Science.gov

Sample records for large lumber yard

  1. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  6. Career Oriented Mathematics, Teacher's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This manual is designed for teachers using units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood, and (5) Lumber Yard Employee. Lesson plans, masters for dittos and transparencies, and problem solutions are…

  7. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  19. Lumbering Along

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron

    2013-01-01

    "Media Clips" appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher," offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. The theme of this issue's "Media Clip" revolves around four items relating to lumber. These items include: A Q&A published in the…

  20. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn... incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  3. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  4. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  5. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  6. Metrics, Lumber, and the Shop Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craemer, Peter J.

    1978-01-01

    As producers of lumber are preparing to convert their output to the metric system, wood shop and building construction teachers must become familiar with the metric measurement language and methods. Manufacturers prefer the "soft conversion" process of changing English to metric units rather than hard conversion, or redimensioning of lumber. Some…

  7. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  8. Looking south across the front yard toward the back yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south across the front yard toward the back yard, the one-car garage, and the South Perimeter Road - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 1 (House), 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. 19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that, pursuant to 19 CFR 12.140(c), entries of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products for which a... same level of trade (as described in 19 CFR 351.412(c)) as the exported softwood lumber or softwood... lumber product sold at a different level of trade (as defined in 19 CFR 351.412(c)) than the...

  10. 19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that, pursuant to 19 CFR 12.140(c), entries of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products for which a... same level of trade (as described in 19 CFR 351.412(c)) as the exported softwood lumber or softwood... lumber product sold at a different level of trade (as defined in 19 CFR 351.412(c)) than the...

  11. Simulation model for port shunting yards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, A.; Popa, M.; Rosca, E.; Rosca, M.; Dragu, V.; Rusca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ports are important nodes in the supply chain, joining two high capacity transport modes: rail and maritime transport. The huge cargo flows transiting port requires high capacity construction and installation such as berths, large capacity cranes, respectively shunting yards. However, the port shunting yards specificity raises several problems such as: limited access since these are terminus stations for rail network, the in-output of large transit flows of cargo relatively to the scarcity of the departure/arrival of a ship, as well as limited land availability for implementing solutions to serve these flows. It is necessary to identify technological solutions that lead to an answer to these problems. The paper proposed a simulation model developed with ARENA computer simulation software suitable for shunting yards which serve sea ports with access to the rail network. Are investigates the principal aspects of shunting yards and adequate measures to increase their transit capacity. The operation capacity for shunting yards sub-system is assessed taking in consideration the required operating standards and the measure of performance (e.g. waiting time for freight wagons, number of railway line in station, storage area, etc.) of the railway station are computed. The conclusion and results, drawn from simulation, help transports and logistics specialists to test the proposals for improving the port management.

  12. 78 FR 15053 - Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... the production of dimension lumber, primarily used in housing construction, remodel, and repair. The...)(i) has been met because production of dimension lumber at each of the afore-mentioned locations of..., Tacoma, Washington and Longview, Washington, engaged in employment related to the production of...

  13. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard bird composition.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S; Gan, Hilary; Shochat, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays) in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation) differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs) compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards) contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity.

  14. 8. INTERIOR, LUMBER SHED, FROM CENTER OF WESTERN WALL, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, LUMBER SHED, FROM CENTER OF WESTERN WALL, LOOKING EAST, WITH WEST SIDE OF 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' AT RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE MALLEABLE CUPOLAS AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM, OLD SHED ROOF THAT COVERED THE EARLIER MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGING CRANE, MALLEABLE FOUNDRY, AND POLLUTION CONTROL BAGHOUSE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train orders..., within yard limits must move prepared to stop within onehalf the range of vision but not exceeding 20...

  17. Pilot and Full Scale Measurements of VOC Emissions from Lumber Drying of Inland Northwest Species

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Folk, Richard; Knighton, B; Grimsrud, E

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are precursors to ground level ozone. Ground level ozone is the major component of photochemical smog, and has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. These health effects include cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and death. In order to reduce ground level ozone, VOC emissions are being more stringently regulated. One VOC source that may come under regulation is lumber drying. Drying lumber is known to emit VOC into the atmosphere. This research evaluates the validity of VOC emission measurements from a small-scale kiln to approximate VOC emissions from kilns at commercial mills. We also report emission factors for three lumber species commonly harvested in the northwest United States (Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, & grand fir). This work was done with a novel tracer ratio technique at a small laboratory kiln and a large commercial lumber drying facility. The measured emission factors were 0.51 g/kgOD for Douglas-fir, 0.7 g/kgOD for ponderosa pine, and 0.15 g/kgOD for grand fir. Aldehyde emission rates from lumber drying were also measured in some experiments. Results indicate that aldehyde emissions can constitute a significant percentage of the total VOC emissions.

  18. 19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States. 12.142 Section 12.142 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Softwood Lumber § 12.142 Entry...

  19. 19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lumber product sold at a different level of trade (as defined in 19 CFR 351.412(c)) than the exported... lumber or softwood lumber product sold at a different level of trade (as defined in 19 CFR 351.412(c... products from any country into the United States. 12.142 Section 12.142 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...

  20. 19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that, pursuant to 19 CFR 12.140(c), entries of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products for which a Certificate of Origin has been issued from Canada's Maritime Lumber Bureau must be submitted to CBP in paper... manufacturer who does not hold tenure rights provided by the country of export, did not acquire standing...

  1. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...

  2. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...

  3. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...

  4. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  5. 51. AERIAL VIEW OF HULLOAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL-OAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST SHOWING COMPLETED BUILDING MODIFICATIONS TO ACCOMMODATE NEW STEAM-ENGINE, BAND SAW AND SAW-FILING ROOM AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BACK END OF MAIN SAWMILL. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1957. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  6. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  7. Animals on the Washington Environmental Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robin; Wong, Herb

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various animal-related activities that took place in the natural resource area of the Washington Elementary School's (Berkeley, CA) environmental yard. The "yard" is open 24 hours a day and is freely accessible to informal users. (JN)

  8. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. 25.56 Section 25.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. (a) By no later than March 31, 2009,...

  9. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. 25.56 Section 25.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. (a) By no later than March 31, 2009,...

  10. 20. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF UPPER LEVEL (LUMBER STORAGE) IN EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF UPPER LEVEL (LUMBER STORAGE) IN EAST BUILDING SHOWING BUILDING FRAMEWORK, IRON HANGING RODS, AND CEDAR PLANKS BEING SEASONED FOR BOAT CONSTRUCTION. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  11. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed.

  12. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed. PMID:26858559

  13. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed. PMID:26858559

  14. View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, oblique contextual view of hoboken rail yard in immediate background, Manhattan Skyline in distance. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  15. View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a)...

  17. 76 FR 53816 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 RIN 0581-AD03 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION..., 2011 (76 FR 46185), regarding softwood lumber. Corrections are made in the amendatory...

  18. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information..., Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). DATES: Comments must be received by... INFORMATION: Title: Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information...

  19. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  20. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  1. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  2. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  3. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  4. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  5. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  6. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  7. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  8. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  9. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  10. Antibiotics, Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Aerial Transport from Cattle Feed Yards via Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    McEachran, Andrew D.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Hanson, J. Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cox, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs. Citation: McEachran AD, Blackwell BR, Hanson JD, Wooten KJ, Mayer GD, Cox SB, Smith PN. 2015. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic

  11. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 60.1940. (b) Clean wood that is...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 60.1940. (b) Clean wood that is...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 62.15410. (b) Clean wood that is...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 62.15410. (b) Clean wood that is...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 62.15410. (b) Clean wood that is...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 60.1940. (b) Clean wood that is...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass... are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste” in § 60.1940. (b) Clean wood that is...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  1. A STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN IDAHO, PART I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.

    A REVIEW OF LITERATURE TREATING NATIONAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL INFORMATION RELATING TO "HARVESTING,""PRIMARY MANUFACTURING," AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE LUMBER INDUSTRY REVEALED THERE HAVE BEEN FEW STUDIES OF EMPLOYEES AND THE KINDS OF JOBS THEY PERFORM. THE TOTAL CONTRIBUTION OF THE TIMBER-BASED INDUSTRY WAS ABOUT 25 BILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY IN THE LATE…

  2. A STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN IDAHO, PART III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.; AND OTHERS

    DATA COLLECTED FROM 27 LUMBER MILLS THROUGH 131 SUPERVISOR INTERVIEWS AND 1,192 EMPLOYEE QUESTIONNAIRES IDENTIFIED 188 JOB TITLES FOR 3,871 EMPLOYEES. EMPLOYMENT EXPANSION WAS PLANNED BY 36 FIRMS, AND A DECREASE WAS EXPECTED BY 20 FIRMS. MOST FIRMS MADE EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS ON AN ANNUAL BASIS, REFLECTING THEIR ANNUAL BUDGET PRACTICES.…

  3. Noise emissions in wood chipping yards: Options compared.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Magagnotti, Natascia; Deboli, Roberto; Preti, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Industrial comminution is becoming increasingly popular, as the result of a growing demand for wood biomass. Such task is performed with either chippers or grinders, which are large, powerful machines, capable of generating much noise. In turn, high noise levels may have negative impacts on the health and comfort of workers, and of the people living in the surroundings of a wood fuel yard. This study gauged the difference between the two main technology options (i.e. chippers and grinders) in order to offer additional decision elements to wood yard planners. The chipper on test generated more noise than the grinder, due to its better ability to process wood and to transmit more energy into it. Since the chipper was equipped with less working tools and turned slower than the grinder, it generated its noise peaks at lower frequency bands. The grinder on test was more suitable for use in wood yards located near settled areas, and was an obvious choice whenever dealing with a diversified and occasionally contaminated raw material stream. PMID:27135577

  4. Louisiana, Texas fabrication yards on busy upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Responding to the continued push to produce natural gas reserves, Texas and Louisiana fabrication yards anticipate a busy 1994 season. Sixty-five oil and gas production platforms are under construction for major companies and independents; total platforms built in 1994 could approach 100. While oil prices are still volatile, most projects are focusing on shallow-water fields. Advanced technology has helped fabricators improve designs by making structures lighter and more cost-effective. PC-Based software helps yards perform more thorough analyses of a structure, which means towers and fixed platforms can be more economically built. Software also enables yards to design cost-effective structures to develop fields with a marginal level of reserves. Several projects currently under development or recently completed are described.

  5. 37. Exterior view of main yard. Stock room building (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Exterior view of main yard. Stock room building (left), old machine shop (center), steel fabrication building (right), and traveling yard crane (middle fore). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  6. East yard, north elevation of car department tool house (converted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, north elevation of car department tool house (converted from express car). - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  7. Some Physics at the Railroad Hump Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.

    1982-01-01

    Regrouping cars from incoming trains into blocks of cars for outgoing trains is accomplished in railroad "hump" classification yards. Discusses: hardware and software elements of such installations; physical models on which software is based; success in predicting/regulating car speeds; and results of recent research into factors affecting car…

  8. Monitoring of corrosion in ORGDP cylinder yards

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, H.M.; Frazier, J.L.; Barlow, C.R.; Ziehlke, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    Process tailings from US uranium isotope enrichment activities are stored in mild steel cylinders designed and manufactured according to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. Most storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather; approximately 5000 cylinders are in several cylinder yards at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Since mild steel will corrode under these storage conditions, significant work is being done to determine general corrosion behavior of tails cylinders and to estimate anticipated lifetimes. The program under way at the ORGDP is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. The work includes (1) determination of the current conditions of cylinders stored in these yards, (2) description of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (3) the monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (4) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data. The information obtained will enhance planning for continuing safe storage of the tails materials. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  9. How Green Is Your School Yard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wally

    1993-01-01

    Proposes a collection of ideas and resources for "greening" the school yard as a component of the curriculum. Recommends using an acronym such as GREEN (Generate Rewarding Environmental Experience Naturally). Lists resources in Canada for ideas and assistance in planning and implementing a school project to increase environmental awareness. (KS)

  10. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  11. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  12. 32. Photographic copy of a view of the Navy Yard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of a view of the Navy Yard published in Harper's Weekly, April 20, 1861 (From the Navy Yard Historical Center). VIEW LOOKING NORTH. BUILDING 36 IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  14. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  15. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  16. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  17. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  18. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  19. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  20. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  1. 75 FR 71458 - Cranberry Lumber Company Including Workers of the Following Operating Entities: Butternut One...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Notice was published in the Federal Register on August 13, 2010 (75 FR 49531). The workers are engaged in employment related to the production of green and kiln dried lumber. The workers are not separately... conjunction with other entities to produce green and kiln dried lumber: Butternut One, Ltd.,...

  2. Metrication of the United States Lumber Industry and Its Effects on Wood Consuming Industrial Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craemer, Peter J.

    A study investigated the direction United States lumber industries are moving concerning the implementation of the metric system and what implications this has concerning wood consuming industrial education courses. The procedure included a literature review and investigating the major producers of softwood dimensional lumber by a detailed survey…

  3. PLANT CONSERVATION IN TEMPLE YARDS OF ORISSA

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, R.B; Mohapatra, B.K; Padhy, S.N

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a brief survey of the role of temples and holy places in nurturing the surrounding flora and its habitat. Eightysix kinds of plants in temple yards and gardens of orissa have been enlisted where they are cultivated and preserved for different temple rituals. These plants are seen rarely in wild but are saved from extinction by their association with temple rituals and ceremonies. PMID:22556826

  4. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Janowiak, J.J.; Manbeck, H.B.; Hernandez, R.; Moody, R.C.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glue-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated. Test results of 42 red maple glulam beams showed that it was feasible to develop structural glulam timber from cant-swan lumber. The glulam combinations made from E-rated lumber exceeded the target design bending stress of 2,400 lb/in 2 and met the target modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 1.8 x 106 lb/in 2.

  5. Mechanical Treatment of Raw Waste Lumber an Effective Way to Preserve the Ecology and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Anatoly A.; Gusev, Vladimir G.; Yudin, Roman V.; Timerbaev, Nail F.; Retyunskiy, Oleg Yu

    2016-08-01

    Alternative process flowsheet machining of the machining of raw waste lumber were analysed, and it was implemented in a real machine model based on the chosen scheme. The forming process of the treated surface of the stock material was examined, and consequently the mathematical models of the geometric errors in terms of independent factors of the profile milling process were defined. Based on these models is possible to construct a treatment process of the raw waste lumber with minimal errors on the surfaces which were treated. The manufacturing of products from raw waste lumber allows to reduce the volume of deforestation and helps to preserve the ecology and economize the material resources.

  6. Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, William W; Hanson, Gregory R

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

  7. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  8. 75 FR 61025 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... September 18, 2008 (73 FR 49934; August 25, 2008), prescribed an importer declaration program and entry... Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... referendum to determine whether issuance of a proposed Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion,...

  9. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  10. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  11. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  12. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  13. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  14. 76 FR 58167 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... sleep practices are not attributable to the design or construction of play yards. ASTM F 406-11 includes... hazardous surroundings are not attributable to the design or construction of play yards. ASTM F 406-11... believe that further review by CPSC staff is warranted to determine if the design or construction of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60... Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60... Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60... Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60... Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  20. Gaseous emissions from outdoor concrete yards used by livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Webb, J.; Chadwick, D. R.; Ellis, S.; Pain, B. F.

    Measurements of ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) were made from 11 outdoor concrete yards used by livestock. Measurements of NH 3 emission were made using the equilibrium concentration technique while closed chambers were used to measure N 2O and CH 4 emissions. Outdoor yards used by livestock proved to be an important source of NH 3 emission. Greatest emission rates were measured from dairy cow feeding yards, with a mean of 690 mg NH 3-N m -2 h -1. Smaller emission rates were measured from sheep handling areas, dairy cow collecting yards, beef feeding yards and a pig loading area, with respective mean emission rates of 440, 280, 220 and 140 mg NH 3-N m -2 h -1. Emission rates of N 2O and CH 4 were much smaller and for CH 4, in particular, emission rates were influenced greatly by the presence or absence of dung on the measurement area.

  1. Back yard blasting on the quiet

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1983-06-01

    When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

  2. 9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of construction near southeast corner - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  3. 26. NORTHERN VIEW OF ORE YARD WITH ORE BRIDGES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. NORTHERN VIEW OF ORE YARD WITH ORE BRIDGES IN THE BACKGROUND. BLAST FURNACES ALONG THE RIGHT SIDE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING SOUTH c. 1920's - LEFT, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH c. 1920's, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. General view of east yard, facing south (note from right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of east yard, facing south (note from right to left: cell block fourteen, cell block eleven, cell block fifteen, cell block two, greenhouse, and cell block ten) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  9. Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  10. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING BOOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. 2. POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS FROM PRESIDIO ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS FROM PRESIDIO ENTRANCE GATE AT MASON STREET, LOOKING 270 DEGREES WEST - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 3. EASTERN EDGE OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERN EDGE OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD, LOOKING 312 DEGREES NORTH WEST, EUCALYPTUS TREES DENOTE EDGE OF PRESIDIO. - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 1. OVERVIEW OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS, LOOKING 40 DEGREES NORTH EAST - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  16. 27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  17. 16 CFR 1221.2 - Requirements for play yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, P..., Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards, approved on May 1,...

