (DNS), while the 3-point filter produces the largest discrepancies with DNS results. There is no strong dependence on the choice of the parameter ε and order approximation is a much more important factor for the cross-helicity. The difference between the filters is less for the residual energy compared with total energy. Thus, the total energy is more sensitive to the choice of discrete filter in the modeling of compressible MHD turbulence using the LES method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Braun, Markus; Masri, Assaad R.
2016-07-01
The paper presents Large Eddy Simulations (LESs) for the Sydney ethanol piloted turbulent dilute spray flames ETF2, ETF6, and ETF7. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) approach is employed to predict mixing and burning of the evaporating fuel droplets. A methodology to match the experimental inflow spray profiles is presented. The spray statistical time-averaged results show reasonable agreement with mean and RMS data. The Particle Size Distribution (PSD) shows a good match downstream of the nozzle exit and up to x/D = 10. At x/D = 20 and 30 the PSD is under-predicted for droplets with mean diameter D10 > 20μm and over-predicted for the smaller size droplets. The simulations reasonably predict the reported mean flame structure and length. The effect of increasing the carrier velocity (ETF2-ETF7) or decreasing the liquid fuel injection mass flow rate (ETF2-ETF6) is found to result in a leaner, shorter flame and stronger spray-flow interactions. Higher tendency to local extinction is observed for ETF7 which is closer to blow-off compared to ETF2 and has higher scalar dissipation rates, higher range of Stokes number, and faster droplet response. The possible sources of LES-FGM deviations from the measurements are discussed and highlighted. In particular, the spray time-averaged statistical error contribution is quantified and the impact of the inflow uncertainty is studied. Sensitivity analysis to the pre-vaporized nozzle fuel mass fraction show that such small inflow perturbations (by ± 2% for the ETF2 flame) have a strong impact on the flame structure, and the droplets' dynamics. Conditional scatter plots show that the flame exhibits wide range of mixing conditions and bimodal mixing lines particularly at upstream locations (x/D < 20), where the injected droplets are still penetrating the centerline. This is relaxed further downstream as droplets gradually evaporate and burn in a diffusion like mode.
Performance of subgrid-scale models in coarse large eddy simulations of a laminar separation bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Francois; Domaradzki, Julian A.
2015-04-01
The flow over many blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from 104 to 105 undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region—the laminar separation bubble. An equivalent problem is formulated by imposing suitable boundary conditions for flow over a flat plate to avoid numerical and mesh generation issues. Recent work demonstrated that accurate large eddy simulation (LES) of such a flow is possible using only O(1%) of the direct numerical simulation (DNS) resolution but the performance of different subgrid-scale models could not be properly assessed because of the effects of unquantified numerical dissipation. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate is performed using a pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver at resolutions corresponding to 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart and Strelets (2000). The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral code allows an unambiguous assessment of the performance of subgrid-scale models. Three explicit subgrid-scale models—dynamic Smagorinsky, σ, and truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS)—are compared to a no-model simulation (under-resolved DNS) and evaluated against benchmark DNS data focusing on two quantities of critical importance to airfoil and blade designers: time-averaged pressure (Cp) and skin friction (Cf) predictions used in lift and drag calculations. Results obtained with explicit subgrid-scale models confirm that accurate LES of laminar separation bubble flows is attainable with as low as 1% of DNS resolution, and the poor performance of the no-model simulation underscores the necessity of subgrid-scale modeling in coarse LES with low numerical dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedioun, Ivan; Lardjane, Nicolas; Gökalp, Iskender
2001-12-01
Some recent studies on the effects of truncation and aliasing errors on the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows via the concept of modified wave number are revisited. It is shown that all the results obtained for nonlinear partial differential equations projected and advanced in time in spectral space are not straightforwardly applicable to physical space calculations due to the nonequivalence by Fourier transform of spectral aliasing errors and numerical errors on a set of grid points in physical space. The consequences of spectral static aliasing errors on a set of grid points are analyzed in one dimension of space for quadratic products and their derivatives. The dynamical process that results through time stepping is illustrated on the Burgers equation. A method based on midpoint interpolation is proposed to remove in physical space the static grid point errors involved in divergence forms. It is compared to the sharp filtering technique on finer grids suggested by previous authors. Global performances resulting from combination of static aliasing errors and truncation errors are then discussed for all classical forms of the convective terms in Navier-Stokes equations. Some analytical results previously obtained on the relative magnitude of subgrid scale terms and numerical errors are confirmed with 3D realistic random fields. The physical space dynamical behavior and the stability of typical associations of numerical schemes and forms of nonlinear terms are finally evaluated on the LES of self-decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It is shown that the convective form (if conservative properties are not strictly required) associated with highly resolving compact finite difference schemes provides the best compromise, which is nearly equivalent to dealiased pseudo-spectral calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anupindi, Kameswararao; Delorme, Yann; Shetty, Dinesh A.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-12-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are becoming a reliable tool to understand hemodynamics, disease progression in pathological blood vessels and to predict medical device performance. Immersed boundary method (IBM) emerged as an attractive methodology because of its ability to efficiently handle complex moving and rotating geometries on structured grids. However, its application to study blood flow in complex, branching, patient-specific anatomies is scarce. This is because of the dominance of grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain over the useful grid nodes in the interior, rendering an inevitable memory and computational overhead. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose a novel multiblock based IBM that preserves the simplicity and effectiveness of the IBM on structured Cartesian meshes and enables handling of complex, anatomical geometries at a reduced memory overhead by minimizing the grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain. As pathological and medical device hemodynamics often involve complex, unsteady transitional or turbulent flow fields, a scale resolving turbulence model such as large eddy simulation (LES) is used in the present work. The proposed solver (here after referred as WenoHemo), is developed by enhancing an existing in-house high-order incompressible flow solver that was previously validated for its numerics and several LES models by Shetty et al. (2010) [33]. In the present work, WenoHemo is systematically validated for additional numerics introduced, such as IBM and the multiblock approach, by simulating laminar flow over a sphere and laminar flow over a backward facing step respectively. Then, we validate the entire solver methodology by simulating laminar and transitional flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Finally, we perform blood flow simulations in the challenging clinically relevant thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), to gain insights into the type of fluid flow patterns that exist in pathological
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeCroix, David; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.; Shen, S.
1997-01-01
The vortices produced by an aircraft in flight are a complex phenomena created from a 'sheet of vorticity' leaving the trailing edge of the aircraft surfaces. This sheet tends to roll-up into two counter-rotating vortices. After a few spans downstream of the aircraft, the roll-up process is complete and the vortex pair may be characterized in a simple manner for modeling purposes. Our research will focus on what happens to these post roll-up vortices in the vicinity of an airport terminal. As the aircraft wake vortices descend, they are transported by the air mass which they are embedded and are decayed by both internal and external processes. In the vicinity of the airport, these external influences are usually due to planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. Using large-eddy simulation (LES), one may simulate a variety of PBL conditions. In the LES method, turbulence is generated in the PBL as a response to surface heat flux, horizontal pressure gradient, wind shear, and/or stratification, and may produce convective or unstably stratified, neutral, or stably stratified PBL's. Each of these PBL types can occur during a typical diurnal cycle of the PBL. Thus it is important to be able to characterize these conditions with the LES method. Once this turbulent environment has been generated, a vortex pair will be introduced and the interactions are observed. The objective is to be able to quantify the PBL turbulence vortex interaction and be able to draw some conclusions of vortex behavior from the various scale interactions. This research is ongoing, and we will focus on what has been accomplished to date and the future direction of this research. We will discuss the model being used, show results that validate its use in the PBL, and present a nested-grid method proposed to analyze the entire PBL and vortex pair simultaneously.
Large eddy simulation of flow development and noise generation of free and swirling jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Lin; Yang, Hai-Hua; Sun, De-Jun
2013-12-01
Large eddy simulation is performed for investigating the local and far-field behaviors of free and swirling jets at moderate Reynolds number. By solving compressible boundary layer equations, the inflow profiles with different swirl number are calculated, and then their stability characteristics are analyzed based on linear stability theory. The amplification rates of swirling jets are higher than the free one, particularly for higher or negative azimuthal wavenumber modes. Multiple unstable modes are superimposed to construct inflow forcing. The quantities of flow and acoustic are presented and compared against the results of existed experiments and other computations, besides, the comparisons are also made among themselves. For swirling jets, the spreadings of jet half-width and vorticity thickness at the initial and transition stage are enhanced, but they are surpassed by the free jet at turbulent mixing stage. In all cases, the development of mixing layer initially is greatly influenced by frequencies f0 and f0/2 associated with upstream forcing. As the swirl intensity is increased, the growth rates of fluctuation quantities on the centerline and the nozzle lip line are raised, but the peak levels on the centerline are reduced substantially. In swirling jets, the strength of vortex pairing is decreased, and the pairing noise is weakened correspondingly. The overall sound pressure levels are lower than that of the free jet at all observation angles (ϕ), and about 3 decibels (dB) is reduced at ϕ ≃ 30° in the strong swirling case at a distance of 60 radii. The Fourier analyses of pressure and acoustic sources show that the modes are varied greatly, which suggests that the noise reduction should be corresponding to the change of instability waves.
Large-eddy simulation of biogenic VOC chemistry during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Barth, Mary C.; Chen, Gao; Patton, Edward G.; Kim, Si-Wan; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Fried, Alan; Clark, Richard; Steiner, Allison L.
2016-07-01
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are oxidized quickly in the atmosphere to form oxygenated VOC (OVOC) and play crucial roles in the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. We use the National Center for Atmospheric Research's large-eddy simulation model and Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2011 flight data to understand the role of boundary layer turbulence on the atmospheric chemistry of key BVOC species and their oxidation products. We simulate three distinct convective environments during the campaign, representing fair weather conditions (case 1: 1 July), a convective event dominated by southwesterly flow (case 2: 11 July), and a polluted event with high temperature and convection (case 3: 29 July). Isoprene segregation is greatest in the lower boundary layer under warm and convective conditions, reaching up to a 10% reduction in the isoprene-OH reaction rate. Under warm and convective conditions, the BVOC lifetimes lengthen due to increased isoprene emission, elevated initial chemical concentrations, and OH competition. Although turbulence-driven segregation has less influence on the OVOC species, convection mixes more OVOC into the upper atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and increases the total OH reactivity. Production and loss rates of ozone above 2 km in all the three cases indicate in situ ozone formation in addition to vertical convective transport of ozone from the surface and aloft, consistent with the increased contribution of OH reactivity from OVOC. Together, these results show that total OH reactivity in the ABL increases under warmer and stronger convective conditions due to enhanced isoprene emission and the OVOC contribution to ozone formation.
Second-moment budgets in cloud topped boundary layers: A large-eddy simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Rieke; Mironov, Dmitrii; Raasch, Siegfried
2015-06-01
A detailed analysis of second-order moment budgets for cloud topped boundary layers (CTBLs) is performed using high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES). Two CTBLs are simulated—one with trade wind shallow cumuli, and the other with nocturnal marine stratocumuli. Approximations to the ensemble-mean budgets of the Reynolds-stress components, of the fluxes of two quasi-conservative scalars, and of the scalar variances and covariance are computed by averaging the LES data over horizontal planes and over several hundred time steps. Importantly, the subgrid scale contributions to the budget terms are accounted for. Analysis of the LES-based second-moment budgets reveals, among other things, a paramount importance of the pressure scrambling terms in the Reynolds-stress and scalar-flux budgets. The pressure-strain correlation tends to evenly redistribute kinetic energy between the components, leading to the growth of horizontal-velocity variances at the expense of the vertical-velocity variance which is produced by buoyancy over most of both CTBLs. The pressure gradient-scalar covariances are the major sink terms in the budgets of scalar fluxes. The third-order transport proves to be of secondary importance in the scalar-flux budgets. However, it plays a key role in maintaining budgets of TKE and of the scalar variances and covariance. Results from the second-moment budget analysis suggest that the accuracy of description of the CTBL structure within the second-order closure framework strongly depends on the fidelity of parameterizations of the pressure scrambling terms in the flux budgets and of the third-order transport terms in the variance budgets. This article was corrected on 26 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretherton, C. S.; Blossey, P. N.
2013-12-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has uncovered competing mechanisms affecting the albedo response of subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers to idealized forcing perturbations representing different facets of global warming. Two stratocumulus-reducing mechanisms involve moist thermodynamic effects of warming on cloud-driven turbulence, and a more emissive free troposphere stifling cloud-top radiative cooling. Two cloud-enhancing effects involve increased inversion stability and reduced mean subsidence. Other effects such as changes in wind speed or free-tropospheric relative humidity may also induce regionally important cloud changes. LES simulations based on the CGILS intercomparison are used to quantify these effects in coupled and decoupled stratocumulus layers. They predict that the net result is a reduction of stratocumulus albedo (positive low cloud feedback) in a greenhouse climate, due mainly to the thermodynamic mechanism. This mechanism is explained in terms of temperature dependence of the moist thermodynamics underlying entrainment liquid-flux (ELF) adjustment, a rapid equilibration between the entrainment rate, the cloud-layer structure, and the turbulence within this layer. The latter mechanism may apply to a broad range of subtropical boundary layer cloud types, including shallow cumulus as well as stratocumulus. The LES-predicted response of shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE) in subtropical stratocumulus regimes to these mechanisms are compared with some recent observational and GCM studies. The fractional changes of SWCRE are found to be qualitatively comparable between the LES and observations. This suggests that idealized LES studies are a useful guide to boundary-layer cloud response mechanisms to climate change, and such studies can help bridge between observations and GCMs.
Large-eddy simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a mixing tee junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tao; Wang, Yongwei; Wang, Kuisheng
2012-11-01
The temperature fluctuation caused by thermal striping phenomena of hot and cold fluids mixing results in cyclical thermal stress fatigue failure of the pipe wall. Mean temperature difference between hot and cold fluids was often used as thermal load in previous analysis of thermal fatigue failure, thereby the influences of the amplitude and frequency of temperature fluctuation on thermal fatigue failure were neglected. Based on the mechanism of flow and heat transfer which induces thermal fatigue, the turbulent mixing of hot and cold water in a tee junction is simulated with FLUENT platform by using the Large-eddy simulation(LES) turbulent flow model with the sub-grid scale(SGS) model of Smagorinsky-Lilly(SL) to capture the amplitude and frequency of temperature fluctuation. In a simulation case, hot water with temperature of 343.48 K and velocity of 0.15 m/s enters the horizontal main duct with the side length of 100 mm, while cold water with temperature of 296.78 K and velocity of 0.3 m/s enters the vertical branch duct with the side length of 50 mm. The numerical results show that the mean and fluctuating temperatures are in good agreement with the previous experimental data, which describes numerical simulation with high reliability and accuracy; the power spectrum density(PSD) on top wall is higher than that on bottom wall(as the frequency less than 1 Hz), while the PSD on bottom wall is relatively higher than that on top wall (as the frequency of 1-10Hz). The temperature fluctuations in full mixing region of the tee junction can be accurately captured by LES and can provide the theoretical basis for the thermal stress and thermal fatigue analyses.
Large eddy simulations and experiments of nonlinear flow interactions in hybrid rocket combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Y.; Lee, C.
2013-03-01
Nonlinear combustion phenomenon was investigated through an experiment in a hybrid rocket motor. A poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) / gaseous oxygen (GOx) combination was used with several types of disks equipped in a prechamber with the aim of modifying the local turbulent flow. By allowing this disturbance generated in a prechamber to interact with the shedding vortex inherently produced in the main chamber, a possibility of commonly observed nonlinear combustion feature such as DC-shift was analyzed. In a baseline test, a vortex shedding occurs due to the interaction of a main oxidizer flow with the evaporated fuel stream coming out of the surface during the regression process. Among the several types of disks, it turned out that only the disk4 produced the excitation which subsequently suppressed the vortex shedding phenomenon in the main chamber. This descent interaction was reflected in a sudden pressure drop (which may be described as direct current (DC) shift) of about 10 psi in the time history of the pressure during the nominal combustion. The present result with the disk4 suggests the possibility of phase cancellation between the excitation induced by the disk4 and the shedding vortex but much more work should be conducted to extract more accurate correlation of the phase information. In order to understand the baseline flow physics, a compressible large eddy simulation (LES) was conducted with the prescribed wall blowing boundary condition. The result clearly exhibited the existence of vortex shedding phenomenon with a specified frequency. The fact that important flow features of the present computation are quite similar to those obtained with an incompressible assumption in a flat channel suggests that both compressibility and curvature effects do not dominate in the present flow configuration.
Edge Flow and Canopy Structure: A Large-Eddy Simulation Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupont, Sylvain; Brunet, Yves
2008-01-01
Sharp heterogeneities in forest structure, such as edges, are often responsible for wind damage. In order to better understand the behaviour of turbulent flow through canopy edges, large-eddy simulations (LES) have been performed at very fine scale (2 m) within and above heterogeneous vegetation canopies. A modified version of the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), previously validated in homogeneous conditions against field and wind-tunnel measurements, has been used for this purpose. Here it is validated in a simple forest-clearing-forest configuration. The model is shown to be able to reproduce accurately the main features observed in turbulent edge flow, especially the “enhanced gust zone” (EGZ) present around the canopy top at a few canopy heights downwind from the edge, and the turbulent region that develops further downstream. The EGZ is characterized by a peak in streamwise velocity skewness, which reflects the presence of intense intermittent wind gusts. A sensitivity study of the edge flow to the forest morphology shows that with increasing canopy density the flow adjusts faster and turbulent features such as the EGZ become more marked. When the canopy is characterized by a sparse trunk space the length of the adjustment region increases significantly due to the formation of a sub-canopy wind jet from the leading edge. It is shown that the position and magnitude of the EGZ are related to the mean upward motion formed around canopy top behind the leading edge, caused by the deceleration in the sub-canopy. Indeed, this mean upward motion advects low turbulence levels from the bottom of the canopy; this emphasises the passage of sudden strong wind gusts from the clearing, thereby increasing the skewness in streamwise velocity as compared with locations further downstream where ambient turbulence is stronger.
Parametric Study of Decay of Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence Using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Rubinstein, Robert; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Zang, Thomas A.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence are performed with both low-order and high-order spatial discretization schemes. The turbulent Mach and Reynolds numbers for the simulations are 0.2 and 250, respectively. For the low-order schemes we use either second-order central or third-order upwind biased differencing. For higher order approximations we apply weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes, both with linear and nonlinear weights. There are two objectives in this preliminary effort to investigate possible schemes for large eddy simulation (LES). One is to explore the capability of a widely used low-order computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to perform LES computations. The other is to determine the effect of higher order accuracy (fifth, seventh, and ninth order) achieved with high-order upwind biased WENO-based schemes. Turbulence statistics, such as kinetic energy, dissipation, and skewness, along with the energy spectra from simulations of the decaying turbulence problem are used to assess and compare the various numerical schemes. In addition, results from the best performing schemes are compared with those from a spectral scheme. The effects of grid density, ranging from 32 cubed to 192 cubed, on the computations are also examined. The fifth-order WENO-based scheme is found to be too dissipative, especially on the coarser grids. However, with the seventh-order and ninth-order WENO-based schemes we observe a significant improvement in accuracy relative to the lower order LES schemes, as revealed by the computed peak in the energy dissipation and by the energy spectrum.
Influence of atmospheric stability on wind-turbine wakes: A large-eddy simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
In this study, large-eddy simulation is combined with a turbine model to investigate the influence of atmospheric stability on wind-turbine wakes. In the simulations, subgrid-scale turbulent fluxes are parameterized using tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic models. These models optimize the local value of the model coefficients based on the dynamics of the resolved scales. The turbine-induced forces are parameterized with an actuator-disk model with rotation. In this technique, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces acting on the blades. Emphasis is placed on the structure and characteristics of wind-turbine wakes in the cases where the incident flows to the turbine have the same mean velocity at the hub height but different stability conditions. The simulation results show that atmospheric stability has a significant effect on the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit and turbulent fluxes in the wake region. In particular, the magnitude of the velocity deficit increases with increasing stability in the atmosphere. In addition, the locations of the maximum turbulence intensity and turbulent stresses are closer to the turbine in convective boundary layer compared with neutral and stable ones. Detailed analysis of the resolved turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget inside the wake reveals also that the thermal stratification of the incoming wind considerably affects the magnitude and spatial distribution of the turbulent production, transport term and dissipation rate (transfer of energy to the subgrid scales). It is also shown that the near-wake region can be extended to a farther distance downstream in stable condition compared with neutral and unstable counterparts. In order to isolate the effect of atmospheric stability, additional simulations of neutrally-stratified atmospheric boundary layers are performed with the same turbulence intensity at hub height as convective and stable ones. The results show that the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jiannong; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-06-01
Large-eddy simulation is used to investigate very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) in the neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer at a very high friction Reynolds number, . The vertical height of the computational domain is m, which corresponds to the thickness of the boundary layer. In order to make sure that the largest flow structures are properly resolved, the horizontal domain size is chosen to be and , which is much larger than the standard domain size, especially in the streamwise direction (i.e., the direction of elongation of the flow structures). It is shown that the contributions to the resolved turbulent kinetic energy and the resolved shear stress from streamwise wavelengths larger than are up to 27 and 31 % respectively. Therefore, the large computational domain adopted here is essential for the purpose of investigating VLSMs. The spatially coherent structures associated with VLSMs are characterized through flow visualization and statistical analysis. The instantaneous velocity fields in horizontal planes give evidence of streamwise-elongated flow structures of low-speed fluid with negative fluctuation of the streamwise velocity component, and which are flanked on either side by similarly elongated high-speed structures. The pre-multiplied power spectra and two-point correlations indicate that the scales of these streak-like structures are very large, up to in the streamwise direction and in the spanwise direction. These features are similar to those found in the logarithmic and outer regions of laboratory-scale boundary layers by direct numerical simulation and experiments conducted at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. The three-dimensional correlation map and conditional average of the three components of velocity further indicate that the low-speed and high-speed regions possess the same elongated ellipsoid-like structure, which is inclined upward along the streamwise direction, and they are accompanied by counter-rotating roll modes in the
Mesoscale and large-eddy simulation model studies of the Martian atmosphere in support of Phoenix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyler, Daniel; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Skyllingstad, Eric D.
2008-08-01
In late May of 2008, the NASA/JPL Phoenix spacecraft will touch down near its targeted landing site on Mars (68.2°N, 126.6°W). Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) occurs in the late afternoon (~1630 hours local solar time (LST)) during late northern spring (Ls ~ 78°). Using a mesoscale and a large-eddy simulation (LES) model, we have investigated the range of conditions that might be encountered in the lower atmosphere during EDL. High-resolution (~18 km) results from the Oregon State University Mars MM5 (OSU MMM5) are used to understand the hazards from the transient circulations prominent during this season. Poleward of ~80°N these storms produce strong winds (~35 m s-1) near the ground; however, owing to the synoptic structure of these storms, and the deep convective mixed layer equatorward of the seasonal cap boundary during EDL, our modeling suggests the spacecraft would not be in winds stronger than ~20 m s-1 at parachute separation. The storm-driven variability is much weaker at Phoenix latitudes than it is poleward of the seasonal cap edge (result from an extensive sensitivity study). The OSU MLES model is used to explicitly simulate the hazards of convection and atmospheric turbulence at very high resolution (100 m). This modeling suggests that an upper bound for the maximum expected horizontal-mean atmospheric turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is ~12 m2 s-2, seen ~3 km above the ground at ~1430 hours LST. TKE amplitudes are greatest when the horizontal mean wind is large (shear production) and/or the surface albedo is low (a lower albedo enhances buoyancy production, mimicking decreased atmospheric stability after a storm advects colder air into the region). LES simulations predict deep mixed layers (~6-7 km), ~1.5 km deeper than the mesoscale model (~5 km). Mesoscale modeling suggests that the actual landing site differs meteorologically from other longitudes (larger-amplitude diurnal wind cycle), a consequence of the strong thermal circulations that are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C.; Cheng, W.; Leung, D. Y.
2009-12-01
Large-eddy simulation model was developed to study the ventilation and pollutant removal of urban street canyons in neutral and unstable stratifications. Street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width ratio were considered. For the case with unstable stratification, the ground was heated up to a Richardson number Rb (= gh/Uh2(Θh-Θ0)/Θref) of -10, where g is the gravitational acceleration, h the building height, Uh the roof-level velocity scale, Θref the reference temperature, Θh the roof-level temperature and Θ0 the ground temperature. The gaseous pollutant was modeled as a passive scalar. Ground-level area sources with uniform pollutant concentrations were used to model traffic emission. In neutral stratification, skimming flow and poor pollutant removal are observed. A primary recirculation is developed in the street canyon core by the prevalent wind (Fig 1a). It occupies nearly all the space inside the street canyon leaving three small secondary recirculations at the ground-level leeward, ground-level windward and roof-level leeward corners. The pollutant emitted from the street is mostly trapped inside the street canyon hence elevated pollutant concentration is observed. Unstable stratification modifies the flow pattern significantly that enhances the pollutant removal. An enlarged secondary recirculation is observed at the ground-level windward corner (Fig 1b). It pushes the primary recirculation upward which eventually extends over the roof level of street canyon immersing into the shear layer aloft. The sizes of the two small recirculations on the leeward side shrink instead. The wind speed inside the street canyon increases that enhances the pollutant mixing. As a result, the overall pollutant concentration is lower compared with that in neutral stratification. In contrast to a roof-level thin layer of pollutant in neutral stratification, pollutant is carried upward by the convective updraft moving from the building roof level into the shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witte, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Wang, L. P.; Ayala, O.
