Measurement of Separate Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; McEnery, J. E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Ackemann, M.
2012-01-01
We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting Earth's shadow, which, is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 and 200 Ge V. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 Ge V range. The three new spectral points between 100 and 200 GeV are consistent with a fraction that is continuing to rise with energy.
Measurement of Separate Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Brogland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; McEnery, J. E.
2011-01-01
We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting the Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to the Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 GeV and 200 GeV, We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 GeV range and determine for the first time that it continues to rise between 100 and 200 GeV,
Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Llena Garde, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sbarra, C; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S
2012-01-01
We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 and 200 GeV. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 GeV range. The three new spectral points between 100 and 200 GeV are consistent with a fraction that is continuing to rise with energy.
Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.
2009-05-15
The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. Here we discuss several interpretations of the Fermi results based either on a single large scale Galactic CRE component or by invoking additional electron-positron primary sources, e.g. nearby pulsars or particle Dark Matter annihilation. We show that while the reported Fermi-LAT data alone can be interpreted in terms of a single component scenario, when combined with other complementary experimental results, specifically the CRE spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. and especially the positron fraction reported by PAMELA between 1 and 100 GeV, that class of models fails to provide a consistent interpretation. Rather, we find that several combinations of parameters, involving both the pulsar and dark matter scenarios, allow a consistent description of those results. We also briefly discuss the possibility of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter interpretations by looking for a possible anisotropy in the CRE flux.
Alternative positron-target design for electron-positron colliders
Donahue, R.J. ); Nelson, W.R. )
1991-04-01
Current electron-positron linear colliders are limited in luminosity by the number of positrons which can be generated from targets presently used. This paper examines the possibility of using an alternate wire-target geometry for the production of positrons via an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade shower. 39 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-05-01
Obliquely propagating positron-acoustic solitary waves (PASWs) in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma (containing nonthermal hot positrons and electrons, inertial cold positrons, and immobile positive ions) are precisely investigated by deriving the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. It is found that the characteristics of the PASWs are significantly modified by the effects of external magnetic field, obliqueness, nonthermality of hot positrons and electrons, temperature ratio of hot positrons and electrons, and respective number densities of hot positrons and electrons. The findings of our results can be employed in understanding the localized electrostatic structures and the characteristics of PASWs in various space and laboratory plasmas.
Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase) The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.
Electron and positron induced processes. POSMOL 2013
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Campeanu, Radu; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Ingólfsson, Oddur; Mason, Nigel; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime
2014-09-01
POSMOL 2013, the international meeting on electron and positron induced processes comprising the XVII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XVIII International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Kanazawa Bunka Hall, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, from 19-21 July 2013. The XVII Workshop encompassed all aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and topics related to these, whereas the XVIII Symposium encompassed all aspects of electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent research on the study of electron swarms was also highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, P. K.; Dasgupta, B.; Sakanaka, P. H.
2000-05-01
A set of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for magnetized, nonrelativistic electron-positron plasmas is derived by employing a two fluid model that is supplemented by Ampère's and Faraday's laws. The nonlinear equations show how the baroclinic driver (the Biermann battery) generates the electron positron flows and how these flows give rise to plasma currents which act as a source for the magnetic fields. The newly derived nonlinear equations form a basis for investigating waves, instabilities, as well as coherent nonlinear structures, in addition to studying exact equilibria of electron-positron jets in a magnetoplasma.
Positron creation and annihilation in tokamak plasmas with runaway electrons.
Helander, P; Ward, D J
2003-04-01
It is shown that electron-positron pair production is expected to occur in post-disruption plasmas in large tokamaks, including JET and JT-60U, where up to about 10(14) positrons may be created in collisions between multi-MeV runaway electrons and thermal particles. If the loop voltage is large enough, they are accelerated and form a beam of long-lived runaway positrons in the direction opposite to that of the electrons; if the loop voltage is smaller, the positrons have a lifetime of a few hundred ms, in which they are slowed down to energies comparable to that of the cool ( less, similar 10 eV) background plasma before being annihilated.
Electromagnetic solitary pulses in a magnetized electron-positron plasma
Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.
2011-03-15
A theory for large amplitude compressional electromagnetic solitary pulses in a magnetized electron-positron (e-p) plasma is presented. The pulses, which propagate perpendicular to the external magnetic field, are associated with the compression of the plasma density and the wave magnetic field. Here the solitary wave magnetic field pressure provides the restoring force, while the inertia comes from the equal mass electrons and positrons. The solitary pulses are formed due to a balance between the compressional wave dispersion arising from the curl of the inertial forces in Faraday's law and the nonlinearities associated with the divergence of the electron and positron fluxes, the nonlinear Lorentz forces, the advection of the e-p fluids, and the nonlinear plasma current densities. The compressional solitary pulses can exist in a well-defined speed range above the Alfven speed. They can be associated with localized electromagnetic field excitations in magnetized laboratory and space plasmas composed of electrons and positrons.
Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-02-15
Nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) Gardner solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated. The modified Gardner equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, superthermal parameter of hot positrons and electrons, relative temperature ratios, and relative number density ratios on the PA Gardner SWs are studied by using the numerical simulations. The implications of our results in various space and laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.
Electron capture from solids by positrons
Howell, R.
1987-08-01
The capture of electrons in solids is modified from that in gasses by several factors. The most important is the collective interaction of the electrons which results in a density of electron states in the solid in wide bands. Also the high density of electrons in many solids gives a high frequency of interaction as compared to gasses, and quickly destroys any electron-positron states in the metal matrix. Consequently, most positrons implanted in a metal will rapidly thermalize, and unless they reach the surface will annihilate with an electron in an uncorrelated state. Positronium formation from positrons scattered at a metal surface is analogous to ion neutralization however, most of the positronium comes from positrons passing through the surface from the bulk. The dominant motivation for studying positronium formation has been the hope that the distribution of the electrons at the surface would be obtained through the annihilation properties of positrons trapped at the surface or through analysis of the energy and angular distributions of the positronium emitted into the vacuum. These distributions have been measured and are included in this paper. 17 refs.
Positron source position sensing detector and electronics
Burnham, Charles A.; Bradshaw, Jr., John F.; Kaufman, David E.; Chesler, David A.; Brownell, Gordon L.
1985-01-01
A positron source, position sensing device, particularly with medical applications, in which positron induced gamma radiation is detected using a ring of stacked, individual scintillation crystals, a plurality of photodetectors, separated from the scintillation crystals by a light guide, and high resolution position interpolation electronics. Preferably the scintillation crystals are several times more numerous than the photodetectors with each crystal being responsible for a single scintillation event from a received gamma ray. The light guide will disperse the light emitted from gamma ray absorption over several photodetectors. Processing electronics for the output of the photodetectors resolves the location of the scintillation event to a fraction of the dimension of each photodetector. Because each positron absorption results in two 180.degree. oppositely traveling gamma rays, the detection of scintillation in pairs permits location of the positron source in a manner useful for diagnostic purposes. The processing electronics simultaneously responds to the outputs of the photodetectors to locate the scintillations to the source crystal. While it is preferable that the scintillation crystal include a plurality of stacked crystal elements, the resolving power of the processing electronics is also applicable to continuous crystal scintillators.
Positron generation using laser-wakefield electron sources
Williams, G. J. Park, J.; Pollock, B. B.; Albert, F.; Chen, Hui
2015-09-15
Positron generation, using wakefield-accelerated electrons driven into a converter target, was investigated experimentally and through Monte Carlo simulations. Using experimentally measured initial electron distributions from a 60 fs laser system, modeling shows that a collimated wakefield electron beam of moderate energy (50–200 MeV) produces a large number of positrons (∼10{sup 7}), which are emitted from the rear of a mm-scale, high-Z target with divergence angles between 50 and 150 mrad. The large perpendicular momentum of the positrons was found to be dominated by contributions from multiple small angle Coulomb scattering. Positrons were not observed above background noise for a range of targets where simulations indicate a 5–30× increase in the beam charge was necessary to exceed threshold detection. These results provide new understanding to the fundamental limitations of creating narrow-divergence, high-density positron beams from laser-wakefield platforms for use in future laboratory pair plasma experiments.
Advances in positron and electron scattering*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Krishnakumar, E.; Petrović, Zoran; Sullivan, James; Tanuma, Hajime
2016-10-01
The topical issue on Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering" combines contributions from POSMOL 2015 together with others devoted to celebrate the unprecedented scientific careers of our loyal colleagues and trusted friends Steve Buckman (Australian National University, Australia) and Michael Allan (University of Fribourg, Switzerland) on the occasion of their retirements. POSMOL 2015, the XVIII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XIX International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, from 17-20 July 2015. The international workshop and symposium allowed to achieve a very privileged forum of sharing and developing our scientific expertise on current aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and related topics, as well as electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent developments in the study of swarms are also fully addressed.
Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-06-15
A theoretical investigation is made on the positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma containing immobile positive ions, cold mobile positrons, and hot positrons and electrons following the kappa (κ) distribution. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is taken into account, and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PA SHWs. It is also observed that the fundamental properties of the PA SHWs are significantly modified by the effects of different parameters associated with superthermal (κ distributed) hot positrons and electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uddin, M. J.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-06-01
A theoretical investigation is made on the positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma containing immobile positive ions, cold mobile positrons, and hot positrons and electrons following the kappa (κ) distribution. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is taken into account, and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PA SHWs. It is also observed that the fundamental properties of the PA SHWs are significantly modified by the effects of different parameters associated with superthermal (κ distributed) hot positrons and electrons.
Positron Production Using a Laser-Wakefield Electron Source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, G. Jackson; Albert, Felicie; Chen, Hui; Park, Jaebum; Pollock, Bradley
2014-10-01
Positron generation using wakefield-accelerated electrons driven into a second mm-scale target was investigated using the Callisto Laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This technique is in contrast to previous experiments that use direct laser-target interactions to create positron-electron pairs, and has the potential to make laser-produced positron sources widely available to smaller scale laboratories. Monte Carlo simulations show a near-collimated (<10 mrad) wakefield electron beam produces a positron beam with a significantly larger divergence angle (>100 mrad) due to multiple small angle coulomb scattering, resulting in an emitted pair density of 1013 particles/cm3. At the Callisto Laser, we did not observe a signal consistent with positrons using two different charged particle spectrometers. This could be due to a high noise environment and a large detection threshold. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 13-LW-076 and 12-ERD-062.
Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.
2011-11-15
Electrostatic ion acoustic solitary waves are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistic ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. The increase in the relativistic streaming factor and positron and electron kappa parameters cause the soliton amplitude to thrive. However, the soliton amplitude diminishes as the positron concentration is increased in the system. Our results are general and may be helpful, in understanding nonlinear phenomena in the presence of kappa distibuted electrons, positrons, and relativistically streaming ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali Shan, S.; El-Tantawy, S. A.
2016-07-01
In this work, we examine the nonlinear propagation of planar ion-acoustic freak waves in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of cold positive ions and superthermal electrons subjected to cold positrons beam. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) for the evolution of electrostatic potential wave. We determine the domain of the plasma parameters where the rogue waves exist. The effect of the positron beam on the modulational instability of the ion-acoustic rogue waves is discussed. It is found that the region of the modulational stability is enhanced with the increase of positron beam speed and positron population. Second as positrons beam increases the nonlinearities of the plasma system, large amplitude ion acoustic rogue waves are pointed out. The present results will be helpful in providing a good fit between the theoretical analysis and real applications in future laboratory plasma experiments.
Transparency of an instantaneously created electron-positron-photon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bégué, D.; Vereshchagin, G. V.
2014-03-01
The problem of the expansion of a relativistic plasma generated when a large amount of energy is released in a small volume has been considered by many authors. We use the analytical solution of Bisnovatyi-Kogan and Murzina for the spherically symmetric relativistic expansion. The light curves and the spectra from transparency of an electron-positron-photon plasma are obtained. We compare our results with the work of Goodman.
Electronic and positronic guiding-center drift ions.
Dubin, Daniel H E
2004-05-14
A novel type of guiding-center drift ion is described. These ions occur only in strong magnetic fields. They consist of a neutral atom to which either an electron or positron is weakly bound, at a sufficiently large radius that it may be described by ExB drift dynamics. Such ions may occur naturally in astrophysical plasmas and may have been formed in recent antihydrogen experiments, where their presence would provide proof that deeply bound H atoms are being created.
ELECTRON-POSITRON FLOWS AROUND MAGNETARS
Beloborodov, Andrei M.
2013-11-10
The twisted magnetospheres of magnetars must sustain a persistent flow of electron-positron plasma. The flow dynamics is controlled by the radiation field around the hot neutron star. The problem of plasma motion in the self-consistent radiation field is solved using the method of virtual beams. The plasma and radiation exchange momentum via resonant scattering and self-organize into the 'radiatively locked' outflow with a well-defined, decreasing Lorentz factor. There is an extended zone around the magnetar where the plasma flow is ultra-relativistic; its Lorentz factor is self-regulated so that it can marginally scatter thermal photons. The flow becomes slow and opaque in an outer equatorial zone, where the decelerated plasma accumulates and annihilates; this region serves as a reflector for the thermal photons emitted by the neutron star. The e {sup ±} flow carries electric current, which is sustained by a moderate induced electric field. The electric field maintains a separation between the electron and positron velocities, against the will of the radiation field. The two-stream instability is then inevitable, and the induced turbulence can generate low-frequency emission. In particular, radio emission may escape around the magnetic dipole axis of the star. Most of the flow energy is converted to hard X-ray emission, which is examined in an accompanying paper.
The PEP electron-positron ring
Rees, J.R.
1988-01-01
The first stage of the positron-electron-proton (PEP) colliding-beam system which has been under joint study by a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory-Stanford Linear Accelerator Center team for the past two years, will be the electron-positron storage ring. The physics justification for the e/sup +/e/sup minus/ ring is summarized briefly and the proposed facility is described. The ring will have six arcs having gross radii of about 220 m and six interaction regions located at the centers of straight sections about 130 m long. The longitudinal distance left free for experimental apparatus at the intersection regions will be 20 m. The range of operating beam energies will be from 5 GeV to 15 GeV. The design luminosity at 15 GeV will be 10/sup 32/cm/sup minus 2/s/sup minus 1/, and the luminosity will vary approximately as the square of the beam energy. Alternative methods under consideration for adjusting the beam cross-section are discussed. The designs of the storage ring subsystems and of the conventional facilities including the experimental halls at the interaction regions are described.
Optimization of positrons generation based on laser wakefield electron acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuchi; Han, Dan; Zhang, Tiankui; Dong, Kegong; Zhu, Bin; Yan, Yonghong; Gu, Yuqiu
2016-08-01
Laser based positron represents a new particle source with short pulse duration and high charge density. Positron production based on laser wakefield electron acceleration (LWFA) has been investigated theoretically in this paper. Analytical expressions for positron spectra and yield have been obtained through a combination of LWFA and cascade shower theories. The maximum positron yield and corresponding converter thickness have been optimized as a function of driven laser power. Under the optimal condition, high energy (>100 MeV ) positron yield up to 5 ×1011 can be produced by high power femtosecond lasers at ELI-NP. The percentage of positrons shows that a quasineutral electron-positron jet can be generated by setting the converter thickness greater than 5 radiation lengths.
Jaroslawski, S.; Jeffs, M.; Matson, R.; Milborrow, R.; White, D. )
1990-10-01
The vertex front-end electronics is described. It comprises fast analog-to-digital conversion circuits and a fast programmable track trigger processor. The function of the electronics is to examine, within one LEP beam crossing (22 {mu}s), data generated in the detector for the evidence of charged particle tracks. Measurements of ionization drift times are based on a gated 93-MHz oscillator synchronized to a precision crystal clock and give points in space. The axial positions of these points along the detector are found by analyzing the difference in time of arrivals of signals at the ends of the detector ({ital z} by timing). Particle tracks are found by 36 track finders operating in parallel and are matched by semicuston coincidence chips. The track information is used in the first stage of data reduction in Opal (the first-level trigger).
Multi-pair states in electron-positron pair creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wöllert, Anton; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.
2016-09-01
Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron-positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron-positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron-positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron-positron pairs.
Quantum resonances in reflection of relativistic electrons and positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eykhorn, Yu. L.; Korotchenko, K. B.; Pivovarov, Yu. L.; Takabayashi, Y.
2015-07-01
Calculations based on the use of realistic potential of the system of crystallographic planes confirm earlier results on existence of resonances in reflection of relativistic electrons and positrons by the crystal surface, if the crystallographic planes are parallel to the surface.The physical reason of predicted phenomena, similar to the band structure of transverse energy levels, is connected with the Bloch form of the wave functions of electrons (positrons) near the crystallographic planes, which appears both in the case of planar channeling of relativistic electrons (positrons) and in reflection by a crystal surface. Calculations show that positions of maxima in reflection of relativistic electrons and positrons by crystal surface specifically depend on the angle of incidence with respect to the crystal surface and relativistic factor of electrons/positrons. These maxima form the Darwin tables similar to that in ultra-cold neutron diffraction.
Propagation of electron and positron beams in long, dense plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muggli, Patric; Blue, Brent; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz-Joseph; Hogan, Mark; Hunag, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Katsouleas, Tom; Lu, Wei; Mori, Warren; O'Connell, Caollionn; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter; Zhou, Miaomiao
2008-04-01
Electron beams with density larger than the plasma density can propagate through plasmas without significant emittance growth. The electron beam expels the plasma electrons from the bunch volume and propagate in a pure, uniform ion column. In contrast, positron beams attract plasma electrons that flow through the positron bunch. As a result the plasma focusing force is nonlinear, a charge halo forms around the bunch, and the bunch emittance grows. After some distance into the plasma, the bunch emittance reaches an approximately constant value, and the beam and the plasma focusing force reach a steady state. Experimental results obtained with electron and positron bunches, as well as numerical simulation results will be presented.
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma with trapped electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alinejad, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.
2006-01-01
A theoretical investigation has been made for ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. A more realistic situation in which plasma consists of a negatively charged ion fluid, free positrons, and trapped as well as free electrons is considered. The properties of stationary structures are studied by the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude limit, and by pseudopotential approach, which is valid for large amplitude. With an appropriate modified form of the electron number density, two new equations for the ion dynamics have been found. When deviations from isothermality are finite, the modified Korteweg-deVries equation has been found, and for the case that deviations from isothermality are small, calculations lead to a generalized Korteweg-deVries equation. It is shown from both weakly and highly nonlinear analysis that the presence of the positrons may allow solitary waves to exist. It is found that the effect of the positron density changes the maximum value of the amplitude and M (Mach number) for which solitary waves can exist. The present theory is applicable to analyze arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves associated with positrons which may occur in space plasma.
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma with trapped electrons
Alinejad, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.
2006-01-15
A theoretical investigation has been made for ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. A more realistic situation in which plasma consists of a negatively charged ion fluid, free positrons, and trapped as well as free electrons is considered. The properties of stationary structures are studied by the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude limit, and by pseudopotential approach, which is valid for large amplitude. With an appropriate modified form of the electron number density, two new equations for the ion dynamics have been found. When deviations from isothermality are finite, the modified Korteweg-deVries equation has been found, and for the case that deviations from isothermality are small, calculations lead to a generalized Korteweg-deVries equation. It is shown from both weakly and highly nonlinear analysis that the presence of the positrons may allow solitary waves to exist. It is found that the effect of the positron density changes the maximum value of the amplitude and M (Mach number) for which solitary waves can exist. The present theory is applicable to analyze arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves associated with positrons which may occur in space plasma.
POsitron Electron Magnet Spectrometer (POEMS) for the Eos Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evenson, Paul; Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. G.; Swordy, Simon; Streitmatter, Robert; Barbier, Louis; Ormes, Jonathan; Ramaty, Reuven; Reames, Donald; Salamon, Michael
1990-01-01
The scientific objectives of the POsitron Electron Magnet Spectrometer (POEMS) experiment are briefly reviewed. These include determining the origin of primary positrons and studying particle confinement in the Galaxy, solar modulation, solar flares, the geospace environment, and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The design of the POEMS instrument is summarized.
Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, T. S.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Parikh, S. P.; Wan, Y. J.; Zhou, S.; Dababneh, M. S.
1990-01-01
Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV.
Extracting the Size of the Cosmic Electron-Positron Anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auchettl, Katie; Balazs, C.
2011-09-01
Over the last few decades, numerous observations have hinted at an excess of high energy positrons in our locality. The most recent of these experiments has been the positron fraction measured by the PAMELA satellite and the electron plus positron spectrum as measured by the Fermi-LAT satellite. Since the release of these measurements, there have been a plethora of papers where authors invoke new physics ranging from, modification of the cosmic ray propagation, supernova remnants and dark matter annihilation. Using a Bayesian likelihood analysis, we isolate the anomalous contribution of the cosmic electron-positron flux. A significant tension was found between the electron positron related data and non-electron-positron cosmic ray fluxes. Using 219 recent cosmic ray datum, we extracted the preferred values of the selected cosmic ray propagation parameters from the non-electron-positron related measurements. Based on these parameter values we calculated background predictions with uncertainties for PAMELA and Fermi-LAT. We found a deviation between the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT data and the predicted background even when uncertainties, including systematics, were taken into account. Interpreting this as a hint of new physics, we subtracted the background from the data extracting the size, shape and uncertainty of the anomalous contribution in a model independent fashion. We briefly compared the extracted signal to some theoretical results predicting such an anomaly.
Study of electron-positron interactions
Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.
1990-09-15
For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model.
The Calibration of the PEPPo Polarimeter for Electrons and Positrons
Adeyemi, Adeleke Hakeem; Voutier, Eric J-.M.
2013-06-01
The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) experiment at Jefferson Laboratory investigated the polarization transfer from longitudinally polarized electrons to longitudinally polarized positrons, with the aim of developing this technology for a low energy (~MeV) polarized positron source. Polarization of the positrons was measured by means of a Compton transmission polarimeter where incoming positrons transfer their polarization into circularly polarized photons that were subsequently analyzed by a thick polarized iron target. The measurement of the transmitted photon flux with respect to the orientation of the target polarization (+-) or the helicity (+-) of the incoming leptons provided the measurement of their polarization. Similar measurements with a known electron beam were also performed for calibration purposes. This presentation will describe the apparatus and calibrations performed at the injector at the Jefferson Laboratory to measure positron polarization in the momentum range 3.2-6.2 MeV/c, specifically to quantify the positron analyzing power from electron experimental data measured over a comparable momentum range.
Progress toward positron-electron pair plasma experiments
Stenson, E. V.; Stanja, J.; Hergenhahn, U.; Saitoh, H.; Niemann, H.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Marx, G. H.; Schweikhard, L.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.; Hugenschmidt, C.
2015-06-29
Electron-positron plasmas have been of theoretical interest for decades, due to the unique plasma physics that arises from all charged particles having precisely identical mass. It is only recently, though, that developments in non-neutral plasma physics (both in linear and toroidal geometries) and in the flux of sources for cold positrons have brought the goal of conducting electron-positron pair plasma experiments within reach. The APEX/PAX collaboration is working on a number of projects in parallel toward that goal; this paper provides an overview of recent, current, and upcoming activities.
Dressed solitons in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roy, Kaushik; Mondal, Ganesh; Muniandy, S. V.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.
2009-12-01
Nonlinear propagation of quantum ion acoustic waves in a dense quantum plasma whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions is investigated using a quantum hydrodynamic model. The Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived using reductive perturbation technique. The higher order inhomogeneous differential equation is obtained for the dressed soliton. The dynamical equation for dressed soliton is solved using the renormalization method. The conditions for the validity of the higher order correction are described. The effects of quantum parameter, positron concentration, electron to positron Fermi temperature ratio, and soliton velocity on the amplitude and width of the dressed soliton are studied.
Electron positron pair production at RHIC and LHC
Cem Gueclue, M.
2008-11-11
The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider present data on electron-positron pair production accompanied by nuclear breakup at small impact parameters where the simultaneous excitation of the two ions, mainly the giant dipole resonance GDR, can occur. We calculate the electron-positron pair production cross section relevant for the STAR experimental setup, and compare our results with the other calculations. We have also predictions for the LHC energies.
Neutrino annihilation of an electron-positron pair
Samsonenko, N.V.; Lal, K.C.
1987-01-01
In this study the authors carry out the analysis of the differential cross sections of the electron-positron pair annihilation process by simultaneously taking into account the spin effects, the interference of the charged and neutral currents, and also the possible nonzero neutrino rest mass. The differential cross sections are calculated in the COM system to first order in the weak interaction coupling constant with arbitrary electron and positron spin orientations and arbitrary neutrino and antineutrino polarizations.
Three-wave coupling in electron-positron-ion plasmas
Tinakiche, N.; Annou, R.; Tripathi, V. K.
2012-07-15
The three-wave coupling processes in electron-positron-ion plasmas are investigated. The non-linear dispersion relation is derived along with the non-linear growth rate in both resonant and non resonant processes. It is shown that the inclusion of positron affects the dielectric properties of the plasma as well as the nonlinear growth rates of parametric processes. As one increases the positron density to electron density ratio from 0 to 1, maintaining quasi neutrality of the plasma, the growth rates of stimulated Raman, Brillouin, and Compton scattering processes in an isothermal plasma tend to zero due to the ponderomotive forces acting on electrons and positrons due the pump and scattered waves being equal.
PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons
Adeyemi, Adeleke H.
2015-09-01
Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.
Electron- and positron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS
L.B. Weinstein
2009-08-01
There is a significant disagreement between measurements of the proton electric form factor, G{sup p}{sub E}, using Rosenbluth separations and polarization transfer. This disagreement, if not explained, could pose a fundamental challenge to our understanding of electron scattering or proton structure. Two-photon exchange (TPE) processes, although not fully calculable, are the most likely explanation of this disagreement. We will definitively test this assertion by comparing the electron-proton and positron-proton elastic scattering cross section in the Jefferson Lab CLAS. We will make a mixed identical electron and positron tertiary beam by passing a 5.5 GeV primary electron beam through a radiator to make a photon beam and then passing the photon beam through a converter to make electron-positron pairs. Measuring the elastic cross sections simultaneously using identical lepton beams should significantly reduce systematic uncertainties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawanaka, Norita
2011-02-01
We investigate the observed spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from astrophysical sources, especially pulsars, and the physical processes for making the spectrum spiky or smooth via continuous and multiple cosmic-ray injections. We find that (1) the average spectrum with the local birth rate of pulsars (including the off-axis ones) is relatively smooth, consistent with the PAMELA data, but requires an energetic source for the ATIC/PPB-BETS peak. Such a source should not occur repeatedly at the same rate. (2) A continuous injection produces a broad peak and a high energy tail above the peak, which can constrain the source duration (≲ 105 years with the current data). We also discuss the H.E.S.S. data in the TeV range which constrain the total energy of young sources.
Interpretation of AMS-02 electrons and positrons data
Mauro, M. Di; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Lineros, R. E-mail: donato@to.infn.it E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es
2014-04-01
We perform a combined analysis of the recent AMS-02 data on electrons, positrons, electrons plus positrons and positron fraction, in a self-consistent framework where we realize a theoretical modeling of all the astrophysical components that can contribute to the observed fluxes in the whole energy range. The primary electron contribution is modeled through the sum of an average flux from distant sources and the fluxes from the local supernova remnants in the Green catalog. The secondary electron and positron fluxes originate from interactions on the interstellar medium of primary cosmic rays, for which we derive a novel determination by using AMS-02 proton and helium data. Primary positrons and electrons from pulsar wind nebulae in the ATNF catalog are included and studied in terms of their most significant (while loosely known) properties and under different assumptions (average contribution from the whole catalog, single dominant pulsar, a few dominant pulsars). We obtain a remarkable agreement between our various modeling and the AMS-02 data for all types of analysis, demonstrating that the whole AMS-02 leptonic data admit a self-consistent interpretation in terms of astrophysical contributions.
On the robustness of the localized spatiotemporal structures in electron-positron-ion plasmas
Mahajan, S.M.; Berezhiani, V.I. |; Miklaszewski, R.
1998-04-01
It is shown that, in an electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions, large-amplitude localized spatiotemporal structures (light bullets) can be readily generated and sustained. These light bullets are found to be exceptionally robust: they can emerge from a large variety of initial field distributions and are remarkably stable.
Relativistic electron-positron beams in gamma-ray bursters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, I. A.; Epstein, Richard I.
1993-01-01
Beams of relativistic electrons and/or positrons leaving the surface of a strongly magnetized neutron star may give rise to gamma-ray bursts. The beams could be accelerated by strong, magnetically aligned electric fields that are produced by oscillations of the stellar surface. Here we investigate the particle acceleration in these electric fields, the resulting electron-positron pair cascade, and the gamma-ray emission. We find that beams of electrons and positrons moving parallel to the magnetic field are generated, with a reported differential energy distribution. These beams produce the bulk of the gamma-ray burst radiation below about 1 MeV by the resonant Compton scattering of thermal photons emitted from the stellar surface. The escaping synchrotron radiation from the cascade dominates the radiation spectrum above about 1 MeV.
Saha, Asit E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com; Pal, Nikhil; Chatterjee, Prasanta E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com
2014-10-15
The dynamic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons has been investigated in the framework of perturbed and non-perturbed Kadomtsev-Petviashili (KP) equations. Applying the reductive perturbation technique, we have derived the KP equation in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma with kappa distributed electrons and positrons. Bifurcations of ion acoustic traveling waves of the KP equation are presented. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the existence of the solitary wave solutions and the periodic traveling wave solutions has been established. Two exact solutions of these waves have been derived depending on the system parameters. Then, using the Hirota's direct method, we have obtained two-soliton and three-soliton solutions of the KP equation. The effect of the spectral index κ on propagations of the two-soliton and the three-soliton has been shown. Considering an external periodic perturbation, we have presented the quasi periodic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas.
Solitary wave propagation in quantum electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, A. P.; Ghosh, N. K.; Bhowmik, C.
2008-10-01
Existence of large amplitude stationary solitary wave structures in an unmagnetized electron-positron (e-p) plasma is studied using a quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model that includes the quantum force (tunnelling) associated with the Bohm potential and the Fermi-dirac pressure law. It is found that in a quasi-neutral pair (e-p) plasma, where the dispersion is only due to the the quantum tunnelling effects, the large amplitude stationary solitary structure exists only when the normalized Mach speed,M <√2. Such solitary structures do not exist in absence of the Bohm potential term in an unmagnetized quasineutral pair (e-p) plasma. The system is shown to support only rarefactive stationary solitary waves. For such waves the amplitude, being independent of the quantum parameter H (the ratio of the electron plasmon to electron Fermi energy), decreases with the Mach number M, whereas the width increases with both M and H. The present theory is applicable to analyze the formation of localized coherent solitary structures at quantum scales in dense astrophysical objects as well as in intense laser fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Shuai; Gu, Bing-Chuan; Han, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Jian-Dang; Ye, Bang-Jiao
2015-10-01
We make a gradient correction to a new local density approximation form of positron-electron correlation. The positron lifetimes and affinities are then probed by using these two approximation forms based on three electronic-structure calculation methods, including the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) plus local orbitals approach, the atomic superposition (ATSUP) approach, and the projector augmented wave (PAW) approach. The differences between calculated lifetimes using the FLAPW and ATSUP methods are clearly interpreted in the view of positron and electron transfers. We further find that a well-implemented PAW method can give near-perfect agreement on both the positron lifetimes and affinities with the FLAPW method, and the competitiveness of the ATSUP method against the FLAPW/PAW method is reduced within the best calculations. By comparing with the experimental data, the new introduced gradient corrected correlation form is proved to be competitive for positron lifetime and affinity calculations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175171 and 11105139).
Simulation of tail distributions in electron-positron circular colliders
Irwin, J.
1992-02-01
In addition to the Gaussian shaped core region, particle bunches in electron-positron circular colliders have a rarefied halo region of importance in determining beam lifetimes and backgrounds in particle detectors. A method is described which allows simulation of halo particle distributions.
Search for bound-state electron+positron pair decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosch, F.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Lane, G. J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Reed, M. W.; Sanjari, M. S.; Stöhlker, Th.; Torilov, S. Yu.; Tu, X. L.; Walke, P. M.
2016-09-01
The heavy ion storage rings coupled to in-flight radioactive-ion beam facilities, namely the ability to produce and store for extended periods of time radioactive nuclides in high atomic charge states, for the searchof yet unobserved decay mode - bound-state electron-positron pair decay.
Tuning laser produced electron-positron jets for lab-astrophysics experiment
Chen, Hui; Fiuza, F.; Hazi, A.; Kemp, A.; Link, A.; Pollock, B.; Marley, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M.; Shepherd, R.; Tommasini, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Williams, G. J.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P-Y.; Fiksel, G.; Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Stoeckel, C.; Nakai, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.; Hosoda, H.; Kojima, S.; Miyanga, N.; Morita, T.; Moritaka, T.; Nagai, T.; Namimoto, T.; Nishimura, H.; Ozaki, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Zhang, Z.
2015-02-23
This paper reviews the experiments on the laser produced electron-positron jets using large laser facilities worldwide. The goal of the experiments was to optimize the parameter of the pair jets for their potential applications in laboratory-astrophysical experiment. Results on tuning the pair jet’s energy, number, emittance and magnetic collimation will be presented.
Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies
Abbott, D.; Adderley, P.; Adeyemi, A.; Aguilera, P.; Ali, M.; Areti, H.; Baylac, M.; Benesch, J.; Bosson, G.; Cade, B.; et al
2016-05-27
The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19~MeV/c, limited only by the electron beam polarization. We report that this technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community.
Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, D.; Adderley, P.; Adeyemi, A.; Aguilera, P.; Ali, M.; Areti, H.; Baylac, M.; Benesch, J.; Bosson, G.; Cade, B.; Camsonne, A.; Cardman, L. S.; Clark, J.; Cole, P.; Covert, S.; Cuevas, C.; Dadoun, O.; Dale, D.; Dong, H.; Dumas, J.; Fanchini, E.; Forest, T.; Forman, E.; Freyberger, A.; Froidefond, E.; Golge, S.; Grames, J.; Guèye, P.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrell, P.; Hoskins, J.; Hyde, C.; Josey, B.; Kazimi, R.; Kim, Y.; Machie, D.; Mahoney, K.; Mammei, R.; Marton, M.; McCarter, J.; McCaughan, M.; McHugh, M.; McNulty, D.; Mesick, K. E.; Michaelides, T.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Moser, D.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Muraz, J.-F.; Opper, A.; Poelker, M.; Réal, J.-S.; Richardson, L.; Setiniyaz, S.; Stutzman, M.; Suleiman, R.; Tennant, C.; Tsai, C.; Turner, D.; Ungaro, M.; Variola, A.; Voutier, E.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; PEPPo Collaboration
2016-05-01
The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19 MeV /c , limited only by the electron beam polarization. This technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community.
Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies.
Abbott, D; Adderley, P; Adeyemi, A; Aguilera, P; Ali, M; Areti, H; Baylac, M; Benesch, J; Bosson, G; Cade, B; Camsonne, A; Cardman, L S; Clark, J; Cole, P; Covert, S; Cuevas, C; Dadoun, O; Dale, D; Dong, H; Dumas, J; Fanchini, E; Forest, T; Forman, E; Freyberger, A; Froidefond, E; Golge, S; Grames, J; Guèye, P; Hansknecht, J; Harrell, P; Hoskins, J; Hyde, C; Josey, B; Kazimi, R; Kim, Y; Machie, D; Mahoney, K; Mammei, R; Marton, M; McCarter, J; McCaughan, M; McHugh, M; McNulty, D; Mesick, K E; Michaelides, T; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Moser, D; Muñoz Camacho, C; Muraz, J-F; Opper, A; Poelker, M; Réal, J-S; Richardson, L; Setiniyaz, S; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tennant, C; Tsai, C; Turner, D; Ungaro, M; Variola, A; Voutier, E; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y
2016-05-27
The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19 MeV/c, limited only by the electron beam polarization. This technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community. PMID:27284661
Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies.
Abbott, D; Adderley, P; Adeyemi, A; Aguilera, P; Ali, M; Areti, H; Baylac, M; Benesch, J; Bosson, G; Cade, B; Camsonne, A; Cardman, L S; Clark, J; Cole, P; Covert, S; Cuevas, C; Dadoun, O; Dale, D; Dong, H; Dumas, J; Fanchini, E; Forest, T; Forman, E; Freyberger, A; Froidefond, E; Golge, S; Grames, J; Guèye, P; Hansknecht, J; Harrell, P; Hoskins, J; Hyde, C; Josey, B; Kazimi, R; Kim, Y; Machie, D; Mahoney, K; Mammei, R; Marton, M; McCarter, J; McCaughan, M; McHugh, M; McNulty, D; Mesick, K E; Michaelides, T; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Moser, D; Muñoz Camacho, C; Muraz, J-F; Opper, A; Poelker, M; Réal, J-S; Richardson, L; Setiniyaz, S; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tennant, C; Tsai, C; Turner, D; Ungaro, M; Variola, A; Voutier, E; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y
2016-05-27
The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19 MeV/c, limited only by the electron beam polarization. This technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community.
Projectile Charge Effects in Differential Ionization by Positrons and Electrons
DuBois, R. D.; Gavin, J.; Lucio, O. G. de
2009-03-10
Differential data for single and double ionization of argon by positron and electron impact are presented and compared. For single ionization, coincidences between scattered projectiles, ejected electrons and recoil ions are measured as functions of the projectile scattering angle and energy loss. Differences associated with the sign of the projectile charge are indicated with regard to the scattering angle, the energy loss, and the relative intensities for binary and recoil events. Ejected electron-recoil ion coincidences are also measured as a function of the observation angle along the beam direction. From these, double to single ionization ratios are determined and compared. Differences in the magnitudes and angular dependences for positron and electron impact are attributed to the interference between the TS-1 and TS-2 double ionization mechanisms.
Monte Carlo Code System for Electron (Positron) Dose Kernel Calculations.
CHIBANI, OMAR
1999-05-12
Version 00 KERNEL performs dose kernel calculations for an electron (positron) isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium. First, the auxiliary code PRELIM is used to prepare cross section data for the considered medium. Then the KERNEL code simulates the transport of electrons and bremsstrahlung photons through the medium until all particles reach their cutoff energies. The deposited energy is scored in concentric spherical shells at a radial distance ranging from zero to twice the source particle range.
Pumping Electron-Positron Pairs from a Well Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin
2016-04-01
In the presence of very deep well potential, electrons will spontaneously occupy the empty embedded bound states and electron-positron pairs are created by means of a non-perturbative tunneling process. In this work, by slowly oscillating the width or depth, the population transfer channels are opened and closed periodically. We find and clearly show that by the non-synchronous ejections of particles, the saturation of pair number in a static super-critical well can be broken, and electrons and positrons can be pumped inexhaustibly from vacuum with a constant production rate. In the adiabatic limit, final pair number after a single cycle has quantized values as a function of the upper boundary of the oscillating, and the critical upper boundaries indicate the diving points of the bound states.
Secondary positrons and electrons in the cosmic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Badhwar, G. D.; Stephens, S. A.
1978-01-01
An improved calculation of the secondary production and equilibrium spectrum of positrons and electrons in the Galaxy in the energy range from 1 MeV to 100 GeV has been performed. This has been done by obtaining an analytic representation of the accelerator data which describes accurately the invariant cross-section of pions, kaons, and their antiparticles from threshold energy to about 1500 GeV. This calculation takes into account the correct angular distribution of electrons in the decay of muons and the effect of nuclei-nuclei collisions. The contributions of beta-decay positrons and knock-on electrons have been included. A comparison of the present calculations with earlier calculations and experiment is presented.
Pumping Electron-Positron Pairs from a Well Potential
Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-bin
2016-01-01
In the presence of very deep well potential, electrons will spontaneously occupy the empty embedded bound states and electron-positron pairs are created by means of a non-perturbative tunneling process. In this work, by slowly oscillating the width or depth, the population transfer channels are opened and closed periodically. We find and clearly show that by the non-synchronous ejections of particles, the saturation of pair number in a static super-critical well can be broken, and electrons and positrons can be pumped inexhaustibly from vacuum with a constant production rate. In the adiabatic limit, final pair number after a single cycle has quantized values as a function of the upper boundary of the oscillating, and the critical upper boundaries indicate the diving points of the bound states. PMID:27125998
Gyrokinetic stability theory of electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helander, P.; Connor, J. W.
2016-06-01
> The linear gyrokinetic stability properties of magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are investigated in the parameter regime most likely to be relevant for the first laboratory experiments involving such plasmas, where the density is small enough that collisions can be ignored and the Debye length substantially exceeds the gyroradius. Although the plasma beta is very small, electromagnetic effects are retained, but magnetic compressibility can be neglected. The work of a previous publication (Helander, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 113, 2014a, 135003) is thus extended to include electromagnetic instabilities, which are of importance in closed-field-line configurations, where such instabilities can occur at arbitrarily low pressure. It is found that gyrokinetic instabilities are completely absent if the magnetic field is homogeneous: any instability must involve magnetic curvature or shear. Furthermore, in dipole magnetic fields, the stability threshold for interchange modes with wavelengths exceeding the Debye radius coincides with that in ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Above this threshold, the quasilinear particle flux is directed inward if the temperature gradient is sufficiently large, leading to spontaneous peaking of the density profile.
Bruno Touschek: From Betatrons to Electron-Positron Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardini, Carlo; Pancheri, Giulia; Pellegrini, Claudio
Bruno Touschek's life as a physicist spanned the period from World War II to the 1970s. He was a key figure in the developments of electron-positron colliders and storage rings, and made important contributions to theoretical high energy physics. Storage rings, initially developed for high energy physics, are being widely used in many countries as synchrotron radiation sources and are a tool for research in physics, chemistry, biology, environmental sciences and cultural heritage studies. We describe Touschek's life in Austria, where he was born, in Germany, where he participated in the construction of a betatron during WWII, and in Italy, where he proposed and led to completion the first electron-positron storage ring in 1960, in Frascati. We highlight how his central European culture influenced his lifestyle and work, and his main contributions to physics, such as the discovery of the Touschek effect and beam instabilities in the larger storage ring ADONE.
Bruno Touschek: From Betatrons to Electron-Positron Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardini, Carlo; Pancheri, Giulia; Pellegrini, Claudio
Bruno Touschek’s life as a physicist spanned the period from World War II to the 1970s. He was a key figure in the developments of electron-positron colliders and storage rings, and made important contributions to theoretical high energy physics. Storage rings, initially developed for high energy physics, are being widely used in many countries as synchrotron radiation sources and are a tool for research in physics, chemistry, biology, environmental sciences and cultural heritage studies. We describe Touschek’s life in Austria, where he was born, in Germany, where he participated in the construction of a betatron during WWII, and in Italy, where he proposed and led to completion the first electron-positron storage ring in 1960, in Frascati. We highlight how his central European culture influenced his lifestyle and work, and his main contributions to physics, such as the discovery of the Touschek effect and beam instabilities in the larger storage ring ADONE.
Collisionless Reconnection in an Electron-Positron Plasma
Bessho, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2005-12-09
Electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations of fast collisionless reconnection in a two-dimensional electron-positron plasma (without an equilibrium guide field) are presented. A generalized Ohm's law in which the Hall current cancels out exactly is given. It is suggested that the key to fast reconnection in this plasma is the localization caused by the off-diagonal components of the pressure tensors, which produce an effect analogous to a spatially localized resistivity.
Monte Carlo Code System for Electron (Positron) Dose Kernel Calculations.
1999-05-12
Version 00 KERNEL performs dose kernel calculations for an electron (positron) isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium. First, the auxiliary code PRELIM is used to prepare cross section data for the considered medium. Then the KERNEL code simulates the transport of electrons and bremsstrahlung photons through the medium until all particles reach their cutoff energies. The deposited energy is scored in concentric spherical shells at a radial distance ranging from zero to twicemore » the source particle range.« less
Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mushtaq, A.; Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr; Qamar, A.
2012-05-01
Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle θ, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.
Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas
Mushtaq, A.; Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr; Qamar, A.
2012-05-15
Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.
Threshold for Trapping Positrons in the Wake Driven by a Ultra-relativistic Electron Bunch
Wang, X.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Ischebeck, R.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.
2009-01-22
We have recently proposed a new concept for generating, injecting and accelerating positrons in a plasma using a double-pulse electron bunch. Monte Carlo simulations show that the number of the positrons produced in a foil target has an exponentially decay energy spectrum. The energy threshold for the trapping of these positrons in a ultra-relativistic electron wake is investigated numerically. For a typical 28.5 GeV electron drive bunch, the trapping threshold for the positrons is a few MeV, and therefore a majority of positrons generated in the foil target are focused and accelerated by the plasma wake.
Bound-free electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Senguel, M. Y.; Gueclue, M. C.; Fritzsche, S.