  18. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  20. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  1. 14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING CRANE MOTOR AND MALLEABLE CUPOLAS WITH OPEN TOPS AND EMISSION RECOVERY DUCTS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING AND THE BRASS FOUNDRY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING SHED ROOF OF OLD MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGER. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING CRANE RAILS, GREY IRON CUPOLA AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail spur and dumping location. Concrete vault foundation in foreground. Stone foundation and wood foundation in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  7. View of ATSF rail yard from top of El Tovar, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of ATSF rail yard from top of El Tovar, view east. Note superindent's house (distant left) and Grand Canyon rail station (center). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  8. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. 64. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. 66. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 67. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 63. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 65. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 68. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 69. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. New Haven Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. 62. New Haven Station Yards & Shops. New Haven, New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. New Haven Station Yards & Shops. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. Recording and Analysis of the Rec Yard at Alcatraz Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, R.; Toz, T. K.; Everett, M.; DeSmet, T.; Billingsley, A.; Hagin, J.

    2013-07-01

    In the summer of 2012 students and professors from the Concrete Industry Management (CIM ) program at California State University Chico, along with their partners at National Park Service, invited Texas A&M students and professors to join forces and perform a condition assessment of the Recreation Yard at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The Recreation Yard is a heavily visited area by tourists who are drawn to the island because of its history as a maximum security prison in the 20th c. Because of its history, first as a military fort in the 19thc., later as a military prison, and finally as a federal prison, many difficult historical and preservation related questions exist. This team was formed to begin research on the historical and preservation questions with respect to the Recreation Yard. This paper and presentation will focus on the integration of documentation technologies employed to aid the research necessary for answering preservation and historical questions regarding the recreations yard. Since that yard was constructed on top of the historic 19th c masonry fort it was requested that we also seek the location of tunnels below the Recreation Yard and their relationship with the walls. Teams were formed to perform Non-destructive testing of concrete walls to determine the size and location of rebar, Ground Penetrating Radar for determining the location of the masonry tunnels and photogrammetry and laser scanning to provide both overall and detailed dimensional information of the current state of material decay.

  18. dockYard--a repository to assist modeling of protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Pralay; Pal, Debnath

    2011-03-01

    In the absence of interlogs, building docking models is a time intensive task, involving generation of a large pool of docking decoys followed by refinement and screening to identify near native docking solutions. This limits the researcher interested in building docking methods with the choice of benchmarking only a limited number of protein complexes. We have created a repository called dockYard ( http://pallab.serc.iisc.ernet.in/dockYard ), that allows modelers interested in protein-protein interaction to access large volume of information on protein dimers and their interlogs, and also download decoys for their work if they are interested in building modeling methods. dockYard currently offers four categories of docking decoys derived from: Bound (native dimer co-crystallized), Unbound (individual subunits are crystallized, as well as the target dimer), Variants (match the previous two categories in at least one subunit with 100% sequence identity), and Interlogs (match the previous categories in at least one subunit with ≥ 90% or ≥ 50% sequence identity). The web service offers options for full or selective download based on search parameters. Our portal also serves as a repository to modelers who may want to share their decoy sets with the community.

  19. Estimating Dermal Transfer of Copper Particles from the Surfaces of Pressure-Treated Lumber and Implications for Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lumber pressure-treated with micronized copper was examined for the release of copper and copper micro/nanoparticles using a surface wipe method to simulate dermal transfer. In 2003, the wood industry began replacing CCA treated lumber products for residential use with copper ba...

  20. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S.; Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  1. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S.; Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  2. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  3. Career Oriented Mathematics, Student's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This volume includes student manuals for five units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program, which was developed to improve mathematical abilities and attitudes of secondary students by presenting the material in a job-relevant context. The units are titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being…

  4. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification of lumber and building materials sales. 779... building materials sales. (a) General. In determining, for purposes of the section 13(a)(2) and (4... to build, maintain, or repair buildings or other structures, or sales of services...

  5. 75 FR 41529 - Stimson Lumber Company, Clatskanie, OR; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Stimson Lumber Company, Clatskanie, OR; Notice of Negative... administrative reconsideration of the Department's negative determination regarding eligibility to apply for... Federal Register on March 12, 2010 (75 FR 11925). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c) reconsideration may...

  6. 75 FR 53014 - Notice and Modification of Action: Canada-Compliance with Softwood Lumber Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... 301, and Request for Comments: Canada--Compliance With Softwood Lumber Agreement, 74 FR 16,436 (April 10, 2009) (notice); 74 FR 17,276 (April 14, 2009) (annex). B. Canada's Measures Addressing the Breach... from the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. See 75 FR 30097 (May 28, 2010)....

  7. 76 FR 57102 - Notice and Request for Comments: Two-Year Extension of Softwood Lumber Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    .... SUMMARY: The U.S.-Canada Softwood Lumber Agreement (``SLA'' or ``the Agreement'') entered into force on October 12, 2006 and is currently scheduled to expire on October 12, 2013. The SLA includes a provision... the SLA through October 12, 2015. Interested persons are invited to submit comments on the...

  8. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion... Order with oversight by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Under the Order, assessments are... Internet at: http://www.regulations.gov or to the Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit and...

  9. 76 FR 22757 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Register on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 61002). That rule provided for a 60-day comment period which ended on... referendum order. SUMMARY: This rule proposes a Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is conducting a referendum among eligible domestic softwood...

  10. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... FR 61002) and a second rule pertained to proposed referendum procedures (75 FR 61025). Both rules... Register on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 61025). Copies of the rule were made available by USDA through the... Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum...

  11. Hardwood Lumber Scaling [and] Hardwood Log Scaling and Grading. Slide Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, D. E.; Touse, Robert D.

    These two slide scripts, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deal with scaling and grading hardwood logs and lumber. The first script includes narrations for use with 39 slides, which explain the techniques of scaling and grading hardwood logs, and the second script contains the narrations to…

  12. View of McKenzieRichey covered well showing log and lumber construction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey covered well showing log and lumber construction and shingles, facing southeast - McKenzie Property, Covered Well, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  13. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... deciduous, broad-leafed tree which could include: aspen, birch, cypress, popular, maple, cherry, walnut and... U.S. Timber Production \\3\\ \\3\\ USDA Forest Service, Dr. William Luppold, Princeton, WV. According to the USDA Forest Service the volume of hardwood lumber produced in 2010 was 7,581 MMBF (million...

  14. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... railcar that contains the products is assembled to form part of a train for export; otherwise, the date....), except for those softwood lumber products produced by a company listed in Annex 10 of the SLA 2006 or...”, which designates a company listed in Annex 10 of the SLA 2006; or (C) The letter code assigned...

  15. Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carducci, Christiane M.

    Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that

  16. YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EASTNORTHEAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST AT THE SOUTH END OF THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2, LOOKING ACROSS SOUTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 78 FR 50328 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... party test laboratories, independent consultants, consumer advocates, representatives from Health Canada... final rule establishing a CPSC safety standard for play yards. 77 FR 52220. On the same date, the... accessories that can be assembled without key structural elements. 77 FR 52272. The NPR was prompted by...

  18. 34. Yards & Docks (Y & D) Drawing 216244 (1943), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Yards & Docks (Y & D) Drawing 216244 (1943), 'Dry Dock Bilge Block And Drainage Layout'; showing basic dry dock floor plan and sectional view. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 10. DIAMOND MINE YARD FROM THE NORTH SHOWING A COMPRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DIAMOND MINE YARD FROM THE NORTH SHOWING A COMPRESSED AIR PIPE AND TRESTLE IN THE LOWER LEFT, AND THE LORRY HOUSE. A PART OF A RETAINING WALL IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE RAILROAD CUT - Butte Mineyards, Diamond Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  20. 5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, milk house to left, barn ramp at center, and east side of dairy barn at center right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  1. 16 CFR 1221.2 - Requirements for play yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, P... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar..., Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards, approved on May 1,...

  2. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  3. 4. VIEW NORTH, YARD NORTH OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, YARD NORTH OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING WATER TANK AND SHOP Photocopy of photograph, 1941 (Courtesy of Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum; L. W. Rice, photographer) - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  4. Overall view of gantry crane and storage yard. Taken June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of gantry crane and storage yard. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13770 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND FACILITY 618. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND 507. CONDOMINIUM TOWERS CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND FACILITY 624, SHOWING CLOTHESLINE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Curved limestone wall at east end of rail yard. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curved limestone wall at east end of rail yard. Note cut off valves at base of stump in right foreground, and utility tunnel in middle distance, superindent's house at right, looking NW. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  11. Eratosthenes' Teachings with a Globe in a School Yard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozic, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of…

  12. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % {sup 235}U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % {sup 235}U, and the grams of {sup 235}U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities.

  13. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  15. 5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. Machine shop section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) at far left. Engine house section of roundhouse at center. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  16. 42. VIEW OF MARISCAL QUICKSILVER MINE ENTRANCE TWENTY YARDS SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF MARISCAL QUICKSILVER MINE ENTRANCE TWENTY YARDS SOUTHWEST OF MAIN SHAFT LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CLOSURE BY PARK SERVICE, 1995. NOTE CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS IN THE CENTER OF IMAGE BEHIND OPENING FOR MAIN-SHAFT HOIST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  17. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... (f). (2) At a minimum, yard air pressure shall be 60 psi at the end of the consist or block of cars... device. (3) If the air pressure of the yard test device is less than 80 psi, then a brake pipe leakage...

  18. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... (f). (2) At a minimum, yard air pressure shall be 60 psi at the end of the consist or block of cars... device. (3) If the air pressure of the yard test device is less than 80 psi, then a brake pipe leakage...

  19. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... (f). (2) At a minimum, yard air pressure shall be 60 psi at the end of the consist or block of cars... device. (3) If the air pressure of the yard test device is less than 80 psi, then a brake pipe leakage...

  20. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... (f). (2) At a minimum, yard air pressure shall be 60 psi at the end of the consist or block of cars... device. (3) If the air pressure of the yard test device is less than 80 psi, then a brake pipe leakage...

  1. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... (f). (2) At a minimum, yard air pressure shall be 60 psi at the end of the consist or block of cars... device. (3) If the air pressure of the yard test device is less than 80 psi, then a brake pipe leakage...

  2. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  3. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-10

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered.

  4. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    PubMed Central

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  5. Health behavior, quality of work life, and organizational effectiveness in the lumber industry.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, S I; Sussman, S; Dent, C W; Severson, H H; Stoddard, J L

    1999-08-01

    A major incentive for work-site health promotion activities has been the promise of increased company profitability. Some critics have challenged the economic argument based on distal outcomes such as increased employee longevity and less morbidity later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between employee health behavior, quality of work life, and proximal organizationally valued outcomes. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of employees working at Pacific Lumber Company (N = 146), the largest single-site lumber mill in California. Although employee sleep patterns predicted health care utilization and psychological well-being, for the most part employee health behaviors were not strong predictors of proximal organizational effectiveness factors. However, quality-of-work-life factors significantly predicted organizational commitment, absenteeism, and tardiness frequency. The findings suggest the value of improving the system of work in which employees are embedded as part of comprehensive work-site health promotion efforts.

  6. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products: Progress report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Banerjee, Sujit; Shmulsky, Rubin; Thompson, Ashlie; Ingram, Leonard; Conners, Terry

    1997-03-01

    Studies on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from wood or wood products were conducted. Steam-induced extraction of VOC from oriented strand board (OSB) was studied using a tube furnace at 130 C which resulted in over 50% removal in 30 minutes. RF treatment of softwood lumber removed up to 68% of VOC in 20 minutes. Studies on the transport of moisture in wood confirmed that transport is greatest in the transverse surface, followed by the tangential and radial faces.

  7. View north towards yard Triple Stub Switch in foreground. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north towards yard Triple Stub Switch in foreground. The three tracks lead into the East Railroad's Shop complex and Roundhouse. The Steel Hopper Car was used to haul coal and was in the process of being rebuilt but in 1956, when the railroad ended freight operations. As a result it was never completed and was left outside - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  8. VIEW OF TRANSFER CAR (BATTERYELECTRIC POWERED) FROM BILLET YARD POSITIONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TRANSFER CAR (BATTERY-ELECTRIC POWERED) FROM BILLET YARD POSITIONED FOR LOADING BILLETS INTO FURNACE; HEATER (BEHIND SCREEN IN CENTER) MOVES THE TRANSFER CAR INTO POSITION. BILLETS FROM THE TRANSFER CAR ARE PLACED ON HAND-OPERATED TURNTABLE. THE FURNACE IS NATURAL-GAS FIRED, WITH BILLETS HEATED AT NOT MORE THAN 2400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  9. Eratosthenes' teachings with a globe in a school yard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-03-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 by installing globes in many school and university courtyards.

  10. Experiences of a rail yard community: life is hard.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Montgomery, Susanne; Dougherty, Molly; Valladares, Johanny; Rangel, Sany; Gleason, Peter; Soret, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Community groups and local air pollution control agencies have identified the San Bernardino Railyard (SBR) as a significant public health and environmental justice issue. In response, the authors conducted a comprehensive study with community members living in close proximity to the rail yard. The purpose of this article is to share the community's perceptions about the rail yard and ideas on sustainable change. A qualitative study using key informant interviews and focus group discussions was conducted and resulted in four emerging themes. Themes emerged as follows: "health as an unattainable value," "air quality challenges," "rail yard pros and cons," and "violence and unemployment ripple effect." Community participants expressed concern for poor air quality, but other challenges took priority. The authors' findings suggest that future mitigation work to reduce air pollution exposure should not only focus on reducing risk from air pollution but address significant co-occurring community challenges. A "Health in All Policies" approach is warranted in addressing impacted communities in close proximity to the goods movement industry.

  11. Experiences of a Rail Yard Community: Life Is Hard

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Montgomery, Susanne; Dougherty, Molly; Valladares, Johanny; Rangel, Sany; Gleason, Peter; Soret, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Community groups and local air pollution control agencies have identified the San Bernardino Railyard (SBR) as a significant public health and environmental justice issue. In response, the authors conducted a comprehensive study with community members living in close proximity to the rail yard. The purpose of this article is to share the community's perceptions about the rail yard and ideas on sustainable change. A qualitative study using key informant interviews and focus group discussions was conducted and resulted in four emerging themes. Themes emerged as follows: “health as an unattainable value,” “air quality challenges,” “rail yard pros and cons,” and “violence and unemployment ripple effect.” Community participants expressed concern for poor air quality, but other challenges took priority. The authors' findings suggest that future mitigation work to reduce air pollution exposure should not only focus on reducing risk from air pollution but address significant cooccurring community challenges. A “Health in All Policies” approach is warranted in addressing impacted communities in close proximity to the goods movement industry. PMID:25226779

  12. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  13. Effects of soil type, irrigation volume and plant species on treatment of log yard run-off in lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Elowson, Torbjörn

    2004-09-01

    Wet storage of timber and pulpwood produces large quantities of run-off water. A study was conducted to determine the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems for log yard run-off. Sixteen 1200-l lysimeters (1.2 m deep soil columns) with clay or sand soil were planted with willow (Salix sp.) or alder (Alnus glutinosa), and irrigated with run-off from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. Drainage water was analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), phenols, total P and total N in order to determine concentrations and levels of retention. High retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred in the lysimeters, but no clear differences between willows and alder or clay and sand were identified. Lysimeters with high levels of irrigation showed greater retention than those with low levels. Soil-plant systems using willow and alder could provide an alternative for log yard run-off purification: the key requirement is to optimise irrigation rather than manipulate the plants or soils. PMID:15325190

  14. Occupational noise exposure and hearing protector use in Canadian lumber mills.

    PubMed

    Davies, Hugh W; Teschke, Kay; Kennedy, Susan M; Hodgson, Murray R; Demers, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Noise exposure is probably the most ubiquitous of all occupational hazards, and there is evidence for causal links between noise and both auditory and nonauditory health effects. Noise control at source is rarely considered, resulting in reliance on hearing protection devices to reduce exposure. A comprehensive noise survey of four lumber mills using a randomized sampling strategy was undertaken, resulting in 350 full-shift personal dosimetry measurements. Sound frequency spectrum data and information on hearing protector usage was collected. A determinants-of-exposure regression model for noise was developed. Mean (L(eq,8hr)) exposure level was 91.7 dBA, well above the exposure British Columbia (BC) limit of 85 dBA. Of 52 jobs for which more than a single observation was made, only 4 were below the exposure limit. Twenty-eight jobs had means over 90 dBA, and four jobs had means over 100 dBA. The sawmill and by-products departments of the lumber mills had the highest exposure to low frequency noise, while the planing and saw filing areas had the highest exposure to high frequency noise. Hearing protector use was greatest among those exposed above 95 dBA, and among those exposed between 85 and 95 dBA, self-reported use was 84% for 73% of the time. The determinants of exposure model had an R(2) of 0.52, and the within-participant correlation was 0.07. Key predictors in the final model were mill; enclosure and enclosure construction material; and certain departments, jobs, and noise sources. The study showed that workers in lumber mills are highly exposed to noise, and although the prevalence of the use of hearing protection is high, their use is unlikely to provide complete protection again noise-induced hearing loss at the observed exposures. Determinants of noise exposure modeling offers a good method for the quantitative estimation of noise exposure.

