Science.gov

Sample records for large hydroelectric power

  1. Small Hydroelectric Power Plan Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory has completed construction of a small scale hydroelectric power plant. The plant utilizes water from the Laboratory's domestic water supply, can generate a maximum of 7.5 kW, and supplies electricity to the Laboratory's dining hall for space heat, cooking, and hot water.

  2. ELECTRICAL SWITCHBOARD IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL SWITCHBOARD IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  3. Environmental requirements at hydroelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Hydroelectric power is the most mature and widely implemented of the renewable energy technologies. The energy of flowing water has been used to perform work directly since ancient times, and the use of hydropower turbines to generate electricity traces back to the 19th century. Two commonly used turbine types, the Francis and Kaplan turbines, are essentially refinements of the simple reaction turbine of Hero of Alexandria, dating from about 100 B.C. (NAS 1976). Hydroelectric power production provides over 10% of the net electrical generation in the US, more than petroleum or natural gas and far more than the other renewable energy technologies combined. On a regional basis, hydroelectric power represents 14% of the net electrical power generation in the Rocky Mountain states and nearly 63% along the Pacific Coast. Those states that have the largest percentages of their electricity generated by hydropower (e.g., Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington) also tend to have the lowest average cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour.

  4. Hydroelectric power from ocean waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendran, K.

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a system which converts the variable energy of ocean waves into a steady supply of energy in a conventional form. The system consists of a set of floats and Persian wheels located off-shore and a storage reservoir on the shore. The floats oscillate vertically as the waves pass below them and turn their respective Persian wheels which lift sea water to a height and deliver to the reservoir through an interconnecting pipeline. The head of water in the reservoir operates a hydraulic turbine which in turn works a generator to supply electricity. Due to the recurrent wave action, water is maintained at the optimum level in the reservoir to ensure continuous power supply.

  5. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  6. Thermoclines: a solar thermal energy resource for enhanced hydroelectric power production.

    PubMed

    McNichols, J L; Ginell, W S; Cory, J S

    1979-01-12

    The solar thermal energy stored in hydroelectric reservoir thermoclines is very large and greatly exceeds the gravitational hydroenergy of the surface water, even after limitations arising from the second law of thermodynamics have been taken into account. Greatly enhanced power production can be obtained at present hydroelectric facilities if heat engines are adapted to exploit this large thermal energy resource.

  7. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

  8. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation establishes policies and procedures for coordinating the operation of the Corps of Engineers'...

  9. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation establishes policies and procedures for coordinating the operation of the Corps of Engineers'...

  10. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation establishes policies and procedures for coordinating the operation of the Corps of Engineers'...

  11. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation establishes policies and procedures for coordinating the operation of the Corps of Engineers'...

  12. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  13. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  14. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  15. 78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project... that could be affected by issuance of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558..., as applicant for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project, has expressed an interest in this...

  16. Integration of hydroelectric power and apiary management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.

    1983-06-19

    Appropriate Technology Grant 3-80-342 is an attempt to integrate hydroelectric power with apiary management. The biggest challenge to the efficient completion of the project was connecting with the appropriate technology and associated personel to guide the project. Most of the so called ''experts'' in this field are at an early experimental stage in technology and knowledge. The existing system is capable of generating ample electricity six to seven months out of the year. The unit was operating consistantly near the end of winter. At present, it is not running due to lack of sufficient water.

  17. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power...

  18. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power...

  19. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power...

  20. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power...

  1. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power...

  2. Hydroelectric power in Hawaii. A report on the statewide survey of potential hydroelectric sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C. A.

    1981-02-01

    An assessment was made of the hydropower potential in Hawaii. The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 MW of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 MW of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kWh of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands, Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%, on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. A summary of existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities and estimated annual outputs for each island is presented. How much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time is indicated. The economics of hydropower at specific sites were analyzed. The major conclusion of this analysis is that hydropower development costs vary widely among the different sites, but that generally the cost of hydroelectric power is either less than or comparable to the cost of oil-fired power.

  3. 75 FR 30852 - Hydroelectric Power Development at Ridgway Dam, Dallas Creek Project, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Hydroelectric Power Development at Ridgway Dam, Dallas Creek Project, Colorado... contract for hydroelectric power development at Ridgway Dam. SUMMARY: Current Federal policy encourages non... power at Ridgway Dam, a feature of the Dallas Creek Project. Reclamation is considering...

  4. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, R.; Kosten, S.; Sobek, S.; Cardoso, S. J.; Figueiredo-Barros, M. P.; Estrada, C. H. D.; Roland, F.

    2015-11-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water, and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e. the ratio between OC buried and deposited) in reservoirs is limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large tropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9 to 17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a whole-basin OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first whole-basin assessment of OCBE in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  5. Feasibility, Design and Construction of a Small Hydroelectric Power Generation Station as a Student Design Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James N.; Hess, Herbert L.

    An undergraduate capstone engineering design project now provides hydroelectric power to a remote wilderness location. Students investigated the feasibility of designing, building, and installing a 4kW hydroelectric system to satisfy the need for electric power to support the research and teaching functions of Taylor Ranch, a university facility…

  6. Mathematical modeling of vibrations in turbogenerator sets of Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, G. A.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Solovyeva, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Oscillations in turbogenerator sets, which consist of a synchronous generator, a hydraulic turbine, and an automatic speed regulator, are investigated. This study was motivated by the emergency that took place at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station in 2009. During modeling of the parameters of turbogenerator sets of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station, the ranges corresponding to undesired oscillation regimes were determined. These ranges agree with the results of the full-scale tests of the hydropower units of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station performed in 1988.

  7. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  8. 77 FR 38796 - Alabama Power Company; Holt Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Holt Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  9. 77 FR 38796 - Georgia Power Company; Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Georgia Power Company; Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy...

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

  11. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power in the Pacific Northwest: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    The small scale hydroelectric power policy projects of the national conference of state legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. State obstacles to development and options for change available to policymakers were explored.

  12. Net energy of seven small-scale hydroelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, M. W.; Klopatek, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1981-07-01

    The net energy results are expressed as the ratio of energy output to energy input. Two ratios were developed. In the first (R1), the energy output, expressed as electrically, was divided by the energy subsidy; in the second (R2), the energy output, expressed as the fossil fuel equivalent of electricity, was divided by the energy input. The results indicate that the energy output from the seven plants is 8.6 to 32.9 times greater than the energy input for the R1 case, and 26.3 to 101.4 times greater than the energy input for the R2 case. On the net energy criterion, the small scale plants are better than conventional peak load hydroelectric plants and similar to conventional base load hydroelectric plants.

  13. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  15. Economic valuation of the downstream hydrological effects of land use change: Large hydroelectric reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylward, Bruce Allan

    1998-12-01

    Land use change that accompanies economic development and population growth is intended to raise the economic productivity of land. An inevitable by product of this process is the alteration of natural vegetation and downstream hydrological function. This dissertation explores hydrological externalities of land use change in detail, particularly with regard to their economic impact on large hydroelectric reservoirs (LHRs). A review of the linkages between land use, hydrological function and downstream economic activity suggests that on theoretical grounds the net welfare effect of land use change on hydrological function will be indeterminate. Review of the literature suggests that, though the effects of downstream sedimentation will typically be negative, they may often be of little practical significance. The literature on water quantity impacts is sparse at best. This is most surprising in the case of the literature on LHRs where the potentially important and positive effects of increased water yield are typically ignored in favor of simplistic efforts to document the negative effects of reservoir sedimentation. In order to improve the methodological basis for the economic valuation of hydrological externalities, the dissertation considers existing techniques for the evaluation of non-marketed goods and services, clarifying the manner in which they have been and, in the future, may be applied to the topic at hand. A deterministic simulation model is then constructed for the case of LHRs. The model incorporates the effect of changes in water yield, the seasonal pattern of water yield and sedimentation of live and dead storage volumes as they affect reservoir operation and the production of hydroelectricity. The welfare effects of changes in the productivity of the LHR in the short run and changes to the power system expansion plan in the long run are evaluated using the marginal opportunity costs of alternative power sources and power plants, respectively. A case

  16. 78 FR 48185 - Notice of Intent To Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development on the San Juan-Chama Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Intent To Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development on the San Juan... proposals, select lessee, and contract for hydroelectric power development on the San Juan-Chama Project... Department of Energy, Western Area Power Administration (Western), will consider proposals for...

  17. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  18. Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

  19. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (a) A... means of a new dam or diversion (as that term is defined in § 292.202(p)) is a qualifying facility...

  20. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (a) A... means of a new dam or diversion (as that term is defined in § 292.202(p)) is a qualifying facility...

  1. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... license or exemption is filed for a project located at a Government dam, as defined in section 3(10)...

  2. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... license or exemption is filed for a project located at a Government dam, as defined in section 3(10)...

  3. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

  4. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

  5. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

  6. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

  7. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

  8. 76 FR 58837 - Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at Caballo Dam, Rio Grande Project, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation,...

  9. 76 FR 28024 - Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project, Idaho Power Company; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project, Idaho Power Company; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Tuesday, May 24, 2011 at 10 a.m. (Mountain Time). b. Place: By...

  10. Water Footprint of Hydroelectricity: A Case Study of Two Large Canadian Boreal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irambona, C.; Music, B.; Nadeau, D.; Mahdi, T. F.; Strachan, I. B.

    2015-12-01

    20% of Canada's total freshwater is located in the province of Quebec, where 30% of the country's energy is produced from hydropower. Hydroelectric generation uses a considerable amount of water through evaporation from the reservoirs. The blue water footprint is an indicator of the annual freshwater consumption related to hydropower production. Although environmental effects of reservoir impounding have been previously investigated, their impacts on local and regional evapotranspiration are still not well understood due to the lack of long-term observation data. This study aims to assess the blue water footprint of two large hydroelectric systems located in the Canadian boreal forest. To do so, we use hydro-meteorological data from two specially designed climate simulations (a 'no-reservoir' and a 'post-impoundment' simulation) performed by the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Land-surface processes in the CRCM5 are parameterized by the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS V3.6), while surface fluxes over the water bodies are simulated by the 1-D lake model (Flake). A 'no-reservoir' and a 'post-impoundment' simulation are carried by adjusting the water fraction on the reservoir grids. Both simulations cover a 42 years period (1970-2012) at 0.11° horizontal resolution, consisting of 300 x 300 grid points centered on the province of Quebec. The two watersheds under study (200 000 km² total) are located in Northern Quebec (49-54°N), Canada, where more than 42% of the province power generation capacity is installed with eight reservoirs covering a total area of 10 000 km². A first validation of the 'post-impoundment' simulation is performed using micrometeorological ground observations, complemented with available hydro-meteorological data from Environment Canada weather stations. Then, each reservoir water footprint is calculated using the 'post-impoundment' simulation. Finally, the net

  11. A new approach to assessing the water footprint of hydroelectric power based on allocation of water footprints among reservoir ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dandan; Liu, Junguo

    Hydroelectric power is an important energy source to meet the growing demand for energy, and large amounts of water are consumed to generate this energy. Previous studies often assumed that the water footprint of hydroelectric power equaled the reservoir's water footprint, but failed to allocate the reservoir water footprint among the many beneficiaries; dealing with this allocation remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a new approach to quantify the water footprint of hydroelectric power (WFh) by separating it from the reservoir water footprint (WF) using an allocation coefficient (ηh) based on the ratio of the benefits from hydroelectric power to the total ecosystem service benefits. We used this approach in a case study of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the world's largest reservoir, which provides multiple ecosystem services. We found large differences between the WFh and the water footprint of per unit of hydroelectric production (PWFh) calculated using ηh and those calculated without this factor. From 2003 to 2012, ηh decreased sharply (from 0.76 in 2005 to 0.41 in 2012), which was due to the fact that large increases in the value of non-energy ecosystem services, and particularly flood control. In 2009, flood control replaced hydroelectricity as the largest ecosystem service of water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Using our approach, WFh and PWFh averaged 331.0 × 106 m3 and 1.5 m3 GJ-1, respectively. However, these values would almost double without allocating water footprints among different reservoir ecosystem services. Thus, previous studies have overestimated the WFh and PWFh of reservoirs, especially for reservoirs that serve multiple purposes. Thus, the allocation coefficient should not be ignored when calculating the WF of a product or service.

  12. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  13. Final Technical Report. Upgrades to Alabama Power Company Hydroelectric Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, James F.; Johnson, Herbie N.

    2015-03-31

    From 2010 to 2014, Alabama Power Company (“Alabama Power”) performed upgrades on four units at three of the hydropower developments it operates in east-central Alabama under licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). These three hydropower developments are located on the Coosa River in Coosa, Chilton, and Elmore counties in east-central Alabama.

  14. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  15. Synanthropy of mosquitoes and sand flies near the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barata, R A; Ursine, R L; Nunes, F P; Morais, D H; Araújo, H S

    2012-12-01

    The environmental changes resulting from the construction of hydroelectric dams may affect the fauna of insect vectors and consequently the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. This work examined the mosquito and sand fly fauna in the area of the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, analyzing the seasonal distribution and the degree of species synanthropy in different ecotopes. Between November, 2008 and September, 2009, entomological captures were performed with the help of HP light traps in the rural, urban, and forest areas of Aimorés, Ituêta, Resplendor, and Baixo Guandu counties. The fauna proved to be quite diversified. Twenty-two species of mosquitoes and 11 species of sand flies were found. Culex quinquefasciatus was predominant among mosquitoes (76.7%), while Lutzomyia intermedia prevailed among sand flies (34.5%). Some of the captured species have medical interest. Supported by the high degree of synanthropy, those species reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance.

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and this dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Connecticut follows the riparian theory of water law. Under this theory of the water law, private rights in rivers and streams are confined to the use of flowing water. A riparian proprietor does not own the water that flows by his estate. Licensing, permitting, and review procedures are discussed followed by discussion on public utilities regulation and indirect considerations.

  17. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

  18. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New York

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step the small scale hydroelectric developer must take is that of acquiring title to the real property comprising the development site. The real estate parcel must include the requisite interest in the land adjacent to the watercourse, access to the underlying streambed and where needed, the land necessary for an upstream impoundment area. Land acquisition may be effectuated by purchase, lease, or grant by the state. In addition to these methods, New York permits the use of the eminent domain power of the state for public utilities under certain circumstances.

  20. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  1. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  2. Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G. F.

    1997-09-08

    Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described.

  3. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209 Section 292.209 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS...

  4. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209 Section 292.209 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS...

  5. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section 292.208 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS UNDER...

  6. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209 Section 292.209 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS...

  7. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section 292.208 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS UNDER...

  8. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section 292.208 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS UNDER...

  9. Design of an Adaptive Power Regulation Mechanism and a Nozzle for a Hydroelectric Power Plant Turbine Test Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Burak; Aytac, Zeynep; Tascioglu, Yigit; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    This study deals with the design of a power regulation mechanism for a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP) model turbine test system which is designed to test Francis type hydroturbines up to 2 MW power with varying head and flow(discharge) values. Unlike the tailor made regulation mechanisms of full-sized, functional HEPPs; the design for the test system must be easily adapted to various turbines that are to be tested. In order to achieve this adaptability, a dynamic simulation model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink SimMechanics. This model acquires geometric data and hydraulic loading data of the regulation system from Autodesk Inventor CAD models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis respectively. The dynamic model is explained and case studies of two different HEPPs are performed for validation. CFD aided design of the turbine guide vanes, which is used as input for the dynamic model, is also presented. This research is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  10. A Framework for Evaluation of CORDEX Using Dam Operation Policies for the East African Hydroelectric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of hydroelectric dams along the Nile River is to a large extent determined by the level of Lake Victoria, which is primarily dictated by the rainfall and temperature variability over the lake basin. The hydrological balance of Lake Victoria is comprised of tributary inflow (15% of the water balance), rainfall over the lake (85%), evaporation from the lake (80%), and outflow from the lake (20%). The Agreed Curve Policy has been used to manage the outflow from Lake Victoria. It guarantees the natural flow of water out of the lake as if there were no dams. However, declining lake levels and population growth have resulted in chronic load shedding for residential and industrial consumers in the region, leading to the need to develop a new release policy. The development of recently proposed water release policies for the hydroelectric dams at the outlet of Lake Victoria do not thoroughly account for projected climate change. We adopt a comprehensive approach using rainfall data from multiple CORDEX models to estimate lake levels and confidence levels for two different release policies. We then compare exceedence curves for the release rule policies based on observed rainfall data for recent decades. Exceedence curves indicate vulnerability to power supply reliability. Factors affecting precipitation in individual models are examined. There is a distinct dry-wet-dry-wet pattern of annual rainfall over the Lake Victoria basin, which is evident in a comparison of precipitation from rain gauge stations used in the water balance model. Previous studies have demonstrated that this feature is determined by a combination of orographic forcing, the thermodynamics of the lake, and the interaction between the prevailing wind flow and lake-land breeze circulation. ENSO has the most influence on precipitation over the lake basin in terms of annual climatology. We evaluate the CORDEX models based on how well they reproduce these metrics in addition to how well they

  11. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  12. Physical changes within a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir induced by wintertime cold front activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtarelli, M. P.; Alcântara, E. H.; Rennó, C. D.; Stech, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the influence of wintertime cold front activity on the physical processes within a large tropical reservoir located in Brazil. The period chosen for this study consisted of 49 days between 28 April 2010 and 15 July 2010. This period was defined based on information from the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), data collected in situ and the interpretation of remotely sensed images. To better understand the governing processes that drive changes in the heat balance, differential cooling and mixing dynamics, a simulation was performed that utilized a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model enforced with in situ and remote sensing data. The results showed that during a cold front passage over the reservoir, the sensible and latent heat fluxes were enhanced by approximately 77 and 16%, respectively. The reservoir's daily averaged heat loss was up to 167% higher on the days with cold front activity than on the days without activity. The cold front passage also intensified the differential cooling process; in some cases the difference between the water temperature of the littoral and pelagic zones reached up to 8 °C. The occurrence of cold front passages impacted the diurnal mixed layer (DML), by increasing the turbulent energy input (∼54%) and the DML depth (∼41%). Our results indicate that the cold front events are one of the main meteorological disturbances driving the physical processes within hydroelectric reservoirs located in tropical South America during the wintertime. Hence, cold front activity over these aquatic systems has several implications for water quality and reservoir management in Brazil.

  13. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project: reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility. Final technical and construction cost report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The Elk Rapids powerhouse dam is located on the Elk River channel in the Village of Elk Rapids, Michigan. Together with a small spillway structure located approximately 500 ft south of the dam, it constitutes the outlet to Lake Michigan for Elk Lake, Skegemog Lake, Torch Lake, Lake Bellaire, Clam Lake, and several smaller lakes. Power has been generated at the Elk Rapids site since the late nineteenth century, but the history of the present facility goes back to 1916 with the construction of the existing powerhouse dam by the Elk Rapids Iron Works Company. The facility was designed to contain four vertical-shaft generating units; however, only a single 270 hp Leffel type K unit was installed in 1916. In 1929, two additional Leffel units, rated 525 hp, were installed, and in 1930 a third 525 hp Leffel unit was added completely utilizing the capacity of the powerhouse and bringing the combined turbine capacity to 1845 hp.

  14. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  15. Microbial diversity of an anoxic zone of a hydroelectric power station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Graças, Diego A; Miranda, Paulo R; Baraúna, Rafael A; McCulloch, John A; Ghilardi, Rubens; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur

    2011-11-01

    Microbial diversity was evaluated in an anoxic zone of Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia using a culture-independent approach by amplifying and sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA gene using metagenomic DNA as a template. Samples obtained from the photic, aphotic (40 m) and sediment (60 m) layers were used to construct six 16S rDNA libraries containing a total of 1,152 clones. The sediment, aphotic and photic layers presented 64, 33 and 35 unique archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The estimated richness of these layers was evaluated to be 153, 106 and 79 archaeal OTUs, respectively, using the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and 114, 83 and 77 OTUs using the Chao1 estimator. For bacterial sequences, 114, 69 and 57 OTUs were found in the sediment, aphotic and photic layers, which presented estimated richnesses of 1,414, 522 and 197 OTUs (ACE) and 1,059, 1,014 and 148 OTUs (Chao1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained revealed a high richness of microorganisms which participate in the carbon cycle, namely, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Most sequences obtained belong to non-culturable prokaryotes. The present study offers the first glimpse of the huge microbial diversity of an anoxic area of a man-made lacustrine environment in the tropics.

  16. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1996-10-01

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality.

  17. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  18. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies.

  19. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  20. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  1. Feasibility study for La Paz Hydroelectric Power Plant Project. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    A feasibility study for a hydroelectric project is defined as an investigation whose purpose is to determine whether any reasonable acceptable design for a project is technically viable. Alternatives of site development are studied and various solutions for civil works and equipment sizing are evaluated. When alternatives are considered technically viable they are then evaluated for financial viability. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the viability of the La Paz Hydroelectric Project. The La Paz Feasibility Study discusses: Site Characteristics and Existing Facilities; Hydrology and Sedimentation; Alternatives and Development; Hydraulics; Project Energy Output; Environmental, Social and Institutional Impacts; Project Cost Analysis; Market Considerations; Economics; Financial Analysis; and Project Implementation.

  2. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... civil works field operating agencies (FOA) having generating facilities producing marketable electric... recovering Federal investment are the responsibilities of the power marketing agencies. (2) All FOA... marketing agency will be notified of that fact in writing. (2) FOA responsibility. The FOA...

  3. New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Luzia M.

    This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial

  4. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: South Columbia Basin Irrigation District, Pasco, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.

    1980-05-01

    The case study concerns two modern human uses of the Columbia River - irrigation aimed at agricultural land reclamation and hydroelectric power. The Grand Coulee Dam has become synonomous with large-scale generation of hydroelectric power providing the Pacific Northwest with some of the least-expensive electricity in the United States. The Columbia Basin Project has created a half-million acres of farmland in Washington out of a spectacular and vast desert. The South Columbia River Basin Irrigation District is seeking to harness the energy present in the water which already runs through its canals, drains, and wasteways. The South District's development strategy is aimed toward reducing the costs its farmers pay for irrigation and raising the capital required to serve the remaining 550,000 acres originally planned as part of the Columbia Basin Project. The economic, institutional, and regulatory problems of harnessing the energy at site PEC 22.7, one of six sites proposed for development, are examined in this case study.

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Indiana are examined. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. An examination is made of the Federal-state relationships with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system. The introductory chapter examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The Indiana water law; direct and indirect regulations; the Public Service Commission of Indiana; and financial considerations are examined.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Rhode Island, any private rights in the flowing waters of a river or stream depend upon ownership of the abutting land. It appears Rhode Island follows the reasonable use theory of riparian law. The Department of Environmental Management is the most significant administrative agency with regard to dam construction, alteration, and operation in the state of Rhode Island.

  7. Toward new institutional relationships in the development of small scale hydroelectric power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1980-12-01

    This paper will briefly discuss three principle subjects. These subjects are recent changes in hydroelectric licensing, provisions of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the regulations promulgated pursuant to the Act by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Sections 221 and 222 (e), and Section 242 of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980. The FERC has recently reformed its licensing and permit regulations and Congress has enacted Section 408 of the Energy Security Act to exempt certain projects from the FERC licensing. PURPA and the FERC regulations promulgated pursuant thereto guarantee markets for the output of small scale hydroelectric (SSH) plants and the provisions of the Windfall Profit Tax Act measurably assist in the raising of capital for the construction of SSH facilities. All three incentives are significant given the electric utility markets confronted by SSH developers and the capital intensive nature of SSH projects.

  8. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  9. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step any developer must take is that of acquiring the real estate parcel. The step involves acquisition in some manner of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence legal. Apart from acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, New Hampshire law permits a number of other methods. In part use of these methods will depend on whether the developer is the state, a municipality, a private corporation, or a public utility. Provided the developer avails himself of the five (5) megawatts exemption, his main regulatory agency will be the Water Resources Board. However, the state is not free from the problems of legal uncertainty inherent in determinations of reasonableness.

  11. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Virginia are described. The state regulatory system does not comprise final authority; the Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. This dual system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. The introductory section examines the dual system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and inquires into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The use of a natural-surface watercourse in Virginia is governed generally by the doctrine of riparian rights. Riparian rights is a system of water rights based on ownership of land bordering on a natural stream or watercourse. For land to be considered riparian to a stream, that land must be located on the watershed of that portion of the stream. The theory of riparian rights followed in Virginia is one of reasonable use. Under the reasonable-use doctrine, each riparian owner has an equal right to the reasonable use of the water running naturally through or by his land for any useful purpose. The water must continue to run after such use without material diminution or alteration and without pollution.

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Vermont are discussed. The dual regulatory system involving state and Federal governments is discussed followed by discussions on property interests; direct regulation by the Public Service Board; indirect regulation; and financial considerations. An initial step required of any developer is that of real property acquisition. Ordinarily this involves acquiring the stream bed, land along the stream banks, and land needed for the impoundment reservoir. Ownership of land along the stream banks places the developer in the position of a riparian owner. This status is important in that only riparian owners are entitled to a reasonable use of the flowing water. In addition to acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, Vermont law allows certain developers to acquire property via eminent domain. Some general rules which have evolved as riparian law and applied in Vermont are discussed.

  14. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power of the Boardman River at Traverse City, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    An analytic description of one decision-making process concerning whether or not to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Boardman River is presented. The focus of the analysis is on the factor that the developers considered, or should consider in making a responsible commitment to small-scale hydroelectric development. Development of the Boardman River would occur at the five dam sites. Two existing dams, owned by the county, previously generated hydroelectricity, as did a third before being washed out. One dam has never been utilized. It is owned by the city which also owns the washed-out area. The study concludes that hydroelectric power is feasible at each. Grand Traverse County and Traverse City would engage in a joint venture in developing the resource. Chapter I presents a detailed description of the developers, the river resource, and the contemplated development. Chapter II is an analysis of the factors affecting the decision making process. Chapter III summarizes the impact of the more significant barriers and incentives and presents recommendations that, if implemented, will favorably affect decisions to develop small-scale hydroelectric generation capability.