2009-10-15
The bound-free electron-positron pair production is considered for relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, cross sections are calculated for the pair production with the simultaneous capture of the electron into the 1s ground state of one of the ions and for energies that are relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collider and the large hadron colliders. In the framework of perturbation theory, we applied Monte Carlo integration techniques to compute the lowest-order Feynman diagrams amplitudes by using Darwin wave functions for the bound states of the electrons and Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions for the continuum states of the positrons. Calculations were performed especially for the collision of Au+Au at 100 GeV/nucleon and Pb+Pb at 3400 GeV/nucleon.
Acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam in the presence of quantum effects
Niknam, A. R.; Aki, H.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.
2013-09-15
Using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model and obtaining the dispersion relation of the Cherenkov and cyclotron waves, the acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam is investigated. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of positrons are compared together. It is shown that growth rate and, therefore, the acceleration of positrons can be increased in the presence of quantum effects.
Nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haque, Q.; Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.
2008-08-01
The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB)-type equation is obtained using the quantum hydrodynamic model in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion quantum magnetoplasma with neutral particles in the background. The KdV-type solitary waves, Burgers-type monotonic, and oscillatory shock like solutions are discussed in different limits. The quantum parameter is also dependent on the positron concentration in dense multicomponent plasmas. It is found that both solitary hump and dip are formed and their amplitude and width are dependent on percentage presence of positrons in electron-ion plasmas. The height of the monotonic shock is decreased with the increase of positron concentration and it is independent of the quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion magnetized quantum plasmas. However, the amplitude of the oscillatory shock is dependent on positron concentration and quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion plasmas.
Nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas
Haque, Q.; Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.
2008-08-15
The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB)-type equation is obtained using the quantum hydrodynamic model in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion quantum magnetoplasma with neutral particles in the background. The KdV-type solitary waves, Burgers-type monotonic, and oscillatory shock like solutions are discussed in different limits. The quantum parameter is also dependent on the positron concentration in dense multicomponent plasmas. It is found that both solitary hump and dip are formed and their amplitude and width are dependent on percentage presence of positrons in electron-ion plasmas. The height of the monotonic shock is decreased with the increase of positron concentration and it is independent of the quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion magnetized quantum plasmas. However, the amplitude of the oscillatory shock is dependent on positron concentration and quantum parameter in electron-positron-ion plasmas.
Large-dimension configuration-interaction calculations of positron binding to the group-II atoms
Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.
2006-03-15
The configuration-interaction (CI) method is applied to the calculation of the structures of a number of positron binding systems, including e{sup +}Be, e{sup +}Mg, e{sup +}Ca, and e{sup +}Sr. These calculations were carried out in orbital spaces containing about 200 electron and 200 positron orbitals up to l=12. Despite the very large dimensions, the binding energy and annihilation rate converge slowly with l, and the final values do contain an appreciable correction obtained by extrapolating the calculation to the l{yields}{infinity} limit. The binding energies were 0.00317 hartree for e{sup +}Be, 0.0170 hartree for e{sup +}Mg, 0.0189 hartree for e{sup +}Ca, and 0.0131 hartree for e{sup +}Sr.
{open_quotes}Heavy light bullets{close_quotes} in electron-positron plasma
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-03-01
The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of {open_quotes}heavy light bullets{close_quotes}; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching.
Optical distortions in electron/positron storage rings
Brown, K.L.; Donald, M.; Servranckx, R.
1983-01-01
We have studied the optical distortions in the PEP electron/positron storage ring for various optical configurations using the computer programs DIMAT, HARMON, PATRICIA, and TURTLE. The results are shown graphically by tracing several thousand trajectories from one interaction region to the next using TURTLE and by tracing a few selected rays several hundred turns using the programs DIMAT and PATRICIA. The results show an interesting correlation between the calculated optical cleanliness of a particular lattice configuration and the observed operating characteristics of the machine.
Low-energy scattering of electrons and positrons in liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrader, D. M.
1990-01-01
The scattering of low energy electrons and positrons is described for the liquid phase and compared and contrasted with that for the gas phase. Similarities as well as differences are noted. The loci of scattering sites, called spurs in the liquid phase, are considered in detail. In particular, their temporal and spatial evolution is considered from the point of view of scattering. Two emphases are made: one upon the stochastic calculation of the distribution of distances required for slowing down to thermal velocities, and the other upon the calculation of cross sections for energy loss by means of quantum mechanics.
On the electron-positron cascade in AGN central engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, Alex; Keenan, Brett; Medvedev, Mikhail
2016-03-01
Processes around spinning supermassive black holes (BH) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to determine how relativistic jets are launched and how the BH energy is extracted. The key ``ingredient'' is the origin of plasma in BH magnetospheres. In order to explore the process of the electron-positron plasma production, we developed a numerical code which models a one-dimensional (along a magnetic field line) dynamics of the cascade. Our simulations show that plasma production is controlled by the spectrum of the ambient photon field, the B-field strength, the BH spin and mass. Implications of our results to the Galactic Center and AGNs are discussed.
Relativistic wave-breaking limit of electrostatic waves in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, Mithun; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Sengupta, Sudip
2016-06-01
A one-dimensional nonlinear propagation of relativistically strong electrostatic waves in cold electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas has been analyzed. The motion of all the three species, namely, electron, positron, and ion has been treated to be relativistic. The maximum permissible electric field amplitude - so called "wave-breaking limit" of such an electrostatic wave before wave-breaking has been derived, showing its dependence on the relativistic Lorentz factor associated with the phase velocity of the plasma wave, on the electron/positron to ion mass ratio, and on the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron/positron density.
LOVO Electrons: The Special Electrons of Molecules in Positron Annihilation Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiaoguang; Wang, Lizhi; Yang, Chuanlu
2014-05-01
The electrons in the lowest occupied valence orbital (LOVO) of molecules have been found to dominate the gamma-ray spectra in the positron-electron annihilation process. The mechanism of this phenomenon is revealed in the present work for the first time. Theoretical quantitative analyses are applied to all noble gas atoms and molecules CH4, O2, C6H6, and C6H14. More than 70% of LOVO electrons and less than 30% of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) electrons distribute within the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) region of the momentum spectra averagely. This indicates that the LOVO electrons have at least 2 times of probabilities than the HOMO electrons within this area. The predicted positron annihilation spectra are then generally dominated by the innermost LOVO electrons instead of the outmost HOMO electrons under the plane-wave approximation.
Small Explorer (SMEX) POsitron Electron Magnet Spectrometer (POEMS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LHeureux, Jacques; Evenson, Paul A.; Aleman, R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
This report covers the activities of Louisiana State University (LSU) under subcontract 26053-EX between LSU and the Bartol Research Institute (Bartol), which began January 1, 1994. The purpose of this subcontract was for LSU to participate in and support Bartol in the work to define the SMEX (Small Explorer)/POEMS (Positron Electron Magnet Spectrometer) spaceflight mission under NASA Contract NAS5-38098 between NASA and Bartol. The conclusions of this study were that for a 1998 launch into a 600km altitude, 98 degrees, approximately sun synchronous orbit, (a) the total radiation dose would be typically a few k-rad per year, certainly less than 20 k-rad per year for the anticipated shielding and potential solar flare environment, (b) detector counting rates would be dominated by the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the horns of the Van Allen belts, (c) the galactic electron and positron 'signal' can be extracted from the albedo background and the trapped populations by detailed evaluation of the geomagnetic transmission function (cut-off) for each event, (d) POEMS could make significant contributions to magnetospheric science if sufficient downlink capacity were provided and, (e) a fully functioning, cost efficient, data processing and analysis facility design was developed for the mission. Overall, POEMS was found to be a relatively simple experiment to manifest, operate and analyze and had potential for fundamental new discoveries in cosmic, heliospheric, solar and magnetospheric science.
Relativistic, perpendicular shocks in electron-positron plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallant, Yves A.; Hoshino, Masahiro; Langdon, A. B.; Arons, Jonathan; Max, Claire E.
1992-01-01
One-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations are used to examine the mechanical structure and thermalization properties of collisionless relativistic shock waves in electron-positron plasmas. Shocks propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field direction are considered. It is shown that these shock waves exist, and that they are completely parameterized by the ratio of the upstream Poynting flux to the upstream kinetic energy flux. The way in which the Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions are modified by the presence of wave fluctuations is shown, and they are used to provide a macroscopic description of these collisionless shock flows. The results of a 2D simulation that demonstrates the generality of these results beyond the assumption of the 1D case are discussed. It is suggested that the thermalization mechanism is the formation of a synchrotron maser by the coherently reflected particles in the shock front. Because the downstream medium is thermalized, it is argued that perpendicular shocks in pure electron-positron plasmas are not candidates as nonthermal particle accelerators.
Low-Frequency Electrostatic Ion Surface Waves in Magnetized Electron-Positron Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Hee J.
The dispersion relations of a surface ion wave propagating on the interface between a warm electron-positron plasma and vacuum when a static magnetic field is directed either normal to the interface (x-wave) or parallel to the wave vector (z-wave) are solved analytically, and the influence of the magnetic field on the ion surface wave is investigated in detail using some numerical work. It is shown that ion surface waves do not exist if the magnetic field is large enough to make the ion gyrofrequency greater than the ion plasma frequency. The attenuation constant of x-waves is more attenuated than that of z-waves and the x-wave is more attenuated as the parameter normalized ion gyrofrequency ζ increases toward 1, but this tendency is reversed for the z-wave. The z-wave does not exist for k2λD2< (ζ/(1-ζ))(p + 1) while the x-wave exists over the whole range of k, where the fractional number p is the ratio between the unperturbed positron and the electron number density. Additionally, we compare the ion surface wave properties of electron-positron plasma with conventional electron-ion plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafat, A.; Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-08-01
Obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma (containing nonextensive hot electrons and positrons, inertial cold electrons, and immobile positive ions) are precisely investigated by deriving the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. It is found that the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, phase speed, etc.) of the EASWs are significantly modified by the effects of the external magnetic field, obliqueness of the system, nonextensivity of hot positrons and electrons, ratio of the hot electron temperature to the hot positron temperature, and ratio of the cold electron number density to the hot positron number density. The findings of our results can be employed in understanding the localized electrostatic structures and the characteristics of EASWs in various astrophysical plasmas.
Weibel instabilities in relativistic electron-positron plasmas
Yang, T.-Y.B.; Gallant, Y.; Arons, J.; Langdon, A.B.
1992-07-20
Wisps have long been observed in the Crab Nebula. Modern observations reveal a whole series of wisps to the northwest, and at least one much fainter wisp to the southeast. Recently, a conceptual model of the wisps in the Crab Nebula has been proposed based on the shock structure of a relativistic magnetosonic shock wave in a electron-positron-proton plasma. The ion overshoot, downstream compressional oscillations, and possibly the pair overshoot can be identified with the wisps. In this paper, we study the linear stability properties of the Weibel instability, which are collective electromagnetic oscillations driven by pitch-angle anisotropy of the distribution functions. This instability can cause pitch-angle scattering of the charged particles and the isotropization of the distribution functions.
The electronics for the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph
Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Geyer, A.B.; Uber, D.C.; Turko, B.T.; Budinger, T.F.
1986-02-01
The data acquisition system, designed for the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, is described. Coincidence timing resolution of less than five nanoseconds full width at half maximum and data rates in excess of one million events per second are achieved by using high-speed emitter coupled logic circuits, first-in first-out memory to derandomize data flow, and parallel architecture to increase throughput. These data rates allow the acquisition of adequate transmission data in a reasonable amount of time. Good timing resolution minimizes accidental coincidences and permits data rates greater than 100,000 image-forming events per second for high-speed dynamic emission tomography. Additional scatter and accidental rejection are accomplished for transmission data by using an orbiting source and a look-up table for valid events. Calibration of this complex electronic system is performed automatically under computer control.
Electronics for the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph
Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Geyer, A.B.; Uber, D.C.; Turko, B.T.; Budinger, T.F.
1985-10-01
The data acquisition system, designed for the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, is described. Coincidence timing resolution of less than five nanoseconds full width at half maximum and data rates in excess of one million events per second are achieved by using high-speed emitter coupled logic circuits, first-in first-out memory to derandomize data flow, and parallel architecture to increase throughput. These data rates allow the acquisition of adequate transmission data in a reasonable amount of time. Good timing resolution minimizes accidental coincidences and permits data rates greater than 100,000 image-forming events per second for high-speed dynamic emission tomography. Additional scatter and accidental rejection are accomplished for transmission data by using an orbiting source and a look-up table for valid events. Calibration of this complex electronic system is performed automatically under computer control. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Design Considerations for High Energy Electron -- Positron Storage Rings
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Richter, B.
1966-11-01
High energy electron-positron storage rings give a way of making a new attack on the most important problems of elementary particle physics. All of us who have worked in the storage ring field designing, building, or using storage rings know this. The importance of that part of storage ring work concerning tests of quantum electrodynamics and mu meson physics is also generally appreciated by the larger physics community. However, I do not think that most of the physicists working tin the elementary particle physics field realize the importance of the contribution that storage ring experiments can make to our understanding of the strongly interacting particles. I would therefore like to spend the next few minutes discussing the sort of things that one can do with storage rings in the strongly interacting particle field.
Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song
2014-02-15
An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.
Surface waves in magnetized quantum electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, A. P.; Ghosh, N. K.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-02-01
The dispersion properties of electrostatic surface waves propagating along the interface between a quantum magnetoplasma composed of electrons and positrons, and vacuum are studied by using a quantum magnetohydrodynamic plasma model. The general dispersion relation for arbitrary orientation of the magnetic field and the propagation vector is derived and analyzed in some special cases of interest (viz. when the magnetic field is directed parallel and perpendicular to the boundary surface). It is found that the quantum effects facilitate the propagation of electrostatic surface modes in a dense magnetoplasma. The effect of the external magnetic field is found to increase the frequency of the quantum surface wave. The existence of a singular wave on the boundary surface is also proved, and its properties are analyzed numerically. It is shown that the new wave characteristics appear due to the Rayleigh type of the wave.
Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation
Novoselov, A. A.
2010-10-15
Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.
Alinejad, H.; Mamun, A. A.
2011-11-15
A theoretical investigation is carried out to understand the basic features of linear and nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) waves subjected to an external magnetic field in an electron-positron-ion plasma which consists of a cold magnetized ion fluid, Boltzmann distributed positrons, and superthermal electrons. In the linear regime, the propagation of two possible modes (fast and slow) and their evolution are investigated. It is shown that the electron superthermality and the relative fraction of positrons cause both modes to propagate with smaller phase velocities. Also, two special cases of dispersion relation are found, which are related to the direction of the wave propagation. In the nonlinear regime, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the propagation of fast and slow IA waves is derived. The latter admits a solitary wave solution with only negative potential in the weak amplitude limit. It is found that the effects of external magnetic field (obliqueness), superthermal electrons, positron concentration, and temperature ratio significantly modify the basic features of solitary waves.
High-energy electron-positron photoproduction cross section close to the end of the spectrum
Di Piazza, A.; Milstein, A. I.
2010-10-15
We consider the cross section of electron-positron pair production by a high-energy photon in a strong Coulomb field close to the end of the electron or positron spectrum. We show that the cross section essentially differs from the result obtained in the Born approximation as well as from the result which takes into account the Coulomb corrections under the assumption that both electron and positron are ultrarelativistic. The cross section of bremsstrahlung in a strong Coulomb field by a high-energy electron is also obtained in the region where the final electron is not ultrarelativistic.
High energy electrons, positrons and photonuclear reactions in petawatt laser-solid experiments
Cowan, T E; Hunt, A W; Johnson, J; Perry, M D; Fountain, W; Hatchett, S; Key, M H; Kuehl, T; Parnell, T; Pennington, D M; Phillips, T W; Roth, M; Takahashi, Y; Wilks, S C
1999-09-09
The Petawatt laser at LLNL has opened a new regime of high-energy laser-matter interactions in which the quiver motion of plasma electrons is fully relativistic with energies extending well above the threshold for nuclear processes. We have observed that, in addition to the large flux of several MeV electrons ponderomotively expelled from the ultra-intense laser focus, there is a high energy component of electrons extending to -100 MeV, apparently from relativistic self-focusing and plasma acceleration in the underdense pre-formed plasma. The generation of hard bremsstrahlung cascade as these electrons traverse the solid target material, and the resulting photo-nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, and positron-electron pair production are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varma, C. M.
1983-07-01
Electrons and positrons in the large magnetic fields at the surface of pulsars condense into rod shaped droplets. The conditions for stimulated annihilation in such droplets are examined. The motivation for this investigation are the observation of Leventhal et al. (1977) of very narrow gamma-ray lines emanating from the Crab Nebula.
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song
2013-09-01
The effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on the solitary waves of the laser field envelope and the potential of the electrostatic field in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma are investigated. The parameter region for the existence of solitary waves is obtained analytically, and a reasonable choice of parameters is clarified. Both cases of mobile and immobile ions are considered. It is found that the amplitudes of solitary waves in the former case are larger compared to the latter case. For small plasma density, the localized solitary wave solutions in terms of the approximate perturbation analytical method are very consistent with those by exact numerical calculations. However, as the plasma density increases the analytical method loses its validity more and more. The influence of the positron fraction on the amplitudes of solitary waves shows a monotonous increasing relation. The implications of our results to particle acceleration are also discussed briefly. PMID:24125373
Sadiq, Safeer; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar
2014-09-20
The propagation of electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons is investigated. The linear dispersion relation is obtained for slow and fast electrostatic waves in the EPI plasma. The limiting cases for ion acoustic wave (slow) and ion cyclotron wave (fast) are also discussed. Using the reductive perturbation method, two-dimensional propagation of ion acoustic solitons is found for both the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons. The effects of positron concentration, magnetic field, and mass of ions on ion acoustic solitons are shown in numerical plots. The proper form of Fermi temperature for nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons is employed, which has not been used in earlier published work. The present investigation is useful for the understanding of linear and nonlinear electrostatic wave propagation in the dense magnetized EPI plasma of compact stars. For illustration purposes, we have applied our results to a pulsar magnetosphere.
Science and Technology of the TESLA Electron-Positron Linear Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Albrecht
2002-07-01
Recent analyses of the long term future of particles physics in Asia, Europe, and the U.S.A. have led to the consensus that the next major facility to be built to unravel the secrets of the micro-cosmos is an electron-positron linear collider in the energy range of 500 to 1000 GeV. This collider should be constructed in an as timely fashion as possible to overlap with the Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN. Here, the scientific potential and the technological aspects of the TESLA projects, a superconducting collider with an integrated X-ray laser laboratory, are summarised.
Ultrashort megaelectronvolt positron beam generation based on laser-accelerated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Tongjun; Shen, Baifei; Xu, Jiancai; Li, Shun; Yu, Yong; Li, Jinfeng; Lu, Xiaoming; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Xinliang; Liang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan
2016-03-01
Experimental generation of ultrashort MeV positron beams with high intensity and high density using a compact laser-driven setup is reported. A high-density gas jet is employed experimentally to generate MeV electrons with high charge; thus, a charge-neutralized MeV positron beam with high density is obtained during laser-accelerated electrons irradiating high-Z solid targets. It is a novel electron-positron source for the study of laboratory astrophysics. Meanwhile, the MeV positron beam is pulsed with an ultrashort duration of tens of femtoseconds and has a high peak intensity of 7.8 × 1021 s-1, thus allows specific studies of fast kinetics in millimeter-thick materials with a high time resolution and exhibits potential for applications in positron annihilation spectroscopy.
Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using an S-band compact electron linac
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taira, Y.; Kuroda, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kumaki, M.; Oshima, N.; O'Rourke, B. E.; Suzuki, R.; Toyokawa, H.
2014-02-01
A new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed using an S-band compact electron linac at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The high energy (<42MeV), intense (105 photons pulse-1), and ultra-short pulse (3 ps pulse width) photon beam creates positrons throughout an entire sample via pair production. A positron lifetime spectrum can be obtained by measuring the time difference between the accelerator's RF frequency and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. The positron lifetimes for lead and yttria-stabilized zirconia samples have been successfully measured.
Numerical simulation study of positron production by intense laser-accelerated electrons
Yan, Yonghong; Dong, Kegong; Wu, Yuchi; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Yuqiu; Yao, Zeen
2013-10-15
Positron production by ultra-intense laser-accelerated electrons has been studied with two-dimensional particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations. The dependence of the positron yield on plasma density, plasma length, and converter thickness was investigated in detail with fixed parameters of a typical 100 TW laser system. The results show that with the optimal plasma and converter parameters a positron beam containing up to 1.9 × 10{sup 10} positrons can be generated, which has a small divergence angle (10°), a high temperature (67.2 MeV), and a short pulse duration (1.7 ps)
Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring
Harkay, K. C.; Rosenberg, R. A.
2003-03-20
Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in amore » positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Furthermore, such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.« less
Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring
Harkay, K. C.; Rosenberg, R. A.
2003-03-20
Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in a positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Furthermore, such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.
Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma
Tinakiche, Nouara
2015-12-15
A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in presence of a fraction of ions in a neutral-electron-positron plasma. The results obtained in the present work are interpreted and compared with previous studies.
Enhanced Correlation of Electron-Positron Pair in Two and Three Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Suo; Xie, Bai-Song; Wang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin; Yu, Ming-Young
2014-01-01
Early time electron-positron correlation in vacuum pair-production in an external field is investigated. The entangled electron and positron wave functions are obtained analytically in the configuration and momentum spaces. It is shown that, relative to that of the one-dimensional theory, two- and three-dimensional calculations yield enhanced spatial correlation and broadened momentum spectra. In fact, at early times the electron and positron almost coincide spatially. The correlation also depends on the direction of the applied field. For the spatial correlation, the transverse correlation is stronger than the longitudinal correlation.
Linear electrostatic waves in a three-component electron-positron-ion plasma
Mugemana, A. Moolla, S.; Lazarus, I. J.
2014-12-15
Analytical linear electrostatic waves in a magnetized three-component electron-positron-ion plasma are studied in the low-frequency limit. By using the continuity and momentum equations with Poisson's equation, the dispersion relation for the electron-positron-ion plasma consisting of cool ions, and hot Boltzmann electrons and positrons is derived. In the linear regime, the propagation of two possible modes and their evolution are studied. In the cases of parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is shown that these two possible modes are always stable. The present investigation contributes to nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in space and the laboratory.
Weibel instability in colliding electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Luis
2008-04-01
The new regimes accessed in ultra intense laser plasma interactions and recent developments in relativistic astrophysics are giving rise to an increased interest in the Weibel instability. In fact, whenever colliding streams of plasmas (arbitrary mixtures of electrons-positrons-ions) are present, a fraction of the kinetic energy of the plasma flows can be converted to a sub-equipartition magnetic field. In this talk, and using a combination of particle-in-cell simulations and relativistic kinetic theory, I will first describe the recent theoretical advances in our understanding of the Weibel instability and the connection with the electromagnetic beam plasma instability. Emphasis will be given to the coupling with longitudinal modes, leading to the formation of tilted filaments, and to the effects of the collisions and the merging of the Weibel instability with the resistive filamentation instability. In light of these results, the relevance of Weibel instability to ultra intense laser matter interactions (e.g. fast ignition) and to astrophysical scenarios (e.g. in gamma ray bursters and for cluster magnetic fields) will be discussed. Finally, the role of the Weibel instability in the formation of relativistic shocks and in particle acceleration in these structures will also be addressed.
The stationary non-equilibrium plasma of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomaschitz, Roman
2016-06-01
The statistical properties of the two-component plasma of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons measured by the AMS-02 experiment on the International Space Station and the HESS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes are analyzed. Stationary non-equilibrium distributions defining the relativistic electron-positron plasma are derived semi-empirically by performing spectral fits to the flux data and reconstructing the spectral number densities of the electronic and positronic components in phase space. These distributions are relativistic power-law densities with exponential cutoff, admitting an extensive entropy variable and converging to the Maxwell-Boltzmann or Fermi-Dirac distributions in the non-relativistic limit. Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons constitute a classical (low-density high-temperature) plasma due to the low fugacity in the quantized partition function. The positron fraction is assembled from the flux densities inferred from least-squares fits to the electron and positron spectra and is subjected to test by comparing with the AMS-02 flux ratio measured in the GeV interval. The calculated positron fraction extends to TeV energies, predicting a broad spectral peak at about 1 TeV followed by exponential decay.
Shock waves and double layers in a quantum electron-positron-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dip, P. R.; Hossen, M. A.; Salahuddin, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-02-01
The ion-acoustic (IA) shock waves and double layers (DLs) in an unmagnetized, dissipative, quantum electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma (composed of a viscous heavy ion fluid, Fermi electrons and positrons) have been theoretically investigated. The higher-order Burgers and Gardner equations are derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. The basic features of the IA shock waves and the DLs are identified by analyzing the solutions of both the higher-order Burgers and Gardner equations. The ratio of the Fermi temperature of the positron to that of the electron, the Fermi pressure of electrons and positrons, the viscous force, the plasma particle number densities, etc. are found to change remarkably the basic features (viz. amplitude, width, phase speed, etc.) of the IA waves. The results of our investigation may be helpful in understanding the nonlinear features of localized IA waves propagating in quantum EPI plasmas which are ubiquitous in astrophysical, as well as laboratory, environments.
Unitarity and electron-positron pairs created by strong external fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionescu, Dorin Cezar
1994-05-01
Lowest-order perturbative calculations of the electron-positron production probability in relativistic heavy-ion collisions exceed unitarity bounds for the heaviest collision systems at extreme relativistic energies and sufficiently small impact parameters. Starting with the exponential representation of the time-evolution operator in the Furry picture, we derive manifestly unitary and gauge-invariant expressions for transition amplitudes and probabilities associated with the created electron-positron pairs by employing the Magnus expansion to first order. The time-evolved ground state of the electron-positron field around the heavy nuclei is expressed as a superposition of the unperturbed vacuum state and virtual excitation modes consisting of electron-positron pairs.
Neutrino emissivity from electron-positron annihilation in hot matter in a strong magnetic field
Amsterdamski, P.; Haensel, P. )
1990-10-15
The neutrino emissivity due to electron-positron annihilation in a strong magnetic field is computed. A strong magnetic field can significantly increase the neutrino emissivity at {ital T}{similar to}10{sup 9} K.
Electromagnetic drift waves in nonuniform quantum magnetized electron positron ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Haijun; Wu, Zhengwei; Cao, Jintao; Chu, Paul K.
2008-03-01
Electromagnetic drift waves in a nonuniform quantum magnetized electron positron ion (EPI) plasma are studied. By using the quantum hydrodynamic equations with magnetic fields of the Wigner Maxwell system, we obtained a new dispersion relation in which ions' motions are not considered. The positrons component (featured by the parameter ξ), density gradient of electrons, and of positrons are shown to have a significant impact on the dispersion relation. Our results should be relevant to dense astrophysical objects, e.g. white dwarf and pulsar magnetospheres, as well as low-temperature laboratory EPI plasmas.
Antiproton, positron, and electron imaging with a microchannel plate/phosphor detector.
Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A P; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y
2009-12-01
A microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen assembly has been used to destructively measure the radial profile of cold, confined antiprotons, electrons, and positrons in the ALPHA experiment, with the goal of using these trapped particles for antihydrogen creation and confinement. The response of the MCP to low energy (10-200 eV, <1 eV spread) antiproton extractions is compared to that of electrons and positrons.
Antiproton, positron, and electron imaging with a microchannel plate/phosphor detector
Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A. P.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others
2009-12-15
A microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen assembly has been used to destructively measure the radial profile of cold, confined antiprotons, electrons, and positrons in the ALPHA experiment, with the goal of using these trapped particles for antihydrogen creation and confinement. The response of the MCP to low energy (10-200 eV, <1 eV spread) antiproton extractions is compared to that of electrons and positrons.
Production of free electron-positron pairs in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionescu, D. C.; Eichler, J.
1993-08-01
The production of free electron-positron pairs in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated within first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. An analytic expression for the differential pair-production cross section is obtained by employing Furry-Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions for the description of continuum states in the external field of the target nucleus. The angular distributions of electrons and positrons and cross sections are calculated and compared with previous results.
Excitation of the half-cyclotron waves by the counterstreaming electron-positron beams
Shokri, B.; Khorashadizadeh, S.M.
2005-08-15
The dispersion relation of the half-cyclotron waves excited by the interaction of the two counterstreaming electron-positron-plasma beams is obtained. Furthermore, obtaining the growth rate and the threshold for the instability development, the excitation of the half-cyclotron waves in a system of two rotating monoenergetic electron-positron counterstreaming beams flowing parallel to the external magnetic field is investigated.
Electron-positron pairs in physics and astrophysics: From heavy nuclei to black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruffini, Remo; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng
2010-02-01
+e- annihilation to hadronic channels, in addition to the Dirac electromagnetic channel; (B) ongoing Earth-based experiments to detect electron-positron production in strong fields by focusing coherent laser beams and by electron-beam-laser collisions; and (C) the multiyear attempts to detect electron-positron production in Coulomb fields for a large atomic number Z>137 in heavy-ion collisions. These attempts follow the classical theoretical work of Popov and Zeldovich, and Greiner and their schools. We then turn to astrophysics. We first review the basic work on the energetics and electrodynamical properties of an electromagnetic black hole and the application of the Schwinger formula around Kerr-Newman black holes as pioneered by Damour and Ruffini. We only focus on black hole masses larger than the critical mass of neutron stars, for convenience assumed to coincide with the Rhoades and Ruffini upper limit of 3.2 M⊙. In this case the electron Compton wavelength is much smaller than the space-time curvature and all previous results invariantly expressed can be applied following well established rules of the equivalence principle. We derive the corresponding rate of electron-positron pair production and introduce the concept of dyadosphere. We review the recent progress in describing the evolution of optically thick electron-positron plasma in the presence of supercritical electric field, which is relevant both in astrophysics as well as in ongoing laser beam experiments. In particular we review the recent progress based on the Vlasov-Boltzmann-Maxwell equations to study the feedback of the created electron-positron pairs on the original constant electric field. We evidence the existence of plasma oscillations and its interaction with photons leading to energy and number equipartition of photons, electrons and positrons. We finally review the recent progress obtained by using the Boltzmann equations to study the evolution of an electron-positron-photon plasma towards thermal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2013-06-01
The interaction of high-energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high-energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when three-dimensional effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high-energy e-beam interacting with a counterstreaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdrashitov, S. V.; Bogdanov, O. V.; Dabagov, S. B.; Pivovarov, Yu L.; Tukhfatullin, T. A.
2016-07-01
We consider the radiator-converter approach at 200 MeV channeled electrons (the SPARC_LAB LNF facility energies) for the case of using W crystalline radiator and W amorphous converter. A comparison of the positron production by the axial channeling radiation and the bremsstrahlung is performed. The positron stopping in the convertor is studied by means of computer simulations. It is shown that for the maximum yield of positrons the thickness of the W amorphous converter should be taken 0.35 cm in the case of using the axial channeling radiation resulting to total yield of positrons 5 10-3 e+/e- and 0.71 cm in the case of using the bremsstrahlung resulting to total yield of positrons 3.3 10-3 e+/e-.
Kawanaka, Norita; Ioka, Kunihito; Nojiri, Mihoko M.
2010-02-20
We investigate the observed spectrum of cosmic ray electrons and positrons from astrophysical sources, especially pulsars, and the physical processes for making the spectrum spiky or smooth via continuous and multiple electron/positron injections. We find that (1) the average electron spectrum predicted from nearby pulsars is consistent with PAMELA, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. data. However, the ATIC/PPB-BETS peak around 500 GeV is hard to produce by the sum of multiple pulsar contributions and requires a single (or a few) energetic pulsar(s). (2) A continuous injection produces a broad peak and a high-energy tail above the peak, which can constrain the source duration ({approx}<10{sup 5} years with the current data). (3) The H.E.S.S. data in the TeV range suggest that young sources with age less than {approx}6 x 10{sup 4} years are less energetic than {approx}10{sup 48} erg. (4) We also expect a large dispersion in the TeV spectrum due to the small number of sources that may cause the high-energy cutoff inferred by H.E.S.S. and potentially provide a smoking gun for the astrophysical origin. These spectral diagnostics can be refined in the near future by the CALET experiments to discriminate different astrophysical and dark matter origins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawanaka, Norita; Ioka, Kunihito; Nojiri, Mihoko M.
2010-02-01
We investigate the observed spectrum of cosmic ray electrons and positrons from astrophysical sources, especially pulsars, and the physical processes for making the spectrum spiky or smooth via continuous and multiple electron/positron injections. We find that (1) the average electron spectrum predicted from nearby pulsars is consistent with PAMELA, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. data. However, the ATIC/PPB-BETS peak around 500 GeV is hard to produce by the sum of multiple pulsar contributions and requires a single (or a few) energetic pulsar(s). (2) A continuous injection produces a broad peak and a high-energy tail above the peak, which can constrain the source duration (lsim105 years with the current data). (3) The H.E.S.S. data in the TeV range suggest that young sources with age less than ~6 × 104 years are less energetic than ~1048 erg. (4) We also expect a large dispersion in the TeV spectrum due to the small number of sources that may cause the high-energy cutoff inferred by H.E.S.S. and potentially provide a smoking gun for the astrophysical origin. These spectral diagnostics can be refined in the near future by the CALET experiments to discriminate different astrophysical and dark matter origins.
Small amplitude Kinetic Alfven waves in a superthermal electron-positron-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adnan, Muhammad; Mahmood, Sahahzad; Qamar, Anisa; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-11-01
We are investigating the propagating properties of coupled Kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves in a low beta plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons. Using the standard reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equation is derived which describes the evolution of Kinetic Alfven waves. It is found that nonlinearity and Larmor radius effects can compromise and give rise to solitary structures. The parametric role of superthermality and positron content on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is also investigated. It is found that only sub-Alfvenic and compressive solitons are supported in the present model. The present study may find applications in a low β electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaodan; Wang, Yunliang; Liu, Tielu; Zhang, Fan
2016-06-01
> Two-dimensional nonlinear magnetosonic solitary and shock waves propagating perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are presented in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas with strongly coupled classical ions and weakly coupled quantum electrons and positrons. The generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model is used for the ions and a quantum hydrodynamic model is introduced for the electrons and positrons. In the weakly nonlinear limit, a modified Kadomstev-Petviashvili (KP) equation with a damping term and a KP-Burgers equation have been derived in the kinetic regime and hydrodynamic regime, respectively. The analytical and numerical solutions of the modified KP and KP-Burgers equations are also presented and analysed with the typical parameters of a white dwarf star and pulsar magnetosphere, which show that the quantum plasma beta and the variation of positron number density have remarkable effects on the propagation of magnetosonic solitary and shock waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Ata-Ur; Ali, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Qamar
2013-10-01
The dynamics and propagation of ion acoustic (IA) waves are considered in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma, whose constituents are the relativistically degenerate electrons and positrons as well as the inertial cold ions. At a first step, a linear dispersion relation for IA waves is derived and analysed numerically. For nonlinear analysis, the reductive perturbation technique is used to derive a Korteweg-deVries equation, which admits a localized wave solution in the presence of relativistic degenerate electrons and positrons. It is shown that only compressive IA solitary waves can propagate, whose amplitude, width and phase velocity are significantly modified due to the positron concentration. The latter also strongly influences all the relativistic plasma parameters. Our present analysis is aimed to understand collective interactions in dense astrophysical objects, e.g. white dwarfs, where the lighter species electrons and positrons are taken as relativistically degenerate.
Alinejad, H.
2012-05-15
The linear and nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves are investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma with nonthermal electrons. In the linear regime, the propagation of two possible modes and their evolution are studied via a dispersion relation. In the cases of parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is shown that these two possible modes are always stable. Then, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the dynamics of ion-acoustic solitary waves is derived from a weakly nonlinear analysis. The influence on the solitary wave characteristics of relevant physical parameters such as nonthermal electrons, magnetic field, obliqueness, positron concentration, and temperature ratio is examined. It is observed that the increasing nonthermal electrons parameter makes the solitary structures much taller and narrower. Also, it is revealed that the magnetic field strength makes the solitary waves more spiky. The present investigation contributes to the physics of the nonlinear electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in space and laboratory e-p-i plasmas in which wave damping produces an electron tail.
Towards laboratory-produced relativistic electron-positron pair-plasmas
Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Beiersdorfer, P; Cauble, R; Dollar, F; Falk, K; Hazi, A; Murphy, C D; Park, J; Seely, J; Szabo, C I; Shepherd, R; Tommasini, R; Zulick, K
2010-08-31
Relativistic pair-plasmas and jets are believed to exist in many astrophysical objects and are often invoked to explain energetic phenomena related to Gamma Ray Bursts and Black Holes. On earth, positrons from radioactive isotopes or accelerators are used extensively at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science positron emission tomography and basic antimatter science. Experimental platforms capable of producing the high-temperature pair-plasma and high-flux jets required to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. In the last few years, we performed extensive experiments generating positrons with intense lasers where we found that relativistic electron and positron jets are produced by irradiating a solid gold target with an intense picosecond laser pulse. The positron temperatures in directions parallel and transverse to the beam both exceeded 0.5 MeV, and the density of electrons and positrons in these jets are of order 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, respectively. With the advent of high-energy ultra-short laser pulses, we expect that a charge-neutral, relativistic pair-plasma is achievable, a novel regime of laboratory-produced hot dense matter. This talk will present some details of the laser-produced pair-plasma experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marjanović, S.; Banković, A.; White, R. D.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Malović, G.; Dujko, S.; Petrović, Z. Lj
2015-04-01
The recent availability of cross sections for positron (and positronium) interactions has made it possible to calculate transport properties and rates of collisions, and study in a quantitative fashion some aspects of positron-induced processes and their effects on living tissue. This paper models the interaction of primary positrons, and their secondary electrons, with water vapour (and subsequently liquid) using complete sets of cross sections predominately based on experimental binary collision data. We use a simple procedure to represent the presence of organic molecules where we look for dissociation of methane as a prototype of organic molecule dissociation. We isolate this particular process in order to establish whether the degree of damage is directly associated with the energy deposited in the tissue or whether some specific processes may cause excessive damage even with little energy deposition. We thus report on the relative contributions of initial positrons and secondary electrons in inducing dissociation, the spatial and energy profiles of individual collisional events, and positron/secondary electron tracks. It was found that secondary electrons induce 2-3 times more dissociations than the original positrons and with a longer range.
The scaling of electron and positron generation in intense laser-solid interactions
Chen, Hui; Link, A.; Fiuza, F.; Hazi, A.; Heeter, R. F.; Kemp, A. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Tommasini, R.; Williams, G. J.; Sentoku, Y.; Audebert, P.; Hill, M.; Hobbs, L.; Kerr, S.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J.
2015-05-15
This paper presents experimental scalings of the electrons and positrons produced by intense laser-target interactions at relativistic laser intensities (10{sup 18}–10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2}). The data were acquired from three short-pulse laser facilities with laser energies ranging from 80 to 1500 J. We found a non-linear (≈E{sub L}{sup 2}) scaling of positron yield [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 215001 (2015)] and a linear scaling of electron yield with the laser energy. These scalings are explained by theoretical and numerical analyses. Positron acceleration by the target sheath field is confirmed by the positron energy spectrum, which has a pronounced peak at energies near the sheath potential, as determined by the observed maximum energies of accelerated protons. The parameters of laser-produced electron-positron jets are summarized together with the theoretical energy scaling. The measured energy-squared scaling of relativistic electron-positron jets indicates the possibility to create an astrophysically relevant experimental platform with such jets using multi-kilojoule high intensity lasers currently under construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruan, Shi-Sen; Wu, Shan; Raissan, Majid; Cheng, Ze
2013-08-01
This article presents the first study of the head-on collision between two magnetoacoustic solitary waves (MASWs) in magnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and ions, using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kou (PLK) method. The effects of the magnetic field intensity, the positron to ion number density ratio, the quantum parameter, the Fermi temperature ratio, and plasma number density on the solitary wave collisions are investigated. It is shown that these factors significantly modify the phase shift.
Study on Momentum Density of Electrons and Fermi Surface in Niobium by Positron Annihilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubota, Takeshi; Kondo, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yasukazu; Cho, Yang-Koo; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Kawano, Takao; Bahng, Gun-Woong
1990-12-01
The three dimensional electron-positron momentum density in niobium has been reconstructed from measurements of two dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiations (2D-ACAR) followed by the image reconstruction technique based on a direct Fourier transformation. We determined the position of the Fermi surface sheets; \\varGamma-centered hole octahedron, multiply connected jungle-gym arms and N-centered hole ellipsoids. The Fermi surface topology is in good agreement with the theory.
The magnetic toroidal sector: a broad-band electron-positron pair spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagmann, Siegbert; Hillenbrand, Pierre-Michel; Litvinov, Yuri; Spillmann, Uwe
2016-05-01
At the future relativistic storage-ring HESR at FAIR the study of electron-positron pairs from non-nuclear, atomic processes will be one of the goals of the experimental program with kinematically complete experiments focusing on momentum spectroscopy of coincident emission of electrons and positrons from free-free pairs and corresponding recoil ions. The underlying production mechanisms belong to central topics of QED in strong fields. We present first results on the electron-optical properties of a magnetic toroidal sector configuration enabling coincident detection of free-free electron-positron pairs; this spectrometer is suitable for implementation into a storage ring with a supersonic jet target and covering a wide range of lepton emission into the forward hemisphere. The simulation calculations are performed using the OPERA code.
Khan, S. A.; Ayub, M. K.; Ahmad, Ali
2012-10-15
Quantum plasma oscillations are studied in a strongly magnetized, ultra-dense plasma with degenerate electrons and positrons. The dispersive role of electron and positron quantum effects on low frequency (in comparison to electron cyclotron frequency) shear electromagnetic wave is investigated by employing hydrodynamic formulation. In the presence of ions, the density balance changes, and the electromagnetic wave (with frequency lower than the ion cyclotron frequency) is shown to couple with electrostatic ion mode under certain conditions. For such low frequency waves, it is also seen that the contribution of electron and positron degeneracy pressure is dominant as compared to their diffraction effects. The results are analyzed numerically for illustrative purpose pointing out their relevance to the dense laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter interactions) and astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, S. A.; Ayub, M. K.; Ahmad, Ali
2012-10-01
Quantum plasma oscillations are studied in a strongly magnetized, ultra-dense plasma with degenerate electrons and positrons. The dispersive role of electron and positron quantum effects on low frequency (in comparison to electron cyclotron frequency) shear electromagnetic wave is investigated by employing hydrodynamic formulation. In the presence of ions, the density balance changes, and the electromagnetic wave (with frequency lower than the ion cyclotron frequency) is shown to couple with electrostatic ion mode under certain conditions. For such low frequency waves, it is also seen that the contribution of electron and positron degeneracy pressure is dominant as compared to their diffraction effects. The results are analyzed numerically for illustrative purpose pointing out their relevance to the dense laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter interactions) and astrophysical plasmas.
Positron and electron scattering from alkane molecules. Normal- and cyclo-octane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sueoka, O.; Makochekanwa, C.; Kimura, M.
2006-03-01
Total cross-sections (TCSs) for 0.2 1000 eV positrons and 0.4 1000 eV electrons colliding with normal-octane and cyclo-octane molecules have been studied using a relative measurement method. The TCS curves for positron and electron vary smoothly and compare well with other alkane molecules, in order of increasing carbon number. For positron scattering, weak humps at 1.5 2.5 eV for both normal- and cyclo-octane were observed. In the energy range lower than 2.2 eV, positron TCSs are roughly equal to or larger than electron TCSs. For electron scattering, a resonance peak at 8 eV and a shoulder at 25.0 eV were observed for both molecules. Over all the energy range, the TCS values for normal-octane are larger than those of cyclo-octane. The positron and electron TCS data for normal- and cyclo-octane molecules are briefly compared with those for normal- and cyclo-hexane.
Environmental assessment for the proposed B-Factory (Asymmetric Electron Positron Collider)
Not Available
1993-11-01
This document presents the potential environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of an Asymmetric Electron Positron Collider, also known as a B-Factory. DOE proposes to modify either the existing Positron-Electron Project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) or the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) at Cornell University. PEP and CESR provide the most technically promising and practical options for a B-Factory. A B-Factory can be constructed by modifying the existing facilities and with minor or no conventional construction. Details involved with the upgrade along with two alternatives to the proposed action are described.
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The non-linear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. Additionally, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by the Weibel instability scale proportional to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields which contribute to the electron's (positron's) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This small scale magnetic field structure is appropriate to the generation
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-L.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The non-linear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at the comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. Additionally, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by the Weibel instability scale proportional to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform: small-scale magnetic fields which contribute to the electron's (positron's) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This small scale magnetic field structure
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel, and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. New simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Furthermore, the nonlinear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, and electric and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at a comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. In addition, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by tine Weibel instability scale proportionally to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s (positron s) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This
Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron plasma
Tinakiche, Nouara
2013-02-15
A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in this plasma.