  15. Some important physical properties of laminated veneer lumber (Lvl) made from oriental beech and Lombardy poplar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Murat

    2012-09-01

    This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.

  16. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S.

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Results of a Division of Radiation Protection scrap yard exercise.

    PubMed

    James, J D

    2001-02-01

    For years the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP) has participated in exercises, which are required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to demonstrate our ability to deal with an accident at a nuclear power plant. These demonstrations are defined by objectives and are structured such that they offer little opportunity to practice for real-world radiological events in the exercise. Since real-world radiological incidents do occur throughout the year, this exercise was designed to be as realistic as possible. A scrap yard incident was chosen as the most probable type of event. The exercise was conducted on May 5 and 6, 1999. PMID:11197512

  18. Wealth distribution under Yard-Sale exchange with proportional taxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent analysis of a Yard-Sale (YS) exchange model supplemented with redistributive proportional taxation suggested an asymptotic behavior P(w)˜1/wμ for the wealth distribution, with a parameter-dependent exponent μ. Revisiting this problem, it is here shown analytically, and confirmed by extensive numerical simulation, that the asymptotic behavior of P(w) is not power-law but rather a Gaussian. When taxation is weak, we furthermore show that a restricted-range power-law behavior appears for wealths around the mean value. The corresponding power-law exponent equals 3/2 when the return distribution has zero mean.

  19. Gobar gas plant sludge is superior to farm yard manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnappa, A.M.; Ranganna, B.; Deshpande, P.B.; Venkatrao, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation conducted to compare the efficiency of sludge from biogas plants with farm-yard manure are reported. With regard to nutrient content, the sludge is seen to have a higher content of moisture, nitrogen, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, K/sub 2/O and organic carbon, as well as a higher N/C ratio. Both materials were used to fertilize fields of potato and ragi. The yield for potato fertilized with sludge increased by 6% while that for ragi increased by 17%.

  20. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Yan, Hui

    1997-07-01

    Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.

  1. Concentration and form of copper released into aquatic systems from commercial liquid and micronized pressure treated lumber.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered metal nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of metal ENMs from consumer goods, especially lumber that has been treated with micronized copper...

  2. Concentration and form of copper released into aquatic systems from commercial liquid and micronized pressure treated lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered metal nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of metal ENMs from consumer goods, especially lumber which has been treated with micronized coppe...

  3. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plywood, gypsum board or other materials of similar shape. Lumber or building products which are not..., building materials or similar products which are unitized for securement as a single article of cargo. (b... spacers must be equal to or greater than the height. (iii) If spacers are comprised of layers of...

  4. Form and toxicity of copper released into aquatic systems from conventionally and nano-sized copper treated lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of metal ENMs from consumer goods, such as lumber treated with micronized copper. Micronized copper tre...

  5. Agriculture and Logging and Lumber Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in agriculture and logging and lumber mill products industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document…

  6. 78 FR 47779 - Rough & Ready Lumber, LLC; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Perpetua Forests Company Cave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Rough & Ready Lumber, LLC; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Perpetua Forests Company Cave Junction, Oregon; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for..., Cave Junction, Oregon (subject firm). The Department's Notice of determination was published in...

  7. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone. PMID:23131652

  8. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  9. Mortality among dock-yard workers in Genoa, Italy.

    PubMed

    Puntoni, R; Russo, L; Zannini, D; Vercelli, M; Gambaro, R P; Valerio, F; Santi, L

    1977-01-01

    The causes of death among the dock-yard workers of Genoa from December 31, 1959 to January 1, 1970, have been investigated. These workers, mainly assigned to ship repair, refitting and construction, are exposed to several noxious substances, such as: asbestos, silica, paint solvents, welding smoke and volatile products of petroleum. Two different control groups were selected: the male population of Genoa and the staff of the San Martino Hospital in Genoa. Causes of death showing a significant increase were: gastric cancer (only in comparison with the hospital staff), cancer of colon excluding rectum, lung cancer, cancer of kidney, urinary bladder and other urinary organs, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis of the liver, cardiovascular diseases (only in comparison with the hospital staff).

  10. Yards, corridors, and mosaics: how to burn a boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, H.T.; Ferguson, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    Ethnographic studies have established that, until shortly after World War II, Indians in northern Alberta regularly and systematically fired habitats to influence the local distribution and relative abundance of plant and animal resources. In ways similar to what has been reported for hunter-gatherers in other regions, this pyrotechnology contributed to an overall fire mosaic that, in this case, formerly characterized northern boreal forests. Cross-cultural comparisons of these practices with those in other parts of North America, as well as in several parts of Australia, illustrate functionally parallel strategies in the ways that hunter-gatherers employed habitat fires, specifically in the maintenance of fire yards and fire corridors in widely separated and different kinds of biological zones.

  11. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts 100 percent yard waste, you must only meet the emission limits in... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts 100 percent yard waste, you must meet only the emission... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of...

  14. Near-source air quality in rail yard environments – an overview of recent EPA measurement and modeling findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will providing a summary of field measurements conducted in areas surrounding two major rail yards as well as modeling simulations of rail yard emissions dispersion. The Cicero Rail Yard Study (CIRYS) was recently released to the public and includes mobile and ...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  11. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S.; Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T.

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  12. Potential for geothermal direct use in the greenhouse, lumber, chemical, and potato and onion processing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.

    1980-09-01

    It has generally been assumed that rising energy costs in industries with high energy needs for low-temperature process heat will induce increasingly widespread geothermal direct use, so long as technical feasibility and cost advantage can be demonstrated. However, few systematic attempts have been made to determine how industry management and technical personnel within these industries view this possibility in light of factors they deem important to their own firms' energy supply choices. This paper discusses that subject in relation to potential commercial geothermal use in the greenhouse, lumber, chemical, and potato and onion processing industries. It is based upon extensive interviews with decision-makers in over 50 firms representing various segments of these industries and is a selected synthesis of material compiled into reports on each industry.

  13. NASA Lewis Helps Develop Advanced Saw Blades for the Lumber Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Structures and Material Divisions are centers of excellence in high-temperature alloys for aerospace applications such as advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Lewis' expertise in these fields was enlisted in the development of a new generation of circular sawblades for the lumber industry to use in cutting logs into boards. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Forest Products Laboratory and their supplier had succeeded in developing a thinner sawblade by using a nickel-based alloy, but they needed to reduce excessive warping due to residual stresses. They requested assistance from Lewis' experts, who successfully eliminated the residual stress problem and increased blade strength by over 12 percent. They achieved this by developing an innovative heat treatment based on their knowledge of nickel-based superalloys used in aeropropulsion applications.

  14. Thick-target PIXE analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J.-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    1999-04-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material.

  15. Does local lavage influence functional recovery during lumber discectomy of disc herniation?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ru-Sen; Ren, Yi-Ming; Yuan, Jian-Jun; Cui, Zi-Jian; Wan, Jun; Fan, Bao-You; Lin, Wei; Zhou, Xian-Hu; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common disease and lumbar discectomy is the most common surgical procedure carried out for patients with low back pain and leg symptoms. Although most researchers are focusing on the surgical techniques during operation, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local intervertebral lavage during microdiscectomy. In this retrospective study, 410 patients were operated on by microdiscectomy for LDH during 2011 to 2014. Retrospectively, 213 of them (group A) accepted local intervertebral irrigation with saline water before wound closure and 197 patients (group B) only had their operative field irrigated with saline water. Systematic records of visual analog scores (VAS), Oswestry disability Index (ODI) questionnaire scale scores, use of analgesia, and hospital length of stay were done after hospitalization. The majority (80.49%) of the cases were diagnosed with lumber herniation at the levels of L4/5 and L5/S1. Fifty-one patients had herniations at 2 levels. There were significant decreases of VAS scores and ODI in both groups between preoperation and postoperation of different time points. VAS scores decreased more in group A than group B at early stage of postoperation follow-up. However, there were no statistically significant differences between 2 groups in using analgesia, VAS and ODI up to 1 month of follow-up. Microdiscectomy for LDH offers a marked improvement in back and radicular pain. Local irrigation of herniated lumber disc area could relief dick herniation-derived low back pain and leg radicular pain at early stage of post-operation. However, the pain relief of this intervention was not noticeable for a long period. PMID:27759631

  16. Study and assessment of eight yard waste-composting programs across the United States. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.C.

    1988-12-30

    This report looks at the methods and products of yard waste composting in the context of 8 programs currently in operation in the U.S., in order to provide information and options to communities faced with difficult choices in the area of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Yard wastes, i.e., debris such as grass clippings, leaves, brush, and tree prunings, have been estimated to comprise approximately 18% of the annual national MSW stream gross discards. Yard waste generation rates and composition vary by season, year, and region. In fact, during the peak months of their generation (i.e., primarily during the summer and fall months), yard wastes can represent 25-50% of the MSW stream. Yard-waste composting has great potential as a MSW management option, in the U.S. It is estimated that there are between 800 and 1,000 yard waste composting facilities in the nation and it is expected that many more will begin operation as the landfill situation becomes more critical. As the burden on landfills across the U.S. continues to increase and landfill tip fees continue to soar, many communities are beginning to look to yard waste composting to save landfill capacity and landfill disposal (and related) costs as well as to produce a useful end product.

  17. Ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings and outdoor concrete yards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, José; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-09-01

    There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.

  18. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  19. Characterization of storm runoff from selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin J.; Reinhart, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect sufficient stormwater water-quality and flow data to document the type, concentration, and event load of selected constituents transported from South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) maintenance yards by stormwater runoff.

  20. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    PubMed

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANING UP BROWNFIELDS SITES: RAILROAD YARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically railroad yards. The document helps users to understand the proble...

  3. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    PubMed

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling. PMID:20615683

  4. 18. Yards & Docks Drawing 112,447 (463A1) (1931), 'Battery Overhaul ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Yards & Docks Drawing 112,447 (463-A-1) (1931), 'Battery Overhaul Bldg., Acid Mixing Plant & Misc. Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 7. Front yard of PitzerPeairs House. Fieldstone wall along Towne ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Front yard of Pitzer-Peairs House. Fieldstone wall along Towne Avenue in the background. Decorative landscape border in the foreground. - Pitzer Ranch, Rock Wall, 4353 Towne Avenue, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Orangeville Yards. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 91.00. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Orangeville Yards. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 91.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Ammonia emissions from outdoor concrete yards used by livestock—quantification and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Webb, J.; Gilhespy, S. L.

    Outdoor concrete yards are commonly found on UK livestock farms, and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in Europe, and represent a potentially significant source of ammonia (NH 3) emissions to the atmosphere. This study provided further measurements from a larger sample than previously made, to improve the robustness of the estimate of total NH 3 emission for inclusion in the UK NH 3 emission inventory. In addition, an assessment was made of a number of potential mitigation strategies. Measurements were made using the equilibrium concentration technique, employing small dynamic chambers and passive diffusion samplers, from 20 yards used by livestock on commercial farms. Mean emission rates (±standard error) were 0.31±0.07, 0.23±0.12, 0.19±0.05 and 0.18±0.09 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1 (0.70±0.21, 0.53±0.34, 0.76±0.22 and 0.18±0.14 g NH 3-N animal -1 h -1) for dairy cow-collecting yards, dairy cow-feeding yards, beef-feeding yards and sheep-feeding/handling areas, respectively, with mean respective livestock densities of 0.3, 0.5, 0.2 and 1.1 animals per m 2. There was a significant effect of season, with lower emission rates in the winter. There was a significant, albeit poor, positive linear relationship between emission rate and ambient air temperature ( r2=0.22) and between emission rate and total ammoniacal N content on the yard surface ( r2=0.14), but not with ambient wind speed. Pooling data from the present study with that from previous studies gave mean emission factors of 0.47±0.09, 0.98±0.39 and 0.13±0.09 g NH 3-N animal -1 h -1 for yards used by dairy cattle, beef cattle and sheep, respectively. Inclusion of these values, together with survey data on yard use, gave a total annual UK emission of approximately 25 kt NH 3 (95% confidence interval of 12-40 kt NH 3), representing almost 10% of total NH 3 emission from UK agriculture. In controlled studies, pressure washing and the use of a urease inhibitor in addition to yard scraping were found to be

  8. Using a standing-tree acoustic tool to identify forest stands for the production of mechanically-graded lumber.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Normand; Auty, David; Carter, Peter; Achim, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada) selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF). Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41). Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber. PMID:23482089

  9. Using a Standing-Tree Acoustic Tool to Identify Forest Stands for the Production of Mechanically-Graded Lumber

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Normand; Auty, David; Carter, Peter; Achim, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada) selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF). Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41). Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber. PMID:23482089

  10. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Micro-CT Imaging of Rat Bone and Lumber Vertebra using Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsyua; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2009-03-01

    Micro-tomographic imaging with a spatial resolution on the micrometer scale offers owes a high potential to perform certain types of measurements that were not feasible with other techniques or conventional laboratory methods. The synchrotron X-ray source gives substantial advantages because of its high brilliance and continuous X-ray spectrum. Based on this, visualized the microstructure of rat bone and lumber vertebra was visualized using 20, 25 and 30 keV synchrotron X-rays. We utilized the data which was acquired at different energies for multi-model imaging and to estimate the Ca/P ratio. Up to now there has been no research carried out using these images for the estimation of the calcium content, with synchrotron X-rays. The results are based on the analysis of images and gray values obtained at different energies. We introduce this new method in order to measure the calcium content by means of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT.

  12. Field evaluation of recycled plastic lumber (RPL) pallets. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Miele, C.R.; Francini, R.B.; Yuracko, K.; Yerace, P.

    1997-10-01

    One significant component of the waste stream, discarded plastic products and packaging, continues to be a growing portion of the municipal solid waste (MSW). There has been considerable work done in characterizing the quantity and types of plastics in different waste streams, collection methods, separation, sorting as well as technologies for processing post-consumer mixed plastics. The focus in recent years has been the development of markets for recycled plastic products, which constitutes the second half of the material flow diagram cycle shown in Figure 1. One key product that holds significant promise for plastics recycling to be both technically feasible and economically viable is Recycled Plastic Lumber (RPL). The contents of this report forms the second phase of a two-phase pilot project on developing specifications and standards for a product fabricated from RPL. Such standards and specifications are needed to prepare procurement guidelines for state and federal agencies interested in purchasing products made from recycled materials. The first phase focused on establishing a procedure to evaluate RPL product,s such as pallets, in a laboratory setting while this phase focuses on field evaluation of RPL pallets in service. This effort is critical in the development of new markets for RPL products. A brief summary of the findings from Phase 1 of this effort is presented next.

  13. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 6

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Wild, M.P.; Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S.; Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty five Southern pine boards were machined into 2 x 4 inch pieces. Next, the 8 foot boards were cut in half into matched pairs. One of the two was irradiated with RF, while the other served as a control. Both sets were dried under a conventional temperature-time based schedule. Results and conclusions are: RF pretreatment of lumber does not affect strength; the amount of pinene lost into the headspace during low-VOC RF-treatment of wood approximately corresponds to the amount of material lost from the wood; virtually all the pinene can be removed from the low-VOC reactor with steam, suggesting that pinene can be collected when the small amount of steam released during low-headspace treatment is condensed; temperature and moisture loss profiles for particle at 105 C has been modeled using experimental data at 130 C and 160 C; the VOC-temperature curve from dried particle shows a break at about 156 C, the boiling point of {alpha}-pinene, demonstrating that pinene boil-off occurs beyond this threshold; VOC release from dry particle has been successfully modeled; the transport of VOC from sapwood to the atmosphere for pine is faster than the corresponding movement from heartwood to sapwood; and seasonal variations in pine extractives are small.

  14. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  15. Electric utility pole yard training facility: Designing an effective learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Robert P.

    The primary responsibility of electric utilities is to supply consistent, dependable, and affordable energy to private customers, businesses, and industries. As with many businesses, electric utilities are experiencing the effects of an aging workforce and expending considerable resources to train their current and replacement workers. Community colleges can partner with electric utilities to provide effective learning environments for these workers, and gain access to new sources of revenue and community support for the colleges. The purpose of this study was to describe the functions, features, and major design issues of an effective learning environment for training electric utility industry workers, the electric utility line-worker pole yard. Case studies of three "state of the art" line-worker pole yard training environments provide the basis for the study's findings and implications. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What is the function of a line-worker pole yard in supporting effective training? (2) What are the features of present day ("state of the art") line-worker pole yard learning environments? and (3) What are the major issues that need to be addressed in designing a line-worker pole yard learning environment for the future? The study participants included industry representatives, training coordinators, instructors, and students from the three selected "state of the art" line-worker pole yard sites. The overall findings from the study resulted in composites of the desired features of learning outcomes, learning process, and learning environment for a line-worker pole yard training program and major issues that are affecting the future design of these training programs. Composite findings of a pole-yard training environment included unique features associated with: (a) outdoor, (b) indoor, (c) underground, (d) classroom, (e) gathering places, and (f) work-based learning components. Composite findings with regard to major

  16. Fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings for enhanced methane production by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Ge, Xumeng; Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Li, Yebo

    2014-04-01

    Fungal pretreatment is an environmentally friendly process that has been widely studied to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, sterilization of feedstocks, a costly process, is generally required prior to the fungal pretreatment. In this study, fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings using yard trimmings pre-colonized with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as an inoculum was investigated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in yard trimmings during 30 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum/substrate ratios (1:19, 1:9 and 1:4) was 14.8-20.2%, 8.1-15.4%, 20.7-27.8%, and 9.8-16.2%, respectively. Methane yields of 34.9-44.6L/kg volatile solids were achieved during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of the pretreated yard trimmings, which were comparable to those obtained by using the traditional method requiring feedstock sterilization. The technology developed in this study can save about 501-789 kJ/kg of dry yard trimmings processed, which is about half of the total biogas energy produced by SS-AD.