  15. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  16. Development of a twin-flapping-foils unit to generate hydroelectric power from a water current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiru, H.; Yoshitake, A.; Nishi, M.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the conventional hydraulic turbines have been used for those sites having the static head larger than around 1 m. To extensively utilize not only large hydro-power but small one, which is one of renewable energy resources, development of an energy conversion system being operable under an extremely low head stream is crucial. A twin-flapping-foils unit which works based on the lift acting on the flapping foils in a stream is proposed. The foils oscillate in the transverse direction of the flow due to the lift. The pitching motion of the foils is caused by their own transverse movement through the mechanism consisting of crankshafts and con-rods. In the unit, each foil is supported vertically with a shaft in a manner of a cantilever so that no other parts need to be submerged in a water current. An experimental model with symmetric foils of 100 mm chord and 300 mm span was designed to generate average power output of 10 W at a flow velocity of 1 m/s. Through the tests carried out in the circulating water channel, the performance of the unit was verified to satisfy the design specifications. Further, the demonstration tests by using an irrigation stream performed for over a half year clarified the performance equivalent to that in the in-door water channel and the durability to a certain extent, and showed the applicability to the practical use of lighting a LED street lamp during night even at this scale model.

  17. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  18. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, B.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Cooper, A.; Bailey, H. J.; Rucker, M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of wind power is growing rapidly in the Pacific Northwest (PNW ) due to environmental concerns, decreasing costs of implementation, strong wind speeds, and a desire to diversify electricity sources to minimize the impacts of streamflow variability on electricity prices and system flexibility. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can be maximized by accounting for the relationship between long term variability in wind speeds and reservoir inflows. Clean energy policies in British Columbia make the benefits of increased wind power generation during low streamflow periods particularly large, by preventing the overbuilding of marginal hydroelectric projects. The goal of this work was to quantify long-term relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior in British Columbia. Wind speed data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and cumulative usable inflows (CUI) from BC Hydro were used to analyze 10m wind speed and density (WD) trends, WD-CUI correlations, and WD anomalies during low and high inflow periods in the PNW (40°N to 65°N, 110°W to 135°W) from 1979-2010. Statistically significant positive wind speed and density trends were found for most of the PNW, with the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. CUI-WD correlations were weakly positive for most regions, with the highest values along the US coast (r ~0.55), generally weaker correlations to the north, and negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. When considering seasonal relationships, the Spring freshet was coincident with lower WD anomalies west of the Rocky Mountains and higher WDs to the east. A similar but opposite pattern was observed for low inflow winter months. When considering interannual variability, lowest inflow years experienced positive WD anomalies (up to 40% increases) for the North Coast. In highest inflow years, positive WD anomalies were widespread in the US and for smaller patches of central BC

  19. The impact of a hydroelectric power plant on the sediment load in downstream water bodies, Svartisen, northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Bogen, J; Bønsnes, T E

    2001-02-01

    When the Svartisen hydroelectric power plant was put into operation, extensive sediment pollution was observed in the downstream fjord area. This paper discusses the impact of the power plant and the contribution from various sources of sediment. Computation of the sediment load was based on samples collected one to four times per day. Grain size distribution analyses of suspended sediments were carried out and used as input in a routing model to study the movement of sediments through the system. Suspended sediment delivered to the fjord before the power station was constructed was measured as 8360 metric tons as an annual mean for a 12-year period. During the years 1995-1996 when the power plant was operating, the total suspended load through the power station was measured as 32609 and 30254 metric tons, respectively. Grain size distribution analyses indicate a major change in the composition of the sediments from 9% clay before the power plant was operative to 50-60% clay afterwards. This change, together with the increase in sediment load, is believed to be one of the main causes of the drastic reduction in secchi depths in the fjord. The effect of the suspended sediment load on the fjord water turbidity was evaluated by co-plotting secchi depth and power station water discharge. Measurements during 1995 and 1996 showed that at the innermost of these locations the water failed to attain the minimum requirement of 2 m secchi depth. In later years secchi depths were above the specified level. In 1997 and 1998 the conditions improved. At the more distal locality, the conditions were acceptable with only a few exceptions. A routing model was applied to data acquired at a location 2 km from the power station in order to calculate the contributions from various sediment sources. This model indicated that the contribution from reservoir bed erosion dominated in 1994 but decreased significantly in 1995. Future operation of the power station will mostly take place with

  20. Non-uniform composite representation of hydroelectric systems for long-term hydrothermal scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, G. da Jr.; Soares, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a non-uniform composite representation of hydroelectric systems for use in long-term hydrothermal scheduling. This representation was developed from reservoir operational rules based on optimal reservoir trajectories obtained with a deterministic hydrothermal scheduling algorithm. A test system consisting of {tau} large hydroelectric plants of the Southeast Brazilian Power System with 12,572 MW of installed power capacity was selected for a case study. Operational cost comparisons with the classical uniform composite representation reveal significant savings.

  1. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    PubMed

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection. PMID:25051487

  2. New data on species of Demidospermus (Dactylogyridae: Monogenea) parasitizing fishes from the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná State, Brazil, with new synonymies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Simone C; Kohn, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Eight known species of Demidospermus (Dactylogyridae, Monogenea) were collected from siluriform fishes from reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná, Brazil. Four of them are recorded for the first time in Brazil, enlarging their geographical distribution: Demidospermus armostus, Demidospermus anus, Demidospermus bidiverticulatum and Demidospermus valenciennesi. Demidospermus labrosi is synonymized with Demidospermus cornicinus and Demidospermus mandi with Demidospermus leptosynophallus and reported from two new hosts. Demidospermus paravalenciennesi and Demidospermus uncusvalidus were also collected.

  3. The urgency of assessing the greenhouse gas budgets of hydroelectric reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-08-01

    Already the largest generator of hydroelectricity, China is accelerating dam construction to increase the share of hydroelectricity in its primary energy mix to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we review the evidence on emissions of GHGs, particularly methane, from the Three Gorges Reservoir, and argue that although the hydroelectric reservoirs may release large amounts of methane, they contribute significantly to greenhouse gas reduction by substitution of thermal power generation in China. Nonetheless, more systematic monitoring and modelling studies on greenhouse gas emissions from representative reservoirs are necessary to better understand the climate impact of hydropower development in China.

  4. Report on siphon penstocks for hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report on the use of siphon penstocks for hydroelectric installations has been prepared under DOE Contract AC07-82ID12356 by Acres International Corporation and draws extensively on the information and data assembled by the following organizations: CHI Engineering Services; Clearwater Hydro; Gannett Fleming Water Resources Engineers, Inc.; Harza Engineering Company; J. Kenneth Fraser and Associates, P.C.; Mead and Hunt, Inc.; TKO Power--Ott Water Engineers, Inc.; and Williams and Broome, Inc. The purpose of the study was to review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance considerations for siphon penstocks. The discussions, data, and information presented are based on experiences with the following operational siphon penstock plants: Columbia Mills Hydroelectric Plant, Virginia; Jim Falls Minimum Flow Unit Hydro Development, Wisconsin; Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Development, Wisconsin; Ontelaunee Hydroelectric Project, Pennsylvania; Pine Grove Dam Hydroelectric Station, Pennsylvania; Pocono Lake Hydroelectric Project, Pennsylvania; Schaads Reservoir Hydroelectric Project, California; Second Broad River Hydroelectric Project, North Carolina; Superior Dam Power Station, Michigan; Tierckenkill Falls Hydroelectric Project, New York; and Traicao Hydroelectric Project, Brazil. 71 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. [Analysis of the social and health impacts of large hydroelectric plants: lessons for a sustainable energy management].

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Adriana Renata Sathler; Motta-Veiga, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the social and health impacts resulting from the construction of the Tucuruí (Pará, Brazil) and James Bay (Quebec, Canada) Hydroelectric Plants. The comparative method study used in analysis of the literature review revealed lessons to be learned from the national and international experience in order to ensure sustainable management of future major energy projects in Brazil. In this study, a successive negative domino effect was observed in terms of social impacts on jobs, income, sanitation, and culture, all with associated health problems. These included stress, nutritional and psychosocial disturbances, cardiopathies, as well as respiratory and digestive problems. The actions seeking to mitigate the effects of these negative impacts were slow to be implemented. Moreover, even though three decades have elapsed, these actions proved inefficient to resolve all the health and socio-environmental problems caused.

  6. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    vegetation properties are studied by setting up comparative test plots at a field study site located at a headrace channel of a hydroelectric power plant. Different vegetational parameters such as basal coverage, species richness, species composition, abundance/dominance values by using a refined Braun-Blanquet cover estimation scale were collected as well as local environmental properties. Results during the first vegetation period show distinct effects of geotextiles especially on overall vegetation coverage and grasses-herbs-ratio. Geotextile supported plots show 20% higher overall coverage but lower amount of herbs after three months of vegetation growth compared to control plots without installation of auxiliary materials. Furthermore coir blankets reveal higher penetration resistance for seed leaves of herbal plants compared to coir nettings. Hence technical erosion protection products, biological components and it's combination have to be closely coordinated in order to achieve specified revegetation objectives and meet long-term functionality.

  7. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. PMID:26271035

  8. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Benjamin D.; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979–2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC’s North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. PMID:26271035

  9. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  10. Financing of private small scale hydroelectric projects: a summary guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects are increasingly being supported financially by private developers. Increases in fossil fuel prices, difficulties in the siting of large power plants, streamlining of the federal licensing process, changes in the marketing of power, and the extension of tax credits-all contribute to expectations of profitability in SSH projects. This document provides an overview of private financing for SSH projects.

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  12. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  13. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor. PMID:25061693

  14. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  15. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  16. Categorization of the trophic status of a hydroelectric power plant reservoir in the Brazilian Amazon by statistical analyses and fuzzy approaches.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lobato, Tarcísio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; de Oliveira, Terezinha Ferreira; Maciel, Marinalva Cardoso; Tavares, Maria Regina Madruga; da Silveira, Antônio Morais; Saraiva, Augusto Cesar Fonseca

    2015-02-15

    The Amazon area has been increasingly suffering from anthropogenic impacts, especially due to the construction of hydroelectric power plant reservoirs. The analysis and categorization of the trophic status of these reservoirs are of interest to indicate man-made changes in the environment. In this context, the present study aimed to categorize the trophic status of a hydroelectric power plant reservoir located in the Brazilian Amazon by constructing a novel Water Quality Index (WQI) and Trophic State Index (TSI) for the reservoir using major ion concentrations and physico-chemical water parameters determined in the area and taking into account the sampling locations and the local hydrological regimes. After applying statistical analyses (factor analysis and cluster analysis) and establishing a rule base of a fuzzy system to these indicators, the results obtained by the proposed method were then compared to the generally applied Carlson and a modified Lamparelli trophic state index (TSI), specific for trophic regions. The categorization of the trophic status by the proposed fuzzy method was shown to be more reliable, since it takes into account the specificities of the study area, while the Carlson and Lamparelli TSI do not, and, thus, tend to over or underestimate the trophic status of these ecosystems. The statistical techniques proposed and applied in the present study, are, therefore, relevant in cases of environmental management and policy decision-making processes, aiding in the identification of the ecological status of water bodies. With this, it is possible to identify which factors should be further investigated and/or adjusted in order to attempt the recovery of degraded water bodies.

  17. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  18. Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (India, NW Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    300 MW Baspa II is India's largest private hydroelectric facility, located at the Baspa River which is an important left-hand tributary to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). In this valley the Sangla palaeo-lake has been dammed around 8200 yr BP behind a rock-avalanche dam and Baspa II is located exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. Sedimentological and geomorphological investigations of the lacustrine sediments have been used to reconstruct environmental changes during >2500 years of its existence. The Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the Baspa catchment estimated from the volume and duration of deposition of the exposed lake sediments are at 0.7-1.0 mm yr-1, almost identical with the modern erosion rates calculated from river gauge data from Baspa II. Several charcoal layers and charcoal pieces from the uppermost palaeo-lake levels around 5000 cal yr BP might be related to woodland clearance and they possibly represent one of the oldest evidences for human presence in the Baspa Valley during Neolithic time.

  19. Analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maine is discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined. The first step any developer of small-scale hydropower must take is to acquire right, title, or interest in the real property. In Maine, that step requires acquisition in some form of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary, the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important, for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence a legal use. A non-riparian could not draw water from a stream to increase the water level of an impoundment area on another stream. Apart from the usual methods of land acquisition involving sale, lease, or perhaps gift, Maine has two somewhat unique methods a developer may use for property acquisition. These methods, authorized by statute, are use of the abandoned dams law and use of the Mill Dam Act for flowage of upstream impoundment areas.

  20. 78 FR 28826 - Lakeport Hydroelectric Associates, Lakeport Hydroelectric Corporation, Lakeport Hydroelectric One...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lakeport Hydroelectric Associates, Lakeport Hydroelectric Corporation, Lakeport Hydroelectric One, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments...

  1. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: Bull Run, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures' Small-Scale Hydroelectric Policy Project is designed to assist selected state legislatures in looking at the benefits that a state can derive from the development of small-scale hydro, and in carrying out a review of state laws and regulations that affect the development of the state's small-scale hydro resources. The successful completion of the project should help establish state statutes and regulations that are consistent with the efficient development of small-scale hydro. As part of the project's work with state legislatures, seven case studies of small-scale hydro sites were conducted to provide a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of this energy resource. The case study approach was selected to expose the actual difficulties and advantages involved in developing a specific site. Such an examination of real development efforts will clearly reveal the important aspects about small-scale hydro development which could be improved by statutory or regulatory revision. Moreover, the case study format enables the formulation of generalized opportunities for promoting small-scale hydro based on specific development experiences. The case study for small-scale hydro power development at the City of Portland's water reserve in the Bull Run Forest is presented with information included on the Bull Run hydro power potential, current water usage, hydro power regulations and plant licensing, technical and economic aspects of Bull Run project, and the environmental impact. (LCL)

  2. Influence of environmental parameters on the concentration of subsurface dissolved methane in two hydroelectric power plants in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. G.; Marani, L.; Alvala, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a trace gas in the atmosphere of great importance for atmospheric chemistry as one of the main greenhouse gases. There are different sources with the largest individual production associated with the degradation of organic matter submerged in flooded areas. The amount of dissolved methane that reaches the surface depends on the production in the sediments and consumption in the water column. Both processes are associated with microbial activity and consequently dependent on the physico-chemical environmental conditions. The construction of hydroelectric dams cause flooding of areas near the river that can change the characteristics of the environment and cause changes in subsurface methane concentration. In this work, we studied two hydroelectric plants located in Brazil: Batalha (17°20'39.52"S, 47°29'34.29"W), under construction when the samples were take, and Itaipu (25°24'45.00"S, 54°35'39.00"W) which has been floated over 30 years ago. The water samples to determine dissolved methane were collected approximately 5 cm near the surface. In each collection point was measured depth, water temperature, pH and redox potential. The range of dissolved methane between the two dams was similar: 0.07-10.33 μg/l (Batalha) and 0.15-10.93 μg/l (Itaipu). However, the Batalha's average (4.04 × 3.43 μg/l; median = 3.66 μg/l) was higher than that observed in Itaipu (2.15 × 1.59 μg/l; median = 2.53 μg/l). The influence of environmental parameters on the concentration of dissolved methane was evaluated by multivariate statistical techniques (Principal Component Analysis - PCA). All of the parameters had some correlation with dissolved methane, however, the greatest contribution in Batalha was associated with pH while in Itaipu was the depth. The pH variation of the various points studied in Batalha may be associated with periods of drought and flooding of the river and hence the incorporation of organic matter in the environment. The organisms

  3. Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours): Stat'imc Self-Determination in the Face of Large-Scale Hydro-electric Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Sarah Carmen

    In Canada, First Nations asserting authority over their lands are developing diverse strategies to overcome the state''s dogmatic insistence on jurisdictional sovereignty. This movement corresponds to the wider context of the challenges faced by indigenous people to use their own ways of knowing to resist or reformulate legal doctrines and political tenets based on colonial power. Interior Salish Stat'imc people identify themselves through a strong and ongoing social relationship with Sataqwa7, the Fraser River, and the "Valley of Plenty"---now known as the flooded Bridge River Valley---maintained through Stat'imc knowledge and cultural practice and demonstrated by talk of '"the Stat'imc right to fish" and Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours). Stat'imc fishers are prepared to contest and resist any regulatory system that is understood to impact this right to fish while they advocate their own ways of sustainable fishing and water management. Based on ethnographic research in collaboration with Stat'imc people, this thesis explores some of these often successful contestations especially in the context of increasing territorial governance and by example of the rapidly transforming relationship between Stat'imc, BC Hydro and the Province of BC. Interior Salish Stat'imc people are currently navigating through a significant phase of increasing jurisdiction and authority and recognition of (unsettled) territorial property relationships. This very dynamic process is marked by strategic collaborations, compensation for 'infringements' on St'a'imc Title and Rights, and conservation efforts to protect their home. An important example is the changing relationship between Stat'imc people and BC Hydro---a relationship between two groups with radically different cultures and agendas: Stat'imc people in a struggle for self-determination, social justice and cultural survival and BC Hydro, a corporate culture, with the agenda to provide hydro-electric power to BC, maintain

  4. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  5. Displacement Back Analysis for a High Slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station Based on BP Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhengzhao; Gong, Bin; Tang, Chunan; Zhang, Yongbin; Ma, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    The right bank high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station is located in complicated geological conditions with deep fractures and unloading cracks. How to obtain the mechanical parameters and then evaluate the safety of the slope are the key problems. This paper presented a displacement back analysis for the slope using an artificial neural network model (ANN) and particle swarm optimization model (PSO). A numerical model was established to simulate the displacement increment results, acquiring training data for the artificial neural network model. The backpropagation ANN model was used to establish a mapping function between the mechanical parameters and the monitoring displacements. The PSO model was applied to initialize the weights and thresholds of the backpropagation (BP) network model and determine suitable values of the mechanical parameters. Then the elastic moduli of the rock masses were obtained according to the monitoring displacement data at different excavation stages, and the BP neural network model was proved to be valid by comparing the measured displacements, the displacements predicted by the BP neural network model, and the numerical simulation using the back-analyzed parameters. The proposed model is useful for rock mechanical parameters determination and instability investigation of rock slopes. PMID:25140345

  6. Automation concepts for large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R.; Aichele, D.; Lanier, R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to develop a methodology for analyzing, selecting, and implementing automation functions for multi-hundred-kW photovoltaic power systems intended for manned space station. The study involved identification of generic power system elements and their potential faults, definition of automation functions and their resulting benefits, and partitioning of automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground. Automation to a varying degree was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are indefinite lifetime, modular growth, high performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user load equipment, on-orbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. Functions that are good candidates for automation via expert system approach includes battery management and electrical consumables management.

  7. 76 FR 22128 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... renewable energy and moving the Nation toward a clean energy future is a top priority of the Department of... energy generation with consideration of environmental impacts. The Western Area Power Administration... describe seasonal or annual generation patterns. Include estimates of the amount of electrical energy...

  8. 7. SHOSHONE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT, WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN BUILDING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SHOSHONE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT, WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN BUILDING TO THE LEFT, NORTH ELEVATION OF OFFICE BUILDING TO THE RIGHT, VIEW TO THE EAST. CONCRETE 'PATH' IN FOREGROUND IS THE CONDUIT THROUGH WHICH POWER CABLES RUN FROM THE TRANSFORMERS TO THE 115 KV SUBSTATION. - Shoshone Hydroelectric Plant Complex, 60111 U.S. Highway 6, Garfield County, CO

  9. Stability analysis of large electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elwood, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions of the world, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Ensuring the reliable operation of the power system requires engineers to study the response of the system to various disturbances. The responses to large disturbances are examined by numerically solving the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations describing the power system. The response to small disturbances is typically studied via eigenanalysis. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently developed the Extended Transient/Mid-term Stability Program (ETMSP) to study large disturbance stability and the Small Signal Stability Program Package (SSSP) to study small signal stability. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were to (1) explore ways of speeding up ETMSP, especially on mid-term voltage stability problems, (2) explore ways of speeding up the Multi-Area Small-Signal Stability program (MASS), one of the codes in SSSP, and (3) explore ways of increasing the size of problem that can be solved by the Cray version of MASS.

  10. Environmental issues in relicensing hearings for Carolina Power & Light Company`s Walters Hydroelectric Plant on the Pigeon River, NC

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.P.; Tracy, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes modeling of the fate and transport of dioxin in the water column and sediments of a large hydrostation reservoir in connection with contested hearings before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 1991. Coupled differential equations of dioxin mass transport in the lake and in its underlying active sediment layer were solved analytically to estimate the period of time necessary for previously discharged dioxin to be sufficiently deeply buried in the lake`s sediments to remove it from uptake by bottom-dwelling organisms and meet state water quality standards.

  11. Precipitation Estimates for Hydroelectricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Hou, Arthur Y.; de Castro, Manuel; Checa, Ramiro; Cuartero, Fernando; Barros, Ana P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroelectric plants require precise and timely estimates of rain, snow and other hydrometeors for operations. However, it is far from being a trivial task to measure and predict precipitation. This paper presents the linkages between precipitation science and hydroelectricity, and in doing so it provides insight into current research directions that are relevant for this renewable energy. Methods described include radars, disdrometers, satellites and numerical models. Two recent advances that have the potential of being highly beneficial for hydropower operations are featured: the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) mission, which represents an important leap forward in precipitation observations from space, and high performance computing (HPC) and grid technology, that allows building ensembles of numerical weather and climate models.

  12. Bailey Creek Ranch Hydroelectric Project: a grease under the fingernails description of small hydroelectric development

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    This project consists of a 670 kilowatt hydroelectric power generating facility built under an exemption from license requirements issued by the Federal energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). It is located on a sixty acre parcel of ranch land on the western side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Shasta County, California. The project will provide electric power to be sold under a thirty year term contract into the electric grid system of Pacific Gas and Electric, Inc. (PG and E). Peak output will be approximately 750 kilowatts. Depending on the amount of rainfall, on an averaged annual basis, it will produce between 3,800,000 kilowatt hours and 4,200,000 kilowatt hours. This may be the first all new hydroelectric site to come on line in the United states in response to the Congressional enactment of the National Energy Plan and the Energy Security Act. Under these laws, private unregulated hydroelectric power producers were relieved of the rigid licensing requirements of the Federal Power Act and the national electric power market was opened to non-utility competition. The Bailey Creek Ranch Hydroelectric Project was 100% privately financed with no government grants or loans.

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of Powered Fontan Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Y.; Anupindi, K.; Kerlo, A.E.; Shetty, D.; Rodefeld, M.; Chen, J.; Frankel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2–3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3–5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a “biventricular Fontan” circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo™) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data. PMID:23177085

  14. Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    Hydropower regulations, particularly those which must be met during the pre-construction phase, have become considerably more extensive and complicated over the last few years. This article, which outlines the pre-construction phase of the Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project, provides a good example of the steps developers should be prepared to take before construction commences. The Department of Energy is funding $750,000 of the project's $1,200,000 budget to gain meaningful and reliable information for the public regarding the development and operation of an inexpensive, low head, domestically manufactured cross-flow turbine. To satisfy their requirements several studies and reports are being prepared for the DOE.

  15. Preliminary analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the low-head hydroelectric potential of the 19 northeastern US (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) is presented. The statutes and case laws of the 19 states and the Federal government which affect developers of small dams are stressed. The legal uncertainty which confronts the developer of small dams and the regulatory burden to which the developer may be subjected once the uncertainty is resolved are emphasized.

  16. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  17. Optimal control of hydroelectric facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangzhi

    This thesis considers a simple yet realistic model of pump-assisted hydroelectric facilities operating in a market with time-varying but deterministic power prices. Both deterministic and stochastic water inflows are considered. The fluid mechanical and engineering details of the facility are described by a model containing several parameters. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for optimizing either the total energy produced or the total cash generated by these plants. The algorithm allows us to give the optimal control strategy as a function of time and to see how this strategy, and the associated plant value, varies with water inflow and electricity price. We investigate various cases. For a single pumped storage facility experiencing deterministic power prices and water inflows, we investigate the varying behaviour for an oversimplified constant turbine- and pump-efficiency model with simple reservoir geometries. We then generalize this simple model to include more realistic turbine efficiencies, situations with more complicated reservoir geometry, and the introduction of dissipative switching costs between various control states. We find many results which reinforce our physical intuition about this complicated system as well as results which initially challenge, though later deepen, this intuition. One major lesson of this work is that the optimal control strategy does not differ much between two differing objectives of maximizing energy production and maximizing its cash value. We then turn our attention to the case of stochastic water inflows. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which can find an on-average optimal control in the face of this randomness. As the operator of a facility must be more cautious when inflows are random, the randomness destroys facility value. Following this insight we quantify exactly how much a perfect hydrological inflow forecast would be worth to a dam operator. In our final chapter we discuss the

  18. Computing GIC in large power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakara, F.S. ); Ponder, J.Z.; Towle, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    On March 13, 1989, a severe geomagnetic disturbance affected power and communications systems in the North American continent. Since the geomagnetic disturbance, several other disturbances have occurred. The Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland (PJM) Interconnection system, its member companies, and some of the neighboring utilities experienced the geomagnetic induced current (GIC) effects on March 13, 1989, as well as during the subsequent geomagnetic disturbances. As a result, considerable effort is being focused on measurement, analysis, and mitigation of GIC in the PJM system. Some of the analytical and computational work completed so far is summarized in this article.

  19. Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hocheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    As the size and number of wind power plants (also called wind farms) increases, power system planners will need to study their impact on the power system in more detail. As the level of wind power penetration into the grid increases, the transmission system integration requirements will become more critical [1-2]. A very large wind power plant may contain hundreds of megawatt-size wind turbines. These turbines are interconnected by an intricate collector system. While the impact of individual turbines on the larger power system network is minimal, collectively, wind turbines can have a significant impact on the power systems during a severe disturbance such as a nearby fault. Since it is not practical to represent all individual wind turbines to conduct simulations, a simplified equivalent representation is required. This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies. The layout of the wind power plant, the size and type of conductors used, and the method of delivery (overhead or buried cables) all influence the performance of the collector system inside the wind power plant. Our effort to develop an equivalent representation of the collector system for wind power plants is an attempt to simplify power system modeling for future developments or planned expansions of wind power plants. Although we use a specific large wind power plant as a case study, the concept is applicable for any type of wind power plant.

  20. Power oscillation suppression by robust SMES in power system with large wind power penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Cuk Supriyadi, A. N.; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    The large penetration of wind farm into interconnected power systems may cause the severe problem of tie-line power oscillations. To suppress power oscillations, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which is able to control active and reactive powers simultaneously, can be applied. On the other hand, several generating and loading conditions, variation of system parameters, etc., cause uncertainties in the system. The SMES controller designed without considering system uncertainties may fail to suppress power oscillations. To enhance the robustness of SMES controller against system uncertainties, this paper proposes a robust control design of SMES by taking system uncertainties into account. The inverse additive perturbation is applied to represent the unstructured system uncertainties and included in power system modeling. The configuration of active and reactive power controllers is the first-order lead-lag compensator with single input feedback. To tune the controller parameters, the optimization problem is formulated based on the enhancement of robust stability margin. The particle swarm optimization is used to solve the problem and achieve the controller parameters. Simulation studies in the six-area interconnected power system with wind farms confirm the robustness of the proposed SMES under various operating conditions.