Positron-electron decay of 28Si at an excitation energy of 50 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C.; Balanda, A.; van der Ploeg, H.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.
1993-03-01
The electron-position pair decay of 28Si at 50 MeV excitation produced by the isospin T=0 (α + 24Mg) and the mixed isospin T=0,1 (3He + 25Mg) reactions has been studied using a special designed Positron-Electron pair spectrometer PEPSI.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.
1999-01-01
We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.
Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreas; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph
2016-01-01
We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV. PMID:26879249
Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph
2016-01-01
We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV. PMID:26879249
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.
1981-01-01
A positronium-formation experiment with a high sensitivity to a possible relation between the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay and the optical asymmetry of biological molecules is presented. The experiment is based on a mechanism in which the electrons in optically active molecules possess a helicity of less than 0.001, too weak to detect in radiolysis experiments, the sign of which depends on the chirality of the isomer. A helicity-dependent asymmetry is sought in the formation of the triplet ground state of positronium when a low-energy beam of polarized positrons of reversible helicity interacts with an optically active substance coating a channel electron multiplier. Asymmetries between positronium decays observed at positive and negative helicities for the same substance can thus be determined with a sensitivity of 0.0001, which represents a factor of 100 improvement over previous positronium experiments.
An arbitrary amplitude fast magnetosonic soliton in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Mahmood, S.
2013-02-01
Nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves are studied in a collisionless homogenous, magnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma. The multi-component quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model is used in which ions are assumed to be dynamic whereas electron and positron quantum fluids are taken to be inertialess. The Sagdeev potential approach is used to obtain arbitrary amplitude magnetosonic structures in dense e-p-i plasmas. It is found that the wave amplitude as well as the width of the magnetosonic structure depends on different plasma parameters such as the electron to positron density ratio, plasma beta, quantum parameter and the Alfvénic Mach number. The numerical results have also been obtained for illustration.
Nonlinear ion-acoustic structures in dusty plasma with superthermal electrons and positrons
El-Tantawy, S. A.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.; Moslem, W. M.
2011-05-15
Nonlinear ion-acoustic structures are investigated in an unmagnetized, four-component plasma consisting of warm ions, superthermal electrons and positrons, as well as stationary charged dust impurities. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The latter admits both solitary waves and double layers solutions. Numerical calculations indicate that these nonlinear structures cannot exist for all physical parameters. Therefore, the existence regions for both solitary and double layers excitations have been defined precisely. Furthermore, the effects of temperature ratios of ions-to-electrons and electrons-to-positrons, positrons and dust concentrations, as well as superthermal parameters on the profiles of the nonlinear structures are investigated. Also, the acceleration and deceleration of plasma species have been highlight. It is emphasized that the present investigation may be helpful in better understanding of nonlinear structures which propagate in astrophysical environments, such as in interstellar medium.
Neutrino, gamma-ray, electron, and positron production in an ultrarelativistic plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marscher, A. P.; Vestrand, W. T.; Scott, J. S.
1980-01-01
Neutrino, gamma-ray, electron and positron production resulting from inelastic proton-proton collisions in a highly relativistic plasma such as may exist in extragalactic radio or gamma-ray burst sources is examined. The source functions of primary (pions, kaons, and neutrons) and secondary (photons, electrons, positrons and neutrinos) products of relativistic nuclear collisions are computed for the cases of power law and Maxwellian relativistic proton distributions. It is shown that in plasma which is optically thin to interactions between the plasma and secondary gamma-rays, electrons and positrons, only a small fraction of the initial energy is emitted in the observable form of neutrinos and gamma rays. In an optically thick plasma on the other hand, most of the energy of the relativistic protons is found to be equally divided between gamma rays and neutrinos, although only the neutrinos may escape freely to be observed.
Generation of neutral and high-density electron-positron pair plasmas in the laboratory.
Sarri, G; Poder, K; Cole, J M; Schumaker, W; Di Piazza, A; Reville, B; Dzelzainis, T; Doria, D; Gizzi, L A; Grittani, G; Kar, S; Keitel, C H; Krushelnick, K; Kuschel, S; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z; Shukla, N; Silva, L O; Symes, D; Thomas, A G R; Vargas, M; Vieira, J; Zepf, M
2015-01-01
Electron-positron pair plasmas represent a unique state of matter, whereby there exists an intrinsic and complete symmetry between negatively charged (matter) and positively charged (antimatter) particles. These plasmas play a fundamental role in the dynamics of ultra-massive astrophysical objects and are believed to be associated with the emission of ultra-bright gamma-ray bursts. Despite extensive theoretical modelling, our knowledge of this state of matter is still speculative, owing to the extreme difficulty in recreating neutral matter-antimatter plasmas in the laboratory. Here we show that, by using a compact laser-driven setup, ion-free electron-positron plasmas with unique characteristics can be produced. Their charge neutrality (same amount of matter and antimatter), high-density and small divergence finally open up the possibility of studying electron-positron plasmas in controlled laboratory experiments. PMID:25903920
Doppler broadening of in-flight positron annihilation radiation due to electron momentum.
Hunt, A W; Cassidy, D B; Sterne, P A; Cowan, T E; Howell, R H; Lynn, K G; Golevchenko, J A
2001-06-11
We report the first observation of electron momentum contributions to the Doppler broadening of radiation produced by in-flight two-photon annihilation in solids. In these experiments an approximately 2.5 MeV positron beam impinged on thin polyethylene, aluminum, and gold targets. Since energetic positrons easily penetrate the nuclear Coulomb potential and do not cause a strong charge polarization, the experimental annihilation line shapes agree well with calculations based on a simple independent-particle model. Moreover, annihilations with the deepest core electrons are greatly enhanced.
Jet algorithms in electron-positron annihilation: perturbative higher order predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinzierl, Stefan
2011-02-01
This article gives results on several jet algorithms in electron-positron annihilation: Considered are the exclusive sequential recombination algorithms Durham, Geneva, Jade-E0 and Cambridge, which are typically used in electron-positron annihilation. In addition also inclusive jet algorithms are studied. Results are provided for the inclusive sequential recombination algorithms Durham, Aachen and anti- k t , as well as the infrared-safe cone algorithm SISCone. The results are obtained in perturbative QCD and are N3LO for the two-jet rates, NNLO for the three-jet rates, NLO for the four-jet rates and LO for the five-jet rates.
Photons, Electrons and Positrons Transport in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques
2014-12-01
Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the transport of photons, electrons and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for electron and positron transport simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random number and for measuring the time of simulation.
Acoustic double layer structures in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtar, N.; Mahmood, S.
2011-11-01
The acoustic double layer structures are studied using quantum hydrodynamic model in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The extended Korteweg-de Vries is derived using reductive perturbation method. It is found that increase in the ion concentration in dense magnetized electron-positron plasmas increases the amplitude as well as the steepness of the double layer structure. However, increase in the magnetic field strength and decrease in the obliqueness of the nonlinear acoustic wave enhances only the steepness of the double layer structures. The numerical results have also been shown by using the data of the outer layer regions of white dwarfs given in the literature.
Acoustic double layer structures in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas
Akhtar, N.; Mahmood, S.
2011-11-15
The acoustic double layer structures are studied using quantum hydrodynamic model in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The extended Korteweg-de Vries is derived using reductive perturbation method. It is found that increase in the ion concentration in dense magnetized electron-positron plasmas increases the amplitude as well as the steepness of the double layer structure. However, increase in the magnetic field strength and decrease in the obliqueness of the nonlinear acoustic wave enhances only the steepness of the double layer structures. The numerical results have also been shown by using the data of the outer layer regions of white dwarfs given in the literature.
Visible and dark matter genesis and cosmic positron and electron excesses
Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal; Zhang Xinmin
2009-10-01
Dark and baryonic matter contribute comparable energy density to the present universe. The dark matter may also be responsible for the cosmic positron and electron excesses. We connect these phenomena with the Dirac seesaw for neutrino masses. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry generated simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry so that we can naturally understand the coincidence between the dark and baryonic matter and (ii) the dark matter mostly decays into the leptons so that its decay can interpret the anomalous cosmic rays with positron and electron excesses.
Photons, Electrons and Positrons Transport in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques
2014-12-01
Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the transport of photons, electrons and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for electron and positron transport simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random numbermore » and for measuring the time of simulation.« less
Coherent combs of antimatter from nonlinear electron-positron-pair creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.
2014-11-01
Electron-positron-pair creation in collisions of a modulated laser pulse with a high-energy photon (nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process) is studied by means of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that the driving pulse modulations lead to the appearance of comb structures in the energy spectra of produced positrons (electrons). It is demonstrated that these combs result from a coherent enhancement of probability amplitudes of pair creation from different modulations of the laser pulse, thus resembling the Young-type double-slit experiment for antimatter (matter) waves.
Electron and positron scattering on rubidium at 200 eV
Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.
2014-03-05
The recent implementation of the coupled-channels-optical method (CCOM) [1,2], in the study of the electron and positron-Rubidium(Rb) scattering at intermediate energies [3,4], shows that the continuum effect remains important as the energy increases, even to 100 eV. Here, we study the effect of the continuum in electron and positron scattering on Rb at an even higher energy namely 200 eV. The total, elastic and inelastic integral and differential cross sections are therefore calculated and compared to the available experimental [5] and theoretical data [6,7].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adnan, Muhammad; Williams, Gina; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad; Kourakis, Ioannis
2014-09-01
The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in a magnetized anisotropic electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma with superthermal electrons and positrons. A two-dimensional plasma geometry is assumed. The ions are assumed to be warm and anisotropic due to an external magnetic field. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined using the double adiabatic Chew-Golberger-Low (CGL) theory. In the linear regime, two normal modes are predicted, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of superthermality of electrons and positrons, ion pressure anisotropy, positron concentration and magnetic field strength. A Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived for the electrostatic potential (disturbance) via a reductive perturbation method. The parametric role of superthermality, positron content, ion pressure anisotropy and magnetic field strength on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is investigated. Following Allen and Rowlands [J. Plasma Phys. 53, 63 (1995)], we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable to oblique perturbations, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on superthermality and ion pressure anisotropy.
Electron and Positron Scattering with a Few Alkyne Molecules - Theoretical Cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, U. R.; Joshipura, K. N.; Kothari, H. N.
2016-05-01
Electron molecule scattering processes play an important role in the understanding of the electron driven physiochemical phenomena in diverse environments such as biological media, planetary atmospheres, interstellar clouds and plasmas. In modeling and simulating effects induced by electrons traversing through matter, the relevant cross section data are required as an input. An alternative probe, positron has also been used for the similar study of atoms, molecules and matter in bulk. Interaction of positrons with atoms and molecules differs from electron interactions due to opposite sign of charge and absence of exchange potential. In the present paper, our aim is to apply an identical theoretical method1,2 to electrons as well as positrons interacting with alkyne molecules like acetylene (HC ≡ CH), 1- Butyne (HC ≡ C- CH2 CH3) and Propyne (HC ≡ C- CH3) . We have carried out calculations of total scattering cross sections by starting with complex potential approach followed by the solution of the Schrodinger equation using numerical method. Ionization cross sections are deduced as in1,2. Comparisons have been made with available theoretical and experimental results for both electron (e-) and positron (e+) . The study will be extended to alkanes and alkenes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emadi, E.; Zahed, H.
2016-08-01
The behavior of linear and nonlinear dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in an unmagnetized quantum dusty plasma, including inertialess electrons and positrons, ions, and mobile negative dust grains, are studied. Reductive perturbation and Sagdeev pseudopotential methods are employed for small and large amplitude DIA solitary waves, respectively. A minimum value of the Mach number obtained for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential. It is observed that the variation on the values of the plasma parameters such as different values of Mach number M, ion to electron Fermi temperature ratio σ, and quantum diffraction parameter H can lead to the creation of compressive solitary waves.
Study of defects in electron irradiated CuInSe{sub 2} by positron lifetime spectroscopy
Polity, A.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Staab, T.E.; Puska, M.J.; Klais, J.; Moeller, H.J.; Meyer, B.K.
1998-01-01
CuInSe{sub 2} was studied in the as-grown state and after low-temperature (4 K) 2 MeV electron irradiation. The positron bulk lifetime of 235 ps was measured for the unirradiated sample. The positron bulk lifetime was theoretically calculated and is in good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, the defect-related lifetimes for mono-, di-, and trivacancies are theoretically determined. An increased average positron lifetime indicated after electron irradiation the appearance of open-volume defects, most probably of divacancy type. The disappearance of this defect was observed during annealing below 250 K. Other defects were formed leading to a divacancy signal at least stable up to 600 K in the temperature range above 450 K. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, T. S.; Bala, Parveen; Bains, A. S.
2015-05-01
A rigorous theoretical study based on Zakharov Kuznetsov (ZK) equation of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs), their stability analysis in a magnetized e- p- i plasma is presented. The plasma model consists of inertial ions, magnetic field, electrons and positrons obeying q-nonextensive velocity distribution. Reductive perturbation method is used to derive ZK equation. The solitary wave structures are dependent on chosen plasma model, whose parameters influence the solitary characteristics. Particularly, nonextensivity, proportion of positron concentration, magnetic field and difference between electron and positron temperatures play crucial role in the solitary structures. The present work is also extended to give stability analysis and parametric ranges for the existence of stable and unstable solitons. This research work may be useful to understand the physics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in different astrophysical and cosmic scenarios like stellar polytropes, hadron matter and quark-gluon plasma.
Ion acoustic shock waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons
Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Hafeez Ur-Rehman
2013-06-15
The monotonic and oscillatory ion acoustic shock waves are investigated in electron-positron-ion plasmas (e-p-i) with warm ions (adiabatically heated) and nonthermal kappa distributed electrons and positrons. The dissipation effects are included in the model due to kinematic viscosity of the ions. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived containing dispersion, dissipation, and diffraction effects (due to perturbation in the transverse direction) in e-p-i plasmas. The analytical solution of KPB equation is obtained by employing tangent hyperbolic (Tanh) method. The analytical condition for the propagation of oscillatory and monotonic shock structures are also discussed in detail. The numerical results of two dimensional monotonic shock structures are obtained for graphical representation. The dependence of shock structures on positron equilibrium density, ion temperature, nonthermal spectral index kappa, and the kinematic viscosity of ions are also discussed.
Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons
Kaladze, T.; Mahmood, S.
2014-03-15
Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.
Coupled ion acoustic and drift waves in magnetized superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas
Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, S.
2014-09-15
Linear and nonlinear coupled drift-ion acoustic waves are investigated in a nonuniform magnetoplasma having kappa distributed electrons and positrons. In the linear regime, the role of kappa distribution and positron content on the dispersion relation has been highlighted; it is found that strong superthermality (low value of κ) and addition of positrons lowers the phase velocity via decreasing the fundamental scalelengths of the plasmas. In the nonlinear regime, first, coherent nonlinear structure in the form of dipoles and monopoles are obtained and the boundary conditions (boundedness) in the context of superthermality and positron concentrations are discussed. Second, in case of scalar nonlinearity, a Korteweg–de Vries-type equation is obtained, which admit solitary wave solution. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons are formed in the present model. The present work may be useful to understand the low frequency electrostatic modes in inhomogeneous electron positron ion plasmas, which exist in astrophysical plasma situations such as those found in the pulsar magnetosphere.
Edwardson, C J; Coleman, P G; Paez, D J; Doylend, J K; Knights, A P
2013-03-29
Electron capture during forward bias and reemission at zero bias by divacancies in the depletion region of a silicon diode structure at room temperature have been studied for the first time using monoenergetic positrons. The positron response increases essentially linearly with electron current, as a result of increased positron trapping by negatively charged divacancies. The measurements indicate that ≤1% of the divacancies become negatively charged in the steady state at a forward bias of 1 V. Changes in the mean positron response when applying a square wave bias to the sample (1 V forward bias and 0 V, duty cycle 1:4, times at 0 V in the range 0.1-100 μs), were consistent with a rapid conversion of doubly to singly charged divacancies (in ∼10(1) ns), followed by slower defilling of the singly charged divacancies with a time constant of ∼10(1) μs. These ac measurements allow determination of the relative populations of singly and doubly charged divacancies. The results provide confirmation of consistency between the positron's response to the silicon divacancy and previously extracted capture and emission kinetics determined through charge transient measurements and assigned to the same defect. The possibility of combining these two, orthogonal techniques suggest a promising new and powerful approach to defect spectroscopy in which the structure and electrical properties of a defect may be determined in a single measurement.
Hashemzadeh, M.
2015-11-15
The effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on the electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas is studied by particle in cell method. Phase space diagrams show that the size of the holes, and consequently, the number of trapped particles strongly depends on the q-parameter and saturation time. Furthermore, the mechanism of the instability and exchange of energy between electron-positron and electric field is explained by the profiles of the energy density. Moreover, it is found that the q-parameter, saturation time, and electron and positron velocities affect the nonlinear evolution of the electron density which leads to the steepening of its structure. The q-nonextensive parameter or degree of nonextensivity is the relation between temperature gradient and potential energy of the system. Therefore, the deviation of q-parameter from unity indicates the degree of inhomogeneity of temperature or deviation from equilibrium. Finally, using the kinetic theory, a generalized q-dispersion relation is presented for electron-positron-ion plasma systems. It is found that the simulation results in the linear regime are in good agreement with the growth rate results obtained by the kinetic theory.
Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C
2014-09-19
Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.
Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C
2014-09-19
Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. PMID:25279617
Maroof, R.; Ali, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.
2015-11-15
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maroof, R.; Ali, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.
2015-11-01
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, S.; Ata-ur-Rahman
2014-04-01
The linear and nonlinear properties of the ion-acoustic (IA) waves are investigated in a relativistically degenerate magnetoplasma, whose constituents are the electrons, positrons, and ions. The electrons and positrons are assumed to obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics, whereas the cold ions are taken to be inertial and magnetized. In linear analysis, various limiting cases are discussed both analytically and numerically. However, for nonlinear studies, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is employed to derive the Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Zakharov-Kuznetsov Burgers equations in the presence of relativistically degenerate electrons and positrons. Furthermore, with the use of hyperbolic tangent method, the equations are simplified to admit the soliton and shock wave solutions. Numerically, it is shown that the amplitude, width, and phase speed associated with the localized IA solitons and shocks are significantly influenced by the various intrinsic plasma parameters relevant to our model. The present analysis can be useful for understanding the collective processes in dense astrophysical environments like neutron stars, where the electrons and positrons are expected to be relativistic and degenerate.
Misra, Amar P; Chowdhury, A Roy
2004-11-01
The theory of electromagnetic surface modes propagating along the planar interface between dusty electron-positron plasma and vacuum is reexamined by the conventional matching method of boundary conditions. It is shown that in a magnetoplasma the direct use of specular reflection method is not appropriate and the derivations for the TM-mode dispersion relation [Phys. Rev. E 61, 4357 (2000)] are incorrect.
Alam, M. S.; Uddin, M. J.; Mamun, A. A.; Masud, M. M.
2014-09-01
Positron-acoustic (PA) solitary waves (SWs) and double layers (DLs) in four-component plasmas consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated both numerically and analytically by deriving Korteweg–de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and Gardner equations along with their DLs solutions using the reductive perturbation method. It is examined that depending on the plasma parameters, the K-dV SWs, Gardner SWs, and DLs support either compressive or rarefactive structures, whereas mK-dV SWs support only compressive structure. It is also found that the presence of superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and hot electrons significantly modify the basic features of PA SWs as well as PA DLs. Besides, the critical number density ratio of hot positrons and cold positrons play an important role in the polarity of PA SWs and DLs. The implications of our results in different space as well as laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.
Electron-cooled accumulation of 4 × 109 positrons for production and storage of antihydrogen atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzakerley, D. W.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Skinner, T. D. G.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Gabrielse, G.; Hamley, C. D.; Jones, N.; Marable, K.; Tardiff, E.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Zielinski, M.; ATRAP Collaboration
2016-03-01
Four billion positrons (e+) are accumulated in a Penning-Ioffe trap apparatus at 1.2 K and <6 × 10-17 Torr. This is the largest number of positrons ever held in a Penning trap. The e+ are cooled by collisions with trapped electrons (e-) in this first demonstration of using e- for efficient loading of e+ into a Penning trap. The combined low temperature and vacuum pressure provide an environment suitable for antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) production, and long antimatter storage times, sufficient for high-precision tests of antimatter gravity and of CPT.
Quantum ion-acoustic double layers in unmagnetized dense electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, S. A.; Mahmood, S.; Ali, S.
2009-04-01
The existence of small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic double layers is studied in an unmagnetized dense electron-positron-ion plasma. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamic model is employed to derive a deformed Korteweg-de Vries (dKdV) equation. The steady state double layer solution of dKdV equation is obtained and its dependence on various parameters is discussed. It is found that only compressive double layers can exist in such plasmas. The analytical and numerical studies reveal that the quantum ion-acoustic double layer structures strongly depend on quantum diffraction effects and positron number density.
Obliquely propagating nonlinear structures in dense dissipative electron positron ion magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.; Siddiq, M.
2012-02-01
Nonlinear electrostatic waves in dense dissipative magnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas are investigated employing the quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, Zakharov Kuznetsov Burgers (ZKB) equation is derived in dense plasmas using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. It is observed that obliqueness, positron concentration, kinematic viscosity, and the ambient magnetic field significantly alter the structure of nonlinear quantum ion acoustic waves in dense dissipative e-p-i magnetoplasmas. The present study may be useful to understand the nonlinear propagation characteristics of electrostatic shock structures in dense astrophysical systems where the quantum effects are expected to dominate.
Linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas
Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.
2008-06-15
The linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves propagating obliquely in two dimensions in superdense, magnetized electron-positron-ion quantum plasma are investigated on the basis of quantum hydrodynamic model. It is found in linear analysis that the quantum corrections of diffraction are important in the very short wavelength regime that may be found in dense astrophysical plasmas. To investigate the solitary waves, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived and the solution is presented in the small amplitude limit. By numerical analysis, it is found that the soliton structure of the ion acoustic wave depends upon quantum pressure, concentration of positrons, strength of magnetic field, and the propagation angle.
Linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.
2008-06-01
The linear and nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves propagating obliquely in two dimensions in superdense, magnetized electron-positron-ion quantum plasma are investigated on the basis of quantum hydrodynamic model. It is found in linear analysis that the quantum corrections of diffraction are important in the very short wavelength regime that may be found in dense astrophysical plasmas. To investigate the solitary waves, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived and the solution is presented in the small amplitude limit. By numerical analysis, it is found that the soliton structure of the ion acoustic wave depends upon quantum pressure, concentration of positrons, strength of magnetic field, and the propagation angle.
Ali Shan, S.; El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.
2013-08-15
Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of cold positive ions, superthermal electrons, and positrons beam are reported. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to an energy-balance like equation. The latter is numerically analyzed to examine the existence regions for solitary and shock waves. It is found that only solitary waves can propagate, however, the model cannot support shocks. The effects of superthermality and beam parameters (via, positrons concentration and streaming velocity) on the existence region, as well as solitary wave profile have been discussed.
Compressive and rarefactive dressed solitons in plasma with nonthermal electrons and positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Zahran, M. A.; Elwakil, S. A.
2016-02-01
The study of dressed solitary ion waves in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma composed warm fluid of ion, nonthermal distributed positrons and electrons are discussed. Concerning nonlinear ion acoustic waves, a reductive perturbation method is applied to obtain the KdV equation in terms of first order potential. Our results exemplify that, if soliton amplitude enlarged, the shape of the wave sidetrack from KdV equation. In order to improve the soliton shape, the perturbed KdV equation is suggest. In particular, the effects of nonthermal positrons and ionic temperature on the electrostatic dressed rarefactive and compressive soliton structures are discussed.
Beam Tests of a Clearing Electrode for Electron Cloud Mitigation at KEKB Positron Ring
Suetsugu, Y.; Fukuma, H.; Shibata, K.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.; /SLAC
2010-06-15
In order to mitigate the electron cloud instability in an intense positron ring, an electron clearing electrode with a very thin structure has been developed. The electrode was tested with a positron beam of the KEKB B-factory (KEKB). A drastic reduction in the electron density around the beam was demonstrated in a wiggler magnet with a dipole-type magnetic field of 0.78 T. The clearing electrode was then applied to a copper beam pipe with antechambers assuming an application of the electrode to a wiggler section in the Super KEKB. The beam pipe was installed at a magnetic-free region in the ring and tested with beam. No extra heating of the electrodes and feed-throughs were observed. A reduction in the electron density reasonable in a magnetic-free region was also obtained.
a Search for Low-Mass Short-Lived States Coupling to Positron-Electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phlips, Bernard Felix
Following the discovery of correlated positron -electron peaks in heavy ion experiments, the existence of a previously undetected particle coupling to e ^+e^- was postulated. A new experiment with improved sensitivity was suggested to detect this particle. Monoenergetic positrons would be accelerated onto electrons in a lithium target and the kinematics of the e^+e ^- scattering events measured by energy and position sensitive detectors. The experiment was carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory where a 3 MV Dynamitron electrostatic accelerator was converted to a positron accelerator. The monoenergetic positrons were provided by a ^{22} Na source in conjunction with a thin single crystal tungsten moderator, and accelerated by the Dynamitron to a tunable energy between 1.0 and 2.5 MeV with keV resolution. The beam was transported through a new beam line to the target chamber where it could be focused down to 1 mm spot size. The energy of the interactions of the positrons with the lithium target was measured by plastic scintillators, and the position of the scattered particles was recorded by a set of four multi-wire proportional chambers capable of sub millimeter resolution. In a first experiment, the positron beam was scanned between 2150 and 2350 keV in 5 keV steps onto a 1.5 mg/cm ^2 lithium target with at least 60 000 coincidences recorded per energy point. The full kinematics of each positron-electron scattering event was reconstructed. The positron-nucleus scattering events were also detected and served as a normalization to eliminate all beam and target effects. A normalized e^+-e ^- scattering excitation function was derived, leading to an upper limit (90% CL) to the cross section for pointlike particles of sigma~ 1-5 mb. This translates to lower limits on the lifetime of tau>= 0.5 to 7 times10^{13} sec. In an extended run, data were acquired on a 2.5 mg/cm^2 lithium target from 1350 keV to 2350 keV in 3.5 keV steps with ~ 300 000 coincidences per
Observation of Magnetic Resonances in Electron Clouds in a Positron Storage Ring
Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Kuekan, B.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Wang, L.F.; /SLAC
2011-08-24
The first experimental observation of magnetic resonances in electron clouds is reported. The resonance was observed as a modulation in cloud intensity for uncoated as well as TiN-coated aluminum surfaces in the positron storage ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. Electron clouds frequently arise in accelerators of positively charged particles, and severely impact the machines performance. The TiN coating was found to be an effective remedy, reducing the cloud intensity by three orders of magnitude.
Second-order Born approximation for the ionization of molecules by electron and positron impact
Dal Cappello, C.; Rezkallah, Z.; Houamer, S.; Charpentier, I.; Hervieux, P. A.; Ruiz-Lopez, M. F.; Dey, R.; Roy, A. C.
2011-09-15
Second-order Born approximation is applied to study the ionization of molecules. The initial and final states are described by single-center wave functions. For the initial state a Gaussian wave function is used while for the ejected electron it is a distorted wave. Results of the present model are compared with recent (e,2e) experiments on the water molecule. Preliminary results are also presented for the ionization of the thymine molecule by electrons and positrons.
Study of secondary electrons and positrons produced by Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarria, D.; Blelly, P.-L.; Forme, F.
2015-12-01
Terrestrial Gamma ray Flahes are emissions of X and gamma rays, correlated to thunderstorms. By interacting with the atmosphere, the photons produce a large number of electrons and positrons. Some of these reach altitudes above ˜ 100 km that their interactions with the atmosphere become negligible, and they are then guided by Earth's magnetic field lines, forming the so called Terrestrial Electron Beams. The GBM instrument of the Fermi Space Telescope made a particularly interesting measurement of such an event that happened the 12/09/2009. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to study this event in detail and we focus on the resulting time histograms. In agreement with previous works, we show that the histogram measured by Fermi GBM can be reproduced from simulations. We then show that the time histogram can be decomposed into three populations of leptons, coming from the hemisphere opposite from the TGF, and mirroring back to the satellite with interactions with the atmosphere or not, and that these we can be clearly distinguished both with their pitch angles.
Jao, C-S; Hau, L-N
2014-05-01
Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and solitons are widely present in the solar system plasma environment. Many theoretical and numerical studies have been carried out to address the formation and structure of ESWs and solitons in electron-ion plasmas. Due to the inertia symmetry, the issue of whether solitons can exist in pair plasmas has been raised and has been discussed in a number of papers. Recently, we have shown that interlacing electron and positron holes in phase space associated with periodic positive and negative potentials may be generated by current-free electron and positron beams streaming in stationary electron-positron background plasmas [Jao and Hau, Phys. Rev. E 86, 056401 (2012)]. The question remains of whether pure electron or positron holes with positive or negative polarity may exist in neutral electron-positron plasmas. In this paper, we show the formation of electron (positron) holes associated with ESWs of positive (negative) potential based on the particle-in-cell simulations of bump-on-tail streaming instability in pair plasmas. The fluid theory shows that the coexistence of two unstable modes with different wavelengths is the essential condition for the generation of electrostatic solitons and hole structures in an electron-positron plasma. PMID:25353901
Interaction of two solitary waves in quantum electron-positron-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yan-Xia; Liu, Zong-Ming; Lin, Mai-Mai; Shi, Yu-Ren; Chen, Jian-Min; Duan, Wen-Shan
2011-05-01
The collision between two ion-acoustic solitary waves with arbitrary colliding angle θ in an unmagnetized, ultracold quantum three-component e-p-i plasma has been investigated. By using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, we obtain the KdV equations and the analytical phase shifts after the collision of two solitary waves in this three-component plasma. The effects of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of Fermi positron temperature to Fermi electron temperature σ, the ratio of Fermi positron number density to Fermi electron number density μ, and the ratio of Fermi ion temperature to Fermi electron temperature ρ on the phase shifts are studied. It is found that these parameters can significantly influence the phase shifts of the solitons.
Resonant two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in a pulsed electromagnetic wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voroshilo, A. I.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Nedoreshta, V. N.
2016-09-01
Two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in the field of a plane low-intensity circularly polarized pulsed electromagnetic wave was studied. The conditions for resonance of the process which are related to an intermediate particle that falls within the mass shell are studied. In the resonant approximation the probability of the process was obtained. It is demonstrated that the resonant probability of two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair may be several orders of magnitude higher than the probability of this process in the absence of the external field. The obtained results may be experimentally verified by the laser facilities of the international megaprojects, for example, SLAC (National Accelerator Laboratory), FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), and XFEL (European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser).
Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Rastbood, E.; Zeinaddini Meymand, H.; Niknam, A. R.
2013-08-15
The nonlinear coupling between circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and acoustic-like waves in a magnetoactive electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma is studied, taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons and positrons. The possibility of modulational instability and its growth rate as well as the envelope soliton formation and its characteristics in such plasmas are investigated. It is found that the growth rate of modulation instability increases in the case that ω{sub c}/ω<1 (ω{sub c} and ω are the electron gyrofrequency and the CPEM wave frequency, respectively) and decreases in the case that ω{sub c}/ω>1. It is also shown that in a magnetoactive e-p-i plasma, the width of bright soliton increases/decreases in case of (ω{sub c}/ω)<1/(ω{sub c}/ω)>1 by increasing the magnetic field strength.
Interaction of two solitary waves in quantum electron-positron-ion plasma
Xu Yanxia; Lin Maimai; Shi Yuren; Duan Wenshan; Liu Zongming; Chen Jianmin
2011-05-15
The collision between two ion-acoustic solitary waves with arbitrary colliding angle {theta} in an unmagnetized, ultracold quantum three-component e-p-i plasma has been investigated. By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, we obtain the KdV equations and the analytical phase shifts after the collision of two solitary waves in this three-component plasma. The effects of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of Fermi positron temperature to Fermi electron temperature {sigma}, the ratio of Fermi positron number density to Fermi electron number density {mu}, and the ratio of Fermi ion temperature to Fermi electron temperature {rho} on the phase shifts are studied. It is found that these parameters can significantly influence the phase shifts of the solitons.
Ion-acoustic nonlinear periodic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma
Chawla, J. K.; Mishra, M. K.
2010-10-15
Ion-acoustic nonlinear periodic waves, namely, ion-acoustic cnoidal waves have been studied in electron-positron-ion plasma. Using reductive perturbation method and appropriate boundary condition for nonlinear periodic waves, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived for the system. The cnoidal wave solution of the KdV equation is discussed in detail. It is found that the frequency of the cnoidal wave is a function of its amplitude. It is also found that the positron concentration modifies the properties of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves. The existence regions for ion-acoustic cnoidal wave in the parameters space (p,{sigma}), where p and {sigma} are the positron concentration and temperature ratio of electron to positron, are discussed in detail. In the limiting case these ion-acoustic cnoidal waves reduce to the ion-acoustic soliton solutions. The effect of other parameters on the characteristics of the nonlinear periodic waves is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwardson, C. J.; Coleman, P. G.; Paez, D. J.; Doylend, J. K.; Knights, A. P.
2013-03-01
Electron capture during forward bias and reemission at zero bias by divacancies in the depletion region of a silicon diode structure at room temperature have been studied for the first time using monoenergetic positrons. The positron response increases essentially linearly with electron current, as a result of increased positron trapping by negatively charged divacancies. The measurements indicate that ≤1% of the divacancies become negatively charged in the steady state at a forward bias of 1 V. Changes in the mean positron response when applying a square wave bias to the sample (1 V forward bias and 0 V, duty cycle 1∶4, times at 0 V in the range 0.1-100μs), were consistent with a rapid conversion of doubly to singly charged divacancies (in ˜101ns), followed by slower defilling of the singly charged divacancies with a time constant of ˜101μs. These ac measurements allow determination of the relative populations of singly and doubly charged divacancies. The results provide confirmation of consistency between the positron’s response to the silicon divacancy and previously extracted capture and emission kinetics determined through charge transient measurements and assigned to the same defect. The possibility of combining these two, orthogonal techniques suggest a promising new and powerful approach to defect spectroscopy in which the structure and electrical properties of a defect may be determined in a single measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruan, Shi-Sen; Cheng, Ze
2013-07-01
In this paper, we study the head-on collision between two electron acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in magnetized quantum electron-positron-ion plasma. Using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, we obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equations, the phase shifts and the trajectories after the head-on collision of the two EASWs. It is found that the phase shifts are significantly affected by the values of the quantum parameter H, the ion to electron number density ratio δ, the electron cyclotron to electron plasma frequency ratio α and the obliqueness θ (propagation angle).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tóth, Istvan; Nagy, Ladislau; Campeanu, Radu I.
2016-08-01
Triple differential cross sections are calculated for the ionization of NH3 by positron impact in coplanar and perpendicular geometrical arrangements. The cross sections are determined for symmetrically emerging particles with equal energies. The positron cross sections are compared with previously calculated electron cross sections for the same kinematical conditions.
Gamma-ray spectra of hexane (C6H14) in positron-electron annihilation process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiaoguang; Wang, Feng
2013-08-01
Theoretical gamma-ray spectra of molecule hexane have been calculated and compared with the experimental results in both gas (Iwata et al., 1997a) and liquid (Kerr et al., 1965) phases. The present study reveals that in gas phase not all valence electrons of hexane contribute the same degree in the electron-positron annihilation of hexane. The electrons which dominate the positron-electron annihilation of molecules are called positrophilic electrons. The positrophilic electrons are predominately found to involve the electrons on the lowest occupied valence orbital (LOVO) of a free molecule in gas phase. When hexane is confined in liquid phase, however, the intermolecular interactions ultimately eliminate the free molecular orientation and selectivity for the positrophilic electrons in the gas phase. As a result, the gamma-ray spectra of hexane become an "averaged" contribution from all valence electrons, which is again in agreement with liquid phase measurement. The roles of valence electrons in annihilation process for gas and liquid phases of hexane have been recognized for the first time in the present study.
Wang, Jian-Yong; Cheng, Xue-Ping; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-Rong; Ren, Bo
2014-03-15
The oblique propagation of ion-acoustic soliton-cnoidal waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma with superthermal electrons is studied. Linear dispersion relations of the fast and slow ion-acoustic modes are discussed under the weak and strong magnetic field situations. By means of the reductive perturbation approach, Korteweg-de Vries equations governing ion-acoustic waves of fast and slow modes are derived, respectively. Explicit interacting soliton-cnoidal wave solutions are obtained by the generalized truncated Painlevé expansion. It is found that every peak of a cnoidal wave elastically interacts with a usual soliton except for some phase shifts. The influence of the electron superthermality, positron concentration, and magnetic field obliqueness on the soliton-cnoidal wave are investigated in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Ali; Masood, W.
2015-10-01
> We investigate the low-frequency (by comparison with the ion Larmor frequency) electrostatic solitary structures in a spatially non-uniform electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasma with non-Maxwellian electrons. A linear dispersion relation for the obliquely propagating ion acoustic drift wave is derived and it is shown that the non-Maxwellian electron population modifies the dispersion characteristics of the wave under consideration. We also carry out a nonlinear analysis and derive the modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (MZK) equation for the coupled drift acoustic wave in a non-uniform magnetized plasma. We highlight the differences between the MZK equation and its homogeneous counterpart. We also find the solution of the MZK equation using the tangent hyperbolic method. It is observed that the electron spectral index , positron concentration, and propagation angle alter the structure of the ion acoustic drift solitary waves. The results obtained in this paper may be beneficial to understanding the propagation characteristics of electrostatic drift solitary structures in the interstellar medium and in laboratory experiments where electron-positron plasmas have recently been created by impinging ultra-intense laser pulses on a solid density target at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).
Fast magnetic reconnection in low-density electron-positron plasmas
Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, A.
2010-10-15
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have been performed to study magnetic reconnection in low-density electron-positron plasmas without a guide magnetic field. Impulsive reconnection rates become of the order of unity when the background density is much smaller than 10% of the density in the initial current layer. It is demonstrated that the outflow speed is less than the upstream Alfven speed, and that the time derivative of the density must be taken into account in the definition of the reconnection rate. The reconnection electric fields in the low-density regime become much larger than the ones in the high-density regime, and it is possible to accelerate the particles to high energies more efficiently. The inertial term in the generalized Ohm's law is the most dominant term that supports a large reconnection electric field. An effective collisionless resistivity is produced and tracks the extension of the diffusion region in the late stage of the reconnection dynamics, and significant broadening of the diffusion region is observed. Because of the broadening of the diffusion region, no secondary islands, which have been considered to play a role to limit the diffusion region, are generated during the extension of the diffusion region in the outflow direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouhani, M. R.; Akbarian, A.; Mohammadi, Z.
2013-08-01
The behavior of quantum dust ion acoustic soliton and shocks in a plasma including inertialess quantum electrons and positrons, classical cold ions, and stationary negative dust grains are studied, using arbitrary amplitude approach. The effect of dissipation due to viscosity of ions is taken into account. The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential for small value of quantum diffraction parameter (H) shows that for chosen plasma, only compressive solitons can exist and the existence domain of this type of solitons is decreased by increasing dust density (d). Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both subsonic and supersonic compressive solitons is investigated. It is shown that there is a critical dust density above which only supersonic solitons are observed. Moreover, increasing d leads to a reduction in the existence domain of compressive solitons and the possibility of propagation of rarefactive soliton is provided. So, rarefactive solitons are observed only due to the presence of dust particles in this model quantum plasma. Furthermore, numerical solution of governed equations for arbitrary amplitude shock waves has been investigated. It is shown that only compressive large amplitude shocks can propagate. Finally, the effects of plasma parameters on these structures are investigated. This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of dense astrophysical (i.e., white dwarfs and neutron stars) and laboratory dusty plasmas.
Rouhani, M. R.; Akbarian, A.; Mohammadi, Z.
2013-08-15
The behavior of quantum dust ion acoustic soliton and shocks in a plasma including inertialess quantum electrons and positrons, classical cold ions, and stationary negative dust grains are studied, using arbitrary amplitude approach. The effect of dissipation due to viscosity of ions is taken into account. The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential for small value of quantum diffraction parameter (H) shows that for chosen plasma, only compressive solitons can exist and the existence domain of this type of solitons is decreased by increasing dust density (d). Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both subsonic and supersonic compressive solitons is investigated. It is shown that there is a critical dust density above which only supersonic solitons are observed. Moreover, increasing d leads to a reduction in the existence domain of compressive solitons and the possibility of propagation of rarefactive soliton is provided. So, rarefactive solitons are observed only due to the presence of dust particles in this model quantum plasma. Furthermore, numerical solution of governed equations for arbitrary amplitude shock waves has been investigated. It is shown that only compressive large amplitude shocks can propagate. Finally, the effects of plasma parameters on these structures are investigated. This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of dense astrophysical (i.e., white dwarfs and neutron stars) and laboratory dusty plasmas.
Linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, S.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.; Schlickeiser, R.
2007-08-01
The linear and nonlinear properties of the ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) are investigated by using the quantum hydrodynamic equations together with the Poisson equation in a three-component quantum electron-positron-ion plasma. For this purpose, a linear dispersion relation, a Korteweg-de Vries equation and an energy equation containing quantum corrections are derived. Computational investigations have been performed to examine the quantum mechanical effects on the linear and nonlinear waves. It is found that both the linear and nonlinear properties of the IAWs are significantly affected by the inclusion of the quantum corrections. The relevance of the present investigation to dense white dwarfs (where the electron-positron annihilation can be unimportant) is discussed.
Planar and non-planar ion acoustic shock waves in electron positron ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, Waqas; Jehan, Nusrat; Mirza, Arshad M.; Sakanaka, P. H.
2008-06-01
Ion acoustic shock waves (IASW's) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons, positrons and adiabatically hot positive ions. This is done by deriving the Kortweg-deVries-Burger (KdVB) equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of ion acoustic shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. It is observed that the positron concentration, ratio of ion to electron temperature, and the plasma kinematic viscosity significantly modifies the shock structure. Finally, it is found that the temporal evolution of the non-planar IASW's is quite different by comparison with the planar geometry. The relevance of the present study with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Cross section for production of low-energy electron-positron pairs by relativistic heavy ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eby, P. B.
1991-01-01
Starting with the lowest-order unscreened QED matrix element for electron-positron pair production by heavy charged particles, the paper calculates the cross section for this process differential in all independent variables and valid for all pair energies small compared to the incident particle energy. Integration over the possible emission angles of one of the pair members gives an expression that is valid for low-energy pairs that can be compared with previous work based on the Weizsaecker-Williams method. Integration over the possible angles of the other pair member then yields an expression identical to one derived by Racah. The high energy-transfer limit of the expression for the cross section integrated over electron and positron angles is found to be identical to that of Kelner in the unscreened case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Ross, Douglas A.
2001-05-01
We present the contributions from all types of one-loop corrections to the scattering amplitude for the pair production of polarized charginos or neutralinos from polarized electron-positron annihilation. The contributions are classified in terms of ``prototypes'' distinguished by the number of particles inside the loops and their spins. The results are quoted in terms of the Veltman-Passarino functions in terms of general couplings and internal masses. The results can therefore be applied to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model or indeed to any polarized fermion pair production process in electron-positron annihilation. A FORTRAN program which encodes the results of the paper is available http://www.hep.phys.soton.ac.uk/hepwww/staff/D.Ross/chipackage/chipackage.html.
Head-tail instability caused by electron clouds in positron storage rings
Ohmi; Zimmermann
2000-10-30
In positron or proton storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, an electron cloud can build up in the vacuum chamber due to photoemission or secondary emission. We discuss the possibility of a single-bunch two-stream instability driven by this electron cloud. Depending on the strength of the beam-electron interaction, the chromaticity and the synchrotron oscillation frequency, this instability either resembles a linac beam breakup or a head-tail instability. We present computer simulations of the instabilities, and compare the simulation results with analytical estimates.