  17. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-09-15

    The K-25 Site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF{sub 6} normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF{sub 6} cylinders. The K-25 Site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF{sub 6}, one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust and yard soil near a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhees, D.J.; Altshul, L.M.; Cullen, A.C. |

    1999-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting in potential exposures for nearby residents. House dust was collected from carpet, while yard soil was collected from the main entryway to evaluate whether PCBs might be tracked indoors. All samples were analyzed for 65 PCB congeners to evaluate the relative importance of the harbor and indoor sources for human exposure. PCB concentrations in house dust were about 10 times higher than yard soil concentrations, although similar congener patterns were detected in these two media. Yard soil concentrations in neighborhoods closest to the harbor were significantly higher than those in comparison neighborhoods, while house dust concentrations did not different significantly between these two locales, PCB concentrations in house dust were correlated with those in indoor air, but house dust and yard soil concentrations were not correlated, suggesting that track-in may not be the only source of PCBs in house dust.

  19. Residents' Yard Choices and Rationales in a Desert City: Social Priorities, Ecological Impacts, and Decision Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Casagrande, David; Harlan, Sharon L.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-11-01

    As a dominant land use in urban ecosystems, residential yards impact water and other environmental resources. Converting thirsty lawns into alternative landscapes is one approach to water conservation, yet barriers such as cultural norms reinforce the traditional lawn. Meanwhile, the complex social and ecological implications of yard choices complicate programs aimed at changing grass and other yard features for particular purposes. In order to better understand individual landscape decisions, we qualitatively examined residents’ rationales for their preferred yard types in the desert metropolis of Phoenix, Arizona. After briefly presenting landscape choices across two survey samples, the dominant reasons for preferences are discussed: appearance, maintenance, environment, recreation, microclimate, familiarity, and health/safety. Three broader analytical themes emerged from these descriptive codes: (1) residents’ desires for attractive, comfortable landscapes of leisure encompassing pluralistic tastes, lifestyles, and perceptions; (2) the association of environmental benefits and impacts with different landscape types involving complex social and ecological tradeoffs; and (3) the cultural legacies evident in modern landscape choices, especially in terms of a dichotomous human-nature worldview among long-time residents of the Phoenix oasis. Given these findings, programs aimed at landscape change must recognize diverse preferences and rationalization processes, along with the perceived versus actual impacts and tradeoffs of varying yard alternatives.

  20. Hazmat transport: a methodological framework for the risk analysis of marshalling yards.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Valerio; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Zanelli, Severino

    2007-08-17

    A methodological framework was outlined for the comprehensive risk assessment of marshalling yards in the context of quantified area risk analysis. Three accident typologies were considered for yards: (i) "in-transit-accident-induced" releases; (ii) "shunting-accident-induced" spills; and (iii) "non-accident-induced" leaks. A specific methodology was developed for the assessment of expected release frequencies and equivalent release diameters, based on the application of HazOp and Fault Tree techniques to reference schemes defined for the more common types of railcar vessels used for "hazmat" transportation. The approach was applied to the assessment of an extended case-study. The results evidenced that "non-accident-induced" leaks in marshalling yards represent an important contribution to the overall risk associated to these zones. Furthermore, the results confirmed the considerable role of these fixed installations to the overall risk associated to "hazmat" transportation.

  1. Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yard.

    PubMed

    Singh, S S; Ward, W R; Lautenbach, K; Murray, R D

    1993-08-28

    The behaviour of normal cows in cubicles was compared with that of normal cows in a straw yard and that of lame cows in cubicles. The normal cows in a straw yard lay down for longer in total (9.6 hours vs 6.8 hours) and during the night (8.55 hours vs 4.75 hours) and for significantly longer at a time (3.95 hours vs 2.45 hours) than normal cows in cubicles. The normal cows in a straw yard spent more time lying down and ruminating (5.1 hours) than normal cows in cubicles (3.3 hours). Lame cows in cubicles lay down for significantly longer during the day (3.3 hours) than normal cows in cubicles (2.1 hours). Although lameness did not affect the total time the cows spent in feeding and rumination, lame cows moved about less, and they adopted abnormal postures suggesting discomfort.

  2. Impact of pretreatment on solid state anaerobic digestion of yard waste for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wangliang; Zhang, Guangyi; Xu, Guangwen

    2014-02-01

    Solid state anaerobic digestion, as a safe and environment-friendly technology to dispose municipal solid wastes, can produce methane and reduce the volume of wastes. In order to raise the digestion efficiency, this study investigated the pretreatment of yard waste by thermal or chemical method to break down the complex lignocellulosic structure. The composition and structure of pretreated yard waste were analyzed and characterized. The results showed that the pretreatment decreased the content of cellulose and hemicelluloses in yard waste and in turn improved the hydrolysis and methanogenic processes. The thermal pretreatment sample (P1) had the highest methane yield, by increasing 88% in comparison with digesting the raw material. The maximum biogas production reached 253 mL/g volatile solids (VS). The largest substrate mass reduction was obtained by the alkaline pretreatment (P5). The VS of the alkaline-treated sample decreased about 60% in comparison with the raw material.

  3. Hazmat transport: a methodological framework for the risk analysis of marshalling yards.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Valerio; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Zanelli, Severino

    2007-08-17

    A methodological framework was outlined for the comprehensive risk assessment of marshalling yards in the context of quantified area risk analysis. Three accident typologies were considered for yards: (i) "in-transit-accident-induced" releases; (ii) "shunting-accident-induced" spills; and (iii) "non-accident-induced" leaks. A specific methodology was developed for the assessment of expected release frequencies and equivalent release diameters, based on the application of HazOp and Fault Tree techniques to reference schemes defined for the more common types of railcar vessels used for "hazmat" transportation. The approach was applied to the assessment of an extended case-study. The results evidenced that "non-accident-induced" leaks in marshalling yards represent an important contribution to the overall risk associated to these zones. Furthermore, the results confirmed the considerable role of these fixed installations to the overall risk associated to "hazmat" transportation. PMID:17418942

  4. Estimating dermal transfer of copper particles from the surfaces of pressure-treated lumber and implications for exposure.

    PubMed

    Platten, William E; Sylvest, Nicholas; Warren, Casey; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Harmon, Steve; Bradham, Karen; Rogers, Kim; Thomas, Treye; Luxton, Todd Peter

    2016-04-01

    Lumber pressure-treated with micronized copper was examined for the release of copper and copper micro/nanoparticles using a surface wipe method to simulate dermal transfer. In 2003, the wood industry began replacing CCA treated lumber products for residential use with copper based formulations. Micronized copper (nano to micron sized particles) has become the preferred treatment formulation. There is a lack of information on the release of copper, the fate of the particles during dermal contact, and the copper exposure level to children from hand-to-mouth transfer. For the current study, three treated lumber products, two micronized copper and one ionic copper, were purchased from commercial retailers. The boards were left to weather outdoors for approximately 1year. Over the year time period, hand wipe samples were collected periodically to determine copper transfer from the wood surfaces. The two micronized formulations and the ionic formulation released similar levels of total copper. The amount of copper released was high initially, but decreased to a constant level (~1.5mgm(-2)) after the first month of outdoor exposure. Copper particles were identified on the sampling cloths during the first two months of the experiment, after which the levels of copper were insufficient to collect interpretable data. After 1month, the particles exhibited minimal changes in shape and size. At the end of 2-months, significant deterioration of the particles was evident. Based on the wipe sample data, a playground visit may result in a potential exposure to 2.58mg of copper, which is near or exceeds the daily tolerable upper intake limits for children under the age of 8, if completely ingested through hand-to-mouth transfer. While nanoparticles were found, there is not enough information to estimate the exposure from the released particles due to a lack of published literature on copper carbonate.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste. (4) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  12. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  16. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  17. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive...

  18. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive...

  20. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  2. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends using stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment....1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  8. Synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence from rat bone and lumber vertebra of different age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Swapna, Medasani; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Akatsuka, Tako; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2009-02-01

    The fluorescence spectra from rat bones of different age groups (8, 56 and 78 weeks) and lumber vertebra were measured with 8, 10 and 12 keV synchrotron X-rays. We have utilized the new hard X-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS with a primary beam spot size of the order of ˜10 μm. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, X-ray fluorescent intensities for Ca and other trace elements were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. Regarding the lumber vertebra, we acquired the fluorescence spectra from the left, right and middle portions and calcium accumulation was evaluated and compared with the other samples. We have identified the major trace elements of Ca, Ni, Fe and Zn and minor trace elements of Ti, Cr and Mn in the sample. The percentage of scattered radiation and trace element contributions from these samples were highlighted at different energies.

  9. Stormwater run-off from an industrial log yard: characterization, contaminant correlation and first-flush phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kaczala, Fabio; Marques, Marcia; Vinrot, Eva; Hogland, William

    2012-01-01

    The stormwater run-off generated in an industrial log yard during eight run-off events was studied with the main focus on the transport of toxic metals. Associations between water quality constituents and potential surrogates were evaluated by correlation analysis. The first-flush phenomenon was verified by normalized M(V) curves. The results have shown that, whereas some metals such as Zn, Ba, Cd, As and Fe were always detected in these waters, others (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, V, Co) were not. Large variations in the water constituents' concentrations were observed, with Fe, Pb and V being the most variable ones. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in the run-off waters exceeded the values established by the Swedish environmental authorities in 100% and 97% of samples, respectively. The correlation analyses indicated TSS as a potential surrogate of Pb, V, Co, Ni, As, Ba, Cr and COD (0.949 > R > 0.808), making it reasonable to state that a treatment system with focus on TSS removal would also reduce toxic metals from these waters. The first-flush phenomenon was evident for most of the constituents. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the first-flush magnitude of different run-off events were observed confirming that hydro-meteorological variables such as dry period, precipitation duration and average intensity play important roles. Metal loads originating from the log yard were mainly composed ofZn, Cu and Ba. Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics, discharge dynamics and the storm variables involved in the process is a crucial step for the proposal and implementation of a stormwater management programme.

  10. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka. PMID:27441212

  11. Implementation of Central Bar Bending Yard: A Case Study on 6 × 660 MW Sasan UMPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, Potnoor

    2014-12-01

    Central bar bending yard is implemented for the first time in India in power plant construction by Reliance at Sasan ultra mega power project by use of fully automatic Computer Numerical Control (CNC) based machines for improved project quality, automated precise rebar processing, low wastage of material and less labor dependency.

  12. Exploring homeowner diffusion of yard care knowledge as one step toward improving urban ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Martini, Nicholas F; Nelson, Kristen C; Dahmus, Maria E

    2014-11-01

    Urban ecosystems are increasingly influenced by residential yard care decisions. This had led researchers to focus on homeowner education programs when it comes to yard care. Typically, the success of programs designed to influence yard care is based on whether the target subject changes his or her behavior in a more environmentally conscious manner. This threshold, however, fails to consider if individuals share this information with their friends and neighbors, thus having a possible spillover effect. In this paper, we focus on the transmission of new lawn management information among neighbors and consider (1) if individuals discuss information they learned in a short-term educational program, (2) what factors are associated with diffusion, (3) what information individuals share, and (4) what barriers to transmission exist. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, we used data from a mailed survey, group discussions, and mailed information exchanges. Results indicate that best management practices for yards can diffuse through the neighborhood (approximately 34 % shared information with their neighbors in a one-month period). In addition, factors such as (1) attending a group discussion, 2) individual social connectedness, (3) length of home ownership, and (4) the presence of children in the household were found to be positively related to increased sharing of information. Also, for lawns, the content of information shared tended to be about increasing grass height and reducing fertilizer applications. Finally, we find barriers to sharing ideas based on spatial, temporal, or perception factors but overcoming some of these barriers is possible.

  13. Us and Them--Children's Identity Work and Social Geography in a Swedish School Yard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    The article focusses on constructions of social identities in school and how children in their identity work (re-)construct common and segregated places in the school yard. Data were drawn from an ethnographic research in the daily lives of children aged 11-13. The fieldwork consisted of traditional ethnographic field work as well as children's…

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  15. Exploring homeowner diffusion of yard care knowledge as one step toward improving urban ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Martini, Nicholas F; Nelson, Kristen C; Dahmus, Maria E

    2014-11-01

    Urban ecosystems are increasingly influenced by residential yard care decisions. This had led researchers to focus on homeowner education programs when it comes to yard care. Typically, the success of programs designed to influence yard care is based on whether the target subject changes his or her behavior in a more environmentally conscious manner. This threshold, however, fails to consider if individuals share this information with their friends and neighbors, thus having a possible spillover effect. In this paper, we focus on the transmission of new lawn management information among neighbors and consider (1) if individuals discuss information they learned in a short-term educational program, (2) what factors are associated with diffusion, (3) what information individuals share, and (4) what barriers to transmission exist. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, we used data from a mailed survey, group discussions, and mailed information exchanges. Results indicate that best management practices for yards can diffuse through the neighborhood (approximately 34 % shared information with their neighbors in a one-month period). In addition, factors such as (1) attending a group discussion, 2) individual social connectedness, (3) length of home ownership, and (4) the presence of children in the household were found to be positively related to increased sharing of information. Also, for lawns, the content of information shared tended to be about increasing grass height and reducing fertilizer applications. Finally, we find barriers to sharing ideas based on spatial, temporal, or perception factors but overcoming some of these barriers is possible. PMID:25228090

  16. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  17. Access to Science and Literacy through Inquiry and School Yard Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox-Petersen, Anne; Spencer, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an integrated science and literacy instructional model in which students build background knowledge by engaging in free-choice learning options during an investigation of school yard habitats. Students interact with their peers while inquiring, discussing findings, and using print resources to enhance learning.

  18. Context view from southwest corner of Building No. 41's yard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view from southwest corner of Building No. 41's yard showing Building No. 41 in alignment of government buildings. View to east - Fort Peck Indian Boarding School, Principal's Cottage, Northeast corner of Assiniboine Avenue and Federal Street, Poplar, Roosevelt County, MT

  19. Exploring Homeowner Diffusion of Yard Care Knowledge as One Step Toward Improving Urban Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Nicholas F.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Dahmus, Maria E.

    2014-11-01

    Urban ecosystems are increasingly influenced by residential yard care decisions. This had led researchers to focus on homeowner education programs when it comes to yard care. Typically, the success of programs designed to influence yard care is based on whether the target subject changes his or her behavior in a more environmentally conscious manner. This threshold, however, fails to consider if individuals share this information with their friends and neighbors, thus having a possible spillover effect. In this paper, we focus on the transmission of new lawn management information among neighbors and consider (1) if individuals discuss information they learned in a short-term educational program, (2) what factors are associated with diffusion, (3) what information individuals share, and (4) what barriers to transmission exist. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, we used data from a mailed survey, group discussions, and mailed information exchanges. Results indicate that best management practices for yards can diffuse through the neighborhood (approximately 34 % shared information with their neighbors in a one-month period). In addition, factors such as (1) attending a group discussion, 2) individual social connectedness, (3) length of home ownership, and (4) the presence of children in the household were found to be positively related to increased sharing of information. Also, for lawns, the content of information shared tended to be about increasing grass height and reducing fertilizer applications. Finally, we find barriers to sharing ideas based on spatial, temporal, or perception factors but overcoming some of these barriers is possible.