  1. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43343). The conference... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of...

  2. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 21, 2012 (77 FR 16559). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... the United States is materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power...

  3. Small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility: Final operation and maintenance report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.

    1987-03-01

    Information related to the reactivation of the Elk River Hydroelectric Power facility is reported. This report includes a history of the power plant, pertinent cost data, emergency action plans, inspections and testing, warranty work, operating problems, project data, monthly production data, and monthly operating and maintenance costs. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions. PMID:22688450

  5. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  6. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and...

  7. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, August...

  8. Improved control system power unit for large parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.; Grubbs, T. M.

    1968-01-01

    Improved control system power unit drives the control surfaces of very large controllable parachutes. The design features subassemblies for determining control surface position and cable loading, and protection of the load sensor against the possibility of damage during manipulation.

  9. 76 FR 61689 - Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC Notice of Site Visit On February 6, 2008, Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC (Sutton Hydroelectric) filed a notice of intent and...

  10. Energy Perspective: Is Hydroelectricity Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    The current worldwide concern over energy is primarily related to imported oil, oil drilling and refining capacity, and transportation capacity. However, this concern has bolstered interest in a broader range of "green" energy technologies. In this article, the author discusses the use of hydroelectricity as an alternative energy source and…

  11. Power suppression at large scales in string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu

    2013-12-01

    We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.

  12. Discharge transient coupling in large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John; Stillwell, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have shown that plasma environments can induce discharges in solar arrays. These plasmas simulate the environments found in low earth orbits where current plans call for operation of very large power systems. The discharges could be large enough to couple into the power system and possibly disrupt operations. Here, the general concepts of the discharge mechanism and the techniques of coupling are discussed. Data from both ground and flight experiments are reviewed to obtain an expected basis for the interactions. These concepts were applied to the Space Station solar array and distribution system as an example of the large space power system. The effect of discharges was found to be a function of the discharge site. For most sites in the array discharges would not seriously impact performance. One location at the negative end of the array was identified as a position where discharges could couple to charge stored in system capacitors. This latter case could impact performance.

  13. Forced response analysis of hydroelectric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alligné, S.; Silva, P. C. O.; Béguin, A.; Kawkabani, B.; Allenbach, P.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    At off-design operating points, Francis turbines develop cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube which may interact with the hydraulic system. Risk resonance assessment by means of eigenmodes computation of the system is usually performed. However, the system response to the excitation source induced by the cavitation vortex rope is not predicted in terms of amplitudes and phase. Only eigenmodes shapes with related frequencies and dampings can be predicted. Besides this modal analysis, the risk resonance assessment can be completed by a forced response analysis. This method allows identifying the contribution of each eigenmode into the system response which depends on the system boundary conditions and the excitation source location. In this paper, a forced response analysis of a Francis turbine hydroelectric power plant including hydraulic system, rotating train, electrical system and control devices is performed. First, the general methodology of the forced response analysis is presented and validated with time domain simulations. Then, analysis of electrical, hydraulic and hydroelectric systems are performed and compared to analyse the influence of control structures on pressure fluctuations induced by cavitation vortex rope.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  15. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  16. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  17. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Brizzee, Julie; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  18. Controllable Bidirectional dc Power Sources For Large Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1995-01-01

    System redesigned for greater efficiency, durability, and controllability. Modern electronically controlled dc power sources proposed to supply currents to six electromagnets used to position aerodynamic test model in wind tunnel. Six-phase bridge rectifier supplies load with large current at voltage of commanded magnitude and polarity. Current-feedback circuit includes current-limiting feature giving some protection against overload.

  19. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  20. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taddeucci, Joe

    2013-03-29

    double nozzle Pelton turbine with a 10-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 88%. This alone represents a 6% increase in overall efficiency. The old turbine operated at low efficiencies due to age and non-optimal sizing of the turbine for the water flow available to the unit. It was shut down whenever water flow dropped to less than 4-5 cfs, and at that flow, efficiency was 55 to 60%. The new turbine will operate in the range of 70 to 88% efficiency through a large portion of the existing flow range and would only have to be shut down at flow rates less than 3.7 cfs. Efficiency is expected to increase by 15-30%, depending on flow. In addition to the installation of new equipment, other goals for the project included: Increasing safety at Boulder Canyon Hydro Increasing protection of the Boulder Creek environment Modernizing and integrating control equipment into Boulder's municipal water supply system, and Preserving significant historical engineering information prior to power plant modernization. From January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2012, combined consultant and contractor personnel hours paid for by both the city and the federal government have totaled approximately 40,000. This equates roughly to seven people working full time on the project from January 2010 through December 2012. This project also involved considerable material expense (steel pipe, a variety of valves, electrical equipment, and the various components of the turbine and generator), which were not accounted for in terms of hours spent on the project. However, the material expense related to this project did help to create or preserve manufacturing/industrial jobs throughout the United States. As required by ARRA, the various components of the hydroelectric project were manufactured or substantially transformed in the U.S. BCH is eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places due in part to its unique engineering features and innovative construction

  1. Generalized slow roll approximation for large power spectrum features

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne

    2010-01-15

    We develop a variant of the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the curvature power spectrum that is well suited for order unity deviations in power caused by sharp features in the inflaton potential. As an example, we show that predictions for a step function potential, which has been proposed to explain order unity glitches in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum at multipoles l=20-40, are accurate at the percent level. Our analysis shows that to good approximation there is a single source function that is responsible for observable features and that this function is simply related to the local slope and curvature of the inflaton potential. These properties should make the generalized slow roll approximation useful for inflation-model-independent studies of features, both large and small, in the observable power spectra.

  2. Comparison of Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Brazil with Thermopower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerio, J. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.; Matvienko, B.; dos Santos, E.; Rocha, C. H.; Sikar, E.; Junior, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Widespread interest in human impacts on the Earth has prompted much questioning in fields of concern to the general public. One of these issues is the extent of the impacts on the environment caused by hydro-based power generation, once viewed as a clean energy source. From the early 1990s onwards, papers and studies have been challenging this assumption through claims that hydroelectric dams also emit greenhouse gases, generated by the decomposition of biomass flooded by filling these reservoirs. Like as other freshwater bodies, hydroelectric reservoirs produce gases underwater by biology decomposition of organic matter. Some of these biogenic gases are effective in terms of Global Warming. The decomposition is mainly due by anaerobically regime, emitting methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This paper compare results obtained from gross greenhouse fluxes in Brazilian hydropower reservoirs with thermo power plants using different types of fuels and technology. Measurements were carried in the Manso, Serra da Mesa, Corumbá, Itumbiara, Estreito, Furnas and Peixoto reservoirs, located in Cerrado biome and in Funil reservoir located at Atlantic forest biome with well defined climatologically regimes. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in each of the reservoirs selected, whether through bubbles and/or diffusive exchange between water and atmosphere, were assessed by sampling. The intensity of emissions has a great variability and some environmental factors could be responsible for these variations. Factors that influence the emissions could be the water and air temperature, depth, wind velocity, sunlight, physical and chemical parameters of water, the composition of underwater biomass and the operational regime of the reservoir. Based in this calculations is possible to conclude that the large amount of hydro-power studied is better than thermopower source in terms of atmospheric greenhouse emissions. The comparisons between the reservoirs studied

  3. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  4. Power-law time distribution of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mega, Mirko S; Allegrini, Paolo; Grigolini, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Palatella, Luigi; Rapisarda, Andrea; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2003-05-01

    We study the statistical properties of time distribution of seismicity in California by means of a new method of analysis, the diffusion entropy. We find that the distribution of time intervals between a large earthquake (the main shock of a given seismic sequence) and the next one does not obey Poisson statistics, as assumed by the current models. We prove that this distribution is an inverse power law with an exponent mu=2.06+/-0.01. We propose the long-range model, reproducing the main properties of the diffusion entropy and describing the seismic triggering mechanisms induced by large earthquakes.

  5. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric...

  6. Large space systems technology electronics: Data and power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of hardware technology and manufacturing techniques required to meet space platform and antenna system needs in the 1980s is discussed. Preliminary designs for manned and automatically assembled space power system cables, connectors, and grounding and bonding materials and techniques are reviewed. Connector concepts, grounding design requirements, and bonding requirements are discussed. The problem of particulate debris contamination for large structure spacecraft is addressed.

  7. Just enough inflation: power spectrum modifications at large scales

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: ssdownes@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: francisco.pedro@desy.de

    2014-12-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50- 60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic analytic analysis in the limit of a sudden transition between any possible non-slow-roll background evolution and the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low ℓ, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at ℓ∼< 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.

  8. Survey of future requirements for large space structures. [space platforms, large antennas, and power surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The future requirements for large space structures were examined and the foundation for long range planning of technology development for such structures is provided. Attention is concentrated on a period after 1985 for actual use. Basic ground rule of the study was that applications be of significant importance and have promise of direct economic benefit to mankind. The inputs to the study came from visits to a large number of government and industrial organizations, written studies in current literature, and approximate analyses of potential applications. The paper identifies diverse space applications for large area structures in three general categories: (1) large surfaces for power, (2) large antenna to receive and transmit energy over the radio frequency bandwidth, and (3) space platforms to provide area for general utilizations.

  9. Large-Scale Data Challenges in Future Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Sharma, Poorva; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2013-03-25

    This paper describes technical challenges in supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems and discusses various design options to address these challenges. Even though the existing U.S. power grid has served the nation remarkably well over the last 120 years, big changes are in the horizon. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components. The whole system becomes highly dynamic and needs constant adjustments based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMUs) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can support this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in cloud services, the data layer for smart grids must address some unique challenges. This layer must be scalable to support millions of sensors and a large number of diverse applications and still provide real time guarantees. Moreover, the system needs to be highly reliable and highly secure because the power grid is a critical piece of infrastructure. No existing systems can satisfy all the requirements at the same time. We examine various design options. In particular, we explore the special characteristics of power grid data to meet both scalability and quality of service requirements. Our initial prototype can improve performance by orders of magnitude over existing general-purpose systems. The prototype was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and was shown to be able to integrate huge amount of data from a large number of sensors and a diverse set of applications.

  10. Shawmut hydroelectric redevelopment project. Final technical and construction cost report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-08-01

    This report describes the major steps undertaken by the Central Maine Power Company to redevelop an old existing lowhead (19 to 23 ft) hydroelectric station and, at the same time, demonstrate the commercial viability of such a venture. The report addresses the process of site selection, preliminary conceptual design for determining economic viability, licensing and the regulatory process, final design, and project construction with the objective of presenting to the reader a technical and economical guide useful for a similar undertaking.

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Large signal RF power transmission characterization of InGaP HBT for RF power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixin, Zhao; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The large signal RF power transmission characteristics of an advanced InGaP HBT in an RF power amplifier are investigated and analyzed experimentally. The realistic RF powers reflected by the transistor, transmitted from the transistor and reflected by the load are investigated at small signal and large signal levels. The RF power multiple frequency components at the input and output ports are investigated at small signal and large signal levels, including their effects on RF power gain compression and nonlinearity. The results show that the RF power reflections are different between the output and input ports. At the input port the reflected power is not always proportional to input power level; at large power levels the reflected power becomes more serious than that at small signal levels, and there is a knee point at large power levels. The results also show the effects of the power multiple frequency components on RF amplification.

  12. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  13. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-11-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March 1983 and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  14. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March, 1983, and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  15. Hydroelectric power in Hawaii: a reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 megawatts of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 megawatts of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kilowatt-hours of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands - Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%; on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. Existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities are summarized, and annual outputs for each island are estimated. Future hydropower facilities are subdivided into two categories, which show how much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development, and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time.

  16. Power conditioning for large dc motors for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veatch, Martin S.; Anderson, Paul M.; Eason, Douglas J.; Landis, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype power-conditioning system for use with large brushless dc motors on NASA space missions are discussed in detail and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, and graphs. The 5-kW 8-phase parallel module evaluated here would be suitable for use in the Space Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. A current-balancing magnetic assembly with low distributed inductance permits high-speed current switching from a low-voltage bus as well as current balancing between parallel MOSFETs.

  17. Concept for a power system controller for large space electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.; Graves, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of technology for a fail-operatonal power system controller (PSC) utilizing microprocessor technology for managing the distribution and power processor subsystems of a large multi-kW space electrical power system is discussed. The specific functions which must be performed by the PSC, the best microprocessor available to do the job, and the feasibility, cost savings, and applications of a PSC were determined. A limited function breadboard version of a PSC was developed to demonstrate the concept and potential cost savings.

  18. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst, Inc., Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Monthly and year long data on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant are presented. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194.401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months.

  19. Magnetic power spectrum of the ocean crust on large scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Michael S.; Parker, Robert L.; Constable, Catherine G.

    1999-12-01

    The geomagnetic power spectrum Rl is the squared magnetic field in each spherical harmonic degree averaged over a spherical surface. Satellite measurements have given reliable estimates of the spectrum for the part that originates in the core, but above l = 15, where the geomagnetic field arises primarily from crustal magnetization, there is considerable disagreement between various estimates derived from observation. Furthermore, several theoretical models for the spectrum disagree with each other and the data. We have examined observations from a different source, 5000-km-long Project Magnet aeromagnetic survey lines; we make new estimates of the spectrum which overlap with the wavelength interval accessible to the satellites. The usual way the spectrum is derived from observation is to construct a large spherical harmonic decomposition first, then square, weight, and add the Gauss coefficients in each degree, but this method cannot be applied to isolated flight lines. Instead, we apply a statistical technique based on an idea of McLeod and Coleman which relates the geomagnetic spectrum to the power and cross spectra of magnetic field components measured on the survey lines. Power spectra from the 17 aeromagnetic surveys, all of which were conducted over the oceans, are averaged together to improve geographic coverage and reduce variance, and the average spectra are then inverted for the geomagnetic spectrum Rl. Like most of the theoretical models, our spectrum exhibits a maximum, but at a wavelength of 100 km, about a factor of 2 smaller than the closest theoretical prediction. Our spectrum agrees quite well with the most recent estimates based on satellite observations in the range 20≤l≤50, but above l = 50, our values increase slowly, while all the satellite data suggest a sharply rising curve. In this wavelength range we believe our measurements are more trustworthy. Further work is planned to confirm the accuracy of our spectrum when continental survey

  20. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of

  1. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC... affected by issuance of a license for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No... Hydroelectric LLC, as applicant for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Project No. 12757, is invited...

  2. Indian River Hydroelectric Project Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Garrett

    2005-04-29

    This Final Technical Report provides a concise retrospective and summary of all facets of the Sheldon Jackson College electrical Infrastructure Renovation portion of the Indian River Hydroelectric Project Grant of the City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska. The Project Overview describes the origins of the project, the original conditions that provided the impetus for the grant funding, how the grant amendment was developed, the conceptual design development, and the actual parameters of the final project as it went out to bid. The Project Overview also describes the ''before and after'' conditions of the project. The Objectives division of this Final Technical Report describes the amendment-funded goals of the project. It also describes the milestones of project development and implementation, as well as, the rationale behind the milestone array. The Description of Activities Performed division of this report provides an in-depth chronological analysis of progressive project implementation. Photographs will provide further illustration of particular functional aspects of the renovation project within project parameters. The Conclusions and Recommendations division of this report provides a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the project.

  3. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  4. Development of management technology for large power systems. [of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Messner, A.; Graves, J.

    1982-01-01

    Autonomous power management has been proposed as a method to perform optimization of power subsystem performance in connection with the management of multikilowatt space platforms. A concept for a 250-kW utility-type power subsystem was developed. A Cassegrain concentrator solar array primary source is conditioned by a solar array switching unit which supplies seventeen 220 +20 Vdc power channels. A power management subsystem provides the monitoring and control of the overall electrical power subsystem. The discussed system concept for autonomous management of high power space platforms utilizes on-board microprocessors in a decentralized data management architecture. A data bus protocol and a data bus contention resolution scheme were selected in conjunction with the dencentralized management architecture.

  5. Hydroelectric project recreation partners in river access program

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, C.M.; Karas, M.; McDonough, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    Most often, a license applicant`s proposed recreational additions or enhancements are proposals for specific developments on the hydroelectric projects reservoirs or tailwater(s), or are stand-alone off site mitigation proposals. By taking an innovative and proactive approach to recreational resource development, Appalachian Power Company and the Virginia Departments of Conservation and Recreation and Game and Inland Fisheries have entered into an agreement for development of 17 public recreation sites that provides for a broader, better managed approach to recreational development than typically evolves from the traditional relicensing process.

  6. Medium power voltage multipliers with a large number of stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T.; Myers, I. T.

    1978-01-01

    Voltage multiplier techniques are extended at medium power levels to larger multiplication ratios. A series of dc-dc converters were built, with from 20 to 45 stages and with power levels up to 100 watts. Maximum output voltages were about 10,000 volts.

  7. Security, protection, and control of power systems with large-scale wind power penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Naresh

    As the number of wind generation facilities in the utility system is fast increasing, many issues associated with their integration into the power system are beginning to emerge. Of the various issues, this dissertation deals with the development of new concepts and computational methods to handle the transmission issues and voltage issues caused by large-scale integration of wind turbines. This dissertation also formulates a probabilistic framework for the steady-state security assessment of wind power incorporating the forecast uncertainty and correlation. Transmission issues are mainly related to the overloading of transmission lines, when all the wind power generated cannot be delivered in full due to prior outage conditions. To deal with this problem, a method to curtail the wind turbine outputs through Energy Management System facilities in the on-line operational environment is proposed. The proposed method, which is based on linear optimization, sends the calculated control signals via the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system to wind farm controllers. The necessary ramping of the wind farm outputs is implemented either by the appropriate blade pitch angle control at the turbine level or by switching a certain number of turbines. The curtailment strategy is tested with an equivalent system model of MidAmerican Energy Company. The results show that the line overload in high wind areas can be alleviated by controlling the outputs of the wind farms step-by-step over an allowable period of time. A low voltage event during a system fault can cause a large number of wind turbines to trip, depending on voltages at the wind turbine terminals during the fault and the under-voltage protection setting of wind turbines. As a result, an N-1 contingency may evolve into an N-(K+1) contingency, where K is the number of wind farms tripped due to low voltage conditions. Losing a large amount of wind power following a line contingency might lead to system

  8. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. 135.387 Section 135.387 Aeronautics and Space....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  9. Design considerations for large space electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.; Finke, R. C.; Stevens, N. J.; Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    As power levels of spacecraft rise to the 50 to 100 kW range, it becomes apparent that low voltage (28 V) dc power distribution and management systems will not operate efficiently at these higher power levels. The concept of transforming a solar array voltage at 150 V dc into a 1000 V ac distribution system operating at 20 kHz is examined. The transformation is accomplished with series-resonant inverter by using a rotary transformer to isolate the solar array from the spacecraft. The power can then be distributed in any desired method such as three phase delta to delta. The distribution voltage can be easily transformed to any desired load voltage and operating frequency. The reasons for the voltage limitations on the solar array due to plasma interactions and the many advantages of a high voltage, high frequency at distribution system are discussed.

  10. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  11. 3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  12. 1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL SPILLWAY AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW EAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  13. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  14. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  15. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's Hydroelectric Development of the Xingu River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Phillip M.

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil’s proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country’s national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  16. Small hydro-electric potential: West Poverty Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Six schemes in the Bay of Plenty Electric Power Board area and two in the Poverty Bay Electric Power Board area, of which five and one, respectively are below the economic limit of $2400/kW were identified. Only three appear both economically and environmentally acceptable. The schemes identified are not very attractive on the national scale and could not be justified on local terms. It is recommended that a detailed feasibility study of the Takaputahi/Torere diversion is undertaken prior to a decision making to proceed with the Motu development, or if the proposals are dropped. The present low load and slow growth of the area is such that prior to a small hydroelectric scheme is built, demand for power has to be established.

  17. Methane and CO2 emissions from China's hydroelectric reservoirs: a new quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A

    2015-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the green credentials of hydroelectricity because of the potentially large emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from associated reservoirs. However, limited and patchy data particularly for China is constraining the current global assessment of GHG releases from hydroelectric reservoirs. This study provides the first evaluation of the CO2 and CH4 emissions from China's hydroelectric reservoirs by considering the reservoir water surface and drawdown areas, and downstream sources (including spillways and turbines, as well as river downstream). The total emission of 29.6 Tg CO2/year and 0.47 Tg CH4/year from hydroelectric reservoirs in China, expressed as CO2 equivalents (eq), corresponds to 45.6 Tg CO2eq/year, which is 2-fold higher than the current GHG emission (ca. 23 Tg CO2eq/year) from global temperate hydropower reservoirs. China's average emission of 70 g CO2eq/kWh from hydropower amounts to 7% of the emissions from coal-fired plant alternatives. China's hydroelectric reservoirs thus currently mitigate GHG emission when compared to the main alternative source of electricity with potentially far great reductions in GHG emissions and benefits possible through relatively minor changes to reservoir management and design. On average, the sum of drawdown and downstream emission including river reaches below dams and turbines, which is overlooked by most studies, represents the equivalent of 42% of the CO2 and 92% of CH4 that emit from hydroelectric reservoirs in China. Main drivers on GHG emission rates are summarized and highlight that water depth and stratification control CH4 flux, and CO2 flux shows significant negative relationships with pH, DO, and Chl-a. Based on our finding, a substantial revision of the global carbon emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs is warranted.

  18. Methane and CO2 emissions from China's hydroelectric reservoirs: a new quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A

    2015-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the green credentials of hydroelectricity because of the potentially large emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from associated reservoirs. However, limited and patchy data particularly for China is constraining the current global assessment of GHG releases from hydroelectric reservoirs. This study provides the first evaluation of the CO2 and CH4 emissions from China's hydroelectric reservoirs by considering the reservoir water surface and drawdown areas, and downstream sources (including spillways and turbines, as well as river downstream). The total emission of 29.6 Tg CO2/year and 0.47 Tg CH4/year from hydroelectric reservoirs in China, expressed as CO2 equivalents (eq), corresponds to 45.6 Tg CO2eq/year, which is 2-fold higher than the current GHG emission (ca. 23 Tg CO2eq/year) from global temperate hydropower reservoirs. China's average emission of 70 g CO2eq/kWh from hydropower amounts to 7% of the emissions from coal-fired plant alternatives. China's hydroelectric reservoirs thus currently mitigate GHG emission when compared to the main alternative source of electricity with potentially far great reductions in GHG emissions and benefits possible through relatively minor changes to reservoir management and design. On average, the sum of drawdown and downstream emission including river reaches below dams and turbines, which is overlooked by most studies, represents the equivalent of 42% of the CO2 and 92% of CH4 that emit from hydroelectric reservoirs in China. Main drivers on GHG emission rates are summarized and highlight that water depth and stratification control CH4 flux, and CO2 flux shows significant negative relationships with pH, DO, and Chl-a. Based on our finding, a substantial revision of the global carbon emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs is warranted. PMID:25618308

  19. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  20. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  2. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  3. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  5. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  8. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  9. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  10. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  11. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric projects in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The discussion is designed to aid the developer in the determination of which permits, licenses, and laws of the state must be secured or complied with for the development of a project. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Specific sections that follow are: Massachusetts Water Law; Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations (by departments); Department of Public Utilities Regulation of Privately Owned Electric Utilities; Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company; Miscellaneous Legal Issues Relating to Low-Head Hydroelectric Power; and Financial Considerations.

  13. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  14. High voltage-high power components for large space power distribution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Space power components including a family of bipolar power switching transistors, fast switching power diodes, heat pipe cooled high frequency transformers and inductors, high frequency conduction cooled transformers, high power-high frequency capacitors, remote power controllers and rotary power transfer devices were developed. Many of these components such as the power switching transistors, power diodes and the high frequency capacitor are commercially available. All the other components were developed to the prototype level. The dc/dc series resonant converters were built to the 25 kW level.

  15. Gated Si nanowires for large thermoelectric power factors

    SciTech Connect

    Neophytou, Neophytos; Kosina, Hans

    2014-08-18

    We investigate the effect of electrostatic gating on the thermoelectric power factor of p-type Si nanowires (NWs) of up to 20 nm in diameter in the [100], [110], and [111] crystallographic transport orientations. We use atomistic tight-binding simulations for the calculation of the NW electronic structure, coupled to linearized Boltzmann transport equation for the calculation of the thermoelectric coefficients. We show that gated NW structures can provide ∼5× larger thermoelectric power factor compared to doped channels, attributed to their high hole phonon-limited mobility, as well as gating induced bandstructure modifications which further improve mobility. Despite the fact that gating shifts the charge carriers near the NW surface, surface roughness scattering is not strong enough to degrade the transport properties of the accumulated hole layer. The highest power factor is achieved for the [111] NW, followed by the [110], and finally by the [100] NW. As the NW diameter increases, the advantage of the gated channel is reduced. We show, however, that even at 20 nm diameters (the largest ones that we were able to simulate), a ∼3× higher power factor for gated channels is observed. Our simulations suggest that the advantage of gating could still be present in NWs with diameters of up to ∼40 nm.

  16. Achievable flatness in a large microwave power antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Achievable flatness for the microwave power transmission system antenna array was determined. Two configurations were analyzed in detail and evaluated as to their net potential misalignment. Manufacturing, joint slack, assembly, alignment and environmental aspects were considered. Approaches to each aspect were analyzed to minimize their contributions to distortions.

  17. Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

  18. Jet engine powers large, high-temperature wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, T. F.; Mulliken, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Wind tunnel for large component testing uses a jet engine with afterburner to provide high temperatures /1200 degrees to 2000 degrees F/ and controlled high velocity gas. This economical wind tunnel can accommodate parts ten feet by ten feet or larger, and is a useful technique for qualitative information.

  19. Low-Power Architectures for Large Radio Astronomy Correlators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.

  20. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  1. Large area solar power heliostat array for OSETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Corbin E.

    2001-08-01

    Current OSETI programs make use of optical telescopes with light collection areas on the order of 10 square meters or less. The small collection area limits the ultimate sensitivity achievable to low-intensity signals. However, solar power facilities such as the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) provide the potential for a much larger collecting area. The NSTTF is operated at by the Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories for research in solar power development and testing. The NSTTF site includes over 200 fully steerable mirrors (called heliostats) each providing 37 square meters of collecting area. This facility is currently being used at night for gamma-ray astronomy. The STACEE experiment makes use of 64 heliostats to detect nanosecond flashes of optical Cherenkov light associated with gamma-ray air showers from the top of the atmosphere. The STACEE experiment has been in operation since 1998 and has already detected gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula. In principle, the STACEE experiment can be operated with minor modifications to detect OSETI signals on the ground at a photon density of less than two optical photons per square meter per pulse. We summarize performance results from the STACEE experiment, and we discuss the sensitivity of a hypothetical future STACEE-OSETI experiment with particular attention to potential sources of background.