2014-12-01
Drizzle occurs frequently in shallow, warm boundary layer clouds. For example, in stratocumulus it occurs approximately 1/3 of the time in full cloud cover conditions (Wood 2012). Drizzle affects moisture and energy budgets, and cloud albedo, morphology and lifetime. At the cloud scale, processes that control drizzle formation include turbulence production via radiative cooling and/or shear, entrainment, and surface moisture fluxes. At the micro-scale, collision-coalescence is the primary process relevant to warm drizzle formation. Differential gravitational sedimentation and turbulent air motions cause cloud droplets to collide, creating drops much larger than can be formed by condensation alone. Other factors, such as preferential concentration and entrainment mixing may also be relevant. The process is typically subdivided into three regimes: autoconversion (small drops self-collide), accretion (large drops collect small drops), and hydrometeor self-collection (large drops self-collide). Of these regimes, autoconversion is the rate-limiting step in existing analytical representations. This study (i) evaluates whether our best theoretical understanding of collision-coalescence in the autoconversion regime can replicate observations, with a broader goal of (ii) exploring which cloud-scale factors are most important for drizzle initiation. A state-of-the-art turbulent collisional growth model is applied to a bin microphysics scheme within a large-eddy simulation such that the full range of cloud drop growth mechanisms are represented (i.e. CCN activation, condensation, collision-coalescence, mixing, etc.) at realistic atmospheric conditions. We compare cloud drop spectra produced by the LES with observations to assess the quality and limits of our theoretical knowledge. The comparison will be performed over a range of observational cases that span a range of drizzle rates. These cases differ in their radiative cooling rates, shear, cloud-top temperature and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohrer, Gil; Katul, Gabriel G.; Walko, Robert L.; Avissar, Roni
2009-09-01
The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES), developed and evaluated here, is used to explore the effects of three-dimensional canopy heterogeneity, at the individual tree scale, on the statistical properties of turbulence most pertinent to mass and momentum transfer. In RAFLES, the canopy interacts with air by exerting a drag force, by restricting the open volume and apertures available for flow (i.e. finite porosity), and by acting as a heterogeneous source of heat and moisture. The first and second statistical moments of the velocity and flux profiles computed by RAFLES are compared with turbulent velocity and scalar flux measurements collected during spring and winter days. The observations were made at a meteorological tower situated within a southern hardwood canopy at the Duke Forest site, near Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A. Each of the days analyzed is characterized by distinct regimes of atmospheric stability and canopy foliage distribution conditions. RAFLES results agreed with the 30-min averaged flow statistics profiles measured at this single tower. Following this intercomparison, two case studies are numerically considered representing end-members of foliage and midday atmospheric stability conditions: one representing the winter season with strong winds above a sparse canopy and a slightly unstable boundary layer; the other representing the spring season with a dense canopy, calm conditions, and a strongly convective boundary layer. In each case, results from the control canopy, simulating the observed heterogeneous canopy structure at the Duke Forest hardwood stand, are compared with a test case that also includes heterogeneity commensurate in scale to tree-fall gaps. The effects of such tree-scale canopy heterogeneity on the flow are explored at three levels pertinent to biosphere-atmosphere exchange. The first level (zero-dimensional) considers the effects of such heterogeneity on the common
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schowalter, D. G.; DeCroix, D. S.; Lin, Y. L.; Arya, S. P.; Kaplan, M. L.
1996-01-01
It was found that the homogeneity of the surface drag coefficient plays an important role in the large scale structure of turbulence in large-eddy simulation of the convective atmospheric boundary layer. Particularly when a ground surface temperature was specified, large horizontal anisotropies occurred when the drag coefficient depended upon local velocities and heat fluxes. This was due to the formation of streamwise roll structures in the boundary layer. In reality, these structures have been found to form when shear is approximately balanced by buoyancy. The present cases, however, were highly convective. The formation was caused by particularly low values of the drag coefficient at the entrance to thermal plume structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denev, Jordan A.; Fröhlich, Jochen; Bockhorn, Henning
2009-01-01
The flow field of a turbulent jet emerging from a straight round pipe into a laminar crossflow is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. The concentration of a passive scalar, introduced with the jet, is calculated in order to quantify the mixing of the jet and the crossflow. In the jet, swirl is introduced by means of body forces and a range of jet swirl numbers from S =0 up to S =0.6 is studied. The impact of the jet swirl on the flow field, on the coherent structures, and on the mixing efficiency is investigated and quantified by means of various analyses. It is found that for all swirl numbers larger than zero a clear asymmetry appears in all quantities studied. Additional to the two hanging vortices at both sides of the jet a third vortex is introduced by the swirling pipe flow which interacts with the former. This feature is described in detail as it is not mentioned in the literature. For the strongest swirl investigated a recirculation zone near the jet exit is observed. Despite the asymmetry and even with a recirculation zone at the outlet, the counter-rotating vortex pair still exists in all cases in the downstream flow, where it entrains a large amount of crossflow fluid into the jet. The near field, however, is altered by the jet swirl in several respects. The jet more and more approaches the bottom wall with increasing swirl. As a result, the entrainment is gradually attenuated due to the larger blocking of the secondary flow by the wall. Increased swirl increases both the turbulent kinetic energy in the pipe and the vorticity of the average flow field near the jet exit, and thus stimulates the mixing in these regions. However, this stimulating effect is overwhelmed by the closer position of the jet trajectory to the wall of the channel with increasing swirl, which in turn reduces entrainment of fresh crossflow fluid into the jet. As a final result of these two competing effects, the overall mixing efficiency of a jet into a crossflow is
Large-eddy simulation of combustion systems with convective heat-loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shunn, Lee
Computer simulations have the potential to viably address the design challenges of modern combustion applications, provided that adequate models for the prediction of multiphysics processes can be developed. Heat transfer has particular significance in modeling because it directly affects thermal efficiencies and pollutant formation in combustion systems. Convective heat transfer from flame-wall interaction has received increased attention in aeronautical propulsion and power-generation applications where modern designs have trended towards more compact combustors with higher surface-to-volume ratios, and in diesel engines where enclosed volumes and cool walls provide ample conditions for thermal quenching. As intense flame-wall interactions can induce extremely large heat fluxes, their inclusion is important in computational models used to predict performance and design cooling systems. In the present work, a flamelet method is proposed for modeling turbulence/chemistry interactions in large-eddy simulations (LES) of non-premixed combustion systems with convective heat-losses. The new method is based on the flamelet/progress variable approach of Pierce & Moin (J. Fluid Mech. 2004, 504:73-97) and extends that work to include the effects of thermal-losses on the combustion chemistry. In the new model, chemical-state databases are constructed by solving one-dimensional diffusion/reaction equations which have been constrained by scaling the enthalpy of the system between the adiabatic state and a thermally-quenched reference state. The solutions are parameterized and tabulated as a function of the mapping variables: mixture fraction, reaction progress variable, and normalized enthalpy. The new model is applied to LES of non-premixed methane-air combustion in a coaxial-jet with isothermal wall-conditions to describe heat transfer to the confinement. The resulting velocity, species concentration, and temperature fields are compared to experimental measurements and to
Large Eddy Simulation of Transonic Flow Field in NASA Rotor 37
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2009-01-01
The current paper reports on numerical investigations on the flow characteristics in a transonic axial compressor, NASA Rotor 37. The flow field was used previously as a CFD blind test case conducted by American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1994. Since the CFD blind-test exercise, many numerical studies on the flow field in the NASA Rotor 37 have been reported. Although steady improvements have been reported in both numerical procedure and turbulence closure, it is believed that all the important aspects of the flow field have not been fully explained with numerical studies based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Experimental data show large dip in total pressure distribution near the hub at downstream of the rotor at 100% rotor speed. Most original numerical solutions from the blind test exercise did not predict this total pressure deficit correctly. This total pressure deficit at the rotor exit was attributed to a hub corner flow separation by the author. Several subsequent numerical studies with different turbulence closure model also calculated this dip in total pressure rise. Also, several studies attributed this total pressure deficit to a small leakage flow coming from the hub in the test article. As the experimental study cannot be repeated, either explanation cannot be validated. The primary purpose of the current investigation is to investigate the transonic flow field with both RANS and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The RANS approach gives similar results presented at the original blind test exercise. Although the RANS calculates higher overall total pressure rise, the total pressure deficit near the hub is calculated correctly. The numerical solution shows that the total pressure deficit is due to a hub corner flow separation. The calculated pressure rise from the LES agrees better with the measured total pressure rise especially near the casing area where the passage shock interacts with the tip clearance vortex and flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radice, David; Couch, Sean M.; Ott, Christian D.
2015-08-01
In the implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) paradigm, the dissipative nature of high-resolution shock-capturing schemes is exploited to provide an implicit model of turbulence. The ILES approach has been applied to different contexts, with varying degrees of success. It is the de-facto standard in many astrophysical simulations and in particular in studies of core-collapse supernovae (CCSN). Recent 3D simulations suggest that turbulence might play a crucial role in core-collapse supernova explosions, however the fidelity with which turbulence is simulated in these studies is unclear. Especially considering that the accuracy of ILES for the regime of interest in CCSN, weakly compressible and strongly anisotropic, has not been systematically assessed before. Anisotropy, in particular, could impact the dissipative properties of the flow and enhance the turbulent pressure in the radial direction, favouring the explosion. In this paper we assess the accuracy of ILES using numerical methods most commonly employed in computational astrophysics by means of a number of local simulations of driven, weakly compressible, anisotropic turbulence. Our simulations employ several different methods and span a wide range of resolutions. We report a detailed analysis of the way in which the turbulent cascade is influenced by the numerics. Our results suggest that anisotropy and compressibility in CCSN turbulence have little effect on the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and a Kolmogorov scaling is obtained in the inertial range. We find that, on the one hand, the kinetic energy dissipation rate at large scales is correctly captured even at low resolutions, suggesting that very high "effective Reynolds number" can be achieved at the largest scales of the simulation. On the other hand, the dynamics at intermediate scales appears to be completely dominated by the so-called bottleneck effect, i.e., the pile up of kinetic energy close to the dissipation range due to the partial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deiterding, Ralf; Fragner, Moritz M.
2015-11-01
Numerical investigations in order to determine the forces induced by side wind onto a train geometry are generally not sufficiently accurate to be used as a predictive tool for regulatory safety assessment. Especially for larger yaw angles, the turbulent cross-wind flow is characterized by highly instationary behavior, driven primarily by vortex shedding on the roof and underside geometric details, i.e., the bogie and wheel systems. While industry-typical Reynolds-averaged turbulence models are not well suited for this scenario, better results are obtained when large eddy simulation (LES) techniques are applied. Here, we employ a recently self-developed weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with Smagorinsky LES model on hierarchically adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes. Using a train front-car of 1:25 scale at yaw angle 30° and Re = 250 , 000 as main test case, we compare the LBM results with incompressible large eddy and detached eddy simulations on unstructured boundary-layer type meshes using the OpenFOAM package. It is found that time averaged force and moment predictions from our LBM code compare better to available wind tunnel data, while mesh adaptation and explicit nature of the LBM approach reduce the computational costs considerably.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lampitella, P.; Colombo, E.; Inzoli, F.
2014-04-01
The paper presents a consistent large eddy simulation (LES) framework which is particularly suited for implicitly filtered LES with unstructured finite volume (FV) codes. From the analysis of the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress tensor arising in this new LES formulation, a novel form of scale-similar SGS model is proposed and combined with a classical eddy viscosity term. The constants in the resulting mixed model are then computed trough a new, cheaper, dynamic procedure based on a consistent redefinition of the Germano identity within the new LES framework. The dynamic mixed model is implemented in a commercial, unstructured, finite volume solver and numerical tests are performed on the turbulent pipe flow at Reτ = 320-1142, showing the flexibility and improvements of the approach over classical modeling strategies. Some limitations of the proposed implementation are also highlighted.
Wall-models for large eddy simulation based on a generic additive-filter formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez Rocha, Martin
Based on the philosophy of only resolving the large scales of turbulent motion, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has demonstrated potential to provide high-fidelity turbulence simulations at low computational cost. However, when the scales that control the turbulence in a particular flow are not large, LES has to increase significantly its computational cost to provide accurate predictions. This is the case in wall-bounded flows, where the grid resolution required by LES to resolve the near-wall structures is close to the requirements to resolve the smallest dissipative scales in turbulence. Therefore, to reduce this demanding requirement, it has been proposed to model the near-wall region with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, in what is known as hybrid RANS/LES approach. In this work, the mathematical implications of merging two different turbulence modeling approaches are addressed by deriving the exact hybrid RANS/LES Navier-Stokes equations. These equations are derived by introducing an additive-filter, which linearly combines the RANS and LES operators with a blending function. The equations derived with the additive-filter predict additional hybrid terms, which represent the interactions between RANS and LES formulations. Theoretically, the prediction of the hybrid terms demonstrates that the hybridization of the two approaches cannot be accomplished only by the turbulence model equations, as it is claimed in current hybrid RANS/LES models. The importance of the exact hybrid RANS/LES equations is demonstrated by conducting numerical calculations on a turbulent flat-plate boundary layer. Results indicate that the hybrid terms help to maintain an equilibrated model transition when the hybrid formulation switches from RANS to LES. Results also indicate, that when the hybrid terms are not included, the accuracy of the calculations strongly relies on the blending function implemented in the additive-filter. On the other hand, if the exact equations are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meheut, Heloise; Fromang, Sébastien; Lesur, Geoffroy; Joos, Marc; Longaretti, Pierre-Yves
2015-07-01
Context. Angular momentum transport in accretion discs is often believed to be due to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence mediated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Despite an abundant literature on the MRI, the parameters governing the saturation amplitude of the turbulence are poorly understood and the existence of an asymptotic behaviour in the Ohmic diffusion regime has not been clearly established. Aims: We investigate the properties of the turbulent state in the small magnetic Prandtl number limit. Since this is extremely computationally expensive, we also study the relevance and range of applicability of the most common subgrid scale models for this problem. Methods: Unstratified shearing box simulations are performed both in the compressible and incompressible limits, with a resolution up to 800 cells per disc scale height. This is the highest resolution ever attained for a simulation of MRI turbulence. Different magnetic field geometry and a wide range of dimensionless dissipative coefficients are considered. We also systematically investigate the relevance of using large eddy simulations (LES) in place of direct numerical simulations. Results: In the presence of a mean magnetic field threading the domain, angular momentum transport converges to a finite value in the small Pm limit. When the mean vertical field amplitude is such that β (the ratio between the thermal and magnetic pressure) equals 103, we find α ~ 3.2 × 10-2 when Pm approaches zero. In the case of a mean toroidal field for which β = 100, we find α ~ 1.8 × 10-2 in the same limit. Implicit LES and the Chollet-Lesieur closure model both reproduce these results for the α parameter and the power spectra. A reduction in computational cost by a factor of at least 16 (and up to 256) is achieved when using such methods. Conclusions: MRI turbulence operates efficiently in the small Pm limit provided there is a mean magnetic field. Implicit LES offers a practical and efficient means of
Subfilter scale combustion modelling for large eddy simulation of turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence-chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The modelling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez Perez, Francisco Emanuel
Hydrogen (H2) enrichment of hydrocarbon fuels in lean premixed systems is desirable since it can lead to a progressive reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions, while paving the way towards pure hydrogen combustion. In recent decades, large-eddy simulation (LES) has emerged as a promising tool to computationally describe and represent turbulent combustion processes. However, a considerable complication of LES for turbulent premixed combustion is that chemical reactions occur in a thin reacting layer at small scales which cannot be entirely resolved on computational grids and need to be modelled. In this thesis, subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling for LES of lean H 2-enriched methane-air turbulent premixed combustion was investigated. Two- and three-dimensional fully-compressible LES solvers for a thermally perfect reactive mixture of gases were developed and systematically validated. Two modelling strategies for the chemistry-turbulence interaction were pursued: the artificially thickened flame model with a power-law SFS wrinkling approach and the presumed conditional moment (PCM) coupled with the flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) chemistry tabulation technique. Freely propagating and Bunsen-type flames corresponding to stoichiometric and lean premixed mixtures were considered. Validation of the LES solvers was carried out by comparing predicted solutions with experimental data and other published numerical results. Head-to-head comparisons of different SFS approaches, including a transported flame surface density (FSD) model, allowed to identify weaknesses and strengths of the various models. Based on the predictive capabilities of the models examined, the PCM-FPI model was selected for the study of hydrogen-enrichment of methane. A new progress of reaction variable was proposed to account for NO. The importance of transporting species with different diffusion coefficients was demonstrated, in particular for H2. The proposed approach was
Large eddy simulation of supersonic twin-jet impingement using a fifth-order WENO scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toh, Hoong Thiam
A three-dimensional flow field produced by supersonic twin-jet impingement is studied using a large eddy simulation (LES). The numerical model consists of two parallel axisymmetric jets of diameter D*, 3 D* apart, issuing from a plane which is at a distance H* = 4D* above the ground. The jet diameter D*, mean velocity W*o , mean density r*o and mean temperature T*o at the jet center in the exit plane are used as reference values. The Mach number and Reynolds number of the jets are M = 1.5 and Re = 5.5 x 105, respectively. This model is closely related to the experimental setup of Elavarasan et al. [23]. The three-dimensional time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the method of lines. The convective terms are discretized using a fifth-order WENO scheme, whereas the viscous terms are discretized using a fourth-order central-differencing scheme. A low-storage five-stage fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Code verification is achieved by comparison with flat-plate boundary-layer linear stability analysis, and computational data by Bendiks et al. [5] for a compressible turbulent round jet. Instantaneous flow, mean flow and Reynolds stresses for the twin-jet impingement are presented and discussed. The results reveal the existence of flapping behavior in the fountain. The flapping fountain is the vortical structure formed by the alternating merging of a primary vortex tube with a secondary vortex tube induced by the neighboring primary vortex tube. The nondimensional period of flapping is found to be 7D*/ W*o . High unsteadiness and strong interaction between the fountain and the jets are also observed. Due to the high diffusion and spreading rate of the fountain, the interaction between the fountain and the jets is only significant up to a height which is less than 3D*. It is found that the mean peak velocity in the fountain is 0.40406 W*o and it occurs at 0.536607D* from the ground. The suitability of
Study of tip clearance flow in a turbomachinery cascade using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Donghyun
In liquid handling systems like pumps and ducted propulsors, low pressure events in the vicinity and downstream of the rotor tip gap can induce tip-leakage cavitation which leads to noise, vibration, performance loss, and erosions of blade and casing wall. In order to analyze the dynamics of the tip-clearance flow and determine the underlying mechanism for the low pressure events, a newly developed large-eddy simulation (LES) solver which combines an immersed-boundary method with a generalized curvilinear structured grid has been employed. An analysis of the LES results has been performed to understand the mean flow field, turbulence characteristics, vortex dynamics, and pressure fluctuations in the turbomachinery cascade with tip gap. In the cascade passage, the tip-leakage jet, which is generated by the pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of the blade tip, is found to produce highly enhanced vorticity magnitude and significant levels of turbulent kinetic energy. Based on the understanding of the flow field, a guideline for reducing viscous loss in the cascade is provided. Analyses of the energy spectra and space-time correlations of the velocity fluctuations suggest that the tip-leakage vortex is subject to pitchwise wandering motion. The largest pressure drop and most intense pressure fluctuations due to the formation of the tip-leakage vortex are found at the location where the strongest portion of the tip-leakage vortex is found. Present study suggests that the tip-leakage vortex needs to be controlled in its origin to reduce cavitation in the present configuration. The effects of tip-gap size on the end-wall vortical structures and on the velocity and pressure fields have been investigated. The present analysis indicates that the mechanism for the generation of the vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy is mostly unchanged by the tip-gap size variation. However, larger tip-gap sizes are found to be more inductive to tip
WRF nested large-eddy simulations of deep convection during SEAC4RS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heath, Nicholas Kyle
Deep convection is an important component of atmospheric circulations that affects many aspects of weather and climate. Therefore, improved understanding and realistic simulations of deep convection are critical to both operational and climate forecasts. Large-eddy simulations (LESs) often are used with observations to enhance understanding of convective processes. This study develops and evaluates a nested-LES method using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Our goal is to evaluate the extent to which the WRF nested-LES approach is useful for studying deep convection during a real-world case. The method was applied on 2 September 2013, a day of continental convection having a robust set of ground and airborne data available for evaluation. A three domain mesoscale WRF simulation is run first. Then, the finest mesoscale output (1.35 km grid length) is used to separately drive nested-LES domains with grid lengths of 450 and 150 m. Results reveal that the nested-LES approach reasonably simulates a broad spectrum of observations, from reflectivity distributions to vertical velocity profiles, during the study period. However, reducing the grid spacing does not necessarily improve results for our case, with the 450 m simulation outperforming the 150 m version. We find that simulated updrafts in the 150 m simulation are too narrow to overcome the negative effects of entrainment, thereby generating convection that is weaker than observed. Increasing the sub-grid mixing length in the 150 m simulation leads to deeper, more realistic convection, but comes at the expense of delaying the onset of the convection. Overall, results show that both the 450 m and 150 m simulations are influenced considerably by the choice of sub-grid mixing length used in the LES turbulence closure. Finally, the simulations and observations are used to study the processes forcing strong midlevel cloud-edge downdrafts that were observed on 2 September. Results suggest that these
Modeling Persistent Contrails in a Large Eddy Simulation and a Global Climate Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.; Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.
2009-12-01
Two models of aircraft condensation trail (contrail) evolution have been developed: a high resolution, three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a simple, low-cost Subgrid Contrail Model (SCM). The LES model was used to simulate contrail development from one second to twenty minutes after emission by the passing aircraft. The LES solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a Boussinesq approximation for buoyancy forces on an unstructured periodic grid. The numerical scheme uses a second-order finite volume spatial discretization and an implicit fractional-step method for time advancement. Lagrangian contrail particles grow according to a microphysical model of ice deposition and sublimation. The simulation is initialized with the wake of a commercial jet superimposed on a decaying turbulence field. The ambient atmosphere is stable and has a supersaturated relative humidity with respect to ice. Grid resolution is adjusted during the simulation, allowing higher resolution of flow structures than previous studies. We present results of a parametric study in which ambient turbulence levels, vertical wind shear, and aircraft type were varied. We find that higher levels of turbulence and shear promote mixing of aircraft exhaust with supersaturated ambient air, resulting in faster growth of ice and wider dispersion of the exhaust plume. The SCM was developed as a parameterization of contrail dynamics intended for use within a global model that examines the effect of commercial aviation on climate. The SCM provides an analytic solution to the changes in size and shape of a contrail cross-section over time due to global model grid-scale vertical wind shear and turbulence parameters. The model was derived from the physical equations of motion of a plume in a sheared, turbulent environment. Approximations based on physical reasoning and contrail observations allowed these equations to be reduced to simple ordinary differential equations in time with exact
Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.
1993-01-01
The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the
Subfilter Scale Combustion Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Premixed Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence- chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The mod- elling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
Shetty, Dinesh A.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are becoming a reliable tool to understand hemodynamics, disease progression in pathological blood vessels and to predict medical device performance. Immersed boundary method (IBM) emerged as an attractive methodology because of its ability to efficiently handle complex moving and rotating geometries on structured grids. However, its application to study blood flow in complex, branching, patient-specific anatomies is scarce. This is because of the dominance of grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain over the useful grid nodes in the interior, rendering an inevitable memory and computational overhead. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose a novel multiblock based IBM that preserves the simplicity and effectiveness of the IBM on structured Cartesian meshes and enables handling of complex, anatomical geometries at a reduced memory overhead by minimizing the grid nodes in the exterior of the fluid domain. As pathological and medical device hemodynamics often involve complex, unsteady transitional or turbulent flow fields, a scale resolving turbulence model such as large eddy simulation (LES) is used in the present work. The proposed solver (here after referred as WenoHemo), is developed by enhancing an existing in-house high order incompressible flow solver that was previously validated for its numerics and several LES models by Shetty et al. [Journal of Computational Physics 2010; 229 (23), 8802-8822]. In the present work, WenoHemo is systematically validated for additional numerics introduced, such as IBM and the multiblock approach, by simulating laminar flow over a sphere and laminar flow over a backward facing step respectively. Then, we validate the entire solver methodology by simulating laminar and transitional flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Finally, we perform blood flow simulations in the challenging clinically relevant thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), to gain insights into the type of
Large-Eddy Simulations of Wind Turbine Wakes Subject to Different Atmospheric Stabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churchfield, M.; Lundquist, J. K.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.