  20. View southeast of 30,000 pound crane in steel yard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of 30,000 - pound crane in steel yard north of structural assembly shop (building 541) (Haer no. PA-387-8) - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Effect of competitiveness on forty-yard dash performance in college men and women.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashley N; Decker, Aaron J; Baarts, Jennifer N; Dupont, Andrea M; Epema, John S; Reuther, Michael C; Houser, Jeremy J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine performance differences between individual and competitive trials of the 40-yard dash. Physically active college men (n = 25) and women (n = 29) performed an individual 40-yard dash, followed by completion of the Sports Competition Trait Inventory (SCTI) before performing a paired 40-yard dash against a time-matched competitor. All sprints were performed on an indoor rubberized track using photoelectric gates to start and stop a digital timer. In addition, 3 timers used hand-held stopwatches to record the individual sprint time. There was no significant difference (p = 0.10) between men (120.3 +/- 16.6) and women (111.7 +/- 20.3) on the SCTI. There was no significant difference between individual and competitive 40-yard dash times for either men (5.21 +/- 0.24 and 5.19 +/- 0.23 seconds, respectively) or women (6.12 +/- 0.31 and 6.11 +/- 0.32 seconds, respectively). The correlation between SCTI and both individual and competitive 40-yard dashes was significant (p < 0.05) for women (r = -0.45 and -0.44, respectively) but not for men (r = -0.10 and 0.10, respectively). Electronic times (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) were not significantly different from 1 hand-timer (5.71 +/- 0.56 seconds) but were significantly faster than the other 2 timers (5.80 +/- 0.58 and 5.82 +/- 0.57 seconds). Averaging the 3 hand times (5.78 +/- 0.56 seconds) for comparison with the electronic timing (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) produced a high correlation (r = 0.96) but a significantly slower time (p < 0.05). A competitive environment does not appear to improve short sprint times in either men or women. In addition, hand timing may not always produce faster times compared to electronic timing.

  2. Optimizing an Experimental System for Assessing the Amounts and Forms of Copper Released into Aquatic Systems from Commercially Available Liquid and Micronized Pressure Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered metal nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of metal ENMs from consumer goods, especially lumber which has been treated with micronized coppe...

  3. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  4. Calculation methodology of the heat pump in the process of oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Shaikhutdinova, A. R.; Khakimzyanov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    The oscillating technologies consisting in alternating of the stage of heating of the material and vacuumization are the most advanced in the process of wood drying. In this regard, the article examines the energy-saving technology of the oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of lumber, during which the thermal energy of the moisture evaporated from the material under vacuum in one chamber by using the heat pump is transferred to the heating of the material in the other chamber. The authors develop the method of calculating the rate of removal of moisture from the heated material at the stage of vacuumization depending on the depth of vacuum, temperature, humidity and thickness of the material, which is the initial condition for calculating the heat pump.

  5. Effect of post-treatment processing on copper migration from Douglas-fir lumber treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Morrell, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-01

    Migration of heavy metals into aquatic environments has become a concern in some regions of the world. Many wood preservatives are copper based systems that have the potential to migrate from the wood and into the surrounding environment. Some wood treaters have developed "best management practices" (BMPs) that are designed to reduce the risk of migration, but there are few comparative studies assessing the efficacy of these processes. The potential for using various heating combinations to limit copper migration was assessed using ammoniacal coper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir lumber. Kiln drying and air drying both proved to be the most effective methods for limiting copper migration, while post-treatment steaming or hot water immersion produced more variable results. The results should provide guidance for improving the BMP processes. PMID:25659940

  6. Effective Yard Supervision: From Needs Assessment to Customized Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Jill D.; Hunnicutt, Kayleigh L.; Mayworm, Ashley M.; Schiedel, K. Chris; Calcagnotto, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Most educational scholars agree that appropriate supervision of children is critical for positive youth development. Supervision is especially important during situations where children have a large degree of freedom and unstructured interaction, such as during recess. Despite the apparent importance of supervision of children at recess, there is…

  7. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Elowson, Torbjörn

    2006-01-01

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters.

  8. [Relationship among soil enzyme activities, vegetation state, and soil chemical properties of coal cinder yard].

    PubMed

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dengyi

    2003-01-01

    From field investigation and laboratory analysis, the relationships among soil enzyme activities, vegetation state and soil chemical properties of coal cinder yard in thermal power station were studied. The results showed that vegetation on coal cinder yard was distributed in scattered patch mainly with single species of plant, and herbs were the dominant species. At the same time, the activity of three soil enzymes had a stronger relativity to environment conditions, such as vegetation state and soil chemical properties. The sensitivity of three soil enzymes to environmental stress was in order of urease > sucrase > catalase. The relativity of three soil enzymes to environmental factor was in order of sucrase > urease > catalase. Because of urease being the most susceptible enzyme to environmental conditions, and it was marked or utmost marked interrelated with vegetation state and soil chemical properties, urease activity could be used as an indicator for the reclamation of wasteland.

  9. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  10. [Vegetation distribution in coal cinder yard of Wuhu thermal power station].

    PubMed

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dengyi

    2002-12-01

    There are 30 species of natural colonized plants in the coal cinder yard of Wuhu thermal power station, and they are subordinate to 14 families and 29 genera. The main families are Compositae (7 species), Gramineae (6 species) and Leguminesae, among which, 18 species are annual plant, 9 species are perennial plant, and 2 species are woody plants. The chief factors limiting the vegetation distribution are extreme infertility and high concentration of heavy metals.

  11. Fungal pretreatment of yard trimmings for enhancement of methane yield from solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Zheng, Yi; Li, Yebo

    2014-03-01

    Yard trimmings were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, a white-rot fungus that selectively degrades lignin, to enhance methane production via solid-state anaerobic digestion. Effects of moisture content (MC), at 45%, 60%, and 75%, on the degradation of holocellulose and lignin in the fungal pretreatment step and on methane production in the digestion step were studied with comparison to the control group (autoclaved without inoculation) and raw yard trimmings. It was found that C. subvermispora had a high lignin degradation of 20.9% but limited cellulose degradation of 7.4% at 60% MC. Consequently, samples pretreated at 60% MC achieved the highest methane yield of 44.6L/kg volatile solid (VS) in the digestion step, which was 106% and 154% higher than the control group (21.6L/kg VS) and the raw yard trimmings (17.6L/kg VS), respectively. The increase in methane production was probably caused by the degradation of lignin during the pretreatment.

  12. The influence of outdoor school yard experiences on elementary students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sarah Carrier

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of outdoor school yard activities on elementary students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. In addition, the interaction of students' gender with each of these variables was examined. Data were collected on 105 students in 4th- and 5th-grade public school classes in Gainesville, Florida. Two intact classes were used, one treatment and one control group at each grade level. The treatment group students participated in 14 weeks of weekly outdoor school yard activities exploring environmental science knowledge and attitude topics in a systems context. Pearson correlation coefficients and Cronbach coefficient alpha were used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANCOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < 05) revealed that 5th-grade students' who participated in the outdoor school yard activities showed significant differences in environmental knowledge when compared with the 5th-grade control group students who had no outdoor school yard experiences. Although the results of the study indicated that outdoor school yard experiences do not impact students' environmental attitudes, behaviors, or comfort levels in the outdoors, significant gender differences were found in 5th-grade females' environmental attitudes and behaviors when compared with 5th-grade males. The results of this study indicate the potential for effective use of the school yard for helping students learn firsthand about environmental knowledge and issues. Because the school yard offers teachers and students a readily available and convenient outdoor learning setting, its use in environmental education merits further research.

  13. 29 CFR 1903.2 - Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... large type, generally not less than 36 pt. (b) Establishment means a single physical location where... administrative office.) Where distinctly separate activities are performed at a single physical location (such as contract construction activities from the same physical location as a lumber yard), each activity shall...

  14. 75 FR 72952 - Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W, Charenton Drainage and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29 48.77' N... to a 1000-yard radius from position 29 48.77' N 091 33.02' W, Charenton Drainage and Navigation Canal... Drainage Canal will be closed to all marine traffic within a 1000-yard radius of position 29 48.77' N...

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar at Alcatraz Island: Imaging Civil-War Era Fortifications Beneath the Recreation Yard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M. E.; de Smet, T. S.; Warden, R.; Komas, T.; Hagin, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a cultural resources assessment and historical preservation project supported by the U.S. National Park Service, GPR surveys using 200 MHz antennas, with ~3.0 m depth of penetration and ~0.1 m lateral and vertical resolution, were conducted by our team in June 2012 over the recreation yard and parade ground at historic Alcatraz Island in order to image the underlying buried Civil War-era fortifications. The recreation yard at the Alcatraz high-security federal penitentiary served as a secure outdoor facility where the prisoners could take exercise. The facility, enclosed by a high perimeter wall and sentry walk, included basketball courts, a baseball diamond, and bleacher-style seating. The site previously consisted of coastal batteries built by the U.S. Army in the early to mid 1850's. As the need for harbor defense diminished, the island was converted into a military prison during the 1860's. In 1933, the military prison was transferred to federal control leading to the establishment of the high-security penitentiary. The rec yard was constructed in 1908-1913 directly over existing earthen fortifications, namely a trio of embankments known as 'traverses I, J, and K.' These mounds of earth, connected by tunnels, were in turn built over concrete and brick magazines. The processed GPR sections show good correlations between radar reflection events and the locations of the buried fortification structures derived from historical map analysis. A 3-D data cube was constructed and two of the cut-away perspective views show that traverse K, in particular, has a strong radar signature.

  16. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  13. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES OF THE BARN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. The sliding door on the barns east façade leads into the animal pens and milking stalls. The barn’s hip-on-gable roof is covered in corrugated metal. The gable end is clad in board and battens, matching the rest of the barns exterior. The pump house can be seen to the north; the garage to the west. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  14. An H Theorem for Boltzmann's Equation for the Yard-Sale Model of Asset Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Bruce M.; Johnson, Merek; Marcq, Jeremy A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent work (Boghosian, Phys Rev E 89:042804-042825, 2014; Boghosian, Int J Mod Phys 25:1441008-1441015, 2014), Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations were derived for the "Yard-Sale Model" of asset exchange. For the version of the model without redistribution, it was conjectured, based on numerical evidence, that the time-asymptotic state of the model was oligarchy—complete concentration of wealth by a single individual. In this work, we prove that conjecture by demonstrating that the Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality commonly used by economists, is an H function of both the Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations for the model.

  15. Y-12 ARRA Project Listed Waste Determination Old Salvage Yard Project

    SciTech Connect

    Milloway, J. D.

    2010-01-21

    The Old Salvage Yard received scrap metal from various plant operations, store liquid hazardous wastes, and de-headed and crushed drums from the early 1950s until October 1999. The acceptance of non-containerized scrap metal for outdoor storage was routine until 1995, when scrap metal received at the site was placed in containers. All scrap metal (containerized and non containerized) stored and handled at the OSY is considered non-classified. There are 5 scrap metal waste piles and approximately 1,100 waste containers, many stacked 2-high within the confines of the OSY.

  16. Investigation of the potential impacts from tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard.

    SciTech Connect

    Hysong, R. J.

    1998-12-21

    Based on a review of available data, significant contributions to low-level tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard have been made by airborne tritium fallout and rainout from the CP-5 ventilation system stack. Based on the distribution of tritium in the yard, it is also likely that leaks in secondary system piping which lead to the cooling towers were a significant contributor to tritium in CP-5 yard subsurface soil. Based on the foregoing analysis, low-level tritium contamination will not prohibit the release of the yard for unrestricted use in the future. Worst case dose estimates based on very conservative assumptions indicate that a 25 rmem annual effective dose equivalent limit will not be exceeded under the most restrictive residential-use family farm scenario. Given the impermeable nature of the glacial till under CP-5, low-level concentrations of tritium may be occasionally detected in the deep well (3300 12D), but the peak concentration will not approach the levels calculated by RESRAD; however, continued monitoring of the deep well is recommended. To ensure that all sources of potential tritium release have been removed from the CP-5 complex, removal of tritiated water from each rod-out hole and an evaluation of the physical integrity of the rod-out holes is recommended. This will also allow for an evaluation of tritium concentrations in shallow groundwater under CP-5 by sampling groundwater that is currently being forced into the drain tile system. Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling and analysis will be required to determine the final release status of soils around the Building 330 complex relative to elevated concentrations of CS-137, CO-60,Co-57, and Eu-152 identified during the 1993 IT Corporation characterization. The potential radiological impact from isolated elevations of the latter radionuclides is relatively low and can be evaluated as part of the final status survey of outdoor areas surrounding the Building 330 complex. In

  17. Yard Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    17 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a bright plain west of Schiaparelli Crater, Mars, which is host to several features, some of them long-lived and others that are transient. The circular features scattered somewhat randomly throughout the scene are impact craters, all of which are in a variety of states of degradation. In the lower left (southwest) corner of the image, there is a small hill surrounded by ripples of windblown sediment, and near the center of the image, there is an active dust devil casting a shadow to the east as it makes its way across the plain.

    Location near: 5.9oS, 348.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  18. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

  19. Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-01

    Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation.

  20. Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-01

    Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation. PMID:25209330

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in elementary school yards along the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Miersma, Nick A; Pepper, Christopher B; Anderson, Todd A

    2003-01-01

    A reconnaissance study was undertaken to determine potential contaminant exposures to children through soil from elementary school playgrounds. Soil samples were collected from areas along the Texas-Mexico border, inland areas (soils from elementary school yards in cities/towns within the state of Texas), and three National Parks (one on the border, one in Tennessee, and one in Washington). The present study focused on organochlorine (OC) pesticides as the potential contaminants of concern because of their historical (and possibly current) use, and their importance as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDE and heptachlor were the most frequently detected OCs (69 and 63%, respectively), although heptachlor concentrations in soil never exceeded 5 ppb. Relatively higher concentrations of DDE were observed in agricultural areas along the border (50-60 ppb in soils from McAllen, Palmview, and San Benito) than in other soils. However, a school yard in Lubbock, TX had the highest OC concentration observed (70 ppb dieldrin). These results may be due to historical agriculture activity prior to the banning of OC pesticides such as DDT in the early 1970s, as well as the more recent use of DDT in Central and South America for malaria control.

  2. Behavioral changes in female Asian elephants when given access to an outdoor yard overnight.

    PubMed

    Powell, David M; Vitale, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted at the Bronx Zoo to determine whether providing elephants with access to an outdoor corral at night had any significant effects on behavior, use of space, and use of a sand corral. Activity budgets for three female Asian elephants were compared when the subjects were housed indoors overnight and when they were given access to an outdoor yard overnight. Observations were recorded via infrared video cameras between the hours of 1900 and 0700 during the months of July-September. Two of the three elephants showed a significant preference for spending time outdoors, whereas, the third elephant spent most of her time indoors. Standing and play behavior increased when the elephants had outdoor access while lying down and feeding behavior decreased. Swaying behavior decreased significantly when the elephants had access to the outdoor yard. The elephants made very little use of a sand-floor stall regardless of whether or not they had access to outdoors. The results of this study, suggest that having access to alternate areas overnight can promote well-being by reducing repetitive behavior and allowing animals to express their preferences for different locations. The relative importance of choice alone vs. the behavioral opportunities provided by choice options for zoo animals is discussed. Zoo Biol. 35:298-303, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  4. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark.

    PubMed

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R

    2009-06-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially if bark were present. We conducted field studies to evaluate insect infestation of green logs and lumber with varying amounts of bark after heat treatment. In a log study, Cerambycidae and Scolytinae (ambrosia beetles and bark beetles) readily infested and developed in logs with bark after heat treatment. In a lumber study, Cerambycidae and bark beetles laid eggs in all sizes of bark patches tested (approximately 25, 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2) after heat treatment but did not infest control or heat-treated lumber without bark. Cerambycidae completed development only in boards with bark patches of 1,000 cm2, whereas bark beetles completed development on patches of 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2. Survival of bark beetles was greater in square patches (10 by 10 cm) versus rectangular patches (2.5 by 40 cm) of the same surface area (100 cm2). In surveys at six U.S. ports in 2006, 9.4% of 5,945 ISPM 15-marked WPM items contained bark, and 1.2% of 564 ISPM 15-marked WPM items with bark contained live insects of quarantine significance under the bark. It was not possible to determine whether the presence of live insects represented treatment failure or infestation after treatment.

  5. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of spent mushroom substrate with yard trimmings and wheat straw for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a biomass waste generated from mushroom production. About 5 kg of SMS is generated for every kg of mushroom produced. In this study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of SMS, wheat straw, yard trimmings, and their mixtures was investigated at different feedstock to effluent ratios. SMS was found to be highly degradable, which resulted in inhibition of SS-AD due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and a decrease in pH. This issue was addressed by co-digestion of SMS with either yard trimmings or wheat straw. SS-AD of SMS/yard trimmings achieved a cumulative methane yield of 194 L/kg VS, which was 16 and 2 times higher than that from SMS and yard trimmings, respectively. SS-AD of SMS/wheat straw obtained a cumulative methane yield of 269 L/kg VS, which was 23 times as high as that from SMS and comparable to that from wheat straw.

  6. AMERICAN CREOSOTE SITE CASE STUDY: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF DIOXINS, PCP, AND CREOSOTE FOR $64 PER CUBIC YARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study describes the development of solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulas and their application to rededicate the American Creosote site in Jackson, Tennessee. During 1998 and 1999, 45,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with Creosote, PCP, and Dioxins were treat...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  8. 75 FR 67673 - Security Zone; Increase of Security Zones From 100 to 500 Yards; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... limitation of the 100 yard (91 meters) security zone hinders reaction time and the ability of the coxswains..., or other causes of a similar nature. While enforcing a security zone, screening or reaction...

  9. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  14. 78 FR 36545 - Notice of Ability To Pay-Cash-out Settlement Agreement for the Jefferson City Residential Yards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ..., snowmelt runoff, and other events have caused the tailings, which are contaminated with elevated levels of... residential yards at the Site. The EPA's response actions at the Site included excavation of contaminated soils, backfilling with clean soils, and re-grading and disposal of the contaminated soils. The...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in Appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in Appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  20. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land. PMID:26395356

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as

  2. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  3. Yard waste compost as a stormwater protection treatment for construction sites.