  2. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  3. Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratory research on aquatic effects of hydroelectric generation and assessment of research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an overview of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) research on how hydroelectric generation affects aquatic biota and environments. The major accomplishments of this research are described, and additional work needed to permit optimal use of available data is identified. The research goals are to: (1) identify impacts of hydroelectric generation, (2) provide guidance in allocating scarce water resources, and (3) develop techniques to avoid or reduce the impacts on aquatic communities or to compensate for unavoidable impacts. Through laboratory and field experiments, an understanding is being developed of the generic impacts of hydrogeneration. Because PNL is located near the Columbia River, which is extensively developed for hydroelectric generation, it is used as a natural laboratory for studying a large-scale operating system. Although the impacts studied result from a particular system of dams and operating procedures and occur within a specific ecosystem, the results of these studies have application at hydroelectric generating facilities throughout the United States.

  4. Large Area Dust Detector onboard Solar Power Sail Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    JAXA is aiming to launch the solar power sail engineering demonstrator to the outer planet region of the solar system like Jupiter and the Jovian Trojan asteroids in 2010's. Its interplanetary cruise is a relevant and rare opportunity to monitor physical properties that may be varied by heliocentric distances continuously such as solar wind, solar magnetosphere and micrometeoroid flux. We have been developing the largest but still light-weight dust detector ever to be onboard deep space probes since 2000. PVDF films of a few to 10's of micron thickness are attached as a small part of the solar sail membrane to count and time hypervelocity impacts by micrometeoroids larger than micron size. The first spaceflight test of this dust detector in the order of 100 cm2 detection area was conducted onboard SSSAT (Solar Sail Satellite) as the M-V sub-payload launched to LEO in September 2006. The second opportunity of this series will be the 4- channel impact sensors onboard Kagayaki nano-satellite as an H-IIA piggyback to be launched in 2008. Actual interplanetary measurements can be achieved by the Small Solar Power Sail Demonstrator that will go inside the orbit of the Earth (1 AU) close to Venus around 2010. On this spacecraft, the 8-channel PVDF sensors of about 1 m2 detection area will be onboard to test this system in the interplanetary operation and to hopefully measure dust flux anisotropy in the trailing edge of the Earth, heliocentric flux variance inside 1 AU, and opportunistic detections of possible cometary dust trails and flux enhancement near Venus. The sensors filter electronic, thermal and vibration noises and record time, peak hold value, and relax duration of signals of micrometeoroid impacts. When the full-size solar power sail mission goes beyond 1 AU passing the main asteroid belt to 5 AU in 2010's, this dust detector system will be onboard in the order of several m2 active area. It will also compare its results with infrared observation of zodiacal

  5. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All engines operating. 135.369 Section 135.369 Aeronautics... Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route...

  6. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. 135.371 Section 135.371 Aeronautics... Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route...

  7. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane from an airport located at an elevation...

  8. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  9. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  10. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  11. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  12. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  13. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  14. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  15. 77 FR 53177 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Transformers from the Republic of Korea: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 77 FR 40857... Determination, 77 FR 9204 (February 16, 2012) (Preliminary Determination). Continuation of Suspension of... dielectric power transformers (large power transformers) having a top power handling capacity greater than...

  16. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG.

  17. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  18. Non-intrusive measurement techniques for hydroelectric applicants

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, R.; Lemon, D.

    1995-12-31

    Non-intrusive acoustic methods for measuring flows, originally developed for oceanographic applications, are being used in and around hydroelectric dams. The acoustic methods can be categorized as either back-scattering or forward-scattering. The first, using the back-scattered signal, measures the Doppler shift of the returning echo to determine the along-beam component of flow. These instruments are generally called Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). Three beam solutions allow computation of the velocity components. Time gating the return provides a velocity profile with bin segments as small as 0.25 in. In areas of strong magnetic deviation, often the case beside large dams, a gyrocompass can be used to provide directional orientation. The velocity data can also be used to quickly compute river or channel discharge. Typical applications and several case studies are presented. The second acoustic technique is based on a forward-scattering phenomenon known as scintillation. This technique has been used on the Fraser River to monitor flows, and properties of the signal have recently been correlated with the biomass of upstream-migrating salmon. Acoustic scintillation flow measurements are well suited to applications with limited space in the along-flow direction. Applications to hydroelectric dams include turbine intake flow measurements, and a system has been developed to measure flow along fish diversion screens.

  19. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of AC power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of the Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three phase, balanced, AC system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, AC systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20 kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  20. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of ac power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. A.; Kankam, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three-phase, balanced, ac system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, ac systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20-kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of the present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  1. (Pre-feasibility analysis of a small hydroelectric project site)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-10-16

    I arrived in San Jose on September 25, 1989, to perform a pre-feasibility analysis of a small hydroelectric project site for a newly formed consortium of rural electric cooperatives. Site analysis included hydrologic analysis, soils and geologic analysis, route evaluations, and cost and power sales benefit analyses. The study was performed in collaboration with the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), sponsored by the Agency for International Development (AID) through the Renewable Energy Applications and Training project, implemented by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). I was in Costa Rica for a two week period to manage and coordinate the project development activities with the consortium assistance team, who were in Costa Rica during the same period of time.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  3. A critical view on the eco-friendliness of small hydroelectric installations.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, M; Tabassum-Abbasi; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2014-05-15

    Renewable energy sources are widely perceived as 'clean', 'green', and 'inexhaustible'. In recent years the spectre of global warming and ocean acidification, which has been primarily attributed to fossil fuel burning, has brought renewable energy at the forefront of most climate change mitigation strategies. There is strong advocacy for large-scale substitution of conventional energy sources with the renewables on the premise that such a move would substantially reduce environmental degradation and global warming. These sentiments are being echoed by scientists and policy makers as well as environmental activists all over the world. 'Small hydro', which generally represents hydroelectric power projects of capacities 25 MW or lower, is one of the renewable energy options which is believed to be clean and sustainable even as its bigger version, large hydro, is known to cause several strongly adverse environmental impacts. This paper brings out that the prevailing perception of 'eco-friendliness' of small hydro is mainly due to the fact that it has only been used to a very small extent so far. But once it is deployed at a scale comparable to fossil fuel use, the resulting impacts would be quite substantially adverse. The purpose is not to denegrade small hydro, less so to advocate use of fossil fuels. It, rather, is to bring home the point that a much more realistic and elaborate assessment of the likely direct as well as indirect impacts of extensive utilization of this energy source than has been done hitherto is necessary.

  4. A critical view on the eco-friendliness of small hydroelectric installations.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, M; Tabassum-Abbasi; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2014-05-15

    Renewable energy sources are widely perceived as 'clean', 'green', and 'inexhaustible'. In recent years the spectre of global warming and ocean acidification, which has been primarily attributed to fossil fuel burning, has brought renewable energy at the forefront of most climate change mitigation strategies. There is strong advocacy for large-scale substitution of conventional energy sources with the renewables on the premise that such a move would substantially reduce environmental degradation and global warming. These sentiments are being echoed by scientists and policy makers as well as environmental activists all over the world. 'Small hydro', which generally represents hydroelectric power projects of capacities 25 MW or lower, is one of the renewable energy options which is believed to be clean and sustainable even as its bigger version, large hydro, is known to cause several strongly adverse environmental impacts. This paper brings out that the prevailing perception of 'eco-friendliness' of small hydro is mainly due to the fact that it has only been used to a very small extent so far. But once it is deployed at a scale comparable to fossil fuel use, the resulting impacts would be quite substantially adverse. The purpose is not to denegrade small hydro, less so to advocate use of fossil fuels. It, rather, is to bring home the point that a much more realistic and elaborate assessment of the likely direct as well as indirect impacts of extensive utilization of this energy source than has been done hitherto is necessary. PMID:24332792

  5. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate

    PubMed Central

    Keith, David W.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Denkenberger, David C.; Lenschow, Donald H.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Pacala, Stephen; Rasch, Philip J.

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale use of wind power can alter local and global climate by extracting kinetic energy and altering turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. We report climate-model simulations that address the possible climatic impacts of wind power at regional to global scales by using two general circulation models and several parameterizations of the interaction of wind turbines with the boundary layer. We find that very large amounts of wind power can produce nonnegligible climatic change at continental scales. Although large-scale effects are observed, wind power has a negligible effect on global-mean surface temperature, and it would deliver enormous global benefits by reducing emissions of CO2 and air pollutants. Our results may enable a comparison between the climate impacts due to wind power and the reduction in climatic impacts achieved by the substitution of wind for fossil fuels. PMID:15536131

  6. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate.

    PubMed

    Keith, David W; Decarolis, Joseph F; Denkenberger, David C; Lenschow, Donald H; Malyshev, Sergey L; Pacala, Stephen; Rasch, Philip J

    2004-11-16

    Large-scale use of wind power can alter local and global climate by extracting kinetic energy and altering turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. We report climate-model simulations that address the possible climatic impacts of wind power at regional to global scales by using two general circulation models and several parameterizations of the interaction of wind turbines with the boundary layer. We find that very large amounts of wind power can produce nonnegligible climatic change at continental scales. Although large-scale effects are observed, wind power has a negligible effect on global-mean surface temperature, and it would deliver enormous global benefits by reducing emissions of CO(2) and air pollutants. Our results may enable a comparison between the climate impacts due to wind power and the reduction in climatic impacts achieved by the substitution of wind for fossil fuels.

  7. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and terrain. (c) A program manager or other person flying a turbine engine powered large transport... characteristics of that airplane, and considering other conditions such as landing aids and terrain. (3)...

  8. Thermal power supports Caracas system growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Venezuela plans to expand its power-generation program to meet a yearly increase in demand of 10 percent. Thermal power plants will produce most of the near-term power until the delayed hydroelectric projects are completed. Eight 400-MW units will be installed, three by the Caracas utility. The plant to be built at Tacoa, near Caracas, is a conventional design whose large size introduced a water-supply problem for the cooling and recovery condensation processes. Sea water is used and returned quickly over a wide dispersal pattern. Large air requirements for the systems are met with special air compressors. (DCK)

  9. Gem State Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 2952-Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    A draft environmental impact statement (EPA No. 820563D) describes the estimated effects of a proposed hydroelectric project on the Snake River in Idaho which would include a 4300 by 40 foot earthen dam, with dikes on either side, a power canal, powerhouse, and a 3.76-mile transmission line and facilities. Power generated at the site would serve Idaho Falls, which expects to double in population over the next 15 years. Local workers would fill the 250 construction jobs. The reservoir would diversify the area's recreational potential. Negative impacts would be the loss of 24,000 feet of the Snake River and associated aquatic habitat, which would affect fish populations. The higher water level would restrict larger boats to the upper reservoir. Inundation of two small dams would create some hazards to boaters and eliminate their power generating capacity. Legal mandates for the study were the DOE Organization Act of 1977, Federal Power Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, and National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  10. A novel photovoltaic power system which uses a large area concentrator mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrison, Anne; Fatemi, Navid

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been made of a novel photovoltaic power system concept. The system is composed of a small area, dense photovoltaic array, a large area solar concentrator, and a battery system for energy storage. The feasibility of such a system is assessed for space power applications. The orbital efficiency, specific power, mass, and area of the system are calculated under various conditions and compared with those for the organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic system proposed for Space Station. Near term and advanced large area concentrator photovoltaic systems not only compare favorably to solar dynamic systems in terms of performance but offer other benefits as well.

  11. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f....

  12. 14 CFR 135.377 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.377 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category...

  13. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category...

  14. 14 CFR 135.377 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.377 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category...

  15. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  16. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  18. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  19. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  20. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  1. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs. PMID:24943886

  2. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  3. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Ela, E.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  4. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  5. Contamination cannot explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F.; Bourdon, Austin

    2008-12-15

    Several anomalies appear to be present in the large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. One of these is a lack of large-scale power. Because the data otherwise match standard models extremely well, it is natural to consider perturbations of the standard model as possible explanations. We show that, as long as the source of the perturbation is statistically independent of the source of the primary CMB anisotropy, no such model can explain this large-scale power deficit. On the contrary, any such perturbation always reduces the probability of obtaining any given low value of large-scale power. We rigorously prove this result when the lack of large-scale power is quantified with a quadratic statistic, such as the quadrupole moment. When a statistic based on the integrated square of the correlation function is used instead, we present strong numerical evidence in support of the result. The result applies to models in which the geometry of spacetime is perturbed (e.g., an ellipsoidal universe) as well as explanations involving local contaminants, undiagnosed foregrounds, or systematic errors. Because the large-scale power deficit is arguably the most significant of the observed anomalies, explanations that worsen this discrepancy should be regarded with great skepticism, even if they help in explaining other anomalies such as multipole alignments.

  6. Interaction of large, high power systems with operational orbit charged particle environments. [large solar arrays in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts are presently being advanced for space systems to be used for such activities as manufacturing, earth observations, scientific exploration, power generation and human habitation, in locations ranging from low earth orbit (300-500 km) to geosynchronous orbit and beyond. Many of these systems concepts envision large structures and high power levels, and consequently higher operating voltages than have been used in space to date. The potential impact of interactions of space systems with their operational orbit charged particle environments on the systems' performance must be accounted for in the design process. A potentially hazardous spacecraft-environment interaction is discussed, namely the interaction of large high voltage systems with low energy (less than 50 eV) plasmas which can result in loss of power, and/or arcing. The impact of this class of interactions on system operation is most severe at low orbits where the ambient plasmas are densest. Results of experimental work and predictions of simple analytical models are presented and their implications for design of space systems are discussed.

  7. 2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE AT LEFT WITH BRIDGE OVER CANAL SPILLWAY IN FOREGROUND AND MILL COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  8. 11. VIEW NORTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE FIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE FIT WITH INTAKE TRASH RACK AT WATER LINE AND SWITCH GEAR ON TOP - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  9. Development of an automated electrical power subsystem testbed for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed two autonomous electrical power system breadboards. The first breadboard, the autonomously managed power system (AMPS), is a two power channel system featuring energy generation and storage and 24-kW of switchable loads, all under computer control. The second breadboard, the space station module/power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed, is a two-bus 120-Vdc model of the Space Station power subsystem featuring smart switchgear and multiple knowledge-based control systems. NASA/MSFC is combining these two breadboards to form a complete autonomous source-to-load power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS). LASEPS is a high-power, intelligent, physical electrical power system testbed which can be used to derive and test new power system control techniques, new power switching components, and new energy storage elements in a more accurate and realistic fashion. LASEPS has the potential to be interfaced with other spacecraft subsystem breadboards in order to simulate an entire space vehicle. The two individual systems, the combined systems (hardware and software), and the current and future uses of LASEPS are described.

  10. Modeling the vulnerability of hydroelectricity generation under drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Bizjack, M.; Espinoza, V.; Jared, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectricity generation highly relies on in-stream and reservoir water availability. The western US has recently experienced increasingly sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues. A large number of hydropower plants in Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) are located in California River Basin and Pacific Northwest River Basin. In supporting the WECC's long-term transmission planning, a drought impact analysis was performed with a series of data and modeling tools. This presentation will demonstrate a case study for California River Basin, which has recently experienced one of the worst droughts in its history. The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential risk for hydroelectricity generation due to projected drought scenarios in the medium-term (through the year of 2030). On the basis of historical droughts and the projected drought year for 2020-2030, three drought scenarios were identified. The hydrologic model was constructed and calibrated to simulate evapotranspiration, streamflow, soil moisture, irrigation as well as reservoir storage and discharge based on various dam operation rules and targets under three drought scenarios. The model also incorporates the projected future water demand in 2030 (e.g. municipal, agricultural, electricity generation). The projected monthly reservoir discharges were used to predict the monthly hydropower generation for hydropower plants with a capacity greater than 50 MW in California River Basin for each drought scenario. The results from this study identify spatial distribution of vulnerable hydropower plants and watersheds as well as the level of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios and provide valuable insights into future mitigation strategies and long-term planning.

  11. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs.

  12. 77 FR 16559 - Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation... imports from Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheading 8504.23.00 of the Harmonized... Commerce has defined the subject merchandise as ``large liquid dielectric power transformers (LPTs)...

  13. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  14. Design of a Large-scale Virtual Power Grid for Research Community

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Kou, Gefei; Liu, Yilu; Gracia, Jose R; King Jr, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This paper proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. The proposed model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  15. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  16. Flood forecasting for Tucurui Hydroelectrical Plant, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, S.I.; Basso, E.; Osorio, C.; Melo de Moraes, H.; Serrano, A.

    1986-04-01

    The construction of the Tucurui Hydroelectric Plant on the Tocantins River basin in Brazil requires flood forecasting to ensure the safety of the cofferdam. The latter has been initially designed for a flood with a return frequency of one in 25 years. Lack of adequate forecasting facilities during the earlier stages of construction has resulted in significant damages and construction delays. Statistical forecasting models were developed by Projeto de Hidrologia y Climatologie da Amazonia (PHCA) for the purpose of preventing further damage at the site. The application of these models during the 1980 flood season, when the highest flood on record occurred at the Tucurui site, proved of great assistance in preventing the flooding of the cofferdam. In conjunction with the development of these models a number of data collection platforms using data transmission through the GOES system were installed to provide the data required for forecasting.

  17. Overview of Small and Large-Scale Space Solar Power Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Howell, Joe; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John

    2006-01-01

    An overview of space solar power studies performed at the Boeing Company under contract with NASA will be presented. The major concepts to be presented are: 1. Power Plug in Orbit: this is a spacecraft that collects solar energy and distributes it to users in space using directed radio frequency or optical energy. Our concept uses solar arrays having the same dimensions as ISS arrays, but are assumed to be more efficient. If radiofrequency wavelengths are used, it will necessitate that the receiving satellite be equipped with a rectifying antenna (rectenna). For optical wavelengths, the solar arrays on the receiving satellite will collect the power. 2. Mars Clipper I Power Explorer: this is a solar electric Mars transfer vehicle to support human missions. A near-term precursor could be a high-power radar mapping spacecraft with self-transport capability. Advanced solar electric power systems and electric propulsion technology constitute viable elements for conducting human Mars missions that are roughly comparable in performance to similar missions utilizing alternative high thrust systems, with the one exception being their inability to achieve short Earth-Mars trip times. 3. Alternative Architectures: this task involves investigating alternatives to the traditional solar power satellite (SPS) to supply commercial power from space for use on Earth. Four concepts were studied: two using photovoltaic power generation, and two using solar dynamic power generation, with microwave and laser power transmission alternatives considered for each. All four architectures use geostationary orbit. 4. Cryogenic Propellant Depot in Earth Orbit: this concept uses large solar arrays (producing perhaps 600 kW) to electrolyze water launched from Earth, liquefy the resulting hydrogen and oxygen gases, and store them until needed by spacecraft. 5. Beam-Powered Lunar Polar Rover: a lunar rover powered by a microwave or laser beam can explore permanently shadowed craters near the lunar

  18. Decision Envelopment Analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Thompson, Russell G.

    1992-08-01

    Decision Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems, is used to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. The Lunar Power System (LPS) captures sunlight on the moon, converts it to microwaves and beams the power to receivers on earth that output electricity. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0 to 1, DEA reveals that LPS is at least ten times more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and -photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LPS is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.

  19. Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Q. Richardson

    2012-06-28

    Final Technical Report for the Recovery Act Project for the Installation of a Low Flow Unit at the Abiquiu Hydroelectric Facility. The Abiquiu hydroelectric facility existed with two each 6.9 MW vertical flow Francis turbine-generators. This project installed a new 3.1 MW horizontal flow low flow turbine-generator. The total plant flow range to capture energy and generate power increased from between 250 and 1,300 cfs to between 75 and 1,550 cfs. Fifty full time equivalent (FTE) construction jobs were created for this project - 50% (or 25 FTE) were credited to ARRA funding due to the ARRA 50% project cost match. The Abiquiu facility has increased capacity, increased efficiency and provides for an improved aquatic environment owing to installed dissolved oxygen capabilities during traditional low flow periods in the Rio Chama. A new powerhouse addition was constructed to house the new turbine-generator equipment.

  20. Induced hydroelectric energy generated by compressing a single-walled carbon nanotube hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhenquan; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Nan; Hashishin, Takeshi; Ohara, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for energy harvesting and storage have attracted much attention recently because SWCNTs have supercapacity performance. In this paper, we report a simple electromechanical approach for the generation of induced electrical potential by the compression of a SWCNT-triggered sodium deoxycholate hydrogel. This hydrogel enhances the electrical potential generated under compression, and this is mainly because of the generation of hydroelectric power by the flow of water over the SWCNTs. The induced voltage was 63.1 mV upon the compression of a 4% SWCNT hydrogel to a compression ratio of 50%, which is superior to values reported previously. The enhancement in hydroelectric potential increased with SWCNT loading in the hydrogel and with the compression ratio because of an enhancement of the impact frequency between water molecules and the SWCNTs.

  1. Effect of glacier ablation on the Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Long Lake and Crater Lake Basins, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloan, C.E.; Emery, P.A.; Fair, Diana

    1986-01-01

    Long Lake Basin in the Snettisham Project Area southeast of Juneau, Alaska, yields water used for the production of hydroelectric power. Development of adjacent Crater Lake is planned to increase the Project 's generating capacity. Estimates of the hydroelectric potential of the lakes are based on streamflow records which are influenced by glaciers that cover 25% of the combined basins. Analysis of streamflow records shows that the quality and extent of records in the area are sufficient to predict flow from the Crater Creek basin with a fairly high degree of confidence. Comparison of aerial photographs indicates that glacier ablation and recession have been continuous since at least 1929. Estimates of ice-volume change from photogrammetric measurements indicate that less than 2.5% of the average runoff from the basins of Long and Crater Lakes has been from reduction in glacier-ice storage. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Large-scale terrestrial solar cell power generation cost: A preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spakowski, A. E.; Shure, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    A cost study was made to assess the potential of the large-scale use of solar cell power for terrestrial applications. The incentive is the attraction of a zero-pollution source of power for wide-scale use. Unlike many other concepts for low-pollution power generation, even thermal pollution is avoided since only the incident solar flux is utilized. To provide a basis for comparison and a perspective for evaluation, the pertinent technology was treated in two categories: current and optimistic. Factors considered were solar cells, array assembly, power conditioning, site preparation, buildings, maintenance, and operation. The capital investment was assumed to be amortized over 30 years. The useful life of the solar cell array was assumed to be 10 years, and the cases of zero and 50-percent performance deg-radation were considered. Land costs, taxes, and profits were not included in this study because it was found too difficult to provide good generalized estimates of these items. On the basis of the factors considered, it is shown that even for optimistic projections of technology, electric power from large-sclae terrestrial use of solar cells is approximately two to three orders of magnitude more costly than current electric power generation from either fossil or nuclear fuel powerplants. For solar cell power generation to be a viable competitor on a cost basis, technological breakthroughs would be required in both solar cell and array fabrication and in site preparation.

  3. Large-scale data analysis of power grid resilience across multiple US service regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chuanyi; Wei, Yun; Mei, Henry; Calzada, Jorge; Carey, Matthew; Church, Steve; Hayes, Timothy; Nugent, Brian; Stella, Gregory; Wallace, Matthew; White, Joe; Wilcox, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Severe weather events frequently result in large-scale power failures, affecting millions of people for extended durations. However, the lack of comprehensive, detailed failure and recovery data has impeded large-scale resilience studies. Here, we analyse data from four major service regions representing Upstate New York during Super Storm Sandy and daily operations. Using non-stationary spatiotemporal random processes that relate infrastructural failures to recoveries and cost, our data analysis shows that local power failures have a disproportionally large non-local impact on people (that is, the top 20% of failures interrupted 84% of services to customers). A large number (89%) of small failures, represented by the bottom 34% of customers and commonplace devices, resulted in 56% of the total cost of 28 million customer interruption hours. Our study shows that extreme weather does not cause, but rather exacerbates, existing vulnerabilities, which are obscured in daily operations.

  4. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment. PMID:26846239

  5. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment.

  6. 77 FR 42332 - Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... investigation (77 FR 16559, March 21, 2012). The Commission is revising its schedule as follows: the Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation AGENCY:...

  7. Guidance for a large tabletop exercise for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, E.D.; Bates, E.F.; Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    Tabletop exercises are held to discuss issues related to the response of organizations to an emergency event. This document describes in task format the planning, conduct, and reporting of lessons learned for a large interagency tabletop. A sample scenario, focus areas, and discussion questions based on a simulated accident at a commercial nuclear power plant are provided.

  8. Sandia Laboratories in-house activities in support of solar thermal large power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mar, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of thermal energy storage subsystems for solar thermal large power applications is described. The emphasis is on characterizing the behavior of molten nitrate salts with regard to thermal decomposition, environmental interactions, and corrosion. Electrochemical techniques to determine the ionic species in the melt and for use in real time studies of corrosion are also briefly discussed.

  9. Detectability of large-scale power suppression in the galaxy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibelyou, Cameron; Huterer, Dragan; Fang, Wenjuan

    2010-12-01

    Suppression in primordial power on the Universe’s largest observable scales has been invoked as a possible explanation for large-angle observations in the cosmic microwave background, and is allowed or predicted by some inflationary models. Here we investigate the extent to which such a suppression could be confirmed by the upcoming large-volume redshift surveys. For definiteness, we study a simple parametric model of suppression that improves the fit of the vanilla ΛCDM model to the angular correlation function measured by WMAP in cut-sky maps, and at the same time improves the fit to the angular power spectrum inferred from the maximum likelihood analysis presented by the WMAP team. We find that the missing power at large scales, favored by WMAP observations within the context of this model, will be difficult but not impossible to rule out with a galaxy redshift survey with large-volume (˜100Gpc3). A key requirement for success in ruling out power suppression will be having redshifts of most galaxies detected in the imaging survey.