Head-tail instability caused by electron clouds in positron storage rings
Ohmi; Zimmermann
2000-10-30
In positron or proton storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, an electron cloud can build up in the vacuum chamber due to photoemission or secondary emission. We discuss the possibility of a single-bunch two-stream instability driven by this electron cloud. Depending on the strength of the beam-electron interaction, the chromaticity and the synchrotron oscillation frequency, this instability either resembles a linac beam breakup or a head-tail instability. We present computer simulations of the instabilities, and compare the simulation results with analytical estimates. PMID:11041936
The Contribution of Millisecond Pulsars to the Local Electron / Positron Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venter, Christo; Buesching, Ingo; Harding, Alice; Kopp, Andreas; Gonthier, Peter
The high energies of gamma-ray photons (as well as the presence of lower-energy photons) coupled with the intense magnetic fields characterizing younger pulsars enable formation of electron-positron pair cascades which fills the pulsar magnetosphere with plasma and also feeds an outflowing particle wind that may create a surrounding pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Although this scenario was originally thought to be unique to the younger pulsar population, Fermi LAT demonstrated that the light curves of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally very similar to those of younger pulsars, requiring copious pair production even for this older class with much lower surface magnetic fields and spin-down power. These pair cascades may thus be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, and may present an astrophysical explanation for the observed enhancement in positron flux in the high-energy band. We investigate Galactic MSPs contribution to the flux of local cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. We use a population synthesis code to predict the source properties (number, position, and power) of the present-day Galactic MSPs, taking into account the latest Fermi observations to calibrate the model output. Next, we simulate pair cascade spectra from these MSPs using a model that invokes an offset-dipole magnetic field, as this increases the pair production rate relative to a standard dipole field geometry. The model source pair spectra may extend to several TeV, depending on pulsar properties, neutron star equation of state, and magnetic polar cap offset. Since MSPs are not surrounded by PWNe or supernova shells, we can assume that the pairs escape from the pulsar environment without energy loss and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We lastly compute the spectrum of the transported electrons and positrons at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. We will compare our results with the observed local interstellar spectrum and
Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics
Ayers, S L
2010-04-07
The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.
Prospects for the study of gluonic states at Beijing Electron- Positron Collider (BEPC)
Chanowitz, M.S.
1989-01-11
Progress in the study of gluonic states depends crucially on accumulating data samples of order 10/sup 8/ J//psi/ decays, in order to perform complete partial wave analyses of radiative and hadronic J//psi/ decays. This requirement is well matched to the capabilities of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider, which has approached the necessary luminosity in its first two months of operation. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Theories of statistical equilibrium in electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings
Schonfeld, J.F.
1985-01-01
In this lecture I introduce you to some recent theoretical work that represents a significant and long overdue departure from the mainstream of ideas on the physics of colliding- beam storage rings. The goal of the work in question is to understand analytically - without recourse to computer simulation - the role that dissipation and noise play in the observed colliding-beam behavior of electron-positron storage rings.
On thermalization of electron-positron-photon plasma
Siutsou, I. A.; Aksenov, A. G.
2015-12-17
Recently a progress has been made in understanding thermalization mechanism of relativistic plasma starting from a non-equilibrium state. Relativistic Boltzmann equations were solved numerically for homogeneous isotropic plasma with collision integrals for two- and three-particle interactions calculated from the first principles by means of QED matrix elements. All particles were assumed to fulfill Boltzmann statistics. In this work we follow plasma thermalization by accounting for Bose enhancement and Pauli blocking in particle interactions. Our results show that particle in equilibrium reach Bose-Einstein distribution for photons, and Fermi-Dirac one for electrons, respectively.
Measurement of the hadronic cross section in electron-positron annihilation
Clearwater, S.
1983-11-01
This thesis describes the most precise measurement to date of the ratio R, the hadronic cross section in lowest order electron-positron annihilation to the cross section for muon pair production in lowest order electron-positron annihilation. This experiment is of interest because R is a fundamental parameter that tests in a model independent way the basic assumptions of strong interaction theories. According to the assumptions of one of these theories the value of R is determined simply from the electric charges, spin, and color assignments of the produced quark-pairs. The experiment was carried out with the MAgnetic Calorimeter using collisions of 14.5 GeV electrons and positrons at the 2200m circumference PEP storage ring at SLAC. The MAC detector is one of the best-suited collider detectors for measuring R due to its nearly complete coverage of the full angular range. The data for this experiment were accumulated between February 1982 and April 1983 corresponding to a total event sample of about 40,000 hadronic events. About 5% of the data were taken with 14 GeV beams and the rest of the data were taken with 14.5 GeV beams. A description of particle interactions and experimental considerations is given.
Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma
Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-03-15
The properties of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of ambient magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in an electron-positron-ion nonthermal plasma. The plasma nonthermality is introduced via the q-nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting reductive perturbation method. The solution of K-dV and modified K-dV equation, which describes the solitary wave characteristics in the long wavelength limit, is obtained by steady state approach. It is seen that the electron and positron nonextensivity and external magnetic field (obliqueness) have significant effects on the characteristics of solitary waves. A critical value of nonextensivity is found for which solitary structures transit from positive to negative potential. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas where static external magnetic field is present.
Nonlinear electromagnetic perturbations in a degenerate ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasma.
El-Taibany, W F; Mamun, A A
2012-02-01
Nonlinear propagation of fast and slow magnetosonic perturbation modes in an ultrarelativistic, ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron positron (EP) plasma (containing ultrarelativistic, ultracold, degenerate electron and positron fluids) has been investigated by the reductive perturbation method. The Alfvén wave velocity is modified due to the presence of the enthalpy correction in the fluid equations of motion. The degenerate EP plasma system (under consideration) supports the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons, which are associated with either fast or slow magnetosonic perturbation modes. It is found that the ultrarelativistic model leads to compressive (rarefactive) electromagnetic solitons corresponding to the fast (slow) wave mode. There are certain critical angles, θ(c), at which no soliton solution is found corresponding to the fast wave mode. For the slow mode, the magnetic-field intensity affects both the soliton amplitude and width. It is also illustrated that the basic features of the electromagnetic solitary structures, which are found to exist in such a degenerate EP plasma, are significantly modified by the effects of enthalpy correction, electron and positron degeneracy, magnetic-field strength, and the relativistic effect. The applications of the results in a pair-plasma medium, which occurs in many astrophysical objects (e.g., pulsars, white dwarfs, and neutron stars) are briefly discussed. PMID:22463336
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-01
The solitary structures of multi-dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-15
The solitary structures of multi–dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
The extent of non-thermal particle acceleration in relativistic, electron-positron reconnection
Werner, Greg; Guo, Fan
2015-07-21
Reconnection is studied as an explanation for high-energy flares from the Crab Nebula. The production of synchrotron emission >100 MeV challenges classical models of acceleration. 3D simulation shows that reconnection, converting magnetic energy to kinetic energy, can accelerate beyond γ_{rad}. The power-law index and high-energy cutoff are important for understanding the radiation spectrum dN/dγ = f(γ) ∝ γ^{-α}. α and cutoff were measured vs. L and σ, where L is system (simulation) size and σ is upstream magnetization (σ = B^{2}/4πnmc^{2}). α can affect the high-energy cutoff. In conclusion, for collisionless relativistic reconnection in electron-positron plasma, without guide field, n_{b}/n_{d}=0.1: (1) relativistic magnetic reconnection yields power-law particle spectra, (2) the power law index decreases as σ increases, approaching ≈1.2. (3) the power law is cut off at an energy related to acceleration within a single current layer, which is proportional to the current layer length (for small systems, that length is the system length, yielding γ_{c2} ≈ 0.1 L/ρ_{0}; for large systems, the layer length is limited by secondary tearing instability, yielding γ_{c1} ≈ 4σ; the transition from small to large is around L/ρ_{0} = 40σ.). (4) although the large-system energy cutoff is proportional to the average energy per particle, it is significantly higher than the average energy per particle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gast, Henning
2016-07-01
Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ˜30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The results show, for the first time, that neither e+ nor e- can be described by a single power law above 27.2 and 52.3 GeV, respectively. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. The dependence of the electron and positron fluxes on time will also be discussed.
Istomin, Ya. N. Sob'yanin, D. N.
2011-10-15
The production of electron-positron pairs in a vacuum neutron star magnetosphere is investigated for both low (compared to the Schwinger one) and high magnetic fields. The case of a strong longitudinal electric field where the produced electrons and positrons acquire a stationary Lorentz factor in a short time is considered. The source of electron-positron pairs has been calculated with allowance made for the pair production by curvature and synchrotron photons. Synchrotron photons are shown to make a major contribution to the total pair production rate in a weak magnetic field. At the same time, the contribution from bremsstrahlung photons may be neglected. The existence of a time delay due to the finiteness of the electron and positron acceleration time leads to a great reduction in the electron-positron plasma generation rate compared to the case of a zero time delay. The effective local source of electron-positron pairs has been constructed. It can be used in the hydrodynamic equations that describe the development of a cascade after the absorption of a photon from the cosmic gamma-ray background in a neutron star magnetosphere.
Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; et al
2016-04-11
Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnostics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud withmore » stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains, 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this study we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; Totten, M. M.; Tucker, S. L.; Williams, H. A.
2016-04-01
Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnotics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud with stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains; 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this paper we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.
Positron production within our atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwyer, Joseph
2016-04-01
Positrons are commonly produced within our atmosphere by cosmic rays and the decay radioactive isotopes. Energetic positrons are also produced by pair production from the gamma rays generated by relativistic runaway electrons. Indeed, such positrons have been detected in Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs) in the inner magnetosphere by Fermi/GBM. In addition, positrons play an important role in relativistic feedback discharges (also known as dark lightning). Relativistic feedback models suggest that these discharges may be responsible for Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and some gamma-ray glows. When producing TGFs, relativistic feedback discharges may generate large, lightning-like currents with current moments reaching hundreds of kA-km. In addition, relativistic feedback discharges also may limit the electric field that is possible in our atmosphere, affecting other mechanisms for generating runaway electrons. It is interesting that positrons, often thought of as exotic particles, may play an important role in thunderstorm processes. In this presentation, the role of positrons in high-energy atmospheric physics will be discussed. The unusual observation of positron clouds inside a thunderstorm by the ADELE instrument on an NCAR/NSF Gulfstream V aircraft will also be described. These observations illustrate that we still have much to learn about positron production within our atmosphere.
Measurement of electron-positron spectrum in high-energy cosmic rays in the PAMELA experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karelin, A. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S. A.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A. A.; Mayorov, A. G.; Malakhov, V. V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Rossetto, L.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.
2015-08-01
At present the existing data on the cosmic ray electron energy spectra in the high energy range are fragmented, and the situation is exacerbated by their small number. In the satellite PAMELA experiment measurements at high energies are carried out by the calorimeter. The experimental data accumulated for more than 8 years of measurements, with the information of the calorimeter, the neutron detector and the scintillation counters made it possible to obtain the total spectrum of high-energy electrons and positrons in energy range 0.3-3 TeV.
The gamma-ray spectra of halocarbons in positron-electron annihilation process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, X. G.; Zhu, Y. H.; Liu, Y.
2015-10-01
The gamma-ray spectra of the positron annihilation process in methane CH4 and its fully substituent halocarbons CF4, CCl4, and CBr4 have been studied. The theoretical predictions of the inner valence electrons agree well with the experimental measurements for all these molecules. That the outermost s electrons in carbon or halogen atoms dominate the gamma-ray spectra has been confirmed for the first time. The positrophilic site has also been found in these molecules and understanding of annihilation processes in molecules has been enhanced.
Hunting for glueballs in electron-positron annihilation
Stanley Brodsky; Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; Jungil Lee
2003-05-01
We calculate the cross section for the exclusive production of J{sup PC} = 0{sup ++} glueballs G{sub 0} in association with the J/{psi} in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation using the pQCD factorization formalism. The required long-distance matrix element for the glueball is bounded by CUSB data from a search for resonances in radiative {Upsilon} decay. The cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} + G{sub 0} at {radical}s = 10.6 GeV is similar to exclusive charmonium-pair production e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} + h for h = {eta}{sub c} and {chi}{sub c0}, and is larger by a factor 2 than that for h = {eta}{sub c}(2S). As the subprocesses {gamma}* {yields} (c {bar c}) (c {bar c}) and {gamma}* {yields} (c {bar c}) (g g) are of the same nominal order in perturbative QCD, it is possible that some portion of the anomalously large signal observed by Belle in e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} X may actually be due to the production of charmonium-glueball J/{psi} G{sub J} pairs.
Moortgat-Pick, G.; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv U. /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Gomel State Tech. U. /SLAC /DESY /Vienna U. /Daresbury /Liverpool U. /Freiburg U. /Vienna, OAW /Wurzburg U. /Fermilab /Uppsala U. /Waseda U., RISE /Warsaw U. /Bonn U. /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch. /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.
2005-07-06
The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.
Moortgat-Pick, G.; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv U. /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Gomel State Tech. U. /SLAC /DESY /Vienna U. /Daresbury /Liverpool U. /Freiburg U. /Vienna, OAW /Wurzburg U. /Fermilab /Uppsala U. /Waseda U., RISE /Warsaw U. /Bonn U. /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch. /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.
2005-07-01
The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.
Drift-Alfvén eigenmodes in inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haque, Q.; Yamin, S.; Ahmad, Ali
2011-03-01
An analytical description of drift-Alfvén modes in nonuniform bounded magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas is presented here. In the linear domain, linearized equations are solved by considering the Gaussian density profile in the radial direction. For this bounded plasma, the condition for the quantization of the modes is found. We note that the condition depends upon the density ratios of different plasma species. The full set of nonlinear equations is also solved, yielding stationary rotating solutions in terms of Bessel functions. We also note that the behavior of the nonlinear structures can be affected by the concentration of the positrons in the system. The importance of the present results with respect to astrophysical plasmas is pointed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2012-12-01
Nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of finite amplitude drift-acoustic-waves are derived by taking into account sheared ion flow perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in a quantum magnetoplasma comprised of electrons, positrons, and ions. It is shown that stationary solution of the nonlinear equations can be represented in the form of a counter-rotating vortex for a particular choice of the equilibrium profile. The counter rotating vortices are, however, observed to form on very short scales i.e., of the order of ion Larmor radius ρ i in quantum plasmas. It is observed that the scalelengths over which these structures form get modified in the presence of quantum statistical and Bohm potential terms as well as the positron concentration. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Ion-acoustic vortices in inhomogeneous and dissipative electron-positron-ion quantum magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Nargis, Shahida; Ayub, M.
2009-04-01
Linear and nonlinear properties of quantum ion-acoustic waves are studied in a nonuniform, dissipative quantum plasma (composed of electrons, positrons, and ions) with sheared ion flow parallel to the ambient magnetic field, using the quantum hydrodynamic model. It is shown that the shear ion flow parallel to the external magnetic field can drive the quantum ion-acoustic wave unstable provided ∣S∣ky>kz. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations that govern the quantum ion-acoustic waves are also obtained. It is found that electrostatic monopolar, dipolar, and vortex street-type solutions can appear in such a plasma. It is observed that the inclusion of positron, quantum statistical, and Bohm potential terms significantly modifies the scale lengths of these nonlinear structures. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Two dimensional electromagnetic shock structures in dense electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.; Hussain, S.
2011-04-01
Linear and nonlinear analysis of low frequency magnetoacoustic waves propagating at an angle θ with the ambient magnetic field are investigated in dense electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. In this regard, a quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived in the small amplitude limit. The stability of KPB equation is also presented. The variation of the nonlinear fast and slow magnetoacoustic shock waves with the positron concentration, kinematic viscosity, obliqueness parameter θ, and the magnetic field, are also investigated. It is observed that the aforementioned plasma parameters significantly modify the propagation characteristics of two dimensional nonlinear magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative quantum magnetoplasmas. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Dynamics of nonlinear ion-waves in Fermi-Dirac electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2011-06-01
Oblique propagation and head-on collisions of solitary structures is studied in a dense magnetized plasma comprised of relativistic ultra-cold electrons and positrons and positive dynamic ions using conventional extended multi-scales technique, in the ground of quantum hydrodynamics model. The variations of head-on collision phase-shift as well as the characteristic soliton amplitude and width is evaluated numerically in terms of other plasma parameters such as mass-density, normalized magnetic field strength, its angle with respect to the soliton propagation and the relative positron number-density. The relevance of current investigations, with appropriate plasma parameters for the astrophysical dense magnetized objects such as white-dwarfs, is addressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ata-ur-Rahman, Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Qamar, A.
2013-04-01
We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.
Ata-ur-Rahman,; Qamar, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2013-04-15
We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.
A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP (Positron Electron Project)
LeClaire, B.W.
1987-10-01
An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e-tilde, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, ..gamma..-tilde, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb/sup -1/ of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10/sup -2/ pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.
Study of four-lepton final states in electron-positron interactions at 29 GeV
Petradza, A.
1989-08-01
This thesis presents a study of electron-positron scattering to four light leptons. The motivations behind it are twofold. Firstly, the study is a test of the theory of electron-positron interactions to 4th order in the fine structure constant {alpha}. A deviation from the theory could indicate the existence of a heavy new particle. Secondly, a measurement of these processes may prove useful in the understanding of other QED-type reactions. The method for simulating the four-lepton processes by the Monte Carlo event generator of Berends, Daverveldt and Kleiss is described. Theoretical predictions are compared to data from the Mark II and HRS experiments at the PEP storage ring. The observed events consist of four leptons at large angles. Data for all three e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}, e{sup +}e{sup -}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} processes are well described by the QED Monte Carlo calculation. The various kinematical distributions are in good agreement with QED to order {alpha}{sup 4}. 18 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrovic, Zoran; Marjanovic, Srdjan
2015-05-01
The only existing explanation of the rotating wall positron trap operating in the low space charge limit (swarm) [ref] is based on momentum transfer collisions to represent the collisions of positrons in gas and to facilitate the effective narrowing of the profile and heating/cooling succession. The collisions are represented through a viscous term of a simple transport equation. In that model effective viscosity term is used to fit the observed data with no attention paid to the magnitude of the term compared to the measured or theoretically predicted values. We apply a well tested Monte Carlo technique whereby all interactions may be described by exact experimental or theoretical cross sections. We separate effects due to inelastic processes with small and large energy losses (i.e. on vibrational or rotational excitation versus electronic excitation). It turns out that large energy loss processes are essential in narrowing the profile but also that low energy loss processes define thermalization to the room temperature or lower and allow cooling of the ensemble. Heating was necessary to allow narrowing of the profile but the particles have to return to the thermal equilibrium with low fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-08-01
The characteristics of the nonlinear oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of Boltzmann positrons, trapped electrons and ions are investigated. The modified Kadomtsev-Petviashivili ( m K P ) equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique. The parametric effects on phase velocity, Sagdeev potential, amplitude and width of solitons, and electrostatic ion acoustic solitary structures are graphically presented with the relevant physical explanations. This study may be useful for the better understanding of physical phenomena concerned in plasmas in which the effects of trapped electrons control the dynamics of wave.
Williams, G.; Kourakis, I.
2013-12-15
Electrostatic solitary waves in plasmas are the focus of many current studies of localized electrostatic disturbances in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Here, an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of plasma evolving in two dimensions, in the presence of excess superthermal background electrons and positrons, is undertaken. We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on weakly nonlinear ion acoustic waves. Deviation from the Maxwellian distribution is effectively modelled by the kappa model. A linear dispersion relation is derived, and a decrease in frequency and phase speed in both parallel and perpendicular modes can be seen, when the proportion of positrons to electrons increases. We show that ion acoustic solitary waves can be generated during the nonlinear evolution of a plasma fluid, and their nonlinear propagation is governed by a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation. A multiple scales perturbation technique is used to derive the ZK equation. The solitary wave structures are dependent on the relation between the system parameters, specifically the superthermality of the system, the proportion of positron content, magnetic field strength, and the difference between electron and positron temperature. The parametric effect of these on electrostatic shock structures is investigated. In particular, we find that stronger superthermality leads to narrower excitations with smaller potential amplitudes. Increased positron concentration also suppresses both the amplitude and the width of solitary wave structures. However, the structures are only weakly affected by temperature differentials between electrons and positrons in our model.
On-ground detection of an electron-positron annihilation line from thunderclouds.
Umemoto, D; Tsuchiya, H; Enoto, T; Yamada, S; Yuasa, T; Kawaharada, M; Kitaguchi, T; Nakazawa, K; Kokubun, M; Kato, H; Okano, M; Tamagawa, T; Makishima, K
2016-02-01
Thunderclouds can produce bremsstrahlung gamma-ray emission, and sometimes even positrons. At 00:27:00 (UT) on 13 January 2012, an intense burst of gamma rays from a thundercloud was detected by the GROWTH experiment, located in Japan, facing the Sea of Japan. The event started with a sharp gamma-ray flash with a duration of <300 ms coincident with an intracloud discharge, followed by a decaying longer gamma-ray emission lasting for ∼60 s. The spectrum of this prolonged emission reached ∼10 MeV, and contained a distinct line emission at 508±3(stat.)±5(sys.) keV, to be identified with an electron-positron annihilation line. The line was narrow within the instrumental energy resolution (∼80keV), and contained 520±50 photons which amounted to ∼10% of the total signal photons of 5340±190 detected over 0.1-10 MeV. As a result, the line equivalent width reached 280±40 keV, which implies a nontrivial result. The result suggests that a downward positron beam produced both the continuum and the line photons. PMID:26986281
On-ground detection of an electron-positron annihilation line from thunderclouds.
Umemoto, D; Tsuchiya, H; Enoto, T; Yamada, S; Yuasa, T; Kawaharada, M; Kitaguchi, T; Nakazawa, K; Kokubun, M; Kato, H; Okano, M; Tamagawa, T; Makishima, K
2016-02-01
Thunderclouds can produce bremsstrahlung gamma-ray emission, and sometimes even positrons. At 00:27:00 (UT) on 13 January 2012, an intense burst of gamma rays from a thundercloud was detected by the GROWTH experiment, located in Japan, facing the Sea of Japan. The event started with a sharp gamma-ray flash with a duration of <300 ms coincident with an intracloud discharge, followed by a decaying longer gamma-ray emission lasting for ∼60 s. The spectrum of this prolonged emission reached ∼10 MeV, and contained a distinct line emission at 508±3(stat.)±5(sys.) keV, to be identified with an electron-positron annihilation line. The line was narrow within the instrumental energy resolution (∼80keV), and contained 520±50 photons which amounted to ∼10% of the total signal photons of 5340±190 detected over 0.1-10 MeV. As a result, the line equivalent width reached 280±40 keV, which implies a nontrivial result. The result suggests that a downward positron beam produced both the continuum and the line photons.
On-ground detection of an electron-positron annihilation line from thunderclouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umemoto, D.; Tsuchiya, H.; Enoto, T.; Yamada, S.; Yuasa, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Kitaguchi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Kokubun, M.; Kato, H.; Okano, M.; Tamagawa, T.; Makishima, K.
2016-02-01
Thunderclouds can produce bremsstrahlung gamma-ray emission, and sometimes even positrons. At 00:27:00 (UT) on 13 January 2012, an intense burst of gamma rays from a thundercloud was detected by the GROWTH experiment, located in Japan, facing the Sea of Japan. The event started with a sharp gamma-ray flash with a duration of <300 ms coincident with an intracloud discharge, followed by a decaying longer gamma-ray emission lasting for ˜60 s. The spectrum of this prolonged emission reached ˜10 MeV, and contained a distinct line emission at 508 ±3 (stat .)±5 (sys .) keV, to be identified with an electron-positron annihilation line. The line was narrow within the instrumental energy resolution (˜80 keV) , and contained 520 ±50 photons which amounted to ˜10 % of the total signal photons of 5340 ±190 detected over 0.1-10 MeV. As a result, the line equivalent width reached 280 ±40 keV, which implies a nontrivial result. The result suggests that a downward positron beam produced both the continuum and the line photons.
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; et al
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentummore » transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.« less
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; Amaryan, M.; Anderson, M.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W.; Burkert, V.; Carman, D.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G.; Giovanetti, K.; Girod, F.; Goetz, J.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R.; Griffioen, K.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D.; Ishkhanov, B.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M.; Meyer, C.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabati, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E.; Smith, G.; Sober, D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Wood, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zonta, I.
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.
Towards a resolution of the proton form factor problem: new electron and positron scattering data.
Adikaram, D; Rimal, D; Weinstein, L B; Raue, B; Khetarpal, P; Bennett, R P; Arrington, J; Brooks, W K; Adhikari, K P; Afanasev, A V; Amaryan, M J; Anderson, M D; Anefalos Pereira, S; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Careccia, S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Garillon, B; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mattione, P; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peña, C; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Skorodumina, I; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I
2015-02-13
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, G(E)(p), extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of G(E)(p) from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ϵ) and momentum transfer (Q(2)) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ϵ at Q(2)=1.45 GeV(2). This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q(2)≈1.75 GeV(2) and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV(2).
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Hafidi, K.; Moody, C. I.
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, G(E)(p), extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of G(E)(p). from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentum transfer (Q(2)) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing epsilon at Q(2) = 1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q(2) approximate to 1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.
Electron Cloud in the Wigglers of the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider
Wang, L.; /SLAC
2007-07-06
The ILC positron damping ring comprises hundreds of meters of wiggler sections, where many more photons than in the arcs are emitted, and with the smallest beampipe aperture of the ring. A significant electron-cloud density can therefore be accumulated via photo-emission and via beam-induced multipacting. In field-free regions the electron-cloud build up may be suppressed by adding weak solenoid fields, but the electron cloud remaining in the wigglers as well as in the arc dipole magnets can still drive single-bunch and multi-bunch beam instabilities. This paper studies the electron-cloud formation in an ILC wiggler section for various scenarios, as well as its character, and possible mitigation schemes.
An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.
Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K
2009-10-24
This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM.
An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners
Shih, Y. C.; Sun, F. W.; MacDonald, L. R.; Otis, B. P.; Miyaoka, R. S.; McDougald, W.; Lewellen, T. K.
2010-01-01
This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983
Observation of double electron-positron pair production by {gamma} rays reexamined
Maidana, N. L.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Vanin, V. R.; Brualla, L.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.
2009-04-15
An experiment was conducted to observe triple- and quadruple-escape peaks, at a photon energy equal to 6.128 MeV, in the spectra recorded with a high-purity Ge detector working in coincidence with six bismuth germanate detectors. The peak intensities may be explained having recourse to only the bremsstrahlung cascade process of consecutive electron-positron pair creation; i.e., the contribution of simultaneous double pair formation (and other cascade effects) is much smaller. The experimental peak areas are in reasonably good agreement with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations done with the general-purpose radiation-transport code PENELOPE.
Phase-mixing of electrostatic modes in a cold magnetized electron-positron plasma
Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-08-15
In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of electrostatic oscillations in a cold magnetized electron-positron plasma. Nonlinear results up to third order, obtained by employing a simple perturbation technique, indicate phase-mixing and thus breaking of excited oscillations, and provide an expression for the phase-mixing time. It is shown that an increase in the strength of ambient magnetic field results in an increase in the phase-mixing time. The results of our investigation will be of relevance to astrophysical environments as well as laboratory experiments.
Dipolar vortices and collisional instability in rotating electron-positron-ion plasmas
Haque, Q.
2011-11-15
Linear dispersion relation of electrostatic waves is derived for rotating electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas. The role of the rotational plasma frequency on drift wave through Coriolis force in the pulsar magnetosphere is discussed. This wave can couple with acoustic mode. In the nonlinear regime, stationary solution in the form of dipolar vortices is obtained. At the end we have also found the collisional instability in the presence of neutral-ion collisions for this rotating e-p-i plasma. The importance of the study with respect to astrophysical plasmas is also pointed out.
Nambu--Goldstone Dark Matter and Cosmic Ray Electron and Positron Excess
Ibe, Masahiro; Nakayama, Yu; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U., IPMU
2009-06-19
We propose a model of dark matter identified with a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson in the dynamical supersymmetry breaking sector in a gauge mediation scenario. The dark matter particles annihilate via a below-threshold narrow resonance into a pair of R-axions each of which subsequently decays into a pair of light leptons. The Breit-Wigner enhancement explains the excess electron and positron fluxes reported in the recent cosmic ray experiments PAMELA, ATIC and PPB-BETS without postulating an overdensity in halo, and the limit on anti-proton flux from PAMELA is naturally evaded.
Nonlinear propagation of broadband intense electromagnetic waves in an electron-positron plasma
Marklund, M.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.
2006-08-15
A kinetic equation describing the nonlinear evolution of intense electromagnetic pulses in electron-positron (e-p) plasmas is presented. The modulational instability is analyzed for a relativistically intense partially coherent pulse, and it is found that the modulational instability is inhibited by the spectral pulse broadening. A numerical study for the one-dimensional kinetic photon equation is presented. Computer simulations reveal a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-type recurrence phenomenon for localized broadband pulses. The results should be of importance in understanding the nonlinear propagation of broadband intense electromagnetic pulses in e-p plasmas in laser-plasma systems as well as in astrophysical plasma settings.
Nonplanar Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Electron-Positron-Ion Quantum Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan A., S.; Mahmood, S.; Arshad, Mirza M.
2009-04-01
The propagation of nonplanar quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense, unmagnetized electron-positronion (e-p-i) plasma are studied by using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) model. The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations are used taking into account the quantum diffraction and quantum statistics corrections. The analytical and numerical solutions of KdV equation reveal that the nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons are modified significantly with quantum corrections and positron concentration, and behave differently in different geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtar, N.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Mahmood, S.; Behery, E. E.; Khan, S. A.; Ali, S.; Hussain, S.
2015-10-01
> . The magnetic field has no effect on the amplitude of the IASW, whereas the obliqueness angle of the wave propagation, the ion-to-electron temperature ratio and positron-to-ion density concentration ratio affect both the amplitude and the width of the solitary wave structures. The transverse instability analysis illustrates that the one soliton solution has a constant growth rate, and it suffers from instability in the transverse direction. The relevance of the present study to astrophysical space plasmas is also discussed.
Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator.
Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Liu, R; Chi, Y
2016-02-01
This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.
Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.
2016-02-01
This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.
Andreev, Pavel A; Iqbal, Z
2016-03-01
We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n(0) ∼ 10(27) cm(-3) and high-magnetic-field B(0)=10(10) G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.
Tang, H.; Kulikov, A.V.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Miller, R.A.
1995-05-01
A baseline design for the NLC positron source based on the existing SLC positron system is described. The proposed NLC source consists of a dedicated S-band electron accelerator, a conventional positron production and capture system utilizing a high Z target and an adiabatic matching device, and an L-band positron linac. The invariant transverse acceptance of the capture system is 0.06 m{center_dot}rad, ensuring an adequate positron beam intensity for the NLC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Momin A.; Mishra, M. K.
2016-01-01
The ion-acoustic solitons in collisionless plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, isothermal positrons, and two temperature distribution of electrons have been studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), the modified K-dV (m-KdV), and Gardner equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the Gardner equation is discussed in detail. It is found that for a given set of parameter values, there exists a critical value of β=Tc/Th, (ratio of cold to hot electron temperature) below which only rarefactive KdV solitons exist and above it compressive KdV solitons exist. At the critical value of β, both compressive and rarefactive m-KdV solitons co-exist. We have also investigated the soliton in the parametric regime where the KdV equation is not valid to study soliton solution. In this region, it is found that below the critical concentration the system supports rarefactive Gardner solitons and above it compressive Gardner solitons are found. The effects of temperature ratio of two-electron species, cold electron concentration, positron concentration on the characteristics of solitons are also discussed.
Oscillating two-stream instability in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinakiche, Nouara; Annou, R.
2015-04-01
Oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma has been thoroughly studied, e.g., in ionospheric heating experiments [C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves With Electron Beams and Plasmas (World Scientific, 1994); V. K. Tripathi and P. V. Siva Rama Prasad, J. Plasma Phys. 41, 13 (1989); K. Ramachandran and V. K. Tripathi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 423 (1997)]. In this paper, OTSI is investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The dispersion relation of the process is established. The pump field threshold, along with the maximum growth rate of the instability is assessed using the Arecibo and HAARP parameters.
Oscillating two-stream instability in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma
Tinakiche, Nouara; Annou, R.
2015-04-15
Oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma has been thoroughly studied, e.g., in ionospheric heating experiments [C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves With Electron Beams and Plasmas (World Scientific, 1994); V. K. Tripathi and P. V. Siva Rama Prasad, J. Plasma Phys. 41, 13 (1989); K. Ramachandran and V. K. Tripathi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 423 (1997)]. In this paper, OTSI is investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The dispersion relation of the process is established. The pump field threshold, along with the maximum growth rate of the instability is assessed using the Arecibo and HAARP parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-09-01
This work investigates the oblique nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic (IA) shock waves for both weakly and highly relativistic plasmas composed of nonthermal electrons and positrons with relativistic thermal ions. The KdVB-like equation, involving dispersive, weakly transverse dispersive, nonlinearity and dissipative coefficients, is derived employing the well known reductive perturbation method. The integration of this equation is carried out by the {tanh} method taking the stable shock formation condition into account. The effects of nonthermal electrons and positrons, nonthermal electrons with isothermal positrons, isothermal electrons with nonthermal positrons, and isothermal electrons and positrons on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in weakly relativistic regime are described. Furthermore, the effects of plasma parameters on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in highly relativistic regime are discussed and compared with weakly relativistic case. It is seen that the plasma parameters within certain limits significantly modify the structures of the IA shock waves in both cases. The results may be useful for better understanding of the interactions of charged particles with extra-galactic jets as well as astrophysical compact objects.
Intense source of slow positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, P.; Rosowsky, A.
2004-10-01
We describe a novel design for an intense source of slow positrons based on pair production with a beam of electrons from a 10 MeV accelerator hitting a thin target at a low incidence angle. The positrons are collected with a set of coils adapted to the large production angle. The collection system is designed to inject the positrons into a Greaves-Surko trap (Phys. Rev. A 46 (1992) 5696). Such a source could be the basis for a series of experiments in fundamental and applied research and would also be a prototype source for industrial applications, which concern the field of defect characterization in the nanometer scale.
Wave production in an ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasma. [in pulsar polar caps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardee, P. E.; Rose, W. K.
1978-01-01
In this paper we calculate the eigenmodes associated with an ultrarelativistic electron-positron beam traversing a low-energy electron-positron plasma under physical conditions that may exist along open magnetic field lines above pulsar polar caps. We assume that both beam and plasma are cold and charge neutral, and that magnetic field strength and particle density decrease as the cube of (1/R). In the superstrong magnetic fields near the stellar surface where cyclotron frequencies exceed plasma frequencies, electrostatic waves and associated transverse low-frequency waves are driven unstable by the two-stream type particle distribution. At larger distances above the stellar surface the slow beam cyclotron wave is driven unstable. At even greater radial distance (approximately when particle energy density exceeds magnetic energy density) both the Ordinary and Alfven modes become unstable. All of these instabilities can lead to generation of radiation. If the particle distribution as generated at the stellar surface, assumed to consist of two streams, is modified only by plasma effects, then electrostatic and associated transverse waves may only be unstable near the stellar surface. The beam cyclotron mode which is driven by a two-stream or an inverted particle distribution may be stable.
Bernardo, Giuseppe Di; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca E-mail: carmelo.evoli@desy.de E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it
2013-03-01
A multichannel analysis of cosmic ray electron and positron spectra and of the diffuse synchrotron emission of the Galaxy is performed by using the DRAGON code. This study is aimed at probing the interstellar electron source spectrum down to E ∼< 1GeV and at constraining several propagation parameters. We find that above 4GeV the e{sup −} source spectrum is compatible with a power-law of index ∼ 2.5. Below 4GeV instead it must be significantly suppressed and the total lepton spectrum is dominated by secondary particles. The positron spectrum and fraction measured below a few GeV are consistently reproduced only within low reacceleration models. We also constrain the scale-height z{sub t} of the cosmic-ray distribution using three independent (and, in two cases, original) arguments, showing that values of z{sub t} ∼< 2kpc are excluded. This result may have strong implications for particle dark matter searches.
Nonplanar ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghorui, Malay Kumar; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2015-01-01
The basic features of planar and nonplanar time dependent ion-acoustic two-soliton systems have been studied in a three component unmagnetized, collisionless quantum plasma consisting of inertialess electrons and positrons. Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), we have derived the Korteweg-de Vries equation for our model. The effects of several parameters on the properties of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas have been discussed in planar and nonplanar geometries. It has been shown that the properties of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems are affected significantly due to cylindrical and spherical geometries. The amplitude of the cylindrical two-soliton system is smaller than that of the spherical two-soliton system for small values of | τ|. The propagation of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems is quite different from the propagation of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in a nonplanar geometry. The present investigation may have relevance in the study of the propagation of ion-acoustic two-soliton systems in space and laboratory plasmas.
Imprints of Electron-Positron Winds on the Multiwavelength Afterglows of Gamma-ray Bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, J. J.; Wu, X. F.; Huang, Y. F.; Li, L.; Dai, Z. G.
2016-07-01
Optical rebrightenings in the afterglows of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are unexpected within the framework of the simple external shock model. While it has been suggested that the central engines of some GRBs are newly born magnetars, we aim to relate the behaviors of magnetars to the optical rebrightenings. A newly born magnetar will lose its rotational energy in the form of Poynting-flux, which may be converted into a wind of electron-positron pairs through some magnetic dissipation processes. As proposed by Dai, this wind will catch up with the GRB outflow and a long-lasting reverse shock (RS) would form. By applying this scenario to GRB afterglows, we find that the RS propagating back into the electron-positron wind can lead to an observable optical rebrightening and a simultaneous X-ray plateau (or X-ray shallow decay). In our study, we select four GRBs (i.e., GRB 080413B, GRB 090426, GRB 091029, and GRB 100814A), of which the optical afterglows are well observed and show clear rebrightenings. We find that they can be well interpreted. In our scenario, the spin-down timescale of the magnetar should be slightly smaller than the peak time of the rebrightening, which can provide a clue to the characteristics of the magnetar.
Observations of the ratio of low-energy cosmic-ray positrons and electrons during solar quiet times
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurford, G. J.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.
1974-01-01
Simultaneous observations of the quiet-time interplanetary positron and electron spectra between 0.16 and 1.6 MeV are reported. The measurements were made in selected time intervals between October 1, 1972 and February 1, 1973 with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer on the IMP-7 satellite. The detector system consists of a stack of 11 silicon surface-barrier detectors surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence cup. The method of e+ identification and possible background effects are discussed and upper limits to the 0.16 to 1.6 MeV quiet-time positron flux are reported. During this period positrons amounted to less than 20% of the total 0.16 to 1.6 MeV electron flux.
Electron-positron momentum distributions associated with isolated silicon vacancies in 3C-SiC
Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, H.; Chiba, T.; Higuchi, T.; Betsuyaku, K.; Redmann, F.; Krause-Rehberg, R.
2005-07-15
Two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) of annihilation radiation measurements have been performed on electron-irradiated n-type 3C-SiC in which isolated silicon vacancies are responsible for positron trapping. After irradiation, the intensity of the CDB spectrum increased and decreased in low- and high-momentum regions, respectively. These features were explained by a theoretical calculation considering silicon vacancies. The central region of the 2D-ACAR spectra became isotropic after irradiation, while the overall anisotropies extending within the Jones zone were conserved suggesting that isolated silicon vacancies have tetrahedral symmetry, as expected from a previous electron spin resonance study.
Bains, A. S.; Gill, T. S.; Misra, A. P.; Saini, N. S.
2010-01-15
The amplitude modulation of quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) along an external magnetic field is studied in a quantum electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasma. Reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation which governs the slow modulation of QIAW packets. Accounting for the effects of the electron to ion number density ratio (mu), the normalized ion-cyclotron frequency (omega{sub c}) as well as the ratio (H) of the 'plasmonic energy density' to the Fermi energy, new regimes for the modulational instability of QIAWs are obtained and analyzed. In contrast to one-dimensional unmagnetized e-p-i plasmas, the instability growth rate is shown to suppress with increasing mu or decreasing the values of H. The predicted results could be important for understanding the salient features of modulated QIAW packets in dense astrophysical plasmas as well as to the next generation intense laser solid density plasma experiments.
A search for single electron production in electron positron annihilation at E = 29 GeV
Steele, T.R.
1989-09-01
This thesis presents experimental results from the ASP detector which took data on e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions in the PEP storage ring at SLAC. Its design was particularly suitable for searching for production of supersymmetric particles. The motivations for and phenomenology of Supersymmetry are discussed. In particular, the production of a single supersymmetric electron ( selectron'', {tilde e}) in combination with a supersymmetric photon ( photino'', {tilde {gamma}}) would result in events in which a single electron and no other particles are observed in the detector at an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider such as PEP, provided the masses of these particles are not too large. Such events would also result from the production of a single supersymmetric W-boson ( wino'', {tilde W}) in combination with a supersymmetric neutrino ( sneutrino'', {tilde {nu}}). These processes make it possible to search for electrons and winos with masses greater than the beam energy. Observation of these unusual events would distinctly indicate the production of new particles. The ASP detector was designed to be hermetic and to provide efficient event reconstruction for low multiplicity events. The detector is described and its performance is evaluated; it is found to be well-suited to this study. The data sample collected with the detector was thoroughly analyzed for evidence of single-electron events. The various possible background processes are considered and Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions from single selectron and single wino production are presented. Using this information an efficient off-line event selection process was developed, and it is described in detail. 82 refs., 41 figs., 4 tabs.
Microwave Transmission Measurements of the Electron Cloud density In the Positron Ring of PEP-II
Pivi, Mauro T.F.; Krasnykh, Anatoly K.; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Sonnaad, Kiran G.; Caspers, Fritz; Kroyer, Tom
2008-06-18
Clouds of electrons in the vacuum chambers of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation of these machines at high currents. Because of the size of these accelerators, it is difficult to probe the low energy electrons clouds over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We applied a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave which is independently excited and transmitted over a straight section of the accelerator. The modulation in the wave transmission which appears to increase in depth when the clearing solenoids are switched off, seem to be directly correlated to the electron cloud density in the section. Furthermore, we expect a larger phase shift of a wave transmitted through magnetic dipole field regionsif the transmitted wave couples with the gyration motion of the electrons. We have used this technique to measure the average electron cloud density (ECD) specifically for the first time in magnetic field regions of a new 4-dipole chicane in the positron ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. In this paper we present and discuss the measurements taken in the Low Energy Ring (LER) between 2006 and 2008.
Microwave Transmission Measurements of the Electron Cloud Density In The Positron Ring of PEP-II
Pivi, M.T.F.; Krasnykh, A.K; Byrd, J.; Santis, S.De; Sonnad, K.G.; Caspers, F.; Kroyer, T.; /CERN
2008-07-03
Clouds of electrons in the vacuum chambers of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation of these machines at high currents. Because of the size of these accelerators, it is difficult to probe the low energy electron clouds over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We applied a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave which is independently excited and transmitted over a straight section of the accelerator. The modulation in the wave transmission which appear to increase in depth when the clearing solenoids are switched off, seem to be directly correlated to the electron cloud density in the section. Furthermore, we expect a larger phase shift of a wave transmitted through magnetic dipole field regions if the transmitted wave couples with the gyration motion of the electrons. We have used this technique to measure the average electron cloud density (ECD) specifically for the first time in magnetic field regions of a new 4-dipole chicane in the positron ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. In this paper we present and discuss the measurements taken in the Low Energy Ring (LER) between 2006 and 2008.
El-Labany, S. K.; Moslem, W. M.; El-Awady, E. I.
2010-06-15
Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for nonlinear Langmuir structures (soliton and shock) in a rotating weakly relativistic electron-positron magnetoplasma with background stationary positive ions. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation technique is employed to the weakly relativistic hydrodynamical electrons/positrons fluid equations and Poisson equation, obtaining extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. The latter has been solved analytically. The features of the nonlinear excitations and their propagation conditions are investigated numerically. Our finding could elucidate the nonlinear electrostatic structures that propagate in astrophysical plasma situations where rotating, magnetized plasma can exist; such as polar cups region of pulsars, around active galactic nuclei, neutron stars, and white dwarfs.
Electron/positron Excesses in the Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Possible Interpretations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Bing; Chang, Jin
2010-11-01
The data collected by ATIC, PPB-BETS, FERMI-LAT and HESS all indicate that there is an electron/positron excess in the cosmic ray energy spectrum above ~100 GeV, although different instrumental teams do not agree on the detailed spectral shape. PAMELA also reported clearly the excessive feature of the fraction of positron above several GeV, but with no excess in antiprotons. Here we review the observational status and theoretical models of this interesting observational feature. We pay special attention to various physical interpretations proposed in the literature, including modified supernova remnant models for the e± background, new astrophysical sources, and new physics (the dark matter models). We suggest that although most models can make a case to interpret the data, with the current observational constraints the dark matter interpretations, especially those invoking annihilation, require much more exotic assumptions than some other astrophysical interpretations. Future observations may present some "smoking-gun" observational tests to differentiate different models and to identify the correct interpretation of the phenomenon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Karim, S.; Shah, H. A.; Siddiq, M.