    PubMed

    Reinsch, Craig T; Admiraal, David M; Dvorak, Bruce I; Cecrle, Chad A; Franti, Thomas G; Stansbury, John S

    2007-08-01

    Runoff water quality improvement from three yard waste compost erosion control treatments were compared with two conventional treatments and an untreated control on plots of 3:1 slope during two growing seasons, using natural events and simulated rainfall. Runoff volume, suspended solids, nutrients, biomass, turf shear strength, and turfgrass color scale were monitored. The most effective compost treatment, a 5-cm thick blown compost blanket, produced 12.7 times less runoff and 9.8 times less sediment load than a straw mat and silt fence treatment. The compost treatments generated eight times more biomass than the straw mat treatments. Root development was significantly better on the compost treatments based on turf shear strength measurements. Tilled-in compost was not as effective as a compost blanket at reducing sediment loss, particularly before the establishment of grass on the plot. The cost of compost treatments was similar to that of straw mat with silt fence treatments.

  4. Effluent blending in constructed wetlands: Pollution prevention applications at a coal yard treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, J.P.; Hoylman, A.M.; Sparks, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent blending, in combination with constructed wetland biotechnology, is a promising method for reducing the loading rates of pollution to receiving streams. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a project is underway to demonstrate this principle. An 8:2 ratio of sewage treatment plant to coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) effluent will be polished by 2 constructed wetland cells containing emergent wetland plants in saturated pea gravel at a rate of 3600 gallons per day. The relatively high concentration of nutrients in the STP effluent should stimulate biological processes leading to the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and the conversion of excess sulfate (in the CYRTF effluent) to alkalinity. Chlorine, which is added to the STP effluent to control bacteria, should also be eliminated. Measurements of wastewater toxicity, before and after the effluent blend has passed through the constructed wetlands, will be used to assess the technology`s effectiveness at reducing pollution.

  5. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  6. Bee Fauna and Floral Abundance Within Lawn-Dominated Suburban Yards in Springfield, MA

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, S.B.; Milam, J.

    2016-01-01

    Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km2 of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014. Householders participating in the study did not apply chemical pesticides or herbicides to lawns for the duration of the study. We collected 5,331 individual bees, representing 111 species, and 29% of bee species reported for the state. The majority of species were native to North America (94.6%), nested in soil (73%), and solitary (48.6%). Species richness was lower for oligolectic (specialists on a single plant; 9.9%) and parasitic species (12.6%). Abundance percentages for number of individuals were similar. We documented 63 plant species in the lawns, the majority of which were not intentionally planted. The most abundant lawn flowers were dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and clover (Trifolium sp.). Nearly 30% of the spontaneous plant species growing in the lawns were native to North America. Our study suggests that the spontaneous lawn flowers could be viewed as supplemental floral resources and support pollinators, thereby enhancing the value of urban green spaces. PMID:27651546

  7. Bee Fauna and Floral Abundance Within Lawn-Dominated Suburban Yards in Springfield, MA

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, S.B.; Milam, J.

    2016-01-01

    Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km2 of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014. Householders participating in the study did not apply chemical pesticides or herbicides to lawns for the duration of the study. We collected 5,331 individual bees, representing 111 species, and 29% of bee species reported for the state. The majority of species were native to North America (94.6%), nested in soil (73%), and solitary (48.6%). Species richness was lower for oligolectic (specialists on a single plant; 9.9%) and parasitic species (12.6%). Abundance percentages for number of individuals were similar. We documented 63 plant species in the lawns, the majority of which were not intentionally planted. The most abundant lawn flowers were dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and clover (Trifolium sp.). Nearly 30% of the spontaneous plant species growing in the lawns were native to North America. Our study suggests that the spontaneous lawn flowers could be viewed as supplemental floral resources and support pollinators, thereby enhancing the value of urban green spaces.

  8. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.

  9. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. PMID:26790450

  10. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  11. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively. PMID:22317795

  12. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches signals, retarders, and humps; and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-52-64, XX-52-65, XX-52-66, XX-52-59, XX-52-67, XX-52-68 and...

  13. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  14. Reliability and criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test in competitive junior tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anna; Johansson, Fredrik R; Bäck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study adds to the previous work in the field of sport-specific fitness testing by evaluating a tennis-specific agility test called “the 20-yard shuttle test”. The aim of the study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability, the inter-rater reliability, and the criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test on competitive junior tennis players. Participants and methods Totally, 34 Swedish tennis players (13 girls), mean age 14±1.6 years, participated in the study. To examine test–retest reliability, the subjects performed the 20-yard shuttle test three times on the same day and then the same procedure was repeated after 3 days. To test the inter-rater reliability, the time was measured with a stopwatch simultaneously by two different raters. The time recorded manually was compared to the gold standard of digital timing to evaluate the criterion-related validity. Results Excellent test–retest reliability was found both within the same day (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.95) and between days (ICC 0.91). Furthermore, the results showed excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.99) and criterion-related validity on both test occasions (ICC 0.99). Conclusion We have provided introductory support for the 20-yard shuttle test as a reliable and valid test for use in competitive junior tennis players. The ease of administration makes this test a practical alternative to evaluate physical fitness in order to optimally train the athletes. PMID:26316829

  15. Comparison of Over-the-Rail and Rail Yard Measurements of Diesel Locomotives.

    PubMed

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Locomotive prime mover engine emission rates are typically measured at steady-state for discrete throttle notches using an engine dynamometer weighted by a standard duty cycle. However, this method may not represent real-world locomotive emissions. A method for in-use measurement of passenger locomotives, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), was developed to estimate duty cycle average emission rates. We conducted 48 measurements of one-way trips between Raleigh and Charlotte, NC, on 7 locomotives and 18 sets of measurements in the rail yard (RY). Real-world duty cycles differed from those used for regulatory analyses, leading to statistically significant lower cycle average NOx and HC emission rates. Compared to RY measurements, notch average NOx emission rates measured over-the-rail (OTR) at the highest two notch settings were, on average, 19% lower for four locomotives. At the highest notch, OTR CO2 emission rates were, on average, 12% lower than RY rates for five locomotives. For a more accurate representation of real-world emission rates, OTR measurements are preferred. However, using steady-state notch average RY emission rates and standard duty cycles may be tolerable for some applications. OTR versus RY cycle average emission rates typically differed by less than 10%.

  16. Surface debris inventory at White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1992-08-01

    An inventory of surface debris in designated grid blocks at the White Wing Scrap Yard [Waste Area Grouping 11 (WAG 11)] was conducted intermittently from February through June 1992 by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program personnel. The objectives of this project are outlined in the following four phases: (1) estimate the amount (volume) and type (e.g., glass, metal and plastics) of surface waste material in 30 designated grid blocks (100- by 100-ft grids); (2) conduct limited air sampling for organic chemical pollutants at selected locations (e.g., near drums, in holes, or other potentially contaminated areas); (3) conduct a walkover gamma radiation scan extending outward (approximately 50 ft) beyond the proposed location of the WAG 11 perimeter fence; and (4) recommend one grid block as a waste staging area. This recommendation is based on location and accessibility for debris staging/transport activities and on low levels of gamma radiation in the grid block.

  17. Yard-Sale exchange on networks: wealth sharing and wealth appropriation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2012-12-01

    Yard Sale (YS) is a stochastic multiplicative wealth exchange model with two phases: a stable one where wealth is shared, and an unstable one where wealth condenses onto one agent. YS is here studied numerically on 1D rings, 2D square lattices, and random graphs with variable average coordination, comparing its properties with those in mean field (MF). Equilibrium properties in the stable phase are almost unaffected by the introduction of a network. Measurement of decorrelation times in the stable phase allows us to determine the critical interface with very good precision, and it turns out to be the same, for all networks analyzed, as the one that can be analytically derived in MF. In the unstable phase, on the other hand, dynamical as well as asymptotic properties are strongly network dependent. Wealth no longer condenses on a single agent, as in MF, but onto an extensive set of agents, the properties of which depend on the network. Connections with previous studies of coalescence of immobile reactants are discussed, and their analytic predictions are successfully compared with our numerical results.

  18. Comparison of Over-the-Rail and Rail Yard Measurements of Diesel Locomotives.

    PubMed

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Locomotive prime mover engine emission rates are typically measured at steady-state for discrete throttle notches using an engine dynamometer weighted by a standard duty cycle. However, this method may not represent real-world locomotive emissions. A method for in-use measurement of passenger locomotives, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), was developed to estimate duty cycle average emission rates. We conducted 48 measurements of one-way trips between Raleigh and Charlotte, NC, on 7 locomotives and 18 sets of measurements in the rail yard (RY). Real-world duty cycles differed from those used for regulatory analyses, leading to statistically significant lower cycle average NOx and HC emission rates. Compared to RY measurements, notch average NOx emission rates measured over-the-rail (OTR) at the highest two notch settings were, on average, 19% lower for four locomotives. At the highest notch, OTR CO2 emission rates were, on average, 12% lower than RY rates for five locomotives. For a more accurate representation of real-world emission rates, OTR measurements are preferred. However, using steady-state notch average RY emission rates and standard duty cycles may be tolerable for some applications. OTR versus RY cycle average emission rates typically differed by less than 10%. PMID:26421758

  19. Radiological survey results at Building 22, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. (WNS001)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Foley, R.D.; Uziel, M.S.

    1996-03-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in a portion of Building 22 at the Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., on December 13, 1995. The survey was performed because former employees thought the area surveyed had some previous association with radioactive material. Employees remembered seeing radiation signs in the area and indicated that personnel occupying this area wore dosimeters. Two rooms in the survey area were surrounded by 1-ft-thick poured concrete walls and similar 6-in.-thick ceilings, and situated on top of a 1-ft-thick concrete slab, a configuration commonly used for radiation shielding in industrial radiography facilities. The radiological survey showed no gamma, beta-gamma, or alpha measurements above typical background levels. Low background radiation levels within the building indicated that even if low-level contamination were present beneath the tile, or larger amounts of contamination beneath the concrete slab, it poses no radiological hazard to building inhabitants under the present conditions. Further investigation may be required before drilling or demolition of the concrete slab. No photon radiation fields from sealed gamma sources or x-ray sources were detectable at the time of the survey. Gamma spectrometry analysis revealed no gamma emitters above typical background concentrations in one sediment and one water sample collected from a pit in the open bay area.

  20. Hazardous materials accident report - anhydrous hydrogen fluoride release from NATX 9408, Train No. BNEl3Y at Conrail's Receiving Yard, Elkhart, Indiana, February 4, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-27

    At 6:30 a.m., on February 4, 1985, an empty placarded railroad tankcar, containing an estimated 800 gallons of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid, was found leaking in the Consolidated Rail Corporation's Elkhart, Indiana Receiving Yard. During the following 4 hours as local emergency response agencies worked to contain the spill, a vapor cloud formed and traveled approximately 2 1/2 miles affecting nearby residential areas northwest of the yard. A total of 1,500 people within a 1.1-square-mile area adjacent to and northwest of the yard were evacuated for 9 hours as an emergency precaution. Local area hospitals treated 75 persons for minor skin and eye irritations. The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the accident was the decision by Burlington Northern to continue in transportation a tankcar reported to be leaking on February 3, 1985, at its Cicero, Illinois railroad yard. The leak in the tankcar resulted from a failure of the tankcar head at a weld undercut made during its construction. Contributing to the extent of the emergency and the unnecessary endangerment of railroad employees and the surrounding communities was the failure of mechanical inspection and supervisory personnel at both the Burlington Northern Railroad Cicero Yard and the Conrail Elkhart Yard to take prompt, appropriate action once notified of the leak.

  1. Acidic minespoil reclamation with AFBC by-product and yard-waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.C. [OARDC Dick, W.A.; Lal, R.

    1996-12-31

    Economic and environmental incentives to reduce solid waste volumes have spurred interest in the development of beneficial uses for urban and industrial by-products. This project investigated the reclamation efficacy and impacts on soil and water quality of two such materials: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) by-product and yard-waste compost. Six 1-acre watersheds were constructed on acidic abandoned mined land spoil (pH range 3.5 to 4.5) Two watersheds each were then reclaimed with 8 in of borrow soil, 125 tons/acre of AFBC, or 125 tons/acre of AFBC and 50 tons/acre of compost, and planted with a grass-legume seed mix. Watersheds were instrumented to record hydrographs of storm-water runoff events, measure erosion, and collect samples of surface- and percolate-water flow. One year after reclamation the AFBC and AFBC+ compost treatments compared favorably with the traditional resoil reclamation practice. Spoil pH in the 0 to 4 in depth was increased to the range 6 to 8 which was similar to the resoil pH, and complete vegetative cover was successfully established on all watersheds. However, plant biomass production was approximately 2 times larger on the resoiled watersheds than on the amended spoil. Consequently, erosion was smallest on the resoiled watersheds. All three reclamation treatments increased runoff water pH to >7 and decreased soluble Al. Concentrations of Ca and S were larger in runoff- and percolate-water samples from AFBC-treated watersheds than from the resoiled watersheds. Trace element concentrations in all water samples remained very low and showed almost no treatment effects.

  2. Solubility of phosphorus and heavy metals in potting media amended with yard waste-biosolids compost.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M K; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Calvert, D V; Yang, X E; Xia, Y P; Wilson, S B

    2004-01-01

    The potential risk of surface and ground water contamination by phosphorus (P) and heavy metals leached from compost-based containerized media has become an environmental concern. Solubility and fractionation of P and heavy metals were evaluated in media containing 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% compost derived from biosolids and yard trimmings for potential impacts on the environment. As compost proportion in peat-based media increased from 0 to 100%, concentrations of total P, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the media increased whereas concentrations of total Co and Cr decreased. Except for Cu, all heavy metals in the water-soluble fraction decreased with increasing compost proportion in the media, because of higher Fe, Al, and Ca concentrations and pH values of the composts than the peat. When the media pH is controlled and maintained at normal range of plant growth (5.5-6.5), leaching of the heavy metals is minimal. Incorporation of compost to the peat-based media also decreased the proportion of total P that was water-soluble. However, concentrations of bioavailable inorganic phosphorus (NaHCO3-IP), readily mineralizable organic phosphorus (NaHCO3-OP), potentially bioavailable inorganic phosphorus (NaOH-IP), and potentially bioavailable organic phosphorus (NaOH-OP) were still higher in the media amended with compost because of higher total P concentration in the compost. Further study is needed to verify if less or no topdressing of chemical P fertilizer should be applied to the compost-amended media to minimize P effect on the environment when compost-amended potting media are used for nursery or greenhouse crop production systems.

  3. Meeting at the Museum: Sustained Research Education Partnerships Start in Your Own Back Yard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Hamilton, P.; Campbell, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics (NCED) have been formal partners since 2002, when we jointly secured NSF center-level funding. We began in our local community by together creating our own "Big Back Yard", a 1.75 acre outdoor park in which museum visitors, teachers and students explore natural and engineered river systems through miniature golf and interactive exhibits. We went on to jointly design "Earthscapes" programming for students, teachers and graduate students, related directly or indirectly to the park. From there, our partnership led to a major new exhibition that begins touring nationally and around the world in late 2007. A current effort seeks to bring NCED and SMM together with five other geo-science-oriented, NSF-supported Science and Technology Centers (STCs) from around the United States to develop collaborative means by which the research and science of all six STCs can reach larger informal science education audiences. We have learned a lot along the way about how museums can help individual and teams of researchers most effectively reach formal and informal audiences. Successful partnerships require significant joint commitment and funding, dedicated staff, and meaningful formative and summative evaluation. For a research center or an individual researcher, partnering with a museum provides experience, expertise, infrastructure, collegial relationships and community visibility that significantly enhance that of the academy. For a museum, one successful and highly visible research collaboration opens many new doors in the research community, providing new opportunities to broaden and deepen the scientific content of exhibits and programming.

  4. 76 FR 4532 - Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of... safety zone extending 500 yards North and South, bank to bank, of position 29 48.77' N 091 33.02' W... establishing a temporary Safety Zone 500 yards North and South, bank to bank, of position 29 48.77' N 091...

  5. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers.