  10. Teaching Methodology in a "Large Power Distance" Classroom: A South Korean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at South Korea as an example of a collectivist society having a rather large power distance dimension value. In a traditional Korean classroom the teacher is at the top of the classroom hierarchy, while the students are the passive participants. Gender and age play a role in the hierarchy between students themselves. Teaching…

  11. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  12. Efficient Bayesian mixed model analysis increases association power in large cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Tucker, George; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Finucane, Hilary K; Salem, Rany M; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Berger, Bonnie; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models are a powerful statistical tool for identifying genetic associations and avoiding confounding. However, existing methods are computationally intractable in large cohorts, and may not optimize power. All existing methods require time cost O(MN2) (where N = #samples and M = #SNPs) and implicitly assume an infinitesimal genetic architecture in which effect sizes are normally distributed, which can limit power. Here, we present a far more efficient mixed model association method, BOLT-LMM, which requires only a small number of O(MN)-time iterations and increases power by modeling more realistic, non-infinitesimal genetic architectures via a Bayesian mixture prior on marker effect sizes. We applied BOLT-LMM to nine quantitative traits in 23,294 samples from the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS) and observed significant increases in power, consistent with simulations. Theory and simulations show that the boost in power increases with cohort size, making BOLT-LMM appealing for GWAS in large cohorts. PMID:25642633

  13. Tapered large-core 976 nm Yb-doped fiber laser with 10 W output power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, M.; Jäger, M.; Grimm, S.; Hoh, D.; Jetschke, S.; Becker, M.; Hartung, A.; Bartelt, H.

    2014-04-01

    We report on a tapered large-core Yb fiber laser operating at 976 nm emission wavelength. It was realized using a high-numerical aperture large-core fiber with 126 μm core diameter, which was fabricated by powder-sinter technology and shows a very homogeneous step-index profile. The end of the fiber is tapered down to match a single-mode fiber containing a fiber Bragg grating. Using the benefits of core-pumping and the feedback of the spliced fiber Bragg grating, we achieved efficient pump light absorption and wavelength stable 976 nm lasing with single-mode performance. We could demonstrate 10 W laser power out of a 10 μm fiber core with a slope efficiency of 31% with respect to the launched pump power. The presented device is well-suited for fiber-coupled pumping of amplifiers for high peak power.

  14. Crystal growth and application of large size YCOB crystal for high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Anhua; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yanqing; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa4O(BO3)3 (YCOB) is a novel non-linear optical crystal possessing good thermal, mechanical and nonlinear optical properties. It is regards the important candidate frequency conversion material for the high-average power laser system. In this work, we described our effort to achieve the successful growth of large size YCOB single crystals, and the crystal quality of large size YCOB crystal grown by the Bridgman method. The OPCPA application of YCOB element was also introduced simply. The results confirmed that Bridgman technology can be used for the growth of large size YCOB crystal as an alternative to Czochralski method.

  15. Design and analysis of large-core multitrench channel waveguide for high-power applications.

    PubMed

    Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2015-07-01

    We present a multitrench leaky channel waveguide design that supports effective single-mode operation even with large-core size. The proposed waveguide structure has a uniform rectangular core and a geometrically shaped trench-assisted cladding in such a way that all the confined modes become leaky. The effective single-mode operation is achieved by choosing the appropriate geometrical parameters that introduce very large leakage losses for higher-order modes with very low leakage losses for fundamental mode. A power law profile for cladding geometry is considered to explore the effect of trenches on the effective single-mode operation. The finite element method is used to calculate the leakage losses of the modes. Our numerical results show that the waveguide ensures extended single-mode operation in the wavelength range of 1.25-2.0 μm with the rectangular core area as large as 100  μm2. Such a large-core-area waveguide structure efficiently suppresses unwanted nonlinear optical effects. A proposed channel waveguide structure with a large core size is suitable for high-power delivery devices such as high-power waveguide lasers and amplifiers.

  16. Interactions between large space power systems and low-Earth-orbit plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    There is a growing tendency to plan space missions that will incorporate very large space power systems. These space power systems must function in the space plasma environment, which can impose operational limitations. As the power output increases, the operating voltage also must increase and this voltage, exposed at solar array interconnects, interacts with the local plasma. The implications of such interactions are considered. The available laboratory data for biased array segment tests are reviewed to demonstrate the basic interactions considered. A data set for a floating high voltage array test was used to generate approximate relationships for positive and negative current collection from plasmas. These relationships were applied to a hypothetical 100 kW power system operating in a 400 km, near equatorial orbit. It was found that discharges from the negative regions of the array are the most probable limiting factor in array operation.

  17. Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeman, Matthew R.

    More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from operating reserves used to backup large-scale wind power.

    PubMed

    Fripp, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Wind farms provide electricity with no direct emissions. However, their output cannot be forecasted perfectly, even a short time ahead. Consequently, power systems with large amounts of wind power may need to keep extra fossil-fired generators turned on and ready to provide power if wind farm output drops unexpectedly. In this work, I introduce a new model for estimating the uncertainty in short-term wind power forecasts, and how this uncertainty varies as wind power is aggregated over larger regions. I then use this model to estimate the reserve requirements in order to compensate for wind forecast errors to a 99.999% level of reliability, and an upper limit on the amount of carbon dioxide that would be emitted if natural gas power plants are used for this purpose. I find that for regions larger than 500 km across, operating reserves will undo 6% or less of the greenhouse gas emission savings that would otherwise be expected from wind power.

  19. 3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. 6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. 2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  5. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  6. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  7. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  8. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  9. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  10. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an...

  11. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an...

  12. Susitna Hydroelectric Project: terrestrial environmental workshop and preliminary simulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everitt, Robert R.; Sonntag, Nicholas C.; Auble, Gregory T.; Roelle, James E.; Gazey, William

    1982-01-01

    The technical feasibility, economic viability, and environmental impacts of a hydroelectric development project in the Susitna River Basin are being studied by Acres American, Inc. on behalf of the Alaska Power Authority. As part of these studies, Acres American recently contracted LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc. to coordinate the terrestrial environmental studies being performed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and, as subcontractors to LGL, several University of Alaska research groups. LGL is responsible for further quantifying the potential impacts of the project on terrestrial wildlife and vegetation, and for developing a plan to mitigate adverse impacts on the terrestrial environment. The impact assessment and mitigation plan will be included as part of a license application to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) scheduled for the first quarter of 1983. The quantification of impacts, mitigation planning, and design of future research is being organized using a computer simulation modelling approach. Through a series of workshops attended by researchers, resource managers, and policy-makers, a computer model is being developed and refined for use in the quantification of impacts on terrestrial wildlife and vegetation, and for evaluating different mitigation measures such as habitat enhancement and the designation of replacement lands to be managed by wildlife habitat. This report describes the preliminary model developed at the first workshop held August 23 -27, 1982 in Anchorage.

  13. Report on siphon penstocks for hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report on the use of siphon penstocks for hydroelectric installations has been prepared under DOE Contract DE-AC07-82ID12356 by Acres International Corporation and draws extensively on the information and data assembled by the following organizations: The purpose of the study was to review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance considerations for siphon penstocks. The discussions, data, and information presented are based on experiences with the following operational siphon penstock plants: A general description of siphon penstocks is presented in Section 2. The benefits and drawbacks of siphon penstocks are summarized in Section 3. Sections 4, 5, 6, and 7 contain a review of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance considerations. The comparative costs of siphon penstocks versus conventional designs are discussed in Section 8. Recommendations for future design, based on the experiences with the above listed projects, are presented in Section 9. Section 10 contains the conclusions which have been made from the review of siphon penstock installations.

  14. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Corren, Dean; Colby, Jonathan; Adonizio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  15. Mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in China's high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    SG-III, a high-power laser facility of China, is constructed to produce 0.18MJ energy for physical experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Each laser beam requires the ability to align to a millimeter-sized target with a precision of 30 μm (RMS) and the single-beam energy will be up to 3.75 KJ. Arrayed along each beam-path, hundreds of optics must be positioned to stringent tolerances. Therefore, this paper introduces the approaches used by engineers to overcome the technical challenges on precise mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in china's high power laser facility.

  16. Environmental Impacts From the Installation and Operation of Large-scale Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.; Turney, Damon

    2011-04-23

    Large-scale solar power plants are being developed at a rapid rate, and are setting up to use thousands or millions of acres of land globally. The environmental issues related to the installation and operation phases of such facilities have not, so far, been addressed comprehensively in the literature. Here we identify and appraise 32 impacts from these phases, under the themes of land use intensity, human health and well-being, plant and animal life, geohydrological resources, and climate change. Our appraisals assume that electricity generated by new solar power facilities will displace electricity from traditional U.S. generation technologies. Altogether we find 22 of the considered 32 impacts to be beneficial. Of the remaining 10 impacts, 4 are neutral, and 6 require further research before they can be appraised. None of the impacts are negative relative to traditional power generation. We rank the impacts in terms of priority, and find all the high-priority impacts to be beneficial. In quantitative terms, large-scale solar power plants occupy the same or less land per kW h than coal power plant life cycles. Removal of forests to make space for solar power causes CO{sub 2} emissions as high as 36 g CO{sub 2} kW h{sup -1}, which is a significant contribution to the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of solar power, but is still low compared to CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity that are about 1100 g CO{sub 2} kW h{sup -1}.

  17. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Microwave dynamic large signal waveform characterization of advanced InGaP HBT for power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixin, Zhao; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2009-12-01

    In wireless mobile communications and wireless local area networks (WLAN), advanced InGaP HBT with power amplifiers are key components. In this paper, the microwave large signal dynamic waveform characteristics of an advanced InGaP HBT are investigated experimentally for 5.8 GHz power amplifier applications. The microwave large signal waveform distortions at various input power levels, especially at large signal level, are investigated and the reasons are analyzed. The output power saturation is also explained. These analyses will be useful for power amplifier designs.

  19. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  20. Large-aperture YCOB crystal growth for frequency conversion in the high average power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yiting; Chai, Bruce H. T.; Ebbers, C. A.; Liao, Z. M.; Schaffers, K. I.; Thelin, P.

    2006-04-01

    Yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa4O(BO3)3 (YCOB) is a novel non-linear optical crystal possessing good thermal, mechanical and non-linear optical properties. Large-aperture YCOB crystals with 75 mm diameter were grown for high-average power frequency conversion on the mercury laser system. The growth morphology (included facet and spiral growth), cracking and inclusions in the as-grown crystal boule were discussed as the critical problem for large-aperture YCOB crystal growth. This can be minimized through modification of the growth program, including pulling rate, separation procedure, and cooling program. High-average power frequency conversion of the mercury laser using YCOB has been demonstrated, and experimental validation of YCOB material yields 50% conversion at 10 Hz has been achieved.

  1. Theoretical and experimental power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-09-01

    A method for calculating the output power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines is presented. Modifications to the airfoil characteristics and the momentum portion of classical blade element-momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident at low tip-speed ratios where aerodynamic stall can occur as the blade experiences high angles of attack. Output power calculated using the modified theory is compared with measured data for several large wind turbines. These wind turbines range in size from the DOE/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 (38 m rotor diameter) to the 2000 kW Mod-1 (61 m rotor diameter). The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data from these machines.

  2. Theoretical and experimental power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Viterna, L A; Janetzke, D C

    1982-09-01

    A method for calculating the output power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines is presented. Modifications to the airfoil characteristics and the momentum portion of classical blade element-momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident at low tip speed ratios where aerodynamic stall can occur as the blade experiences high angles of attack. Output power calculated using the modified theory is compared with measured data for several large wind turbines. These wind turbines range in size from the DOE/NASA 100 kW Mod-O (38 m rotor diameter) to the 2000 kW Mod-1 (61 m rotor diameter). The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data from these machines.

  3. Theoretical and experimental power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A method for calculating the output power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines is presented. Modifications to the airfoil characteristics and the momentum portion of classical blade element-momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident at low tip-speed ratios where aerodynamic stall can occur as the blade experiences high angles of attack. Output power calculated using the modified theory is compared with measured data for several large wind turbines. These wind turbines range in size from the DOE/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 (38 m rotor diameter) to the 2000 kW Mod-1 (61 m rotor diameter). The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data from these machines.

  4. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  5. Higher order corrections to the large scale matter power spectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2008-10-15

    We present the first systematic derivation of the one-loop correction to the large scale matter power spectrum in a mixed cold + hot dark matter cosmology with subdominant massive neutrino hot dark matter. Starting with the equations of motion for the density and velocity fields, we derive perturbative solutions to these quantities and construct recursion relations for the interaction kernels, noting and justifying all approximations along the way. We find interaction kernels similar to those for a cold dark matter only universe, but with additional dependences on the neutrino energy density fraction f{sub {nu}} and the linear growth functions of the incoming wavevectors. Compared with the f{sub {nu}} = 0 case, the one-loop corrected matter power spectrum for a mixed dark matter cosmology exhibits a decrease in small scale power exceeding the canonical {approx}8f{sub {nu}} suppression predicted by linear theory, a feature also seen in multi-component N-body simulations.

  6. Vulnerability of the large-scale future smart electric power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiruzzaman, A. B. M.; Pota, H. R.; Akter, Most. Nahida

    2014-11-01

    The changing power flow pattern of the power system, with inclusion of large-scale renewable energy sources in the distribution side of the network, has been modeled by complex network framework based bidirectional graph. The bidirectional graph accommodates the reverse power flowing back from the distribution side to the grid in the model as a reverse edge connecting two nodes. The capacity of the reverse edge is equal to the capacity of the existing edge between the nodes in the forward directional nominal graph. Increased path in the combined model, built to facilitate grid reliability and efficiency, may serve as a bottleneck in practice with removal of certain percentage of nodes or edges. The effect of removal of critical elements has been analyzed in terms of increased path length, connectivity loss, load loss, and number of overloaded lines.

  7. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  8. Interaction of large, high power systems with operational orbit charged particle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1977-01-01

    A potentially hazardous spacecraft environment interaction is discussed. The interaction of large high voltage systems with low energy (less than 50 eV) plasmas which can result in loss of power and/or arching was examined. The impact of this class of interactions where the ambient operation is most severe at low orbits where the ambient plasmas are densest. Results of experimental work and predictions of simple analytical models were presented and their implications for design of space systems were reviewed.

  9. Maximal Aerobic and Anaerobic Power Generation in Large Crocodiles versus Mammals: Implications for Dinosaur Gigantothermy

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic. PMID:23861968

  10. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, T. Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G.; Shinya, T.

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.

  11. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutoh, T.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; , T., Ii; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G.; Shinya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 1019 m-3, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 1019 m-3.

  12. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  13. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects, and (6) limits and overloads.

  14. Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored.

    PubMed

    Brown, T E; Beightol, L A; Koh, J; Eckberg, D L

    1993-11-01

    Frequency-domain analyses of R-R intervals are used widely to estimate levels of autonomic neural traffic to the human heart. Because respiration modulates autonomic activity, we determined for nine healthy subjects the influence of breathing frequency and tidal volume on R-R interval power spectra (fast-Fourier transform method). We also surveyed published literature to determine current practices in this burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. Supine subjects breathed at rates of 6, 7.5, 10, 15, 17.1, 20, and 24 breaths/min and with nominal tidal volumes of 1,000 and 1,500 ml. R-R interval power at respiratory and low (0.06-0.14 Hz) frequencies declined significantly as breathing frequency increased. R-R interval power at respiratory frequencies was significantly greater at a tidal volume of 1,500 than 1,000 ml. Neither breathing frequency nor tidal volume influenced average R-R intervals significantly. Our review of studies reporting human R-R interval power spectra showed that 51% of the studies controlled respiratory rate, 11% controlled tidal volume, and 11% controlled both respiratory rate and tidal volume. The major implications of our analyses are that breathing parameters strongly influence low-frequency as well as respiratory frequency R-R interval power spectra and that this influence is largely ignored in published research.

  15. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects; and (6) limits and overloads.

  16. Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Koh, J.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Frequency-domain analyses of R-R intervals are used widely to estimate levels of autonomic neural traffic to the human heart. Because respiration modulates autonomic activity, we determined for nine healthy subjects the influence of breathing frequency and tidal volume on R-R interval power spectra (fast-Fourier transform method). We also surveyed published literature to determine current practices in this burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. Supine subjects breathed at rates of 6, 7.5, 10, 15, 17.1, 20, and 24 breaths/min and with nominal tidal volumes of 1,000 and 1,500 ml. R-R interval power at respiratory and low (0.06-0.14 Hz) frequencies declined significantly as breathing frequency increased. R-R interval power at respiratory frequencies was significantly greater at a tidal volume of 1,500 than 1,000 ml. Neither breathing frequency nor tidal volume influenced average R-R intervals significantly. Our review of studies reporting human R-R interval power spectra showed that 51% of the studies controlled respiratory rate, 11% controlled tidal volume, and 11% controlled both respiratory rate and tidal volume. The major implications of our analyses are that breathing parameters strongly influence low-frequency as well as respiratory frequency R-R interval power spectra and that this influence is largely ignored in published research.

  17. Fuzzy learning decomposition for the scheduling of hydroelectric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, M.; Bigras, P.; Turgeon, A.; Duquette, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear multivariable fitting model to decompose the optimal policies obtained by dynamic programming of a unique aggregated reservoir. The nonlinear functions are generated using radial basis functions (RBF) neural networks. In this method the potential energy of all the reservoirs in the hydropower system is added to form one equivalent reservoir. The operating policy of the equivalent reservoir is determined by stochastic dynamic programming, and finally the operating rules of each reservoir are determined using RBF neural networks. To improve the multivariable representation of the data, a series of piecewise RBF neural networks is determined using clustering analysis. A fuzzy clustering approach is used to determine the RBF`s parameters. This approach has the advantages of being fast and simple to implement with well-established convergence properties. It also has a good representation of the covariance matrix, since all the data belong to all the classes at the same time with different membership grades. A comparison with the back propagation learning and principal components techniques is also reported for Quebec`s La Grande River installations. As a result, the proposed approach gives satisfactory operating rules compared with principal component analysis, and the CPU time is reduced by a factor of 15 to 20 compared with the back propagation technique.

  18. The further environmental development of Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project reservoir in Kozani prefecture and its contribution to the life quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saounatsou, Chara; Georgi, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project was constructed in 1974 and it has been operating since on the Aliakmonas River, Kozani prefecture, by the Greek Public Power Corporation. The construction of the Ilarion Hydroelectric Project, upstream from the Polyphyto Reservoir, has been recently completed and will start operating in the near future. Apart from hydroelectric power production, the Polyphyto reservoir provides flood control to the areas below the Polyphyto dam. It is also used to manage water provision to the city of Thessaloniki and adjacent agricultural plain, providing at the same time cooling water to the Thermo Electric Projects in Ptolemaida. The Polyphyto reservoir has potential for further development as an economic fulcrum to the region in which is located. The Kozani and Servia-Velvendos Municipalities have proceeded to the construction of several touristic, nautical - athletic and fishing projects. In order to promote such developments, while preserving the artificial wetland, flora and fauna of the Polyphyto Reservoir, it is important to reduce the fluctuation of the reservoir elevation which according to its technical characteristics is 21m. The aim of this paper is to propose the combined operation of the two Hydroelectric Project reservoirs to satisfy all the present Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project functions and to reduce the annual fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir. The HEC-5, Version 8 / 1998 computer model was used in our calculations, as developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the US Army Corps of Engineers for reservoir operation simulation. Five possible operation scenarios are tested in this paper to show that the present fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir can be reduced, with some limitations, except during dry weather periods.

  19. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  20. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

  1. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  2. 200 MW hydroelectric generator stator surface temperature monitoring using a DTS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzadri, Felipe; Bazzo, João. P.; Martelli, Cicero; Silva, Erlon V.; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2015-09-01

    A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system is used to monitor the surface temperature of a high power hydroelectric generator. Two sensing fibers were installed; one is bare fiber whilst the other is jacketed with a Teflon® protection, in two distinct configurations: first, they were fixed parallel to the stator bars; secondly, they were wrapped around the stator surface. The fibers were embedded on the stator surface by using an electrically insulating resin which does not interfere with the generator operation. This technique can be used as a predictive maintenance tool.

  3. Large Space Telescopes Using Fresnel Lens for Power Beaming, Astronomy and Sail Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J T

    2002-10-15

    The concept of using Fresnel optics as part of power beaming, astronomy or sail systems has been suggested by several authors. The primary issues for large Fresnel optics are the difficulties in fabricating these structures and deploying them in space and for astronomy missions the extremely narrow frequency range of these optics. In proposals where the telescope is used to transmit narrow frequency laser power, the narrow bandwidth has not been an issue. In applications where the optic is to be used as part of a telescope, only around 10{sup -5} to limited frequency response of a Fresnel optic is addressed by the use of a corrective optic that will broaden the frequency response of the telescope by three or four orders of magnitude. This broadening will dramatically increase the optical power capabilities of the system and will allow some spectroscopy studies over a limited range. Both the fabrication of Fresnel optics as large as five meters and the use of corrector optics for telescopes have been demonstrated at LLNL. For solar and laser sail missions the use of Fresnel amplitude zone plates made of very thin sail material is also discussed.

  4. PowerGrid - A Computation Engine for Large-Scale Electric Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chika Nwankpa

    2011-01-31

    This Final Report discusses work on an approach for analog emulation of large scale power systems using Analog Behavioral Models (ABMs) and analog devices in PSpice design environment. ABMs are models based on sets of mathematical equations or transfer functions describing the behavior of a circuit element or an analog building block. The ABM concept provides an efficient strategy for feasibility analysis, quick insight of developing top-down design methodology of large systems and model verification prior to full structural design and implementation. Analog emulation in this report uses an electric circuit equivalent of mathematical equations and scaled relationships that describe the states and behavior of a real power system to create its solution trajectory. The speed of analog solutions is as quick as the responses of the circuit itself. Emulation therefore is the representation of desired physical characteristics of a real life object using an electric circuit equivalent. The circuit equivalent has within it, the model of a real system as well as the method of solution. This report presents a methodology of the core computation through development of ABMs for generators, transmission lines and loads. Results of ABMs used for the case of 3, 6, and 14 bus power systems are presented and compared with industrial grade numerical simulators for validation.

  5. Large Parabolic Dish collectors with small gas-turbine, Stirling engine or photovoltaic power conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlisch, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.; Simon, M.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison for different solar thermal power plants is presented and demonstrates that the large parabolic dish in association with a gas turbine or a Sterling engine could be a competitive system design in the net power range of 50-1000KW. The important advantages of the Large Parabolic Dish concept compared to the Farm and Tower concept are discussed: concentration ratios up to 5000 and uniform heat flux distribution throughout the day which allow very high receiver temperatures and therefor high receiver efficiency to operate effectively Stirling motors or small gas turbines in the mentioned power range with an overall efficiency of 20 to 30%. The high focal plane concentration leads to the efficient use of ceramic materials for receivers of the next generation, applicable in temperature ranges up to 1,300 /sup 0/C for energy converters. Besides the production of electricity, the system can supply process heat in the temperature range of 100 to 400 /sup 0/C as waste heat from the gas turbo converter and heat at temperature levels from 500 to 900 /sup 0/C (1300 /sup 0/C) directly out of the receiver.

  6. 76 FR 65212 - Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3935). At the request of... Employment and Training Administration Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems Division, Including On- Site... Adjustment Assistance on November 2, 2009, applicable to Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems...

  7. Advances in solid state switchgear technology for large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    High voltage solid state remote power controllers (RPC's) and the required semiconductor power switches to provide baseline technology for large, high power distribution systems in the space station, all electric airplane and other advanced aerospace applications were developed. The RPC's were developed for dc voltages from 28 to 1200 V and ac voltages of 115, 230, and 440 V at frequencies of 400 Hz to 20 kHz. The benefits and operation of solid state RPC's and highlights of several developments to bring the RPC to technology readiness for future aerospace needs are examined. The 28 V dc Space Shuttle units, three RPC types at 120 V dc, two at 270/300 V dc, two at 230 V ac and several high power RPC models at voltages up to 1200 V dc with current ratings up to 100 A are reviewed. New technology programs to develop a new family of (DI)2 semiconductor switches and 20 kHz, 440 V ac RPC's are described.

  8. Asymptotically Optimal Transmission Policies for Large-Scale Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    I. Ch. Paschalidis; W. Lai; D. Starobinski

    2007-02-01

    We consider wireless sensor networks with multiple gateways and multiple classes of traffic carrying data generated by different sensory inputs. The objective is to devise joint routing, power control and transmission scheduling policies in order to gather data in the most efficient manner while respecting the needs of different sensing tasks (fairness). We formulate the problem as maximizing the utility of transmissions subject to explicit fairness constraints and propose an efficient decomposition algorithm drawing upon large-scale decomposition ideas in mathematical programming. We show that our algorithm terminates in a finite number of iterations and produces a policy that is asymptotically optimal at low transmission power levels. Furthermore, we establish that the utility maximization problem we consider can, in principle, be solved in polynomial time. Numerical results show that our policy is near-optimal, even at high power levels, and far superior to the best known heuristics at low power levels. We also demonstrate how to adapt our algorithm to accommodate energy constraints and node failures. The approach we introduce can efficiently determine near-optimal transmission policies for dramatically larger problem instances than an alternative enumeration approach.

  9. Mineral composition of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Mantilla, Enrique; Plana, Felicia

    The present work is a mineralogical study of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station in NE Spain. After a mineralogical study of the fly ash sampled in the electrostatic precipitators of the power station, several chemical and mineralogical patterns of the fly ash were employed as tracers of the power station emissions. At the same time, the study focused on the downwind evolution of secondary particulate matter, especially particulate sulphate. The studies on the mineralogy of air borne dust allowed us to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic particles. The major mineral phases identified in the samples studied were: gypsum, calcite, clay minerals (kaolinite, clinochlore and illite), quartz, talc and hematite. In addition to these mineral phases which are frequently present in the atmospheric particulate matter of the studied area, other mineral phases, such as feldspars, mullite, and copper sulphates, were detected in minor proportions. The results show that some mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the atmospheric particulate matter may be used as tracers of the influence of coal-fired power plant emissions. These characteristics include spherical morphologies, aluminosilicate glass, mullite, hematite and sulphate-fly ash associations. The possible buffering effect of atmospheric Ca-bearing minerals to neutralize the sulphate deposition is investigated.

  10. An Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Tail Waters of Hydroelectric Dams and the Implications for Small-Scale Hydropower Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Kumar, K. D.; Solomon, Jean A.; Hildebrand, Stephen G.

    1983-08-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting small-scale hydropower development in the United States is water quality degradation. The extent of this potential problem, as exemplified by low dissolved oxygen concentrations in reservoir tail waters, was analyzed by pairing operating hydroelectric sites with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream U.S. Geological Survey water quality stations. These data were used to calculate probabilities of noncompliance (PNC's), that is, the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. The continental states were grouped into eight regions based on geographic and climatic similarities. Most regions had higher mean PNC's in summer than in winter, and summer PNC's were greater for large-scale than for small-scale hydropower facilities. Cumulative probability distributions of PNC also indicated that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tail waters of operating hydroelectric dams are phenomena largely confined to sites with large-scale facilities.