2009-11-01
Linear and nonlinear propagation characteristics of drift ion acoustic waves are investigated in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) quantum magnetoplasma with neutrals in the background using the well known quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equations are obtained. Furthermore, the solutions of KdVB and KPB equations are presented by using the tangent hyperbolic (tanh) method. The variation in the shock profile with the quantum Bohm potential, collision frequency, and the ratio of drift to shock velocity in the comoving frame, v*/u, is also investigated. It is found that increasing the positron concentration and collision frequency decreases the strength of the shock. It is also shown that when the localized structure propagates with velocity greater than the diamagnetic drift velocity (i.e., u >v*), the shock strength decreases. However, the shock strength is observed to increase when the localized structure propagates with velocity less than that of drift velocity (i.e., u
Standing electromagnetic solitons in hot ultra-relativistic electron-positron plasmas
Heidari, E.; Aslaninejad, M.; Eshraghi, H.; Rajaee, L.
2014-03-15
Using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model, we investigate standing relativistic bright solitons in hot electron-positron plasmas. The positron dynamics is taken into account. A set of nonlinear coupled differential equations describing the evolution of electromagnetic waves in fully relativistic two-fluid plasma is derived analytically and solved numerically. As a necessary condition for the existence of standing solitons the system should be relativistic. For the case of ultra-relativistic plasma, we investigate non-drifting bright solitary waves. Detailed discussions of the acceptable solutions are presented. New single hump non-trivial symmetric solutions for the scalar potential were found, and single and multi-nodal symmetric and anti-symmetric solutions for the vector potential are presented. It is shown that for a fixed value of the fluid velocity excited modes with more zeros in the profile of the vector potential show a higher magnitude for the scalar potential. An increase in the plasma fluid velocity also increases the magnitude of the scalar potential. Furthermore, the Hamiltonian and the first integral of the system are given.
Electron-positron pair production in external electric fields varying both in space and time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleksandrov, I. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.
2016-09-01
The Schwinger mechanism of electron-positron pair production in the presence of strong external electric fields is analyzed numerically for the case of one- and two-dimensional field configurations where the external field depends both on time and one spatial coordinate. In order to provide this analysis, a new efficient numerical approach is developed. The number of particles created is obtained numerically and also compared with the analytical results for several exactly solvable one-dimensional backgrounds. For the case of two-dimensional field configurations the effects of the spatial finiteness are examined, which confirms their importance and helps us to attest our approach further. The corresponding calculations are also performed for several more interesting and nontrivial combinations of temporal and spatial inhomogeneities. Finally, we discuss the case of a spatially periodic external field when the approach is particularly productive. The method employed is described in detail.
INTEGRAL/SPI Observations of Electron-Positron Annihilation Radiation from our Galaxy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teegarden, B. J.; Watanabe, K.; Knoedlseder, J.; Jean, P.; Lonjou, V.; Weidenspointer, G.; Skinner, G.; Vedrenne, G.; Roques, J.-P.; Schanne, S.; Schoenfelder, V.
2005-01-01
The spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) is a coded-aperture gamma-ray telescope with moderate angular resolution (3 deg) and superior energy resolution (2 keV at 511 kev). One of it's principal science goals is the detailed study of 511 keV electron-positron annihilation from our Galaxy. The origin of this radiation remains a mystery, however current morphological studies suggest an older stellar population. There has also been recent speculation on the possibility of the existence of light (< 100 MeV) dark matter particles whose annihilation or decay could produce the observed 511 keV emission. In this paper we summarize the current results from SPI, compare them with previous results and discuss their implication on possible models for the production of the annihilation radiation.
INTEGRAL/SPI Limits on Electron-Positron Annihilation Radiation from the Galactic Plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teegarden, B. J.; Watanabe, K.; Jean, P.; Knoedlseder, J.; Lonjou, V.; Roques, J. P.; Skinner, G. K.; vonBallmoos, P.; Weidenspointner, G.; Bazzano, A.
2005-01-01
The center of our Galaxy is a known strong source of electron-positron 511- keV annihilation radiation. Thus far, however, there have been no reliable detections of annihilation radiation outside of the central radian of our Galaxy. One of the primary objectives of the INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma-RAy Astrophysics Laboratory) mission, launched in Oct. 2002, is the detailed study of this radiation. The Spectrometer on INTEGRAL (SPI) is a high resolution coded-aperture gamma-ray telescope with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity, angular resolution and energy resolution. We report results from the first 10 months of observation. During this period a significant fraction of the observing time was spent in or near the Galactic Plane. No positive annihilation flux was detected outside of the central region (|l| greater than 40 degrees) of our Galaxy. In this paper we describe the observations and data analysis methods and give limits on the 511-keV flux.
Tau reconstruction methods at an electron-positron collider in the search for new physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinmian; Williams, Anthony G.
2016-04-01
By exploiting the relatively long lifetime of the tau lepton, we propose several novel methods for searching for new physics at an electron-positron collider. We consider processes that involve final states consisting of a tau lepton pair plus two missing particles. The mass and spin of the new physics particles can be measured in 3-prong tau decays. The tau polarization, which reflects the coupling to new physics, can be measured from the τ →π ν decay channel using the impact parameter distribution of the charged pion. We also discuss the corresponding backgrounds for these measurements, the next-to-leading order (NLO) effects, and the implications of finite detector resolution.
Enhanced Dark Matter Annihilation Rate for Positron and Electron Excesses from Q-Ball Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, John
2009-10-01
We show that Q-ball decay in Affleck-Dine baryogenesis models can account for dark matter when the annihilation cross section is sufficiently enhanced to explain the positron and electron excesses observed by PAMELA, ATIC, and PPB-BETS. For Affleck-Dine baryogenesis along a d=6 flat direction, the reheating temperature is approximately 30 GeV and the Q-ball decay temperature is in the range of 10-100 MeV. The lightest supersymmetric particles produced by Q-ball decay annihilate down to the observed dark matter density if the cross section is enhanced by a factor ˜103 relative to the thermal relic cross section.
Enhanced Dark Matter Annihilation Rate for Positron and Electron Excesses from Q-Ball Decay
McDonald, John
2009-10-09
We show that Q-ball decay in Affleck-Dine baryogenesis models can account for dark matter when the annihilation cross section is sufficiently enhanced to explain the positron and electron excesses observed by PAMELA, ATIC, and PPB-BETS. For Affleck-Dine baryogenesis along a d=6 flat direction, the reheating temperature is approximately 30 GeV and the Q-ball decay temperature is in the range of 10-100 MeV. The lightest supersymmetric particles produced by Q-ball decay annihilate down to the observed dark matter density if the cross section is enhanced by a factor approx10{sup 3} relative to the thermal relic cross section.
Cho; Lee; Kim
2000-04-01
Nonrelativistic electromagnetic surface waves propagating on the plane interface between dusty electron-positron plasma and vacuum are investigated by specular reflection procedure. In the presence of an applied magnetic field (B(0)=B(0)yinsertion mark) directed perpendicular to both the interface normal and the wave vector, transverse electromagnetic modes are studied in terms of the dispersion relation. The analytic modes are derived and discussed with the aid of some numerical analysis. The cold electromagnetic surface wave dispersion relation considering the effect of dust particle shows that possible modes appear only when the normalized frequency (omega;) and the wave vector (&Kmacr;) satisfy the condition Omega;
Observation of exclusive electron-positron production in hadron-hadron collisions.
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2007-03-16
We present the first observation of exclusive e(+)e(-) production in hadron-hadron collisions, using pp[over] collision data at (square root) s = 1.96 TeV taken by the run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 532 pb(-1). We require the absence of any particle signatures in the detector except for an electron and a positron candidate, each with transverse energy E(T) > 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |eta| < 2. With these criteria, 16 events are observed compared to a background expectation of 1.9+/-0.3 events. These events are consistent in cross section and properties with the QED process pp[over] --> p + e(+)e(-) + p[over] through two-photon exchange. The measured cross section is 1.6(-0.3)(+0.5)(stat) +/- 0.3(syst) pb. This agrees with the theoretical prediction of 1.71+/-0.01 pb.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyodo, Tetsuo; Liu, Yan-Rui; Oka, Makoto; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yasui, Shigehiro
2013-04-01
Structure and production of doubly charmed tetraquarks Tcc (cc ubardbar) are studied from the viewpoint of color configurations. Based on the diquark correlation, the tetraquark Tcc with I (JP) = 0 (1+) is considered to be stable against strong decay. We discuss that the mixing probability of color antitriplet and sextet cc components in Tcc is suppressed by 1 / mc2, so the two configurations are separately realized in the heavy quark limit. Utilizing the nonrelativistic QCD framework, we evaluate the production cross sections of Tcc in electron-positron collisions. The momentum dependence of the cross section of color antitriplet is found to be different from that of sextet, which can be used to discriminate the color structure of the Tcc states in experimental measurements.
Neutron dosimetry at a high-energy electron-positron collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedogni, Roberto
Electron-positron colliders with energy of hundreds of MeV per beam have been employed for studies in the domain of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. The typical structure of such a collider includes an LINAC, able to produce both types of particles, an accumulator ring and a main ring, whose diameter ranges from several tens to hundred meters and allows circulating particle currents of several amperes per beam. As a consequence of the interaction of the primary particles with targets, shutters, structures and barriers, a complex radiation environment is produced. This paper addresses the neutron dosimetry issues associated with the operation of such accelerators, referring in particular to the DAΦ NE complex, operative since 1997 at INFN-Frascati National Laboratory (Italy). Special attention is given to the active and passive techniques used for the spectrometric and dosimetric characterization of the workplace neutron fields, for radiation protection dosimetry purposes.
Polarization of the electron and positron produced in combined Coulomb and strong laser fields
Di Piazza, A.; Mueller, C.; Milstein, A. I.
2010-12-15
The process of e{sup +}e{sup -} production in the superposition of a Coulomb and a strong laser field is considered. The pair production rate integrated over the momentum and summed over the spin projections of one of the particles is derived exactly in the parameters of the laser field and in the Born approximation with respect to the Coulomb field. The case of a monochromatic circularly polarized laser field is considered in detail. A very compact analytical expression of the pair production rate and its dependence on the polarization of one of the created particles is obtained in the quasiclassical approximation for the experimentally relevant case of an undercritical laser field. As a result, the polarization of the created electron (positron) is derived.
Investigation into electron cloud effects in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring
Crittenden, J.A.; Conway, J.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Rubin, D.L.; Shanks, J.; Sonnad, K.G.; Boon, L.; Harkay, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Furman, M.A.; Guiducci, S.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Wang, L.; Crittenden, J.A.; Conway, J.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Rubin, D.L.; Shanks, J.; Sonnad, K.G.; Boon, L.; Harkay, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Furman, M.A.; Guiducci, S.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Wang, L.
2014-02-28
We report modeling results for electron cloud buildup and instability in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring. Updated optics, wiggler magnets, and vacuum chamber designs have recently been developed for the 5 GeV, 3.2-km racetrack layout. An analysis of the synchrotron radiation profile around the ring has been performed, including the effects of diffuse and specular photon scattering on the interior surfaces of the vacuum chamber. The results provide input to the cloud buildup simulations for the various magnetic field regions of the ring. The modeled cloud densities thus obtained are used in the instability threshold calculations. We conclude that the mitigation techniques employed in this model will suffice to allow operation of the damping ring at the design operational specifications
Observations of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons using an imaging calorimeter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F.; Brancaccio, F. Massimo; Ricci, M.
1994-01-01
A ballon-borne magnet spectrometer system was flown for 5.5 hr at an altitude of more than 117,00 feet from Prince Albert, Saskatchewan (Canada), on 1989 September 5, when the Newark neutron monitor rate was 2952. The instrument was a modified version of the one used to observe antiprotons in 1979. The most significant modification was the addition of an imaging calorimeter, 7.33 radiation lengths thick. Inclusion of the calorimeter has significantly improved the ability to distinguish electrons and positrons from the other constituents of the cosmic rays. The absolute electron flux has been determined in the energy interval 1.3-26 GeV. The electron spectrum at the top of the atmosphere was found to be J(sub e-) = 177E(exp -(3.15+/-0.13)) electrons/ sq m/(sr s GeV) in the energy range 4.0-26 GeV. Below 4 GeV, the spectrum showed flattening, which is consistent with the effect of solar modulation. The e(+)/(e(+)+e(-)) ratio was found to be (0.11 +/- 0.03) in the energy range 5.2-13 GeV.
Comparison of positronium, positron and electron collisions with hydrogen at low velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Reeth, P.; Woods, Denton; Ward, S. J.; Humberston, J. W.
2016-06-01
Recent experimental findings indicate that at equal velocity electron and ortho-positronium scattering cross sections are similar over a wide range of velocities and targets where both elastic and inelastic processes can take place. We present a comparative study of positronium, positron and electron elastic scattering from atomic hydrogen in order to investigate if a similar behaviour occurs for this target at low velocities where inelastic channels are closed. We calculate elastic cross sections for the three projectiles using Kohn-type variational methods which allows us to make a detailed study of the differences and similarities. We find a qualitative similarity in the spin-weighted elastic integrated cross sections for positronium and electron scattering and a good agreement between the singlet integrated cross sections. However, this agreement does extend to the low velocity region and where the agreement is found in the integrated cross sections we show that it is not present in the individual partial waves cross sections. Interestingly, given the agreement we find in the singlet integrated cross section for electron and positronium scattering, when comparing the overall shapes of the corresponding singlet differential cross sections we find different angular and velocity dependencies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pellerin, C. J.; Hartman, R. C.
1975-01-01
Recently measured positron and negatron spectra are discussed with regard to the problem of solar modulation. At energies above 180 MeV, the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation with a diffusion coefficient proportional to particle rigidity provides reasonable fits to both the positron and total electron data. At energies below 180 MeV, the data are consistent with a continuation of the same diffusion coefficient and a local source of negatrons or with a change in the diffusion coefficient to a constant value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Gadadhar; Maitra, Sarit
2016-06-01
Sagdeev pseudopotential method is employed to study the arbitrary amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma by using one dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model together with the Poisson equation. Sagdeev potential function is obtained in terms of electrostatic potential and analyzed with and without the effect of quantum diffraction parameter H. Effects of the parameter H on both the amplitude and width of the solitary waves have been observed. It is also observed that the positron density can affect the wave propagation.
Phase-mixing of Langmuir oscillations in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas
Maity, Chandan
2014-07-15
Space-time evolution of Langmuir oscillations in a cold homogeneous electron-positron-ion plasma has been analyzed by employing a straightforward perturbation expansion method, showing phase-mixing and, thus, wave-breaking of excited oscillations at arbitrary amplitudes. Within an assumption of infinitely massive ions, an approximate phase-mixing time is found to scale as ω{sub pe}t{sub mix}∼[(6/δ{sup 2})((2−α){sup 5/2}/(1−α))]{sup 1/3}, where “δ” and “α” (= n{sub 0i}/n{sub 0e}) are the amplitude of perturbation and the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density, respectively, and ω{sub pe}∼√(4πn{sub 0e}e{sup 2}/m) is the electron plasma frequency. The results presented on phase-mixing of Langmuir modes in multispecies plasmas are expected to be relevant to laboratory and astrophysical environments.
Positron Beam Propagation in a Meter Long Plasma Channel
Marsh, K.A.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.B.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; O'Connell, C.; Raimondi, P.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.
2008-03-17
Recent experiments and simulations have shown that positron beams propagating in plasmas can be focused and also create wakes with large accelerating gradients. For similar parameters, the wakes driven by positron beams are somewhat smaller compared to the case of an electron beam. Simulations have shown that the wake amplitude can be increased if the positron beam is propagated in a hollow plasma channel (Ref. 1). This paper, compares experimentally, the propagation and beam dynamics of a positron beam in a meter scale homogeneous plasma, to a positron beam hollow channel plasma. The results show that positron beams in hollow channels are less prone to distortions and deflections. Hollow channels were observed to guide the positron beam onto the channel axis. Beam energy loss was also observed implying the formation of a large wake amplitude. The experiments were carried out as part of the E-162 plasma wakefield experiments at SLAC.
Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons
Roy, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Prasanta Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2014-10-15
The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Derrickson, J. H.; Eby, P. B.; Moon, K. H.; Parnell, T. A.; King, D. T.; Gregory, J. C.; Takahashi, Y.; Ogata, T.
1995-01-01
Measurements of direct Coulomb electron-positron pair production have been made on the tracks of relativistic heavy ions in nuclear track emulsion. Tracks of 0(16) and S(32) at 200 GeV/nucleon were studied. The measured total cross sections and energy and emission angle distributions for the pair members are compared to theoretical predictions. The data are consistent with some recent calculations when knock-on electron contamination is accounted for.
FPGA-Based Front-End Electronics for Positron Emission Tomography
Haselman, Michael; DeWitt, Don; McDougald, Wendy; Lewellen, Thomas K.; Miyaoka, Robert; Hauck, Scott
2010-01-01
Modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are capable of performing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 100MHz. This combined with FPGA’s low expense, ease of use, and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal technology for a data acquisition system for positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Our laboratory is producing a high-resolution, small-animal PET scanner that utilizes FPGAs as the core of the front-end electronics. For this next generation scanner, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the FPGA. This will not only simplify the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilizes to add significant signal processing power to produce higher resolution images. In this paper two such processes, sub-clock rate pulse timing and event localization, will be discussed in detail. We show that timing performed in the FPGA can achieve a resolution that is suitable for small-animal scanners, and will outperform the analog version given a low enough sampling period for the ADC. We will also show that the position of events in the scanner can be determined in real time using a statistical positioning based algorithm. PMID:21961085
Wave dispersion in a counterstreaming, cold, magnetized, electron-positron plasma.
Verdon, M W; Melrose, D B
2008-04-01
The dispersion equation is analyzed for waves in a strongly magnetized, electron-positron plasma in which counterstreaming electrons are cold in their respective rest frames. For propagation parallel to the magnetic field the dispersion equation factorizes into equations for two longitudinal modes and four transverse modes. Instabilities occur in both longitudinal and transverse modes, with the most notable being at low wave numbers where a longitudinal branch has purely imaginary frequency. For oblique propagation at small angles, the modes reconnect at points where the parallel modes intersect, either deviating away from each another, or being separated by a pair of complex modes. In addition, intrinsically oblique branches of the dispersion equation appear. The results are applied to an oscillating model for a pulsar magnetosphere, in which the oscillations are purely temporal with a frequency well below relevant wave frequencies, and in which the counterstreaming becomes highly relativistic. We assume that the medium may be treated as time stationary in treating the wave dispersion and wave growth. The wave properties, including the wave frequency, vary periodically with the phase of the oscillations. The fastest growing instability is when the counterstreaming is nonrelativistic or mildly relativistic. A given wave can experience bursts of growth over many oscillations. Mode coupling associated with the cyclotron resonance may be effective in generating the observed orthogonally polarized modes at phases of the oscillation where the (relativistic) cyclotron and wave frequencies are comparable. PMID:18517741
The electron-cloud instability in the arcs of the PEP-II positron ring
Furman, Miguel A.; Lambertson, Glen R.
1998-03-01
We have applied our simulation code ''POSINST'' to evaluate, in linear approximation, the contribution to the growth rate of the electron-cloud instability (ECI) from the pumping sections and the dipole bending magnets in the arcs of the PEP-II positron ring. A key ingredient in our model is a detailed description of the secondary emission process off the TiN-coated chambers. Another important element is the analytic computation of the electric field produced by the beam, including the effects from surface charges. Space-charge forces of the electron cloud upon itself are also included, although these forces are negligible under nominal conditions. Bunch-length effects are optionally included by slicing the bunch into several kicks. We conclude that the growth rate is dominated by the pumping sections and scales linearly with the photoelectric yield Y'. For Y' = 1, our present estimate is in the range {approx} 1000-1300 s{sup -1}, depending upon the value of the photon reflectivity R. This is in the range controllable by the transverse feedback system. The contributions to the growth rate from other magnets and from other sections of the ring remain to be evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bains, A. S.; Misra, A. P.; Saini, N. S.; Gill, T. S.
2010-01-01
The amplitude modulation of quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) along an external magnetic field is studied in a quantum electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasma. Reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation which governs the slow modulation of QIAW packets. Accounting for the effects of the electron to ion number density ratio (μ), the normalized ion-cyclotron frequency (ωc) as well as the ratio (H) of the "plasmonic energy density" to the Fermi energy, new regimes for the modulational instability of QIAWs are obtained and analyzed. In contrast to one-dimensional unmagnetized e-p-i plasmas, the instability growth rate is shown to suppress with increasing μ or decreasing the values of H. The predicted results could be important for understanding the salient features of modulated QIAW packets in dense astrophysical plasmas as well as to the next generation intense laser solid density plasma experiments.
Justifying the Vacuum as an Electron-Positron Aggregation and Experimental Falsification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guy Grantham, R.; Montgomery, Ian G.
2013-09-01
Historical aether models are placed in context with the electron-positron lattice (epola) model of space due to M. Simhony. A brief outline of the model as an aggregation state of matter, intermediate to the nuclear state and the atomic aggregation state, includes reference to its derivation of physical laws and fundamental constants. The broad application of the epola model is appraised for its validation against a range of physical laws, experiments and constants. Simhony declared a specific dependence for the stability of atomic matter upon speed through the epola, suggesting a test for falsification. This theme is further developed by the same logic to suggest practical experimental and theoretical tests of the epola model. A formula for the inverse fine structure constant of space, providing the accepted CODATA value, is derived from Simhony's explanation of the Bohr - de Broglie model of the ground state electron orbital of the hydrogen atom by including a term for speed through the Cosmos. A theoretical solution of the Michelson-Morley experiment is applied as evidence for the concept. The mechanism of motion through the epola is considered further for possible implications of speed including dependency of decay rates by radio nuclides and the results of former and ongoing experiments are considered.
Eslami, Parvin; Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Pakzad, Hamid Reza
2011-10-15
The propagation of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in plasmas composed of ions and nonextensive electrons and positrons is investigated. By means of the reduction perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived and the modulation instability (MI) of ion acoustic waves is analyzed in detail. The effects of different ranges of the nonextensive parameter q on the MI are studied. The growth rate of the MI is also given for different values of the q parameter. It is also found that the ratio of the electron temperature to positron temperature and the ratio of the positron density to electron density modify the nature of IAWs instability and the solitary structures.
Observational consequences of positron production by evaporating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okele, P. N.; Rees, M. J.
1980-01-01
The detectable effects of positrons emitted by the quantum evaporation of primordial black holes (PBHs) are discussed. The emission of electron-positron pairs, and of photons, gravitons, and neutrinos by evaporating PBHs is considered, taking the mass of the PBH into account. It is concluded that if the mass spectrum rises towards large masses, the 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation from the galactic center reported by Leventhal et al. could result from low energy positrons produced in this way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koehn, Christoph; Ebert, Ute
2015-04-01
Thunderstorms can emit high-energy particles, photons with energies of up to at least 40 MeV, leptons (electrons, positrons) and hadrons (neutrons and protons) with energies of tens of MeV. Some of these events have been correlated with negative lightning leaders propagating upwards in the cloud. For particular lightning events we show that photons, leptons and hadrons can reach ground altitude as well as satellite altitude, and we present the number as well as the spatial and energy distribution of photons, leptons and hadrons. We have reviewed the latest literature on cross sections for collisions of photons, leptons and hadrons with air molecules and have implemented them in our Monte Carlo code. We initialize a photon beam with the characteristic energy distribution of a TGF at thunderstorm altitude and we use the Monte Carlo model to trace these photons; we include the production of secondary electrons through photoionization, Compton scattering and pair production, the production of positrons through pair production as well as the production of neutrons and protons through photonuclear processes. Subsequently we calculate the motion and energy dissipation of these leptons and hadrons with the feedback of electrons and positrons producing new photons through Bremsstrahlung and through positron annihilation at shell electrons. Additionally we provide analytic estimates for the energy losses of photons, leptons and hadrons in the energy range between 0.03 eV and 100 MeV based on the relevant cross sections. We provide the spectral analysis of how many photons, leptons and hadrons will reach ground or satellite altitude and what their energies are, depending on the initial photon energy. This is of particular interest because of campaigns measuring fluxes of all these species at 0 and 500 km altitude without knowing the actual energies of initial electrons converting into photons within a thundercloud.
Brein, Oliver; Figy, Terrance
2008-03-01
We present results of a calculation of the cross section for the production of a charged Higgs boson in association with an electron and a neutrino at electron-positron colliders (e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}H{sup +}e{sup -}{nu}{sub e}, H{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}). We study predictions for the cross section in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and the two Higgs doublet model (THDM), highlighting possible differences. The process is effectively loop-induced in both models. Hence, the cross section is expected to be strongly model-dependent. Most notably, due to the presence of superpartners, the MSSM amplitude contains Feynman graphs of pentagon-type, which are not present in the THDM. This is the first complete one-loop calculation of the cross section for this process in the THDM and the MSSM. For both models, so far, only approximate results with limited ranges of validity were available. Our main aim here is to clarify several open questions in the existing literature on this process. Specifically, we will discuss the validity of the heavy fermion loop approximation in both models, and of the fermion/sfermion loop approximation in the MSSM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrysler, M.; Chirayath, V.; McDonald, A.; Lim, Z.; Shastry, K.; Gladen, R.; Fairchild, A.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.
Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) was used to study the positron induced low energy electron spectra from HOPG and a sample composed of 6-8 layers of graphene grown on polycrystalline copper. A low energy (~2eV) beam of positrons was used to implant positrons into a surface localized state on the graphene and HOPG samples. Measurements of the energy spectra of the positron induced electrons obtained using a TOF spectrometer indicate the presence of an annihilation induced KLL C Auger peak (at ~263 eV) along with a narrow low energy secondary peak due to an Auger mediated positron sticking (AMPS) process. A broad spectral feature was also observed below ~15 eV which we believe may be due to a VVV C Auger transition not previously observed. The energy dependence of the integrated intensity of the AMPS peak was measured for a series of incident positron kinetic energies ranging from ~1.5 eV up to 11 eV from which the binding energy of the surface localized positron state on graphene and HOPG was estimated. The implication of our results regarding the applicability of AMPS and PAES to the study of graphene surfaces and interfaces will be discussed. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.
Modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a magnetized electron-positron quantum plasma.
Amin, M R
2015-09-01
Amplitude modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a strongly magnetized electron-positron pair plasma is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the external strong magnetic field, Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure, particle exchange potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to collision of the charged carriers. A modified-nonlinear Schödinger equation is developed for the compressional magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The linear and nonlinear dispersions of the electromagnetic wave are discussed in detail. For some parameter ranges, relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as the outer layers of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and magnetars, etc., it is found that the compressional electromagnetic wave is modulationally unstable and propagates as a dissipated electromagnetic wave. It is also found that the quantum effects due to the particle exchange potential and the Bohm potential are negligibly small in comparison to the effects of the Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure. The numerical results on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.
Third-order transport coefficients for electron and positron swarms in gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonovic, Ilija; Dujko, Sasa; White, Ronald; Petrovic, Zoran
2015-09-01
A multi term solution of the Boltzmann equation has been used to calculate third-order transport coefficients of charged particle swarms in neutral gases under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. The hierarchy resulting from a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Boltzmann equation in the hydrodynamic regime is solved numerically by representing the speed dependence of the phase-space distribution function in terms of an expansion in Sonine polynomials about a Maxwellian velocity distribution at an internally determined temperature. A group projector technique is employed to determine the structure and symmetries along individual elements of the skewness tensor when both electric and magnetic fields are present. Results are given for electron and positron swarms for certain model and real gases over a range of electric and magnetic field strengths. The results of the Boltzmann equation analysis are compared with those obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Various aspects in the behavior of skewness tensor elements are investigated, including the existence of correlation with low-order transport coefficients, sensitivity to post-ionization energy partitioning and errors of two-term approximation for solving Boltzmann's equation.
Propagation of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves through electron-positron-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozina, Ch.; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Jamil, M.
2016-07-01
A kinetic approach is used to study the propagation of ultrarelativistic (amplitude) electromagnetic waves through electron-positron-ion plasma. For our purposes, we formulate a new plasma particle distribution function in the presence of ultrarelativistically intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (EM) waves. An effective dispersion relation of constant amplitude ultrarelativistic EM wave is derived, skin depth is calculated in particular, frequency regimes and has shown numerically that the penetration depth increases with the amplitude of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves, λ s k ˜ a /1 2 , i.e., plasma will be heated more in the region of skin depth. Next, we have found that the nonlinear interaction of ultrarelativistically intense EM waves of time and space varying amplitude leads to construct kinetic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (KNSE), containing both local and non-local nonlinear terms, where nonlocal nonlinear term appears due to density perturbations of plasma species. Taking the effects of the latter into consideration, nonlinear Landau damping is discussed for KNSE, damping rate is computed, and numerically ultrarelativistic EM waves are shown to decay exponentially. The present results should be helpful to understand the specific properties of the ultrarelativistic EM waves in astrophysical plasmas, e.g., pulsars, black holes, and neutron stars.
Simulation of ultra-relativistic electrons and positrons channeling in crystals with MBN EXPLORER
Sushko, Gennady B.; Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Korol, Andrei V.; Greiner, Walter; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2013-11-01
A newly developed code, implemented as a part of the MBN EXPLORER package (Solov'yov et al., 2012; (http://www.mbnexplorer.com/), 2012) [1,2] to simulate trajectories of an ultra-relativistic projectile in a crystalline medium, is presented. The motion of a projectile is treated classically by integrating the relativistic equations of motion with account for the interaction between the projectile and crystal atoms. The probabilistic element is introduced by a random choice of transverse coordinates and velocities of the projectile at the crystal entrance as well as by accounting for the random positions of the atoms due to thermal vibrations. The simulated trajectories are used for numerical analysis of the emitted radiation. Initial approbation and verification of the code have been carried out by simulating the trajectories and calculating the radiation emitted by ε=6.7 GeV and ε=855 MeV electrons and positrons in oriented Si(110) crystal and in amorphous silicon. The calculated spectra are compared with the experimental data and with predictions of the Bethe–Heitler theory for the amorphous environment.
Lopez, Rodrigo A.; Munoz, Victor; Asenjo, Felipe A.; Alejandro Valdivia, J.
2012-08-15
The nonlinear evolution of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an electron-positron plasma propagating along a constant background magnetic field is considered, by studying its parametric decays. Relativistic effects, of the particle motion in the wave field and of the plasma temperature, are included to obtain the dispersion relation of the decays. The exact dispersion relation of the pump wave has been previously calculated within the context of a relativistic fluid theory and presents two branches: an electromagnetic and an Alfven one. We investigate the parametric decays for the pump wave in these two branches, including the anomalous dispersion zone of the Alfven branch where the group velocity is negative. We solve the nonlinear dispersion relation for different pump wave amplitudes and plasma temperatures, finding various resonant and nonresonant wave couplings. We are able to identify these couplings and study their behavior as we modify the plasma parameters. Some of these couplings are suppressed for larger amplitudes or temperatures. We also find two kinds of modulational instabilities, one involving two sideband daughter waves and another involving a forward-propagating electroacoustic mode and a sideband daughter wave.
White dwarf pulsars as possible cosmic ray electron-positron factories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashiyama, Kazumi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kawanaka, Norita
2011-01-01
We suggest that white dwarf (WD) pulsars can compete with neutron star (NS) pulsars for producing the excesses of cosmic ray electrons and positrons (e±) observed by the PAMELA, ATIC/PPB-BETS, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. experiments. A merger of two WDs leads to a rapidly spinning WD with a rotational energy (˜1050erg) comparable to the NS case. The birth rate (˜10-2-10-3/yr/galaxy) is also similar, providing the right energy budget for the cosmic ray e±. Applying the NS theory, we suggest that the WD pulsars can in principle produce e± up to ˜10TeV. In contrast to the NS model, the adiabatic and radiative energy losses of e± are negligible since their injection continues after the expansion of the pulsar wind nebula, and hence it is enough that a fraction ˜1% of WDs are magnetized (˜107-109G) as observed. The long activity also increases the number of nearby sources (˜100), which reduces the Poisson fluctuation in the flux. The WD pulsars could dominate the quickly cooling e± above TeV energy as a second spectral bump or even surpass the NS pulsars in the observing energy range ˜10GeV-1TeV, providing a background for the dark matter signals and a nice target for the future AMS-02, CALET, and CTA experiment.
TeV-scale stringy signatures at the electron-positron collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burikham, Piyabut
2006-03-01
We investigate the TeV-scale stringy signals of the four-fermion scattering at the electron-positron collider with the center-of-mass energy 500 1000 GeV. The nature of the stringy couplings leads to distinguishable asymmetries comparing to the other new physics models. Specifically, the stringy states in the four-fermion scattering at the leading-order corrections are of spin-1 and 2 with the chiral couplings inherited from the gauge bosons identified as the zeroth-mode string states. The angular left-right, forward-backward, center-edge asymmetries, and the corresponding polarized-beam asymmetries are investigated. The low-energy stringy corrections are compared to the ones induced by the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons. The angular left-right asymmetry of the scattering with the final states of u and d-type quarks, namely c and b, shows significant deviations from the standard model values. The center-edge and forward-backward asymmetries for all final-states fermions also show significant deviations from the corresponding standard model values. The differences between the signatures induced by the stringy corrections and the KK gravitons are appreciable in both angular left-right and forward-backward asymmetries.
Ion acoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Hanif, M.
2008-07-01
Ion acoustic shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and ions employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. Nonlinear quantum IASWs are investigated by deriving the Korteweg-deVries-Burger equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the ion acoustic shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. The temporal evolution of the shock for a quantum e-p-i plasma in a spherical geometry is also investigated. It is found that the strength and the steepness of the quantum ion acoustic shock wave increases with decreasing stretched time coordinate (representing slow time scale) |τ|. It is also found that an increase in the quantum Bohm potential decreases the strength as well as the steepness of the shock. The temporal evolution of the quantum ion acoustic solitons in an e-p-i plasma for cylindrical and spherical geometries is also explored by substituting the dissipative coefficient C equal to zero. The relevance of the present study with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Testing sterile neutrino extensions of the Standard Model at the Circular Electron Positron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antusch, Stefan; Fischer, Oliver
2015-08-01
Extending the Standard Model with sterile (“right-handed”) neutrinos is one of the best motivated ways to account for the observed neutrino masses. We discuss the expected sensitivity of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) for testing such extensions. An interesting scenario is given by symmetry protected seesaw models, which theoretically allow for sterile neutrino masses around the electroweak scale with up to order one mixings with the active (SM) neutrinos. When the masses of the sterile neutrinos are well above the electroweak scale, they affect precision data via effective non-unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix in a model independent way. The expected improvement of the electroweak precision observables from the CEPC may allow to test mixings between active and sterile neutrinos down to ˜ 5 × 10-3 (using currently discussed CEPC performance parameters). For sterile neutrinos with masses around the electroweak scale, direct searches are possible. Such tests are given by the search for sterile neutrino decays at the Z pole, by deviations from the SM cross section for four leptons at and beyond the W threshold, and by Higgs boson production and decays. The expected sensitivities at the CEPC could reach down to mixings as small as ˜ 5 × 10-5.
Ion acoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion quantum plasma
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Hanif, M.
2008-07-15
Ion acoustic shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and ions employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. Nonlinear quantum IASWs are investigated by deriving the Korteweg-deVries-Burger equation under the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the ion acoustic shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for planar geometry. The temporal evolution of the shock for a quantum e-p-i plasma in a spherical geometry is also investigated. It is found that the strength and the steepness of the quantum ion acoustic shock wave increases with decreasing stretched time coordinate (representing slow time scale) |{tau}|. It is also found that an increase in the quantum Bohm potential decreases the strength as well as the steepness of the shock. The temporal evolution of the quantum ion acoustic solitons in an e-p-i plasma for cylindrical and spherical geometries is also explored by substituting the dissipative coefficient C equal to zero. The relevance of the present study with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Overview of laser-driven generation of electron-positron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarri, G.; Dieckmann, M. E.; Kourakis, I.; di Piazza, A.; Reville, B.; Keitel, C. H.; Zepf, M.
2015-08-01
Electron-positron (e-p) plasmas are widely thought to be emitted, in the form of ultra-relativistic winds or collimated jets, by some of the most energetic or powerful objects in the Universe, such as black-holes, pulsars, and quasars. These phenomena represent an unmatched astrophysical laboratory to test physics at its limit and, given their immense distance from Earth (some even farther than several billion light years), they also provide a unique window on the very early stages of our Universe. However, due to such gigantic distances, their properties are only inferred from the indirect interpretation of their radiative signatures and from matching numerical models: their generation mechanism and dynamics still pose complicated enigmas to the scientific community. Small-scale reproductions in the laboratory would represent a fundamental step towards a deeper understanding of this exotic state of matter. Here we present recent experimental results concerning the laser-driven production of ultra-relativistic e-p beams. In particular, we focus on the possibility of generating beams that present charge neutrality and that allow for collective effects in their dynamics, necessary ingredients for the testing pair-plasma physics in the laboratory. A brief discussion of the analytical and numerical modelling of the dynamics of these plasmas is also presented in order to provide a summary of the novel plasma physics that can be accessed with these objects. Finally, general considerations on the scalability of laboratory plasmas up to astrophysical scenarios are given.
Javan, N. Sepehri Homami, S. H. H.
2015-02-15
Self-guided nonlinear propagation of intense circularly-polarized electromagnetic waves in a hot electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma is studied. Using a relativistic fluid model, a nonlinear equation is derived, which describes the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the plasma in the quasi-neutral approximation. Transverse Eigen modes, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the group velocity are obtained. Results show that the transverse profile in the case of magnetized plasma with cylindrical symmetry has a radially damping oscillatory form. Effect of applying external magnetic fields, existence of the electron-positron pairs, changing the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave, and its polarization on the nonlinear dispersion relation and Eigen modes are studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uedono, Akira; Tsukada, Yusuke; Mikawa, Yutaka; Mochizuki, Tae; Fujisawa, Hideo; Ikeda, Hirotaka; Kurihara, Kaori; Fujito, Kenji; Terada, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Shoji; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.
2016-08-01
Defects in ammonothermal GaN have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Through measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation, the major defect species was identified as a Ga vacancy coupled with impurities such as oxygen and/or hydrogen. Those defects were found to be stable even after annealing at 1000 °C. The shape parameter S for the Doppler broadening spectrum corresponding to positron annihilation at the surface was found to be decreased by illumination within energy ranges of 1.5-2.6 eV and 3.2-3.6 eV. This phenomenon is attributed to the suppression of recombinations between holes and electrons due to trapping centers, which can hold electrons for a long time, and a resultant accumulation of holes at the surface. Recovery of the S value required almost one day, but it was shortened by the annealing at 1000 °C.
Design of An 18 MW Beam Dump for 500 GeV Electron/Positron Beams at An ILC
Amann, John; Arnold, Ray; Seryi, Andrei; Walz, Dieter; Kulkarni, Kiran; Rai, Pravin; Satyamurthy, Polepalle; Tiwari, Vikar; Vincke, Heinz; /CERN
2012-07-05
This article presents a report on the progress made in designing 18 MW water based Beam Dumps for electrons or positrons for an International Linear Collider (ILC). Multi-dimensional technology issues have to be addressed for the successful design of the Beam Dump. They include calculations of power deposition by the high energy electron/positron beam bunch trains, computational fluid dynamic analysis of turbulent water flow, mechanical design, process flow analysis, hydrogen/oxygen recombiners, handling of radioactive 7Be and 3H, design of auxiliary equipment, provisions for accident scenarios, remote window exchanger, radiation shielding, etc. The progress made to date is summarized, the current status, and also the issues still to be addressed.
EL-Labany, S. K.; Khedr, D. M.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Sabry, R.
2013-01-15
In the present research paper, the effect of bounded nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry on the interaction between two nonplanar electrostatic solitary waves (NESWs) in electron-positron-ion plasmas has been studied. The extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method is used to obtain nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two NESWs. This study is a first attempt to investigate nonplanar phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs in a two-fluid plasma (a pair-plasma) consisting of electrons and positrons, as well as immobile background positive ions in nonplanar geometry. The change of phase shifts and trajectories for NESWs due to the effect of cylindrical geometry, spherical geometry, the physical processes (either isothermal or adiabatic), and the positions of two NESWs are discussed. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the interaction between two NESWs that may occur in active galactic nuclei.
Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense pair-ion plasma containing degenerate electrons and positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelsalam, U. M.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.
2008-05-01
Fully nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless dense/quantum electron-positron-ion plasma is investigated. The electrons and positrons are assumed to follow the Thomas-Fermi density distribution and the ions are described by the hydrodynamic equations. An energy balance-like equation involving a Sagdeev-type pseudo-potential is derived. Finite amplitude solutions are obtained numerically and their characteristics are discussed. The small-but finite-amplitude limit is also considered and an exact analytical solution is obtained. The present studies might be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a degenerate plasma such as in superdense white dwarfs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.
2013-06-01
A complementary study of vacancy defects in Si substrates by using scanning positron microscope (SPM) and electron beam induced current (EBIC) method were demonstrated for the same samples and in the same chamber. Both the S parameter and EBIC contrast were found to be enhanced in the regions containing vacancy defects introduced by ion implantation. That is, the SPM provides a criterion if the spatially resolved carrier recombination centres by the EBIC method are originating from vacancy defects or not.
Gevorgyan, N. E.; Dashyan, N. B.; Paremuzyan, R. G.; Stepanyan, S. G.
2010-01-01
We study the dependence of the sensitivity of response of the electromagnetic calorimeter of CLAS plant on the momenta of electrons and positrons. We made calculation of this dependence and elaborated a method for its employment in identification of e- and e+. We have shown that the new method of selection of e- and e+ improves the quality of identification by about 10%. We used the experimental data obtained with the plant CLAS of linear accelerator at Jefferson laboratory (USA).
Three-Jet Production in Electron-Positron Collisions at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order Accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Duca, Vittorio; Duhr, Claude; Kardos, Adam; Somogyi, Gábor; Trócsányi, Zoltán
2016-10-01
We introduce a completely local subtraction method for fully differential predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy for jet cross sections and use it to compute event shapes in three-jet production in electron-positron collisions. We validate our method on two event shapes, thrust and C parameter, which are already known in the literature at NNLO accuracy and compute for the first time oblateness and the energy-energy correlation at the same accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauch, B. F.
2014-05-01
The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is an imaging calorimeter under construction for launch to the ISS in 2014 for a planned 5 year mission. CALET consists of a charge detection module (CHD) with two segmented planes of 1 cm thick plastic scintillator, an imaging calorimeter (IMC) with a total of 3 radiation lengths (X∘) of tungsten plates read out with 8 planes of interleaved scintillating fibers, and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC) with 27 X∘ of lead tungstate (PWO) logs. The primary objectives of the experiment are to measure the electron e+e energy spectra from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, to detect gamma-rays above 10 GeV, and to measure the energy spectra of nuclei from protons through iron up to 1000 TeV. In this paper we describe how the geomagnetic field at the 51.6° inclination orbit of the ISS can be used to allow CALET to measure the distinct electron and positron fluxes. The positron fraction has been seen to rise above ˜10 GeV by previous experiments (HEAT, AMS-01), and more recently to continue to increase to higher energies (˜80 GeV for PAMELA, ˜200 GeV for Fermi and ˜350 GeV with the best statistics for AMS-02). Utilizing the geomagnetic cutoff, CALET will be able to distinguish electrons and positrons in the ˜3-20 GeV energy range where the positron fraction turns upward to complement existing high statistics measurements.
Zhang Jiefang; Wang Yueyue; Wu Lei
2009-06-15
The propagation of ion acoustic waves in plasmas composed of ions, positrons, and nonthermally distributed electrons is investigated. By means of the reduction perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived and the modulation instability of ion acoustic wave is analyzed, where the nonthermal parameter is found to be of significant importance. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the bright and dark solitons are obtained, and the interaction of multiple solitons is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, E. B.; Beron, B. L.; Carrington, R. L.; Ford, R. L.; Hofstadter, R.; Liberman, A. D.; Martin, T. W.; Oneill, L. H.; Simpson, J. W.; Hilger, E.
1976-01-01
An experiment was conducted to measure gamma ray pairs produced in the electron-positron reaction in the region of psi(3684) resonance. The apparatus consisted of two identical spectrometers mounted in a collinear configuration about the beam interaction region. Graphs are presented for the coplanarity angle between reconstructed gamma ray directions, for the scattering and energy deposition of gamma rays in the two crystals used, and for the observed rate of annihilation reactions as a function of center of mass energy.
Fine-grid calculations for stellar electron and positron capture rates on Fe isotopes
Nabi, Jameel-Un; Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2013-03-15
The acquisition of precise and reliable nuclear data is a prerequisite to success for stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies. Core-collapse simulators find it challenging to generate an explosion from the collapse of the core of massive stars. It is believed that a better understanding of the microphysics of core-collapse can lead to successful results. The weak interaction processes are able to trigger the collapse and control the lepton-to-baryon ratio (Y{sub e}) of the corematerial. It is suggested that the temporal variation of Y{sub e} within the core of a massive star has a pivotal role to play in the stellar evolution and a fine-tuning of this parameter at various stages of presupernova evolution is the key to generate an explosion. During the presupernova evolution of massive stars, isotopes of iron, mainly {sup 54-56}Fe, are considered to be key players in controlling Y{sub e} ratio via electron capture on these nuclides. Recently an improved microscopic calculation of weak-interaction-mediated rates for iron isotopes was introduced using the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase-approximation (pn-QRPA) theory. The pn-QRPA theory allows a microscopic state-by-state calculation of stellar capture rates which greatly increases the reliability of calculated rates. The results were suggestive of some fine-tuning of the Y{sub e} ratio during various phases of stellar evolution. Here we present for the first time the fine-grid calculation of the electron and positron capture rates on {sup 54-56}Fe. The sensitivity of the pn-QRPA calculated capture rates to the deformation parameter is also studied in this work. Core-collapse simulators may find this calculation suitable for interpolation purposes and for necessary incorporation in the stellar evolution codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseinpour, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.; Biabani, S.; Biabani
2013-10-01
Collisionless magnetic reconnection via tearing instability in non-relativistic electron-positron (pair) plasma with an anisotropic pressure is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field is considered to be sheared force-free, and a set of linearized collisionless Magnetohydrodynamics equations describes the evolution of reconnection dynamics. A linear analytical analysis, based on scaling, demonstrates that in such a pair plasma, breaking the frozen in flow constraint for field lines can be mainly provided by the non-gyrotropic pressure of electrons and positrons (rather than the particle bulk inertia) when the current sheet width is smaller than the particle Larmor radius (Δx < r L ). This condition is satisfied when β > d 2 (d = c/ω p is the particle skin-depth with the electron/positron frequency ω p and β = 8πP (0)/B 0 2 << 1). Meanwhile, on top of the Lorentz force and in the absence of the reconnection facilitating mechanism of the Hall effect, non-scalar pressure force can accelerate bulk plasma into the diffusion region at the scale lengths of the order of dx. Therefore, the respective regime of tearing instability proceeds much faster compared with the case of an isotropic pressure with a new dimensionless growth rate of (γτ A ) ~ d.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, Hitendra K.; Malik, Rakhee; Malik
2014-08-01
An electron-positron pair plasma having dust impurity and density non-uniformity is studied for its unperturbed state and evolution of solitary structures under the effect of either positively charged or negatively charged dust grains. Zeroth-order equations are solved to examine the unperturbed state of the plasma via unperturbed potential φ0, drift velocities of the electrons and positrons (v e0 and v p0), and plasma (positron) density gradient n p0η. It is observed that the dust distribution affects the gradient n p0η significantly, which increases very sharply with a small increment in the dust density gradient n d0η. With relation to the solitary structures, a modified form of Korteweg-deVries equation (mKdV equation) is realized in the said plasma, which reveals that a tailing structure is associated with the soliton (sech2 structure). This tail is less prominent in the present pair plasma, contrary to the observation made in ordinary plasmas having only ions and electrons. The dust impurity is found to influence the solitary structure much significantly and its presence suppresses the rarefactive solitons, which are generally observed in multi-component species plasmas.
Chang, H X; Qiao, B; Xu, Z; Xu, X R; Zhou, C T; Yan, X Q; Wu, S Z; Borghesi, M; Zepf, M; He, X T
2015-11-01
A scheme for enhanced quantum electrodynamics (QED) production of electron-positron-pair plasmas is proposed that uses two ultraintense lasers irradiating a thin solid foil from opposite sides. In the scheme, under a proper matching condition, in addition to the skin-depth emission of γ-ray photons and Breit-Wheeler creation of pairs on each side of the foil, a large number of high-energy electrons and photons from one side can propagate through it and interact with the laser on the other side, leading to much enhanced γ-ray emission and pair production. More importantly, the created pairs can be collected later and confined to the center by opposite laser radiation pressures when the foil becomes transparent, resulting in the formation of unprecedentedly overdense and high-energy pair plasmas. Two-dimensional QED particle-in-cell simulations show that electron-positron-pair plasmas with overcritical density 10(22) cm(-3) and a high energy of 100s of MeV are obtained with 10 PW lasers at intensities 10(23) W/cm(2), which are of key significance for laboratory astrophysics studies. PMID:26651802
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuyang, Huang; Yanqiong, Lu; Yanyan, Zhu; Yuxia, Li; Wen, Deng
2009-09-01
Microdefects and 3d electrons in B2-FeAl alloys with different chemical composition, single crystal of Fe and cold-rolled Fe has been studied by positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectrum of the single crystal of Fe shows the highest 3d electron signal in the spectra of all tested samples. The 3d electron signal in the spectrum of Fe50Al50 alloy is much lower than that of the cold-rolled Fe. This indicates that some of the 3d electrons of Fe atoms and 3p electrons of Al atoms in B2-FeAl alloy are localized to form strong covalent bonds, thus decreasing the probability of positron annihilation with 3d electrons of Fe atoms. With the increase of Al content in B2-FeAl alloys, the 3d electron signal in the spectrum of the alloy decreases, while the open volume of defect increases.
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-01
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Large electron screening effect in different environments
Cvetinović, Aleksandra Lipoglavšek, Matej; Markelj, Sabina; Vesić, Jelena
2015-10-15
Electron screening effect was studied in the {sup 1}H({sup 7}Li,α){sup 4}He, {sup 1}H({sup 11}B,α){sup 4}He and {sup 1}H({sup 19}F,αγ){sup 16}O reactions in inverse kinematics on different hydrogen implanted targets. Results show large electron screening potentials strongly dependent on the proton number Z of the projectile.
Waves and Instabilities in AN Electron-Positron Plasma in AN Ultra-Strong Magnetic Field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulsifer, Peter Emery
1987-09-01
Magnetic fields of up to 10^{13 } Gauss have been observed in pulsars. At these ultrastrong fields, the energy between Landau levels is comparable to the electron rest-mass, and the cyclotron radius is comparable to the Compton wavelength. To study the electromagnetic properties of an electron or positron gas in such ultrastrong fields, the polarization tensor Pi_{mu nu} is calculated. This response function is simply related to other functions like the dielectric and diamagnetic tensors. A dispersion relation is found involving Pi_{munu }, whose solution determines the frequency -wavenumber relation for propagating electromagnetic waves in the system. Damping of these waves is determined by the imaginary part of Pi_{mu nu}. A relativistic quantum-kinetic (Wigner function) technique is used. A relativistic treatment is needed partly because of the high magnetic field and partly because of the assumed high electron densities (of order 10 ^{29} cm^{ -3}). The quantum analog to the Vlasov equation is derived and linearized about a zero-temperature Fermi equilibrium, an approximation scheme equivalent to the random-phase-approximation (RPA). An integral equation is found for the four-current, which then determines the polarization tensor. The resulting dispersion is evaluated for propagation parallel to the magnetic field. In this case, solutions have one of three possible polarizations: longitudinal, right-circular and left-circular. Many acoustic-like waves are seen, arising from logarithmic peaks in Pi . The longitudinal plasmon oscillation, always undamped, is discussed. Generalizations of the cyclotron frequency and the whistler mode are considered. A previously unreported propagating wave, with frequency slightly above the pair-production energy, is discovered at all polarizations. Wave propagation and damping are analyzed in terms of two-body processes. Cutoffs and discontinuities in phase velocities of waves are noted and discussed in terms of the different
Recent Developments in the Design of the NLC Positron Source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotseroglou, T.; Bharadwaj, V.; Clendenin, J. E.; Ecklund, S.; Frisch, J.
1999-11-01
Recent developments in the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) positron source based on updated beam parameters are described. The unpolarized NLC positron source (1,2) consists of a dedicated 6.2 GeV S-band electron accelerator, a high-Z positron production target, a capture system and an L-band positron linac. The 1998 failure of the SLC target, which is currently under investigation, may lead to a variation of the target design. Progress towards a polarized positron source is also presented. A moderately polarized positron beam colliding with a highly polarized electron beam results in an effective polarization large enough to explore new physics at NLC. One of the schemes towards a polarized positron source incorporates a polarized electron source, a 50 MeV electron accelerator, a thin target for positron production and a new capture system optimized for high-energy, small angular-divergence positrons. The yield for such a process, checked using the EGS4 code, is of the order of 10-3. The EGS4 code has being enhanced to include the effect of polarization in bremsstrahlung and pair-production process.
Vorster, Michael J.; Moraal, Harm
2014-06-20
Charged particles propagating through a structured magnetic field are subject to drift motion. The primary aim of the present paper is therefore to investigate the effects of gradient, curvature, and neutral sheet drift on the evolution of the electron and positron spectra in a pulsar wind nebula, where the drift motion is a direct result of the magnetic field having an Archimedean spiral structure. In order to investigate the evolution of the spectra, the steady-state, axisymmetric Fokker-Planck transport equation is solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme. Apart from drift motion, the transport processes of convection and diffusion, along with the energy loss processes of adiabatic cooling and synchrotron radiation, are also included in the model. It is found that drift, particularly neutral sheet drift, can lead to a quantitative difference in the evolution of the electron and positron spectra. This difference may be of importance when interpreting the positron excess observed by PAMELA and AMS-02 near Earth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Ata-ur-; Kerr, Michael Mc; El-Taibany, Wael F.; Kourakis, Ioannis; Qamar, A.
2015-02-01
A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.
Rahman, Ata-ur-; Kerr, Michael Mc Kourakis, Ioannis; El-Taibany, Wael F.; Qamar, A.
2015-02-15
A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.
Chatterjee, Debjani; Misra, A P
2015-12-01
The nonlinear theory of amplitude modulation of electrostatic wave envelopes in a collisionless electron-positron (EP) pair plasma is studied by using a set of Vlasov-Poisson equations in the context of Tsallis' q-nonextensive statistics. In particular, the previous linear theory of Langmuir oscillations in EP plasmas [Saberian and Esfandyari-Kalejahi, Phys. Rev. E 87, 053112 (2013)] is rectified and modified. Applying the multiple scale technique (MST), it is shown that the evolution of electrostatic wave envelopes is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with a nonlocal nonlinear term ∝P∫|ϕ(ξ',τ)|(2)dξ'ϕ/(ξ-ξ') [where P denotes the Cauchy principal value, ϕ is the small-amplitude electrostatic (complex) potential, and ξ and τ are the stretched coordinates in MST], which appears due to the wave-particle resonance. It is found that a subregion 1/3
White dwarf pulsars as possible cosmic ray electron-positron factories
Kashiyama, Kazumi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kawanaka, Norita
2011-01-15
We suggest that white dwarf (WD) pulsars can compete with neutron star (NS) pulsars for producing the excesses of cosmic ray electrons and positrons (e{sup {+-}}) observed by the PAMELA, ATIC/PPB-BETS, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. experiments. A merger of two WDs leads to a rapidly spinning WD with a rotational energy ({approx}10{sup 50} erg) comparable to the NS case. The birth rate ({approx}10{sup -2}-10{sup -3}/yr/galaxy) is also similar, providing the right energy budget for the cosmic ray e{sup {+-}}. Applying the NS theory, we suggest that the WD pulsars can in principle produce e{sup {+-}} up to {approx}10 TeV. In contrast to the NS model, the adiabatic and radiative energy losses of e{sup {+-}} are negligible since their injection continues after the expansion of the pulsar wind nebula, and hence it is enough that a fraction {approx}1% of WDs are magnetized ({approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} G) as observed. The long activity also increases the number of nearby sources ({approx}100), which reduces the Poisson fluctuation in the flux. The WD pulsars could dominate the quickly cooling e{sup {+-}} above TeV energy as a second spectral bump or even surpass the NS pulsars in the observing energy range {approx}10 GeV-1 TeV, providing a background for the dark matter signals and a nice target for the future AMS-02, CALET, and CTA experiment.
Chatterjee, Debjani; Misra, A P
2015-12-01
The nonlinear theory of amplitude modulation of electrostatic wave envelopes in a collisionless electron-positron (EP) pair plasma is studied by using a set of Vlasov-Poisson equations in the context of Tsallis' q-nonextensive statistics. In particular, the previous linear theory of Langmuir oscillations in EP plasmas [Saberian and Esfandyari-Kalejahi, Phys. Rev. E 87, 053112 (2013)] is rectified and modified. Applying the multiple scale technique (MST), it is shown that the evolution of electrostatic wave envelopes is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with a nonlocal nonlinear term ∝P∫|ϕ(ξ',τ)|(2)dξ'ϕ/(ξ-ξ') [where P denotes the Cauchy principal value, ϕ is the small-amplitude electrostatic (complex) potential, and ξ and τ are the stretched coordinates in MST], which appears due to the wave-particle resonance. It is found that a subregion 1/3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Debjani; Misra, A. P.
2015-12-01
The nonlinear theory of amplitude modulation of electrostatic wave envelopes in a collisionless electron-positron (EP) pair plasma is studied by using a set of Vlasov-Poisson equations in the context of Tsallis' q -nonextensive statistics. In particular, the previous linear theory of Langmuir oscillations in EP plasmas [Saberian and Esfandyari-Kalejahi, Phys. Rev. E 87, 053112 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.053112] is rectified and modified. Applying the multiple scale technique (MST), it is shown that the evolution of electrostatic wave envelopes is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with a nonlocal nonlinear term ∝P ∫|ϕ (ξ',τ ) |2d ξ'ϕ /(ξ -ξ') [where P denotes the Cauchy principal value, ϕ is the small-amplitude electrostatic (complex) potential, and ξ and τ are the stretched coordinates in MST], which appears due to the wave-particle resonance. It is found that a subregion 1 /3
Tang, Z.; Chiba, T.; Nagai, Y.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Hasegawa, M.
2014-04-28
A compact ensemble of high density nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is essential to sense various external fields with a high precision at the nanoscale. Here, defects in type IIa and type Ib diamonds induced by 28 MeV electron irradiation at 77 K were studied by combining the positron annihilation spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. It is shown that the electron irradiation at 77 K can significantly enhance the NV center formation by directly converting 24% vacancies into the NV centers, indicating that it is an efficient way to produce the high density NV centers in the type Ib diamond.
Positron annihilation in flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tudor Jones, Goronwy
1999-09-01
In this resource article, an exceptional bubble chamber picture - showing the annihilation of a positron (antielectron e+ ) in flight - is discussed in detail. Several other esoteric phenomena (some not easy to show on their own!) also manifest themselves in this picture - pair creation or the materialization of a high energy photon into an electron-positron pair; the `head-on' collision of a positron with an electron, from which the mass of the positron can be estimated; the Compton Effect ; an example of the emission of electromagnetic radiation (photons) by accelerating charges (bremsstrahlung ).
Positron-molecule bound states and positive ion production
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leventhal, M.; Passner, A.; Surko, C. M.
1990-01-01
The interaction was studied of low energy positrons with large molecules such as alkanes. These data provide evidencce for the existence of long lived resonances and bound states of positrons with neutral molecules. The formation process and the nature of these resonances are discussed. The positive ions produced when a positron annihilates with an electron in one of these resonances were observed and this positive ion formation process is discussed. A review is presented of the current state of the understanding of these positron-molecule resonances and the resulting positive ion formation. A number of outstanding issues in this area is also discussed.
Admittance Test and Conceptual Study of a CW Positron Source for CEBAF
Golge, Serkan; Hyde, Charles E.; Freyberger, Arne
2009-09-02
A conceptual study of a Continuous Wave (CW) positron production is presented in this paper. The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) operates with a CW electron beam with a well-defined emittance, time structure and energy spread. Positrons created via bremsstrahlung photons in a high-Z target emerge with a large emittance compared to incoming electron beam. An admittance study has been performed at CEBAF to estimate the maximum beam phase space area that can be transported in the LINAC and in the Arcs. A positron source is described utilizing the CEBAF injector electron beam, and directly injecting the positrons into the CEBAF LINAC.
Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, A.
2012-05-10
Magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration in relativistic Harris sheets in low-density electron-positron plasmas with no guide field have been studied by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Reconnection rates are of the order of one when the background density in a Harris sheet is of the order of 1% of the density in the current sheet, which is consistent with previous results in the non-relativistic regime. It has been demonstrated that the increase of the Lorentz factors of accelerated particles significantly enhances the collisionless resistivity needed to sustain a large reconnection electric field. It is shown analytically and numerically that the energy spectrum of accelerated particles near the X-line is the product of a power law and an exponential function of energy, {gamma}{sup -1/4}exp (- a{gamma}{sup 1/2}), where {gamma} is the Lorentz factor and a is a constant. However, in the low-density regime, while the most energetic particles are produced near X-lines, many more particles are energized within magnetic islands. Particles are energized in contracting islands by multiple reflection, but the mechanism is different from Fermi acceleration in magnetic islands for magnetized particles in the presence of a guide field. In magnetic islands, strong core fields are generated and plasma beta values are reduced. As a consequence, the fire-hose instability condition is not satisfied in most of the island region, and island contraction and particle acceleration can continue. In island coalescence, reconnection between two islands can accelerate some particles, however, many particles are decelerated and cooled, which is contrary to what has been discussed in the literature on particle acceleration due to reconnection in non-relativistic hydrogen plasmas.
Large-area lanthanum hexaboride electron emitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goebel, D. M.; Hirooka, Y.; Sketchley, T. A.
1985-09-01
The characteristics of lanthanum-boron thermionic electron emitters are discussed, and a large-area, continuously operating cathode assembly and heater are described. Impurity production and structural problems involving the support of the LaB6 have been eliminated in the presented configuration. The performance of the cathode in a plasma discharge, where surface modification occurs by ion sputtering, is presented. Problem areas which affect lifetime and emission current capability are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Kononets, Yu. V.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.
1997-11-01
Presented is the first experimental demonstration of a dramatic radiative redistribution in transverse states for multi-GeV electrons/positrons, interacting with strong crystalline fields. Detailed analysis of energy loss, photon multiplicities, and scattering distributions leads to new physical insight into open questions such as radiative cooling/heating of the beams in aligned crystals, validity of the constant-field approximation, radiative capture of random particles (``feed in'') into channeled states, and the Landau-Pomeranchuk effect in multiphoton radiation spectra.
Jackman, T.M.
1987-01-01
A theoretical investigation of the interaction potential between the helium atom and the antihydrogen atom was performed for the purpose of determining the feasibility of antihydrogen atom containment. The interaction potential showed an energy barrier to collapse of this system. A variational estimate of the height of this energy barrier and estimates of lifetime with respect to electron-positron annihilation were determined by the Variational Monte Carlo method. This calculation allowed for an improvement over an SCF result through the inclusion of explicit correlation factors in the trial wave function. An estimate of the correlation energy of this system was determined by the Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method.
Hertzbach, S.S.; Kofler, R.R.
1993-12-31
The High Energy Physics group at the University of Massachusetts has continued its` program of experimental studies of electron-positron interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The group activities have included: analysis of data taken between 1982 and 1990 with the TPC detector at the PEP facility, continuing data collection and data analysis using the SLC/SLD facility, planning for the newly approved B-factory at SLAC, and participation in design studies for future high energy linear colliders. This report will briefly summarize these activities.
Measurement of electron clouds in large accelerators by microwave dispersion.
De Santis, S; Byrd, J M; Caspers, F; Krasnykh, A; Kroyer, T; Pivi, M T F; Sonnad, K G
2008-03-01
Clouds of low energy electrons in the vacuum beam pipes of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation at high currents. Furthermore, it is difficult to probe their density over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We have developed a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave transmitted over a section of the accelerator and used it to measure the average electron cloud density over a 50 m section in the positron ring of the PEP-II collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, A. P.; Bhowmik, C.; Shukla, P. K.
2009-07-01
The theoretical study of modulational instability (MI) and localized envelope excitations of finite amplitude ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) is revisited in an unmagnetized quantum electron-positron-ion plasma. For this purpose, a one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the slow modulation of IAW packets, is derived by using the standard reductive perturbations technique. Two parameters, defining the ratio of the electron to ion number density (μ) and the quantum coupling parameter (H) describing the ratio of the "plasmonic energy density" to the Fermi energy density, are shown to play crucial roles in determining the modulational stability/MI domains, as well as for the existence of both bright and dark envelope solitons. It is found that the stability region increases (decreases) with increasing μ(H ), whereas the MI region for the IAW mode shifts to larger (smaller) wave number k as the value of μ(H ) increases. Moreover, the parameter H is shown to suppress the MI growth rate of the IAWs. The present results may be relevant to dense astrophysical plasmas (e.g., white dwarfs, where the electron-positron annihilation can be important, and where the particle density is of the order of 1034-1035 m-3) as well as to the next generation intense laser solid density plasma experiments.
An electronic aromaticity index for large rings.
Matito, Eduard
2016-04-28
We introduce a new electronic aromaticity index, AV1245, consisting of an average of the 4-center multicenter indices (MCI) along the ring that keeps a positional relationship of 1, 2, 4, 5. AV1245 measures the extent of transferability of the delocalized electrons between bonds 1-2 and 4-5, which is expected to be large in conjugated circuits and, therefore, in aromatic molecules. A new algorithm for the calculation of MCI for large rings is also introduced and used to produce the data for the calibration of the new aromaticity index. AV1245 does not rely on reference values, does not suffer from large numerical precision errors, and it does not present any limitation on the nature of atoms, the molecular geometry or the level of calculation. It is a size-extensive measure with low computational cost that grows linearly with the number of ring members. Therefore, it is especially suitable to study the aromaticity of large molecular rings such as those occurring in belt-shaped Möbius structures or porphyrins. The analysis of AV1245 in free-base and bis-metalated Pd [32]octaphyrins(1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0) completes this study. PMID:26878146
Progress Towards a Laser Produced Relativistic Electron-Positron Pair Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hui; Bonlie, J.; Cauble, R.; Fiuza, F.; Goldstein, W.; Hazi, A.; Keane, C.; Link, A.; Marley, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Shepherd, R.; Williams, G. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P. Y.; Nakai, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.; Kojima, S.; Miyanaga, N.; Morita, T.; Nagai, T.; Nishimura, H.; Ozaki, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Zhang, Z.; Kerr, S.; Fedosejevs, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Hill, M. P.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.
2016-03-01
A set of experiments has been performed exploring unique characteristics of pair jets and plasmas at several energetic short-pulse laser facilities including Titan at Livermore and OMEGA EP in Rochester, as well as the Osaka LFEX and AWE Orion lasers. New results are summarized, including positron beam emittance, scaling of pair production vs. laser energy, and initial results on the pair jet collimation using electromagnetic fields.
A method to detect positron anisotropies with Pamela data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panico, B.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Giaccari, U.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Pizzolotto, C.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.
2014-11-01
The PAMELA experiment is collecting data since 2006; its results indicate the presence of a large flux of positron with respect to electrons in the CR spectrum above 10 GeV. This excess might also be originated in objects such as pulsars and microquasars or through dark matter annihilation. Here the electrons and positrons events collected by PAMELA have been analized searching for anisotropies. The analysis is performed at different angular scales and results will be presented at the conference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiktor, Julia; Jomard, Gérald; Torrent, Marc; Barthe, Marie-France; Bertolus, Marjorie
2016-05-01
We performed calculations of momentum distributions of annihilating electron-positron pairs in various fully relaxed vacancy defects in SiC. We used self-consistent two-component density functional theory schemes to find the electronic and positronic densities and wave functions in the considered systems. Using the one-dimensional momentum distributions (Doppler-broadened annihilation radiation line shapes) we calculated the line-shape parameters S and W . We emphasize the effect of the experimental resolution and the choice of the integration ranges for the S and W parameters on the distributions of the points corresponding to different defects in the S (W ) plot. We performed calculation for two polytypes of SiC, 3 C , and 6 H and showed that for silicon vacancies and clusters containing this defect there were no significant differences between the Doppler spectra. The results of the Doppler spectra calculations were compared with experimental data obtained for n -type 6 H -SiC samples irradiated with 4-MeV Au ions. We observed a good general agreement between the measured and calculated points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, X. X.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, D. H.; Jia, H. Y.
2016-11-01
Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0-500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields. Our simulation results could be helpful in understanding the decreases observed in some ground-based experiments (such as the Carpet air shower array and ARGO-YBJ), and also be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of secondary charged particles caused by an atmospheric electric field.
Depolarization due to beam-beam interaction in electron-positron linear colliders
Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin
1988-09-01
We investigate two major mechanisms which induce depolarization of electron beams during beam-beam interaction in linear colliders. These are the classical spin precession under the collective field of the oncoming beam, and the spin-flip effect from beamstrahlung. Analytic formulas are derived for estimating these depolarization effects. As examples, we estimate the depolarization in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and a possible future TeV linear collider (TLC). The effects are found to be negligibly small for SLC and not very large for TLC. 7 refs., 1 fig.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirsebom, K.; Mikkelsen, U.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.
2001-04-01
A few years ago the CERN NA-43 collaboration installed an upgraded detector system which allows a detailed analysis of the particle motion before, during and after penetration of a crystal. Also, essentially perfect diamond crystals were produced by the collaborators from Schonland Research Centre. These facts have led to new and very detailed investigations of QED-processes in strong crystalline fields. Along axial directions the radiation emission is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude. For incidence on a 0.7 mm thick diamond crystal of well-aligned 149 GeV electrons, 35% give rise to a high energy photon peak at ≃120 GeV. For 243 GeV electrons and ≃200 GeV photons, this number decreases to 25% - which may be an indication of quantum suppression. Different measurements of the photon multiplicities show that in most cases positrons and electrons emit equal number of photons. The dramatic radiation emission leads to a strong reduction in transverse energy and all electrons incident within the critical angle are captured to high lying channeling states and exit at channeling angles corresponding to their final energy - a completely new result for negatively charged particles. For the first time, we present an analysis where the photon is used as a `messenger' for the transverse energy of the electron during the formation time and we conclude that the more energetic photons are created closer to the string and emitted in the axial direction - in contrast to earlier calculations using the Dirac equation. The strongly enhanced radiation emission leads to angular cooling for electrons but angular heating for positrons and we show that at higher electron energies the cooling becomes stronger as expected from theory. For electrons, the radiative cooling gives rise to a capture of above-barrier particles into the channeled beam. The total radiative energy loss is shown as not to follow the γ2-law expected from classical electrodynamics, but turns over
Electron and positron scattering from CF 3I molecules below 600 eV: a comparison with CF 3H
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawada, Michihito K.; Sueoka, Osamu; Kimura, Mineo
2000-11-01
The total cross-sections (TCSs) for electron and positron scattering from CF 3I molecules have been studied experimentally. A theoretical analysis based on the continuum multiple-scattering (CMS) method has been performed to understand the origin of resonances and the elastic cross-sections. The present TCS for electron scattering is found to be larger by about 20% than that of T. Underwood-Lemons, D.C. Winkler, J.A. Tossel, J.H. Moore [J. Chem. Phys. 100 (1994) 9117] although the general shape agrees well in the entire energy studied. The difference in the cross-sections for CF 3I and CF 3H is explained by the sizes and the dipole moments of these molecules.
Fan, Q.; Bodek, A. |
1996-12-01
We describe the application of a new methods for the determination of charge and track parameters for electrons and positrons in both central (pseudo-rapidity 0 < |{eta}| < 1.2) and forward (pseudo- rapidity 1.2 < |{eta}| < 2.3) regions at CDF. The method uses the shower centroid position in the calorimeter in combination with a track in the inner silicon vertex detector. The use of the central tracking chamber is not required. A comparison of the shower centroid in the calorimeter, with the extrapolated silicon vertex detector track determines the electron sign. This technique has been used to measure the W asymmetry in CDF in regions beyond the pseudo-rapidity coverage of the central tracking chamber. Application to other Physics analyses in current collider experiments at the Tevatron and in future high luminosity experiments at the LHC are discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Positron lifetime spectrometer using a DC positron beam
Xu, Jun; Moxom, Jeremy
2003-10-21
An entrance grid is positioned in the incident beam path of a DC beam positron lifetime spectrometer. The electrical potential difference between the sample and the entrance grid provides simultaneous acceleration of both the primary positrons and the secondary electrons. The result is a reduction in the time spread induced by the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. In addition, the sample, sample holder, entrance grid, and entrance face of the multichannel plate electron detector assembly are made parallel to each other, and are arranged at a tilt angle to the axis of the positron beam to effectively separate the path of the secondary electrons from the path of the incident positrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vos, Etienne; Boezio, Mirko; Di Felice, Valeria; Potgieter, Marius; Munini, Riccardo
2016-07-01
Over the course of the recent solar minimum of cycle 23/24, the PAMELA mission measured simultaneous electron and positron intensities over the energy range of interest to heliospheric modulation. Drift theory predicts that for an A < 0 cycle, such as during the recent minimum of cycle 23/24, positively charged cosmic rays (CRs) will drift toward Earth mostly along the wavy heliospheric current sheet (HCS), while negatively charged CRs drift inwards mainly over the heliospheric polar regions. During such polarity cycles, electrons elude the full impact that the wavy HCS has on CR modulation. This results in electrons experiencing notably less modulation compared to protons (of the same rigidity) or positrons over the same time period; a phenomenon known as charge-sign dependent modulation. For this study, a 3D modulation model is applied to simultaneous electron, positron and proton measurements from PAMELA by reproducing the energy spectra of these CR particles at different times throughout the recent solar minimum. Since electrons and positrons undergo identical diffusion, simultaneous measurements of these CRs enable us to determine reasonably accurate diffusion coefficients as well as to study and reproduce the effects of drifts using a model that includes all the relevant modulation processes. With the availability of Voyager 1 measurements from beyond the heliopause, it has also become possible to determine the shape of the electron very local interstellar spectrum more accurately.
Jones, D. I.
2014-09-01
We investigate the diffusion of cosmic rays into molecular cloud complexes. Using the cosmic-ray diffusion formalism of Protheroe et al., we examine how cosmic rays diffuse into clouds exhibiting different density structures, including a smoothed step-function, as well as Gaussian and inverse-r density distributions, which are well known to trace the structure of star-forming regions. These density distributions were modeled as an approximation to the Galactic center cloud G0.216+0.016, a recently discovered massive dust clump that exhibits limited signs of massive star formation and thus may be the best region in the Galaxy to observe synchrotron emission from secondary electrons and positrons. Examination of the resulting synchrotron emission, produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray protons interacting with ambient molecular matter producing secondary electrons and positrons reveals that, due to projection effects, limb-brightened morphology results in all cases. However, we find that the Gaussian and inverse-r density distributions show much broader flux density distributions than step-function distributions. Significantly, some of the compact (compared to the 2.''2 resolution, 5.3 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) observations) sources show non-thermal emission, which may potentially be explained by the density structure and the lack of diffusion of cosmic rays into the cloud. We find that we can match the 5.3 and 20 GHz flux densities of the non-thermal source JVLA 1 and 6 from Rodríguez and Zapata with a local cosmic-ray flux density, a diffusion coefficient suppression factor of χ = 0.1-0.01 for a coefficient of 3 × 10{sup 27} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, and a magnetic field strength of 470 μG.
El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.
2014-05-15
Solitons (small-amplitude long-lived waves) collision and rogue waves (large-amplitude short-lived waves) in non-Maxwellian electron-positron-ion plasma have been investigated. For the solitons collision, the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is used to derive the coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations with the quadratic nonlinearities and their corresponding phase shifts. The calculations reveal that both positive and negative polarity solitons can propagate in the present model. At critical value of plasma parameters, the coefficients of the quadratic nonlinearities disappear. Therefore, the coupled modified KdV (mKdV) equations with cubic nonlinearities and their corresponding phase shifts have been derived. The effects of the electron-to-positron temperature ratio, the ion-to-electron temperature ratio, the positron-to-ion concentration, and the nonextensive parameter on the colliding solitons profiles and their corresponding phase shifts are examined. Moreover, generation of ion-acoustic rogue waves from small-amplitude initial perturbations in plasmas is studied in the framework of the mKdV equation. The properties of the ion-acoustic rogue waves are examined within a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) that has been derived from the mKdV equation. The dependence of the rogue wave profile on the relevant physical parameters has been investigated. Furthermore, it is found that the NLSE that has been derived from the KdV equation cannot support the propagation of rogue waves.
Monte Carlo simulation of large electron fields.
Faddegon, Bruce A; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto
2008-03-01
Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, the latter with two different 'physics lists,' were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results to measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the six electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration matched the average measured with a diode and parallel-plate chamber to 0.04 cm or better. Calculated depth dose curves agreed to 2% with diode measurements in the build-up region, although for the lower beam energies there was a discrepancy of up to 5% in this region when calculated results are compared to parallel-plate measurements. Dose profiles at the depth of maximum dose matched to 2-3% in the central 25 cm of the field, corresponding to the field size of the largest applicator. A 4% match was obtained outside the central region. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. Simulations with the different codes and physics lists used different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. The true source and geometry parameters were not known with sufficient accuracy to determine which parameter set, including the energy of the source, was closest to the truth. These results underscore the requirement for experimental benchmarks of depth penetration and electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.
Monte Carlo simulation of large electron fields
Faddegon, Bruce A; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto
2010-01-01
Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, the latter with two different “physics lists,” were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results to measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the 6 electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration matched the average measured with a diode and parallel-plate chamber to 0.04 cm or better. Calculated depth dose curves agreed to 2% with diode measurements in the buildup region, although for the lower beam energies there was a discrepancy of up to 5% in this region when calculated results are compared to parallel-plate measurements. Dose profiles at the depth of maximum dose matched to 2-3% in the central 25 cm of the field, corresponding to the field size of the largest applicator. A 4% match was obtained outside the central region. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. Simulations with the different codes and physics lists used different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. The true source and geometry parameters were not known with sufficient accuracy to determine which parameter set, including the energy of the source, was closest to the truth. These results underscore the requirement for experimental benchmarks of depth penetration and electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy. PMID:18296775
Monte Carlo simulation of large electron fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faddegon, Bruce A.; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto
2008-03-01
Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, the latter with two different 'physics lists,' were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results to measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the six electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration matched the average measured with a diode and parallel-plate chamber to 0.04 cm or better. Calculated depth dose curves agreed to 2% with diode measurements in the build-up region, although for the lower beam energies there was a discrepancy of up to 5% in this region when calculated results are compared to parallel-plate measurements. Dose profiles at the depth of maximum dose matched to 2-3% in the central 25 cm of the field, corresponding to the field size of the largest applicator. A 4% match was obtained outside the central region. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. Simulations with the different codes and physics lists used different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. The true source and geometry parameters were not known with sufficient accuracy to determine which parameter set, including the energy of the source, was closest to the truth. These results underscore the requirement for experimental benchmarks of depth penetration and electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.
A search for single electron production in electron-positron annihilation at E = 29 GeV
Steele, T.R.
1989-01-01
This thesis presents experimental results from the ASP detector which took data on e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions in the PEP storage ring at SLAC. Its design was particularly suitable for searching for production of supersymmetric particles. The motivations for and phenomenology of Supersymmetry are discussed. In particular, the production of a single supersymmetric electron ( selectron,' {tilde e}) in combination with a supersymmetric photon ( photino,' {tilde {gamma}}) would result in events in which a single electron and no other particles are observed in the detector at an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider such as PEP, provided the masses of these particles are not too large. Such events would also result from the production of a single supersymmetric W-boson ( wino', {tilde W}) in combination with a supersymmetric neutrino ( sneutrino,' {tilde {nu}}). These process make it possible to search for selectrons and winos with masses greater than the beam energy. Observation of these unusual events would distinctly indicate the production of new particles. The ASP detector was designed to be hermetic and to provide efficient event reconstruction for low multiplicity events. The detector is described and its performance is evaluated; it is found to be well-suited to this study. No evidence for single-electron events was observed, allowing limits (95% CL) to be set on the supersymmetric particle masses.
Positrons for linear colliders
Ecklund, S.
1987-11-01
The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)
Asoka, P; Howell, R; Stoeffl, W
1998-11-01
The electron linac based positron source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. We are building a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with sub-micron resolution. The widely spaced and intense positron packets from the tungsten moderator at the end of the 100 MeV LLNL linac are captured and trapped in a magnetic bottle. The positrons are then released in 1 ns bunches at a 20 MHz repetition rate. With a three-stage re-moderation we will compress the cm-sized original beam to a 1 micro-meter diameter final spot on the target. The buncher will compress the arrival time of positrons on the target to less than 100 ps. A detector array with up to 60 BaF_{2} crystals in paired coincidence will measure the annihilation radiation with high efficiency and low background. The energy of the positrons can be varied from less than 1 keV up to 50 keV.
López, Rodrigo A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.
2015-09-15
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity.
Small Steps Towards a Grand Unification and the Electron/Positron Excesses in Cosmic-Ray Experiments
Ibe, Masahiro; /SLAC
2010-06-11
We consider a small extension of the standard model by adding two Majorana fermions; those are adjoint representations of the SU(2){sub L} and SU(3){sub c} gauge groups of the standard model. In this extension, the gauge coupling unification at an energy scale higher than 10{sup 15} GeV is realized when the masses of the triplet and the octet fermions are smaller than 10{sup 4} GeV and 10{sup 12} GeV, respectively. We also show that an appropriate symmetry ensures a long lifetime of the neutral component of the triplet fermion whose thermal relic density naturally explains the observed dark matter density. The electron/positron excesses observed in recent cosmic-ray experiments can be also explained by the decay of the triplet fermion.
Report of Snowmass 2001 working group E2: Electron - positron colliders from the phi to the Z
Zhen-guo Zhao et al.
2002-12-23
We report on the status and plans of experiments now running or proposed for electron-positron colliders at energies between the {phi} and the Z. The e{sup +}e{sup -}B and charm factories we considered were PEP-II/BABAR, KEKB/Belle, superKEK, SuperBABAR, and CESR-c/CLEO-c. We reviewed the programs at the {phi} factory at Frascati and the proposed PEP-N facility at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We studied the prospects for B physics with a dedicated linear collider Z factory, associated with the TESLA high energy linear collider. In all cases, we compared the physics reach of these facilities with that of alternative experiments at hadron colliders or fixed target facilities.
Shiryaev, O. B.
2006-11-15
A fully nonlinear one-dimensional problem describing the interactions of relativistically intense plane electromagnetic waves and cold locally non-neutral electron-positron plasmas is derived from Maxwell and fluid dynamics equations. Numerical and asymptotic solutions to this problem for phase velocities close to the speed of light are presented. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma longitudinal electric-field potential, the system considered is found to support two distinct regimes of plane electromagnetic wave propagation: a nonlinear self-modulation one with the coupling of a fast transversely polarized electromagnetic field to a slow longitudinal plasma field, and a harmonics generation one with both of these fields oscillating with comparable frequencies. In the former case, a splitting of the electromagnetic field spectrum into a series of closely located bands occurs, whereas in the latter one the propagating field spectrum is a set of radiation harmonics.
Sepehri Javan, N.; Adli, F.
2013-06-15
The present study is devoted to investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of an intense laser beam interacting with a hot magnetized electron-positron plasma. Propagation of the intense circularly polarized laser beam along an external magnetic field is studied using a relativistic two-fluid model. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived based on the quasi-neutral approximation, which is valid for hot plasma. Light envelope solitary waves and modulation instability are studied, for one-dimensional case. Using a three-dimensional model, spatial-temporal development of laser pulse is investigated. Occurrence of some nonlinear phenomena such as self-focusing, self-modulation, light trapping, and filamentation of laser pulse is discussed. Also the effect of external magnetic field and plasma temperature on the nonlinear evolution of these phenomena is studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zdziarski, A. A.; Lightman, A. P.
1985-01-01
A nonthermal model for power-law X-ray and gamma-ray sources is considered. An initial, primary distribution of relativistic electrons is injected and cooled via Compton scattering of soft photons (produced either externally or by the synchrotron mechanism). The scattered photons, constituting a primary gamma-ray source, produce electron-positron pairs that act as a secondary electron injection, which in turn produce a secondary photon spectrum. Pairs formed by a part of the photon spectrum optically thin to pair production are taken into account. The distribution of particles and photons is obtained, and numerical results as well as analytical solutions to certain special cases are presented. For the case of a delta-function primary electron injection it is found that the photon spectrum in the X-ray region is well approximated by a power law, with the energy spectral index alpha(X) lying in the relatively narrow range 0.5-0.9 as the compactness parameter L(x)/R (where L(x) is the X-ray luminosity and R is the source radius) varies over many orders of magnitude. This is proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the universal X-ray spectra observed from active galactic nuclei.
Laser-driven generation of high-quality ultra-relativistic positron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarri, G.
2015-04-01
An ultra-relativistic electron beam propagating through a high-Z solid triggers an electromagnetic cascade, whereby a large number of high-energy photons and electron-positron pairs are produced mainly via the bremsstrahlung and Bethe-Heitler processes, respectively. These mechanisms are routinely used to generate positron beams in conventional accelerators such as the electron-positron collider (LEP). Here we show that the application of similar physical mechanisms to a laser-driven electron source allows for the generation of high-quality positron beams in a much more compact and cheaper configuration. We anticipate that the application of these results to the next generation of lasers might open the pathway for the realization of an all-optical high-energy electron-positron collider.
Rustgi, M L; Pandey, L N; Kassaee, A; Long, S A
1989-04-01
Previous Monte Carlo calculations for the energy spectra of electrons produced in water irradiated by photons are extended to 1 GeV. All of the physical processes believed to be important in the transport of electrons and positrons above 100 keV and photons starting with the ejection of L photoelectrons are considered. The results are presented in tabular form and can be conveniently used to compute kerma in water. The contributions of several physical processes, such as Compton scattering and pair-production to electron spectra, are separately tabulated. The results are compared with those of Todo et al. (1982) for the single interactions of monoenergetic photons. It is found that the inclusion of processes such as multiple Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung production, positron annihilation in flight, Møhiller and Bhabha scattering from electrons and Molière multiple scattering from atomic nuclei make a considerable difference in the inferred electron spectrum in water.
Van de Graaff based positron source production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lund, Kasey Roy
The anti-matter counterpart to the electron, the positron, can be used for a myriad of different scientific research projects to include materials research, energy storage, and deep space flight propulsion. Currently there is a demand for large numbers of positrons to aid in these mentioned research projects. There are different methods of producing and harvesting positrons but all require radioactive sources or large facilities. Positron beams produced by relatively small accelerators are attractive because they are easily shut down, and small accelerators are readily available. A 4MV Van de Graaff accelerator was used to induce the nuclear reaction 12C(d,n)13N in order to produce an intense beam of positrons. 13N is an isotope of nitrogen that decays with a 10 minute half life into 13C, a positron, and an electron neutrino. This radioactive gas is frozen onto a cryogenic freezer where it is then channeled to form an antimatter beam. The beam is then guided using axial magnetic fields into a superconducting magnet with a field strength up to 7 Tesla where it will be stored in a newly designed Micro-Penning-Malmberg trap. Several source geometries have been experimented on and found that a maximum antimatter beam with a positron flux of greater than 0.55x10 6 e+s-1 was achieved. This beam was produced using a solid rare gas moderator composed of krypton. Due to geometric restrictions on this set up, only 0.1-1.0% of the antimatter was being frozen to the desired locations. Simulations and preliminary experiments suggest that a new geometry, currently under testing, will produce a beam of 107 e+s-1 or more.
A large hadron electron collider at CERN
Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.
2015-04-06
This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously withmore » the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb–1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.« less
A large hadron electron collider at CERN
Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.
2015-04-06
This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb^{–1}. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauch, Brian
2012-03-01
The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is an imaging calorimeter under construction for launch to the ISS in 2014 for a planned 5 year mission. CALET consists of a charge detection module (CHD) with two segmented planes of 1 cm thick plastic scintillator, an imaging calorimeter (IMC) with a total of 3 radiation lengths (r.l.) of tungsten plates read out with 8 planes of interleaved scintillating fibers, and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC) with 27 r.l. of lead tungstate (PWO) logs. The primary objectives of the experiment are to measure electron energy spectra from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, to detect gamma-rays above 10 GeV, and to measure the energy spectra of nuclei from protons through iron up to 1,000 TeV. In this paper we discuss the capability of CALET to make additional measurements by exploiting the geomagnetic field it will be exposed to in the ISS 51.6^o inclination orbit. The rare nuclei heavier than nickel (Z=28) can be resolved using the CHD and top IMC layers without requiring particle energy determination in the TASC in field regions where the rigidity cutoffs are above minimum ionization in the scintillator. CALET can also measure the distinct fluxes of cosmic ray positrons and electrons using the earth shadow of the geomagnetic field.
Shiryaev, O. B.
2013-05-15
A model is derived from the Maxwell and fluid dynamics equations to describe the interactions between a relativistically intense electromagnetic wave and a cold unmagnetized plasma composed of an electron-ion background and a fraction of electron-positron pairs. Combining the envelope approximation for the propagating field and the quasistatic treatment of the plasma dynamics, the model sustains fully nonlinear plane-wave solutions and shows that saturation of the plasma response occurs at ultrarelativistic intensities of the incident field even for pair concentrations far below those of the electron-ion background. Stability of the electromagnetic wave under the saturation conditions is demonstrated and an expression is derived to link its interaction-induced frequency shift to the concentration of the electron-positron pairs.
Studies of positron electron pair production in {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th
Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.
1995-08-01
Following the non-observation of sharp sum-energy lines in our earlier {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta measurements, it was decided to pursue measurements of the {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th system which, in the previously published work, showed the most striking evidence for near-equal-energy back-to-back pairs leading to sharp sum-energy lines. Following the refurbishing of the APEX silicon arrays and extensive tests of the rotating target wheel assembly, a major positron run took place in November 1994. Rolled 1-mg/cm{sub 2} {sup 232}Th targets were bombarded with 5.95-MeV/u {sup 238}U. The target rotation allowed up to 2 pnA of beam to be used without serious deterioration of the targets. Over 300,000 pairs were accumulated, representing an order-of-magnitude improvement in statistics over the previously published results. Preliminary analysis shows no evidence for the sharp lines at a cross section level orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The analysis of these data is currently being completed in preparation for publication.
Resonantly enhanced electron-positron pair production in ultra-intense laser-matter interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fillion-Gourdeai, Francois; Lorin, Emmanuel; Bandrauk, Andre
2013-05-01
A new mechanism for pair production from the interaction of a laser with two nuclei is presented. The latter takes advantage of the Stark effect in diatomic molecules and the presence of molecular resonances in the negative and positive energy continua. Both move in the complex energy plane as the interatomic distance and the electric field strength are varied. We demonstrate that there is an enhancement of pair production at the crossing of these resonances. This mechanism is studied in a very simple one-dimensional model where the nuclei are modelled by delta function potential wells and the laser by a constant electric field. The position of resonances is evaluated by using the Weyl-Titchmarch-Kodaira theory, which allows to treat singular boundary value problems and to compute the spectral density. The rate of producing pairs is also computed. It is shown that this process yields a positron production rate which is approximately an order of magnitude higher than in the single nucleus case and a few orders of magnitudes higher than Schwinger's tunnelling result in a static field.
NLC Positron Target Heating(LCC-0065)
Schultz, D
2003-10-07
The NLC requires an intense beam with a large number of positrons. These positrons are produced by a high energy electron beam impinging on a solid tungsten-rhenium alloy target. The particle shower that develops in the solid target deposits significant energy in the material, leading to target stresses and potentially to target damage. The stresses can be analyzed once the magnitude and extent of the energy deposition is known. This note details the modeling of the energy deposition using EGS, performed for the NLC and the SLC targets and for possible NLC targets made of copper or nickel instead of WRe.
ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE ELECTRON-POSITRON ANNIHILATION EMISSION AS SEEN BY SPI/INTEGRAL
Bouchet, L.; Roques, J. P.; Jourdain, E.
2010-09-10
The 511 keV positron annihilation emission remains a mysterious component of the high energy emission of our Galaxy. Its study was one of the key scientific objectives of the SPI spectrometer on board the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. In fact, a lot of observing time has been dedicated to the Galactic disk with a particular emphasis on the central region. A crucial issue in such an analysis concerns the reduction technique used to treat this huge quantity of data, and more particularly the background modeling. Our method, after validation through a variety of tests, is based on detector pattern determination per {approx}6 month period, together with a normalization variable on a few hour timescale. The Galactic bulge is detected at a level of {approx}70{sigma}, allowing more detailed investigations. The main result is that the bulge morphology can be modeled with two axisymmetric Gaussians of 3.{sup 0}2 and 11.{sup 0}8 FWHM and respective fluxes of 2.5 and 5.4 x10{sup -4} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We found a possible shift of the bulge center toward negative longitude at l = -0.{sup 0}6 {+-} 0.{sup 0}2. In addition to the bulge, a more extended structure is detected significantly with flux ranging from 1.7 to 2.9 x10{sup -3} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} depending on its assumed geometry (pure disk or disk plus halo). The disk emission is also found to be symmetric within the limits of the statistical errors.
Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider
Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua, Belen
2014-07-01
Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marjanovic, Srdjan; Bankovic, Ana; Dujko, Sasa; Deller, Adam; Cooper, Ben; Cassidy, David; Petrovic, Zoran
2016-05-01
All positron buffer gas traps in use rely on N2 as the primary trapping gas due to its conveniently placed a1 Π electronic excitation cross section that is large enough to compete with positronium (Ps) formation in the threshold region. Its energy loss of 8.5 eV is sufficient to capture positrons into a potential well upon a single collision. The competing Ps formation, however, limits the efficiency of the two stage trap to 25 %. As positron moderators produce beams with energies of several eV we have proposed to use CF4 in the first stage of the trap, due to its large vibrational excitation cross section, where several vibrational excitations would be sufficient to trap the positrons with small losses. Apart from the simulations we also report the results of attempts to apply this approach to an existing Surko-type positron trap. Operating the unmodified trap as a CF4 based device proved to be unsuccessful, due primarily to excessive scattering due to high CF4 pressure in the first stage. However, the performance was consistent with subsequent simulations using the real system parameters. This agreement indicates that an efficient CF4 based scheme may be realized in an appropriately designed trap. also at Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihajlova 35, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave
Piot, Philippe
2015-08-26
Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.
The threshold laws for electron-atom and positron-atom impact ionization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Temkin, A.
1983-01-01
The Coulomb-dipole theory is employed to derive a threshold law for the lowest energy needed for the separation of three particles from one another. The study focuses on an electron impinging on a neutral atom, and the dipole is formed between an inner electron and the nucleus. The analytical dependence of the transition matrix element on energy is reduced to lowest order to obtain the threshold law, with the inner electron providing a shield for the nucleus. Experimental results using the LAMPF accelerator to produce a high energy beam of H- ions, which are then exposed to an optical laser beam to detach the negative H- ion, are discussed. The threshold level is found to be confined to the region defined by the upper bound of the inverse square of the Coulomb-dipole region. Difficulties in exact experimental confirmation of the threshold are considered.
Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano
2013-07-20
Recent observations by PAMELA, Fermi-LAT, and AMS-02 have conclusively indicated a rise in the cosmic-ray positron fraction above 10 GeV, a feature which is impossible to mimic under the paradigm of secondary positron production with self-consistent Galactic cosmic-ray propagation models. A leading explanation for the positron fraction rise is an additional source of electron-positron pairs, for example one or more mature, energetic, and relatively nearby pulsars. We point out that any one of two well-known nearby pulsars, Geminga and Monogem, can satisfactorily provide enough positrons to reproduce AMS-02 observations. A smoking-gun signature of this scenario is an anisotropy in the arrival direction of the cosmic-ray electrons and positrons, which may be detectable by existing, or future, telescopes. The predicted anisotropy level is, at present, consistent with limits from Fermi-LAT and AMS-02. We argue that the large collecting area of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs) makes them optimal tools for detecting such an anisotropy. Specifically, we show that much of the proton and {gamma}-ray background which affects measurements of the cosmic-ray electron-positron spectrum with ACTs may be controlled in the search for anisotropies. We conclude that observations using archival ACT data could already constrain or substantiate the pulsar origin of the positron anomaly, while upcoming instruments (such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array) will provide strong constraints on the source of the rising positron fraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.
1995-10-01
Channeling radiation and energy loss for 150 GeV electrons and positrons incident on a 0.5 mm thick <100> diamond and a 0.6 mm thick <110> Si crystal have been measured — near axial and planar directions. It is found that yields from well channeled electrons are enhanced by a factor of two, and those for positrons are reduced by a factor of five, as compared to yields outside the channeling region. The experimental critical angle for channeling agrees very well with the Lindhard angle ψ1. For incidence along planes and close to axial directions, the overall picture of the radiation spectra for electrons and positrons is the same for the high-energy photons, where a strongly enhanced peak is found, as was first discovered in an earlier electron experiment. In diamond, the standard coherent bremsstrahlung has been measured close to the 110 planes but for 10 mrad and 50 mrad from the axis. These experimental results agree well with calculations using the Born approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; He, Ya-Ling; Ma, Chenchen; Sun, Youfa
2016-10-01
The nonlinear behavior of an ion-acoustic wave packet is investigated in a three-component plasma consisting of warm ions, nonthermal electrons and positrons. The nonthermal components are assumed to be inertialess and hot where they are modeled by the kappa distribution. The relevant processes, including the kinematic viscosity amongst the plasma constituents and the collision between ions and neutrals, are taken into consideration. It is shown that the dynamics of the modulated ion-acoustic wave is governed by the generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a linear dissipative term. The dispersion relation and modulation instability criterion for the generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation are investigated numerically. In the general dissipation regime, the effect of the plasma parameters on the dissipative solitary (dissipative soliton) and shock waves is also discussed in detail. The project is supported by NSF of China (11501441, 11371289, 11371288), National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1261112), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M560756), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (xjj2015067).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duke, C. B.; Lazarides, A.; Paton, A.; Wang, Y. R.
1995-11-01
An error-analysis procedure that gives statistically significant error estimates for surface-structure parameters extracted from analyses of measured low-energy electron and positron diffraction (LEED and LEPD) intensities is proposed. This procedure is applied to a surface-structure analysis of Cu(100) in which experimental data are simulated by adding Gaussian-distributed random errors to the calculated intensities for relaxed surface structures. Quantitative expressions for the variances in the surface-structural parameters are given and shown to obey the expected scaling laws for Gaussian errors in the experimental data. The procedure is shown to describe rigorously parameter errors in the limit that the errors in the measured intensities are described by uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. The analysis is valid for structure determinations that are of sufficient quality to admit errors that have magnitudes within the region of convergence of a linear theory that relates perturbations of diffracted intensities to perturbations in structural parameters. It is compared with previously proposed error-estimation techniques used in LEED, LEPD, and x-ray intensity analyses.
Nonlinear theory of ionic sound waves in a hot quantum-degenerate electron-positron-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubinov, A. E.; Sazonkin, M. A.
2010-11-01
A collisionless nonmagnetized e-p-i plasma consisting of quantum-degenerate gases of ions, electrons, and positrons at nonzero temperatures is considered. The dispersion equation for isothermal ionic sound waves is derived and analyzed, and an exact expression is obtained for the linear velocity of ionic sound. Analysis of the dispersion equation has made it possible to determine the ranges of parameters in which nonlinear solutions in the form of solitons should be sought. A nonlinear theory of isothermal ionic sound waves is developed and used for obtaining and analyzing the exact solution to the system of initial equations. Analysis has been carried out by the method of the Bernoulli pseudopotential. The ranges of phase velocities of periodic ionic sound waves and soliton velocities are determined. It is shown that in the plasma under investigation, these ranges do not overlap and that the soliton velocity cannot be lower than the linear velocity of ionic sound. The profiles of physical quantities in a periodic wave and in a soliton are constructed, as well as the dependences of the velocity of sound and the critical velocity on the ionic concentration in the plasma. It is shown that these velocities increase with the ion concentration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2011-08-01
Recently, Xu et al. [Phys. Plasmas 18, 052301 (2011)] have studied the effects of various plasma parameters on interaction of two ion-acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized three-dimensional electron-positron-ion quantum plasma. They have used the extended reductive perturbation technique, the so-called, extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo technique, to deduce from the model governing the quantum hydrodynamics differential equations leading to the soliton dynamical properties, namely, Korteweg-de Vries evolution equations (one for each wave) and coupled differential equations describing the phase-shift in trajectories of solitons due to the two dimensional collision. The variation of the calculated collision phase-shifts are then numerically inspected in terms of numerous plasma fractional parameters. In this comment, we give some notes specific to the validity of the results of above-mentioned article and refer to important misconceptions about the use of the Fermi-temperature in quantum plasmas, appearing in this article and many other recently published ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druzhkov, A. P.; Danilov, S. E.; Perminov, D. A.; Arbuzov, V. L.
2015-02-01
Very dilute Ni-P system (containing 50-240 appm phosphorus) irradiated by 5 MeV electrons at various temperatures (270-543 K) was studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and the electrical resistivity measurements. Under irradiation at 270 K (below stage III in Ni), the accumulation of the monovacancies in the Ni-P system is 1.5-2.0 times greater than that in pure Ni irradiated in the same conditions. This fact attests to the strong interaction between P atoms and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). As a result of the non-mobile SIA-P complexes formation, the mutual recombination of point defects is suppressed and the vacancy accumulation is, respectively, enhanced. During post-irradiation annealing, the vacancy migration induces the transport process of the phosphorus atoms and leads to the formation of the vacancy clusters decorated with P atoms. The annealing behaviour of the defect structures in Ni-P systems after irradiation at enhanced temperatures was also studied. The influence of phosphorus on the formation and further evolution of the vacancy aggregates decrease with increasing of the irradiation temperature.
Nonlinear theory of ionic sound waves in a hot quantum-degenerate electron-positron-ion plasma
Dubinov, A. E. Sazonkin, M. A.
2010-11-15
A collisionless nonmagnetized e-p-i plasma consisting of quantum-degenerate gases of ions, electrons, and positrons at nonzero temperatures is considered. The dispersion equation for isothermal ionic sound waves is derived and analyzed, and an exact expression is obtained for the linear velocity of ionic sound. Analysis of the dispersion equation has made it possible to determine the ranges of parameters in which nonlinear solutions in the form of solitons should be sought. A nonlinear theory of isothermal ionic sound waves is developed and used for obtaining and analyzing the exact solution to the system of initial equations. Analysis has been carried out by the method of the Bernoulli pseudopotential. The ranges of phase velocities of periodic ionic sound waves and soliton velocities are determined. It is shown that in the plasma under investigation, these ranges do not overlap and that the soliton velocity cannot be lower than the linear velocity of ionic sound. The profiles of physical quantities in a periodic wave and in a soliton are constructed, as well as the dependences of the velocity of sound and the critical velocity on the ionic concentration in the plasma. It is shown that these velocities increase with the ion concentration.
Rivetta, Claudio; Mastorides, T.; Fox, J.D.; Teytelman, D.; Van Winkle, D.; /SLAC
2007-03-06
A time domain dynamic modeling and simulation tool for beam-cavity interactions in the Low Energy Ring (LER) and High Energy Ring (HER) at the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) is presented. Dynamic simulation results for PEP-II are compared to measurements of the actual machine. The motivation for this tool is to explore the stability margins and performance limits of PEP-II radio-frequency (RF) systems at future higher currents and upgraded RF configurations. It also serves as a test bed for new control algorithms and can define the ultimate limits of the low-level RF (LLRF) architecture. The time domain program captures the dynamic behavior of the beam-cavity-LLRF interaction based on a reduced model. The ring current is represented by macrobunches. Multiple RF stations in the ring are represented via one or two macrocavities. Each macrocavity captures the overall behavior of all the 2 or 4 cavity RF stations. Station models include nonlinear elements in the klystron and signal processing. This enables modeling the principal longitudinal impedance control loops interacting via the longitudinal beam model. The dynamics of the simulation model are validated by comparing the measured growth rates for the LER with simulation results. The simulated behavior of the LER at increased operation currents is presented via low-mode instability growth rates. Different control strategies are compared and the effects of both the imperfections in the LLRF signal processing and the nonlinear drivers and klystrons are explored.
López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, J. Alejandro
2014-09-15
We use a kinetic treatment to study the linear transverse dispersion relation for a magnetized isotropic relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite relativistic temperature. The explicit linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating along a constant background magnetic field is presented, including an analytical continuation to the whole complex frequency plane for the case of Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions. This dispersion relation is studied numerically for various temperatures. For left-handed solutions, the system presents two branches, the electromagnetic ordinary mode and the Alfvén mode. In the low frequency regime, the Alfvén branch has two dispersive zones, the normal zone (where ∂ω/∂k > 0) and an anomalous zone (where ∂ω/∂k < 0). We find that in the anomalous zone of the Alfvén branch, the electromagnetic waves are damped, and there is a maximum wave number for which the Alfvén branch is suppressed. We also study the dependence of the Alfvén velocity and effective plasma frequency with the temperature. We complemented the analytical and numerical approaches with relativistic full particle simulations, which consistently agree with the analytical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arutyunov, N. Yu.; Emtsev, V. V.
2007-12-01
High-momentum component (HMC) of the electron-positron annihilation has been detected by the angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) technique in order to obtain elementally specific information about the ion cores of the donor-vacancy complexes (DV) formed by irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at Tirr.≈280 K in oxygen-lean n-Ge doped with group-V donors (D=As, Sb, and Bi). The probability of annihilation of positrons with the core electrons of DV complexes reconstructed from ACAR spectra increases in passing from AsV to SbV and BiV complexes. This increase correlates with the shift of the D atom from its regular position towards the vacancy site predicted by the results of spin-density functional modeling study. The data obtained suggest inward relaxation of the ion cores of DV complexes (including the one directed inward towards the vacancy).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarria, D.; Blelly, P.-L.; Forme, F.
2015-05-01
Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are natural bursts of X and gamma rays, correlated to thunderstorms, that are likely to be produced at an altitude of about 10 to 20 km. After the emission, the flux of gamma rays is filtered and altered by the atmosphere and a small part of it may be detected by a satellite on low Earth orbit (RHESSI or Fermi, for example). Thus, only a residual part of the initial burst can be measured and most of the flux is made of scattered primary photons and of secondary emitted electrons, positrons, and photons. Trying to get information on the initial flux from the measurement is a very complex inverse problem, which can only be tackled by the use of a numerical model solving the transport of these high-energy particles. For this purpose, we developed a numerical Monte Carlo model which solves the transport in the atmosphere of both relativistic electrons/positrons and X/gamma rays. It makes it possible to track the photons, electrons, and positrons in the whole Earth environment (considering the atmosphere and the magnetic field) to get information on what affects the transport of the particles from the source region to the altitude of the satellite. We first present the MC-PEPTITA model, and then we validate it by comparison with a benchmark GEANT4 simulation with similar settings. Then, we show the results of a simulation close to Fermi event number 091214 in order to discuss some important properties of the photons and electrons/positrons that are reaching satellite altitude.
Tatchyn, R.
1993-05-01
Present and future generations of particle accelerating and storage machines are expected to develop ever-decreasing electron/positron bunch lengths, down to 100 {mu} and beyond. In this paper a method for measuring the longitudinal profiles of ultrashort (1000 {mu} {approx} 10 {mu}) bunches, based on: (1) the extreme field compaction attained by ultrarelativistic particles, and (2) the reduction of the group velocity of a visible light pulse in a suitably-chosen dielectric medium, is outline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akahane, T.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Chiba, T.; Berko, S.
1985-06-01
Two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2-D ACAR) form a Na 0.64WO 3 single crystal has been measured with a 64 detector 2-D ACAR apparatus. The results show that the Fermi surface of this compound has a jungle-gym like structure similar to that of ReO 3 and that the conduction electrons have strong t2g character.
The ATLAS Positron Experiment -- APEX
Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Dunford, R.; Kutschera, W.; Rhein, M.D.; Schiffer, J.P.; Wilt, P.; Wuosmaa, A.; Austin, S.M.; Kashy, E.; Winfield, J.S.; Yurkon, J.E.; Bazin, D.; Calaprice, F.P.; Young, A.; Chan, K.C.; Chisti, A.; Chowhury, P.; Greenberg, J.S.; Kaloskamis, N.; Lister, C.J.; Fox, J.D.; Roa, E.; Freedman, S.; Maier, M.R.; Freer, M.; Gazes, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Liu, M.; Happ, T.; Perera, A.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Trainor, T.; Wolanski, M. |
1994-03-01
APEX -- the ATLAS Positron Experiment -- is designed to measure electrons and positrons emitted in heavy-ion collisions. Its scientific goal is to gain insight into the puzzling positron-line phenomena observed at the GSI Darmstadt. It is in operation at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab. The assembly of the apparatus is finished and beginning 1993 the first positrons produced in heavy-ion collisions were observed. The first full scale experiment was carried out in December 1993, and the data are currently being analyzed. In this paper, the principles of operation are explained and a status report on the experiment is given.
Electronic structure of disordered CuPd alloys: A two-dimensional positron-annihilation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smedskjaer, L. C.; Benedek, R.; Siegel, R. W.; Legnini, D. G.; Stahulak, M. D.; Bansil, A.
1987-11-01
Two-dimensional-angular-correlation experiments using posi- tron-annihilation spectroscopy were performed on a series of disordered Cu-rich CuPd-alloy single crystals. The results are compared with theoretical calculations based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation. Our experiments confirm the theoretically predicted flattening of the alloy Fermi surface near [110] with increasing Pd concentration. The momentum densities and the two-dimensional-angular-correlation spectra around zero momentum exhibit a characteristic signature of the electronic states near the valence-band edge in the alloy.
Electronic structure of disordered CuPd alloys: A two-dimensional positron-annihilation study
Smedskjaer, L.C.; Benedek, R.; Siegel, R.W.; Legnini, D.G.; Stahulak, M.D.; Bansil, A.
1987-11-23
Two-dimensional--angular-correlation experiments using posi- tron-annihilation spectroscopy were performed on a series of disordered Cu-rich CuPd-alloy single crystals. The results are compared with theoretical calculations based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation. Our experiments confirm the theoretically predicted flattening of the alloy Fermi surface near (110) with increasing Pd concentration. The momentum densities and the two-dimensional--angular-correlation spectra around zero momentum exhibit a characteristic signature of the electronic states near the valence-band edge in the alloy.
Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Santis, C; Di Felice, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S A; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Potgieter, M S; Vos, E E
2016-06-17
Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons are a unique probe of the propagation of cosmic rays as well as of the nature and distribution of particle sources in our Galaxy. Recent measurements of these particles are challenging our basic understanding of the mechanisms of production, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Particularly striking are the differences between the low energy results collected by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments and older measurements pointing to sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation of cosmic-ray spectra. The PAMELA experiment has been measuring the time variation of the positron and electron intensity at Earth from July 2006 to December 2015 covering the period for the minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) until the middle of the maximum of solar cycle 24, through the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field which took place between 2013 and 2014. The positron to electron ratio measured in this time period clearly shows a sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation introduced by particle drifts. These results provide the first clear and continuous observation of how drift effects on solar modulation have unfolded with time from solar minimum to solar maximum and their dependence on the particle rigidity and the cyclic polarity of the solar magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Santis, C.; Di Felice, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S. A.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Potgieter, M. S.; Vos, E. E.
2016-06-01
Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons are a unique probe of the propagation of cosmic rays as well as of the nature and distribution of particle sources in our Galaxy. Recent measurements of these particles are challenging our basic understanding of the mechanisms of production, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Particularly striking are the differences between the low energy results collected by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments and older measurements pointing to sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation of cosmic-ray spectra. The PAMELA experiment has been measuring the time variation of the positron and electron intensity at Earth from July 2006 to December 2015 covering the period for the minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) until the middle of the maximum of solar cycle 24, through the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field which took place between 2013 and 2014. The positron to electron ratio measured in this time period clearly shows a sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation introduced by particle drifts. These results provide the first clear and continuous observation of how drift effects on solar modulation have unfolded with time from solar minimum to solar maximum and their dependence on the particle rigidity and the cyclic polarity of the solar magnetic field.
Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Santis, C; Di Felice, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S A; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Potgieter, M S; Vos, E E
2016-06-17
Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons are a unique probe of the propagation of cosmic rays as well as of the nature and distribution of particle sources in our Galaxy. Recent measurements of these particles are challenging our basic understanding of the mechanisms of production, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Particularly striking are the differences between the low energy results collected by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments and older measurements pointing to sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation of cosmic-ray spectra. The PAMELA experiment has been measuring the time variation of the positron and electron intensity at Earth from July 2006 to December 2015 covering the period for the minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) until the middle of the maximum of solar cycle 24, through the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field which took place between 2013 and 2014. The positron to electron ratio measured in this time period clearly shows a sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation introduced by particle drifts. These results provide the first clear and continuous observation of how drift effects on solar modulation have unfolded with time from solar minimum to solar maximum and their dependence on the particle rigidity and the cyclic polarity of the solar magnetic field. PMID:27367381
Marshall, S.R.; Scott, B.; /SLAC
2005-12-15
Synchrotron light absorbers intercept synchrotron radiation to protect chamber walls from excessive heat. When subjected to the high temperature of the beam, these absorbers undergo thermal stress. If the stress is too great or fatigues the material, the absorbers may fail. These absorbers are designed to last the lifetime of the machine. Any premature cracking could result in a leak and, consequently, loss of the ultra high vacuum environment. Using secondary and backscattered electron techniques, several sections of a used copper absorber were analyzed for material damage. Chemical analyses were performed on these samples as well. Comparing the unexposed sections to the sections exposed to the electron beam, few cracks were seen in the copper. However, the exposed samples showed heavy surface damage, in addition to crevices that could eventually result in material failure. Significant corrosion was also evident along the water cooling passage of the samples. These findings suggest that further investigation and periodic inspection of absorbers in SPEAR3 are necessary to control corrosion of the copper.
Laser Created Relativistic Positron Jets
Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Bonlie, J; Chen, C D; Chen, S N; Courtois, C; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Kruer, W; Landoas, O; Mithen, J; Murphy, C; Nilson, P; Price, D; Scheider, M; Shepherd, R; Stoeckl, C; Tabak, M; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorder, P
2009-10-08
Electron-positron jets with MeV temperature are thought to be present in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena such as active galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts and black holes. They have now been created in the laboratory in a controlled fashion by irradiating a gold target with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse. About 10{sup 11} MeV positrons are emitted from the rear surface of the target in a 15 to 22-degree cone for a duration comparable to the laser pulse. These positron jets are quasi-monoenergetic (E/{delta}E {approx} 5) with peak energies controllable from 3-19 MeV. They have temperatures from 1-4 MeV in the beam frame in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Positron production has been studied extensively in recent decades at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science, positron emission tomography, basic antimatter science such as antihydrogen experiments, Bose-Einstein condensed positronium, and basic plasma physics. However, the experimental tools to produce very high temperature positrons and high-flux positron jets needed to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. The MeV temperature jets of positrons and electrons produced in our experiments offer a first step to evaluate the physics models used to explain some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.
Electron-positron pairs, Compton reflection, and the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ghisellini, Gabriele; George, Ian M.; Fabian, A. C.; Svensson, Roland; Done, Chris
1990-01-01
It is shown here that reprocessing of radiation fron nonthermal pair cascades by cold material in the central parts of active galactic nuclei (AGN) gives rise to X-ray and gamma-ray spectra that satisfy current observational constraints. An average 1-30 keV X-ray spectral index alpha(x) of about 0.7 in the compact range 30-300 is obtained for a wide range of Lorentz factors of the injected electrons. The gamma-ray spectra are steep, with alpha(gamma) about two, and satisfy the observational constraints. Radiation from pair cascades exhibits steep power law decreases in soft X-rays similar to those observed in AGN. The overall picture is consistent with AGN having an accretion disk which intercepts and reprocesses a substantial fraction of the nonthermal continuum incident upon it from above and below.
Ritley, K.A.; Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; McKewown, M.; Welch, D.O.
1997-10-20
SPRITE (Simulation of Particle Reemission, Implantation and Transmission--Extensible) is a Fortran computer program designed to model the transport of a stream of energetic particles as they scatter through a solid or multilayer. SPRITE is intended to be a user-friendly and easily-extensible engine for performing basic transport calculations, and SPRITE incorporates such physics as is required to simulate the transport process, but specifically omits the details of the scattering mechanisms. PSPRITE is a Fortran computer program, built around the SPRITE transport engine and incorporating physical information necessary for modeling the implantation and thermalization of a stream of positrons or electrons with a solid. This document is intended to be the primary source of information and the only operations manual for SPRITE and the POS-SPRITE family of programs. This information includes the mode of operation of SPRITE, the format of the required and optional file types, as well as information about the output and results of the calculation. Information about installing and running these programs on a variety of computer systems will not be addressed in this report. Such information is rapidly expanding as these programs are adapted to run on different platforms, and thus the user can expect such information to be contained with the source code distribution set. Detailed information about the calculations of the structure of the POS-SPRITE programs are provided in this report, but detailed benchmark comparisons between the output of these calculations and experimental data are an active topic of research, and they refer the reader to the published literature for this information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takashima, Y.; Oki, S.; Sugiyama, H.; Kobayakawa, H.
2005-10-01
The spatial distribution of the effective dose of photons, electrons and positrons caused by beam loss around a small electron storage ring in a synchrotron radiation source is calculated. We propose a simple formula applicable to calculate the effective dose for storage rings for beam energies ranging from 200 MeV to 5 GeV. The formula is derived from Monte Carlo calculations of radiation flux using the simulation code EGS4. We apply the formula to estimate the effective dose distribution in a small synchrotron radiation facility planned by the Nagoya University.
Hard photon processes in electron-positron annihilation at 29 GeV
Gold, M.S.
1986-11-01
The hard photon processes ..mu mu gamma.. and hadrons + ..gamma.. in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at 29 GeV have been studied. The study is based on an integrated luminosity of 226 pb/sup -1/ taken at PEP with the Mark II detector. For the ..mu mu gamma.. process, a small fraction of non-planar events are observed with missing momentum along the beam direction. The resulting missing energy spectrum is consistent with that expected from higher order effects. The observed cross section is consistent with the predicted cross section for this process, sigma/sup exp/sigma/sup th/ = .90 +- .05 +- .06. The observed hard photon energy spectrum and mass distributions are found to be in agreement with O(..cap alpha../sup 3/) QED. The measured charge asymmetry is in good agreement with the predicted value, A/sub exp/A/sub th/ = .83 +- .25 +- .12. The ..mu gamma.. invariant mass distribution is used to place a limit on a possible excited muon coupling G..gamma../M* for excited muon masses in the range 1 < M* < 21 GeV of (G..gamma../M*)/sup 2/ < 10/sup -5/ GeV/sup -2/ at a 95% confidence level. In the hadrons + ..gamma.. process, evidence for final state radiation is found in an excess of events over that predicted from initial state radiation alone of 253 +- 54 +- 60 events. Further evidence for final state radiation is found in a large hadronic charge asymmetry A/sub Had+..gamma../= (-24.6 +- 5.5)%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azadegan, B.; Wagner, W.
2015-01-01
We present a Mathematica package for simulation of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal. The program is based on the classical theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling of light charged particles at energies higher than 100 MeV. Continuous potentials for different planes of diamond, Si, Ge and W single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the classical one-dimensional equation of motion. The code is designed to calculate the trajectories, velocities and accelerations of electrons (positrons) channeled by the planar continuous potential. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, these data allow realistic simulations of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation. Since the generated output is quantitative, the results of calculation may be useful, e.g., for setup configuration and crystal alignment in channeling experiments, for the study of the dependence of channeling radiation on the input parameters of particle beams with respect to the crystal orientation, but also for the simulation of positron production by means of pair creation what is mandatory for the design of efficient positron sources necessary in high-energy and collider physics. Although the classical theory of channeling is well established for long time, there is no adequate library program for simulation of channeling radiation up to now, which is commonly available, sufficiently simple and effective to employ and, therefore, of benefit as for special investigations as for a quick overview of basic features of this type of radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvez, Antoine; Essey, Warren; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Kusenko, Alexander; Loewenstein, Michael
2011-11-01
X-ray and γ-ray observations can help understand the origin of the electron and positron signals reported by ATIC, PAMELA, PPB-BETS, and Fermi. It remains unclear whether the observed high-energy electrons and positrons are produced by relic particles, or by some astrophysical sources. To distinguish between the two possibilities, one can compare the electron population in the local neighborhood with that in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which are not expected to host as many pulsars and other astrophysical sources. This can be accomplished using X-ray and γ-ray observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Assuming the signal detected by Fermi and ATIC comes from dark matter and using the inferred dark matter profile of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy as an example, we calculate the photon spectrum produced by electrons via inverse Compton scattering. Since little is known about the magnetic fields in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, we consider the propagation of charged particles with and without diffusion. Extending the analysis of Fermi collaboration for Draco, we find that for a halo mass ˜10 9 M ⊙, even in the absence of diffusion, the γ-ray signal would be above the upper limits. This conclusion is subject to uncertainties associated with the halo mass. If dwarf spheroidal galaxies host local magnetic fields, the diffusion of the electrons can result in a signal detectable by future X-ray telescopes.
Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy: appendix a
Howell, R. H., LLNL
1997-11-05
Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory jointly sponsored by the DOE-Division of Materials Science, The Materials Research Institute at LLNL and the University of California Presidents Office. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques will play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. There were general discussions lead by review talks on positron analysis techniques, and their applications to problems in semiconductors, polymers and composites, metals and engineering materials, surface analysis and advanced techniques. These were followed by focus sessions on positron analysis opportunities in these same areas. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of science based stockpile stewardship. There was a detailed discussion of the LLNL capabilities and a tour of the facilities. The Livermore facilities now include the worlds highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. This document is a supplement to the written summary report. It contains a complete schedule, list of attendees and the vuegraphs for the presentations in the review and focus sessions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubberink, Mark; Lundqvist, Hans; Tolmachev, Vladimir
2002-02-01
We propose the use of the Auger electron and positron-emitting generator 134Ce/134La (half-lives 3.16 d and 6.45 min) for radionuclide therapy. It combines emission of high-energy beta particles with Auger electrons. The high-energy beta particles have similar energies as those emitted by 90Y. Many cancer patients receiving radionuclide therapy have both bulk tumours, which are best treated with high-energy beta particles, and single spread cells or micrometastasis, which are preferably treated with low-energy electrons such as Auger and conversion electrons. Furthermore, the positron-emitting 134La can be used to study kinetics and dosimetry using PET. Production and PET performance were investigated and theoretical dosimetry calculations were made. PET resolution, recovery and quantitative accuracy were slightly degraded for 134La compared to 18F. 134Ce/134La absorbed doses to single cells were higher than absorbed doses from 90Y and 111In. Absorbed doses to spheres representing bulk tumours were almost as high as for 90Y, and a factor 10 higher than for 111In. Whole-body absorbed doses, based on kinetics of the somatostatin analogue octreotide, were higher for 134Ce/134La than for 90Y because of the 134La annihilation photons. This initial study of the therapeutic possibilities of 134Ce/134La is encouraging and justifies further investigations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cummings, A. C.
1973-01-01
The differential energy spectra of cosmic-ray positrons and negatrons with energies between approximately 11 and 1500 MeV was measured during the period 1968-1971 using a balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer. These measurements fill a gap in the previously existing data and permit the determination of the interstellar spectra of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons. Knowledge of these spectra provides a crucial tool for studies of the distribution and density of matter and magnetic fields in the interstellar medium and the origin and dynamics of energetic particles contained in the fields. The differential energy spectrum of interstellar electrons may be represented as a power-law, j alpha T to the -1.8 power for 100 MeV approximately T approximately 2 GeV, but must flatten considerably at lower energies. From the measured electron charge composition, it is concluded that the majority of cosmic-ray electrons with energies above approximately 10 MeV originate in primary sources.
Thickness of the electron atmosphere in large nuclear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pacheco, A. F.; Sañudo, J.
1986-03-01
Using the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model and the virial theorem it is found that the thickness of the electron skin outside a large nuclear system is given by S⋍6.73 n-1/3, n being the electron density inside the nucleus. On leave from Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Reader, Andrew; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Schirrmacher, Esther; Wängler, Björn; Wängler, Carmen
2013-09-01
The development of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography and other in vivo imaging modalities mostly relies on small compounds of low MW as a result of the restricted transport of larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, across the blood-brain barrier. Besides passive transport, only a few active carrier mechanisms, such as glucose transporters and amino acid transporters, have so far been exploited to mediate the accumulation of imaging probes in the brain. An important question for the future is whether some of the abundant active carrier systems located at the blood-brain barrier can be used to shuttle potential, but non-crossing, imaging agents into the brain. What are the biological and chemical constrictions toward such bioconjugates and is it worthwhile to persue such a delivery strategy?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Wen; Zhu, Yi-Bo; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Ma, Yan-Yun; Song, Ying-Ming; Zhu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Li, Xing-Huo; Turcu, I. C. E.; Chen, Min
2015-06-01
We use quantum electrodynamics (QED) particle-in-cell simulations to investigate and compare the generation of dense electron-positron plasmas and intense γ-ray bursts in the case of counter-propagating laser solid interaction (two-side irradiation) and single laser solid interaction (one-side irradiation). In the case of counter-propagating linearly polarized laser pulses irradiating a thin aluminum foil with each pulse peak power of 12.5 PW (I = 4 × 1023 W/cm2), we calculate that about 20% of the laser energy is converted into a burst of γ-rays with flux exceeding 1014 s.-1 This would be one of the most intense γ-ray sources among those currently available in laboratories. The γ-ray conversion efficiency in the case of two-side irradiation is three times higher than in the case of one-side irradiation using a single 12.5 PW laser. Dense electron-positron plasma with a maximum density of 6 × 1027 m-3 are generated simultaneously during the two-side irradiation which is eightfold denser compared to the one-side irradiation. The enhancement of the effects in the case of counter-propagating lasers are the results of the symmetrical compression of the foil target and the formation of electric potential and standing wave around the target. Realizing experimentally the proposed counter-propagating QED-strong laser-solid interaction to produce dense electron-positron pairs and prolific γ-rays will be made possible by the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics facility under construction.
Luo, Wen; Zhu, Yi-Bo; Song, Ying-Ming; Zhu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Ma, Yan-Yun; Li, Xing-Huo; Turcu, I. C. E.; Chen, Min
2015-06-15
We use quantum electrodynamics (QED) particle-in-cell simulations to investigate and compare the generation of dense electron-positron plasmas and intense γ-ray bursts in the case of counter-propagating laser solid interaction (two-side irradiation) and single laser solid interaction (one-side irradiation). In the case of counter-propagating linearly polarized laser pulses irradiating a thin aluminum foil with each pulse peak power of 12.5 PW (I = 4 × 10{sup 23 }W/cm{sup 2}), we calculate that about 20% of the laser energy is converted into a burst of γ-rays with flux exceeding 10{sup 14 }s.{sup −1} This would be one of the most intense γ-ray sources among those currently available in laboratories. The γ-ray conversion efficiency in the case of two-side irradiation is three times higher than in the case of one-side irradiation using a single 12.5 PW laser. Dense electron-positron plasma with a maximum density of 6 × 10{sup 27 }m{sup −3} are generated simultaneously during the two-side irradiation which is eightfold denser compared to the one-side irradiation. The enhancement of the effects in the case of counter-propagating lasers are the results of the symmetrical compression of the foil target and the formation of electric potential and standing wave around the target. Realizing experimentally the proposed counter-propagating QED-strong laser-solid interaction to produce dense electron-positron pairs and prolific γ-rays will be made possible by the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics facility under construction.
Sepehri Javan, N.
2012-12-15
The aim of the present study is to investigate the problem of modulation instability of an intense laser beam in the hot magnetized electron-positron plasma. Propagation of the intense circularly polarized laser beam along the external magnetic field is studied using a relativistic fluid model. A nonlinear equation describing the interaction of the laser pulse with the magnetized hot pair plasma is derived based on the quasi-neutral approximation, which is valid for the hot plasma. Also, the nonlinear dispersion equation for the hot plasma is obtained. The growth rate of the instability is calculated and its dependence on temperature and external magnetic field are considered.
Development of a transmission positron microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuya, M.; Jinno, S.; Ootsuka, T.; Inoue, M.; Kurihara, T.; Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Fujinami, M.
2011-07-01
A practical transmission positron microscope (TPM) JEM-1011B has been developed to survey differences in the interaction of positron and electron beams with materials, and is installed in the Slow Positron Facility of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The TPM can share positron and electron beams, and can also be used as a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Positron transmission images up to magnification 10,000× (resolution: 50 nm) and positron diffraction patterns up to 044 family were successfully obtained by the TPM comparing them with those of electrons. The differences in material transmittances for both beams have been measured, and can be explained by the calculated results of the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE-2008.
Heat Deposition in Positron Sources for ILC
Bharadwaj, V.; Pitthan, R.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H.; Wang, J.W.; /SLAC
2006-03-15
In the International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source, multi-GeV electrons or multi-MeV photons impinge on a metal target to produce the needed positrons in the resulting electromagnetic showers. The incoming beam power is hundreds of kilowatts. Various computer programs -- such as FLUKA or MARS -- can calculate how the incoming beam showers in the target and can track the particle showers through the positron source system. Most of the incoming energy ends up as heat in the various positron source elements. This paper presents results from such calculations and their impact on the design of a positron source for the ILC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slugeǹ, V.; Segers, D.; de Bakker, P. M. A.; De Grave, E.; Magula, V.; Van Hoecke, T.; Van Waeyenberge, B.
The annealing behaviour of commonly used reactor pressure-vessel steels was studied using positron-annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) (lifetime and Doppler broadening techniques), transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), integral low-energy electron MS (ILEEMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of these methods applied to different types of steels are discussed. Some significant differences in the experimental results are observed between the Russian (3 types) and Western Europe (5 types) steels and between individual specimens within these two groups. All specimens were annealed in vacuum and studied after this thermal treatment. It was confirmed that the heat affected zone (HAZ) is the most sensitive region for thermal and neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement in the reactor. Positron-annihilation lifetime measurements on HAZ specimens annealed at successively higher temperatures show the drastic increase in the vacancy-type defect formation between 525°C and 600°C. Therefore these specimens were selected for further detailed studies by TEM.
On Solar-Wind Electron Heating at Large Solar Distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chashei, Igor V.; Fahr, Hans J.
2014-04-01
We study the temperature of electrons advected with the solar wind to large solar distances far beyond 1 AU. Almost nothing is known about the thermodynamics of these electrons from in-situ plasma observations at these distances, and usually it is tacitly assumed that electrons, due to adiabatic behaviour and vanishing heat conduction, rapidly cool off to very low temperatures at larger distances. In this article we show, however, that electrons on their way to large distances undergo non-adiabatic interactions with travelling shocks and solar-wind bulk-velocity jumps and thereby are appreciably heated. Examining this heating process on an average statistical basis, we find that solar-wind electrons first cool down to a temperature minimum, which depending on the occurrence frequency of bulk velocity jumps is located between 3 and 6 AU, but beyond this the lowest electron temperature again starts to increase with increasing solar distance, finally achieving temperatures of about 7×104 K to 7×105 K at the location of the termination shock. Hence these electrons are unexpectedly shown to play an important dynamical role in structuring this shock and in determining the downstream plasma properties.
Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics.
Min, Sung-Yong; Kim, Tae-Sik; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Himchan; Noh, Yong-Young; Yang, Hoichang; Cho, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae-Woo
2013-01-01
Controlled alignment and patterning of individual semiconducting nanowires at a desired position in a large area is a key requirement for electronic device applications. High-speed, large-area printing of highly aligned individual nanowires that allows control of the exact numbers of wires, and their orientations and dimensions is a significant challenge for practical electronics applications. Here we use a high-speed electrohydrodynamic organic nanowire printer to print large-area organic semiconducting nanowire arrays directly on device substrates in a precisely, individually controlled manner; this method also enables sophisticated large-area nanowire lithography for nano-electronics. We achieve a maximum field-effect mobility up to 9.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with extremely low contact resistance (<5.53 Ω cm), even in nano-channel transistors based on single-stranded semiconducting nanowires. We also demonstrate complementary inverter circuit arrays comprising well-aligned p-type and n-type organic semiconducting nanowires. Extremely fast nanolithography using printed semiconducting nanowire arrays provide a simple, reliable method of fabricating large-area and flexible nano-electronics.
Ritchie, B.G.; Avignone, F.T. III; Carter, H.K.; Mlekodaj, R.L.; Spejewski, E.H.
1981-04-01
The isotopes /sup 206/Fr and /sup 208/Fr were produced by the reactions Ir(/sup 20/Ne,xn)/sup 206,208/Fr and mass separated on-line. The electron-capture and positron decays to /sup 206/Rn and /sup 208/Rn were studied by collecting ..gamma.. ray and internal conversion electron singles spectra as a function of decay time as well as ..gamma..-..gamma.., ..gamma..-e/sup -/, and ..gamma..-x ray coincidence spectra. The energies and many of the spins were determined for 18 excited, even parity states in /sup 208/Rn and for 10 excited, even parity states in /sup 206/Rn. These nuclei appear to be excellent candidates for interpretation in terms of a weak coupling shell model. The energy levels were also compared to the predictions of the interacting boson approximation model.
Bote, David; Salvat, Francesc Jablonski, Aleksander
2009-11-15
Analytical formulas are presented for the easy calculation of cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of neutral atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. Each formula contains a number of parameters that are characteristic of the element, the active electron shell and the projectile particle. The values of these parameters were determined by fitting the cross section values in an extensive database that was calculated recently by means of a composite algorithm that combines the distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations. Tables of parameter values are given for all elements, from hydrogen (Z=1) to einsteinium (Z=99). The proposed analytical expressions yield ionization cross sections that agree with those in the numerical database to within about 1%, except for projectiles with near-threshold energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheleznyakov, V. V.; Bespalov, P. A.
2016-04-01
In part I of this work [1], we study the dispersion characteristics of low-frequency waves in a relativistic electron-positron plasma. In part II, we examine the electromagnetic wave instability in this plasma caused by an admixture of nonrelativistic protons with energy comparable with the energy of relativistic low-mass particles. The instability occurs in the frequency band between the fundamental harmonic of proton gyrofrequency and the fundamental harmonic of relativistic electron gyrofrequency. The results can be used for the interpretation of known observations of the pulsar emissions obtained with a high time and frequency resolution. The considered instability can probably be the initial stage of the microwave radio emission nanoshots typical of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bote, David; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.
2009-11-01
Analytical formulas are presented for the easy calculation of cross sections for ionization of K, L and M shells of neutral atoms by impact of electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. Each formula contains a number of parameters that are characteristic of the element, the active electron shell and the projectile particle. The values of these parameters were determined by fitting the cross section values in an extensive database that was calculated recently by means of a composite algorithm that combines the distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations. Tables of parameter values are given for all elements, from hydrogen (Z=1) to einsteinium (Z=99). The proposed analytical expressions yield ionization cross sections that agree with those in the numerical database to within about 1%, except for projectiles with near-threshold energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimnik, Samantha; Piochacz, Christian; Vohburger, Sebastian; Hugenschmidt, Christoph
2016-01-01
The surface of a polycrystalline Pd-substrate covered with (sub-) monolayers of Ni was investigated with Positron-annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). Comparative studies using conventional AES induced by electrons and X-rays showed the outstanding surface sensitivity of PAES. Time-dependent PAES was performed on a 0.5 ML Ni cover layer on Pd and compared with conventional X-ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in order to observe changes in the elemental composition of the surface. The PAES results appear to show a migration of Ni atoms into the Pd substrate, whereas the Ni signal shows a decrease of 12% within 13 h with respect to the initial value.
Beam rotation and shear in a large electron beam diode
Mansfield, C.R.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.P.
1990-01-01
The time averaged electron beam current distribution of one of the electron guns of the Large Aperture Module (LAM) of the Aurora laser was measured as part of a larger set of experiments designed to study the electron beam transport to and energy deposition in the LAM laser chamber. The LAM laser chamber has a 1-m {times} 1-m aperture and is pumped from two sides along a 2-m length. A 10 ga. stainless steel sheet was placed inside the laser chamber and served multiple purposes. First, it was used to convert high energy electrons into X-rays in order to make radiograms of the electron beam. Second, the sheet was used as a Faraday cup to measure the total beam current. Third, individual Faraday cups were mounted on the plate to sample the time history of the electron beam at various positions. Each of the LAM electron gun diodes produces a beam of 750 kV electrons with a total current of about 500 kA which is relatively uniform over the cathode area of 1 m {times} 2 m. An applied magnetic field of about 1300 Gauss is used to prevent pinch of the beam during beam transport.
Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics
Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.
2011-07-01
The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)
Improving CASINO performance for models with large number of electrons
Anton, L; Alfe, D; Hood, R Q; Tanqueray, D
2009-05-13
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations have at their core algorithms based on statistical ensembles of multidimensional random walkers which are straightforward to use on parallel computers. Nevertheless some computations have reached the limit of the memory resources for models with more than 1000 electrons because of the need to store a large amount of electronic orbitals related data. Besides that, for systems with large number of electrons, it is interesting to study if the evolution of one configuration of random walkers can be done faster in parallel. We present a comparative study of two ways to solve these problems: (1) distributed orbital data done with MPI or Unix inter-process communication tools, (2) second level parallelism for configuration computation.
Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon
Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W. F.
2015-08-21
A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a factor twomore » faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.« less
Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon
Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W. F.
2015-08-21
A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.
Karve, Abhijit A.; Alexoff, David; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Babst, Benjamin A.
2015-11-09
Although important aspects of whole-plant carbon allocation in crop plants (e.g., to grain) occur late in development when the plants are large, techniques to study carbon transport and allocation processes have not been adapted for large plants. Positron emission tomography (PET), developed for dynamic imaging in medicine, has been applied in plant studies to measure the transport and allocation patterns of carbohydrates, nutrients, and phytohormones labeled with positron-emitting radioisotopes. However, the cost of PET and its limitation to smaller plants has restricted its use in plant biology. Here we describe the adaptation and optimization of a commercial clinical PET scannermore » to measure transport dynamics and allocation patterns of 11C-photoassimilates in large crops. Based on measurements of a phantom, we optimized instrument settings, including use of 3-D mode and attenuation correction to maximize the accuracy of measurements. To demonstrate the utility of PET, we measured 11C-photoassimilate transport and allocation in Sorghum bicolor, an important staple crop, at vegetative and reproductive stages (40 and 70 days after planting; DAP). The 11C-photoassimilate transport speed did not change over the two developmental stages. However, within a stem, transport speeds were reduced across nodes, likely due to higher 11C-photoassimilate unloading in the nodes. Photosynthesis in leaves and the amount of 11C that was exported to the rest of the plant decreased as plants matured. In young plants, exported 11C was allocated mostly (88 %) to the roots and stem, but in flowering plants (70 DAP) the majority of the exported 11C (64 %) was allocated to the apex. Our results show that commercial PET scanners can be used reliably to measure whole-plant C-allocation in large plants nondestructively including, importantly, allocation to roots in soil. This capability revealed extreme changes in carbon allocation in sorghum plants, as they advanced to maturity
Karve, Abhijit A.; Alexoff, David; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Babst, Benjamin A.
2015-11-09
Although important aspects of whole-plant carbon allocation in crop plants (e.g., to grain) occur late in development when the plants are large, techniques to study carbon transport and allocation processes have not been adapted for large plants. Positron emission tomography (PET), developed for dynamic imaging in medicine, has been applied in plant studies to measure the transport and allocation patterns of carbohydrates, nutrients, and phytohormones labeled with positron-emitting radioisotopes. However, the cost of PET and its limitation to smaller plants has restricted its use in plant biology. Here we describe the adaptation and optimization of a commercial clinical PET scanner to measure transport dynamics and allocation patterns of ^{11}C-photoassimilates in large crops. Based on measurements of a phantom, we optimized instrument settings, including use of 3-D mode and attenuation correction to maximize the accuracy of measurements. To demonstrate the utility of PET, we measured ^{11}C-photoassimilate transport and allocation in Sorghum bicolor, an important staple crop, at vegetative and reproductive stages (40 and 70 days after planting; DAP). The ^{11}C-photoassimilate transport speed did not change over the two developmental stages. However, within a stem, transport speeds were reduced across nodes, likely due to higher ^{11}C-photoassimilate unloading in the nodes. Photosynthesis in leaves and the amount of ^{11}C that was exported to the rest of the plant decreased as plants matured. In young plants, exported ^{11}C was allocated mostly (88 %) to the roots and stem, but in flowering plants (70 DAP) the majority of the exported ^{11}C (64 %) was allocated to the apex. Our results show that commercial PET scanners can be used reliably to measure whole-plant C-allocation in large plants nondestructively including, importantly, allocation to roots in soil. This capability revealed extreme changes in
A large family of filled skutterudites stabilized by electron count.
Luo, Huixia; Krizan, Jason W; Muechler, Lukas; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Xie, Weiwei; Fuccillo, Michael K; Felser, Claudia; Cava, Robert J
2015-01-01
The Zintl concept is important in solid-state chemistry to explain how some compounds that combine electropositive and main group elements can be stable at formulas that at their simplest level do not make any sense. The electronegative elements in such compounds form a polyatomic electron-accepting molecule inside the solid, a 'polyanion', that fills its available energy states with electrons from the electropositive elements to obey fundamental electron-counting rules. Here we use this concept to discover a large family of filled skutterudites based on the group 9 transition metals Co, Rh, and Ir, the alkali, alkaline-earth, and rare-earth elements, and Sb4 polyanions. Forty-three new filled skutterudites are reported, with 63 compositional variations--results that can be extended to the synthesis of hundreds of additional new compounds. Many interesting electronic and magnetic properties can be expected in future studies of these new compounds. PMID:25744553
Elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons in gases and solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgowan, J. W.
1972-01-01
Three apparatuses were designed and built: The first, which is now operative, was designed to study the details of positron thermalization in solids and the subsequent emission of the low energy positrons from moderating foils; The second apparatus now under test is a positron bottle similar in design to an electron trap. It was built to store positrons at a fixed energy and to look at the number of stored positrons (storage time) as a function of a scattering gas in the vacuum chamber. The third apparatus is a crossed beam apparatus where positron-, alkali scattering will be studied. Much of the apparatus is now under test with electrons.
Modelling Positron Interactions with Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; White, R.; Buckman, S.
2011-05-01
In this work we link fundamental measurements of positron interactions with biomolecules, with the development of computer codes for positron transport and track structure calculations. We model positron transport in a medium from a knowledge of the fundamental scattering cross section for the atoms and molecules comprising the medium, combined with a transport analysis based on statistical mechanics and Monte-Carlo techniques. The accurate knowledge of the scattering is most important at low energies, a few tens of electron volts or less. The ultimate goal of this work is to do this in soft condensed matter, with a view to ultimately developing a dosimetry model for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The high-energy positrons first emitted by a radionuclide in PET may well be described by standard formulas for energy loss of charged particles in matter, but it is incorrect to extrapolate these formulas to low energies. Likewise, using electron cross-sections to model positron transport at these low energies has been shown to be in serious error due to the effects of positronium formation. Work was supported by the Australian Research Council, the Serbian Government, and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Xiangwei; Cattell, Cynthia; Dombeck, John; Dai, Lei; Wilson, Lynn B. III; Breneman, Aaron; Hupack, Adam
2013-01-01
We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region based on the criteria described by Scudder et al at the subsolar magnetopause using data from one Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite. These waves identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves, and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, are observed in the same 12 s waveform capture and in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. The whistler mode waves, which are at the electron scale and which enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (approx. 30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with T(sub e(right angle))/T(sub e(parallel)) > 1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whistler mode waves propagate away from the center of the "X-line" along magnetic field lines, suggesting that the electron diffusion region is a possible source region of the whistler mode waves.
Auger mediated positron sticking on graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirayath, V. A.; Chrysler, M.; McDonald, A.; Lim, Z.; Shastry, K.; Gladen, R.; Fairchild, A.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.
Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements on 6-8 layers graphene grown on polycrystalline copper and the measurements on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) sample have indicated the presence of a bound surface state for positrons. Measurements carried out with positrons of kinetic energies lower than the electron work function for graphene or HOPG have shown emission of low energy electrons possible only through the Auger mediated positron sticking (AMPS) process. In this process the positron makes a transition from a positive energy scattering state to a bound surface state. The transition energy is coupled to a valence electron which may then have enough energy to get ejected from the sample surface. The positrons which are bound to surface state are highly localized in a direction perpendicular to surface and delocalized parallel to it which makes this process highly surface sensitive and can thus be used for characterizing graphene or graphite surfaces for open volume defects and surface impurities. The measurements have also shown an extremely large low energy tail for the C KVV Auger transition at 263eV indicative of another physical process for low energy emission. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.
Spurious signals generated by electron tunneling on large reflector antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higa, W. H.
1975-01-01
Large reflector antennas are currently fabricated by assembling a large number of small light aluminum panels onto a superstructure. A large number of aluminum-to-aluminum joints are inherently exposed to RF radiation on such an antenna. It is shown in this paper that the natural oxide layer on aluminum is of the correct thickness to permit electron tunneling through the Al-Al2O3-Al junctions. The nonlinearity due to the junctions then generates spurious signals when these antennas are used for simultaneous transmission and reception of signals at different frequencies. Moreover, the large number of junctions (rivets) on an antenna can combine to produce serious interference in these diplexed systems.
A large area cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faruqi, A. R.; Andrews, H. N.; Raeburn, C.
1994-09-01
Large area cooled-CCDs are an excellent medium for (indirectly) recording electron images and electron diffraction patterns in real time and for use in electron tomography; real-time imaging is extremely useful in making rapid adjustments in the electron microscope. CCDs provide high sensitivity (useful for minimising dosage to radiation-sensitive biological specimen), good resolution, stable performance, excellent dynamic range and linearity and a reasonably fast readout. We have built an electron imaging device based on the EEV 1152 by 814 pixel CCD which is controlled from a unix based SUN Sparestation operating under X-Windows. The incident 100 kV electrons are converted to visible light in a 0.5 mm thick YAG single crystal which is imaged through a lens on to the CCD. The CCD electronics is designed to be as flexible as possible and allows a wide variation in the readout speed to cater for the relatively fast application where readout noise is less critical and low readout noise applications where the extra few seconds of readout time are not significant. The CCD electronics is built in VME format which is controlled through a S-bus to VME driver. With two parallel channels of readout the whole image can be read out in ˜ 1 s (using the faster readout speed) with 16 bit precision and the image is displayed under X-Windows in a few seconds. The present readout works at 500 kHz and has a noise of ˜ 30 e rms per pixel. With a Peltier cooling device we can operate the CCD at ˜ -40°C which reduces the dark current adequately to allow exposures of up to several minutes. Several examples of patterns collected with the system on a Philips CM12 microscope will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Inoue, Koji
2016-08-01
The systematic change in the dislocation density and characteristics that develop under cold rolling as a simulated deformation was studied in order to examine the fundamental behavior of dislocations in terms of the dislocation substructure formation. In particular, the dislocation density was quantified by X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), which is effective for quantifying the dislocation density and character; positron annihilation lifetime (PAL), which is sensitive to vacancy-type lattice defects; the Bailey-Hirsch equation from the hardness (Hv); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The strain dependency of the dislocation density analyzed by XLPA, PAL, TEM, and Hv showed a similar tendency with an increase in the dislocation. In particular, the dislocation density by XLPA had good agreement with the results of TEM at low strain levels and with PAL at high strain levels. As a result, a combination of these techniques successfully showed the behavior of the dislocation substructure.
Enhanced production of low-mass electron-positron pairs in 40-AGeV Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS.
Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanović, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Milov, A; Miśkowiec, D; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S; Slívová, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V
2003-07-25
We report on first measurements of low-mass electron-positron pairs in Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS beam energy of 40 AGeV. The observed pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2
López, Rodrigo A. Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Alejandro Valdivia, J.
2014-03-15
Parametric decays of a left-handed circularly polarized Alfvén wave propagating along a constant background magnetic field in a relativistic thermal electron-positron plasma are studied by means of a one dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell simulation. Relativistic effects are included in the Lorentz equation for the momentum of the particles and in their thermal motion, by considering a Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution function for the initial condition. In the linear stage of the simulation, we find many instabilities that match the predictions of relativistic fluid theory. In general, the growth rates of the instabilities increase as the pump wave amplitude is increased, and decrease with a raise in the plasma temperatures. We have confirmed that for very high temperatures the Alfvén branch is suppressed, consistent with analytical calculations.
Aaltonen, T; Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S
2007-10-26
We report the results of a search for a narrow resonance in electron-positron events in the invariant mass range of 150-950 GeV/c(2) using 1.3 fb(-1) of pp[over] collision data at square root s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. No significant evidence of such a resonance is observed and we interpret the results to exclude the standard-model-like Z' with a mass below 923 GeV/c(2) and the Randall-Sundrum graviton with a mass below 807 GeV/c(2) for k/M[over](pl) = 0.1, both at the 95% confidence level. Combining with diphoton data excludes the Randall-Sundrum graviton for masses below 889 GeV/c(2) for k/M[over](pl) = 0.1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seadawy, Aly R.
2016-08-01
The nonlinear three-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (mKdV-ZK) equation governs the behavior of weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma which consists of equal hot and cool components of each species. By using the reductive perturbation procedure leads to a mKdV-ZK equation governing the oblique propagation of nonlinear electrostatic modes. The stability of solitary traveling wave solutions of the mKdV-ZK equation to three-dimensional long-wavelength perturbations is investigated. We found the electrostatic field potential and electric field in form traveling wave solutions for three-dimensional mKdV-ZK equation. The solutions for the mKdV-ZK equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated.
Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.
2013-01-01
Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.
Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices
Goyal, Amit
2011-03-15
Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.
Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.
Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C
2014-07-01
Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics.
Electronic hybridization of large-area stacked graphene films.
Robinson, Jeremy T; Schmucker, Scott W; Diaconescu, C Bogdan; Long, James P; Culbertson, James C; Ohta, Taisuke; Friedman, Adam L; Beechem, Thomas E
2013-01-22
Direct, tunable coupling between individually assembled graphene layers is a next step toward designer two-dimensional (2D) crystal systems, with relevance for fundamental studies and technological applications. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of large-area (>cm(2)), coupled bilayer graphene on SiO(2)/Si substrates. Stacking two graphene films leads to direct electronic interactions between layers, where the resulting film properties are determined by the local twist angle. Polycrystalline bilayer films have a "stained-glass window" appearance explained by the emergence of a narrow absorption band in the visible spectrum that depends on twist angle. Direct measurement of layer orientation via electron diffraction, together with Raman and optical spectroscopy, confirms the persistence of clean interfaces over large areas. Finally, we demonstrate that interlayer coupling can be reversibly turned off through chemical modification, enabling optical-based chemical detection schemes. Together, these results suggest that 2D crystals can be individually assembled to form electronically coupled systems suitable for large-scale applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnier, Philippe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Holmberg, Mika; Lewis, Geraint; Schippers, Patricia; Rochel Grimald, Sandrine; Gurnett, Donald; Coates, Andrew; Dandouras, Iannis; Waite, Hunter
2014-05-01
The Langmuir Probes (LPs) are commonly used to investigate the cold plasma characteristics in planetary ionospheres/magnetospheres. The LPs performances are limited to low temperatures (i.e. below 5-10 eV at Saturn) and large densities (above several particles/cm3). A strong sensitivity of the Cassini LP measurements to energetic electrons (hundreds eV) may however be observed at Saturn in the L Shell range L=6-10 RS. These electrons impact the surface of the probe and generate a detectable current of secondary electrons. We investigate the influence of such electrons on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics (for negative potentials), and manage to reproduce the observations with a reasonable precision through empirical and theoretical methods. Conversely, the modelling allows us to derive useful information about the energetic electrons from the LP observations : some information about their pitch angle anisotropy (if combined with the data from a single CAPS ELS anode), as well as an estimate of the electron temperature (in the range 100-300 eV) and of the electron density (above 0.1 particles/cm3). This enlarges the LP measurements capabilities when the influence of the energetic electrons is large (essentially near L=6-10 RS at Saturn). We finally show that a significant influence of the energetic electrons (larger than the contribution of thermal ions) is also expected in various plasma environments of the Solar System, such as at Jupiter (i.e near Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io), or even at Earth (in the plasmasheet, the magnetosheath or in plasma cavities). Large electron temperatures and small electron densities could potentially be derived in these environments, which may be of interest for Langmuir Probes in the Earth magnetosphere or onboard the future JUICE mission at Jupiter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawyer, H. Lee, Jr.
The asymmetry in the angular distribution of hadronic events produced in the reaction e^+e^ - to Z^circto hadrons at center of mass energies near the mass of the Z ^circ is studied. The data used in the analysis were taken at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) from September 1989-August 1990. The detector was a large multicomponent system consisting of a central Time Projection Chamber, full electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, additional tracking near the interaction region, and luminosity monitors. It provided good charged track reconstruction and momentum resolution. The charge asymmetry is measured through the mean charge flow, Q_{FB} averaged over all events, where Q_{FB} = Q_{F} - Q_{B} is the difference between the momentum weighted charges in the forward and backward hemispheres. A fit to the value of < Q_ {FB}> yields a measurement of rm sin^2 theta_{W }(M_sp{Z}{2}) = 0.2300 +/- 0.0036(stat.) +/- 0.0015(exp.sys.) +/- 0.0021(theor.sys.), which compares well with values obtained by other methods. Using quark coupling measurements from previous experiments, a value for the electron left-right asymmetry of {cal A}_{ rm e} = 0.122_sp{ -0.026}{+0.046} is obtained. This result can also be expressed as a measurement of the ratio of the electron vector and axial couplings, {g_sp{V}{e}over g_sp{A}{e}} = 0.061_sp {-0.014}{+0.024},thus establishing that the signs of g_sp{V }{e} and g_sp{A }{e} are the same.
Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.
2014-03-01
This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (Bx) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (Bz ˜ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (ne ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-3 and Te ˜ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma.
Kang, Hyejoo
2002-01-30
We present production measurements of the charged hadrons {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}} and p/{bar p} in e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at the Z{sup 0} pole. The excellent particle identification capability of the SLC Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) are used. In addition to studies over a wide momentum range in hadronic Z{sup 0} events of all five flavors, we have made the most precise measurements in light (uds), c and b flavor events separately. Unambiguous flavor dependencies have been observed, and the results have been compared with the predictions of several QCD fragmentation models. We have also exploited the unique feature of electron beam polarization in our experiment to compare hadron production separately in quark and antiquark jets. Direct evidence that higher momentum hadrons are more likely to contain the primary quark and antiquark is seen, with precision sufficient to provide new model tests. Finally, we have studied hard gluon jets in detail. We have confirmed that gluon jets have a higher multiplicity of softer particles than light quark jets, and found this enhancement to be the same for {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}} and p/{bar p} at the few percent level at all momenta. Any overall difference in the hadron fractions is limited to 0.018 at the 95% confidence level, indicating that there are no differences at the hadronization stage in jet formation between gluons and quarks.
Development of a Positron Generator Dedicated to Materials Science Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Jean-Michel G.; Barthe, Marie-France; Debu, Pascal; Desgardin, Pierre; Echegut, Patrick; Liszkay, Laszlo; Pérez, Patrice; Sacquin, Yves; Visière, Serge
Positron beams are getting increasing interest for materials science and for fundamental research. Recent progress on positron production using a compact electron accelerator made at CEA-IRFU for the GBAR experiment is providing new prospect for material analysis and non-destructive testing technology using positrons. CNRS-CEMHTI is defining a long term strategy to boost its positron laboratory using an upgraded version of the CEA positron generator manufactured by the POSITHÔT company. This new generator is designed to produce between 2 and 3 x 107 slow positrons per second to feed in parallel several experiments. It will be presented here as well as the future beam developments.
Invisible Higgs decay at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yi-Lei; Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Shou-hua
2016-07-01
The possibility that the 125 GeV Higgs boson may decay into invisible non-standard-model (non-SM) particles is theoretically and phenomenologically intriguing. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) to an invisibly decaying Higgs, in its proposed high-luminosity running mode. We focus on the neutral current Higgs production channel which offers more kinematical handles than its charged current counterpart. The signal contains one electron, one jet, and large missing energy. With a cut-based parton-level analysis, we estimate that if the h Z Z coupling is at its standard model (SM) value, then assuming an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 , the LHeC with the proposed 60 GeV electron beam (with -0.9 polarization) and 7 TeV proton beam is capable of probing Br (h →TE)=6 % at 2 σ level. Good lepton veto performance (especially hadronic τ veto) in the forward region is crucial to the suppression of the dominant W j e background. We also explicitly point out the important role that may be played by the LHeC in probing a wide class of exotic Higgs decay processes and emphasize the general function of lepton-hadron colliders in the precision study of new resonances after their discovery in hadron-hadron collisions.
Primary cosmic ray positrons and galactic annihilation radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.
1980-10-01
The observation (Leventhal et al, 1978) of positron annihilation radiation at 0.511 MeV from the direction of the Galactic Center is reexamined, suggesting the possibility of a primary positron component of the cosmic rays. The observed 0.511 MeV emission requires a positron production rate nearly two orders of magnitude greater than the production rate of secondary cosmic ray positrons from pion decay produced in cosmic ray interactions. Possible sources of positrons are reviewed with both supernovae and pulsars appearing to be the more likely candidates. If only about 1% of these positrons were accelerated along with the cosmic ray nucleons and electrons to energies not less than 100 MeV, it is believed that these primary positrons would be comparable in intensity to those secondary positrons resulting from pion decay. Some observational evidence for the existence of primary positrons in the cosmic rays is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, S.
2008-08-01
The energy spectrum of scattered particles in the K-shell ionization of medium to heavy atoms by relativistic electrons and positrons with exchange effects has been calculated for various kinematic conditions. In this calculation, the final state is described by a non-relativistic multiple-scattering wavefunction of Das and Seal (1993a Phys. Rev. A 47 2978; 1998 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 2355) multiplied by suitable spinors. Exchange effects in the atomic K-shell ionization of 47Ag atoms by relativistic electrons show better agreement with the available experimental data. The peaks are very similar to those observed in the relativistic K-shell ionization of 47Ag atoms by electrons at 500 keV energy (Schule and Nakel 1982 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 15 L639). Some other theoretical computational results are also presented here for comparison. Experimental verification of the present results for higher incident energies and other theoretical calculations by similar wavefunction theories will be interesting.
Damage test for International Linear Collider positron generation target at KEKB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuriki, M.; Mimashi, T.; Saito, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Kamitani, T.
2006-07-01
ILC (International Linear Collider) is aiming to conduct electron-positron collisions at 1 TeV center-of-mass energy. One bunch train will contain up to 2800 3.2 nC bunches with a 308 ns bunch spacing or 5600 1.6 nC bunches with a 154 ns spacing. The bunch-train length will be 0.9 ms. Because of this extremely large amount of beam in a train, serious damage to a positron production target driven by 6 GeV incident electron beam is of concern. As the ILC positron source, several different methods have been proposed. The target hardness is a key point concerning the selection. In this article, we report on a test experiment to examine the target hardness by using a stored electron beam in KEKB HER (High Energy Ring). The project name is IPPAK (ILC Positron Project At KEKB). By manipulating the abort kicker, a condition similar to that of the ILC positron production target can be reproduced. The experiment was carried out on June 29 and 30, 2005. The target was seriously damaged under the heaviest condition (KEKB mode), but the damage was less and nothing for those of the ILC mode. Possible impacts to the ILC positron production scheme are also discussed.
Electronic properties of polycrystalline graphene under large local strain
He, Xin; Tang, Ning E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn Duan, Junxi; Mei, Fuhong; Meng, Hu; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Ge, Weikun E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
2014-06-16
To explore the transport properties of polycrystalline graphene under large tensile strain, a strain device has been fabricated using piezocrystal to load local strain onto graphene, up to 22.5%. Ionic liquid gate whose capability of tuning carrier density being much higher than that of a solid gate is used to survey the transfer characteristics of the deformed graphene. The conductance of the Dirac point and field effect mobility of electrons and holes is found to decrease with increasing strain, which is attributed to the scattering of the graphene grain boundaries, the strain induced change of band structure, and defects. However, the transport gap is still not opened. Our study is helpful to evaluate the application of graphene in stretchable electronics.
Physics perspectives at JLab with a polarized positron beam
Voutier, Eric J.-M.
2014-06-01
Polarized positron beams are in some respect mandatory complements to polarized electron beams. The advent of the PEPPo concept for polarized positron production opens the possibility for the developement at the Jefferson Laboratory of a continuous polarized positron beam. The benefits of such a beam for hadronic structure studies are discussed, together with the technical and technological challenges to face.
Positron production by x-rays emitted from betatron motion in a plasma wiggler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Devon Kryle
A new method for generating positrons has been proposed that uses betatron X-rays emitted by an electron beam in a high-K plasma wiggler. The plasma wiggler is an ion column produced by the head of the beam when the peak beam density exceeds the plasma density. The radial electric field of the beam blows out the plasma electrons transversely, creating an ion column. The focusing electric field of the ion column causes the beam electrons to execute betatron oscillations about the ion column axis. This leads to synchrotron radiation in the 1-50 MeV range, if the beam energy and the plasma density are high enough. A significant amount of electron energy can be lost to radiated X-ray photons. These photons strike a thin (.5Xo), high-Z target and create e+/e - pairs. It is this new method of positron production by X-rays emitted from betatron motion of electrons in a plasma wiggler that is explored in this thesis. The experiment was performed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) where a 28.5 GeV electron beam with sigmar ≈ 10mum and sigmaz ≈ 25mum was propagated through a neutral Lithium vapor (Li). The radial electric field of the dense beam was large enough to field ionize the Li vapor to form a plasma. Since the typical electron beam density of 4 x 1017cm -3 was greater than the plasma the plasma density of 3 10 17cm-3, electrons were completely blown-out forming a pure ion column which led to electron betatron oscillations. The synchrotron radiation spectra from these oscillations had critical energies on the order of 50 MeV, ideal for positron production. The X-rays traveled 40m downstream of the plasma, were collimated and collided with a 1.7mm (.5X o) Tungsten (W) target. The e+/ e- pairs were imaged with a magnetic spectrometer and detected using silicon surface barrier detectors. Positrons were measured in the energy range of 2-30 MeV. The positron yield was measured as a function of plasma density, ion column length and electron beam pulse
First electron-cloud studies at the Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez, O.; Li, K.; Arduini, G.; Métral, E.; Rumolo, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Cuna, H. Maury
2013-01-01
During the beam commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [LHC Design Report No. CERN-2004-003-V-1, 2004 [http://cds.cern.ch/record/782076?ln=en]; O. Brüning, H. Burkhardt, and S. Myers, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 67, 705 (2012)10.1016/j.ppnp.2012.03.001PPNPDB0146-6410] with 150, 75, 50, and 25-ns bunch spacing, important electron-cloud effects, like pressure rise, cryogenic heat load, beam instabilities, or emittance growth, were observed. Methods have been developed to infer different key beam-pipe surface parameters by benchmarking simulations and pressure rise as well as heat-load observations. These methods allow us to monitor the scrubbing process, i.e., the reduction of the secondary emission yield as a function of time, in order to decide on the most appropriate strategies for machine operation. To better understand the influence of electron clouds on the beam dynamics, simulations have been carried out to examine both the coherent and the incoherent effects on the beam. In this paper we present the methodology and first results for the scrubbing monitoring process at the LHC. We also review simulated instability thresholds and tune footprints for beams of different emittance, interacting with an electron cloud in field-free or dipole regions.
Improvements in Monte Carlo Simulation of Large Electron Fields
Faddegon, Bruce A.; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto; /SLAC
2007-11-28
Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results with measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the 6 electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration was matched to 0.1 cm. Depth dose curves generally agreed to 2% in the build-up region, although there is an additional 2-3% experimental uncertainty in this region. Dose profiles matched to 2% at the depth of maximum dose in the central region of the beam, out to the point of the profile where the dose begins to fall rapidly. A 3%/3mm match was obtained outside the central region except for the 6 MeV beam, where dose differences reached 5%. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. The different systems required different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the exit window and primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. These results underscore the requirement for an experimental benchmark of electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.
Nanomaterials processing toward large-scale flexible/stretchable electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Toshitake
In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in large-scale mechanically flexible electronics, where electrical components are fabricated on non-crystalline substrates such as plastics and glass. These devices are currently serving as the basis for various applications such as flat-panel displays, smart cards, and wearable electronics. In this thesis, a promising approach using chemically synthesized nanomaterials is explored to overcome various obstacles current technology faces in this field. Here, we use chemically synthesized semiconducting nanowires (NWs) including group IV (Si, Ge), III-V (InAs) and II-IV (CdS, CdSe) NWs, and semiconductor-enriched SWNTs (99 % purity), and developed reliable, controllable, and more importantly uniform assembly methods on 4-inch wafer-scale flexible substrates in the form of either parallel NW arrays or SWNT random networks, which act as the active components in thin film transistors (TFTs). Thusly obtained TFTs composed of nanomaterials show respectable electrical and optical properties such as 1) cut-off frequency, ft ~ 1 GHz and maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax ~ 1.8 GHz from InAs parallel NW array TFTs with channel length of ~ 1.5 μm, 2) photodetectors covering visible wavelengths (500-700 nm) using compositionally graded CdSxSe1-x (0 < x < 1) parallel NW arrays, and 3) carrier mobility of ~ 20 cm2/Vs, which is an order of magnitude larger than conventional TFT materials such as a-Si and organic semiconductors, without sacrificing current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff ~ 104) from SWNT network TFTs. The capability to uniformly assemble nanomaterials over large-scale flexible substrates enables us to use them for more sophisticated applications. Artificial electronic skin (e-skin) is demonstrated by laminating pressure sensitive rubber on top of nanomaterial-based active matrix backplanes. Furthermore, an x-ray imaging device is also achieved by combining organic photodiodes with this backplane technology.
High-intensity and high-brightness source of moderated positrons using a brilliant γ beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hugenschmidt, C.; Schreckenbach, K.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.
2012-01-01
Presently, large efforts are conducted toward the development of highly brilliant γ beams via Compton back scattering of photons from a high-brilliance electron beam, either on the basis of a normal-conducting electron linac or a (super-conducting) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Particularly, ERLs provide an extremely brilliant electron beam, thus enabling the generation of highest-quality γ beams. A 2.5 MeV γ beam with an envisaged intensity of 1015 photons s-1, as ultimately envisaged for an ERL-based γ-beam facility, narrow band width (10-3), and extremely low emittance (10-4 mm2 mrad2) offers the possibility to produce a high-intensity bright polarized positron beam. Pair production in a face-on irradiated W converter foil (200 μm thick, 10 mm long) would lead to the emission of 2×1013 (fast) positrons per second, which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to strong radioactive 22Na sources conventionally used in the laboratory. Using a stack of converter foils and subsequent positron moderation, a high-intensity low-energy beam of moderated positrons can be produced. Two different source setups are presented: a high-brightness positron beam with a diameter as low as 0.2 mm, and a high-intensity beam of 3×1011 moderated positrons per second. Hence, profiting from an improved moderation efficiency, the envisaged positron intensity would exceed that of present high-intensity positron sources by a factor of 100.
Positron impact ionisation phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moxom, J.
A magnetically guided beam of nearly-monoenergetic slow positrons has been used to study positron impact ionisation phenomena in gases. A novel hemispherical scattering cell incorporating an efficient ion extraction and detection system has been developed and has been utilised throughout this work. The energy spectra for the electrons ejected around 0° relative to the incident beam, following positron impact ionisation of Ar, have been measured by a time-of-flight method and a retarding electric field analyzer. The angular acceptance of the electron detection system has been estimated and used to compare the measured spectra with the double differential cross-sections calculated by Mandal et al (1986), Sil et al (1991) and Schultz and Reinhold (1990). The importance of the electron-capture-to-the-continuum process is discussed in this context and found to be minor at small forward angles, in contrast to the case of heavy positively charged projectiles. The apparatus was modified to produce a pulsed beam of slow positrons and utilised to measure in detail the total ionisation cross-section (Qt+) for a variety of atomic and molecular targets. For Ar, He and H2, Qt+ which includes contributions from Ps formation, has been subtracted from corresponding total cross-sections, in order to deduce the behaviour of the elastic scattering cross-section (Qel) in the vicinity of the Ps formation threshold (Eps). Here a small change in the gradient of Qel, has been found. The energy dependencies of the Qt+ for He, Ne and Ar, close to Eps have been interpreted in terms of threshold theory. In the case of Ar the outgoing Ps appears to be predominantly s-wave in character. For He and Ne the analysis suggests that the Ps contains significant contributions from a number of partial waves. In the case of O 2, structure in Qt+ has been found, which is attributed to coupling between two inelastic channels, namely Ps formation and excitation to the Schuman-Runge continuum.
Karelin, A. V. Voronov, S. A.; Galper, A. M.; Koldobskiy, S. A.; Collaboration: on behalf of the PAMELA Collaboration
2015-03-15
A method based on the use of a sampling calorimeter was developed for measuring the total energy spectrum of electrons and positrons from high-energy cosmic rays in the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment. This made it possible to extend the range of energies accessible to measurements by the magnetic system of the PAMELA spectrometer. Themethod involves a procedure for selecting electrons on the basis of features of a secondary-particle shower in the calorimeter. The results obtained by measuring the total spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range of 300–1500 GeV by the method in question are presented on the basis of data accumulated over a period spanning 2006 and 2013.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnier, P.; Wahlund, J.; Holmberg, M.; Lewis, G.; Schippers, P.; Thomsen, M. F.; Rochel Grimald, S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I. S.; Waite, J. H.
2013-12-01
The Langmuir probes (LPs) are commonly used to investigate the cold plasma characteristics in planetary ionospheres/magnetospheres. The LPs performances are limited to low temperatures (i.e. below 5-10 eV at Saturn) and large densities (above several particles/cm3). A strong sensitivity of the Cassini LP measurements to energetic electrons (hundreds eV) may however be observed at Saturn in the L Shell range L=6-10 RS. These electrons impact the surface of the probe and generate a detectable current of secondary electrons. We investigated the influence of such electrons on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics (for negative potentials), showing that both the DC level and slope of the I-V curve are modified. The influence of energetic electrons may be interpreted in terms of the critical and anticritical temperatures concept that is important for spacecraft charging studies. Estimations of the maximum secondary yield value for the LP surface are obtained without using laboratory measurements. Empirical and theoretical methods were developed to reproduce the influence of the energetic electrons with a reasonable precision. Conversely, this modelling allows us to derive useful information about the energetic electrons from the LP observations : some information about their pitch angle anisotropy (if combined with the data from a single CAPS ELS anode), as well as an estimate of the electron temperature (in the range 100-300 eV) and of the electron density (above 0.1 particles/cm3). This enlarges the LP measurements capabilities when the influence of the energetic electrons is large (essentially near L=6-10 RS at Saturn). The understanding of this influence may be used for other missions using Langmuir probes, such as the future missions JUICE at Jupiter, BepiColombo at Mercury, or even the probes in the Earth magnetosphere.
Search for Spatial and Temporary Variations of Galactic Cosmic Ray Positrons in PAMELA Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, V. V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Malakhov, V. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S.; Kvashnin, A.; Leonov, A.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.
The PAMELA experiment is gathering data since 2006 on board the Resurs DK1 satellite (orbit with inclination 70.4°, the altitude 350-600 km). The instrument consists magnetic spectrometer, silicon-tungsten imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, neutron detector and shower scintillator that gives possibility to measure electron and positron fluxes over wide energy range from hundreds MeVs to hundreds GeVs. Results of the experiment indicate the presence of a large flux of positron with respect to electrons in the CR spectrum above 10 GeV. This excess might be originated through dark matter annihilation or in local astrophysical objects such as pulsars producing possible spatial and season variations. Electron and positron events have been analyzed searching for spatial and temporal variations from June 2006 till January 2014.
Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Skougaard, Kristin; Gehl, Julie; Hendel, Helle Westergren
2013-01-01
Background Electrochemotherapy is a local anticancer treatment very efficient for treatment of small cutaneous metastases. The method is now being investigated for large cutaneous recurrences of breast cancer that are often confluent masses of malignant tumour with various degrees of inflammation. To this end 18-Flourine-Flourodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) could be a method for response evaluation. However, a standard FDG-PET/CT scan cannot differentiate inflammatory tissue from malignant tissue. Dual point time imaging (DTPI) FDG-PET has the potential of doing so. The purpose of this study was to investigate if DTPI FDG-PET/CT could assess response to electrochemotherapy and to assess the optimal timing of imaging. Patients and methods Within a phase II clinical trial 11 patients with cutaneous recurrences had FDG-PET/CT scans at three time points: 60 min, 120 min and 180 min after FDG injection. The scans were performed before and 3 weeks after electrochemotherapy. Results A significant reduction in maximum standard uptake value at 60 min post injection was seen after treatment. Furthermore a change in the FDG uptake pattern was observed; from increasing uptake in up to 180 min post injection before treatment to stabilization of FDG uptake at 120 min post injection after treatment. The change in FDG uptake pattern over time lead to change of response in three target lesions; two lesions changed from stable metabolic disease to partial metabolic response and one lesion changed from partial metabolic response to stable metabolic disease. To ensure detection of the change in uptake pattern, scanning 60 and 180 min post injection seems optimal. Conclusions The present study shows that FDG-PET/CT 60 and 180 min after tracer injection is a promising tool for response evaluation of cutaneous recurrences of breast cancer treated with electrochemotherapy. PMID:24294180
E166: Polarized Positrons & Polarimetry
Schuler, K.Peter; /DESY
2011-12-06
A proof-of-principle experiment has been carried out in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to demonstrate production of polarized positrons in a manner suitable for implementation at the International Linear Collider (ILC). A helical undulator of 2.54 mm period and 1 -m length produced circularly polarized photons with a first harmonic endpoint energy of 8 MeV when traversed by a 46.6 GeV electron beam. The polarized photons were converted to polarized positrons in a 0.2-radiation-length tungsten target. The polarization of these positrons was measured using a Compton transmission polarimeter to have peak value in excess of 80%.
Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target
Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E
2012-02-29
The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.
Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device
Kamio, S. Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T.
2014-11-15
In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.
Kinetic properties and characteristics of electron-positron annihilation in NiMn and NiTi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kal'Chikhin, V. V.; Kul'Kova, S. E.
1992-10-01
On the basis of the electron energy structure calculated by the self-consistent method of linear MT orbitals (the LMTO method), the kinetic properties of NiMn and NiTi are calculated from first principles. Satisfactory agreement with experimental data on the phonon electrical resistance and thermoemf is obtained for NiTi. For NiMn, the agreement of ρph(T) with experiment is only qualitative; the reasons for the quantitative discrepancy are discussed. Quasi-free position states and the contribution of various electron states in NiMn and NiTi are calculated by the LMTO method.
Compact dewar and electronics for large-format infrared detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manissadjian, A.; Magli, S.; Mallet, E.; Cassaigne, P.
2011-06-01
Infrared systems cameras trend is to require higher performance (thanks to higher resolution) and in parallel higher compactness for easier integration in systems. The latest developments at SOFRADIR / France on HgCdTe (Mercury Cadmium Telluride / MCT) cooled IR staring detectors do show constant improvements regarding detector performances and compactness, by reducing the pixel pitch and optimizing their encapsulation. Among the latest introduced detectors, the 15μm pixel pitch JUPITER HD-TV format (1280×1024) has to deal with challenging specifications regarding dewar compactness, low power consumption and reliability. Initially introduced four years ago in a large dewar with a more than 2kg split Stirling cooler compressor, it is now available in a new versatile compact dewar that is vacuum-maintenance-free over typical 18 years mission profiles, and that can be integrated with the different available Stirling coolers: K548 microcooler for light solution (less than 0.7 kg), K549 or LSF9548 for split cooler and/or higher reliability solution. The IDDCAs are also required with simplified electrical interface enabling to shorten the system development time and to standardize the electronic boards definition with smaller volumes. Sofradir is therefore introducing MEGALINK, the new compact Command & Control Electronics compatible with most of the Sofradir IDDCAs. MEGALINK provides all necessary input biases and clocks to the FPAs, and digitizes and multiplexes the video outputs to provide a 14 bit output signal through a cameralink interface, in a surface smaller than a business card.
Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T.
2003-10-01
Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO 2 is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO 2 while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low- k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wink, Tara; Kintzel, Edward; Marienhoff, Peter; Klein, Martin
2012-02-01
An initial study using electron beam induced current (EBIC) to evaluate solar cells has been carried out with the large chamber scanning electron microscope (LC-SEM) at the Western Kentucky University Nondestructive Analysis Center. EBIC is a scanning electron microscope technique used for the characterization of semiconductors. To facilitate our studies, we developed a Solar Amplification System (SASY) for analyzing current distribution and defects within a solar cell module. Preliminary qualitative results will be shown for a solar cell module that demonstrates the viability of the technique using the LC-SEM. Quantitative EBIC experiments will be carried out to analyze defects and minority carrier properties. Additionally, a well-focused spot of light from an LED mounted at the side of the SEM column will scan the same area of the solar cell using the LC-SEM positioning system. SASY will then output the solar efficiency to be compared with the minority carrier properties found using EBIC.
The Buffer-Gas Positron Accumulator and Resonances in Positron-Molecule Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Surko, C.M.
2007-01-01
This is a personal account of the development of our buffer-gas positron trap and the new generation of cold beams that these traps enabled. Dick Drachman provided much appreciated advice to us from the time we started the project. The physics underlying trap operation is related to resonances (or apparent resonances) in positron-molecule interactions. Amusingly, experiments enabled by the trap allowed us to understand these processes. The positron-resonance "box score" to date is one resounding "yes," namely vibrational Feshbach resonances in positron annihilation on hydrocarbons; a "probably" for positron-impact electronic excitation of CO and NZ;an d a "maybe" for vibrational excitation of selected molecules. Two of these processes enabled the efficient operation of the trap, and one almost killed it in infancy. We conclude with a brief overview of further applications of the trapping technology discussed here, such as "massive" positron storage and beams with meV energy resolution.