  6. Air quality impacts and health-benefit valuation of a low-emission technology for rail yard locomotives in Atlanta Georgia.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Michael; Boylan, James; Huang, Yan; Bergin, Michelle; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-15

    One of the largest rail yard facilities in the Southeastern US, the Inman and Tilford yards, is located in the northwestern section of Atlanta, Georgia alongside other industries, schools, businesses, and dwellings. It is a significant source of fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) (Galvis, Bergin, & Russell, 2013). We calculate 2011 PM2.5 and BC emissions from the rail yards and primary industrial and on-road mobile sources in the area and determine their impact on local air quality using Gaussian dispersion modeling. We determine the change in PM2.5 and BC concentrations that could be accomplished by upgrading traditional switcher locomotives used in these rail yards to a lower emitting technology and evaluate the health benefits for comparison with upgrade costs. Emissions from the rail yards were estimated using reported fuel consumption data (GAEPD, 2012b) and emission factors previously measured in the rail yards (Galvis et al., 2013). Model evaluation against 2011 monitoring data found agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. Model outputs indicate that the line-haul and switcher activities are responsible for increments in annual average concentrations of approximately 0.5±0.03 μg/m(3) (39%) and 0.7±0.04 μg/m(3) (56%) of BC, and for 1.0±0.1 μg/m(3) (7%) and 1.6±0.2 μg/m(3) (14%) of PM2.5 at two monitoring sites located north and south of the rail yards respectively. Upgrading the switcher locomotives at the yards with a lower emitting technology in this case "mother slug" units could decrease PM2.5 and BC emissions by about 9 and 3 t/year respectively. This will lower annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 0.3±0.1 μg/m(3) and 0.6±0.1 μg/m(3) and BC concentrations between 0.1±0.02 μg/m(3) and 0.2±0.03 μg/m(3) at monitoring sites north and south of the rail yards respectively, and would facilitate PM2.5 NAAQS attainment in the area. We estimate that health benefits of approximately 20 million dollars per year

  7. Air quality impacts and health-benefit valuation of a low-emission technology for rail yard locomotives in Atlanta Georgia.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Michael; Boylan, James; Huang, Yan; Bergin, Michelle; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-15

    One of the largest rail yard facilities in the Southeastern US, the Inman and Tilford yards, is located in the northwestern section of Atlanta, Georgia alongside other industries, schools, businesses, and dwellings. It is a significant source of fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) (Galvis, Bergin, & Russell, 2013). We calculate 2011 PM2.5 and BC emissions from the rail yards and primary industrial and on-road mobile sources in the area and determine their impact on local air quality using Gaussian dispersion modeling. We determine the change in PM2.5 and BC concentrations that could be accomplished by upgrading traditional switcher locomotives used in these rail yards to a lower emitting technology and evaluate the health benefits for comparison with upgrade costs. Emissions from the rail yards were estimated using reported fuel consumption data (GAEPD, 2012b) and emission factors previously measured in the rail yards (Galvis et al., 2013). Model evaluation against 2011 monitoring data found agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. Model outputs indicate that the line-haul and switcher activities are responsible for increments in annual average concentrations of approximately 0.5±0.03 μg/m(3) (39%) and 0.7±0.04 μg/m(3) (56%) of BC, and for 1.0±0.1 μg/m(3) (7%) and 1.6±0.2 μg/m(3) (14%) of PM2.5 at two monitoring sites located north and south of the rail yards respectively. Upgrading the switcher locomotives at the yards with a lower emitting technology in this case "mother slug" units could decrease PM2.5 and BC emissions by about 9 and 3 t/year respectively. This will lower annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 0.3±0.1 μg/m(3) and 0.6±0.1 μg/m(3) and BC concentrations between 0.1±0.02 μg/m(3) and 0.2±0.03 μg/m(3) at monitoring sites north and south of the rail yards respectively, and would facilitate PM2.5 NAAQS attainment in the area. We estimate that health benefits of approximately 20 million dollars per year

  8. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Paritosh C; Tilwankar, Atit K; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2012-11-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 μg/Nm(3) and 428 μg/Nm(3) (at 4m/s and 1m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 μg/Nm(3). These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 μg/Nm(3)). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India.

  9. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  10. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced. PMID:26302902

  11. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak; Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David; Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary

    2012-07-01

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

  13. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  14. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  1. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  10. Using Acoustic Sensors to Improve the Efficiency of the Forest Value Chain in Canada: A Case Study with Laminated Veneer Lumber

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Alexis; Paradis, Normand; Carter, Peter; Hernández, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Engineered wood products for structural use must meet minimum strength and stiffness criteria. This represents a major challenge for the industry as the mechanical properties of the wood resource are inherently variable. We report on a case study that was conducted in a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) mill in order to test the potential of an acoustic sensor to predict structural properties of the wood resource prior to processing. A population of 266 recently harvested aspen logs were segregated into three sub-populations based on measurements of longitudinal acoustic speed in wood using a hand tool equipped with a resonance-based acoustic sensor. Each of the three sub-populations were peeled into veneer sheets and graded for stiffness with an ultrasonic device. The average ultrasonic propagation time (UPT) of each subpopulation was 418, 440 and 453 microseconds for the green, blue, and red populations, respectively. This resulted in contrasting proportions of structural veneer grades, indicating that the efficiency of the forest value chain could be improved using acoustic sensors. A linear regression analysis also showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE) of LVL was strongly related to static MOE (R2 = 0.83), which suggests that acoustic tools may be used for quality control during the production process. PMID:22163922

  11. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  12. 76 FR 20843 - Security Zone; Increase of Security Zones Under 33 CFR 165.1183 From 100 to 500 Yards; San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... 165.1183 From 100 to 500 Yards; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay, and Humboldt Bay, CA..., and High Value Assets (HVAs) while underway on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports... navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay, and Humboldt Bay, CA, the security...

  13. Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Ghamsary, Mark; Rizzo, Nico; Baum, Marti; Juma, David; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-11-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  15. The Pilot Restoration Yard of the Church of San Frediano in Pisa: Results of a Multidisciplinary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracchini, C.; Pini, R.; Fabiani, F.; Ciafaloni, M.; Siano, S.; Salimbeni, R.; Sabatini, G.; Giamello, M.; Franzini, M.; Lezzerini, M.; Spampinato, M.; Gravina, F.; Andreazzoli, F.

    In the frame of the EC Project "RIS+ Tuscany: Transfer of innovative technologies for Cultural Heritage" we carried out a pilot restoration yard to apply and evaluate laser cleaning procedures in the conservation of stones and decorations on the façade of the church of S. Frediano (XI-XII Cent.) in Pisa. A multidisciplinary scientific committee was established, formed by art historians, architects, physicists, geologists, and conservators. Italian firms involved in conservation services and in laser technology participated in the project. The conservation has been recently completed after two years of work, providing a critical evaluation on the effectiveness and safety of optimized laser cleaning operations, the definition of an integrated conservation protocol which included the laser technique, as well as other conventional cleaning techniques, and the evaluation of time productivity and operative costs of laser operations.

  16. The Effect of Veneer Layers on the Bending Shear Strength and Delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from Oil Palm Trunk (OPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Nordin, K.; Bahari, S. A.; Ahmad, M.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the number of veneer layers on the bending shear strength and delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from oil palm trunk (OPT). Five (5), Six (6) and Seven (7) veneer layers of OPT LVL were manufactured. The dimension of the boards was 45 cm by 45 cm by 1.9 cm. The boards were hot pressed for 13 minutes at a pressure of 31 kgf per m2. Urea formaldehyde (UF) supplied by a local adhesive manufacturer was used as the binder for the boards. The bending shear tests consisted of the edgewise and flatwise tests, whereas the delamination test consisted of the cold and hot water boil tests. The preparation of the test specimens and tests set-up was in accordance to the Japanese Standards, JAS-1991 [1]. Six replications were used for each test. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test to test for significant differences. The results indicated that as the number of layers increased the strength also increased. All the boards passed the standard. The difference in strength between the different types of samples was significant at 95 percent confidence level. Bending shear failures were primarily in the veneers. It is possible to use the boards as light weight interior building and furniture components. Over the years, the supply of quality timber resources from the natural forest has decrease as the wood-based industry experienced rapid growth. The supply of rubberwood for the furniture industry is also decreasing as a result of increase latex price. Accordingly, OPT LVL can be an alternative or supplementary raw material for the wood-based industry.

  17. From Front Yards to Schoolyards: Linking Housing Policy and School Reform. Working Paper #09-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Carlton, Abigail Conover

    2009-01-01

    Housing and education share strong ties in the United States. This relationship is shaped, in large part, by mobility. Students move to new schools, homes and neighborhoods as a result of planned and unplanned family relocations. Taxpayers move from one school district to another in a nation where school quality is closely tied to the district in…

  18. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  19. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  20. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  1. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure.

  2. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps. PMID:27065593

  3. Revised RCRA closure plan for the Interim Drum Yard (S-030) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Interim Drum Yard (IDY) facility is a containerized waste storage area located in the Y-12 exclusion area. It was used to store waste materials which are regulated by RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act); uranyl nitrate solutions were also stored there. The closure plan outlines the actions required to achieve closure of IDY and is being submitted in accordance with TN Rule 1200-1-11.05(7) and 40 CFR 265.110.

  4. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  5. Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Ghamsary, Mark; Rizzo, Nico; Baum, Marti; Juma, David; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities. PMID:26867286

  6. Taxonomic profiling of bacterial community structure from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard near Bhavnagar, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shah, Varun; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-12-30

    The Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard (ASSBY) is considered the largest of its kind in the world, and a major source of anthropogenic pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of shipbreaking activities on the bacterial community structure with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. In the culture-dependent approach, 200 bacterial cultures were isolated and analyzed by molecular fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) gene sequencing, as well as being studied for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the culture-independent approach, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were related to eight major phyla, of which Betaproteobacteria (especially Acidovorax) was predominantly found in the polluted sediments of ASSBY and Gammaproteobacteria in the pristine sediment sample. The statistical approaches showed a significant difference in the bacterial community structure between the pristine and polluted sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of shipbreaking activity on the bacterial community structure of the coastal sediment at ASSBY.

  7. Comparison of solid-state anaerobic digestion and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long; Yang, Liangcheng; Xu, Fuqing; Michel, Frederick C; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid AD were compared under thermophilic condition. Total solids (TS) contents of 22%, 25%, and 30% were studied for SS-AD, and 35%, 45%, and 55% for composting. Feedstock/effluent (F/E) ratios of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were tested. In composting, the greatest carbon loss was obtained at 35% TS, which was 2-3 times of that at 55% TS and was up to 50% higher than that in SS-AD. In SS-AD, over half of the degraded carbon was converted to methane with the greatest methane yield of 121 L/kg VS(feedstock). Methane production from SS-AD was low at F/E ratios of 2 and 3, likely due to the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (up to 5.6g/kg). The N-P-K values were similar for SS-AD digestate and compost with different dominant nitrogen forms.

  8. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

  9. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation.

  10. Health assessment for Western Pacific Railroad, Oroville Yard, Oroville, Butte County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD980894679. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    The Western Pacific Railroad's (WPR) Oroville yard, near Oroville, California, has been proposed for inclusion on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL). WPR operated the 90-acre railyard for almost 60 years until the railyard was purchased by Union Pacific Railroad (UPR) in 1983. The servicing and repair of railcars on the site generated petroleum product wastes, chlorinated solvent waste, and heavy metal wastes that have migrated into the soils of the area. The WPR site is located on dredger tailings east of the Feather River, two miles south of Oroville. The Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) has identified three primary sources of contamination on site: a roundhouse or fueling area, an unlined surface impoundment, and an API oil-water separator. Other industries, also built over the dredger tailings, are in the vicinity of the site. The limited data available on concentrations of contaminants on site and off site are not sufficient to determine if humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects. Although there is no evidence at this time that WPR is the source, the burning of petroleum and chlorinated solvent wastes, such as took place at the pond on this site, has been known to generate dioxins and furans. Therefore, this site is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

  11. Micro-organic pollutants and biological response of mussels in marinas and ship building/breaking yards in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Okay, O S; Karacık, B; Güngördü, A; Ozmen, M; Yılmaz, A; Koyunbaba, N C; Yakan, S D; Korkmaz, V; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K-W

    2014-10-15

    Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in sediments and mussels (caged and/or native) were determined at 16 stations in six major sites of coastal Turkey. The biological effects of pollution were evaluated using sediment toxicity tests and enzyme activity assays. EROD, PROD, GST, AChE, CaE, and GR activities were evaluated using the digestive glands of mussels. The total PAH concentrations in the sediments varied between nd and 79,674 ng g(-1) dw, while the total OCP concentrations were in the range of nd to 53.7 ng g(-1) dw. The total PAH concentrations in mussels varied between 22.3 and 37.4 ng g(-1) ww. The average concentrations of total PCBs in mussels were 2795 pg g(-1) ww in the shipyard, 797 pg g(-1) ww in Marina 2 and 53 pg g(-1) ww in Marina 1 stations. The results of whole-sediment toxicity tests showed a strong correlation between toxicity test results and pollutant concentrations. Selected cytosolic enzyme activities in digestive glands differed significantly depending on localities. These differences in enzyme activities were mainly related to the different pollutant levels of the sampling sites. The micro-organic contaminant profile patterns, toxicity tests and biomarker studies showed that shipyards and shipbreaking yards are the major potential sources of organic pollution in coastal areas.

  12. THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF STRETCHING STATIC, DYNAMIC, BALLISTIC, AND NO STRETCH OF THE ILIOPSOAS ON 40‐YARD SPRINT TIMES IN RECREATIONAL RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Scott D.; Perry, Craig; Hoover, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The potential adverse effects of static stretching on athletic performance are well documented, but still appears to be controversial, especially as they relates to sprinting. The prevalence of this practice is demonstrated by the number of competitive and recreational athletes who regularly engage in stretching immediately prior to sprinting with the mindset of optimizing their performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static, dynamic, and ballistic stretching, and no stretching of the iliopsoas muscle on 40‐yard sprint times in 18‐37 year‐old non‐competitive, recreational runners. Methods: Twenty‐five healthy recreational runners (16 male and 9 female) between the ages of 24 and 35 (Mean = 26.76 yrs., SD = 2.42 yrs.) completed this study. A repeated measures design was used, which consisted of running a 40‐yard sprint trial immediately following each of 4 different stretching conditions aimed at the iliopsoas muscle and lasting 1 minute each. The 4 conditions were completed in a randomized order within a 2‐week time period, allowing 48‐72 hours between each condition. Prior to each 40‐yard sprint trial, a 5‐minute walking warm‐up was performed at 3.5 mph on a treadmill. The subject then ran a baseline 40‐yard sprint. After a 10‐minute self‐paced walk, each subject performed one of the 4 stretching conditions (ballistic, dynamic, static, and no stretch) and then immediately ran a timed 40‐yard sprint. Results: There was a significant interaction between stretching conditions and their effects on sprint times, F(3,72) = 9.422, p<.0005. To break down this interaction, simple main effects were performed with 2 repeated measures ANOVAs and 4 paired t‐tests using a Bonferroni corrected alpha (α = .0083). There were no significant differences between the 4 pre‐condition times, p = 0.103 (Greenhouse‐Geisser) or the post‐condition times, p = 0.029. In the no stretch condition

  13. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly

  14. Junk Yard Treasures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Len

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a project that she developed as a challenge for her students and ended up with some fantastic student paintings. The author told her group of reluctant art students they must first research on the Internet for old, junky cars. The older and more junky the cars, the better. Once a vehicle is selected, it is driven into Adobe…

  15. The Yard Sale Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students are not always aware of how much consumer goods actually cost. But, in light of recent financial difficulties in the community and around the country, it has been hard to miss the fact that most people have been cutting back and/or bargain hunting. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein students draw and…

  16. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  18. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-02-27

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely.

  19. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  20. ADDENDUM TO THE SURVEY REPORT FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FIVE TANKS LOCATED NEAR THE OLD SALVAGE YARD AT THE Y-12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    Rollow, Kathy

    2012-12-16

    The purpose if this addendum is to provide clarifying information related to two issues delaying disposal of Tank 2, located west of the Old Salvage Yard at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The two issues are as follows: 1. The discovery and documentation of apparent elevated results on the external rusty surface of Tank 2; 2. The proper interpretation and use of scan data. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) health physics technicians (HPTs), operating under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education contract, performed 100% scans over accessible interior and exterior surfaces of the five tanks located near the Old Salvage Yard, per the stakeholder-approved project-specific plan. Three types of measurements were collected, including gamma radiation measurements using a Ludlum model 44-10 gamma scintillation detector connected to a Ludlum model 2221 ratemeter/scaler; alpha radiation measurements using a Ludlum model 43-68 gas proportional detector connected to a 2221 ratemeter/scaler; and alpha-plus-beta radiation measurements also using a Ludlum model 43-68 connected to a 2221 ratermeter/scaler. The alpha-plus-beta characterization data is the primary subject of this addendum.

  1. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an air... incinerators include both firebox and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  6. Environmental and childhood lead contamination in the proximity of boat-repair yards in southern Thailand--I: pattern and factors related to soil and household dust lead levels.

    PubMed

    Maharachpong, Nipa; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-07-01

    High blood lead levels have recently been documented in schoolchildren living in communities adjacent to boat-repair yards in southern Thailand. In this study, the spatial pattern of lead contamination of soil and household dust in an area surrounding several boat-repair yards is described, and household factors associated with elevated dust lead are identified. A cross-sectional spatial study was conducted in a coastal residential area within a distance of 2 km from three major boat-repair yards situated on the east coast of peninsular Thailand. Household dust specimens were collected from an undisturbed position in the residences of children, aged 4-14 years, sampled randomly from all children living in the study area. Soil specimens were obtained from the interstices of a square grid, 70 x 70 m2, superimposed on the area. Geographic coordinates of residence and soil sampling positions were recorded and semivariograms and kriging used to contour the spatial distribution of lead in dust and soil. Environmental lead levels were also modeled in terms of direction and minimum distance from a boat-repair yard and, for household dust lead content, in terms of household variables, including occupation of household members in boat-repair work, type of house construction, and general cleanliness. Household dust and soil lead content ranged from 10 to 3025 mg/kg and from 1 to 7700 mg/kg, respectively. The distribution of soil lead peaked at the location of the boat-repair yards, but outside the yards the distribution was generally below 400 mg/kg and irregular. About 24% of household dust lead specimens were equal to or above 400 mg/kg, but showed significant decrease with increasing distance from the boat-repair yards, at rates of between 7% and 14% per 100 m. In houses where a family member was a worker in one of the major boatyards and in houses where occasional repair of small boats was undertaken, household dust lead levels were significantly elevated, by 65% (95% CI

  7. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2974 Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2974 Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2020 - What combustion units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... refuse-derived fuel) to produce electricity and steam or other forms of energy used for industrial... 3005 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (2) Units regulated under subpart EEE of 40 CFR part 63 (National... clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste. (j)...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain... under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2245 through 60.2260). (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  15. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What... percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  16. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain... under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2245 through 60.2260). (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber, and/or yard waste....

  17. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  18. Survey Report for the Characterization of the Five Tanks Located Near the Old Salvage Yard at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rollow, Kathy

    2012-08-23

    This summary report presents analytical results, radiological survey data, and other data/information for disposition planning of the five tanks located west of the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Field personnel from Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and URS?CH2M Oak Ridge LLC completed data collection in May 2012 per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2012). Deviations from the PSP are addressed in the body of this report. Characterization activities included three data collection modes: visual inspection, radiological survey, and volumetric sampling/analysis. This report includes the final validated dataset and updates associated with the Tank 2 residues originally thought to be a biological bloom (e.g., slime mold) but ultimately identified as iron sulfate crystals.

  19. Relationships of video assessments of touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards to parental perceptions of child behaviors and blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Ko, Stephen; Schaefer, Peter D; Vicario, Cristina M; Binns, Helen J

    2007-01-01

    Childrens' touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards were measured using video observations. Descriptions were made of childrens' outdoor residential play environments. Behaviors assessed were used to examine (1) validity of parental responses to questions on childrens' oral behaviors and outdoor play and (2) relationships of mouthing behaviors to blood lead levels (BLLs). Thirty-seven children aged 1-5 years were recruited for 2 h of video recording in their yard and blood lead measurement. Video assessments included hourly rates of hand touches to ground/walking-level surfaces (cement/stone/steel, porch floor/steps, grass, and bare soil) and oral behaviors. Parental questionnaires assessed their child's outdoor activities, behaviors, and home environment. The children were: mean 39 months; 51% male; 89% Hispanic; and 78% Medicaid or uninsured. Twenty-two children had a blood lead measured (mean 6 microg/dl). During taping, all children had access to cement, 92% to grass, 73% to bare soil, and 59% to an open porch. Children had frequent touching and mouthing behaviors observed (median touches/h: touches to surfaces 81; hand-to-mouth area (with and without food) 26; hand-in-mouth 7; and object-in-mouth 17). Blood lead was directly correlated with log-transformed rates of hand-in-mouth (Pearson's correlation, r=0.564, n=22, P=0.006) and object-in-mouth (Pearson's correlation, r=0.482, n=22, P=0.023) behaviors. Parental questionnaire responses did not accurately reflect childrens' observed oral behaviors, play habits, or play environment. These data confirm the direct relationship between hand-to-mouth activities and BLLs and fail to validate parental perceptions of their child's mouthing behaviors or outdoor play environment. PMID:16941017

  20. Thinking large.

    PubMed

    Devries, Egbert

    2016-05-01

    Egbert Devries was brought up on a farm in the Netherlands and large animal medicine has always been his area of interest. After working in UK practice for 12 years he joined CVS and was soon appointed large animal director with responsibility for building a stronger large animal practice base. PMID:27154956

  1. Development of biological control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari:Tetranychidae) and Phorodon humuli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Oregon Hop yards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal development of biological control of arthropod pests in perennial cropping systems is largely unreported. In this study, the development of biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) in a new planting of hop in Oregon...

  2. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  3. Effect of Pre-emergence Herbicides on Microbial Biomass and Biochemical Processes in a Typic Fluvaquent Soil Amended with Farm Yard Manure.

    PubMed

    Das, Amal Chandra; Barman, Saurav; Das, Ritwika

    2015-09-01

    Application of thiobencarb, pendimethalin and pretilachlor at rates of 7.5, 10.0 and 2.5 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively, under laboratory conditions, significantly increased microbial biomass C, N and P, resulting in greater availability of C, N and P in soil amended with farm yard manure. Application of thiobencarb highly induced microbial biomass C (46.3 %) and N (40.6 %), while pretilachlor and thiobencarb augmented microbial biomass P to the extent of 14.9 % and 14.1 %, respectively. Application of pendimethalin retained the highest amount of total N (19.9 %), soluble NO3 (-) (56 %) and available P (69.5 %) in soil. A similar trend was recorded with thiobencarb for oxidizable organic C (18.1 %) and with pretilachlor for exchangeable NH4 (+) (65.8 %). At the end of the experiment, the highest stimulation of bacteria was recorded with thiobencarb (29.6 %), while pretilachlor harboured the maximum number of actinomycetes (37.2 %) and fungi (40 %) in soil compared to the untreated control.

  4. Corrosion monitoring in the UF{sub 6} cylinder yards at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site: FY 1994 report

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Adamski, R.; Broders, J.; Ellis, A.; Freels, D.; Kelley, D.; Phillips, B.

    1994-10-01

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at the U.S. Department of Energy`s K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been stored in large steel cylinders that have undergone significant atmospheric corrosion damage over the last 35 years. A detailed experimental program to characterize the corrosion damage was initiated in 1992. Large amounts of corrosion scale and deep pits are found to cover UF{sub 6} cylinder surfaces. Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements have shown uniform corrosion losses up to 20 mils (0.5 mm) and pits up to 100 mils (2.5 mm) deep. Electrical resistance corrosion probes, TOW sensors, and thermocouples have been attached to cylinder bodies. Atmospheric conditions are monitored using rain gauges, relative humidity sensors, and thermocouples. Long-term (16-year) data are being obtained from mild steel corrosion coupons on test racks as well as attached directly to cylinder surfaces. Corrosion rates have been found to be intimately related to the times-of-wetness, both tending to be higher on cylinder tops due to apparent sheltering effects. Data from the various tests are compared, discrepancies are discussed, and a pattern of cylinder corrosion as a function of cylinder position and location is described.

  5. Large Dust Devil on Horizon, Sol 468

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a large, distant dust devil -- a whirlwind that lofts dust into the air -- as a dark shape on the horizon near the right side of the images. This dust devil was about 5 kilometers (3 miles) away from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, and may have been up to 200 meters or yards in diameter. Smaller dust devils closer to the rover appear bright against the dark ground. Spirit's navigation camera took these images on the rover's 468th martian day, or sol (April 27, 2005.) Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust devil. The number of seconds elapsed since the first frame is indicated at lower left of the images, typically 20 seconds between frames.

    Scientists expected dust devils since before Spirit landed. The landing area inside Gusev Crater is filled with dark streaks left behind when dust devils pick dust up from an area. It is also filled with bright 'hollows,' which are dust-filled miniature craters. Dust covers most of the terrain. Winds flow into and out of Gusev crater every day. The Sun heats the surface so that the surface is warm to the touch even though the atmosphere at 2 meters (6 feet) above the surface would be chilly. That temperature contrast causes convection. Mixing the dust, winds, and convection can trigger dust devils.

  6. Education and Public Outreach for the Cascadia Initiative--Engaging communities in their own Geologic Back Yards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livelybrooks, D.; Toomey, D. R.; Brennan, D.; Mulder, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Cascadia Initiative is a four-year, amphibious project employing arrays of seismometers, pressure gauges, and GPS monitors. Its goals are to study the structure of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates, deformation of the leading edge of the North American plate, the nature of the locked zone between plates where large earthquakes occur, and inboard slow slip events. For the past three summers, members of the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), Oregon community college students and faculty, and other undergraduate and graduate students have participated in 3-6 cruises annually to deploy and recover ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) off the coast of California, Oregon, Washington and Vancouver Island. Additionally, Oregon K-12 educators have engaged in using low-cost and research-grade seismometers to characterize school site shaking hazards as a way to influence school leadership and address seismic hazards. As part of CIET's unique ';CC@Sea' program, community college students and instructors have developed videos, talks and posters based on their experiences, and present these to CC core science classes and other campus groups (e.g. ROV clubs) to help catalyze interest in geoscience and other STEM careers. These presentations include both scientific goals and experiential impressions, and serve to capture the teamwork and multiple skill sets found among ship and scientific crews at sea. As part of a Title IIb math-science partnership program, a team of middle- and high-school teachers is developing classroom projects around school seismic hazards, a very real possibility for we who live near the Cascadia subduction zone. Students will analyze data, report their findings, and provide recommendations focused on mitigating hazards to school administrators and school boards. This presentation will summarize how CIET's K-14 EPO efforts support student, teacher and the broader community engagement at the nexus of the geosciences and public policy. A K-12 teacher

  7. Effect of farm yard manure on chemical fractionation of cadmium and its bio-availability to maize crop grown on sewage irrigated coarse textured soil.

    PubMed

    Khurana, M P S; Kansal, B D

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium is a potentially toxic heavy metal that enters food chain from the soil through various anthropogenic sources. Availability of metal ions in contaminated soils can be reduced by the addition of organic amendments. In this study, effect of organic matter -farm yard manure (FYM) amendment on fractionation and availability of Cd to maize was evaluated. A green house experiment was conducted to determine the toxicity and uptake of Cd by maize in sandy loam soil with and without organic matter. Four levels of Cd (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) soil) and two levels of FYM (0 and 20 tonnes ha(-1)) with three replication in a completely randomized factorial design. Concentration of Cd in maize increased with increasing rate of Cd application. Application of organic matter increased the dry matter yield of maize while reduced the uptake of metal. All the fractions exhibited increase with Cd rates. The addition of organic amendment declined significantly the concentration of water soluble and exchangeable Cd, but increased the amounts of these metals into less mobile fractions (Fe/Mn oxide, organic matter and residual). Dominance of insoluble forms of Cd after the application of organic amendments may be ascribed to the increases of soil OM, pH, EC and available P contents which caused transformation or redistribution of the sorbed phases. This resulted in increasing Cd retention in the more persistent fractions with application of FYM at the expense of reductions in the loosely bound fractions. Thus FYM appears to be agronomically feasible way to off set the adverse effect of Cd toxicity.

  8. Large ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  9. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  11. Regulator Interface Strategies Implemented at the Y-12 National Security Complex Old Salvage Yard Soils Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, TN - 12162

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Linda; Wilkerson, Laura; Skinner, Ralph; Birchfield, Joseph W. III

    2012-07-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex housed an area known as the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) that was approximately 7 acres. The OSY was used as an area for the accumulation, processing and storage of scrap metal and equipment from Y-12 operations extending from 1968 until 2009. Areas in the northern sections of OSY also have been used for the storage of used oils containing solvents and the accumulation and recycling or de-heading and crushing of 55-gal metal drums. Scrap metal operations historically involved the accumulation, sorting, storage, public sale or disposal of scrap metal and equipment. Non-containerised storage of scrap metal was routine until 1995 when scrap metal received at OSY was placed in B-24 and B-25 boxes. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), approximately 26,759 cubic meters of scrap metal and debris were removed and disposed at both on and off-site disposal facilities including the on-site, Oak Ridge Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) landfill in 2010 and 2011. This removal action was performed in accordance with a CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD) and a close working relationship with both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Due to efficiencies and the excellent cooperative relationship forged with EPA Region IV and TDEC for Y-12 ARRA Cleanup Projects, a surplus of funding was available for additional remediation work that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2011. The underlying OSY soils were targeted for characterization and potential remediation. To expedite these important activities, the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Management partnered with the regulators during detailed planning sessions through a variety of means to quickly and efficiently characterize and pinpoint areas requiring remediation according to previous ROD commitments. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs

  12. Large field of view real-time three-dimensional imaging for ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meijing; Wu, Weilong; Gu, Haihua; Bi, Weihong

    2011-06-01

    With the acceleration of globalization and regionalization of the world economy, port is playing an increasingly important role for that it is an international transportation hub port interface and the support of the international trade platform. How to effectively reduce labor costs, improve the working environment, stable productivity, reduce the production cuts caused by human intervention and improve the management of real-time monitoring of all the major ports has become a common issue faced. In order to achieve the automatically stacking and reclaiming process of Stacker-Reclaimer in the bulk material yard, the source of its control is expected to identify the stockpile in the bulk yard, including length, width, height, the starting address, destination address, as well as Three-dimensional shape of the stockpile, since in the operation process, stockpile changes the shape dynamically. As a result, the real-time three-dimensional shape and coordinate of piles should be achieved. Based on the existing Stacker-Reclaimer in Qinhuangdao Port coal, we study the large field of view real-time three-dimensional laser scanning imaging theory and technology. The overall system design to achieving the three-dimensional laser scanning image is presented. The working principle of the three-dimensional laser scanning imaging system is analysised. Moreover, the parameter designation, the technical parameters and the composition of the whole system are all given. The research of the thesis is also used for other large-scale three-dimensional modeling of piles and the volume computing. In a world, the method has wide application prospect.

  13. 76 FR 67148 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... ADDRESSES: Written comments (original and six copies) should be sent to the Secretary of Commerce, Attn... program; (3) a brief description (at least 3-4 sentences) of the subsidy program; and (4) the...

  14. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  15. H. R. 2138: A bill to require the Secretary of Defense to establish a pilot program on a military installation for the composting of yard waste and cafeteria waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on April 30, 1991 to manage food and yard wastes on military installations in a useful and beneficial manner. The Department of Defense has a responsibility to reduce its waste generation and find various means to dispose of its waste in an environmentally safe manner. Composting is one method of safely managing waste materials, and compost is useful as a soil amendment.

  16. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile for the K-770 Scrap Yard Soils and Miscellaneous Debris, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - EMWMF Waste Lot 4.12

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport M.

    2009-04-15

    Waste Lot 4.12 consists of approximately 17,500 yd{sup 3} of low-level, radioactively contaminated soil, concrete, and incidental metal and debris generated from remedial actions at the K-770 Scrap Metal Yard and Contaminated Debris Site (the K-770 Scrap Yard) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The excavated soil will be transported by dump truck to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). This profile provides project-specific information to demonstrate compliance with Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2001). The K-770 Scrap Yard is an approximately 36-acre storage area located southwest of the main portion of ETTP, outside the security perimeter fence in the Powerhouse Area adjacent to the Clinch River. The K-770 area was used to store radioactively contaminated or suspected contaminated materials during and previous to the K-25 Site cascade upgrading program. The waste storage facility began operation in the 1960s and is estimated to at one time contain in excess of 40,000 tons of low-level, radioactively contaminated scrap metal. Scrap metal was taken to the site when it was found to contain alpha or beta/gamma activity on the surface or if the scrap metal originated from a process building. The segregated metal debris was removed from the site as part of the K-770 Scrap Removal Action (RA) Project that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2007 by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). An area of approximately 10 acres is located in EUs 29 and 31 where the scrap was originally located in the 100-year floodplain. In the process of moving the materials around and establishing segregated waste piles above the 100-year floodplain, the footprint of the site was expanded by 10-15 acres in EUs 30 and 32. The area in EUs 29 and 31 that was cleared of metallic debris in the floodplain was sown with grass. The areas in EUs 30 and 32 have some scattered

  17. 40. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF TOP OF FLUME NEAR FOREBAY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF TOP OF FLUME NEAR FOREBAY, SHOWING LUMBER SHED, TWO TRACKS, CRANEWAY SHED IN BACKGROUND, RESERVOIR TO LEFT, RIGHT TO YARDS AND FACILITIES, AND OVERFLOW SPILLWAY ON LOWER RIGHT - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  18. 40 CFR 60.51b - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... back to the primary zone through a recirculation loop. Clean wood means untreated wood or untreated wood products including clean untreated lumber, tree stumps (whole or chipped), and tree limbs (whole or chipped). Clean wood does not include yard waste, which is defined elsewhere in this section,...

  19. 40 CFR 60.51a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... loop. Clean wood means untreated wood or untreated wood products including clean untreated lumber, tree stumps (whole or chipped), and tree limbs (whole or chipped). Clean wood does not include yard waste... including the requirements of 40 CFR parts 60 and 61, requirements within any applicable...

  20. 78 FR 15049 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... date 82,235 SP Fiber Technologies Newberg, OR February 27, 2012. Northwest, LLC, SP Fiber Technologies... Securitas, SP Fiber Technologies Northwest, LLC, SP Newsprint Company. 82,247 Kincaid Furniture Co., Hudson, NC July 20, 2012. Inc., Plant 9 Lumber Yard, Foothills Temporary Employment. 82,247A...