  11. A Decentralized Multivariable Robust Adaptive Voltage and Speed Regulator for Large-Scale Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okou, Francis A.; Akhrif, Ouassima; Dessaint, Louis A.; Bouchard, Derrick

    2013-05-01

    This papter introduces a decentralized multivariable robust adaptive voltage and frequency regulator to ensure the stability of large-scale interconnnected generators. Interconnection parameters (i.e. load, line and transormer parameters) are assumed to be unknown. The proposed design approach requires the reformulation of conventiaonal power system models into a multivariable model with generator terminal voltages as state variables, and excitation and turbine valve inputs as control signals. This model, while suitable for the application of modern control methods, introduces problems with regards to current design techniques for large-scale systems. Interconnection terms, which are treated as perturbations, do not meet the common matching condition assumption. A new adaptive method for a certain class of large-scale systems is therefore introduces that does not require the matching condition. The proposed controller consists of nonlinear inputs that cancel some nonlinearities of the model. Auxiliary controls with linear and nonlinear components are used to stabilize the system. They compensate unknown parametes of the model by updating both the nonlinear component gains and excitation parameters. The adaptation algorithms involve the sigma-modification approach for auxiliary control gains, and the projection approach for excitation parameters to prevent estimation drift. The computation of the matrix-gain of the controller linear component requires the resolution of an algebraic Riccati equation and helps to solve the perturbation-mismatching problem. A realistic power system is used to assess the proposed controller performance. The results show that both stability and transient performance are considerably improved following a severe contingency.

  12. Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Alaska second stage development, Crater lake. Final foundation report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-04

    The important geologic features and methods used to construct the Crater Lake stage of the Snettisham Hydroelectric project, built between 1985 and 1989, are discussed. The project added 31 megawatts of non-polluting, renewable electric power for Juneau, Alaska and the surrounding area. Features of the report include the power tunnel and access adits, penstock excavation, surge shaft, gate shaft and lake top. Construction aspects include the general geology, design features, construction methods, geologic conditions encountered, ground support requirements, grouting, instrumentation and tunnel filling. Foundation conditions for the Crater Lake status were excellent, permitting the power and penstock tunnel and shafts to be constructed essentially unlined. The basic rock type throughout the project is a high-quality, quartz diorite gneiss with randomly spaced, subparallel basalt dikes.... Unlined rock tunnels, Power tunnel, Penstocks, Lake tap, Surge shaft.

  13. Feasibility of Large High-Powered Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles: Issues and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capadona, Lynn A.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Manzella, David H.; Christie, Robert J.; Hickman, Tyler A.; Schneidegger, Robert J.; Hoffman, David J.; Klem, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require the use of enabling technologies that are efficient, affordable, and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as an option to achieve human exploration missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) because of its favorable mass efficiency as compared to traditional chemical systems. This paper describes the unique challenges and technology hurdles associated with developing a large high-power SEP vehicle. A subsystem level breakdown of factors contributing to the feasibility of SEP as a platform for future exploration missions to NEOs is presented including overall mission feasibility, trip time variables, propellant management issues, solar array power generation, array structure issues, and other areas that warrant investment in additional technology or engineering development.

  14. Tazimina Hydroelectric Project, Iliamna, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Cost Report

    SciTech Connect

    HDR Alaska, Inc.

    1998-11-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. These communities have a combined population of approximately 600 residents. There is no direct road connection from these villages to larger population centers. Electric power has been generated by INNEC since 1983 using diesel generators located in the community of Newhalen. Fuel for these generators was transported up the Kvichak River, an important salmon river, and across Iliamna Lake. In dry years the river is low and fuel is flown into Iliamna and then trucked five miles into Newhalen. The cost, difficult logistics and potential spill hazard of this fuel was a primary reason for development of hydroelectric power in this area. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  15. Electronic Origins of Large Thermoelectric Power Factor of LaOBiS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Atsuhiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka; Lee, Chul-Ho; Miura, Osuke; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2016-07-01

    We have examined the electrical transport properties of densified LaOBiS2-xSex, which constitutes a new family of thermoelectric materials. The power factor increases with increasing concentration of Se, i.e., Se substitution leads to an enhanced electrical conductivity, without suppression of the Seebeck coefficient. Hall measurements reveal that the carrier mobility increases with decreasing carrier concentration as Se doping, which is responsible for the low electrical resistivity and large absolute values of the Seebeck coefficient in the system.

  16. An improved low-optical-power variable focus lens with a large aperture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-08-11

    We report an improved method of fabricating a variable focus lens in which an in-plane pretension force is applied to a membrane. This method realized a lens with a large optical aperture and high performance in a low-optical-power region. The method was verified by comparing membranes in a simulation using the finite element method. A prototype with a 26 mm-diameter aperture was fabricated, and the wavefront behavior was measured by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Thanks to the in-plane pretension force, the lens achieved an infinite focal length with a wavefront error of 105.1 nm root mean square.

  17. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin S; Wong, Yvonne Y Y E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: ywong@mppmu.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter {epsilon} ({approx}>0.001), a positive detection of trans-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10{sup -4}. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound, a scale of new physics as high as {approx}0.2 M{sub P} could lead to observable signatures.

  18. MIC-Large Scale Magnetically Inflated Cable Structures for Space Power, Propulsion, Communications and Observational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the erection of rigid large scale structures in space-MIC (Magnetically Inflated Cable)-is described. MIC structures are launched as a compact payload of superconducting cables and attached tethers. After reaching orbit, the superconducting cables are energized with electrical current. The magnet force interactions between the cables cause them to expand outwards into the final large structure. Various structural shapes and applications are described. The MIC structure can be a simple flat disc with a superconducting outer ring that supports a tether network holding a solar cell array, or it can form a curved mirror surface that concentrates light and focuses it on a smaller region-for example, a high flux solar array that generates electric power, a high temperature receiver that heats H2 propellant for high Isp propulsion, and a giant primary reflector for a telescope for astronomy and Earth surveillance. Linear dipole and quadrupole MIC structures are also possible. The linear quadrupole structure can be used for magnetic shielding against cosmic radiation for astronauts, for example. MIC could use lightweight YBCO superconducting HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) cables, that can operate with liquid N2 coolant at engineering current densities of ~105 amp/cm2. A 1 kilometer length of MIC cable would weigh only 3 metric tons, including superconductor, thermal insulations, coolant circuits, and refrigerator, and fit within a 3 cubic meter compact package for launch. Four potential MIC applications are described: Solar-thermal propulsion using H2 propellant, space based solar power generation for beaming power to Earth, a large space telescope, and solar electric generation for a manned lunar base. The first 3 applications use large MIC solar concentrating mirrors, while the 4th application uses a surface based array of solar cells on a magnetically levitated MIC structure to follow the sun. MIC space based mirrors can be very large and light

  19. Benzothienobenzothiophene-Based Molecular Conductors: High Conductivity, Large Thermoelectric Power Factor, and One-Dimensional Instability.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Yasuhiro; Kadoya, Tomofumi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Iijima, Kodai; Higashino, Toshiki; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Takimiya, Kazuo; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-03-23

    On the basis of an excellent transistor material, [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT), a series of highly conductive organic metals with the composition of (BTBT)2XF6 (X = P, As, Sb, and Ta) are prepared and the structural and physical properties are investigated. The room-temperature conductivity amounts to 4100 S cm(-1) in the AsF6 salt, corresponding to the drift mobility of 16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Owing to the high conductivity, this salt shows a thermoelectric power factor of 55-88 μW K(-2) m(-1), which is a large value when this compound is regarded as an organic thermoelectric material. The thermoelectric power and the reflectance spectrum indicate a large bandwidth of 1.4 eV. These salts exhibit an abrupt resistivity jump under 200 K, which turns to an insulating state below 60 K. The paramagnetic spin susceptibility, and the Raman and the IR spectra suggest 4kF charge-density waves as an origin of the low-temperature insulating state.

  20. Complete power concentration into a single waveguide in large-scale waveguide array lenses.

    PubMed

    Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-10-16

    Waveguide array lenses are waveguide arrays that focus light incident on all waveguides at the input side into a small number of waveguides at the output side. Ideal waveguide array lenses provide complete (100%) power concentration of incident light into a single waveguide. While of great interest for several applications, ideal waveguide array lenses have not been demonstrated for practical arrays with large numbers of waveguides. The only waveguide arrays that have sufficient degrees of freedom to allow for the design of an ideal waveguide array lens are those where both the propagation constants of the individual waveguides and the coupling constants between the waveguides vary as a function of space. Here, we use state-of-the-art numerical methods to demonstrate complete power transfer into a single waveguide for waveguide array lenses with large numbers of waveguides. We verify this capability for more than a thousand waveguides using a spatial coupled mode theory. We hereby extend the state-of-art by more than two orders of magnitude. We also demonstrate for the first time a physical design for an ideal waveguide array lens. The design is based on an aperiodic metallic waveguide array and focuses ~100% of the incident light into a deep-subwavelength focal spot.

  1. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lee M.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Mechem, David B.; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W.; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 105 km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m−2, whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m−2, with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way. PMID:26305925

  2. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lee M; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Mechem, David B; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 10(5) km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m(-2), whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m(-2), with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way.

  3. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lee M; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Mechem, David B; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 10(5) km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m(-2), whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m(-2), with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way. PMID:26305925

  4. A Tutorial on Detection and Characterization of Special Behavior in Large Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2004-08-20

    The objective of this document is to report results in the detection and characterization of special behavior in large electric power systems. Such behavior is usually dynamic in nature, but not always. This is also true for the underlying sources of special behavior. At the device level, a source of special behavior might be an automatic control system, a dynamic load, or even a manual control system that is operated according to some sharply defined policy. Other possible sources include passive system conditions, such as the state of a switched device or the amount of power carried on some critical line. Detection and characterization are based upon “signature information” that is extracted from the behavior observed. Characterization elements include the signature information itself, the nature of the behavior and its likely causes, and the associated implications for the system or for the public at large. With sufficient data and processing, this characterization may directly identify a particular condition or device at a specific location. Such conclusive results cannot always be done from just one observation, however. Information environments that are very sparse may require multiple observations, comparative model studies, and even direct testing of the system.

  5. High-power narrow-linewidth large mode area photonic bandgap fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulford, Benjamin; Dajani, Iyad; Ehrenreich, Thomas; Holten, Roger; Vergien, Christopher; Naderi, Nader; Mart, Cody; Gu, Guancheng; Kong, Fanting; Hawkins, Thomas; Dong, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Ytterbium-doped large mode area all-solid photonic bandgap fiber amplifiers were used to demonstrate <400 W of output power at 1064 nm. In an initial set of experiments, a fiber with a core diameter of ~50 μm, and a calculated effective area of 1450 μm2 in a straight fiber, was used to generate approximately 600 W. In this case, the input seed was modulated using a sinusoidal format at a frequency of 400 MHz. The output, however, was multimode as the fiber design did not allow for single-mode operation at this wavelength. A second fiber was then fabricated to operate predominantly in single mode at 1064 nm by having the seed closer to the short wavelength edge of the bandgap. This fiber was used to demonstrate 400 W of single-frequency output with excellent beam quality. As the signal power exceeded 450 W, there was significant degradation in the beam quality due to the modal instability. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, the power scaling results obtained in this work far exceed results from prior state of the art all-solid photonic bandgap fiber lasers.

  6. 78 FR 38027 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of..., Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC (transferor) and Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC (transferee) filed...

  7. 78 FR 25434 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of... Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that the exemption from licensing for the Salmon...

  8. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  9. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  10. 76 FR 81929 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Workshop for Santee Cooper Hydroelectric Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Cooper Hydroelectric Project On May 26 and November 8, 2011, Commission staff met with representatives of...), licensee for the Santee-Cooper Hydroelectric Project No. 199, to discuss what is needed to complete...

  11. Block diagonal decompositions for parallel computations of large power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silijak, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    In this report we present the algorithm and C code for balanced bordered block diagonal (BBD) decompositions of large sparse matrices, as well as a variety of experimental results relating to the algorithm`s performance. The software has been tested on a number of large matrices, including models of the West Coast power network (1,993 x 1,993 matrix). The algorithm was found to compare very well with the symmetric minimal degree ordering in terms of sparsity preservation-in the test cases considered, the BBD decomposition produced only up to 15% more fill-in. This is more than satisfactory considering that BBD structures are far better suited for parallel computing than the scattered and unpredictable element patterns obtained by minimal degree ordering. For some denser matrices, the BBD decomposition was actually seen to produce lower fill-in than the minimal degree. In applications to power systems the execution time for the BBD decomposition was found to have a quadratic upper bound on its complexity, which is comparable to a number of other sparse matrix orderings. Simulation results indicate that the actual execution time is similar to the execution time of the symmetric minimal degree ordering in Matlab 4.0. The special structural advantages of balanced BBD decompositions have been utilized to parallelize the process of LU factorization. The speedups obtained with respect to solutions using symmetric minimal degree ordering on a single processor have confirmed the significant potential of BBD decomposition in parallel computing. For the 1,993 bus power system, a speedup of 11.2 times was obtained using 14 processors on a PVM 2.4.

  12. Benefits of an ultra large and multiresolution ensemble for estimating available wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Jonas; Hoppe, Charlotte; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the benefits of an ultra large ensemble with up to 1000 members including multiple nesting with a target horizontal resolution of 1 km. The ensemble shall be used as a basis to detect events of extreme errors in wind power forecasting. Forecast value is the wind vector at wind turbine hub height (~ 100 m) in the short range (1 to 24 hour). Current wind power forecast systems rest already on NWP ensemble models. However, only calibrated ensembles from meteorological institutions serve as input so far, with limited spatial resolution (˜10 ‑ 80 km) and member number (˜ 50). Perturbations related to the specific merits of wind power production are yet missing. Thus, single extreme error events which are not detected by such ensemble power forecasts occur infrequently. The numerical forecast model used in this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Model uncertainties are represented by stochastic parametrization of sub-grid processes via stochastically perturbed parametrization tendencies and in conjunction via the complementary stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme already provided by WRF. We perform continuous ensemble updates by comparing each ensemble member with available observations using a sequential importance resampling filter to improve the model accuracy while maintaining ensemble spread. Additionally, we use different ensemble systems from global models (ECMWF and GFS) as input and boundary conditions to capture different synoptic conditions. Critical weather situations which are connected to extreme error events are located and corresponding perturbation techniques are applied. The demanding computational effort is overcome by utilising the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  13. Benefits of an ultra large and multiresolution ensemble for estimating available wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Jonas; Hoppe, Charlotte; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the benefits of an ultra large ensemble with up to 1000 members including multiple nesting with a target horizontal resolution of 1 km. The ensemble shall be used as a basis to detect events of extreme errors in wind power forecasting. Forecast value is the wind vector at wind turbine hub height (~ 100 m) in the short range (1 to 24 hour). Current wind power forecast systems rest already on NWP ensemble models. However, only calibrated ensembles from meteorological institutions serve as input so far, with limited spatial resolution (˜10 - 80 km) and member number (˜ 50). Perturbations related to the specific merits of wind power production are yet missing. Thus, single extreme error events which are not detected by such ensemble power forecasts occur infrequently. The numerical forecast model used in this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Model uncertainties are represented by stochastic parametrization of sub-grid processes via stochastically perturbed parametrization tendencies and in conjunction via the complementary stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme already provided by WRF. We perform continuous ensemble updates by comparing each ensemble member with available observations using a sequential importance resampling filter to improve the model accuracy while maintaining ensemble spread. Additionally, we use different ensemble systems from global models (ECMWF and GFS) as input and boundary conditions to capture different synoptic conditions. Critical weather situations which are connected to extreme error events are located and corresponding perturbation techniques are applied. The demanding computational effort is overcome by utilising the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  14. Multi-Model Long-Range Ensemble Forecast for Decision Support in Hydroelectric Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, M. L.; Parkinson, S.; Blestrud, D.; Holbrook, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Idaho Power Company (IPC) is a hydroelectric based utility serving over a million customers in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. Hydropower makes up ~50% of our power generation and accurate predictions of streamflow and precipitation drive our long-term planning and decision support for operations. We investigate the use of a multi-model ensemble approach for mid and long-range streamflow and precipitation forecasts throughout the Snake River Basin. Forecast are prepared using an Idaho Power developed ensemble forecasting technique for 89 locations throughout the Snake River Basin for periods of 3 to 18 months in advance. A series of multivariable linear regression, multivariable non-linear regression and multivariable Kalman filter techniques are combined in an ensemble forecast based upon two data types, historical data (streamflow, precipitation, climate indices [i.e. PDO, ENSO, AO, etc…]) and single value decomposition derived values based upon atmospheric heights and sea surface temperatures.

  15. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  16. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson

    2016-06-01

    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  17. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  18. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments. PMID:26132139

  19. 51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523690 (sheet no. 5; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Impurity-free quantum well intermixing for large optical cavity high-power laser diode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, Abdullah; Gür, Emre; Aydınlı, Atilla

    2016-08-01

    We report on the correlation of atomic concentration profiles of diffusing species with the blueshift of the quantum well luminescence from both as-grown and impurity free quantum wells intermixed on actual large optical cavity high power laser diode structures. Because it is critical to suppress catastrophic optical mirror damage, sputtered SiO2 and thermally evaporated SrF2 were used both to enhance and suppress quantum well intermixing, respectively, in these (Al)GaAs large optical cavity structures. A luminescence blueshift of 55 nm (130 meV) was obtained for samples with 400 nm thick sputtered SiO2. These layers were used to generate point defects by annealing the samples at 950 °C for 3 min. The ensuing Ga diffusion observed as a shifting front towards the surface at the interface of the GaAs cap and AlGaAs cladding, as well as Al diffusion into the GaAs cap layer, correlates well with the observed luminescence blue shift, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Although this technique is well-known, the correlation between the photoluminescence peak blue shift and diffusion of Ga and Al during impurity free quantum well intermixing on actual large optical cavity laser diode structures was demonstrated with both x ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy, for the first time.

  1. 75 FR 22122 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for... Application: Major Project--Existing Dam. b. Project No.: P-12478-003. c. Date filed: August 28, 2009. d. Applicant: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  2. Climate change impacts on high-elevation hydroelectricity in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh; Guégan, Marion; Uvo, Cintia B.

    2014-03-01

    While only about 30% of California's usable water storage capacity lies at higher elevations, high-elevation (above 300 m) hydropower units generate, on average, 74% of California's in-state hydroelectricity. In general, high-elevation plants have small man-made reservoirs and rely mainly on snowpack. Their low built-in storage capacity is a concern with regard to climate warming. Snowmelt is expected to shift to earlier in the year, and the system may not be able to store sufficient water for release in high-demand periods. Previous studies have explored the climate warming effects on California's high-elevation hydropower by focusing on the supply side (exploring the effects of hydrological changes on generation and revenues) ignoring the warming effects on hydroelectricity demand and pricing. This study extends the previous work by simultaneous consideration of climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower supply and pricing in California. The California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM 2.0) is applied to evaluate the adaptability of California's high-elevation hydropower system to climate warming, considering the warming effects on hydroelectricity supply and pricing. The model's results relative to energy generation, energy spills, reservoir energy storage, and average shadow prices of energy generation and storage capacity expansion are examined and discussed. These results are compared with previous studies to emphasize the need to consider climate change effects on hydroelectricity demand and pricing when exploring the effects of climate change on hydropower operations.

  3. Hydroelectric facility in Montana. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, July 11, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The report addresses S. 552 a bill to allow the refurbishent and continued operation of a small hydroelectric power plant in central Montana by adjusting the amount of charges to be paid to the United States under the Federal Power Act. The Flint Creek Project, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) project number 1473, was completed in 1900. In 1988, Montana Power allowed its original license to expire due to the licensing costs and the cost to refurbish the facilities.

  4. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold and large power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Jianxin; Qi, Aiyi; Liu, Lei; Fu, Feiya; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-03-01

    The Bragg diffraction condition of surface-emitting lasing action is analyzed and Γ2-1 mode is chosen for lasing. Two types of lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (LC-PCSELs) based on the PhC band edge mode lateral resonance and vertical emission to achieve electrically driven surface emitting laser without distributed Bragg reflectors in the long wavelength optical communication band are designed and fabricated. Deep etching techniques, which rely on the active layer being or not etched through, are adopted to realize the LC-PCSELs on the commercial AlGaInAs/InP multi-quantum-well (MQW) epitaxial wafer. 1553.8 nm with ultralow threshold of 667 A/cm2 and 1575 nm with large power of 1.8 mW surface emitting lasing actions are observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production with low cost of electrically driven PCSELs.

  5. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2013-11-01

    A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's μW/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 μm interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

  6. Robust optimal sun-pointing control of a large solar power satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shunan; Zhang, Kaiming; Peng, Haijun; Wu, Zhigang; Radice, Gianmarco

    2016-10-01

    The robust optimal sun-pointing control strategy for a large geostationary solar power satellite (SPS) is addressed in this paper. The SPS is considered as a huge rigid body, and the sun-pointing dynamics are firstly proposed in the state space representation. The perturbation effects caused by gravity gradient, solar radiation pressure and microwave reaction are investigated. To perform sun-pointing maneuvers, a periodically time-varying robust optimal LQR controller is designed to assess the pointing accuracy and the control inputs. It should be noted that, to reduce the pointing errors, the disturbance rejection technique is combined into the proposed LQR controller. A recursive algorithm is then proposed to solve the optimal LQR control gain. Simulation results are finally provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed closed-loop system.

  7. Large-Scale Distributed Computational Fluid Dynamics on the Information Power Grid Using Globus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash; VanderWijngaart, Robertus; Yarrow, Maurice; Zechtzer, Lou; Foster, Ian; Larsson, Olle

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which a large-scale scientific application development for tightly-coupled parallel machines is adapted to the distributed execution environment of the Information Power Grid (IPG). A brief overview of the IPG and a description of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) algorithm are given. The Globus metacomputing toolkit is used as the enabling device for the geographically-distributed computation. Modifications related to latency hiding and Load balancing were required for an efficient implementation of the CFD application in the IPG environment. Performance results on a pair of SGI Origin 2000 machines indicate that real scientific applications can be effectively implemented on the IPG; however, a significant amount of continued effort is required to make such an environment useful and accessible to scientists and engineers.

  8. Circadian analysis of large human populations: inferences from the power grid.

    PubMed

    Stowie, Adam C; Amicarelli, Mario J; Crosier, Caitlin J; Mymko, Ryan; Glass, J David

    2015-03-01

    Few, if any studies have focused on the daily rhythmic nature of modern industrialized populations. The present study utilized real-time load data from the U.S. Pacific Northwest electrical power grid as a reflection of human operative household activity. This approach involved actigraphic analyses of continuously streaming internet data (provided in 5 min bins) from a human subject pool of approximately 43 million primarily residential users. Rhythm analyses reveal striking seasonal and intra-week differences in human activity patterns, largely devoid of manufacturing and automated load interference. Length of the diurnal activity period (alpha) is longer during the spring than the summer (16.64 h versus 15.98 h, respectively; p < 0.01). As expected, significantly more activity occurs in the solar dark phase during the winter than during the summer (6.29 h versus 2.03 h, respectively; p < 0.01). Interestingly, throughout the year a "weekend effect" is evident, where morning activity onset occurs approximately 1 h later than during the work week (5:54 am versus 6:52 am, respectively; p < 0.01). This indicates a general phase-delaying response to the absence of job-related or other weekday morning arousal cues, substantiating a preference or need to sleep longer on weekends. Finally, a shift in onset time can be seen during the transition to Day Light Saving Time, but not the transition back to Standard Time. The use of grid power load as a means for human actimetry assessment thus offers new insights into the collective diurnal activity patterns of large human populations. PMID:25286134

  9. OASIS 1.0: Very Large-Aperture High-Power Lidar for Exploring Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Smith, J. A.; Chen, C.; Zhao, J.; Yu, Z.; Gardner, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A new initiative, namely OASIS (the Observatory for Atmosphere Space Interaction Studies), has called for a very large-aperture high-power (VLAHP) lidar as its first step forward to acquire the unprecedented measurement capabilities for exploring the space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR). Currently, there exists a serious observational gap of the Earth's neutral atmosphere above 100 km. Information on neutral winds and temperatures and on the plasma-neutral coupling in the SAIR, especially between 100 and 200 km, is either sparse or nonexistent. Fully exploring the SAIR requires measurements of the neutral atmosphere to complement radar observations of the plasma. Lidar measurements of neutral winds, temperatures and species can enable these explorations. Many of these topics will be addressed with the VLAHP lidar. Discoveries of thermospheric neutral Fe, Na and K layers up to nearly 200 km at McMurdo, Antarctica and other locations on Earth, have opened a new door to observing the neutral thermosphere with ground-based instruments. These neutral metal layers provide the tracers for resonance Doppler lidars to directly measure the neutral temperatures and winds in the thermosphere, thus enabling the VLAHP lidar dream! Because the thermospheric densities of these metal atoms are many times smaller than the layer peak densities near 90 km, high power-aperture product lidars, like the VLAHP lidar, are required to derive scientifically useful measurements. Furthermore, several key technical challenges for VLAHP lidar have been largely resolved in the last a few years through the successful development of Fe and Na Doppler lidars at Boulder. By combining Rayleigh and Raman with resonance lidar techniques and strategically operating the VLAHP lidar next to incoherent scatter radar and other complementary instruments, the VLAHP lidar will enable new cutting-edge exploration of the geospace. These new concepts and progresses will be introduced in this paper.

  10. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  11. The Gˆ Mid-Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Power Supplies: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povich, M. S.; Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R.; Sigurdsson, S.; Maldonado, J. T.; Mullan, B.

    2014-03-01

    We present initial results from the Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies ("G-HAT" or Gˆ), in which we use the WISE all-sky mid-infrared (MIR) Source Catalog to search for and place constraints on the abundance of extraterrestrial civilizations with large power supplies. A civilization consuming a significant fraction of the luminous power of their host star (Kardashev type II civilization or K2; Kardashev 1964) or galaxy (K3) and operating at a temperature similar to the equilibrium temperatures in or near stellar habitable zones will produce MIR excess emission in the form of waste heat. Searches for such MIR excesses from K2s have been performed in the past, notably by Carrigan (2009) using the IRAS source catalog. Taking advantage of the 103 improvement in sensitivity over IRAS provided by WISE, Gˆ has enabled the first systematic search for waste heat from galaxy-spanning K3 civilizations and will search for K2s throughout a significant fraction of the Milky Way's volume. We find that a galaxy-spanning (K III) civilization with an power supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess. We have produced a catalog of 32,000 WISE extended sources and visually reviewed the data and literature on the reddest 4000 of them, identifying several hundred candidates worthy of detailed observational follow-up. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO could be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust. We will extend this analysis to WISE point sources to search for K2s.