2014-12-01
As a byproduct of energy extraction, wind turbines create a low-speed, turbulent wake that propagate downwind. When wind turbines are situated in a group, as in a wind plant, the interactions of these wakes with other turbines are important because wake effects decrease the efficiency of the wind plant, and they increase mechanical loads on individual turbines. Wakes propagate downstream differently depending on the inflow conditions, and these conditions are heavily dominated by atmospheric stability. For example, we know that wakes are more persistent in stable conditions than in unstable conditions. Also, stable conditions often have significant wind veer which skews wakes laterally. Different levels of turbulence intensity are associated with different atmospheric stability levels, and turbulence intensity acts to diffuse wakes and to cause wake meandering. Wake physics are complex, and to understand them better, a high-resolution representation of the flow is necessary. Measurements are difficult with current sensing equipment because of the sheer size of wakes and the unsteady atmospheric environment in which they are found. Numerical simulations complement measurements and provide a high-resolution representation of the entire three-dimensional, unsteady flow field. In this work, we use large-eddy simulation (LES), the highest fidelity type of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) feasible for high-Reynolds-number wake flow. LES directly resolves the larger, energy-containing turbulent scales and models the effects of the subgrid scales that the computational mesh cannot resolve. Our solver is based on the OpenFOAM open-source CFD toolbox. Turbines are modeled using rotating actuator lines. Here, we present our LES of the wake behind a modern 1.5 MW turbine subject to different inflow atmospheric stability. We will present results of wakes subject to stable (strongly and weakly stable), neutral, and unstable conditions. We are particularly interested in how
Large eddy simulation of surface pressure fluctuations generated by elevated gusts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, Jericho E.
Wind gusts cause substantial damage to wind turbines. If these damaging winds could be detected prior to their interaction with the turbine, the turbine rotor can be decoupled from the generator and gearing system to prevent damage during the gust event. This would significantly reduce wind turbine repair costs. Wind gusts can also create unsafe conditions for aircraft landing. A ground based detection system that monitored elevated wind gusts can provide new information for pilots to use when determining whether or not it is safe to land. In addition, the ability to monitor elevated gust events would provide a new probe to study features in the atmospheric boundary layer. Previous research indicates that elevated velocity events, such as gusts, may trigger pressure fluctuations on the ground. If that is true, it should be possible to monitor elevated wind gusts by measuring these pressure fluctuations. The goal of this project is to develop a ground based detector that monitors the behavior of pressure fluctuations on the ground for indicators that a gust event may be taking place at higher altitudes. In order to recognize these indicators from the pressure measurements on the ground, cross-correlation analysis between the time evolution of the frequency structures corresponding to elevated wind gusts and the pressure on the ground below were investigated. The data for these analysis was generated using a large eddy simulation. This numerical approach was chosen because the nature of the cross-correlation analysis demanded full field wind velocities and pressures at several altitudes. Collecting this data outdoors would be impractical. Correlation coefficients between 0.75 - 0.90 were found. These high correlations indicate that the two signals are causally related. Several common features of the pressures caused by elevated gusts were identified. These features were used to develop a tracking program that monitors fast moving high amplitude pressure fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The
Quantifying and Reducing Uncertainty in Eddy Covariance CO2 Exchange Estimates With Large Data Gaps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodeur, J. J.; Arain, M. A.; Peichl, M.
2009-05-01
Roving eddy covariance (rEC) applications involve cycling a single, portable rEC system through numerous ecosystems of interest at frequencies of weeks to months. This approach provides capability to measure energy, water and carbon exchanges in many more ecosystems with minimum resources. This approach has been adopted at many flux stations with multiple towers or sites. However, data gaps introduce large uncertainty when sums of annual exchanges are estimated from these measurements. Quantifying reliable carbon uptake/loss estimates, and reducing uncertainty is challenging. Analyses were performed with 5 years of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements made over an age-sequence of managed eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) forests in southern Ontario, Canada. Measurements and synthetic data produced from a permanent closed-path EC system at the 70-year-old site were used to assess uncertainty on annual NEE sums caused by open-path rEC operation at three younger sites (35, 20 and 7 years old). Data was removed both randomly (to simulate short gaps due to typical EC operation), and systematically (to simulate 2-week to 2-month long gaps associated with rEC operation). Numerous gap scenarios were created, with annual data coverage ranging from 35 to 70%. Both Ameriflux Howland (HOW) and Fluxnet Canada Research Network (FCRN) gap-filling models were applied to the gapped-data to produce annual NEE estimates. Both gap-filling methods estimated a baseline uncertainty of ± 25 g C m-2 yr-1, that was associated with short gaps from regular EC operation only. However, when applied to datasets with long rEC gaps, a large discrepancy in gap-filling model performance was evident. The HOW method produced much less overall uncertainty (± 30 to 45 g C m-2 yr-1) in annual sums than the FCRN method (± 45 to > 200 g C m-2 yr-1). Uncertainty in annual sums increased with increases to overall gap frequency and length, as a result of inadequate parameterization of gap
Large-eddy simulations of Richtmyer Meshkov instability in a converging geometry
Lombardini, Manuel; Deiterding, Ralf
2010-01-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) refers to the baroclinic generation of vorticity at a perturbed density interface when impacted by a shock wave. It is often thought of as the impulsive limit of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. While the RMI has been widely covered in planar geometries, the present simulations investigate the mixing of materials resulting from the interaction of an imploding cylindrical shock wave with a concentric interface, perturbed in both axial and azimuthal directions, which separates outside air from SF{sub 6} (initially 5 times denser) confined in a 90{sup o} wedge. Two incident shocks of Mach numbers M{sub i} = 1.3 and 2.0 at initial impact are tested. These canonical simulations support recent work on understanding the compressible turbulent mixing in converging geometries relevant to both inertial confinement fusion and core-collapse supernova dynamics. Initial irregularities in the density interface form the misalignment between density and pressure gradients required to initiate a first RMI. A second RMI occurs after the initial shock has converged down the wedge, reflected off the axis and reshocks the distorted interface. Reshock interactions of decreasing intensity follow successively. Due to the converging geometry, the accelerated or decelerated motion of the interface also generates Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities develop along the sides of the interpenetrating fingering structures. The energetic reshock produces a large dynamical range of turbulent scales, requiring the utilization of large-eddy simulation (LES). We employed the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model of turbulent and scalar transport based on an explicit structural modeling of small-scale dynamics. The imploding nature of the flow is particularly suitable for the use of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) provided by the parallel block-structured AMR framework AMROC. The Favre-filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved on
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows in internal combustion engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaeizadeh, Araz
The two-phase compressible scalar filtered mass density function (FMDF) model is further developed and employed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system with high-order, multi-block, compact differencing schemes for the turbulent velocity and pressure. However, turbulent mixing and combustion are computed with a new two-phase compressible scalar FMDF model. The spray and droplet dispersion/evaporation are modeled with a Lagrangian method. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian-Lagrangian computational method is employed for solving the flow, spray and scalar equation. The pressure effect in the energy equation, as needed in compressible flows, is included in the FMDF formulation. The performance of the new compressible LES/FMDF model is assessed by simulating the flow field and scalar mixing in a rapid compression machine (RCM), in a shock tube and in a supersonic co-axial jet. Consistency of temperatures predicted by the Eulerian finite-difference (FD) and Lagrangian Monte Carlo (MC) parts of the LES/FMDF model are established by including the pressure on the FMDF. It is shown that the LES/FMDF model is able to correctly capture the scalar mixing in both compressible subsonic and supersonic flows. Using the new two-phase LES/FMDF model, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, spray and combustion in the RCM with flat and crevice piston are studied. It is shown that the temperature distribution in the RCM with crevice piston is more uniform than the RCM with flat piston. The fuel spray characteristics and the spray parameters affecting the fuel mixing inside the RCM in reacting and non-reacting flows are also studied. The predicted liquid penetration and flame lift-off lengths for respectively non-reacting and reacting sprays are found to compare well with the available experimental data. Temperatures and
Large-eddy simulation of a backward facing step flow using a least-squares spectral element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Daniel C.; Mittal, Rajat
1996-01-01
We report preliminary results obtained from the large eddy simulation of a backward facing step at a Reynolds number of 5100. The numerical platform is based on a high order Legendre spectral element spatial discretization and a least squares time integration scheme. A non-reflective outflow boundary condition is in place to minimize the effect of downstream influence. Smagorinsky model with Van Driest near wall damping is used for sub-grid scale modeling. Comparisons of mean velocity profiles and wall pressure show good agreement with benchmark data. More studies are needed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method on numerical parameters before it is applied to complex engineering problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beeler, G. B.
1986-01-01
An initial measurement of turbulent wall pressure fluctuations downstream of tandem large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs) indicates a significant reduction by comparison with the reference case of a flat plate; the average magnitude of the reduction is 12.5 percent. Peak reduction is at 7-8 kHz, and is of the order of the C(f) reduction due to the tandem LEBUs. These data indicate a secondary benefit derivable from LEBUs, in addition to their skin friction reduction effect.
A parallel finite volume algorithm for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bui, Trong Tri
1998-11-01
A parallel unstructured finite volume algorithm is developed for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows. Major components of the algorithm include piecewise linear least-square reconstruction of the unknown variables, trilinear finite element interpolation for the spatial coordinates, Roe flux difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack explicit time marching. The computer code is designed from the start to take full advantage of the additional computational capability provided by the current parallel computer systems. Parallel implementation is done using the message passing programming model and message passing libraries such as the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI). The development of the numerical algorithm is presented in detail. The parallel strategy and issues regarding the implementation of a flow simulation code on the current generation of parallel machines are discussed. The results from parallel performance studies show that the algorithm is well suited for parallel computer systems that use the message passing programming model. Nearly perfect parallel speedup is obtained on MPP systems such as the Cray T3D and IBM SP2. Performance comparison with the older supercomputer systems such as the Cray YMP show that the simulations done on the parallel systems are approximately 10 to 30 times faster. The results of the accuracy and performance studies for the current algorithm are reported. To validate the flow simulation code, a number of Euler and Navier-Stokes simulations are done for internal duct flows. Inviscid Euler simulation of a very small amplitude acoustic wave interacting with a shock wave in a quasi-1D convergent-divergent nozzle shows that the algorithm is capable of simultaneously tracking the very small disturbances of the acoustic wave and capturing the shock wave. Navier-Stokes simulations are made for fully developed laminar flow in a square duct, developing laminar flow in a
Large-eddy simulation, fuel rod vibration and grid-to-rod fretting in pressurized water reactors
Christon, Mark A.; Lu, Roger; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Karoutas, Zeses; Berndt, Markus
2016-06-29
Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration phenomenon that results in wear and fretting of the cladding material on fuel rods. GTRF is responsible for over 70% of the fuel failures in pressurized water reactors in the United States. Predicting the GTRF wear and concomitant interval between failures is important because of the large costs associated with reactor shutdown and replacement of fuel rod assemblies. The GTRF-induced wear process involves turbulent flow, mechanical vibration, tribology, and time-varying irradiated material properties in complex fuel assembly geometries. This paper presents a new approach for predicting GTRF induced fuelmore » rod wear that uses high-resolution implicit large-eddy simulation to drive nonlinear transient dynamics computations. The GTRF fluid–structure problem is separated into the simulation of the turbulent flow field in the complex-geometry fuel-rod bundles using implicit large-eddy simulation, the calculation of statistics of the resulting fluctuating structural forces, and the nonlinear transient dynamics analysis of the fuel rod. Ultimately, the methods developed here, can be used, in conjunction with operational management, to improve reactor core designs in which fuel rod failures are minimized or potentially eliminated. Furthermore, robustness of the behavior of both the structural forces computed from the turbulent flow simulations and the results from the transient dynamics analyses highlight the progress made towards achieving a predictive simulation capability for the GTRF problem.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Suresh
2003-01-01
This report summarizes the progress made in the first 8 to 9 months of this research. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE) methodology for Large-eddy Simulations (LES) of microblowing has been validated using a jet-in-crossflow test configuration. In this study, the flow intake is also simulated to allow the interaction to occur naturally. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation Large-eddy Simulations (LBELES) approach is capable of capturing not only the flow features associated with the flow, such as hairpin vortices and recirculation behind the jet, but also is able to show better agreement with experiments when compared to previous RANS predictions. The LBELES is shown to be computationally very efficient and therefore, a viable method for simulating the injection process. Two strategies have been developed to simulate multi-hole injection process as in the experiment. In order to allow natural interaction between the injected fluid and the primary stream, the flow intakes for all the holes have to be simulated. The LBE method is computationally efficient but is still 3D in nature and therefore, there may be some computational penalty. In order to study a large number or holes, a new 1D subgrid model has been developed that will simulate a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equation in these holes.
Large-eddy simulation, fuel rod vibration and grid-to-rod fretting in pressurized water reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christon, Mark A.; Lu, Roger; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Karoutas, Zeses; Berndt, Markus
2016-10-01
Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration phenomenon that results in wear and fretting of the cladding material on fuel rods. GTRF is responsible for over 70% of the fuel failures in pressurized water reactors in the United States. Predicting the GTRF wear and concomitant interval between failures is important because of the large costs associated with reactor shutdown and replacement of fuel rod assemblies. The GTRF-induced wear process involves turbulent flow, mechanical vibration, tribology, and time-varying irradiated material properties in complex fuel assembly geometries. This paper presents a new approach for predicting GTRF induced fuel rod wear that uses high-resolution implicit large-eddy simulation to drive nonlinear transient dynamics computations. The GTRF fluid-structure problem is separated into the simulation of the turbulent flow field in the complex-geometry fuel-rod bundles using implicit large-eddy simulation, the calculation of statistics of the resulting fluctuating structural forces, and the nonlinear transient dynamics analysis of the fuel rod. Ultimately, the methods developed here, can be used, in conjunction with operational management, to improve reactor core designs in which fuel rod failures are minimized or potentially eliminated. Robustness of the behavior of both the structural forces computed from the turbulent flow simulations and the results from the transient dynamics analyses highlight the progress made towards achieving a predictive simulation capability for the GTRF problem.
A wall-layer model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows with/out pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duprat, C.; Balarac, G.; Métais, O.; Congedo, P. M.; Brugière, O.
2011-01-01
In this work, modeling of the near-wall region in turbulent flows is addressed. A new wall-layer model is proposed with the goal to perform high-Reynolds number large-eddy simulations of wall bounded flows in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The model applies both in the viscous sublayer and in the inertial region, without any parameter to switch from one region to the other. An analytical expression for the velocity field as a function of the distance from the wall is derived from the simplified thin-boundary equations and by using a turbulent eddy coefficient with a damping function. This damping function relies on a modified van Driest formula to define the mixing-length taking into account the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The model is first validated by a priori comparisons with direct numerical simulation data of various flows with and without streamwise pressure gradient and with eventual flow separation. Large-eddy simulations are then performed using the present wall model as wall boundary condition. A plane channel flow and the flow over a periodic arrangement of hills are successively considered. The present model predictions are compared with those obtained using the wall models previously proposed by Spalding, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech 28, 243 (2008) and Manhart et al., Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 22, 243 (2008). It is shown that the new wall model allows for a good prediction of the mean velocity profile both with and without streamwise pressure gradient. It is shown than, conversely to the previous models, the present model is able to predict flow separation even when a very coarse grid is used.
An improved dynamic non-equilibrium wall-model for large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2014-01-01
A non-equilibrium wall-model based on unsteady 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been implemented in an unstructured mesh environment. The method is similar to that of the wall-model for structured mesh described by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluids 14, 2043-2051 (2002)], but is supplemented by a new dynamic eddy viscosity/conductivity model that corrects the effect of the resolved Reynolds stress (resolved turbulent heat flux) on the skin friction (wall heat flux). This correction is crucial in predicting the correct level of the skin friction. Unlike earlier models, this eddy viscosity/conductivity model does not have a stress-matching procedure or a tunable free parameter, and it shows consistent performance over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The wall-model is validated against canonical (attached) transitional and fully turbulent flows at moderate to very high Reynolds numbers: a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 2000, an H-type transitional boundary layer up to Reθ = 3300, and a high Reynolds number boundary layer at Reθ = 31 000. Application to a separated flow over a NACA4412 airfoil operating close to maximum lift is also considered to test the performance of the wall-model in complex non-equilibrium flows.
An improved dynamic non-equilibrium wall-model for large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2013-11-01
A non-equilibrium wall-model based on unsteady 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been implemented in an unstructured mesh environment. The method is similar to that of the wall-model described by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluids 14, 2043-2051, (2002)], but is supplemented by a new dynamic eddy viscosity/conductivity model that corrects the effect of the resolved Reynolds stress (resolved turbulent heat flux) on the skin friction (wall heat flux). This correction is crucial for accurate prediction of the skin friction and wall heat flux. Unlike earlier models, this eddy viscosity/conductivity model does not have a stress-matching procedure or a tunable free parameter, and it shows consistent performance over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The wall-model is validated against canonical (attached) transitional and fully turbulent flows at moderate to very high Reynolds number: a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 2000, an H-type transitional boundary layer up to Reθ = 3300, and a high Reynolds number boundary layer at Reθ = 31000. An application to the flow over NACA4412 airfoil is ongoing and hopefully will be presented. This work was supported by the Winston and Fu-Mei Stanford Graduate Fellowship, NASA Aeronautics Scholarship Program, and NASA under the Subsonic Fixed-Wing Program and the Boeing Company.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, Nabil M.
1993-01-01
The laminar-turbulent breakdown of a boundary-layer flow along a hollow cylinder at Mach 4.5 is investigated with large-eddy simulation. The subgrid scales are modeled dynamically, where the model coefficients are determined from the local resolved field. The behavior of the dynamic-model coefficients is investigated through both an a priori test with direct numerical simulation data for the same case and a complete large-eddy simulation. Both formulations proposed by Germano et al. and Lilly are used for the determination of unique coefficients for the dynamic model and their results are compared and assessed. The behavior and the energy cascade of the subgrid-scale field structure are investigated at various stages of the transition process. The investigations are able to duplicate a high-speed transition phenomenon observed in experiments and explained only recently by the direct numerical simulations of Pruett and Zang, which is the appearance of 'rope-like' waves. The nonlinear evolution and breakdown of the laminar boundary layer and the structure of the flow field during the transition process were also investigated.
A Large-eddy Simulation Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2016-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer some advantages over their horizontal axis counterparts, and are being considered as a viable alternative to conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Nevertheless, a relative shortage of scientific, academic and technical investigations of VAWTs is observed in the wind energy community with respect to HAWTs. Having this in mind, in this work, we aim to study the wake of a single VAWT, placed in the atmospheric boundary layer, using large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled with actuator line model (ALM). It is noteworthy that this is the first time that such a study is being performed. To do this, for a typical 1 MW VAWT design, first, the variation of power coefficient with both the chord length of the blades and the tip-speed ratio is analyzed using LES-ALM, and an optimum combination of chord length and tip-speed ratio is obtained. Subsequently, the wake of a VAWT with these optimum specifications is thoroughly examined by showing different relevant mean and turbulent wake flow statistics. Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT); VAWT wake; Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL); large eddy simulation (LES); actuator line model (ALM); turbulence.
Barsamian, H.R.; Hassan, Y.A.
1996-12-01
Turbulence is one of the most commonly occurring phenomena of engineering interest in the field of fluid mechanics. Since most flows are turbulent, there is a significant payoff for improved predictive models of turbulence. One area of concern is the turbulent buffeting forces experienced by the tubes in steam generators of nuclear power plants. Although the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe turbulent flow fields, the large number of scales of turbulence limit practical flow field calculations with current computing power. The dynamic subgrid scale closure model of Germano et. al (1991) is used in the large eddy simulation code GUST for incompressible isothermal flows. Tube bundle geometries of staggered and non-staggered arrays are considered in deep bundle simulations. The advantage of the dynamic subgrid scale model is the exclusion of an input model coefficient. The model coefficient is evaluated dynamically for each nodal location in the flow domain. Dynamic subgrid scale results are obtained in the form of power spectral densities and flow visualization of turbulent characteristics. Comparisons are performed among the dynamic subgrid scale model, the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity model (Smagorinsky, 1963) (that is used as the base model for the dynamic subgrid scale model) and available experimental data. Spectral results of the dynamic subgrid scale model correlate better with experimental data. Satisfactory turbulence characteristics are observed through flow visualization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Qian; Wang, Rong
2016-04-01
Using large eddy model (LEM) and observed data from Dunhuang meteorological station during the intensive period of land-atmosphere interaction field experiment over arid region of North-west China, a series of sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of the surface heat flux and wind shear on the strength and the organization of boundary layer convection as well as the growth of the convective boundary layer (CBL). The results show that surface heat flux increases with constant wind shear will give rise to a thicker and warmer CBL, stronger convections and larger thermal eddies due to intense surface turbulence transporting more energy to the upper layer. On the other hand wind shear increases with constant surface heat flux lead to a thicker and warmer CBL because of the entrainment of warm air from the inversion layer to the mixed layer, while the boundary layer convection became weaker with broken thermal eddies. To investigate the quantitative linkage of surface heat flux, wind shear with the tracer uplift rate and transport height, a passive tracer with a constant value of 100 was added at all model levels below the 100 m in all simulations. The least square analysis reveals that the tracer uplift rate increases linearly with the surface heat flux when wind shear is less than 10.5×10-3 s-1 owing to the enhancement of the downward transport of higher momentum. However, the tracer uplift rate decreases with increasing wind shear when the surface heat flux is less than 462.5 W/m2 because of the weakened convection. The passive tracer in the model is also shown to be transported to the higher altitude with increasing surface heat flux and under constant wind shear. However, under a constant surface heat flux, the tracer transport height increases with increasing wind shear only when the shear is above a certain threshold and this threshold depend on the magnitude of surface heat fluxes.
Novel residual-based large eddy simulation turbulence models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sondak, David
The goal of this work was to develop, introduce, and test a promising computational paradigm for the development of turbulence models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD governs the behavior of an electrically conducting fluid in the presence of an external electromagnetic (EM) field. The incompressible MHD model is used in many engineering and scientific disciplines from the development of nuclear fusion as a sustainable energy source to the study of space weather and solar physics. Many interesting MHD systems exhibit the phenomenon of turbulence which remains an elusive problem from all scientific perspectives. This work focuses on the computational perspective and proposes techniques that enable the study of systems involving MHD turbulence. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is not a feasible approach for studying MHD turbulence. In this work, turbulence models for incompressible MHD were developed from the variational multiscale (VMS) formulation wherein the solution fields were decomposed into resolved and unresolved components. The unresolved components were modeled with a term that is proportional to the residual of the resolved scales. Two additional MHD models were developed based off of the VMS formulation: a residual-based eddy viscosity (RBEV) model and a mixed model that partners the VMS formulation with the RBEV model. These models are endowed with several special numerical and physics features. Included in the numerical features is the internal numerical consistency of each of the models. Physically, the new models are able to capture desirable MHD physics such as the inverse cascade of magnetic energy and the subgrid dynamo effect. The models were tested with a Fourier-spectral numerical method and the finite element method (FEM). The primary test problem was the Taylor-Green vortex. Results comparing the performance of the new models to DNS were obtained. The performance of the new models was compared to classic and cutting
F-16XL Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa
2015-01-01
This study continues the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Program, International (CAWAPI) investigation with the FUN3D and USM3D flow solvers. CAWAPI was established to study the F-16XL, because it provides a unique opportunity to fuse fight test, wind tunnel test, and simulation to understand the aerodynamic features of swept wings. The high-lift performance of the cranked-arrow wing planform is critical for recent and past supersonic transport design concepts. Simulations of the low speed high angle of attack Flight Condition 25 are compared: Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), Modi ed Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (MDDES), and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) RANS model. Iso- surfaces of Q criterion show the development of coherent primary and secondary vortices on the upper surface of the wing that spiral, burst, and commingle. SA produces higher pressure peaks nearer to the leading-edge of the wing than flight test measurements. Mean DES and MDDES pressures better predict the flight test measurements, especially on the outer wing section. Vorticies and vortex-vortex interaction impact unsteady surface pressures. USM3D showed many sharp tones in volume points spectra near the wing apex with low broadband noise and FUN3D showed more broadband noise with weaker tones. Spectra of the volume points near the outer wing leading-edge was primarily broadband for both codes. Without unsteady flight measurements, the flight pressure environment can not be used to validate the simulations containing tonal or broadband spectra. Mean forces and moment are very similar between FUN3D models and between USM3D models. Spectra of the unsteady forces and moment are broadband with a few sharp peaks for USM3D.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.
2002-01-01
The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with: (1) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models; and (2) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type, and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models. The principal achievements of the project were as follows: (1) Development of a novel boundary layer parameterization for large-scale models that better represents the physical processes in marine boundary layer clouds; and (2) Comparison of column output from the ECMWF global forecast model with observations from the SHEBA experiment. Overall the forecast model did predict most of the major precipitation events and synoptic variability observed over the year of observation of the SHEBA ice camp.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyot, Adrien; Gray, Michael; Riesenkamp, Michiel; Lockington, David; McGowan, Hamish
2016-04-01
Subtropical coastal wetlands are particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate variability: their recharge rates strongly depend on rainfall, and the occurrence of prolonged droughts or wet periods have direct consequences for wetland health and bio-diversity. There is therefore a need to close the water budget of these ecosystems and this requires the quantification of rates of evaporation/evapotranspiration. However, few studies have documented land-atmosphere exchanges over wetlands for which water level varies considerably during a typical annual cycle. Here, we present a year of turbulent flux observations over a wetland on the subtropical coast of eastern Australia. Large Aperture Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance are used to derive sensible heat fluxes. Latent heat fluxes are also derived through an energy balance for both instruments' observations and also directly through Eddy Covariance. Careful sensitivity analysis of the instrumental footprints, seasonal variations of land surface parameters such as roughness length and displacement height are examined and subsequent uncertainties in the derived turbulent fluxes are discussed. Finally we show how these observations can also help better understand hydrological processes at the catchment scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apte, S. V.; Yang, V.
2003-02-01
The unsteady flow evolution in a porous chamber with surface mass injection simulating propellant burning in a nozzleless solid rocket motor has been investigated by means of a large-eddy simulation (LES) technique. Of particular importance is the turbulence-transition mechanism in injection-driven compressible flows with high injection rates in a chamber closed at one end and connected to a divergent nozzle at the exit. The spatially filtered and Favre-averaged conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy are solved for resolved scales. The effect of unresolved subgrid scales is treated by using a dynamic Smagorinsky model extended to compressible flows. Three successive regimes of flow development are observed: laminar, transitional, and fully developed turbulent flow. Surface transpiration facilitates the formation of roller-like vortical structures close to the injection surface. The flow is essentially two-dimensional up to the mid-section of the chamber, with the dominant frequencies of vortex shedding governed by two-dimensional hydrodynamic instability waves. These two-dimensional structures are convected downstream and break into complex three-dimensional eddies. Transition to turbulence occurs further away from the wall than in standard channel flows without mass injection. The peak in turbulence intensity moves closer to the wall in the downstream direction until the surface injection prohibits further penetration of turbulence. The temporal and spatial evolution of the vorticity field obtained herein is significantly different from that of channel flow without transpiration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chun, J.; Kang, S. L.
2015-12-01
We assess the performance of large eddy simulation (LES) embedded in a multi-nested mesoscale modeling framework with respect to observations at the Central Facility (CF) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP). Specifically for three different fair-weather days, evaluated are the temporal evolutions of temperature and water vapor in the afternoon convective boundary layer (CBL). From the two aspects of local surface and background atmospheric conditions, the causes of the deviations of LES results from observations are sought. In particular, we focus on the factors that critically influence on the surface and atmospheric conditions for LES through the multi-nested domains from grid spacing of 12 km down to 50 m. Also we identify the domain at the resolution of the so called "terra incognita", where the effective resolution or the spatial filter is comparable to the length scale of energy-containing turbulent eddies. The behavior of the "terra-incognita" domain and its influence on LES are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazunov, Andrey; Rannik, Üllar; Stepanenko, Victor; Lykosov, Vasily; Auvinen, Mikko; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan
2016-08-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian stochastic modeling of passive particle dispersion were applied to the scalar flux footprint determination in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The sensitivity of the LES results to the spatial resolution and to the parameterizations of small-scale turbulence was investigated. It was shown that the resolved and partially resolved ("subfilter-scale") eddies are mainly responsible for particle dispersion in LES, implying that substantial improvement may be achieved by using recovering of small-scale velocity fluctuations. In LES with the explicit filtering, this recovering consists of the application of the known inverse filter operator. The footprint functions obtained in LES were compared with the functions calculated with the use of first-order single-particle Lagrangian stochastic models (LSMs) and zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic models - the random displacement models (RDMs). According to the presented LES, the source area and footprints in the stable boundary layer can be substantially more extended than those predicted by the modern LSMs.
Liou, T.M.; Lien, W.Y.; Hwang, P.W. . Dept of Power Mechanical Engineering)
1994-12-01
Large-eddy simulations were performed to study the turbulent reacting flows in a simulated solid-fuel combustion chamber. The time-dependent axisymmetric compressible conservation equations were solved directly without using subgrid-scale turbulence models. The combustion process considered was a one-step, irreversible, and infinitely fast chemical reaction and the pyrolizing solid fuel was simulated by gaseous ethylene injected through a porous wall for a practical range of fuel blowing velocity encountered in solid-fuel combustion chambers for the first time. The numerical code used the finite-volume technique which involved alternating in time the second-order, explicit MacCormack's and Godunov's methods. Characteristic-based boundary conditions were applied on inflow and outflow boundaries, which allow outlet boundary conditions to be nonzero gradients, and in turn, a practical length of computational domain to be realized. The effects of combustion on the large-scale unsteady flow structure and the mean flameholder recirculation zone were documented in terms of the density contours, vorticity dynamics, streamlines, mean-velocity vector fields, temperature profiles, flame position, and fuel blowing velocity. A comparison of the distributions of instantaneous and mean mass fractions of reactants shows that the present method appropriately reveals the effects of large-scale turbulent motions on combustion. Furthermore, the present large-eddy simulations have achieved a significant improvement in predicting the mean effective reattachment length over the previous calculations incorporating with turbulence models. The physical insight regarding the decrease of the mean effective reattachment length with combustion was also addressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, M.; Porté-Agel, F.
2012-04-01
Predicting the spatial distribution of surface fluxes over heterogeneous terrains remains a basic challenge in hydrology and the atmospheric sciences. The complexity of such flow, makes it difficult to obtain all the needed information through field experiments alone, and often necessitates high-resolution eddy-resolving numerical tools such as large-eddy simulation (LES). One of the outstanding issues that affect LES performance is the treatment of the surface boundary conditions. Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory has provided the most common boundary condition formulations for LES of ABL flows. Despite the fact that MOS theory was proposed for homogeneous flat surfaces and applies strictly only to mean quantities, in LES it is used in a wide range of conditions, (including over heterogeneous surfaces and over topography) to compute the fluctuating surface fluxes. Recently, Chamorro and Porté-Agel (2009 and 2010) used wind velocity and surface shear stress data collected in a wind-tunnel experiment and showed direct application of MOS theory over heterogeneous surfaces causes large errors which affect both the average value as well as higher order statistics of the predicted surface shear stress. In this study, Large-eddy simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the surface boundary condition downwind of a rough-to-smooth surface transition. Two types of boundary conditions are tested: (i) the standard formulation based on local application of Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory, and (ii) a new model based on a modification of the recently proposed model of Chamorro and Porte-Agel (2009). The new model assumes that the wind velocity downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition can be estimated as a weighted average of two logarithmic profiles. The first log law is recovered above the internal boundary layer height and corresponds to the upwind velocity profile. The second log law is adjusted to the downwind aerodynamic roughness and it is
A dynamic regularized gradient model of the subgrid-scale stress tensor for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollant, A.; Balarac, G.; Corre, C.
2016-02-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) solves only the large scales part of turbulent flows by using a scales separation based on a filtering operation. The solution of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations requires then to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress tensor to take into account the effect of scales smaller than the filter size. In this work, a new model is proposed for the SGS stress model. The model formulation is based on a regularization procedure of the gradient model to correct its unstable behavior. The model is developed based on a priori tests to improve the accuracy of the modeling for both structural and functional performances, i.e., the model ability to locally approximate the SGS unknown term and to reproduce enough global SGS dissipation, respectively. LES is then performed for a posteriori validation. This work is an extension to the SGS stress tensor of the regularization procedure proposed by Balarac et al. ["A dynamic regularized gradient model of the subgrid-scale scalar flux for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 25(7), 075107 (2013)] to model the SGS scalar flux. A set of dynamic regularized gradient (DRG) models is thus made available for both the momentum and the scalar equations. The second objective of this work is to compare this new set of DRG models with direct numerical simulations (DNS), filtered DNS in the case of classic flows simulated with a pseudo-spectral solver and with the standard set of models based on the dynamic Smagorinsky model. Various flow configurations are considered: decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, turbulent plane jet, and turbulent channel flows. These tests demonstrate the stable behavior provided by the regularization procedure, along with substantial improvement for velocity and scalar statistics predictions.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.
1995-02-15
The equations of motion describing turbulent flows (in both the low and high Reynolds-number regimes) are well established. However, present day computers cannot meet the enormous computational requirement for numerically solving the governing equations for common engineering flows in the high Reynolds number turbulent regime. The characteristics that make turbulent, high Reynolds number flows difficult to simulate is the extreme range of time and space scales of motion. Most current engineering calculations are performed using semi-empirical equations, developed in terms of the flow mean (average) properties. These turbulence{open_quote} models{close_quote} (semi-empirical/analytical approximations) do not explicitly account for the eddy structures and thus, the temporal and spatial flow fluctuations are not resolved. In these averaging approaches, it is necessary to approximate all the turbulent structures using semi-empirical relations, and as a result, the turbulence models must be tailored for specific flow conditions and geometries with parameters obtained (usually) from physical experiments. The motivation for this research is the development of a finite element turbulence modeling approach which will ultimately be used to predict the wind flow around buildings. Accurate turbulence models of building flow are needed to predict the dispersion of airborne pollutants. The building flow turbulence models used today are not capable of predicting the three-dimensional separating and reattaching flows without the manipulation of many empirical parameters. These empirical parameters must be set by experimental data and they may vary unpredictably with building geometry, building orientation, and upstream flow conditions.
Large-eddy simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on a massively parallel computer
Amala, P.A.K.
1995-03-01
A computational model for the solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is developed. This model includes a turbulence model: a modified Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity with a stochastic backscatter extension. The resultant equations are solved using finite difference techniques: the second-order explicit Lax-Wendroff schemes. This computational model is implemented on a massively parallel computer. Programming models on massively parallel computers are next studied. It is desired to determine the best programming model for the developed computational model. To this end, three different codes are tested on a current massively parallel computer: the CM-5 at Los Alamos. Each code uses a different programming model: one is a data parallel code; the other two are message passing codes. Timing studies are done to determine which method is the fastest. The data parallel approach turns out to be the fastest method on the CM-5 by at least an order of magnitude. The resultant code is then used to study a current problem of interest to the computational fluid dynamics community. This is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Lax-Wendroff methods handle shocks and sharp interfaces poorly. To this end, the Rayleigh-Taylor linear analysis is modified to include a smoothed interface. The linear growth rate problem is then investigated. Finally, the problem of the randomly perturbed interface is examined. Stochastic backscatter breaks the symmetry of the stationary unstable interface and generates a mixing layer growing at the experimentally observed rate. 115 refs., 51 figs., 19 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantano, Carlos
2005-11-01
We describe a hybrid finite difference method for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible flows with a low-numerical dissipation scheme and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Numerical experiments and validation calculations are presented including a turbulent jet and the strongly shock-driven mixing of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The approach is a conservative flux-based SAMR formulation and as such, it utilizes refinement to computational advantage. The numerical method for the resolved scale terms encompasses the cases of scheme alternation and internal mesh interfaces resulting from SAMR. An explicit centered scheme that is consistent with a skew-symmetric finite difference formulation is used in turbulent flow regions while a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is employed to capture shocks. The subgrid stresses and transports are calculated by means of the streched-vortex model, Misra & Pullin (1997)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantano, C.; Deiterding, R.; Hill, D. J.; Pullin, D. I.
2007-01-01
We present a methodology for the large-eddy simulation of compressible flows with a low-numerical dissipation scheme and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). A description of a conservative, flux-based hybrid numerical method that uses both centered finite-difference and a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is given, encompassing the cases of scheme alternation and internal mesh interfaces resulting from SAMR. In this method, the centered scheme is used in turbulent flow regions while WENO is employed to capture shocks. One-, two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments and example simulations are presented including homogeneous shock-free turbulence, a turbulent jet and the strongly shock-driven mixing of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, W. T.; Li, X. B.; Li, F. C.; Han, W. F.; Wei, X. Z.; Guo, J.
2013-12-01
To study the instability of a Francis turbine at off-design operating condition, a hydraulic model was established and the flow characteristics at the off-design point were studied based on large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation was conducted for both single phase model and cavitation model. The results were compared with the experimental data. Results show that the simulation based on cavitation model can capture more channel vortex structures than single phase calculation. The result of vortex rope by cavitation model is similar to the experimental result. The dominant frequency can be obtained by these two methods, while the result based on cavitation model can capture the high frequency component at the inlet of draft tube. Great difference can be seen from the internal flow of the two simulation results. These conclusions can provide a basis for the study of instability of Francis turbine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Li; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei
2016-02-01
The flows past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 are simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES) and the far-field sound is calculated from the LES results. A low dissipation energy-conserving finite volume scheme is used to discretize the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamic global coefficient version of the Vreman's subgrid scale (SGS) model is used to compute the sub-grid stresses. Curle's integral of Lighthill's acoustic analogy is used to extract the sound radiated from the cylinder. The profiles of mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations obtained are consistent with the previous experimental and computational results. The sound radiation at far field exhibits the characteristic of a dipole and directivity. The sound spectra display the -5/3 power law. It is shown that Vreman's SGS model in company with dynamic procedure is suitable for LES of turbulence generated noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haifeng; Popov, Pavel; Hiremath, Varun; Lantz, Steven; Viswanathan, Sharadha; Pope, Stephen
2010-11-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) code is developed and applied to the study of local extinction and re-ignition in Sandia Flame E. The modified Curl mixing model is used to account for the sub-filter scalar mixing; the ARM1 mechanism is used for the chemical reaction; and the in- situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm is used to accelerate the chemistry calculations. Calculations are performed on different grids to study the resolution requirement for this flame. Then, with sufficient grid resolution, full-scale LES/PDF calculations are performed to study the flame characteristics and the turbulence-chemistry interactions. Sensitivity to the mixing frequency model is explored in order to understand the behavior of sub-filter scalar mixing in the context of LES. The simulation results are compared to the experimental data to demonstrate the capability of the code. Comparison is also made to previous RANS/PDF simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savre, J.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Svensson, G.; Tjernström, M.
2013-05-01
A parameterization for heterogeneous ice nucleation of dust particles in the deposition mode is proposed and implemented in a Large Eddy Simulation model. The approach based on Classical Nucleation Theory relies on the definition of contact angle PDFs based on experimental data to characterize nucleation ability of the aerosol population. A bin approach is used to discretize the contact angle PDFs in order to account for the fact that the most efficient ice nuclei will form ice crystals quickly leaving only the least efficient nuclei as simulation progresses. The nucleation scheme is evaluated against a single-layer mixed-phase cloud observed over Barrow during the ISDAC campaign. As a matter of fact, analysis of the data collected onboard the aircraft during flight 31 suggests that dust particles are most likely the dominant source of newly nucleated ice crystals, acting in the deposition mode.
Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-06-18
In this work we report on results from a detailed comparative numerical study from two Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes using the Actuator Line Model (ALM). The study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes and their breakdown when subject to uniform inflow. Previous studies have shown relative insensitivity to subgrid modeling in the context of a finite-volume code. The present study uses the low dissipation pseudo-spectral LES code from Johns Hopkins University (LESGO) and the second-order, finite-volume OpenFOAMcode (SOWFA) from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. When subject to uniform inflow, the loads on the blades are found to be unaffected by subgrid models or numerics, as expected. The turbulence in the wake and the location of transition to a turbulent state are affected by the subgrid-scale model and the numerics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracons, Marc; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc
2008-11-01
When representing a wind turbine in LES using a drag disk (e.g. A. Jimenez et al. 2007), the periodic effects due to the turbine's rotating elements remain unresolved. The periodic effects on the mean flow can be represented in a simulation using deterministic stresses in the wake. In this work, based on the Biot-Savart law with a helical vortex street and various simplifications, we develop an analytical expression for the deterministic, periodic velocity fluctuations in the wake. Then, the deterministic stress tensor is obtained by the product of the approximated fluctuating components of velocity, and integration over a helical period. The resulting model is implemented within a Large Eddy Simulation of an array of wind turbines, using the scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model (Bou-Zeid et al. 2005). The importance of the deterministic stresses on the computed wake structure is examined by varying the strength of the helical vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aider, Jean-Luc; Danet, Alexandra
2006-07-01
We use Large Eddy Simulation to investigate the influence of upstream boundary conditions on the development of a backward facing step flow. The first inlet condition consists of a mean turbulent boundary layer velocity profile perturbed by a white noise. The second relies upon a precursor calculation where the development of a quasi-temporal turbulent boundary layer is simulated. In this case, the quasi-longitudinal vortices in the upstream turbulent boundary-layer trigger the destabilization of the shear layer just behind the step, resulting in a shortening of the recirculation length and an increase of the characteristic frequency associated to the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. The mean flow and the characteristic frequencies of pressure fluctuations are strongly dependent of the upstream flow. It demonstrates the importance of realistic boundary conditions for the simulation of complex 3D flows or for flow control simulations. To cite this article: J.-L. Aider, A. Danet, C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Okong'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette
2005-01-01
Models for large eddy simulation (LES) are assessed on a database obtained from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supercritical binary-species temporal mixing layers. The analysis is performed at the DNS transitional states for heptane/nitrogen, oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/helium mixing layers. The incorporation of simplifying assumptions that are validated on the DNS database leads to a set of LES equations that requires only models for the subgrid scale (SGS) fluxes, which arise from filtering the convective terms in the DNS equations. Constant-coefficient versions of three different models for the SGS fluxes are assessed and calibrated. The Smagorinsky SGS-flux model shows poor correlations with the SGS fluxes, while the Gradient and Similarity models have high correlations, as well as good quantitative agreement with the SGS fluxes when the calibrated coefficients are used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Chris; van Eijk, Alexander M.; Fedorovich, Evgeni
2013-09-01
A methodology is presented to infer the refractive-index structure function parameter and the structure parameters for temperature and humidity from numerical simulations of the turbulent atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL). The method employs spatial and temporal averaging of multiple realizations of the CBL flow field reproduced by a large-eddy simulation (LES) of the atmosphere. The Cn2 values yielded by LES-based approach agree fairly well with Cn2 values predicted by the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In this respect, the Cn2 retrieval from the LES data is promising for evaluating the vertical profile of Cn2 throughout the entire CBL. Under the considered CBL conditions and for the selected optical wavelength of 0.55 μm the value of Cn2 was found to be dominated by the CT2 contribution in the first few hundred meters above the surface, whereas the CTq contribution became significant aloft.
Modeling the effect of control on the wake of a utility-scale turbine via large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaolei; Annoni, Jennifer; Seiler, Pete; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-06-01
A model of the University of Minnesota EOLOS research turbine (Clipper Liberty C96) is developed, integrating the C96 torque control law with a high fidelity actuator line large- eddy simulation (LES) model. Good agreement with the blade element momentum theory is obtained for the power coefficient curve under uniform inflow. Three different cases, fixed rotor rotational speed ω, fixed tip-speed ratio (TSR) and generator torque control, have been simulated for turbulent inflow. With approximately the same time-averaged ω, the time- averaged power is in good agreement with measurements for all three cases. Although the time-averaged aerodynamic torque is nearly the same for the three cases, the root-mean-square (rms) of the aerodynamic torque fluctuations is significantly larger for the case with fixed ω. No significant differences have been observed for the time-averaged flow fields behind the turbine for these three cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-06-01
In this work we report on results from a detailed comparative numerical study from two Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes using the Actuator Line Model (ALM). The study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes and their breakdown when subject to uniform inflow. Previous studies have shown relative insensitivity to subgrid modeling in the context of a finite-volume code. The present study uses the low dissipation pseudo-spectral LES code from Johns Hopkins University (LESGO) and the second-order, finite-volume OpenFOAMcode (SOWFA) from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. When subject to uniform inflow, the loads on the blades are found to be unaffected by subgrid models or numerics, as expected. The turbulence in the wake and the location of transition to a turbulent state are affected by the subgrid-scale model and the numerics.
Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-06-18
In this work we report on results from a detailed comparative numerical study from two Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes using the Actuator Line Model (ALM). The study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes and their breakdown when subject to uniform inflow. Previous studies have shown relative insensitivity to subgrid modeling in the context of a finite-volume code. The present study uses the low dissipation pseudo-spectral LES code from Johns Hopkins University (LESGO) and the second-order, finite-volume OpenFOAMcode (SOWFA) from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. When subject to uniform inflow, the loads on the blades are found to bemore » unaffected by subgrid models or numerics, as expected. The turbulence in the wake and the location of transition to a turbulent state are affected by the subgrid-scale model and the numerics.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacombe, R.; Föller, S.; Jasor, G.; Polifke, W.; Aurégan, Y.; Moussou, P.
2013-09-01
The identification of the aero-acoustic scattering matrix of an orifice in a duct is achieved by computational fluid dynamics. The methodology first consists in performing a large eddy simulation of a turbulent compressible flow, with superimposed broadband acoustic excitations. After extracting time series of acoustic data with a specific filter, system identification techniques are applied. They allow us to determine the components of the acoustic scattering matrix of the orifice. Following the same procedure, a previous paper determines the scattering features of a sudden area expansion. In the present paper, the focus is on whistling orifices. The whistling ability of the tested orifice is evaluated by deriving the acoustic power balance from the scattering matrix. Comparisons with experiments at two different Mach numbers show a good agreement. The potential whistling frequency range is well predicted in terms of frequency and amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng
2015-01-01
Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sensible heat fluxes were obtained by eddy-covariance (EC) systems and large-aperture scintillometers (LASs). The results indicated that (1) the sensible heat flux obtained by LAS was less noisy and slightly larger than that obtained by EC over both urban and suburban surfaces; (2) the values of were higher when the correlation coefficient of vertical wind speed and temperature () was smaller. Lower values of were due to low-frequency trends. The urban values of were smaller than suburban values at low values; (3) the sensible heat flux determined by LAS was improved by use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory of the temperature structure parameter over urban and suburban areas, and the improvement is more significant over urban surface areas.
Hu, L H; Huo, R; Yang, D
2009-07-15
The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons--a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creech, Angus; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit; Maguire, A. Eoghan
2015-05-01
We present here a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of Lillgrund offshore wind farm, which is located in the Øresund Strait between Sweden and Denmark. The simulation combines a dynamic representation of wind turbines embedded within a large-eddy simulation CFD solver and uses hr-adaptive meshing to increase or decrease mesh resolution where required. This allows the resolution of both large-scale flow structures around the wind farm, and the local flow conditions at individual turbines; consequently, the response of each turbine to local conditions can be modelled, as well as the resulting evolution of the turbine wakes. This paper provides a detailed description of the turbine model which simulates the interaction between the wind, the turbine rotors, and the turbine generators by calculating the forces on the rotor, the body forces on the air, and instantaneous power output. This model was used to investigate a selection of key wind speeds and directions, investigating cases where a row of turbines would be fully aligned with the wind or at specific angles to the wind. Results shown here include presentations of the spin-up of turbines, the observation of eddies moving through the turbine array, meandering turbine wakes, and an extensive wind farm wake several kilometres in length. The key measurement available for cross-validation with operational wind farm data is the power output from the individual turbines, where the effect of unsteady turbine wakes on the performance of downstream turbines was a main point of interest. The results from the simulations were compared to the performance measurements from the real wind farm to provide a firm quantitative validation of this methodology. Having achieved good agreement between the model results and actual wind farm measurements, the potential of the methodology to provide a tool for further investigations of engineering and atmospheric science problems is outlined.
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Co-Axial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, R. A.; Edwards, J. R.
2009-01-01
Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The baseline value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was noted when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid simulation results showed the same trends as the baseline Reynolds-averaged predictions. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions are suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Comparisons between resolved second-order turbulence statistics and their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts were also performed.
Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale; Lodato, Guido; Veynante, Denis
2010-04-15
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) provides space-filtered quantities to compare with measurements, which usually have been obtained using a different filtering operation; hence, numerical and experimental results can be examined side-by-side in a statistical sense only. Instantaneous, space-filtered and statistically time-averaged signals feature different characteristic length-scales, which can be combined in dimensionless ratios. From two canonical manufactured turbulent solutions, a turbulent flame and a passive scalar turbulent mixing layer, the critical values of these ratios under which measured and computed variances (resolved plus sub-grid scale) can be compared without resorting to additional residual terms are first determined. It is shown that actual Direct Numerical Simulation can hardly accommodate a sufficiently large range of length-scales to perform statistical studies of LES filtered reactive scalar-fields energy budget based on sub-grid scale variances; an estimation of the minimum Reynolds number allowing for such DNS studies is given. From these developments, a reliability mesh criterion emerges for scalar LES and scaling for scalar sub-grid scale energy is discussed. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonker, Harmen; Verzijlbergh, Remco
2016-04-01
We analyse results of a single, continuous Large-Eddy Simulation of actual weather conditions during the timespan of a full year, made possible through recent computational developments (Schalkwijk et al, MWR, 2015). The simulation is coupled to a regional weather model in order to provide an LES dataset that is representative of the daily weather of the year 2012 around Cabauw, the Netherlands. This location is chosen such that LES results can be compared with both the regional weather model and observations from the Cabauw observational supersite. The simulation yields a data-set of relevant atmospheric variables that cover a scale range from seconds to seasons. Analysis of the spatial and temporal spectra of wind and thermodynamical quantities reveals the scale mismatches that arise from the coupling to the large-scale weather model, and provides information on how to better choose the domain size of the LES. In addition, as the single continuous run encompasses many different days and nights with widely varying atmospheric stabilities, we will discuss the high demands that are put on the LES subgrid model.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Heat Transfer from a Single Cube Mounted on a Very Rough Wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boppana, V. B. L.; Xie, Zheng-Tong; Castro, Ian P.
2013-06-01
The local thermal effects in the wake of a single cube with a strong heated rear face, representing a large building in an urban area, are studied using large-eddy simulations (LES) for various degrees of heating, which are characterized by the local Richardson number, Ri. New wall models are implemented for momentum and temperature and comparison of the flow and thermal fields with the wind-tunnel data of Richards et al. (J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 94, 621-636, 2006) shows fair agreement. Buoyancy effects are quite evident at low Ri and a significant increase in the turbulence levels is observed for such flows. Apart from the comparisons with experiments, further analysis included the estimation of the thermal boundary-layer thickness and heat transfer coefficient for all Ri. For sufficiently strong heating, the heat transfer coefficient at the leeward face is found to be higher than the roof surface. This suggests that, beyond a certain Ri value, buoyancy forces from the former surface dominate the strong streamwise convection of the latter. Quadrant analysis along the shear layer behind the cube showed that the strength of sweeps that contribute to momentum flux is considerably enhanced by heating. The contribution of different quadrants to the heat flux is found to be very different to that of the momentum flux for lower Ri.
Hu, L H; Xu, Y; Zhu, W; Wu, L; Tang, F; Lu, K H
2011-09-15
The dispersion of buoyancy driven smoke soot and carbon monoxide (CO) gas, which was ejected out from side building into an urban street canyon with aspect ratio of 1 was investigated by large eddy simulation (LES) under a perpendicular wind flow. Strong buoyancy effect, which has not been revealed before, on such pollution dispersion in the street canyon was studied. The buoyancy release rate was 5 MW. The wind speed concerned ranged from 1 to 7.5m/s. The characteristics of flow pattern, distribution of smoke soot and temperature, CO concentration were revealed by the LES simulation. Dimensionless Froude number (Fr) was firstly introduced here to characterize the pollutant dispersion with buoyancy effect counteracting the wind. It was found that the flow pattern can be well categorized into three regimes. A regular characteristic large vortex was shown for the CO concentration contour when the wind velocity was higher than the critical re-entrainment value. A new formula was theoretically developed to show quantitatively that the critical re-entrainment wind velocities, u(c), for buoyancy source at different floors, were proportional to -1/3 power of the characteristic height. LES simulation results agreed well with theoretical analysis. The critical Froude number was found to be constant of 0.7.
Large eddy simulations of a Mach 0.9 jet with fully-turbulent nozzle-exit boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bres, Guillaume; Ham, Frank; Jordan, Peter
2014-11-01
From past studies, it is well known that the state of the nozzle-exit boundary layer is a key parameter for the flow development and noise characteristics of a jet. However, because of the computational cost of simulating high Reynolds number wall-driven turbulence, the nozzle boundary layer is typically assumed to be laminar or weakly disturbed in most jet simulations. This approach often leads to enhanced laminar to turbulent shear-layer transition and increased noise due to vortex pairing. In the present work, large eddy simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.9 jet (Re = 1E6) issued from a convergent-straight nozzle are performed using the compressible flow solver ``Charles'' developed at Cascade Technologies. Localized adaptive mesh refinement, synthetic turbulence and wall modeling are used inside the nozzle to ensure fully turbulent profiles at the nozzle exit. This resulted in significant improvements for the flowfield and sound predictions, compared to the typical approach based on laminar flow assumption in the nozzle. The far-field noise spectra now remarkably match the measurements from the companion experiment conducted at Pprime Institute, within 0.5 dB for most angles and relevant frequencies. As a next step toward better understanding of jet noise, the large transient database collected during the simulation is currently being mined using reduced order modeling and wavepacket analysis. Work supported in part by NAVAIR. Computer allocation provided by DoD HPC centers at ERDC and AFRL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamecki, M.; Pan, Y.; Nepf, H. M.; Follett, E.
2014-12-01
Flexible plants bend in response to fluid motion and this reconfiguration mechanism allows plants to minimize the increase of drag force with increasing velocity, ensuring survival in flow-dominated habitats. The effect of reconfiguration on the flow field can be modeled by introducing a drag coefficient that decreases with increasing velocity. Typically, a power-law decrease of the drag coefficient with increasing velocity is used, and the negative exponent is known as the Vogel number. In practice, the Vogel number is a function of canopy rigidity and flow conditions. In this work we show that accounting for the effect of reconfiguration is required for large-eddy simulation (LES) models to reproduce the skewness of the streamwise and vertical velocity components and the distribution of sweeps and ejections observed in a large cornfield. Additional LES runs are conducted to investigate the structure of turbulence in different reconfiguration regimes, with mean vertical momentum flux constrained by measurements. The change of the Vogel number has negligible effects on LES predictions of the total vertical momentum flux and the components of turbulent kinetic energy, but produces profound changes in the mechanisms of momentum transport. This work demonstrates the necessity to model the effect of reconfiguration in LES studies of canopy flows. It also highlights the impacts of reconfiguration on the structure of turbulence and the dynamics of momentum fluxes, as well as any other process that depends on velocity fluctuations above and within the canopy region.
Preliminary eddy current modelling for the large angle magnetic suspension test fixture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britcher, Colin
1994-01-01
This report presents some recent developments in the mathematical modeling of the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) at NASA Langley Research Center. It is shown that these effects are significant, but may be amenable to analysis, modeling and measurement. A theoretical framework is presented, together with a comparison of computed and experimental data.
MAGNETIC CYCLES IN GLOBAL LARGE-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION
Ghizaru, Mihai; Charbonneau, Paul; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2010-06-01
We report on a global magnetohydrodynamical simulation of the solar convection zone, which succeeds in generating a large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component, antisymmetric about the equatorial plane and undergoing regular polarity reversals on decadal timescales. We focus on a specific simulation run covering 255 years, during which 8 polarity reversals are observed, with a mean period of 30 years. Time-latitude slices of the zonally averaged toroidal magnetic component at the base of the convecting envelope show a well-organized toroidal flux system building up in each solar hemisphere, peaking at mid-latitudes and migrating toward the equator in the course of each cycle, in remarkable agreement with inferences based on the sunspot butterfly diagram. The simulation also produces a large-scale dipole moment, varying in phase with the internal toroidal component, suggesting that the simulation may be operating as what is known in mean-field theory as an {alpha}{Omega} dynamo.
Large-Eddy / Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fulton, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jack R.; Hassan, Hassan A.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James; Smith, Chad; Cutler, Andrew; Johansen, Craig; Danehy, Paul M.; Kouchi, Toshinori
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of reacting and non-reacting flows within a scramjet combustor configuration experimentally mapped at the University of Virginia s Scramjet Combustion Facility (operating with Configuration A ) are described in this paper. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid Large Eddy Simulation / Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (LES / RANS) methods are utilized, with the intent of comparing essentially blind predictions with results from non-intrusive flow-field measurement methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), hydroxyl radical planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF), stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV), wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), and focusing Schlieren. NC State's REACTMB solver was used both for RANS and LES / RANS, along with a 9-species, 19- reaction H2-air kinetics mechanism by Jachimowski. Inviscid fluxes were evaluated using Edwards LDFSS flux-splitting scheme, and the Menter BSL turbulence model was utilized in both full-domain RANS simulations and as the unsteady RANS portion of the LES / RANS closure. Simulations were executed and compared with experiment at two equivalence ratios, PHI = 0.17 and PHI = 0.34. Results show that the PHI = 0.17 flame is hotter near the injector while the PHI = 0.34 flame is displaced further downstream in the combustor, though it is still anchored to the injector. Reactant mixing was predicted to be much better at the lower equivalence ratio. The LES / RANS model appears to predict lower overall heat release compared to RANS (at least for PHI = 0.17), and its capability to capture the direct effects of larger turbulent eddies leads to much better predictions of reactant mixing and combustion in the flame stabilization region downstream of the fuel injector. Numerical results from the LES/RANS model also show very good agreement with OH-PLIF and SPIV measurements. An un-damped long-wave oscillation of the pre-combustion shock train, which caused
Resolving Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) on the Human Aortic Surface Using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lantz, Jonas; Karlsson, Matts
2011-11-01
The prediction and understanding of the genesis of vascular diseases is one of the grand challenges in biofluid engineering. The progression of atherosclerosis is correlated to the build- up of LDL on the arterial surface, which is affected by the blood flow. A multi-physics simulation of LDL mass transport in the blood and through the arterial wall of a subject specific human aorta was performed, employing a LES turbulence model to resolve the turbulent flow. Geometry and velocity measurements from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were incorporated to assure physiological relevance of the simulation. Due to the turbulent nature of the flow, consecutive cardiac cycles are not identical, neither in vivo nor in the simulations. A phase average based on a large number of cardiac cycles is therefore computed, which is the proper way to get reliable statistical results from a LES simulation. In total, 50 cardiac cycles were simulated, yielding over 2.5 Billion data points to be post-processed. An inverse relation between LDL and WSS was found; LDL accumulated on locations where WSS was low and vice-versa. Large temporal differences were present, with the concentration level decreasing during systolic acceleration and increasing during the deceleration phase. This method makes it possible to resolve the localization of LDL accumulation in the normal human aorta with its complex transitional flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curry, Judith
2002-01-01
The GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Cloud Systems Studies Working Group 5 Polar Clouds was formed largely to exploit the enormous potential of the FIRE.ACE (FIRE Arctic Cloud Experiment) and SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) data sets to improve parameterizations of clouds, radiation, and atmospheric boundary layer processes in the polar regions. The web page for this project is a clearinghouse of information for polar clouds in general and specifically for FIRE.ACE and SHEBA modelling activities. Note that the GCSS Working Group and Polar Clouds leverages heavily the FIRE.ACE investment, since it involves a large group of international scientists and has adopted the modelling goals and other issues related to cloud and radiation processes that are articulated by the FIRE.ACE Science Plan. The supplemental funds in this proposal are targeted at providing the continued coordination for the GCSS Working Group on Polar Clouds, which will insure that final FIRE.ACE project objectives regarding modelling and cloud and radiative processes are achieved.
Churchfield, M. J.; Li, Y.; Moriarty, P. J.
2012-07-01
This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally-periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then that data is used as inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modeled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. Staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement, such as the use of a larger precursor domain to better capture elongated turbulent structures, the inclusion of salinity and temperature equations to account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence, improved wall shear stress modelling, and the examination of more array configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian H.; Xiao, Heng; Schreier, Mathias M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Teixeira, JoãO.; SušElj, Kay
2013-08-01
Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Q.; Kahn, B. H.; Xiao, H.; Schreier, M. M.; Fetzer, E. J.; Kay Sušelj, K.; Teixeira, J.
2013-12-01
Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or break-up of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady-state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ooi, Seng-Keat
2005-11-01
Lock-exchange gravity current flows produced by the instantaneous release of a heavy fluid are investigated using 3-D well resolved Large Eddy Simulation simulations at Grashof numbers up to 8*10^9. It is found the 3-D simulations correctly predict a constant front velocity over the initial slumping phase and a front speed decrease proportional to t-1/3 (the time t is measured from the release) over the inviscid phase, in agreement with theory. The evolution of the current in the simulations is found to be similar to that observed experimentally by Hacker et al. (1996). The effect of the dynamic LES model on the solutions is discussed. The energy budget of the current is discussed and the contribution of the turbulent dissipation to the total dissipation is analyzed. The limitations of less expensive 2D simulations are discussed; in particular their failure to correctly predict the spatio-temporal distributions of the bed shear stresses which is important in determining the amount of sediment the gravity current can entrain in the case in advances of a loose bed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan
2016-08-01
In ladle metallurgy, bubble-liquid interaction leads to complex phase structures. Gas bubble behavior, as well as the induced slag layer behavior, plays a significant role in the refining process and the steel quality. In the present work, a mathematical model using the large eddy simulation (LES) is developed to investigate the bubble transport and slag layer behavior in a water model of an argon-stirred ladle. The Eulerian volume of fluid model is adopted to track the liquid steel-slag-air free surfaces while the Lagrangian discrete phase model is used for tracking and handling the dynamics of discrete bubbles. The bubble coalescence is considered using O'Rourke's algorithm to solve the bubble diameter redistribution and bubbles are removed after leaving the air-liquid interface. The turbulent liquid flow that is induced by bubble-liquid interaction is solved by LES. The slag layer fluactuation, slag droplet entrainment and spout eye open-close phenomenon are well revealed. The bubble diameter distribution and the spout eye size are compared with the experiment. The results show that the hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian-LES model provides a valid modeling framework to predict the unsteady gas bubble-slag layer coupled behaviors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Rizza, Umberto; Degrazia, Gervásio Annes; Acevedo, Otávio Costa
2013-02-01
In this work a parametrization for the transport terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation, valid for a convective boundary layer (CBL) is presented. This is a hard task to accomplish from experimental data, especially because of the difficulty associated to the measurements of pressure turbulent fluctuations, which are necessary to determine the pressure correlation TKE transport term. Thus, employing a large eddy simulation (LES) a full diurnal planetary boundary layer (PBL) cycle was simulated. In this simulation a forcing obtained from experimental data is used, so that the numerical experiment represents a more realistic case than a stationary PBL. For this study all terms of the TKE budget equation were determined for a CBL. From these data, polynomials that describe the TKE transport terms’ vertical profiles were adjusted. The polynomials found are a good description of the LES data, and from them it is shown that a simple formulation that directly relates the transport terms to the TKE magnitude has advantages on other parameterizations commonly used in CBL numerical models. Furthermore, the present study shows that the TKE turbulent transport term dominates over the TKE transport by pressure perturbations and that for most of the CBL these two terms have opposite signs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz-Esparza, D.; Sauer, J.; Linn, R.
2015-12-01
Anomalous and unexpected fire behavior in complex terrain continues to result in substantial loss of property and extremely dangerous conditions for firefighting field personnel. We briefly discuss proposed hypotheses of fire interactions with atmospheric flows over complex terrain that can lead to poorly-understood and potentially catastrophic scenarios. Then, our recent results of numerical investigations via large-eddy simulation of coupled atmosphere-topography-fire phenomenology with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, HiGrad-Firetec model are presented as an example of the potential for increased understanding of these complex processes. This investigation focuses on the influence of downslope surface wind enhancement through stably stratified flow over an isolated hill, and the resulting dramatic changes in fire behavior including spread rate, and intensity. Implications with respect to counter-intuitive fire behavior and extreme fire events are discussed. This work demonstrates a tremendous opportunity to immediately create safer and more effective policy for field personnel through improved predictability of atmospheric conditions over complex terrain
Large-eddy simulation/PDF modeling of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yue; Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen B.; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2011-11-01
We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving planar jet flame at Re = 9079 and Da = 0.011 with skeletal chemistry. The flame exhibits strong turbulence- chemistry interactions resulting in local extinction followed by re-ignition. In this study, the filtered velocity field in LES is computed using the NGA code (Desjardins et al., 2008) and the PDF transported equations with the modified Curl's mixing model are solved by the new highly-scalable HPDF code (Wang and Pope, 2011) with second order accuracy in space and time. The performance of the hybrid LES/PDF methodology is assessed through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS of the same flame (Hawkes et al., 2007). The comparison shows good agreement of the temporal evolution of the temperature and mass fractions of major chemical species, as well as the prediction of local extinction and re-ignition. In addition, the effects of the subgrid scale model, the mixing model, and grid resolution on turbulence-chemistry interactions are investigated to improve the capabilities of LES/PDF. Supported in part by the CEFRC funded by the DOE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuan, L.; Abd Razak, A.; Zaki, S. A.; Mohammad, A. F.; Hassan, M. K.
2015-09-01
Similar to most tropical countries, Malaysia have low wind speed and airflow characteristics to provide an effective natural ventilation system for comfortable living especially in terrace houses. Even so, by designing them with suitable threshold height/width, H/W, ratio may help reduce heat sink, or even the accumulation of contaminants within the setback distance. Through this study, the downstream building of these terrace houses will be investigated due to the effects from an upstream building. With the use of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) method, the formation of the vortex within the threshold H/W ratio will be clearly simulated and allow the observation of flow regimes developed by each model. With increasing threshold H/W ratios the models will exhibit some wake interference flow and skimming flow which will determine the negative or positive effect of ventilation from the upstream building towards the downstream building. The airflow characteristics of the downstream house will also be analysed and the most effective layout in providing a better air circulation may be determined. Improving the natural ventilation of such houses could significantly reduce these negative effects such as the accumulation of dust, smoke or bacteria. In turn, with the alarming rate of depletion in natural resources and its effects to the environment, this study can significantly reduce energy usage for ventilation and space cooling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamecki, M.; Yang, D.; Meneveau, C. V.
2013-12-01
Deep water blowouts generate plumes of oil droplets that rise through, and interact with various layers of the ocean. When plumes reach the ocean mixed layer (OML), the interactions among oil droplet plume, Ekman Spiral and Langmuir turbulence strongly affect the final rates of dilution and bio-degradation. The present study aims at developing a large-eddy simulation (LES) capability for the study of the physical distribution and dispersion of oil droplets under the action of physical oceanographic processes in the OML. In the current LES approach, the velocity and temperature fields are simulated using a hybrid pseudo-spectral and finite-difference scheme; the oil field is described by an Eulerian concentration field and it is simulated using a bounded finite-volume scheme. Fluid accelerations induced by buoyancy of the oil plume are included, and a number of subgrid-scale models for the flow solver are implemented and tested. The LES capability is then applied to the simulation of oil plume dispersion in the OML. Graphical visualization of the LES results shows surface oil slick distribution consistent with the satellite and aerial images of surface oil slicks reported in the literature. Different combinations of Lamgmuir turbulence and droplet size lead to different oil slick patterns at the surface and significantly impact oil concentration. Possible effects for bio-degradation are also discussed. Funding from the GoMRI RFP-II is gratefully acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhi-wei; He, Guo-qiang; Qin, Fei; Cao, Dong-gang; Wei, Xiang-geng; Shi, Lei
2016-10-01
This study reports combustion characteristics of a rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor operating at ramjet mode numerically. Compressible large eddy simulation with liquid kerosene sprayed and vaporized is used to study the intrinsic unsteadiness of combustion in such a propulsion system. Results for the pressure oscillation amplitude and frequency in the combustor as well as the wall pressure distribution along the flow-path, are validated using experimental data, and they show acceptable agreement. Coupled with reduced chemical kinetics of kerosene, results are compared with the simultaneously obtained Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes results, and show significant differences. A flow field analysis is also carried out for further study of the turbulent flame structures. Mixture fraction is used to determine the most probable flame location in the combustor at stoichiometric condition. Spatial distributions of the Takeno flame index, scalar dissipation rate, and heat release rate reveal that different combustion modes, such as premixed and non-premixed modes, coexisted at different sections of the combustor. The RBCC combustor is divided into different regions characterized by their non-uniform features. Flame stabilization mechanism, i.e., flame propagation or fuel auto-ignition, and their relative importance, is also determined at different regions in the combustor.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows around a fin-tube heat exchanger enclosed by a compartment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Changkeun; Song, Simon; Lee, Jeesoo; Kang, Seongwon
2014-11-01
The main objective of the present study is to analyze heat transfer and flow characteristics of a heat exchanger in an industrial application using high-fidelity simulation techniques. Large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to investigate the turbulent flows around a fin-tube heat exchanger enclosed by a compartment. The complex geometry of the compartment poses a difficulty in a simulation as the local Re number is about two orders of different magnitude, and generates various scales of the 3-D vortices and complex flow patterns. Careful tests with both grid resolution and turbulent inflow boundary condition were performed in order to compare our results to the measured data from a MRV experiment as well as the results from RANS simulations. From interaction of the flow structures such as the 3-D vortices, a few interesting flow phenomena were observed which are different from a plain fin-tube heat exchanger, such as helical flows and a jet stream observed behind the fin-tube region. Also, performance of the heat exchanger was analyzed using the data from plain fin-tube heat exchangers. Based on this analysis, a numerical technique for heat exchanger was devised and tested to show a possibility of reducing the computational cost significantly, using a porous media model.
Numerical study on flow-induced noise for a steam stop-valve using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jiming; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yong'ou
2013-09-01
The noise induced by the fluctuant saturated steam flow under 250 °C in a stop-valve was numerically studied. The simulation was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ACTRAN. The acoustic field was investigated with Lighthill's acoustic analogy based on the properties of the flow field obtained using a large-eddy simulation that employs the LES-WALE dynamic model as the sub-grid-scale model. Firstly, the validation of mesh was well conducted, illustrating that two million elements were sufficient in this situation. Secondly, the treatment of the steam was deliberated, and conclusions indicate that when predicting the flow-induced noise of the stop-valve, the steam can be treated as incompressible gas at a low inlet velocity. Thirdly, the flow-induced noises under different inlet velocities were compared. The findings reveal it has remarkable influence on the flow-induced noises. Lastly, whether or not the heat preservation of the wall has influence on the noise was taken into account. The results show that heat preservation of the wall had little influence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDermott, Randy
2005-11-01
In this talk we illuminate the reasons behind curious characteristics of the one-dimensional (1d) spectra for coupled `one-dimensional turbulence' (ODT) and large-eddy simulations (LES) and propose a means of correcting the ``spectral dip'' in the ODT transverse 1d spectrum. When the ODT model of Kerstein et al. [JFM 2000] is used as a subgrid closure for LES the characteristics of the three-dimensional (3d) LES spectrum significantly impact the shape of the ODT 1d spectra in the wavenumber range close to the LES grid Nyquist limit. For isotropic fields the 1d spectra (e.g., E22(k1)) will contain contributions from the 3d spectrum, E(k), from wavenumbers k = k1 to k = infinity. If the LES field is filtered using a spectral cutoff, Gaussian, or box filter then the attenuation of the 3d spectrum at high wavenumbers produces a ``spectral dip'' in the ODT 1d spectrum near the LES Nyquist limit. This problem can be alleviated by using a different LES filter kernel. Fortuitously, the resulting shape (i.e., ``implied filter'') of the 3d spectra produced by the Harlow and Welch numerical method [Phys. Fluids 1965] (i.e., second-order staggered energy conserving scheme without explicit filtering) eliminates the dip problem.
Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian; Xiao, Heng; Schreier, Mathias; Fetzer, E. J.; Teixeira, J.; Suselj, Kay
2013-08-16
Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.
Churchfield, Matthew J; Li, Ye; Moriarty, Patrick J
2013-02-28
This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then those data are used as inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modelled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. We found that staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement. For example, using a larger precursor domain would better capture elongated turbulent structures, and including salinity and temperature equations would account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence. Additionally, the wall shear stress modelling could be improved, and more array configurations could be examined.
Churchfield, M. J.; Li, Y.; Moriarty, P. J.
2011-07-01
This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally-periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then that data is used to determine the inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modeled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. Staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement, such as the use of a larger precursor domain to better capture elongated turbulent structures, the inclusion of salinity and temperature equations to account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence, improved wall shear stress modeling, and the examination of more array configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P.; Fröhlich, J.; Maas, U.
Lean premixed combustion is employed to reduce emission, but can exhibit undesired effects such as lean blow-off and thermo-acoustic resonance. To cope with these, burners with strong swirl are utilized for flame stabilization. In the resulting complex flow system, flow instabilities are observed in both experiments and simulations. To date, large eddy simulation (LES) is becoming a widely used approach for understanding the properties of turbulent flow phenomena. However, LES of lean premixed combustion still constitutes an open challenge. Many turbulent combustion modeling methods have been developed for LES of such flows [1, 2]. Two types of them are the thickened flame (TF) model [3] and the flame surface density (FSD) model [4]. However, none of these models is ideal and suitable for all kinds of flame configurations. A detailed comparison was made between the TF and FSD by Lin et al. [5] for freely propagating premixed flames in homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulent fields, and qualitative agreement between them was found. In the present work, the performances of the two cited turbulent combustion models, TF and FSD, in simulating the lean premixed swirl flames in an industrial gas trubine model combustor is compared against the well-documented experiment data obtained by Meier et al. [6].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, T.; Bai, J. S.; Li, P.; Wang, B.; Du, L.; Tao, G.
2016-06-01
The multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under reshock and the induced turbulent mixing are numerically investigated by using our parallel large-eddy simulation code MVFT (multi-viscous-flow and turbulence), in which the third-order Godonov scheme is used based on the finite volume method. The one-dimensional wave diagram of wave-interface interaction is presented. The turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) width is in good agreement with experiments. The TMZ width grows in time as a power law before reshock and an exponential law after reshock. The time scaling laws of statistics show the evolution of TMZ has a statistics similarity behavior. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, whether they are the resolved-scales or subgrid-scales, all decay with time as a power law before reshock and an exponential law after reshock, so does the enstrophy. The modal analysis shows that the evolution of TMZ is still dominated by the initial perturbation modes during a long time after the first shock. The kinetic energy and enstrophy spectra are amplified extremely by the reshock. After reshock, the energy spectrum moves toward the low wave numbers, which illustrates that larger and larger spatial structures develop in the TMZ. It is also shown that the global spectra exhibit a k-3 scaling law after the reshock and a k-3.5 scaling law at the very late times in three-dimension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawdhary, Saurabh; Yang, Xiaolei; Hill, Craig; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-11-01
An effective way to develop arrays of hydrokinetic turbines in streams and tidal sites is to arrange them in tri-frame configurations, where three turbines are mounted together at the apexes of a triangular frame. Turbines mounted on a tri-frame can serve as the building block for rapidly deploying multi-turbine arrays. We employ large-eddy simulation (LES) to understand wake interactions of turbines mounted on tri-frame configurations and develop design guidelines for field deployment. We employ the computational framework of Yang et al. (2013) to simulate the flow past turbines with the turbines modeled as actuator lines. The computed results are compared with experiments conducted at the Saint Anthony Falls Lab (SAFL) in terms of mean flow and turbulence characteristics. The flow fields are analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of turbine interactions and wake evolution in tri-frame configurations and to develop design guidelines for maximizing the combined power output while reducing structural loads due to turbulent fluctuations. This work was supported by NSF grant IIP-1318201. The simulations were carried out at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Churchfield, Matthew J; Li, Ye; Moriarty, Patrick J
2013-02-28
This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then those data are used as inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modelled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. We found that staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement. For example, using a larger precursor domain would better capture elongated turbulent structures, and including salinity and temperature equations would account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence. Additionally, the wall shear stress modelling could be improved, and more array configurations could be examined. PMID:23319713
Large-eddy Simulation of Heat and Water Vapor Transfer in CT-Based Human Airway Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long
2014-11-01
We propose a novel imaging-based thermodynamic model to study local heat and mass transfers in the human airways. Both 3D and 1D CFD models are developed and validated. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is adopted to solve 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with Boussinesq approximation along with temperature and water vapor transport equations and energy-flux based wall boundary condition. The 1D model provides initial and boundary conditions to the 3D model. The computed tomography (CT) lung images of three healthy subjects with sinusoidal waveforms and minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min are considered. Between 1D and 3D models and between subjects, the average temperature and water vapor distributions are similar, but their regional distributions are significantly different. In particular, unlike the 1D model, the heat and water vapor transfers in the 3D model are elevated at the bifurcations during inspiration. Moreover, the correlations of Nusselt number (Nu) and Sherwood number (Sh) with local Reynolds number and airway diameter are proposed. In conclusion, use of the subject-specific lung model is essential for accurate prediction of local thermal impacts on airway epithelium. Supported in part by NIH grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494 and S10-RR022421.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bruno, John
1984-01-01
The results of an investigation into the feasibility of using the MPP for direct and large eddy simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. A major part of this study was devoted to the implementation of two of the standard numerical algorithms for CFD. These implementations were not run on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) since the machine delivered to NASA Goddard does not have sufficient capacity. Instead, a detailed implementation plan was designed and from these were derived estimates of the time and space requirements of the algorithms on a suitably configured MPP. In addition, other issues related to the practical implementation of these algorithms on an MPP-like architecture were considered; namely, adaptive grid generation, zonal boundary conditions, the table lookup problem, and the software interface. Performance estimates show that the architectural components of the MPP, the Staging Memory and the Array Unit, appear to be well suited to the numerical algorithms of CFD. This combined with the prospect of building a faster and larger MMP-like machine holds the promise of achieving sustained gigaflop rates that are required for the numerical simulations in CFD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, Mahdi; Porte-Agel, Fernando
2011-11-01
Large-eddy simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the surface boundary condition downwind of a rough-to-smooth surface transition. Two types of boundary conditions are tested: (i) the standard formulation based on local application of Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory, and (ii) a new model based on a modification of the recently proposed model of Chamorro and Porte-Agel (2009). The new model assumes that the wind velocity downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition can be estimated as a weighted average of two logarithmic profiles. The first log law is recovered above the internal boundary layer height and corresponds to the upwind velocity profile. The second log law is adjusted to the downwind aerodynamic roughness and it is recovered near the surface in the equilibrium sublayer. The performance of the new model is tested with available wind-tunnel measurements and shows improved predictions of surface shear stress and velocity distribution at different positions downwind of the transition. In addition, the prediction of the new model shows very small dependence on the height at which it is applied.
Triantafyllidis, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Eggels, R.L.G.M.
2009-12-15
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced ignition of a bluff-body stabilised non-premixed methane flame using the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) turbulent combustion model have been performed. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of the use of CMC/LES for ignition problems and to examine which, if any, of the characteristics already observed in related experiments could be predicted. A three-dimensional formulation of the CMC equation was used with simple and detailed chemical mechanisms, and sparks with different parameters (location, size) were used. It was found that the correct pattern of flame expansion and overall flame appearance were predicted with reasonable accuracy with both mechanisms, but the detailed mechanism resulted in expansion rates closer to the experiment. Moreover, the distribution of OH was predicted qualitatively accurately, with patches of high and low concentration in the recirculation zone during the ignition transient, consistent with experimental data. The location of the spark relative to the recirculation zone was found to determine the pattern of the flame propagation and the total time for the flame stabilisation. The size was also an important parameter, since it was found that the flame extinguishes when the spark is very small, in agreement with expectations from experiment. The stabilisation mechanism of the flame was dominated by the convection and sub-grid scale diffusion of hot combustion products from the recirculation zone to the cold gases that enter the burner, as revealed by analysis of the CMC equation. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazil, J.; Wang, H.; Feingold, G.
2009-12-01
Drizzle in stratocumulus clouds is triggered by low concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and concurrently acts as a sink of CCN. The progression of this cloud-aerosol feedback may result in a transition in marine boundary layer dynamics and cloud structure; Closed cell circulation, characterized by a solid stratocumulus layer, may transition into an open cellular mode featuring low cloud fraction. Aerosol sources may balance the loss of CCN from drizzle, and delay or prevent the emergence of open cell circulation. Such sources include particle emissions from the sea surface, entrainment of aerosol from the free troposphere into the cloud deck, advection from land sources, and aerosol nucleation. In order to investigate the role of aerosol sources and processes in the transition between these two states, we have coupled in detail aerosol processes, cloud microphysics, and gas and aqueous chemistry in the WRF/Chem model. We operate WRF/Chem in Large Eddy Simulation mode. Aerosol nucleation is described with a sulfuric acid/water scheme based on laboratory measurements of the nucleation process. Here we present first results on the role of aerosol nucleation for cloud properties and drizzle formation in pristine conditions of the South-East Pacific region, and in polluted conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jähn, Michael; Muñoz-Esparza, Domingo; Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Knoth, Oswald; Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Tegen, Ina
2016-04-01
Large eddy simulations (LESs) with ASAM (All Scale Atmospheric Model) are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude potential temperature perturbations. This method is now also validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE (Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment) field campaign is used for both model initialization and comparisons. Several sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Additional simulation cases deal with modified surface characteristics and their impacts on the simulation results. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ≈ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength) and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with lidar data show similarities in the downwind vertical wind structure and accurately reproduces the development of the daytime convective boundary layer measured by the Raman lidar.
Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May Ws; Skamarock, W.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin
2015-10-29
Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic substepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic substeps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic substeps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. This modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aitken, M.; Kosovic, B.; Mirocha, J. D.; Lundquist, J. K.
2014-12-01
To thoroughly verify the actuator disk model recently implemented in WRF for large eddy simulation (LES) of wind turbine wakes, simulations of various types of turbines and atmospheric conditions must be compared to full-scale field measurements of the real atmosphere. Here, numerical simulations are compared to nacelle-based scanning lidar measurements taken in stable atmospheric conditions during a field campaign conducted at a wind farm in the western United States. Using several wake characteristics—such as the velocity deficit, centerline location, and wake width—as metrics for model verification, the simulations show good agreement with the observations. Notably, the average velocity deficit was seen to be quite high in both the experiment and simulation, resulting from a low average wind speed and therefore high average turbine thrust coefficient. Moreover, new features—namely rotor tilt and drag from the nacelle and tower—were added to the existing actuator disk model in WRF-LES. Compared to the rotor, the effect of the tower and nacelle on the flow is relatively small but nevertheless important for an accurate representation of the entire turbine. Adding rotor tilt to the model causes the vertical location of the wake center to shift upward. Continued advancement of the actuator disk model in WRF-LES will help lead to optimized turbine siting and controls at wind farms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Feng-Chen; Wang, Lu; Cai, Wei-Hua
2015-07-01
A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2011M500652), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51276046 and 51206033), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
In this work, the performance of a wind farm situated on a hilly terrain is studied using large-eddy simulation and especial attention is paid to the effect of the topography on the wake flow characteristics. To this end, first, boundary-layer flow is simulated over a two-dimensional hill and the corresponding mean and instantaneous flow-field is captured. Subsequently, flow simulation through a wind farm, consisting of five horizontal-axis wind turbines, sited over the same hill in an aligned layout is performed and the resulting flow characteristics are compared with the former case, i.e., the case without wind turbines. To assess the validity of the simulations, the calculated results are compared with the measurements carried out by Tian et al. (2013) in the aerodynamic/atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel of Iowa State University. The agreement between the simulation and experimental results is good in terms of mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles at different streamwise positions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan
2016-08-01
A mathematical model has been developed to analyze transient fluid flow and inclusions transport in a slab continuous casting mold, considering the effects of electromagnetic brake (EMBr) arrangement and magnetic field strength. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated by using the large eddy simulation. The electromagnetic force is incorporated into the Navier-Stokes equation. The transport of inclusion inside the mold is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern and inclusion transport inside the mold exhibits satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. With electromagnetic brake effect, the velocities around the braking region are significantly suppressed, and the recirculating flow in the lower part drops and tends to develop a plug-like flow. The EMBr arrangement has an insignificant effect on the overall removal fraction of inclusions, especially for larger inclusions. The inclusion removal rate for the flow-control mold (FCM arrangement) reduces instead compared with no EMBr, especially for smaller inclusions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picot, J.; Paoli, R.; Thouron, O.; Cariolle, D.
2015-07-01
In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. In this paper, fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The initial flow field is composed of the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail descent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex breakup dominates over background turbulence until the end of the vortex regime and controls the mixing with ambient air. This results in mean microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. However, the background humidity and temperature have a first-order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S. M.; Xu, Z. W.; Zhu, Z. L.; Jia, Z. Z.; Zhu, M. J.
2013-04-01
SummaryEvapotranspiration (ET) observations were made for 3 years (2008-2010), using eddy covariance (EC) systems and large aperture scintillometers (LAS), in typical underlying surfaces across the Hai River Basin: orchards (Miyun, MY), cropland in the suburbs (Daxing, DX), and cropland in the plains (Guantao, GT). Reliable data were obtained after carefully data processing, and the seasonal and interannual variability in ET was quantitatively analyzed. The annual ET during 2008-2010 ranged from 510-730 mm for the EC measurements and 430-560 mm for the LAS measurements. The differences in ET among the years and sites were connected with differences in soil moisture and crop growing conditions. The difference in the source areas of EC and LAS measurements and the heterogeneity in their source areas are the primary causes of the discrepancy between EC and LAS measurements. The EC and LAS measurements are compared to the field water balance method calculation and MOD16 ET (the MODIS ET product from the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration Project), respectively. The average difference was 0.85% (mean relative error) and 33.80 mm (root mean square error) between the EC measurements and field water balance method calculations, and 7.72% and 47.08 mm between LAS measurements and MOD16 ET from 2008 to 2010 at the three sites. We found a decreasing tendency for ET in the past 15 years across the Hai River Basin, especially after the year of 2005.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undapalli, Satish
A new combustor referred to as Stagnation Point Reverse Flow (SPRF) combustor has been developed at Georgia Tech to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. The combustor incorporates a novel design to meet the conflicting requirements of low pollution and high stability in both premixed and non-premixed modes. The objective of this thesis work is to perform Large Eddy Simulations (LES) on this lab-scale combustor and elucidate the underlying physics that has resulted in its excellent performance. To achieve this, numerical simulations have been performed in both the premixed and non-premixed combustion modes, and velocity field, species field, entrainment characteristics, flame structure, emissions, and mixing characteristics have been analyzed. Simulations have been carried out first for a non-reactive case to resolve relevant fluid mechanics without heat release by the computational grid. The computed mean and RMS quantities in the non-reacting case compared well with the experimental data. Next, the simulations were extended for the premixed reactive case by employing different sub-grid scale combustion chemistry closures: Eddy Break Up (EBU), Artificially Thickened Flame (TF) and Linear Eddy Mixing (LEM) models. Results from the EBU and TF models exhibit reasonable agreement with the experimental velocity field. However, the computed thermal and species fields have noticeable discrepancies. Only LEM with LES (LEMLES), which is an advanced scalar approach, has been able to accurately predict both the velocity and species fields. Scalar mixing plays an important role in combustion, and this is solved directly at the sub-grid scales in LEM. As a result, LEM accurately predicts the scalar fields. Due to the two way coupling between the super-grid and sub-grid quantities, the velocity predictions also compare very well with the experiments. In other approaches, the sub-grid effects have been either modeled using conventional approaches (EBU) or need
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGibbon, J.; Bretherton, C. S.
2015-12-01
The 2012-2013 MAGIC shipborne deployment of the ARM mobile facility sampled a broad range of subtropical marine stratocumulus (Sc), cumulus (Cu), and transition regimes during cruises between Long Beach, CA, and Hololulu, HI. Ship-following large-eddy simulations (LES) of selected cruise legs of 4-5 days are compared with a broad suite of observations of cloud structure and radiative properties taken on the Horizon Spirit ship. This quantitative comparison across a realistic range of conditions assesses the suitability of LES for simulating the sensitivity of such cloud regimes to climate perturbations, and for guiding the development of cloud and boundary layer parameterizations in global climate and weather forecast models. The System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) LES is used with a small, doubly-periodic domain and variable vertical resolution, initialized using thermodynamic radiosonde profiles near the start of each cruise leg. Sea-surface temperatures are prescribed from observations, and ECMWF analyses are used to derive time-varying geostrophic wind, ship-relative large-scale advective forcing, and large-scale vertical velocity. ECMWF vertical velocities are adjusted to keep the temperature profile close to radiosonde profiles with a relaxation timescale of 1 day. The ship-measured accumulation-mode aerosol concentration is assumed throughout the boundary layer for nucleation of cloud droplets. The ship-following approach allows efficient comparison of model output with a broad suite of ship-based observations. The simulations cannot be expected to match the observations on timescales less than three hours because of cloud-scale and mesoscale sampling variability. Nevertheless, a preliminary sample of eleven 2D runs of different legs predicts daily mean cloud fraction and surface longwave radiation with negligible systematic bias and correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.53, respectively. Full-leg 3D simulations will also be evaluated and presented.
Mirocha, J D; Kosovic, B
2006-01-19
The analysis of surface heat fluxes and sounding profiles from SHEBA indicated possible significant effects of subsidence on the structure of stably-stratified ABLs (Mirocha et al. 2005). In this study the influence of the large-scale subsidence rate on the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over the Arctic Ocean during clear sky, winter conditions is investigated using a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are conducted while varying the subsidence rate between 0, 0.001 and 0.002 ms{sup -1}, and the resulting quasi-equilibrium ABL structure and evolution are examined. Simulations conducted without subsidence yield ABLs that are deeper, more strongly mixed, and cool much more rapidly than were observed. The addition of a small subsidence rate significantly improves agreement between the simulations and observations regarding the ABL height, potential temperature profiles and bulk heating rates. Subsidence likewise alters the shapes of the surface-layer flux, stress and shear profiles, resulting in increased vertical transport of heat while decreasing vertical momentum transport. A brief discussion of the relevance of these results to parameterization of the stable ABL under subsiding conditions in large-scale numerical weather and climate prediction models is presented.
Structure of Wall-Eddies at Very Large Reynolds Number--A Large-Scale PIV Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hommema, S. E.; Adrian, R. J.
2000-11-01
The results of an experiment performed in the first 5 m of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer are presented. Large-scale PIV measurements (up to 2 m × 2 m field-of-view) were obtained in the streamwise / wall-normal plane of a very-large Reynolds number (Re_θ > 10^6, based on momentum thickness and freestream velocity), flat-plate, zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Measurements were obtained at the SLTEST facility in the U.S. Army's Dugway Proving Grounds. Coherent packets of ramp-like structures with downstream inclination are observed and show a remarkable resemblance to those observed in typical laboratory-scale experiments at far lower Reynolds number. The results are interpreted in terms of a vortex packet paradigm(Adrian, R.J., C.D. Meinhart, and C.D. Tomkins, Vortex organization in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer, to appear in J. Fluid Mech., 2000.) and begin to extend the model to high Reynolds numbers of technological importance. Additional results obtained during periods of non-neutral atmospheric stability are contrasted with those of the canonical neutral boundary layer. Sample smoke visualization images (3 m × 15 m field-of-view) are available online from the author.
Dynamic subfilter-scale stress model for large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouhi, A.; Piomelli, U.; Geurts, B. J.
2016-08-01
We present a modification of the integral length-scale approximation (ILSA) model originally proposed by Piomelli et al. [Piomelli et al., J. Fluid Mech. 766, 499 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.29] and apply it to plane channel flow and a backward-facing step. In the ILSA models the length scale is expressed in terms of the integral length scale of turbulence and is determined by the flow characteristics, decoupled from the simulation grid. In the original formulation the model coefficient was constant, determined by requiring a desired global contribution of the unresolved subfilter scales (SFSs) to the dissipation rate, known as SFS activity; its value was found by a set of coarse-grid calculations. Here we develop two modifications. We de-fine a measure of SFS activity (based on turbulent stresses), which adds to the robustness of the model, particularly at high Reynolds numbers, and removes the need for the prior coarse-grid calculations: The model coefficient can be computed dynamically and adapt to large-scale unsteadiness. Furthermore, the desired level of SFS activity is now enforced locally (and not integrated over the entire volume, as in the original model), providing better control over model activity and also improving the near-wall behavior of the model. Application of the local ILSA to channel flow and a backward-facing step and comparison with the original ILSA and with the dynamic model of Germano et al. [Germano et al., Phys. Fluids A 3, 1760 (1991), 10.1063/1.857955] show better control over the model contribution in the local ILSA, while the positive properties of the original formulation (including its higher accuracy compared to the dynamic model on coarse grids) are maintained. The backward-facing step also highlights the advantage of the decoupling of the model length scale from the mesh.
Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara
2014-03-14
Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.
Burton, G
2007-01-08
Large-eddy simulation of passive scalar mixing by a fully three-dimensional round incompressible turbulent jet is evaluated using the Inertial LES methodology with multifractal subgrid-scale modeling. The Inertial LES approach involves the direct calculation of the inertial term {ovr u{sub i} u{sub j}} in the filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and the scalar flux term {ovr u{sub j} {phi}} in the filtered advection-diffusion equation, using models for the subgrid velocity field u{sup sgs} and the subgrid scalar-concentration field {phi}{sup sgs}. In this work, the models are based on the multifractal structure of the subgrid enstrophy 2Q{sup sgs}(x,t) {triple_bond} {omega}{sup sgs} {center_dot} {omega}{sup sgs} and scalar-dissipation {chi}{sup sgs} (x,t) {triple_bond} D{del}{phi}{sup sgs} {center_dot} {del}{phi}{sup sgs} fields, respectively. No artificial viscosity or diffusivity constructs are applied and no explicit dealiasing is performed. Numerical errors are controlled by the application of an adaptive backscatter limiter. The present work summarizes the initial evaluation of the Inertial LES approach in the context of the round turbulent jet, including examinations of jet self-similarity and the scale-to-scale distribution of kinetic and scalar energy in the jet far field. These inquiries confirm that the Inertial LES method accurately recovers the large scale structure of this complex turbulent shear flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Hyung Suk; Meneveau, Charles
2008-12-01
A shearless mixing layer characterized by interactions between two regions with different turbulence intensities but without mean shear is investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. Reynolds numbers higher than those of prior studies [B. Gilbert, "Diffusion mixing in grid turbulence without mean shear," J. Fluid Mech. 100, 349 (1980); S. Veeravalli and Z. Warhaft, "The shearless turbulent mixing layer," J. Fluid Mech. 207, 191 (1989); B. Knaepen, O. Debliquy, and D. Carati, "Direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation of a shear-free mixing layer," J. Fluid Mech. 514, 153 (2004); D. Tordella and M. Iovieno, "Numerical experiments on the intermediate asymptotics of shear-free turbulent transport and diffusion," J. Fluid Mech. 549, 429 (2006); D. A. Briggs, J. H. Ferziger, J. R. Koseff, and S. G. Monismith, "Entrainment in a shear-free turbulent mixing layer," J. Fluid Mech. 310, 215 (1996)] are achieved by using an active grid with rotating winglets on one-half of its cross section. Stationary flow-conditioning fine meshes are used to avoid mean velocity gradients. Measurements are performed at five different downstream wind-tunnel locations using an X-type hot-wire probe and a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system. The Reynolds numbers based on the Taylor microscale in the high- and low-kinetic energy regions are 170 and 88, respectively. The energy and integral length-scale ratios between the two regions are 4.27 and 1.73, respectively. The inlet turbulence in the upper and lower portions of the shearless mixing layer is not fully isotropic, with the streamwise velocity fluctuations being between 6% and 13% higher than the cross-stream ones. Fundamental statistical properties of the flow are documented and analyzed at various scales using band-pass box-filtered velocities. Downstream evolution of variance and half-width of the mixing layer, skewness and flatness factors, as well as the statistics of two-point velocity increments at various
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Yousuke; Nishizawa, Seiya; Yashiro, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomita, Hirofumi
2015-12-01
This study investigated the impact of several cloud microphysical schemes on the trade wind cumulus in the large eddy simulation model. To highlight the differences due to the cloud microphysical component, we developed a fully compressible large eddy simulation model, which excluded the implicit scheme and approximations as much as possible. The three microphysical schemes, the one-moment bulk, two-moment bulk, and spectral bin schemes were used for sensitivity experiments in which the other components were fixed. Our new large eddy simulation model using a spectral bin scheme successfully reproduced trade wind cumuli, and reliable model performance was confirmed. Results of the sensitivity experiments indicated that precipitation simulated by the one-moment bulk scheme started earlier, and its total amount was larger than that of the other models. By contrast, precipitation simulated by the two-moment scheme started late, and its total amount was small. These results support those of a previous study. The analyses revealed that the expression of two processes, (1) the generation of cloud particles and (2) the conversion from small droplets to raindrops, were crucial to the results. The fast conversion from cloud to rain and the large amount of newly generated cloud particles at the cloud base led to evaporative cooling and subsequent stabilization in the sub-cloud layer. The latent heat released at higher layers by the condensation of cloud particles resulted in the development of the boundary layer top height.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadantsev, Evgeny; Fortelius, Carl; Druzhinin, Oleg; Mortikov, Evgeny; Glazunov, Andrey; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2016-04-01
We examine and validate the EFB turbulence closure model (Zilitinkevich et al., 2013), which is based on the budget equations for basic second moments, namely, two energies: turbulent kinetic energy EK and turbulent potential energy EP, and vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and potential temperature, τi (i = 1, 2) and Fz. Instead of traditional postulation of down-gradient turbulent transport, the EFB closure determines the eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity from the steady-state version of the budget equations for τi and Fz. Furthermore, the EFB closure involves new prognostic equation for turbulent dissipation time scale tT, and extends the theory to non-steady turbulence regimes accounting for non-gradient and non-local turbulent transports (when the traditional concepts of eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity become generally inconsistent). Our special interest is in asymptotic behavior of the EFB closure in strongly stable stratification. For this purpose, we consider plane Couette flow, namely, the flow between two infinite parallel plates, one of which is moving relative to another. We use a set of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) experiments at the highest possible Reynolds numbers for different bulk Richardson numbers (Druzhinin et al., 2015). To demonstrate potential improvements in Numerical Weather Prediction models, we test the new closure model in various idealized cases, varying stratification from the neutral and conventionally neutral to stable (GABLS1) running a test RANS model and HARMONIE/AROME model in single-column mode. Results are compared with DNS and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) runs and different numerical weather prediction models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows inside and above urban canopies. This study focuses on the validation and the use of a recently-developed LES framework to simulate a turbulent boundary layer flow through idealized urban canopies represented by uniform arrays of cubes. The LES framework is first validated with wind tunnel experimental data. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data are found in the vertical and spanwise profiles of mean velocities and velocity standard deviations at different streamwise locations. Next, the model is used to simulate ABL flows over surface transitions from a flat homogeneous terrain to aligned and staggered arrays of cubes with height h. For both configurations, five different frontal area densities (Λf), equal to 0.028, 0.063, 0.111, 0.174 and 0.250, are considered. Within the arrays, the flow is found to adjust quickly and shows similar structure of the wake of the cubes after the second row. Above the arrays, an internal boundary layer (IBL) is identified. No significant difference in the depth of the IBL among different cases is observed. The drag exerted by the cubes on the flow (Df) and the drag coefficients of the cubes (Cd) are calculated explicitly using the LES results. For the downstream cubes, Df is found to increases with decreasing density for both configurations, and larger values of Cd are found for the cubes of staggered arrays than those of the aligned arrays with the same Λf. At a downstream location where the flow immediately above the cube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantano, C.; Deiterding, R.; Hill, D. J.; Pullin, D. I.
2006-09-01
This paper describes a hybrid finite-difference method for the large-eddy simulation of compressible flows with low-numerical dissipation and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). A conservative flux-based approach is described with an explicit centered scheme used in turbulent flow regions while a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is employed to capture shocks. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ghan, Steven; Harrington, Jerry; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Morrison, Hugh; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara
2014-01-01
Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP), in agreement with earlier studies. In contrast to previous intercomparison studies, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSDs) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case. Sensitivity tests indicate LWP and IWP are much closer to the bin model simulations when a modified shape factor which is similar to that predicted by bin model simulation is used in bulk scheme. These results demonstrate the importance of representation of ice PSD in determining the partitioning of liquid and ice and the longevity of mixed-phase clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neill, J. J.; Cai, X.-M.; Kinnersley, R.
2016-10-01
The large-eddy simulation (LES) approach has recently exhibited its appealing capability of capturing turbulent processes inside street canyons and the urban boundary layer aloft, and its potential for deriving the bulk parameters adopted in low-cost operational urban dispersion models. However, the thin roof-level shear layer may be under-resolved in most LES set-ups and thus sophisticated subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterisations may be required. In this paper, we consider the important case of pollutant removal from an urban street canyon of unit aspect ratio (i.e. building height equal to street width) with the external flow perpendicular to the street. We show that by employing a stochastic SGS model that explicitly accounts for backscatter (energy transfer from unresolved to resolved scales), the pollutant removal process is better simulated compared with the use of a simpler (fully dissipative) but widely-used SGS model. The backscatter induces additional mixing within the shear layer which acts to increase the rate of pollutant removal from the street canyon, giving better agreement with a recent wind-tunnel experiment. The exchange velocity, an important parameter in many operational models that determines the mass transfer between the urban canopy and the external flow, is predicted to be around 15% larger with the backscatter SGS model; consequently, the steady-state mean pollutant concentration within the street canyon is around 15% lower. A database of exchange velocities for various other urban configurations could be generated and used as improved input for operational street canyon models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, Joshua M.
The necessity for evaluating the accuracy and characteristics of new Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models in modern fluid mechanics research has inspired the development of a Three-Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3DPTV) system capable of producing 3-Dimension 3-Component (3D3C) velocity vector fields. The system is based on the triangulation method of particle location and utilizes an optical system comprised of three 4008 x 2672 charge-coupled devices (CCDs), three 120mm lenses, and a water-filled prism. The tracer particles used in the system were <5microm TiO2 and were illuminated using a 532 nm Nd:YAG dual pulsed laser. The system was configured to study a backward-facing step flow in a 6" x 12" water tunnel due to this flow's consistency in separation and unsteady, turbulent characteristics. The experimental flow had a freestream velocity of 22 cm/s, a Reynolds number based on the step height of 6274, and a Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of approximately 130. Data from this flow was used in a priori testing of various LES models including the Smagorinsky, Similarity, Mixed, Dynamic, Coherent Structures, and Stretched Vortex Models. The system is preferable to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for such testing in that it is capable of acquiring data at a resolution adequate for a priori testing without the computational restrictions for high Reynolds numbers. In the present configuration, the system is capable of achieving a Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of 214, but with an increase to the CCD resolution of the system, a Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of nearly 400 would be attainable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Zun; Liu, Xiao; Gong, Cheng; Sun, Mingbo; Wang, Zhenguo; Bai, Xue-Song
2016-09-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was employed to investigate the fuel/oxidizer mixing process in an ethylene fueled scramjet combustor with a rearwall-expansion cavity. The numerical solver was first validated for an experimental flow, the DLR strut-based scramjet combustor case. Shock wave structures and wall-pressure distribution from the numerical simulations were compared with experimental data and the numerical results were shown in good agreement with the available experimental data. Effects of the injection location on the flow and mixing process were then studied. It was found that with a long injection distance upstream the cavity, the fuel is transported much further into the main flow and a smaller subsonic zone is formed inside the cavity. Conversely, with a short injection distance, the fuel is entrained more into the cavity and a larger subsonic zone is formed inside the cavity, which is favorable for ignition in the cavity. For the rearwall-expansion cavity, it is suggested that the optimized ignition location with a long upstream injection distance should be in the bottom wall in the middle part of the cavity, while the optimized ignition location with a short upstream injection distance should be in the bottom wall in the front side of the cavity. By employing a cavity direct injection on the rear wall, the fuel mass fraction inside the cavity and the local turbulent intensity will both be increased due to this fueling, and it will also enhance the mixing process which will also lead to increased mixing efficiency. For the rearwall-expansion cavity, the combined injection scheme is expected to be an optimized injection scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shouping; Stevens, Bjorn
2000-02-01
Large eddy simulation is used to study top-hat parameterizations of second- and third-order scalar statistics in cumulus and stratocumulus cloud-topped boundary layers (CTBLs). Although the top-hat parameterizations based on commonly used conditional sampling methods are a useful approach to modeling the vertical fluxes in the simulated CTBLs, they fail to realistically represent the scalar variances. The reason is that the common sampling methods are based at least in part on the sign of vertical velocity, but not on the sign of the scalars whose variances are represented and that scalars and velocity are not perfectly correlated. Furthermore, the self-correlation nature for a variance means that all the fluctuations contribute to its value, while the top-hat models completely ignore the deviations from the top-hat means and thus considerably degrade the representation of the variance. For the fluxes, however, only the coherent convective elements make the most contribution. Analysis of analytic models and `toy' time series indicates in a more generic setting that the effect of poor correlations between the signal upon which the sampling is based and the signal whose variance is to be represented tends to degrade the ability of top-hat parameterizations to capture the variance. The analysis of toy time series also indicates that variability among individual events within a composite degrades the top-hat representation of the variance more than variability within events. For the vertical velocity-scalar-related third-order moments, the top-hat model gives reasonable estimates for the cumulus CTBL but not for the stratocumulus CTBL. These differences are explained by structural differences (tied to circulation differences in the two CTBLs) in their respective joint probability density functions of vertical velocity and various scalars.
On using large-eddy simulation for the prediction of noise from cold and heated turbulent jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodony, Daniel J.; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2005-08-01
The results of a series of large-eddy simulations of heated and unheated jets using approximately 106 grid points are presented. The computations were performed on jets at operating conditions originally investigated by Tanna in the late 1970s [H. K. Tanna, "An experimental study of jet noise Part I: Turbulent mixing noise," J. Sound Vib., 50, 405 (1977)]. Three acoustic Mach numbers are investigated (Uj/a∞=0.5, 0.9, and 1.5) at cold (constant stagnation temperature) and heated conditions (Tj/T∞=1.8, 2.7, and 2.3, respectively). The jets' initial annular shear layers are thick relative to experimental jets and are quasi-laminar with superimposed disturbances from linear instability theory. It is observed that qualitative changes in the jets' mean- and turbulent field structure with Uj and Tj are consistent with previous experimental data. However, the jets exhibit a faster centerline mean velocity decay rate relative to the existing data, with a corresponding 3-4 % over-prediction of the peak root-mean-square level. The acoustic pressure fluctuations in the far field are analyzed in detail. The accuracy of the overall sound pressure level predictions is found to be a strong function of the jet Mach number, with the lowest speed jets being the least accurate. At all conditions the peak acoustic frequency occurs at approximately St =fDj/Uj=0.25. The limited resolution of the computations is shown to impact the radiated sound by yielding effectively low-pass filtered versions of the experimental spectra, with a maximum frequency of St ≈1.2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egli, P. E.; Giometto, M. G.; Tooke, T. R.; Krayenhoff, S.; Christen, A.; Parlange, M. B.
2014-12-01
Robust modeling of flow and turbulence within and over urban canopies is required to properly predict air pollution and dispersion in cities. Trees are an integral part of the urban landscape. In many suburban neighbourhoods, tree cover is 10 to 30% and trees are often taller than buildings. Effects of trees on drag, mean wind and turbulence in cities are not accounted for in current weather, air pollution and dispersion models. Our goal is to use high-resolution Large Eddy Simulations (LES) over a realistic urban canopy to determine the effects of trees on drag, mean wind and turbulence in the urban roughness sublayer (RSL). The simulated area is part of the Sunset-Neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. In this area, long-term wind and turbulence measurements are available from instruments on a 28m-tall tower. Further, a three-dimensional point cloud was captured from high precision airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and analyzed to represent the structural characteristics of both buildings and trees at high spatial resolution. Trees are described by location-specific leaf area density (LAD) profiles. LES simulations are performed over a 512 x 512m characteristic subset of the city that contains the tower location and predominant source area. In the LES, buildings are accounted for with an immersed boundary method, adopting a zero level-set distance function to localize the surface, whereas drag forces from trees are parametrized as a function of the height-dependent LAD. Spectra of streamwise and vertical velocity components compare well between tower data and the model data, confirming the good performance of LES in simulations of flow over fully rough surfaces. We show how the presence of trees impacts mean velocity and computed momentum flux profiles; they significantly decrease dispersive terms in the bulk of the flow. The impact of trees on integral length scales in the flow is discussed.
Roux, A.; Gicquel, L.Y.M.; Staffelbach, G.; Reichstadt, S.; Bertier, N.; Vuillot, F.; Poinsot, T.J.
2010-01-15
Among all the undesired phenomena observed in ramjet combustors, combustion instabilities are of foremost importance and predicting them using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is an active research field. While acoustics are naturally captured by compressible LES provided that the proper boundary conditions are applied, combustion/chemistry modelling remains a critical issue and its impact on numerical predictions must still be assessed for complex applications. To do so, two different ramjet LES's are compared here. The first simulation is based on a standard one-step chemistry known to over-estimate the laminar flame speed in fuel rich conditions. The second simulation uses the same scheme but introduces a correction of reaction rates for rich flames to match a detailed mechanism provided by Peters (1993). Even though the two chemical schemes are very similar and very few points burn in rich regimes, distinct limit-cycles are obtained with LES depending on which scheme is used. Results obtained with the standard one-step chemistry exhibit high frequency self-sustained oscillations. Multiple flame fronts are stabilized in the vicinity of the shear layer developing at the exit of the air inlets. When compared to the experiment, the fitted one-step scheme yields better predictions than the standard scheme. With the fitted scheme, the flame is detached from the air inlets and stabilizes in the regions identified in the experiment (Ristori et al. (2005), Heid and Ristori (2003), Heid and Ristori (2005), Ristori et al. (1999)). LES and experiments exhibit all main low-frequency modes including the first longitudinal acoustic mode. The high frequencies excited with the standard scheme are damped with the fitted scheme. The chemical scheme is found, for this ramjet burner, to have a strong impact on the predicted stability: approximate chemical schemes even in a limited range of equivalence ratio can lead to the occurence of non-physical combustion oscillations. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemi, A.; Roussinova, V.; Barron, R. M.; Balachandar, R.
2016-08-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to study the vortex dynamics in the near-field of a starting turbulent square jet as well as its evolution into a developed steady jet. Simulations are conducted at Reynolds numbers (Re = UjD/υ) of 8000 and 45 000 based on the nozzle hydraulic diameter (" separators=" D ) and jet velocity (Uj). A Reynolds stress model was used to simulate the internal flow in the nozzle which provided the inlet conditions for the LES of the jet. To validate the simulations, turbulence statistics are compared with experimental results available for a steady square jet. Evaluation of the probability density function, skewness, and flatness of the centerline streamwise velocity (Uc) shows deviation from the Gaussian distribution in the near-field. Evolution of the self-induced deformation of the leading vortex ring is investigated to further clarify the role of axis-switching. The axis-switching is initiated earlier at low Reynolds number while the completion of the axis-switching process occurred at the same dimensionless time for both Reynolds numbers. The role of pressure distribution on vortex ring deformation is investigated. It is shown that the influence of pressure-induced azimuthal instability tends to deform a two-dimensional vortex ring topology into a three-dimensional one and revert back to a two-dimensional character again. The break-down and diffusion of the tip of the vortex are also studied. Evolution of the shear layer from a starting jet to a developed jet is studied in terms of the vorticity field. For a starting jet, entrainment is shown to occur in the presence of corner hairpin vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiangshan; Li, Jingshe; Yan, Yi; Chen, Zhixin; Yang, Shufeng; Zhao, Jingwei; Jiang, Zhengyi
2016-02-01
The advantages of trumpet-shaped ladle shrouds (TLS) have been frequently demonstrated over conventional straight-bore ladle shrouds (CLS) with respect to production efficiency and molten steel quality in continuous casting practices. The present study is to shed some lights on why the TLS are better than the CLS design by examining the fluid dynamics and mass transfer using large eddy simulation. The obtained numerical results were validated with particle imaging velocimetry experiments. Flow velocity, deformation, turbulent energy dissipation, and mixing kinetics of tracer were discussed. The results showed that the entering jet of the CLS flowed straight down into the tundish with a relatively high speed (average at 0.710 to 0.815 m/s) and turbulent kinetic energy. However, the trumpet section of a TLS intensified velocity differences, strain rates, and vortices, and promoted an increase on turbulence dissipation rate in the interior of the ladle shroud. The average speed of the entering jet to the tundish was decreased to 0.270 to 0.410 m/s from the 0.708 m/s of the inlet speed. The entering jet from the TLS swung, twisted and well mixed with surrounding fluid in the tundish, and dissipated its kinetic energy. Consequently, the turbulence of the whole flow field as well as the mean skin friction coefficient of tundish wall and the velocity of free liquid surface were reduced. A tracer experiment was carried out to study mass transfer and flow mixing behavior, and the results demonstrated that the use of the TLS increased the plug volume and decreased the dead zone, thereby enhancing inclusion flotation.
Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph
2015-03-01
Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy has become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ghan, Steven; Harrington, Jerry; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Morrison, Hugh; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara
2014-03-01
Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP), in agreement with earlier studies. In contrast to previous intercomparison studies, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSDs) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case. Sensitivity tests indicate LWP and IWP are much closer to the bin model simulations when a modified shape factor which is similar to that predicted by bin model simulation is used in bulk scheme. These results demonstrate the importance of representation of ice PSD in determining the partitioning of liquid and ice and the longevity of mixed-phase clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jähn, M.; Muñoz-Esparza, D.; Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.
2015-08-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. Due to the presence of a topographically structured island surface in the domain center, the model setup has to be designed with open lateral boundaries. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude perturbations. In this work, this method is for the first time tested and validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE field campaign is used for both model initialization and a comparison with Doppler wind lidar data. Several numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" when using coarser spatial grid spacings beyond the inertial subrange of three-dimensional turbulence or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Especially cloud properties in the downwind area west of Barbados are markedly affected in these kinds of simulations. Results of an additional simulation with a strong trade-wind inversion reveal its effect on cloud layer depth and location. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ~ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength) and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with wind lidar data show similarities in the formation of the daytime convective plume and the mean vertical wind structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jähn, M.; Muñoz-Esparza, D.; Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Knoth, O.; Haarig, M.; Ansmann, A.
2016-01-01
Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. Due to the presence of a topographically structured island surface in the domain center, the model setup has to be designed with open lateral boundaries. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude potential temperature perturbations. In this work, this method is for the first time tested and validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE field campaign is used for both model initialization and a comparison with Doppler wind and Raman lidar data. Several numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to "gray zone modeling" when using coarser spatial grid spacings beyond the inertial subrange of three-dimensional turbulence or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Especially cloud properties in the downwind area west of Barbados are markedly affected in these kinds of simulations. Results of an additional simulation with a strong trade-wind inversion reveal its effect on cloud layer depth and location. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ≈ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength) and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with wind lidar data show similarities in the downwind vertical wind structure. Additionally, the model results accurately reproduce the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Hong-Bing; Shaw, Roger H.; Tha Paw, Kyaw; Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Sullivan, Peter P.
Turbulent statistics of neutrally stratified shear-driven flow within and above a sparse forest canopy are presented from a large-eddy simulation (LES) and compared with those from observations within and above a deciduous forest with similar height and foliage density. First- and second-order moments from the LES agree with observations quite well. Third-order moments from the LES have the same sign and similar vertical patterns as those from the observations, but the LES yields smaller magnitudes of such higher-order moments. Turbulent spectra and cospectra from the LES agree well with observations above the forest. However, at the highest frequencies, the LES spectra have steeper slopes than observations. Quadrant and conditional analyses of the LES resolved-scale flow fields also agree with observations. For example, both LES and observation find that sweeps are more important than ejections for the transport of momentum within the forest, while inward and outward interaction contributions are both small, except near the forest floor. The intermittency of the transport of momentum and scalar increases with depth into the forest. Finally, ramp structures in the time series of a passive scalar at multiple levels within and above the forest show similar features to those measured from field towers. Two-dimensional (height-time cross-section) contours of the passive scalar and wind vectors show sweeps and ejections, and the characteristics of the static pressure perturbation near the ground resemble those deduced from field tower-based measurements. In spite of the limited grid resolution (2 m × 2 m × 2 m) and domain size (192 m × 192 m × 60 m) used in this LES, we demonstrate that the LES is capable of resolving the most important characteristics of the turbulent flow within and above a forest canopy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, Mina R.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; DeBonis, James R.
2015-01-01
The objective of this work is to compare a high-order solver with a low-order solver for performing Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of a compressible mixing layer. The high-order method is the Wave-Resolving LES (WRLES) solver employing a Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP) scheme. The low-order solver is the Wind-US code, which employs the second-order Roe Physical scheme. Both solvers are used to perform LES of the turbulent mixing between two supersonic streams at a convective Mach number of 0.46. The high-order and low-order methods are evaluated at two different levels of grid resolution. For a fine grid resolution, the low-order method produces a very similar solution to the highorder method. At this fine resolution the effects of numerical scheme, subgrid scale modeling, and filtering were found to be negligible. Both methods predict turbulent stresses that are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. However, when the grid resolution is coarsened, the difference between the two solvers becomes apparent. The low-order method deviates from experimental results when the resolution is no longer adequate. The high-order DRP solution shows minimal grid dependence. The effects of subgrid scale modeling and spatial filtering were found to be negligible at both resolutions. For the high-order solver on the fine mesh, a parametric study of the spanwise width was conducted to determine its effect on solution accuracy. An insufficient spanwise width was found to impose an artificial spanwise mode and limit the resolved spanwise modes. We estimate that the spanwise depth needs to be 2.5 times larger than the largest coherent structures to capture the largest spanwise mode and accurately predict turbulent mixing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, M. R.; Georgiadis, N. J.; DeBonis, J. R.
2015-01-01
The objective of this work is to compare a high-order solver with a low-order solver for performing large-eddy simulations (LES) of a compressible mixing layer. The high-order method is the Wave-Resolving LES (WRLES) solver employing a Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP) scheme. The low-order solver is the Wind-US code, which employs the second-order Roe Physical scheme. Both solvers are used to perform LES of the turbulent mixing between two supersonic streams at a convective Mach number of 0.46. The high-order and low-order methods are evaluated at two different levels of grid resolution. For a fine grid resolution, the low-order method produces a very similar solution to the high-order method. At this fine resolution the effects of numerical scheme, subgrid scale modeling, and filtering were found to be negligible. Both methods predict turbulent stresses that are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. However, when the grid resolution is coarsened, the difference between the two solvers becomes apparent. The low-order method deviates from experimental results when the resolution is no longer adequate. The high-order DRP solution shows minimal grid dependence. The effects of subgrid scale modeling and spatial filtering were found to be negligible at both resolutions. For the high-order solver on the fine mesh, a parametric study of the spanwise width was conducted to determine its effect on solution accuracy. An insufficient spanwise width was found to impose an artificial spanwise mode and limit the resolved spanwise modes. We estimate that the spanwise depth needs to be 2.5 times larger than the largest coherent structures to capture the largest spanwise mode and accurately predict turbulent mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savre, J.; Ekman, A. M. L.
2015-08-01
A Classical-Nucleation-Theory-based parameterization for heterogenous ice nucleation, including explicit dependencies of the nucleation rates on the number concentration, size, and composition of the ambient aerosol population, is implemented in a cloud-scale, large-eddy simulation model and evaluated against Arctic mixed-phase cloud events observed during Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). An important feature of the parameterization is that the ice nucleation efficiency of each considered aerosol type is described using a contact angle distribution which evolves with time so that the model accounts for the inhibition of ice nucleation as the most efficient ice-forming particles are nucleated and scavenged. The model gives a reasonable representation of first-order (ice water paths) and second-order (ice crystal size distributions) ice microphysical properties. The production of new ice crystals in the upper part of the cloud, essential to guarantee sustained mixed-phase conditions, is found to be controlled mostly by the competition between radiative cooling (resulting in more aerosol particles becoming efficient ice nuclei as the temperature decreases), cloud-top entrainment (entraining fresh particles into the cloud), and nucleation scavenging of the ice+forming aerosol particles. The relative contribution of each process is mostly determined by the cloud-top temperature and the entrainment rates. Accounting for the evolution of the contact angle probability density function with time seems to be essential to capture the persistence of in-cloud ice production without having to, for example, increase the free tropospheric aerosol concentration. Although limited to only three cases and despite important limitations of the parameterization (e.g., the present version only considers dust and black carbon as potential ice nuclei), the results suggest that modeling the time evolution of the ice nuclei population ability to form ice is required to
Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.
2014-12-01
The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dipankar, A.; Stevens, B. B.; Zängl, G.; Pondkule, M.; Brdar, S.
2014-12-01
The effect of clouds on large scale dynamics is represented in climate models through parameterization of various processes, of which the parameterization of shallow and deep convection are particularly uncertain. The atmospheric boundary layer, which controls the coupling to the surface, and which defines the scale of shallow convection, is typically 1 km in depth. Thus, simulations on a O(100 m) grid largely obviate the need for such parameterizations. By crossing this threshold of O(100m) grid resolution one can begin thinking of large-eddy simulation (LES), wherein the sub-grid scale parameterization have a sounder theoretical foundation. Substantial initiatives have been taken internationally to approach this threshold. For example, Miura et al., 2007 and Mirakawa et al., 2014 approach this threshold by doing global simulations, with (gradually) decreasing grid resolution, to understand the effect of cloud-resolving scales on the general circulation. Our strategy, on the other hand, is to take a big leap forward by fixing the resolution at O(100 m), and gradually increasing the domain size. We believe that breaking this threshold would greatly help in improving the parameterization schemes and reducing the uncertainty in climate predictions. To take this forward, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has initiated a project on HD(CP)2 that aims for a limited area LES at resolution O(100 m) using the new unified modeling system ICON (Zängl et al., 2014). In the talk, results from the HD(CP)2 evaluation simulation will be shown that targets high resolution simulation over a small domain around Jülich, Germany. This site is chosen because high resolution HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment took place in this region from 1.04.2013 to 31.05.2013, in order to critically evaluate the model. Nesting capabilities of ICON is used to gradually increase the resolution from the outermost domain, which is forced from the COSMO-DE data, to the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Klein, S. A.
2014-12-01
It is very important and challenging for global climate models to represent a correct diurnal cycle of shallow cumuli over land. In this study, we build a new composite case for fair-weather shallow cumulus over land based on observational statistics. We aim to answer questions: 1) how well the can large-eddy simulation (LES) reproduce the observed cloud metrics? And 2) how well can the composite case represent the shallow cumuli regime compared with one "golden" day case study? These LES results, and the associated forcing and observations, will further serve as a benchmark test bed for the performance of the single column model version of large-scale models on simulating continental shallow cumulus. First, a case library of continental shallow cumulus clouds was established based on longterm observations at Southern Great Plains ARM site (Zhang and Klein 2010, 2013), which includes days of forced- and active-shallow cumulus clouds, and days of shallow convection that transits to deep convective precipitating events in late afternoon. Observational statistics was developed for each regime on cloud macrophysics, meteorological atmospheric and surface conditions. Particularly for active shallow cumulus clouds, in-cloud vertical velocity retrieval based on long-term radar measurements is used to derive cloud updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Secondly, LES of the composite case is performed for active shallow cumulus clouds and it shows significantly less cloud fraction than observations. Sensitivity tests are then performed on grid resolution, domain size, microphysics scheme, surface fluxes and so on. LES is also done for each individual shallow cumulus day to investigate the possible non-linear effect due to the composite case. Thirdly, LES is used to study the effect of large-scale environmental controls, such as relative humidity and atmospheric stability, on the vertical extent of clouds, the transition between forced and active shallow cumulus and the
Large-eddy simulation of axially-rotating, turbulent pipe and particle-laden swirling jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Nicolas D.
The flows of fully-developed turbulent rotating pipe and particle-laden swirling jet emitted from the pipe into open quiescent atmosphere are investigated numerically using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). Simulations are performed at various rotation rates and Reynolds numbers, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, of 5.3x103, 12x103, and 24x103, respectively. Time-averaged LES results are compared with experimental and simulation data from previous studies. Pipe flow results confirm observations in previous studies, such as the deformation of the turbulent mean axial velocity profile towards the laminar Poiseuille-profile, with increased rotation. The Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor shows a redistribution due to pipe rotation. The axial component near the wall is suppressed, whereas the tangential component is amplified, as rotation is increased. The anisotropy invariant map also shows a movement away from the one-component limit in the viscous sublayer, with increased rotation. Exit conditions for the pipe flow simulation are utilized as inlet conditions for the jet flow simulation. Jet flow without swirl and at a swirl rate of S=0.5 is investigated. Swirl is observed to change the characteristics of the jet flow field, leading to an increase in jet spread and velocity decay and a corresponding decrease in the jet potential core. Lagrangian tracking with one way coupling is used to analyze particle dispersion in the jet flow. Three particle diameter sizes are investigated: 10, 100, and 500μm, which correspond to Stokes numbers of 0.06, 6, and 150, respectively. Particles are injected with an initial velocity set equal to the instantaneous fluid phase flow velocities at the jet inlet. The results show that, in the absence of swirl, particle dispersion is inversely proportional to particle size. With the addition of swirl, particle evolution is much more complicated. Largely unaffected by turbulent structures, the largest particles maintain their initial radial
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Perry L.; Shyam, Vikram
2012-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed of a high blowing ratio (M = 1.7) film cooling flow with density ratio of unity. Mean results are compared with experimental data to show the degree of fidelity achieved in the simulation. While the trends in the LES prediction are a noticeable improvement over Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) predictions, there is still a lack a spreading on the underside of the lifted jet. This is likely due to the inability of the LES to capture the full range of influential eddies on the underside of the jet due to their smaller structure. The unsteady structures in the turbulent coolant jet are also explored and related to turbulent mixing characteristics
Large Eddy Simulation/Probability Density Function Modeling of a Turbulent CH4/H2/N2 Jet Flame
Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen B.
2011-01-01
In this work, we develop the large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) simulation capability for turbulent combustion and apply it to a turbulent CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} jet flame (DLR Flame A). The PDF code is verified to be second-order accurate with respect to the time-step size and the grid size in a manufactured one-dimensional test case. Three grids (64×64×16,192×192×48,320×320×80)(64×64×16,192×192×48,320×320×80) are used in the simulations of DLR Flame A to examine the effect of the grid resolution. The numerical solutions of the resolved mixture fraction, the mixture fraction squared, and the density are duplicated in the LES code and the PDF code to explore the numerical consistency between them. A single laminar flamelet profile is used to reduce the computational cost of treating the chemical reactions of the particles. The sensitivity of the LES results to the time-step size is explored. Both first and second-order time splitting schemes are used for integrating the stochastic differential equations for the particles, and these are compared in the jet flame simulations. The numerical results are found to be sensitive to the grid resolution, and the 192×192×48192×192×48 grid is adequate to capture the main flow fields of interest for this study. The numerical consistency between LES and PDF is confirmed by the small difference between their numerical predictions. Overall good agreement between the LES/PDF predictions and the experimental data is observed for the resolved flow fields and the composition fields, including for the mass fractions of the minor species and NO. The LES results are found to be insensitive to the time-step size for this particular flame. The first-order splitting scheme performs as well as the second-order splitting scheme in predicting the resolved mean and rms mixture fraction and the density for this flame.
Meldi, M.; Sagaut, P.; Salvetti, M. V.
2012-03-15
A stochastic approach based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is used to quantify the error in large-eddy simulation (LES) of a spatially evolving mixing layer flow and its sensitivity to different simulation parameters, viz., the grid stretching in the streamwise and lateral directions and the subgrid-scale (SGS) Smagorinsky model constant (C{sub S}). The error is evaluated with respect to the results of a highly resolved LES and for different quantities of interest, namely, the mean streamwise velocity, the momentum thickness, and the shear stress. A typical feature of the considered spatially evolving flow is the progressive transition from a laminar regime, highly dependent on the inlet conditions, to a fully developed turbulent one. Therefore, the computational domain is divided in two different zones (inlet dependent and fully turbulent) and the gPC error analysis is carried out for these two zones separately. An optimization of the parameters is also carried out for both these zones. For all the considered quantities, the results point out that the error is mainly governed by the value of the C{sub S} constant. At the end of the inlet-dependent zone, a strong coupling between the normal stretching ratio and the C{sub S} value is observed. The error sensitivity to the parameter values is significantly larger in the inlet-dependent upstream region; however, low-error values can be obtained in this region for all the considered physical quantities by an ad hoc tuning of the parameters. Conversely, in the turbulent regime the error is globally lower and less sensitive to the parameter variations, but it is more difficult to find a set of parameter values leading to optimal results for all the analyzed physical quantities. A similar analysis is also carried out for the dynamic Smagorinsky model, by varying the grid stretching ratios. Comparing the databases generated with the different subgrid-scale models, it is possible to observe that the error cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboissertier, Anthony; Okong'O, Nora; Bellan, Josette
2005-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is conducted of a three-dimensional temporal mixing layer whose lower stream is initially laden with liquid drops which may evaporate during the simulation. The gas-phase equations are written in an Eulerian frame for two perfect gas species (carrier gas and vapour emanating from the drops), while the liquid-phase equations are written in a Lagrangian frame. The effect of drop evaporation on the gas phase is considered through mass, species, momentum and energy source terms. The drop evolution is modelled using physical drops, or using computational drops to represent the physical drops. Simulations are performed using various LES models previously assessed on a database obtained from direct numerical simulations (DNS). These LES models are for: (i) the subgrid-scale (SGS) fluxes and (ii) the filtered source terms (FSTs) based on computational drops. The LES, which are compared to filtered-and-coarsened (FC) DNS results at the coarser LES grid, are conducted with 64 times fewer grid points than the DNS, and up to 64 times fewer computational than physical drops. It is found that both constant-coefficient and dynamic Smagorinsky SGS-flux models, though numerically stable, are overly dissipative and damp generated small-resolved-scale (SRS) turbulent structures. Although the global growth and mixing predictions of LES using Smagorinsky models are in good agreement with the FC-DNS, the spatial distributions of the drops differ significantly. In contrast, the constant-coefficient scale-similarity model and the dynamic gradient model perform well in predicting most flow features, with the latter model having the advantage of not requiring a priori calibration of the model coefficient. The ability of the dynamic models to determine the model coefficient during LES is found to be essential since the constant-coefficient gradient model, although more accurate than the Smagorinsky model, is not consistently numerically stable despite using DNS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wai-Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-05-01
Large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed to simulate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flow through idealized urban canopies represented by uniform arrays of cubes in order to better understand atmospheric flow over rural-to-urban surface transitions. The LES framework is first validated with wind-tunnel experimental data. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data are found for the vertical and spanwise profiles of the mean velocities and velocity standard deviations at different streamwise locations. Next, the model is used to simulate ABL flows over surface transitions from a flat homogeneous terrain to aligned and staggered arrays of cubes with height . For both configurations, five different frontal area densities , equal to 0.028, 0.063, 0.111, 0.174 and 0.250, are considered. Within the arrays, the flow is found to adjust quickly and shows similar structure to the wake of the cubes after the second row of cubes. An internal boundary layer is identified above the cube arrays and found to have a similar depth in all different cases. At a downstream location where the flow immediately above the cube array is already adjusted to the surface, the spatially-averaged velocity is found to have a logarithmic profile in the vertical. The values of the displacement height are found to be quite insensitive to the canopy layout (aligned vs. staggered) and increase roughly from to as increases from 0.028 to 0.25. Relatively larger values of the aerodynamic roughness length are obtained for the staggered arrays, compared with the aligned cases, and a maximum value of is found at for both configurations. By explicitly calculating the drag exerted by the cubes on the flow and the drag coefficients of the cubes using our LES results, and comparing the results with existing theoretical expressions, we show that the larger values of for the staggered arrays are related to the relatively larger drag coefficients of the cubes for that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Hong-Bing; Shaw, Roger H.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw
Two-point space-time correlations ofvelocities, a passive scalar and static pressure arecalculated using the resolvable flow fields computedby large-eddy simulation (LES) of neutrally stratifiedflow within and above a sparse forest. Zero-time-lagspatial auto-correlation contours in thestreamwise-vertical cross-section for longitudinal andlateral velocities and for a scalar are tilted fromthe vertical in the downstream direction, as istypical in near-wall sheared flow. On the other hand,auto-correlations of vertical velocity and of staticpressure are vertically coherent. Zero-time-lagspatial auto-correlations in the spanwise-verticalcross-section show no distinct tilt, and those forboth longitudinal and vertical velocities demonstratedistinct negative side lobes in the middle forest andabove, while longitudinal velocity in the subcrowntrunk space is laterally in-phase. Static pressureperturbations appear to be spatially coherent in thespanwise direction at all heights, especially insidethe forest. Near the forest floor, longitudinalvelocity is found to be in-phase with static pressureperturbation and to be closely linked to theinstantaneous streamwise pressure gradient, supportinga previous proposal that longitudinal velocity in thisregion is dominantly modulated by the pressurepatterns associated with the coherent sweep/ejectionevents. Near treetop height, a lack of linkage betweenthe pressure gradient and the local time derivative ofthe longitudinal velocity supports the hypothesis ofadvection dominating turbulent flow.The major phase characteristics of the two-pointcorrelations essentially remained the same from fourLES runs with different domain size and/or gridresolution. A larger LES domain yielded betteragreement with field observations in a real forest onboth the magnitudes of the correlations and thesingle-point integral time scales. A finer gridresolution in the LES led to a faster rate of decreaseof correlation with increasing separation in space ortime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghonima, M. S.; Heus, T.; Norris, J. R.; Kleissl, J. P.
2015-12-01
Summertime marine boundary layer stratocumulus (Sc) clouds have a strong impact on ecology and infrastructure over the coast of California. Modeling the lifetime of such clouds in global climate models (GCM) or numerical weather prediction models (NWP) is difficult and significant errors are typically observed. For instance, stratocumulus clouds over the coast of southern California in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were found to dissipate, on average, 1.9 hours earlier than observed via satellite. In order to determine the factors controlling the Sc lifetime, we have employed large eddy simulations (LES) and a mixed layer model (MLM). Enhancements to previous MLMs include a temperature dependent radiation scheme, a land surface model, and a novel entrainment parameterization scheme for stratocumulus clouds over land in which the entrainment velocity is derived as a function of the surface buoyancy flux and the buoyancy flux integrated over the cloud layer. The advantage of using the MLM is that different mechanisms and feedbacks controlling stratocumulus cloud thickness can be examined rapidly through sensitivity studies. We find that during the night cloud lifetime is modulated by longwave cooling of the boundary layer and entrainment flux warming and drying. During the day, surface shortwave radiative heating drives surface flux therefore increasing the turbulence within the boundary layer and increasing entrainment flux. For wet surface conditions, the increase in latent heat flux moistens the boundary layer and offsets the increase in entrainment flux warming and drying of the boundary layer and clouds persist throughout the day. For dry surface conditions, the combination of increased surface sensible heat flux warming the boundary layer and increased entrainment flux act to dissipate the cloud within a couple of hours after sunrise. For both cases, the sea breeze advects cool ocean air that acts to thicken and prolong the cloud lifetime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey
2010-01-01
A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.
Singer, M; Mirocha, J; Lundquist, J; Cleve, J
2010-03-03
Flow dynamics in large wind projects are influenced by the turbines located within. The turbine wakes, regions characterized by lower wind speeds and higher levels of turbulence than the surrounding free stream flow, can extend several rotor diameters downstream, and may meander and widen with increasing distance from the turbine. Turbine wakes can also reduce the power generated by downstream turbines and accelerate fatigue and damage to turbine components. An improved understanding of wake formation and transport within wind parks is essential for maximizing power output and increasing turbine lifespan. Moreover, the influence of wakes from large wind projects on neighboring wind farms, agricultural activities, and local climate are all areas of concern that can likewise be addressed by wake modeling. This work describes the formulation and application of an actuator disk model for studying flow dynamics of both individual turbines and arrays of turbines within wind projects. The actuator disk model is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open-source atmospheric simulation code applicable to a wide range of scales, from mesoscale to large-eddy simulation. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the actuator disk model within WRF to a moderately high-resolution large-eddy simulation study of a small array of turbines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parlange, M. B.; Giometto, M. G.; Meneveau, C. V.; Fang, J.; Christen, A.
2013-12-01
Local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) is highly dependent on the actual configuration of obstacles relative to mean wind and stability. For many applications, building-resolving information is neither required nor feasible, and simply beyond the numerical capabilities of operational systems. Common urban canopy parameterizations (UCP) used in dispersion and mesoscale forecasting models hence rely on a horizontally averaged approach, where the UCL is represented as a 1D column, often for simplified geometries such as infinite street canyons. We use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the airflow over and within a realistic urban geometry in the city of Basel, Switzerland to determine all terms of the TKE budget in order to guide and validate current approaches used in UCPs. A series of high-resolution LES runs of the fully developed flow are performed in order to characterize the TKE budget terms in a horizontally averaged frame of view for various directions of the approaching flow under neutral conditions. Equations are solved on a regular domain with a horizontal resolution of 2 m. A Lagrangian scale-dependent LES model is adopted to parametrize the subgrid-scale stresses and buildings are taken into account adopting an immersed boundary approach with the geometry taken from a highly accurate digital building model. The modeled (periodic) domain is centered on the location of a 32 m tall tower, where measurements of turbulence were performed, during the BUBBLE program in 2001/02 (Rotach et al., Theor. Appl. Clim., 82, 231-261, 2005). Selected terms of the TKE budget were inferred from six levels of ultrasonic anemometer measurements operated over nearly a full year between ground level and two times the mean building height. This contribution answers the questions: (1) How well do TKE budget terms calculated by the LES at the exact tower location match the single point measurements on the tower under comparable conditions? (2) How
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ercolani, Giulia; Gorlé, Catherine; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco
2014-05-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a computational fluid dynamic technique that has been extensively used to reproduce turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). Most LES applications to ABL modelling deal with idealized regimes, particularly suited for the verification of simulation results and consisting in homogeneous surface properties, prescribed fluxes at the surface and periodic lateral boundary conditions. In recent years interest has grown around the possibility of using LES as a tool to study ABL turbulence in more realistic situations, i.e. avoiding periodic lateral boundary conditions and coupling LES with a land surface model that dynamically computes heat and moisture fluxes at the surface. One appealing alternative to periodic lateral boundary conditions seems to be grid nesting, that should make LES a suitable tool to reproduce real meteorological flows over complex terrain at the microscale. In this framework Numerical Weather Prediction Limited Area Models (NWP-LAMs) appear to be particularly suitable to perform LES of the ABL in realistic conditions because of both i) their capability of nesting, ii) the presence of one or more land surface model coupled with the equations of motion. The use of NWP-LAMs at the microscale is increasing, but the fact that NWP-LAMs are built to work at the mesoscale has to be taken into account. Consequently the evaluation of their performances at the microscale in idealized regimes should be the first step for their use in more complex simulations. The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) is one of the most popular and used NWP-LAMs, and its performances in LES of a ABL in both real and idealized conditions have been evaluated in several studies. This work aims at assessing the impact of mesh resolution on the performances of RAMS-LES in the two opposite idealized regimes of neutral and convective atmospheric boundary layer, for which the turbulent statistics and flow structures are well known. For
A high-resolution large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow within and above urban-like canopies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maché, M.; Calmet, I.; Sini, J.-F.
2009-09-01
The urban microclimate is a result of the interactions between regional climatology, morphology of urban fabric and thermo-radiative and hydric properties of the materials constituting the urban surfaces. Modern urban planning tries to compact cities for avoiding spreading of the town area in order to reduce the need of transports. The climatic effects of this politic are not well known yet. This work is the first step of a study whose main purpose is to propose an urban planning politic which considers the urban heat island within the context of the climate change. Therefore it aims to understand the effects of building configuration on the momentum, heat and humidity turbulent transfers. Urban structures are quite heterogeneous and complex. To analyse the interactions between urban canopies and the atmosphere, the resolution has to be high enough that mean flow characteristics between the buildings can be observed as well as turbulent structures that develop above roof level. For that purpose, the Large-Eddy Simulation atmospheric model ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) is employed. The subgrid scales are modelled by means of the resolution of an equation for the subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy. The version used is this study is based on the developments of Dupont & Brunet (2008) who introduced a drag force approach to simulate the influence of the vegetal covers on the low atmosphere. The application of this model on urban canopies requires adjusting the drag coefficient (Cd) in function of the frontal density (Af) and of the building arrangement. Its dependency on configuration (staggered or aligned arrays) and on frontal density is investigated. In order to put in light the main characteristics of the flow field and to validate the model in urban configurations, the turbulent flow above arrays of obstacles is investigated here for different arrangements and packing densities. The grid spacing is set to a few tens of meters in both horizontal
Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.
2013-10-01
Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2016-06-01
We report the space-time characteristics of the wall-pressure fluctuations and wall shear-stress fluctuations from wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ=2000 . Two standard zonal wall models (equilibrium stress model and nonequilibrium model based on unsteady RANS) are employed, and it is shown that they yield similar results in predicting these quantities. The wall-pressure and wall shear-stress fields from WMLES are analyzed in terms of their r.m.s. fluctuations, spectra, two-point correlations, and convection velocities. It is demonstrated that the resolution requirement for predicting the wall-pressure fluctuations is more stringent than that for predicting the velocity. At least δ /Δ x >20 and δ /Δ z >30 are required to marginally resolve the integral length scales of the pressure-producing eddies near the wall. Otherwise, the pressure field is potentially aliased. Spurious high wave number modes dominate in the streamwise direction, and they contaminate the pressure spectra leading to significant overprediction of the second-order pressure statistics. When these conditions are met, the pressure statistics and spectra at low wave number or low frequency agree well with the DNS and experimental data. On the contrary, the wall shear-stress fluctuations, modeled entirely through the RANS-based wall models, are largely underpredicted and relatively insensitive to the grid resolution. The short-time, small-scale near-wall eddies, which are neither resolved nor modeled adequately in the wall models, seem to be important for accurate prediction of the wall shear-stress fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baya Toda, Hubert; Cabrit, Olivier; Truffin, Karine; Bruneaux, Gilles; Nicoud, Franck
2014-07-01
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in complex geometries and industrial applications like piston engines, gas turbines, or aircraft engines requires the use of advanced subgrid-scale (SGS) models able to take into account the main flow features and the turbulence anisotropy. Keeping this goal in mind, this paper reports a LES-dedicated experiment of a pulsatile hot-jet impinging a flat-plate in the presence of a cold turbulent cross-flow. Unlike commonly used academic test cases, this configuration involves different flow features encountered in complex configurations: shear/rotating regions, stagnation point, wall-turbulence, and the propagation of a vortex ring along the wall. This experiment was also designed with the aim to use quantitative and nonintrusive optical diagnostics such as Particle Image Velocimetry, and to easily perform a LES involving a relatively simple geometry and well-controlled boundary conditions. Hence, two eddy-viscosity-based SGS models are investigated: the dynamic Smagorinsky model [M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. Cabot, "A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model," Phys. Fluids A 3(7), 1760-1765 (1991)] and the σ-model [F. Nicoud, H. B. Toda, O. Cabrit, S. Bose, and J. Lee, "Using singular values to build a subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 23(8), 085106 (2011)]. Both models give similar results during the first phase of the experiment. However, it was found that the dynamic Smagorinsky model could not accurately predict the vortex-ring propagation, while the σ-model provides a better agreement with the experimental measurements. Setting aside the implementation of the dynamic procedure (implemented here in its simplest form, i.e., without averaging over homogeneous directions and with clipping of negative values to ensure numerical stability), it is suggested that the mitigated predictions of the dynamic Smagorinsky model are due to the dynamic constant, which strongly depends on the mesh resolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Rich, R. W.
1989-01-01
A high torque capacity eddy current damper used as a rate limiting device for a large solar array deployment mechanism is discussed. The eddy current damper eliminates the problems associated with the outgassing or leaking of damping fluids. It also provides performance advantages such as damping torque rates, which are truly linear with respect to input speed, continuous 360 degree operation in both directions of rotation, wide operating temperature range, and the capability of convenient adjustment of damping rates by the user without disassembly or special tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udina, Mireia; Sun, Jielun; Kosović, Branko; Soler, Maria Rosa
2016-11-01
Following Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69(1):338-351, 2012), vertical variations of turbulent mixing in stably stratified and neutral environments as functions of wind speed are investigated using the large-eddy simulation capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The simulations with a surface cooling rate for the stable boundary layer (SBL) and a range of geostrophic winds for both stable and neutral boundary layers are compared with observations from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99). To avoid the uncertainty of the subgrid scheme, the investigation focuses on the vertical domain when the ratio between the subgrid and the resolved turbulence is small. The results qualitatively capture the observed dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed under neutral conditions; however, its vertical variation is affected by the damping layer used in absorbing undesirable numerical waves at the top of the domain as a result of relatively large neutral turbulent eddies. The simulated SBL fails to capture the observed temperature variance with wind speed and the observed transition from the SBL to the near-neutral atmosphere with increasing wind speed, although the vertical temperature profile of the simulated SBL resembles the observed profile. The study suggests that molecular thermal conduction responsible for the thermal coupling between the surface and atmosphere cannot be parameterized through the Monin-Obukhov bulk relation for turbulent heat transfer by applying the surface radiation temperature, as is common practice when modelling air-surface interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouwersloot, H. G.; Moene, A. F.; Attema, J. J.; de Arellano, J. Vilà-Guerau
2016-06-01
The representation of a neutral atmospheric flow over roughness elements simulating a vegetation canopy is compared between two large-eddy simulation models, wind-tunnel data and recently updated empirical flux-gradient relationships. Special attention is devoted to the dynamics in the roughness sublayer above the canopy layer, where turbulence is most intense. By demonstrating that the flow properties are consistent across these different approaches, confidence in the individual independent representations is bolstered. Systematic sensitivity analyses with the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation model show that the transition in the one-sided plant-area density from the canopy layer to unobstructed air potentially alters the flow in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Anomalously induced fluctuations can be fully suppressed by spreading the transition over four steps. Finer vertical resolutions only serve to reduce the magnitude of these fluctuations, but do not prevent them. To capture the general dynamics of the flow, a resolution of 10 % of the canopy height is found to suffice, while a finer resolution still improves the representation of the turbulent kinetic energy. Finally, quadrant analyses indicate that momentum transport is dominated by the mean velocity components within each quadrant. Consequently, a mass-flux approach can be applied to represent the momentum flux.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udina, Mireia; Sun, Jielun; Kosović, Branko; Soler, Maria Rosa
2016-07-01
Following Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69(1):338-351, 2012), vertical variations of turbulent mixing in stably stratified and neutral environments as functions of wind speed are investigated using the large-eddy simulation capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The simulations with a surface cooling rate for the stable boundary layer (SBL) and a range of geostrophic winds for both stable and neutral boundary layers are compared with observations from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99). To avoid the uncertainty of the subgrid scheme, the investigation focuses on the vertical domain when the ratio between the subgrid and the resolved turbulence is small. The results qualitatively capture the observed dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed under neutral conditions; however, its vertical variation is affected by the damping layer used in absorbing undesirable numerical waves at the top of the domain as a result of relatively large neutral turbulent eddies. The simulated SBL fails to capture the observed temperature variance with wind speed and the observed transition from the SBL to the near-neutral atmosphere with increasing wind speed, although the vertical temperature profile of the simulated SBL resembles the observed profile. The study suggests that molecular thermal conduction responsible for the thermal coupling between the surface and atmosphere cannot be parameterized through the Monin-Obukhov bulk relation for turbulent heat transfer by applying the surface radiation temperature, as is common practice when modelling air-surface interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffie, Andreas Frank
Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan; Gao, Cen
2016-01-01
Roll vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important to oil operation and oil spill transport. This study investigates the impact of storm-induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on the roll vortices generated by the convective and dynamic instability in the ABL of Hurricane Isaac (2012) and the roll induced transport using hindcasting large eddy simulations (LESs) configured from the multiply nested Weather Research & Forecasting model. Two experiments are performed: one forced by the Unified Wave INterface - Coupled Model and the other with the SST replaced by the NCEP FNL analysis that does not include the storm-induced SST cooling. The simulations show that the roll vortices are the prevalent eddy circulations in the ABL of Isaac. The storm-induced SST cooling causes the ABL stability falls in a range that satisfies the empirical criterion of roll generation by dynamic instability, whereas the ABL stability without considering the storm-induced SST cooling meets the criterion of roll generation by convective instability. The ABL roll is skewed and the increase of convective instability enhances the skewness. Large convective instability leads to large vertical transport of heat and moisture; whereas the dominant dynamic instability results in large turbulent kinetic energy but relatively weak heat and moisture transport. This study suggests that failure to consider roll vortices or incorrect initiation of dynamic and convective instability of rolls in simulations may substantially affect the transport of momentum, energy, and pollutants in the ABL and the dispersion/advection of oil spill fume at the ocean surface.