  12. The Effect of Large-Field Wedge Filters on Stopping Power Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Ronald Jay

    Over the past few decades, linear accelerators have been used for the treatment of cancer. These accelerators produce a spectrum of x-ray energies, with the maximum energy determined by the accelerating potential in the accelerator waveguide. Traditionally, the beams produced by these accelerators have been modified for certain treatment schemes to improve the overall dose distribution in the tumor volume. One of the beam modifiers has been the use of wedge filters. Although it has been accepted for some years that the introduction of a wedge filter hardens the x-ray beam from a linear accelerator, little or no correction for this effect has been routinely performed in the typical clinic. The results of this research will demonstrate that (1) a detectable change in the x-ray fluence energy distribution results with the introduction of a large field wedge, and (2) the change in the photon fluence results in a change in the average stopping power ratio for water to air used in the conversion of ionization chamber reading to absorbed dose. These effects are demonstrated for a variety of configurations including central axis and off axis points, with and without the wedge. To demonstrate the change in the x-ray fluence energy distribution, a reconstruction of bremsstrahlung spectra from measured transmission data technique was used, utilizing a Laplace Transform Pair Model. Following determination of Phi(E) for various beam configurations, with and without a wedge filter, average stopping power ratios of water to air were determined for each spectra. The results presented indicate that although a significant change in the photon fluence energy distribution results with the introduction of the wedge filter into the beam, the change in stopping power is <=q 0.5 %. This small change, however, is on the order of the chamber perturbation factors normally incorporated when using national or international dosimetry protocols. Thus this small change should be considered in

  13. Triboelectrification-Induced Large Electric Power Generation from a Single Moving Droplet on Graphene/Polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sung Soo; Lin, Shisheng; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Tae Yun; Zhong, Huikai; Chen, Hongsheng; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-08-23

    Recently, several reports have demonstrated that a moving droplet of seawater or ionic solution over monolayer graphene produces an electric power of about 19 nW, and this has been suggested to be a result of the pseudocapacitive effect between graphene and the liquid droplet. Here, we show that the change in the triboelectrification-induced pseudocapacitance between the water droplet and monolayer graphene on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) results in a large power output of about 1.9 μW, which is about 100 times larger than that presented in previous research. During the graphene transfer process, a very strong negative triboelectric potential is generated on the surface of the PTFE. Positive and negative charge accumulation, respectively, occurs on the bottom and the top surfaces of graphene due to the triboelectric potential, and the negative charges that accumulate on the top surface of graphene are driven forward by the moving droplet, charging and discharging at the front and rear of the droplet. PMID:27415838

  14. Unexpected low thermal conductivity and large power factor in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Sihang, Liang; Junzhi, Cao; Xiang, Yuan; Yanwen, Liu; Yao, Shen; Qisi, Wang; Jun, Zhao; Zhongqin, Yang; Faxian, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectrics has long been considered as a promising way of power generation for the next decades. So far, extensive efforts have been devoted to the search of ideal thermoelectric materials, which require both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Recently, the emerging Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, a three-dimensional analogue of graphene, has been reported to host ultra-high mobility and good electrical conductivity as metals. Here, we report the observation of unexpected low thermal conductivity in Cd3As2, one order of magnitude lower than the conventional metals or semimetals with a similar electrical conductivity, despite the semimetal band structure and high electron mobility. The power factor also reaches a large value of 1.58 mW·m-1·K-2 at room temperature and remains non-saturated up to 400 K. Corroborating with the first-principles calculations, we find that the thermoelectric performance can be well-modulated by the carrier concentration in a wide range. This work demonstrates the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 as a potential candidate of thermoelectric materials. Project supported by the National Young 1000 Talent Plan China, the Pujiang Talent Plan in Shanghai, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322407 and 11474058), the Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Science of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. J1103204), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803).

  15. Triboelectrification-Induced Large Electric Power Generation from a Single Moving Droplet on Graphene/Polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sung Soo; Lin, Shisheng; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Tae Yun; Zhong, Huikai; Chen, Hongsheng; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-08-23

    Recently, several reports have demonstrated that a moving droplet of seawater or ionic solution over monolayer graphene produces an electric power of about 19 nW, and this has been suggested to be a result of the pseudocapacitive effect between graphene and the liquid droplet. Here, we show that the change in the triboelectrification-induced pseudocapacitance between the water droplet and monolayer graphene on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) results in a large power output of about 1.9 μW, which is about 100 times larger than that presented in previous research. During the graphene transfer process, a very strong negative triboelectric potential is generated on the surface of the PTFE. Positive and negative charge accumulation, respectively, occurs on the bottom and the top surfaces of graphene due to the triboelectric potential, and the negative charges that accumulate on the top surface of graphene are driven forward by the moving droplet, charging and discharging at the front and rear of the droplet.

  16. Robust predictions for the large-scale cosmological power deficit from primordial quantum nonequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Samuel; Valentini, Antony

    2016-04-01

    The de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory allows the existence of physical states that violate the Born probability rule. Recent work has shown that in pilot-wave field theory on expanding space relaxation to the Born rule is suppressed for long-wavelength field modes, resulting in a large-scale power deficit ξ(k) which for a radiation-dominated expansion is found to have an approximate inverse-tangent dependence on k (assuming that the width of the initial distribution is smaller than the width of the initial Born-rule distribution and that the initial quantum states are evenly-weighted superpositions of energy states). In this paper, we show that the functional form of ξ(k) is robust under changes in the initial nonequilibrium distribution — subject to the limitation of a subquantum width — as well as under the addition of an inflationary era at the end of the radiation-dominated phase. In both cases, the predicted deficit ξ(k) remains an inverse-tangent function of k. Furthermore, with the inflationary phase the dependence of the fitting parameters on the number of superposed pre-inflationary energy states is comparable to that found previously. Our results indicate that, for the assumed broad class of initial conditions, an inverse-tangent power deficit is likely to be a fairly general and robust signature of quantum relaxation in the early universe.

  17. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  18. Short-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling based on chaotic particle swarm optimization using improved logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yaoyao; Yang, Shanlin; Xu, Qifa

    2013-07-01

    In order to solve the model of short-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling, a novel chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm using improved logistic map is introduced, which uses the water discharge as the decision variables combined with the death penalty function. According to the principle of maximum power generation, the proposed approach makes use of the ergodicity, symmetry and stochastic property of improved logistic chaotic map for enhancing the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The new hybrid method has been examined and tested on two test functions and a practical cascaded hydroelectric system. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed CPSO algorithm in comparison with other traditional algorithms.

  19. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  20. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities. PMID:23423737

  1. Tank Investigation of a Powered Dynamic Model of a Large Long-Range Flying Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Harr, Marvin I

    1947-01-01

    Principles for designing the optimum hull for a large long-range flying boat to meet the requirements of seaworthiness, minimum drag, and ability to take off and land at all operational gross loads were incorporated in a 1/12-size powered dynamic model of a four-engine transport flying boat having a design gross load of 165,000 pounds. These design principles included the selection of a moderate beam loading, ample forebody length, sufficient depth of step, and close adherence to the form of a streamline body. The aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the model were investigated in Langley tank no. 1. Tests were made to determine the minimum allowable depth of step for adequate landing stability, the suitability of the fore-and-aft location of the step, the take-off performance, the spray characteristics, and the effects of simple spray-control devices. The application of the design criterions used and test results should be useful in the preliminary design of similar large flying boats.

  2. Semiconducting large bandgap oxides as potential thermoelectric materials for high-temperature power generation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus-Ricoult, M.; Rustad, J.; Moore, L.; Smith, C.; Brown, J.

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting large bandgap oxides are considered as interesting candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation (700-1,200 °C) due to their stability, lack of toxicity and low cost, but so far they have not reached sufficient performance for extended application. In this review, we summarize recent progress on thermoelectric oxides, analyze concepts for tuning semiconductor thermoelectric properties with view of their applicability to oxides and determine key drivers and limitations for electrical and thermal transport properties in oxides based on our own experimental work and literature results. For our experimental assessment, we have selected representative multicomponent oxides that range from materials with highly symmetric crystal structure (SrTiO3 perovskite) over oxides with large densities of planar crystallographic defects (Ti n O2 n-1 Magnéli phases with a single type of shear plane, NbO x block structures with intersecting shear planes and WO3- x with more defective block and channel structures) to layered superstructures (Ca3Co4O9 and double perovskites) and also include a wide range of their composites with a variety of second phases. Crystallographic or microstructural features of these oxides are in 0.3-2 nm size range, so that oxide phonons can efficiently interact with them. We explore in our experiments the effects of doping, grain size, crystallographic defects, superstructures, second phases, texturing and (to a limited extend) processing on electric conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and figure of merit. Jonker and lattice-versus-electrical conductivity plots are used to compare specific materials and material families and extract levers for future improvement of oxide thermoelectrics. We show in our work that oxygen vacancy doping (reduction) is a more powerful driver for improving the power factor for SrTiO3, TiO2 and NbO x than heterovalent doping. Based on our Seebeck-conductivity plots, we derived

  3. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 {times} 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V{sub x} ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V{sub x}, the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90{degree}. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 {times} 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  4. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 [times] 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V[sub x] ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V[sub x], the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90[degree]. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 [times] 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  5. Results of the international large coil task: a milestone for superconducting magnets in fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresner, L.; Fietz, W. A.; Gauss, S.; Haubenreich, P. N.; Jakob, B.; Kato, T.; Komarek, P.; Lubell, M. S.; Lue, J. W.; Luton, J. N.; Maurer, W.; Okuno, K.; Schwenterly, S. W.; Shimamoto, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Ulbricht, A.; Vécsey, G.; Wüchner, F.; Zichy, J. A.

    The aim of the Large Coil Task (LCT) was to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and to prove the design principles and fabrication techniques to be applied for the magnets in a tokamak experimental power reactor. This has been achieved by an outstanding international development effort during more than ten years of cooperation within an IEA agreement. Parties were the US DOE, EURATOM, JAERI and the Swiss government. Six different D-shaped test coils were separately designed, developed and constructed by the LCT participants, then extensively tested together in a compact toroidal array. The ORNL acted for DOE as the LCT operating agent, building and operating the required test facility. The US also provided three test coils; the other three participants one coil each. Detailed information on coil design and manufacture and all test data were shared among the LCT participants. After facility shakedown operations and preliminary coil tests, the full six-coil array tests were carried out in a continuous period from the beginning of 1986 until September 1987. Beside the originally planned tests to reach an 8 T design point performance, the tests went well beyond this goal, reaching 9 T peak field in each coil. The experiments also delineated the limits of operability and demonstrated the coil safety under abnormal conditions. For fusion application the transient a.c. field behaviour in the coils was also of great interest. Three of the coils have been tested in this respect and showed excellent performance, with loss values in agreement with the theoretical predictions. At the time of International Experimental Reactor (ITER) activities, it might be worthwhile to mention that LCT demonstrated an effective multinational collaboration in an advanced technology project, involving large scale hardware produced in several countries then assembled and operated as a tightly integrated system.

  6. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  7. Monitoring marginal erosion in hydroelectric reservoirs with terrestrial mobile laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Silva, L. S. L.; Rubio, M. F.; Carvalho, G. J.; Tommaselli, J. T. G.

    2014-06-01

    Marginal erosions in reservoirs of hydroelectric plants have caused economic and environmental problems concerning hydroelectric power generation, reduction of productive areas and devaluing land parcels. The real extension and dynamics of these erosion processes are not well known for Brazilian reservoirs. To objectively assess these problems Unesp (Univ Estadual Paulista) and Duke Energy are developing a joint project which aims at the monitoring the progression of some erosive processes and understanding the causes and the dynamics of this phenomenon. Mobile LASER scanning was considered the most suitable alternative for the challenges established in the project requirements. A MDL DynaScan Mobile LASER M150 scanner was selected which uses RTK for real time positioning integrated to an IMU, enabling instantaneous generation of georeferenced point clouds. Two different reservoirs were choose for monitoring: Chavantes (storage plant) and Rosana (run-of-river plant), both in the Paranapanema River, border of São Paulo and Paraná States, Brazil. The monitoring areas are scanned quarterly and analysed with base on the point cloud, meshes, contours and cross sections. Cross sections are used to visualize and compute the rate and the dynamics of erosion. Some examples and quantitative results are presented along with an analysis of the proposed technique. Some recommendations to improve the field work and latter data processing are also introduced.

  8. Fish mercury increase in Lago Manso, a new hydroelectric reservoir in tropical Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Gröhn, Janina; Tropp, Magdalena; Vikström, Anna; Wolpher, Henriette; de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo; Meili, Markus; Oliveira, Lázaro J

    2006-10-01

    It has been frequently demonstrated that mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in newly constructed hydroelectric reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present work, we studied whether similar effects take place also in a tropical upland reservoir during impoundment and discuss possible causes and implications. Total Hg concentrations in fish and several soil and water parameters were determined before and after flooding at Rio Manso hydroelectric power plant in western Brazil. The Hg concentrations in soil and sediment were within the background levels in the region (22-35 ng g(-1) dry weight). There was a strong positive correlation between Hg and carbon and sulphur in sediment. Predatory fish had total Hg concentrations ranging between 70 and 210 ng g(-1) f.w. 7 years before flooding and between 72 and 755 ng g(-1) f.w. during flooding, but increased to between 216 and 938 ng g(-1) f.w. in the piscivorous and carnivorous species Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara, and Salminus brasiliensis, dourado, 3 years after flooding. At the same time, concentrations of organic carbon in the water increased and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating increased decomposition and anoxia as contributing to the increased Hg concentrations in fish. The present fish Hg concentrations in commonly consumed piscivorous species are a threat to the health of the population dependent on fishing in the dam and downstream river for sustenance. Mercury exposure can be reduced by following fish consumption recommendations until fish Hg concentrations decrease to a safe level.

  9. Geologic factors pertinent to the proposed A. J. Wiley Hydroelectric Project No. 2845, Bliss, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malde, Harold E.

    1981-01-01

    The A.J. Wiley Hydroelectric Project is a proposal by the Idaho Power Company to develop hydroelectricity near Bliss, Idaho, by building a dam on the Snake River (fig. 1). The proposed dam would impound a narrow reservoir as deep as 85 feet in a free-flowing reach of the river that extends from the upper reach of water impounded by the Bliss Dam to the foot of the Lower Salmon Falls Dam, nearly 8 miles farther upstream. The proposed dam would be built in three sections: a spillway section and a powerhouse (intake) section to be constructed of concrete in the right-handed part, and an embankment section to be constructed as a zoned-fill of selected earth materials in the left-hand part. (Right and left are to be understood in the sense of looking downstream.) In August, 1979, the Idaho Power Company was granted a 3-year permit (Project No. 2845) by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to make site investigations and environmental studies in the project area. A year later, on August 26, 1980, the company applied to FERC for a license to construct the project. On October 8, 1980, as explained in a letter by William W. Lindsay, Director of the Office of Electric Power Regulation, the company was given 90 days to correct certain deficiencies in the application. Because several of the deficiencies identified by Mr. Lindsay pertain to geologic aspects of the project, his letter is attached to this report as Appendix A. Hereafter in this report, the deficiencies listed by Mr. Lindsay are identified by the numerical entries in his letter. The Idaho Power Company is referred to as the applicant.

  10. Power without nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Nuclear power is good at producing large quantities of electricity. Barring a big change in the world's pattern of energy consumption, that is the kind of energy that will be most in demand if economic growth is to remain rapid. What are the options if we abandon nuclear power. By the year 2000, even on conservative estimates of economic growth, OECD countries would be generating 25% of their electricity from nuclear power. Total nuclear capacity would be about 400,000 MW. That is the size of the gap that would have to be filled. The rate of economic growth and the progress of conservation both depend partly on the price of energy - and the price of energy depends on the speed and extent of any nuclear phase-out. But if nuclear power stations were shut overnight, power cuts would be impossible to avoid in several countries, and electricity-generating costs would osar. Only oil, gas, and coal could fill the gap. Consumption of either oil or coal would have to rise by 10%. Replacing nuclear power over say 20 years would be less disruptive, but still costly. Some new sources - oil from tar sands and shale, more hydroelectric power, perhaps fuel cells - would fill the gap. But they would not prevent energy prices from rising to at least double their present levels in real terms. Indeed, they would require such a rise, because without it they would make no commercial sense.

  11. Research of large energy and high power Nd:Ce:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen-yu; Nie, Jin-song

    2011-06-01

    Currently, the output laser energy was enlarged mostly by using laser application technology and different pump styles were used, which made the laser volume large. In this thesis, the output laser energy was increased by improving the quality of laser crystal and using new style doped laser crystal, which can increase the capacity usage ratio of solid laser, and the beam quality was improved as well. In the paper, a new double-doped Nd:Ce:YAG laser crystal pumped by Xe-lamp and the plane-plane resonant was used as main oscillator of laser. There were two advantages using the method. Firstly, the absorption spectrum and emission band spectrum of Ce3+ were analyzed, which can create energy transition between Ce3+ and Nd3+. The Ce3+ ion in double-doped laser crystal can absorb pump light at ultraviolet band and create stimulated emission, which located at the absorption band of Nd3+ and made more Nd3+ ion create energy level transition. The inverted population increased. As result the capacity usage ratio of pumped energy was increased and the output energy of laser was enlarged. Secondly for the advantage of the limitation of plane-plane resonant to laser beam was strong, the angle of divergence was small at far field and the beam quality was good. Finally the pulsed laser energy was compressed to spike pulse by using passive Q-switched, and the peak power was increased. The experiments were carried out under the condition of passive Q-switched. When the input voltage was 800V, the laser beam was obtained at the oscillator stage, whose output energy was 651.5mJ. The pulse width was 20ns. The slope efficiency was 0.49%. Angle of divergence was better than 1.2 mrad. And peak power was 32.5KW. The experiment result is accordant with theoretical analyses. This solid laser has important potential application.

  12. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  13. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

  14. A Study of United States Hydroelectric Plant Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.

    2006-06-01

    Ownership of United States hydroelectric plants is reviewed from several perspectives. Plant owners are grouped into six owner classes as defined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The numbers of plants and the corresponding total capacity associated with each owner class are enumerated. The plant owner population is also evaluated based on the number of owners in each owner class, the number of plants owned by a single owner, and the size of plants based on capacity ranges associated with each owner class. Plant numbers and corresponding total capacity associated with owner classes in each state are evaluated. Ownership by federal agencies in terms of the number of plants owned by each agency and the corresponding total capacity is enumerated. A GIS application that is publicly available on the Internet that displays hydroelectric plants on maps and provides basic information about them is described.

  15. Energy Storage and Reactive Power Compensator in a Large Wind Farm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.; Romanowitz, H.

    2003-10-01

    The size of wind farm power systems is increasing, and so is the number of wind farms contributing to the power systems network. The size of wind turbines is also increasing--from less than 1 MW a few years ago to the 2- to 3-MW machines being installed today and the 5-MW machines under development. The interaction of the wind farm, energy storage, reactive power compensation, and the power system network is being investigated. Because the loads and the wind farms' output fluctuate during the day, the use of energy storage and reactive power compensation is ideal for the power system network. Energy storage and reactive power compensation can minimize real/reactive power imbalances that can affect the surrounding power system. In this paper, we will show how the contribution of wind farms affects the power distribution network and how the power distribution network, energy storage, and reactive power compensation interact when the wind changes. We will also investigate the size of the components in relation to each other and to the power system.

  16. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  17. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  18. Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation Computations of Variable-Speed Power Turbine Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Variable-speed power turbines (VSPTs) operate at low Reynolds numbers and with a wide range of incidence angles. Transition, separation, and the relevant physics leading to them are important to VSPT flow. Higher fidelity tools such as large eddy simulation (LES) may be needed to resolve the flow features necessary for accurate predictive capability and design of such turbines. A survey conducted for this report explores the requirements for such computations. The survey is limited to the simulation of two-dimensional flow cases and endwalls are not included. It suggests that a grid resolution necessary for this type of simulation to accurately represent the physics may be of the order of Delta(x)+=45, Delta(x)+ =2 and Delta(z)+=17. Various subgrid-scale (SGS) models have been used and except for the Smagorinsky model, all seem to perform well and in some instances the simulations worked well without SGS modeling. A method of specifying the inlet conditions such as synthetic eddy modeling (SEM) is necessary to correctly represent the inlet conditions.

  19. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game.

  20. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  1. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples’ actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability’s power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company’s previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  2. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  3. Efforts to reduce mortality to hydroelectric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.

    PubMed

    Cada, Glenn; Loar, James; Garrison, Laura; Fisher, Richard; Neitzel, Duane

    2006-06-01

    Severe fluid forces are believed to be a source of injury and mortality to fish that pass through hydroelectric turbines. A process is described by which laboratory bioassays, computational fluid dynamics models, and field studies can be integrated to evaluate the significance of fluid shear stresses that occur in a turbine. Areas containing potentially lethal shear stresses were identified near the stay vanes and wicket gates, runner, and in the draft tube of a large Kaplan turbine. However, under typical operating conditions, computational models estimated that these dangerous areas comprise less than 2% of the flow path through the modeled turbine. The predicted volumes of the damaging shear stress zones did not correlate well with observed fish mortality at a field installation of this turbine, which ranged from less than 1% to nearly 12%. Possible reasons for the poor correlation are discussed. Computational modeling is necessary to develop an understanding of the role of particular fish injury mechanisms, to compare their effects with those of other sources of injury, and to minimize the trial and error previously needed to mitigate those effects. The process we describe is being used to modify the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival. PMID:16485161

  4. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Thinning of large-area graphene film from multilayer to bilayer with a low-power CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhe; Huang, Ting; Ye, Xiaohui; Zhong, Minlin; Li, Lin; Jiang, Juan; Zhang, Wen; Fan, Lili; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-07-12

    Bilayer graphene has attracted a great deal of attention for many electronic and optical applications. Although large-area bilayer graphene can be synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), multilayer growth often occurs and subsequent processes are required to obtain uniform bilayer films. We report an efficient way of thinning multilayer graphene film by low-power CO2 laser irradiation in vacuum. With a laser power density of ~10(2) W cm(-2), pristine graphene film of 4-5 layers can be thinned to a bilayer free of defects in 30 s. Contrary to previous laser-assisted graphene thinning processes, which reduced graphene layers precisely and locally with a high power density and a small beam diameter, our approach enables high-efficiency thinning of large-area graphene film whilst using a significantly reduced power density and an increased laser beam diameter.

  6. Design of an RF Antenna for a Large0Bore, High Power, Steady State Plasma Processing Chamber for Material Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Freeman, R.L.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC, (Contractor), and Archimedes Technology Group, (Participant) is to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure. The project objectives are to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure.

  7. 14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE KEYS IN FOREBAY ABUTMENT TO INTERLOCK WITH POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION, March 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  8. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  9. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  10. Stochastic Methods for Planning and Operating Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; O'Malley, M.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar generators differ in their generation characteristics than conventional generators. The variable output and imperfect predictability of these generators face a stochastic approach to plan and operate the power system without fundamentally changing the operation and planning problems. This paper overviews stochastic modeling challenges in operations, generation planning, and transmission planning, with references to current industry and academic work. Different stochastic problem formulations, including approximations, are also discussed.

  11. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P K; Singh, S K; Sanyasi, A K; Awasthi, L M; Mattoo, S K

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface. PMID:27475553

  12. High-power fiber laser based on a non filamented-core fully-aperiodic large pitch fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, A.; Dauliat, R.; Darwich, D.; Jamier, R.; Grimm, S.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, K.; Roy, P.

    2016-03-01

    In this communication, the authors report on the first high power emission obtained using a solid non-filamented core fully-aperiodic large pitch fiber manufactured by the REPUSIL method which is based on the sintering and vitrification of micrometric doped silica powders. Using a simple laser cavity, an average output power of 252 W was achieved for the first time in such a fiber with an available pump power of 400 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 63 %. The M2 measurements have shown an excellent beam quality with values close to 1.4 at full power and lower than 1.3 for signal power lower than 215 W.

  13. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  14. Co-optimizing Generation and Transmission Expansion with Wind Power in Large-Scale Power Grids Implementation in the US Eastern Interconnection

    DOE PAGES

    You, Shutang; Hadley, Stanton W.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-01-12

    This paper studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem with a high wind power penetration rate in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid. In this paper, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Our paper also analyzed a time series generation method to capture the variation and correlation of both load and wind power across regions. The obtained series can be easily introduced into the expansion planning problem and then solved through existing MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed planning model and series generation methodmore » can improve the expansion result significantly through modeling more detailed information of wind and load variation among regions in the US EI system. Moreover, the improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare in large-scale power grids.« less

  15. Large-scale wind power integration in Norway and impact on damping in the Nordic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrøm, Espen; Norheim, Ian; Uhlen, Kjetil

    2005-07-01

    The Nordic energy market is in need of new power generation capacity. Norway is today in shortage of electrical energy, and the hydropower-based system must rely on importing electrical power from its neighbours in a normal year of hydro inflow. One solution to this problem is to invest in new generation capacity, e.g. by integrating more wind power into the Norwegian grid. The Norwegian government has announced that 1000 MW of wind power will be installed in Norway by 2010, corresponding to an eventual energy production of approximately 3 TWh year-1. This article investigates the impact of wind power integration in Norway on the damping of interarea mode oscillations in the Nordic grid. The impact on the interarea mode oscillations is tested for various types of generators. Results from computer analyses of a simplified yet realistic equivalent of the Nordic power system are used to compute the interarea mode oscillations. Copyright

  16. Evaluation of the modular inclined screen (MIS) at the Green Island Hydroelectric Project: 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Shiers, P.F.; Downing, J.K.; Plizga, A.W.; Taft, E.P.; Amaral, S.V.; Cook, T.C.; Marks, R.A.; Winchell, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed a fish diversion screen, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), to prevent fish mortality at water intakes. hydraulic model testing and successful biological evaluation of the MIS had been completed in the laboratory. Following discussions with various federal and state agencies, the Green Island hydroelectric Project was selected as the field test location. This project is located on the Hudson River, just north of Albany, in Green Island, New York. The MIS test facility was operated and tested in the fall of 1995. In addition to the MIS, the effectiveness of a strobe light system was studied to determine its ability to divert blueblack herring form the river to the MIS.

  17. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Rick D.; Graves, Richie J.; Langeslay, Michael J.

    1996-12-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at Bonneville and John Day Dams on the Columbia river in 1995. The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. This program focuses on protecting, mitigating, and enhancing fish populations affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The purpose of the SMP is to monitor the migration of the juvenile salmonid stocks in the Columbia basin and make flow and spill recommendations designed to facilitate fish passage. Data are also used for travel time, migration timing, and relative run size analysis. The purpose of the NMFS portion of the program is to provide FPC with species and project specific real time data from John Day and Bonneville Dams.

  18. Present and Future of Semiconductor Pulsed Power Generator ˜Role of Power Semiconductor Devices in Plasma Research˜ 6.High-Speed, Large-Current Power Semiconductors for Pulse Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ikunori

    This paper describes the operation principles and limits of power semiconductors. In addition, operation mechanisms of the new pulse power devices, SOS (Semiconductor Opening Switch) and dynistors, are explained qualitatively. The fastest operating power device is the series connection of comparatively low-voltage devices. For large-current operation, a uniformly operating pin-diode structure device is essential. An SOS is constructed from dozens of medium voltage (about 3kV) special hard-recovery diodes. This can shut off 2kA current at 10kV with in 10ns. The dynistor has n+pnp+ four layers and two electrodes. Serial-connected dynistors have the potential to replace thyratrons. These new devices can endure over 10 kA/cm2 at much higher voltage than their static breakdown values in the repetitive use more than 1011 times.

  19. Probability density function characterization for aggregated large-scale wind power based on Weibull mixtures

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Bueso, Maria C.; Kessler, Mathieu; Martin-Martinez, Sergio; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Molina-Garcia, Angel

    2016-02-02

    Here, the Weibull probability distribution has been widely applied to characterize wind speeds for wind energy resources. Wind power generation modeling is different, however, due in particular to power curve limitations, wind turbine control methods, and transmission system operation requirements. These differences are even greater for aggregated wind power generation in power systems with high wind penetration. Consequently, models based on one-Weibull component can provide poor characterizations for aggregated wind power generation. With this aim, the present paper focuses on discussing Weibull mixtures to characterize the probability density function (PDF) for aggregated wind power generation. PDFs of wind power datamore » are firstly classified attending to hourly and seasonal patterns. The selection of the number of components in the mixture is analyzed through two well-known different criteria: the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Finally, the optimal number of Weibull components for maximum likelihood is explored for the defined patterns, including the estimated weight, scale, and shape parameters. Results show that multi-Weibull models are more suitable to characterize aggregated wind power data due to the impact of distributed generation, variety of wind speed values and wind power curtailment.« less

  20. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  1. 77 FR 281 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Waterbury Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power Corporation, 163 Acorn Lane,...

  2. Numerical Modeling of Thermal Pollution of Large Water Bodies from Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Lyakhin, Yury; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Currently, the major manufacturers of electrical energy are the thermal and nuclear power plants including the cooling ponds in the processing chains. For a wide range of both environmental and technological problems, the evaluation of the temperature fields in the cooling ponds at certain critical values of hydrological and meteorological parameters is important. The present paper deals with the evaluation of the thermal effect of one of the largest thermal power plant in Europe - Perm GRES - to its cooling pond which is the Kama Reservoir. Since the area of the possible impact is rather large and the reservoir itself is characterized by a very complex morphometry, numerical modeling of thermal spot propagation in the Kama River due to the discharge of warm water by Perm GRES for the entire area in the 3D-formulation with the desired detail setting morphometric characteristics of the water body meets very serious difficulties. Because of that, to solve the problem, a combined scheme of calculations based on the combination of hydrodynamic models in 2D and 3D formulations was used. At the first stage of the combined scheme implementation, 2D hydrodynamical model was developed for all possible area, using software SMS v.11.1. The boundary and initial conditions for this model were formulated on the basis of calculations made using 1D hydrodynamical model developed and applied for the entire Kama Reservoir. Application of 2D hydrodynamical model for solving the problem under consideration was needed to obtain the necessary information for setting the boundary conditions for the 3D model. Software package ANSYS Fluent v.6.3 was used for the realization of 3D model. 3D modeling was performed for different wind speeds and directions and quantitative characteristics of the discharge of warm water. To verify the models, the data of the detailed field measurements in the zones of thermal pollution of the Kama reservoir due to impact of the Perm GRES were used. A

  3. 75 FR 53960 - Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... Lagoon Power Utility. e. Name of Project: Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project will be located on Packers Creek, near the community of Chignik...

  4. 75 FR 45107 - Idaho Power Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... July 23, 2010. On June 26, 2008, Idaho Power Company, licensee for the Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project is on the Snake River in Ada and Owyhee counties..., notice is hereby given that Idaho Power Company is authorized to continue operation of the Swan...

  5. CALF/JAST X-32 test program: the LSPM (Large Scale Powered Model), Lockheed's concept for a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    CALF/JAST X-32 test program: the LSPM (Large Scale Powered Model), Lockheed's concept for a tri-service aircraft (Air Force, Navy, Marines) CALF (Common Affordable Lightweight Fighter) as part of the Department of Defense's Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) is being tested in the 80x120ft w.t. test-930 with rear horizontal stabilizer

  6. Rotordynamic Feasibility of a Conceptual Variable-Speed Power Turbine Propulsion System for Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    A variable-speed power turbine concept is analyzed for rotordynamic feasibility in a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) class engine. Implementation of a variable-speed power turbine in a rotorcraft engine would enable high efficiency propulsion at the high forward velocities anticipated of large tilt-rotor vehicles. Therefore, rotordynamics is a critical issue for this engine concept. A preliminary feasibility study is presented herein to address this concern and identify if variable-speed is possible in a conceptual engine sized for the LCTR. The analysis considers critical speed placement in the operating speed envelope, stability analysis up to the maximum anticipated operating speed, and potential unbalance response amplitudes to determine that a variable-speed power turbine is likely to be challenging, but not impossible to achieve in a tilt-rotor propulsion engine.

  7. NREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from these renewable resources could be integrated reliably into the grid. To inform the discussion about the potential of such variable sources, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched two key regional studies, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically possible for U.S. power systems to integrate 20%-35% renewable electricity if infrastructure and operational improvements can be made.

  8. Hydroelectricity, sustainability, and the role of probabilistic inflow forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Raj

    2014-05-01

    Hydroelectricity is one of the oldest energy options known to mankind. While public perceptions of hydroelectricity have had their ups and downs, there is growing consensus that it offers one of the most sustainable options to energy reliability, as well as one of the most cost-effective one. This talk focusses on the factors leading to loss of efficiency due to uncertainty in energy demands and reservoir inflows. The talk formulates the need for probabilistic forecasts of demand and inflow, and presents the obstacles in formulating such forecasts due to the complexities of the climate system. A case is made for the use of ensemble forecasts, in this case formulated using statistical alternatives assuming global sea surface temperatures as a key source of information content. A newly formulated approach for identifying nonlinear dependence between variables (termed as the Partial information - Partial Weight, or PI-PW approach, see Sharma and Mehrotra (2014) for details), and subsequent use of these variables to formulate a probabilistic forecasting model is then presented, a key feature of this model being the lack of any major assumption in the nature of dependence (or variables) being modelled. The talk concludes with a list of challenges that still need overcoming, in ensuring hydroelectricity continues to be considered as a key sustainable energy alternative as we head into times of growing disparity between energy resource and consumption. Reference: Sharma, A., and R. Mehrotra (2014), An information theoretic alternative to model a natural system using observational information alone, Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/2013WR013845.

  9. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Babaei, Hasan E-mail: babaei@auburn.edu; Khodadadi, J. M.; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2014-11-10

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.

  10. (Feasibility study of the San Lorenzo River hydroelectric project)

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, R.A.

    1990-07-19

    I travelled to San Jose, Costa Rica on July 8, 1990 to evaluate all of the completed elements of the ongoing feasibility study for the San Lorenzo River hydroelectric project. The feasibility study is being supported by ORNL under the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project. The project is being studied for implementation by CONELECTRICAS, a consortium of rural electric cooperatives and the study itself is being conducted by BEL Engineering, a Costa Rican consulting firm under contract to CONELECTRICAS, USAID/PIC and NRECA.

  11. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power.

  12. A TWO-COMPONENT POWER LAW COVERING NEARLY FOUR ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE IN THE POWER SPECTRUM OF SPITZER FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-07-20

    Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k {sup -1} {approx} 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers {approx}3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.

  13. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  14. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  15. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  16. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  17. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  18. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rogério, J P; Santos, M A; Santos, E O

    2013-11-01

    For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia), with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission. PMID:24789391

  19. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rogério, J P; Santos, M A; Santos, E O

    2013-11-01

    For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia), with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission.

  20. Estimating SO2 emissions from a large point source using 10 year OMI SO2 observations: Afsin Elbistan Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak Tezel, Burcak; Firatli, Ertug

    2016-04-01

    SO2 pollution has still been a problem for parts of Turkey, especially regions with large scale coal power plants. In this study, 10 year Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 observations are used for estimating SO2 emissions from large point sources in Turkey. We aim to estimate SO2 emissions from coal power plants where no online monitoring is available and improve the emissions given in current emission inventories with these top-down estimates. High-resolution yearly averaged maps are created on a domain over large point sources by oversampling SO2 columns for each grid for the years 2005-2014. This method reduced the noise and resulted in a better signal from large point sources and it was used for coal power plants in U.S and India, previously. The SO2 signal over selected power plants are observed with this method, and the spatiotemporal changes of SO2 signal are analyzed. With the assumption that OMI SO2 observations are correlating with emissions, long-term OMI SO2 observation averages can be used to estimate emission levels of significant point sources. Two-dimensional Gaussian function is used for explaining the relationships between OMI SO2 observations and emissions. Afsin Elbistan Power Plant, which is the largest capacity coal power plant in Turkey, is investigated in detail as a case study. The satellite scans within 50 km of the power plant are selected and averaged over a 2 x 2 km2 gridded domain by smoothing method for 2005-2014. The yearly averages of OMI SO2 are calculated to investigate the magnitude and the impact area of the SO2 emissions of the power plant. A significant increase in OMI SO2 observations over Afsin Elbistan from 2005 to 2009 was observed (over 2 times) possibly due to the capacity increase from 1715 to 2795 MW in 2006. Comparison between the yearly gross electricity production of the plant and OMI SO2 observations indicated consistency until 2009, but OMI SO2 observations indicated a rapid increase while gross electricity

  1. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  2. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  3. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-29

    Texas A&M University is operating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at its district energy campus in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M received $10 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for this project. Private-sector cost share totaled $40 million.

  4. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  5. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  6. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  7. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  8. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  9. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for...-12740-003. c. Date filed: July 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e....

  10. 76 FR 26718 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of...

  11. 75 FR 30805 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final Terms and Conditions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final... Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of Application: Major Project--Existing Dam. b. Project No.: P-12478-003. c. Date filed: August 28, 2009. d. Applicant: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric...

  12. 78 FR 35630 - Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has... Energy Regulatory Commission Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings...

  13. 78 FR 5798 - Ceresco Hydroelectric Dam, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ceresco Hydroelectric Dam, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Ceresco Hydroelectric Dam, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to... the proposed normal pool elevation of 876.8 feet National Geodetic Vertical Datum; (2) a dam...

  14. 78 FR 69663 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer... exemption from licensing for the Troy Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 13381, originally issued December...

  15. 78 FR 48670 - Rivermill Hydroelectric, Inc., New Hampshire Hydro Associates; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rivermill Hydroelectric, Inc., New Hampshire Hydro Associates; Notice of Transfer of Exemption August 5, 2013. 1. By letter filed July 19, 2013, Rivermill Hydroelectric, Inc....

  16. 76 FR 67723 - CRD Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CRD Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection: a. Type...

  17. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  18. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Pressure Sensor Array Using Low Cost Roll-to-Roll UV Embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Gudla, Sudeep; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-02-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as a potential solution for mechanical energy harvesting over conventional mechanisms such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic, due to easy fabrication, high efficiency and wider choice of materials. Traditional fabrication techniques used to realize TENGs involve plasma etching, soft lithography and nanoparticle deposition for higher performance. But lack of truly scalable fabrication processes still remains a critical challenge and bottleneck in the path of bringing TENGs to commercial production. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of large scale triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) using roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing to pattern polyethylene terephthalate sheets. These LS-TENGs can be used to harvest energy from human motion and vehicle motion from embedded devices in floors and roads, respectively. LS-TENG generated a power density of 62.5 mW m-2. Using roll-to-roll processing technique, we also demonstrate a large scale triboelectric pressure sensor array with pressure detection sensitivity of 1.33 V kPa-1. The large scale pressure sensor array has applications in self-powered motion tracking, posture monitoring and electronic skin applications. This work demonstrates scalable fabrication of TENGs and self-powered pressure sensor arrays, which will lead to extremely low cost and bring them closer to commercial production.

  19. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Pressure Sensor Array Using Low Cost Roll-to-Roll UV Embossing

    PubMed Central

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Gudla, Sudeep; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as a potential solution for mechanical energy harvesting over conventional mechanisms such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic, due to easy fabrication, high efficiency and wider choice of materials. Traditional fabrication techniques used to realize TENGs involve plasma etching, soft lithography and nanoparticle deposition for higher performance. But lack of truly scalable fabrication processes still remains a critical challenge and bottleneck in the path of bringing TENGs to commercial production. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of large scale triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) using roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing to pattern polyethylene terephthalate sheets. These LS-TENGs can be used to harvest energy from human motion and vehicle motion from embedded devices in floors and roads, respectively. LS-TENG generated a power density of 62.5 mW m−2. Using roll-to-roll processing technique, we also demonstrate a large scale triboelectric pressure sensor array with pressure detection sensitivity of 1.33 V kPa−1. The large scale pressure sensor array has applications in self-powered motion tracking, posture monitoring and electronic skin applications. This work demonstrates scalable fabrication of TENGs and self-powered pressure sensor arrays, which will lead to extremely low cost and bring them closer to commercial production. PMID:26905285

  20. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Pressure Sensor Array Using Low Cost Roll-to-Roll UV Embossing.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Gudla, Sudeep; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-02-24

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as a potential solution for mechanical energy harvesting over conventional mechanisms such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic, due to easy fabrication, high efficiency and wider choice of materials. Traditional fabrication techniques used to realize TENGs involve plasma etching, soft lithography and nanoparticle deposition for higher performance. But lack of truly scalable fabrication processes still remains a critical challenge and bottleneck in the path of bringing TENGs to commercial production. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of large scale triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) using roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing to pattern polyethylene terephthalate sheets. These LS-TENGs can be used to harvest energy from human motion and vehicle motion from embedded devices in floors and roads, respectively. LS-TENG generated a power density of 62.5 mW m(-2). Using roll-to-roll processing technique, we also demonstrate a large scale triboelectric pressure sensor array with pressure detection sensitivity of 1.33 V kPa(-1). The large scale pressure sensor array has applications in self-powered motion tracking, posture monitoring and electronic skin applications. This work demonstrates scalable fabrication of TENGs and self-powered pressure sensor arrays, which will lead to extremely low cost and bring them closer to commercial production.

  1. Control of wind power stations with variable velocity in a large range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, B.; Ulen, E.

    1986-06-01

    Wind turbine control was performed by keeping the velocity ratio optimal up to a certain torque. At higher wind speed the turbine speed is allowed to augment at constant torque, to produce more power. When maximum speed is obtained, a blade regulation is inserted: adjustment to optimal speed is done by feedforward control. A torque (dependant on rotor speed) is imparted to the shaft by an electric control. The turbine then goes to the right speed.

  2. Very low noise AC/DC power supply systems for large detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Baù, A.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Passerini, A.; Pessina, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present the first part of the power supply system for the CUORE and LUCIFER arrays of bolometric detectors. For CUORE, it consists of AC/DC commercial power supplies (0-60 V output) followed by custom DC/DC modules (48 V input, ±5 V to ±13.5 V outputs). Each module has 3 floating and independently configurable output voltages. In LUCIFER, the AC/DC + DC/DC stages are combined into a commercial medium-power AC/DC source. At the outputs of both setups, we introduced filters with the aim of lowering the noise and to protect the following stages from high voltage spikes that can be generated by the energy stored in the cables after the release of accidental short circuits. Output noise is very low, as required: in the 100 MHz bandwidth the RMS level is about 37 μVRMS (CUORE setup) and 90 μVRMS (LUCIFER setup) at a load of 7 A, with a negligible dependence on the load current. Even more importantly, high frequency switching disturbances are almost completely suppressed. The efficiency of both systems is above 85%. Both systems are completely programmable and monitored via CAN bus (optically coupled).

  3. Economic optimization of the energy transport component of a large distributed solar power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A solar thermal power plant with a field of collectors, each locally heating some transport fluid, requires a pipe network system for eventual delivery of energy power generation equipment. For a given collector distribution and pipe network geometry, a technique is herein developed which manipulates basic cost information and physical data in order to design an energy transport system consistent with minimized cost constrained by a calculated technical performance. For a given transport fluid and collector conditions, the method determines the network pipe diameter and pipe thickness distribution and also insulation thickness distribution associated with minimum system cost; these relative distributions are unique. Transport losses, including pump work and heat leak, are calculated operating expenses and impact the total system cost. The minimum cost system is readily selected. The technique is demonstrated on six candidate transport fluids to emphasize which parameters dominate the system cost and to provide basic decision data. Three different power plant output sizes are evaluated in each case to determine severity of diseconomy of scale.

  4. Optimal Load Shedding and Generation Rescheduling for Overload Suppression in Large Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Hyun

    Ever-increasing size, complexity and operation costs in modern power systems have stimulated the intensive study of an optimal Load Shedding and Generator Rescheduling (LSGR) strategy in the sense of a secure and economic system operation. The conventional approach to LSGR has been based on the application of LP (Linear Programming) with the use of an approximately linearized model, and the LP algorithm is currently considered to be the most powerful tool for solving the LSGR problem. However, all of the LP algorithms presented in the literature essentially lead to the following disadvantages: (i) piecewise linearization involved in the LP algorithms requires the introduction of a number of new inequalities and slack variables, which creates significant burden to the computing facilities, and (ii) objective functions are not formulated in terms of the state variables of the adopted models, resulting in considerable numerical inefficiency in the process of computing the optimal solution. A new approach is presented, based on the development of a new linearized model and on the application of QP (Quadratic Programming). The changes in line flows as a result of changes to bus injection power are taken into account in the proposed model by the introduction of sensitivity coefficients, which avoids the mentioned second disadvantages. A precise method to calculate these sensitivity coefficients is given. A comprehensive review of the theory of optimization is included, in which results of the development of QP algorithms for LSGR as based on Wolfe's method and Kuhn -Tucker theory are evaluated in detail. The validity of the proposed model and QP algorithms has been verified and tested on practical power systems, showing the significant reduction of both computation time and memory requirements as well as the expected lower generation costs of the optimal solution as compared with those obtained from computing the optimal solution with LP. Finally, it is noted that an

  5. Dynamic hydrologic economic modeling of tradeoffs in hydroelectric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jordan D.

    Hydropower producers face a future beset by unprecedented changes in the electric power industry, including the rapid growth of installed wind power capacity and a vastly increased supply of natural gas due to horizontal hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). There is also increased concern surrounding the potential for climate change to impact the magnitude and frequency of droughts. These developments may significantly alter the financial landscape for hydropower producers and have important ramifications for the environmental impacts of dams. Incorporating wind energy into electric power systems has the potential to affect price dynamics in electricity markets and, in so doing, alter the short-term financial signals on which dam operators rely to schedule reservoir releases. Chapter 1 of this doctoral dissertation develops an integrated reservoir-power system model for assessing the impact of large scale wind power integration of hydropower resources. Chapter 2 explores how efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of electric power systems by using wind energy to displace fossil fuel-based generation may inadvertently yield further impacts to river ecosystems by disrupting downstream flow patterns. Increased concern about the potential for climate change to alter the frequency and magnitude of droughts has led to growing interest in "index insurance" that compensates hydropower producers when values of an environmental variable (or index), such as reservoir inflows, crosses an agreed upon threshold (e.g., low flow conditions). Chapter 3 demonstrates the need for such index insurance contracts to also account for changes in natural gas prices in order to be cost-effective. Chapter 4 of this dissertation analyzes how recent low natural gas prices (partly attributable to fracking) have reduced the cost of implementing ramp rate restrictions at dams, which help restore sub-daily variability in river flows by limiting the flexibility of dam operators in scheduling

  6. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett; Tomić, Jasna

    Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10-50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8-38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

  7. Assessment of Aerodynamic Challenges of a Variable-Speed Power Turbine for Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerand E.

    2010-01-01

    The main rotors of the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor notional vehicle operate over a wide speed-range (100% at take-off to 54% at cruise). The variable-speed power turbine, when coupled to a fixed-gear-ratio transmission, offers one approach to accomplish this speed variation. The key aero-challenges of the variable-speed power turbine are related to high work factors at cruise, where the power turbine operates at 54% of take-off speed, wide incidence variations into the vane, blade, and exit-guide-vane rows associated with the power-turbine speed change, and the impact of low aft-stage Reynolds number (transitional flow) at 28 kft cruise. Meanline and 2-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes analyses are used to characterize the variable-speed power-turbine aerodynamic challenges and to outline a conceptual design approach that accounts for multi-point operation. Identified technical challenges associated with the aerodynamics of high work factor, incidence-tolerant blading, and low Reynolds numbers pose research needs outlined in the paper

  8. A numerical study of large-scale ionospheric modulation due to the thermal process by powerful wave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Moran; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Shi, Run; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuannong; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2016-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional numerical model of large-scale ionospheric electron density and temperature modulation by powerful electromagnetic waves by incorporating the transport equations and the three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm. Based on this numerical model, the changes of ionospheric electron density and temperature at nighttime are investigated. The simulation results present (1) the ionospheric electron temperature enhancement due to the energy absorption; (2) the ionospheric electron density depletion at the reflection region and enhancement at the upper/lower region along the field line due to the thermal pressure; and (3) large-scale field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) due to the thermal self-focusing instability with transverse scale of ~10 km. The results are quantitatively consistent with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations, which indicate that the thermal processes play an important role in the ionospheric electron density/temperature modulation and large-scale FAI generation.

  9. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham; Heather D. Medema; Kirk Fitzgerald

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, and Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  10. Study of the Time Response of a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the design of an advanced control strategy for a typical hydroelectric dynamic process, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solution, the proposed methodology relies on an adaptive control designed by means of the on-line identification of the system model under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparison with respect to a classic hydraulic turbine speed PID regulator show the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and control tools.

  11. (Hydroelectric project in Costa Rican rural electric generation and transmission)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-11-28

    On November 6, 1989, I left for San Jose, Costa Rica. My visit was set to accomplish two activities. The first activity was a follow-on mission to gather additional information on a newly identified small hydroelectric project, in support of a rural electric generation and transmission cooperative performed for the Renewable Energy Applications and Training project. Data on stream flows, soils, geologic, and topographic information was gathered for Rio San Lorenzo, near Quesada. A reconnaissance level survey was performed for Rio Naranjillo, a river near San Marcos. The second part of the visit was dedicated to interaction with ICE, the electric utility, discussing plans to establish a comprehensive efficiency program in Costa Rica. I returned to Oak Ridge on November 16, 1989.

  12. NASA's Information Power Grid: Large Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Vaziri, Arsi; Hinke, Tom; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Feiereisen, William J.; Thigpen, William; Tang, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale science and engineering are done through the interaction of people, heterogeneous computing resources, information systems, and instruments, all of which are geographically and organizationally dispersed. The overall motivation for Grids is to facilitate the routine interactions of these resources in order to support large-scale science and engineering. Multi-disciplinary simulations provide a good example of a class of applications that are very likely to require aggregation of widely distributed computing, data, and intellectual resources. Such simulations - e.g. whole system aircraft simulation and whole system living cell simulation - require integrating applications and data that are developed by different teams of researchers frequently in different locations. The research team's are the only ones that have the expertise to maintain and improve the simulation code and/or the body of experimental data that drives the simulations. This results in an inherently distributed computing and data management environment.

  13. Scanning reflection and transmission photometer for large high power laser optics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.L.; Robinson, W.L.; Wirtenson, G.R.; Wallerstein, E.P.

    1981-12-11

    The Nova OTR (overall transmittance/reflectance) photometer operates at 1.064 nm, 528 nm, or 351 nm in order to closely simulate 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic frequencies of the Nova fusion laser. The optic is scanned on a large XY carriage while reflectance or transmittance data is taken on-the-fly. The system is controlled by an LSI 11/23 computer which processes the data and prints out the results in hard copy form, or stores data on a memory disk. The detectors are temperature controlled to within +- 0.01/sup 0/C which aids in achieving of an absolute accuracy of +- 0.1 to +- 0.5% of full scale, depending on the operating point. The photometer is capable of scanning a large optic (1 meter in diameter) in 20 to 30 minutes.

  14. Variable-Speed Power-Turbine for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchezky, Mark; Cruzen, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Turbine design concepts were studied for application to a large civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The concepts addressed the need for high turbine efficiency across the broad 2:1 turbine operating speed range representative of the notional mission for the aircraft. The study focused on tailoring basic turbine aerodynamic design design parameters to avoid the need for complex, heavy, and expensive variable geometry features. The results of the study showed that good turbine performance can be achieved across the design speed range if the design focuses on tailoring the aerodynamics for good tolerance to large swings in incidence, as opposed to optimizing for best performance at the long range cruise design point. A rig design configuration and program plan are suggested for a dedicated experiment to validate the proposed approach.

  15. 77 FR 73637 - Grande Pointe Power Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grande Pointe Power Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment.... Applicant: Grande Pointe Power Corporation. e. Name of Project: Three Rivers Hydroelectric Project....

  16. Modeling of large aperture third harmonic frequency conversion of high power Nd:glass laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M.A.; Wegner, P.J.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Lawson, J.K.; Weiland, T.L.

    1991-03-13

    To provide high-energy, high-power beams at short wavelengths for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, we routinely convert the 1.053-{mu}m output of the Nova, Nd:phosphate-glass, laser system to its third-harmonic wavelength. We describe performance and conversion efficiency modeling of the 3 {times} 3 arrays potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate crystal plates used for type II/type II phase-matched harmonic conversion of Nova 0.74-m diameter beams, and an alternate type I/type II phase-matching configuration that improves the third-harmonic conversion efficiency. These arrays provide energy conversion of up to 65% and intensity conversion to 70%. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2003-02-01

    We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

  18. 42. FOUNDATIONS TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. FOUNDATIONS - TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5393. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF POWER HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 1500 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF POWER HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 1500 HP TURBINE AND GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, FRANCIS TURBINE AND GENERATOR AT REAR - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  20. 170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill Mine area. Note lack of vegetation, caused by nearby copper smelting works. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA