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Sample records for large lumber yard

  1. Career Oriented Mathematics, Teacher's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This manual is designed for teachers using units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood, and (5) Lumber Yard Employee. Lesson plans, masters for dittos and transparencies, and problem solutions are…

  2. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  7. Air drying of lumber.

    Treesearch

    1999-01-01

    This report describes how lumber can be air-dried most effectively under outdoor conditions and illustrates the principles and procedures of air-drying lumber that were developed through field investigations and observations of industrial practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the yarding of lumber in unit packages. Included are topics such as why lumber is dried...

  8. Hardwood lumber distribution yards: Output, demands, and perceptions of their role

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Robert Smith; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains strengthen the entire forest products industry value chain. As the secondary wood products industry has been transformed by the decline of large manufacturers in some industry segments, the industry's supply chain has responded to these new realities. Remaining and new customers tend to be smaller and have unique needs and...

  9. Aspen lumber for building purposes

    Treesearch

    Louis W. Rees

    1947-01-01

    Recent shortages of lumber for building purposes make it desirable to seek out all possible supplies of additional lumber. Aspen, according to a study made in northern Minnesota during 1944, may be a source of lumber largely untapped. The results of that study are the main basis of this paper. In the past, aspen has received little consideration as a source of lumber,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  11. Commercial lumber

    Treesearch

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  12. Effect of drilled holes on the bending strength of large dimension Douglas-fir lumber

    Treesearch

    R.H. Falk; D. DeVisser; G.R. Plume; K.J. Fridley

    2003-01-01

    In this study, experimental bending tests were performed on nominal 4-by 8-inch (actual 89-mm by 191-mm)lumber members to determine how a notch and holes drilled in the wide face affect edge wise bending strength. Holes were drilled at the midspan in three locations relative to the edge. The results appear to justify an allowable hole one-half the allowable knot size...

  13. Influences of wood preservation, lumber size, and weather on field leaching of red pine lumber.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Shi, Shun; Kroll, Charles N

    2013-09-15

    Alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) is a widely used wood preservative. This study evaluated leachate volume generation and contaminant leaching from ACQ-treated lumber during rainfall events in comparison to untreated lumber. The influences of wood preservation with ACQ, lumber size, and weather on leachate generation ratio and contaminant concentrations in wood leachate were investigated with four red pine lumber piles exposed to natural weather conditions. The average volumetric ratio of leachate to rainfall was significantly higher for the large-lumber piles (0.62) compared with the small-lumber piles (0.35). Less leachate was generated in the ACQ-treated lumber piles (0.42) than the untreated lumber piles (0.55). Leachate volume could be predicted with rainfall depth, air temperature, and wetted lumber surface area. Lumber size did not make a statistically significant difference in leachate quality except for zinc concentration. The average copper concentrations were 4034 μg/L in the leachate from the ACQ-treated lumber piles and 87 μg/L in the leachate from the untreated lumber piles. Moreover, ACQ treatment significantly increased leaching of arsenic and total dissolved solids. Copper concentration in leachate from ACQ-treated lumber can be predicted with rainfall intensity, the time interval between two consecutive leachate-generating events, rain copper concentration, and rain pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lumbering Along

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron

    2013-01-01

    "Media Clips" appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher," offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. The theme of this issue's "Media Clip" revolves around four items relating to lumber. These items include: A Q&A published in the…

  15. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn... incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  1. Application of the depressurization method in high-temperature oscillating drying of large-size lumber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhin, V. P.; Gorbachev, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies of accelerated drying of pine lumber products (poles, supports, structural elements, etc.) of diameter up to 0.2 m. The heat treatment time in the oscillating regime of depressurization is from 8 to 35 h depending on the parameters of the lumber and on its initial and final moisture. A good quality of drying has been achieved.

  2. Modelling the charring behaviour of structural lumber

    Treesearch

    Peter W.C. Lau; Robert White; Ineke Van Zealand

    1999-01-01

    Charring rates for large-section timber based on experimental data have been generally established. The established rates may not be appropriately used for the prediction of failure times of lumber members which are small by comparison. It is questionable whether a constant rate can be safely assumed for lumber members since the rate is likely to increase once the...

  3. Lumber use trends in mobile home construction

    Treesearch

    H. E. Dickerhoof

    1977-01-01

    The mobile home industry is a large and expanding lumber market within the housing industry. A sturdy wood frame lies under the metal wall and roof skin found on most mobile home units. When compared with data compiled in 1970 (1), the latest Forest Service, Department of Agriculture survey findings indicate the average mobile home now uses much more lumber for framing...

  4. Drying hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Joseph. Denig; Eugene M. Wengert; William T. Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying quality, especially of oak lumber. Special attention is given to drying white...

  5. Western hemlock lumber recovery at a western Washington sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1957-01-01

    During April 1956, a study was made at a western Washington sawmill to determine lumber grades that my be expected from old-growth western hemlock timber. Lumber cut at this mill is not seasoned and most of it is sold surfaced-green. It is the practice at this plant to use the band headrig for producing side-cut lumber and to send the large cants—the full...

  6. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  7. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  8. School Yard Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Katherine

    1995-01-01

    Presents nine activities for using the school yard to integrate science and environmental studies into curriculum, including observation and collection, as well as construction of nature trails and bird feeders. Activities suggested grew out of Institute of Ecological Studies in SYEFEST (School Yard Ecology for Elementary School Teachers) program.…

  9. Pierce Lumber, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  10. Lumber Mill at Logtown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    The H. Weston Lumber Co., founded in 1848, was said to be the largest in the United States. The huge sawmill was the hub of activity and employment in the community of Logtown, one of five communities that existed where Stennis Space Center is now located. The lumber company finally closed in 1928. In October 1961, the federal government announced its decision to locate a national rocket test facility in Hancock County, Mississippi. The towns of Logtown, Gainesville, Westonia, Napoleon, and Santa Rosa and their residents had to be moved to make way for the NASA center.

  11. The determinants of hardwood lumber price

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jennifer M. Jacobsen; Jennifer M. Jacobsen

    1985-01-01

    Econometric equations were estimated to determine the effects of domestic foreign hardwood lumber demands on oak and hardwood lumber prices. Oak price seemed to be more sensitive to changes in exports than overall hardwood lumber price. However, the main determinants of hardwood lumber and oak lumber prices were found to be domestic demand and millstock levels.

  12. Determining average yarding distance.

    Treesearch

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  13. Computer assisted yarding cost analysis.

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Mifflin

    1980-01-01

    Programs for a programable calculator and a desk-top computer are provided for quickly determining yarding cost and comparing the economics of alternative yarding systems. The programs emphasize the importance of the relationship between production rate and machine rate, which is the hourly cost of owning and operating yarding equipment. In addition to generating the...

  14. Volume recovery, grade yield, and properties of lumber from young-growth sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Christensen; Kent R. Julin; Robert J. Ross; Susan. Willits

    2002-01-01

    Wood volume recovery, lumber grade yield, and mechanical properties of young-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyla (Raf.) Sarg.)were examined. The sample included trees from commercially thinned and unthinned stands and fluted western hemlock logs obtained from a sort yard....

  15. Simulation model for port shunting yards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, A.; Popa, M.; Rosca, E.; Rosca, M.; Dragu, V.; Rusca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ports are important nodes in the supply chain, joining two high capacity transport modes: rail and maritime transport. The huge cargo flows transiting port requires high capacity construction and installation such as berths, large capacity cranes, respectively shunting yards. However, the port shunting yards specificity raises several problems such as: limited access since these are terminus stations for rail network, the in-output of large transit flows of cargo relatively to the scarcity of the departure/arrival of a ship, as well as limited land availability for implementing solutions to serve these flows. It is necessary to identify technological solutions that lead to an answer to these problems. The paper proposed a simulation model developed with ARENA computer simulation software suitable for shunting yards which serve sea ports with access to the rail network. Are investigates the principal aspects of shunting yards and adequate measures to increase their transit capacity. The operation capacity for shunting yards sub-system is assessed taking in consideration the required operating standards and the measure of performance (e.g. waiting time for freight wagons, number of railway line in station, storage area, etc.) of the railway station are computed. The conclusion and results, drawn from simulation, help transports and logistics specialists to test the proposals for improving the port management.

  16. Limitations of lumber-yield nomograms for predicting lumber requirements

    Treesearch

    Kristen Hoff

    2000-01-01

    Lumber yield nomograms developed during the last 30 years have limited use when predicting the volume of rough lumber required to fill a particular cutting bill. Inaccuracies occur when nomogram yields are applied to situations in which processing technologies differ from those used during data collection, and when a variety of lengths and widths are specified in the...

  17. Laminated lumber may be more profitable than sawn lumber

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1976-01-01

    By laminating 1/4-in. rotary-cut veneer into structural lumber, manufacturers can expand lumber output by at least 30% without increasing volume logged. The idea merits intensive study. Manufacturing plus raw material costs should total about $142/Mbf; sales price for desirable widths and lengths of the strong laminated product should approach or exceed $200/Mbf.

  18. Urban tree and woody yard residues : another wood resource

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever; Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    Urban tree and woody yard residues are an important component of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in the United States. In 2000, approximately 14.5 million tons of urban tree and woody yard residues was generated, nearly 7% of total MSW. Some woody residues are being recovered for recycling, composting, or other uses, but a large proportion is simply discarded....

  19. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Treesearch

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  20. Potential for structural lumber substitutes

    Treesearch

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1985-01-01

    The potential for substitution of structural wood composites into solid-sawn lumber markets is presented from the technological viewpoint. Technological limitations of existing composite processes and products are reviewed in the context of the present laminated veneer lumber (LVL), flakeboard, and fiber/ paper industries. The limits of mechanical property potential...

  1. Short Lumber: Concept and Acceptance

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate short length lumber (less than 8 feet long) utilization opportunities within the furniture and cabinet industries. If such a high-value market for short length lumber could be developed, the profit potential for many sawmills would increase and the forest resource management options in many areas would expand. Short...

  2. Seasoning small quantities of lumber

    Treesearch

    E.F. Rasmussen

    1965-01-01

    The owner of a small quantity of green lumber or logs is often confronted with seasoning it to a state of dryness suitable for use in furniture, wood carving, or other handiwork. He cannot follow the practice of commercial mills, which employ dry kilns for the purpose. because kilns are too costly. On the other hand, air seasoning outdoors usually does not dry lumber...

  3. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  4. A Computer Vision System forAnalyzing Images of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. While the grade of a board largely depends on the distribution of defects on the...

  5. Understanding Loss Deductions For Yard Trees

    Treesearch

    John Greene

    1998-01-01

    The sudden destruction of trees or other yard plants due to a fire, storm, or massive insect attack qualifies for a casualty loss deduction. Unfortnately, the casualty loss rules for personal use property allow deductions only for large losses. To calculate your deduction, start with the lesser of the decrease in fair market value of your property caused by the loss of...

  6. Simplified Guidelines to Hardwood Lumber Grading

    Treesearch

    Walton R. Smith

    1967-01-01

    All native hardwood lumber is graded according to the rules established by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. The rules are complete and detailed so that they permit accurate lumber grading with a minimum of personal judgment. To the student lumber grader, the many fine points and exceptions by species are often confusing and hide the basic rules of standard...

  7. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Treesearch

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  8. Markets and market forces for lumber

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Steven Johnson; William Luppold; Frances Maplesden; Ed. Pepke

    2014-01-01

    Although lumber is ubiquitous on the international stage, not all lumber is similar or interchangeable in properties, applications, and in the production of potential downstream value-added or secondary wood products. As such, this chapter is divided into the three broadest generally recognized categories of lumber. Section 3.1 focuses on softwood lumber that is mainly...

  9. Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist

    Treesearch

    M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; R. S. Boone; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore contribute to lumber drying quality. This report is one component of...

  10. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Treesearch

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  11. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard bird composition.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S; Gan, Hilary; Shochat, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays) in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation) differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs) compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards) contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity.

  12. Linking Foraging Decisions to Residential Yard Bird Composition

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Warren, Paige S.; Gan, Hilary; Shochat, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays) in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation) differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs) compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards) contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity. PMID:22927974

  13. STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE MALLEABLE CUPOLAS AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM, OLD SHED ROOF THAT COVERED THE EARLIER MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGING CRANE, MALLEABLE FOUNDRY, AND POLLUTION CONTROL BAGHOUSE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Exposure to dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in softwood lumber mills.

    PubMed

    Demers, P A; Teschke, K; Davies, H W; Kennedy, S M; Leung, V

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess exposure to potential respiratory hazards in a large lumber mill processing spruce (Picea engelmannii and glauca), pine (Pinus contorta), and fir (Abies lasiocarpa) used a random sampling strategy to assess exposures for all jobs in the sawmill, planer mills, and yard. Personal samples for inhalable particulate were collected to measure exposure to dust and resin acids (abietic acid and pimaric acid). To estimate wood dust exposure, rather than overall dust, the resin acid content within dust was used in combination with observations of job tasks and proximity to dust sources. Passive dosimeters were used to measure exposure to alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta3-carene, and other unidentified wood volatiles suspected to be monoterpenes. The GM of the 220 inhalable particulate samples was 1.0 mg/m3 whereas the mean abietic acid, pimaric acid, and estimated wood dust levels were 7.2 microg/m3, 0.6 microg/m3, and 0.5 mg/m3, respectively. The GMs of the 222 monoterpene samples were 0.1 mg/m3 for alpha-pinene, 0.3 mg/m3 for beta-pinene, 0.1 mg/m3 for delta3-carene, and 0.5 mg/m3 for the unidentified wood volatiles. Monoterpene exposures were much lower than those observed in other studies conducted in Sweden and Finland. The results of this exposure assessment highlight the importance of considering the content of airborne particulates in lumber mills as well as potential exposure to wood chemicals.

  15. Review of log sort yards

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Gerry L. Jackson; Jenny Wong

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, processing, sorting, and adding value to...

  16. Study of overlength on red oak lumber drying quality and rough mill yield

    Treesearch

    Brian Bond; Janice Wiedenbeck

    2006-01-01

    Lumber stacking practices can directly affect drying defects, drying rate, and moisture content uniformity. The effect of overlength on drying is generally thought to be detrimental, yet large volumes of overlength lumber are used by secondary manufacturers. Managers of secondary manufacturing facilities need quantitative information to assist them in determining if...

  17. A Multivariate Model and Analysis of Competitive Strategy in the U.S. Hardwood Lumber Industry

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair

    1991-01-01

    Business-level competitive strategy in the hardwood lumber industry was modeled through the identification of strategic groups among large U.S. hardwood lumber producers. Strategy was operationalized using a measure based on the variables developed by Dess and Davis (1984). Factor and cluster analyses were used to define strategic groups along the dimensions of cost...

  18. Tensile and dimensional properties of wood strands made from plantation southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Qinglin Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jong N. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Working stresses and performance of strand composite lumber largely depend upon the properties of each individual strand. Southern pine strands from plantation lumber grown in southern Louisiana were investigated in this study in order to understand strand behaviors. The effects of hot-pressing and resin application on tensile modulus, strength, and dimensional...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification or Reconstruction...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification or Reconstruction...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  7. Trends in lumber processing in the Western United States. Part II: Overrun and lumber recovery factors.

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in three measures of lumber recovery for sawmills in the western United States: lumber overrun (LO), lumber recovery factor (LRF), and cubic lumber recovery (CLR). All states and regions showed increased LO during the last three decades. Oregon and Montana had the highest LO at 107 and 100 percent, respectively. Alaska had the lowest LO at...

  8. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  9. Structural lumber promising from pine veneer

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1973-01-01

    The possibility of laminating lumber from sliced or rotary-cut veneer has interested researchers and industrialists for many years because of the potential for increased yield and uniformity of strength. Some data on such lumber are now available.

  10. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train orders...

  11. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train orders...

  12. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  13. Evolution of tensile design stresses for lumber

    Treesearch

    William L. Galligan; C. C. Gerhards; R. L. Ethington

    1979-01-01

    Until approximately 1965, allowable design stresses for lumber in tension were taken as equal to those assigned for bending. As interest in tensile properties increased, testing machines were designed specifically to stress lumber in tension. Research results that accumulated on tensile tests of full-size lumber suggested lower design stresses for tension than for...

  14. Effects of log defects on lumber recovery.

    Treesearch

    James M. Cahill; Vincent S. Cegelka

    1989-01-01

    The impact of log defects on lumber recovery and the accuracy of cubic log scale deductions were evaluated from log scale and product recovery data for more than 3,000 logs. Lumber tally loss was estimated by comparing the lumber yield of sound logs to that of logs containing defects. The data were collected at several product recovery studies; they represent most of...

  15. Hardwood Lumber Edger and Trimmer Training System

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computerized hardwood lumber edger and trimming training system. The purpose of the training system is to help edger and trimmer operators and sawmill managers better understand how hardwood lumber grade, surface measure, and price interact to affect lumber value. The training system can be used both as a training tool and as a testing tool. As a...

  16. Improving lumber yield using a dual system

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Omar Espinoza; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    Rough mills embody the process of cutting up kiln-dried lumber to components used by discrete wood products manufacturers to manufacture products like furniture, kitchen cabinets, flooring, or other items. Rough mills traditionally have either ripped the lumber first (e.g., the lumber is first cut into strips lengthwise) then cut the strips to the required part lengths...

  17. Lumber Grading With A Computer Vision System

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years significant progress has been made in developing a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on surfaced hardwood lumber. Unfortunately, until September of 1988 little research had gone into developing methods for analyzing rough lumber. This task is arguably more complex than the analysis of surfaced lumber. The prime...

  18. Machine grading of lumber : practical concerns for lumber producers

    Treesearch

    William L. Galligan; Kent A. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Machine lumber grading has been applied in commercial operations in North America since 1963, and research has shown that machine grading can improve the efficient use of wood. However, industry has been reluctant to apply research findings without clear evidence that the change from visual to machine grading will be a profitable one. For instance, mill managers need...

  19. Hardwood lumber scanning tests to determine NHLA lumber grades

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Ssang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, grades the boards, and then searches for higher value boards within the original board. The goal is to derive maximum commercial value based on current...

  20. Tests for Long-Run Relationships in Hardwood Lumber Prices

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Hardwood lumber prices are unique because of the large number of marketable species and variability of prices across species. Previous research showed that long-run fashion decisions regarding species selection may be influenced by price, so the interaction between fashion and species price may act to keep prices (hence, demand) of different hardwood species together...

  1. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  2. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  3. An analysis of European demand for oak lumber

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold

    1984-01-01

    Exports of oak lumber from the United States to the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and France were analyzed using ordinary least squares estimation procedures. The analyses indicated that the large increases in European demand for U.S. oak during the 1970's were caused by a combination of the dollar's depreciation against currencies of major European...

  4. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  5. Lumber Cost Minimization through Optimum Grade-Mix Selection

    Treesearch

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Rough mills process kiln-dried lumber into components for the furniture and wood products industries, Lumber is a significant portion of total rough mill costs and lumber quality can have a serious impact on mill productivity. Lower quality lumber is less expensive yet is harder to process. Higher quality lumber is more expensive yet easier to process. The problem of...

  6. Temperature corrections for mechanically graded lumber

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; James W. Evans; James D. Logan; Jim Allen

    1999-01-01

    The continuous lumber tester (CLT) is the most widely used grading machine in the world. With the CLT, the flatwise bending stiffness of lumber is measured as it passes through the machine. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) is calculated from the force required to bend the lumber to a fixed deflection of 7.94 mm (5/16 in.), and this MOE is used in assigning a machine...

  7. SIMYAR: a cable-yarding simulation model.

    Treesearch

    R.J. McGaughey; R.H. Twito

    1987-01-01

    A skyline-logging simulation model designed to help planners evaluate potential yarding options and alternative harvest plans is presented. The model, called SIMYAR, uses information about the timber stand, yarding equipment, and unit geometry to estimate yarding co stand productivity for a particular operation. The costs of felling, bucking, loading, and hauling are...

  8. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  9. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  10. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  11. Lumber Scanning System for Surface Defect Detection

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Y. Jason Hou; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing a machine vision technology to drive automated processes in the hardwood forest products manufacturing industry. An industrial-scale machine vision system has been designed to scan variable-size hardwood lumber for detecting important features that influence the grade and value of lumber such as knots, holes, wane,...

  12. A survey of Bolivian lumber drying operations

    Treesearch

    Omar A. Espinoza; Brian H. Bond; Philip Araman

    2007-01-01

    The Bolivian secondary forest products industry has experienced substantial growth during the last 10 years. Particularly, important investment has taken place in lumber drying capacity. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding lumber drying technology and practices used, which is essential for the formulation of improvement strategies. The Bolivian...

  13. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele

    1984-01-01

    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  14. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  15. Prototyping an automated lumber processing system

    Treesearch

    Powsiri Klinkhachorn; Ravi Kothari; Henry A. Huber; Charles W. McMillin; K. Mukherjee; V. Barnekov

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS)is a multi-disciplinary continuing effort directed toward increasing the yield obtained from hardwood lumber boards during their process of remanufacture into secondary products (furniture, etc.). ALPS proposes a nondestructive vision system to scan a board for its dimension and the location and expanse of surface defects on...

  16. Lumber stress grades and design properties

    Treesearch

    David E. Kretschmann; David W. Green

    1999-01-01

    Lumber sawn from a log, regardless of species and size, is quite variable in mechanical properties. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred percent. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of lumber of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are characterized by (a) one or more sorting criteria, (b) a set of...

  17. Air-drying of Robusta eucalyptus lumber

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1964-01-01

    A study of air-drying 4/4 Eucalyptus robusta lumber in Hilo, Hawaii showed that during typical summer weather it can be dried to below 20 percent moisture content in 2-1/2 months. Grade reduction in 36 percent of the lumber was caused by end splits, insect damage, warp, and surface checking.

  18. Fire resistance of structural composite lumber products

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2006-01-01

    Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber...

  19. OPTIGRAMI: Optimum lumber grade mix program for hardwood dimension parts

    Treesearch

    David G. Martens; Jr., Robert L. Nevel; Jr. Nevel

    1985-01-01

    With rapidly increasing lumber prices and shortages of some grades and species, the furniture industry must find ways to use its hardwood lumber resource more efficiently. A computer program called OPTIGRAMI is designed to help managers determine the best lumber to use in producing furniture parts. OPTIGRAMI determines the least-cost grade mix of lumber required to...

  20. Factors affecting regional changes in hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1994-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production increased by nearly 1.8 billion board feet between 1986 and 1990 and decreased sharply in 1991. However, not all areas of the country experienced the same growth in hardwood lumber production during the 1980s. While lumber production in inland regions of the eastern United States and the west increased during the 1980s, lumber output in...

  1. An assessment of the industrial markets for softwood clearwood lumber.

    Treesearch

    Ivan L. Eastin; Christine L. Lane; Roger D. Fight; Jamie. Barbour

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess market opportunities for second growth clearwood lumber by identifying industry segments that currently utilize clearwood lumber and determining whether alternative markets will continue to exist for clearwood lumber produced from intensively managed forests in the Pacific Northwest. A survey of industrial lumber...

  2. Quality drying in a hardwood lumber predryer : guidebook--checklist

    Treesearch

    E. M. Wengert; R. S. Boone

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln/predryer operator can use to maintain an efficient drying operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one...

  3. Development of Grading Systems for Short-Length Lumber

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Wengert; Robert W. Rice; James G. Schroeder

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of low grade hardwood timber and a shortage of high grade timber of many species has led to the examination of alternative processing methods for converting logs to lumber. However, present grading rules for short length lumber are not good predictors of the lumber's true value. A new method of grading short length lumber is proposed, with furniture...

  4. Residential yards as designer ecosystems: effects of yard management on land snail species composition.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Elizabeth A; Figueroa, Laura L

    2016-12-01

    Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards. Land snails form an appropriate model system for yard-scale studies because snails are speciose, common, and have limited mobility. We found 32 land snail species in our survey of 61 yards in Norman, Oklahoma, USA (population size of 118,000). Snail richness in individual yards averaged nine species, with a range of three to 14 species. Native snails were found in all yards and nonnative snails were found in all but one yard. Although some of the nine nonnative species were rare, the most frequently encountered species was the nonnative Triodopsis hopetonensis. All encountered nonnative species also occur in Oklahoma plant nurseries, indicating possible introduction through the plant trade. Yard-scale watering regime and the presence of dogs were associated with differences in snail species composition but not species richness. Pesticide use and mulch type had little, if any, association with snail composition. Effects may have been diluted by treating yards as units, whereas snails were concentrated in specific microhabitats, such as under shrubs. Soil type also influenced snail assemblages and acted at a scale larger than individual yards. Considering yards as designer ecosystems facilitates investigation of how local variation in management affects biota within yards and across the residential landscape, and highlights the importance of variation among residential yards in understanding patterns of urban biodiversity. © 2016 by the

  5. East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, looking east at material storage rack (right), and east yard office at left background. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  6. Estimating yarding costs for the Clearwater yarder

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux

    1987-01-01

    Describes an equation that can be used to estimate yarding costs for the Clearwater yarder in clearcuts and light and heavy thinnings in eastern hardwoods. Yarding costs can be estimated with a hand-held calculator or the data can be incorporated into stump-to-mill desktop and mainframe computer programs.

  7. Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment.

    PubMed

    Teschke, K; Demers, P A; Davies, H W; Kennedy, S M; Marion, S A; Leung, V

    1999-05-01

    In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Treesearch

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  9. 78 FR 15053 - Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... contributed importantly to the worker group separations and production declines at each of the afore-mentioned... proportion of the workers in each of the afore-mentioned locations of Simpson Lumber Company have become...)(i) has been met because production of dimension lumber at each of the afore-mentioned locations of...

  10. Western redcedar lumber recovery from a western Washington sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1957-01-01

    During the summer of 1956 a lumber-recovery study was made at E. C. Miller Lumber Company in Aberdeen, Wash. to determine the grades of lumber that can be expected from western redcedar logs. This sawmill is equipped with a 24-foot carriage, a 10-foot band headrig, a band pony headrig, and an edger. All of the upper grades of lumber are seasoned and then sent to the...

  11. Value loss of hardwood lumber during air-drying

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Margaret K. Peirsol

    1975-01-01

    Dry lumber prices were applied to green and air-dried lumber that was measured with a dry board rule. Values were summed by species, lumber grade, and thickness class. Differences between green and air-dried lumber value have been termed value losses and are given in dollars and in percentages. The percentages have been separated into loss due to shrinkage and loss due...

  12. HaLT2- an enhanced lumber grading trainer

    Treesearch

    Powsiri Klinkhachorn; Charles Gatchell; Charles McMillin; Ravi Kothari; Dennis Yost

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on HaLT2, an improved version of HaLT (Hardwood Lumber Traning Program)- a computer program that provides training in lumber grading. The newly added enhancements In HaLT2 will provide training for both novice and experienced hardwood lumber graders in accordance with National Hardwood Lumber Assodation (NHLA) rules. HaLT2 is more accurate, easier to...

  13. Antibiotics, Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Aerial Transport from Cattle Feed Yards via Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    McEachran, Andrew D.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Hanson, J. Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cox, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs. Citation: McEachran AD, Blackwell BR, Hanson JD, Wooten KJ, Mayer GD, Cox SB, Smith PN. 2015. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic

  14. Pilot and Full Scale Measurements of VOC Emissions from Lumber Drying of Inland Northwest Species

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Folk, Richard; Knighton, B; Grimsrud, E

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are precursors to ground level ozone. Ground level ozone is the major component of photochemical smog, and has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. These health effects include cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and death. In order to reduce ground level ozone, VOC emissions are being more stringently regulated. One VOC source that may come under regulation is lumber drying. Drying lumber is known to emit VOC into the atmosphere. This research evaluates the validity of VOC emission measurements from a small-scale kiln to approximate VOC emissions from kilns at commercial mills. We also report emission factors for three lumber species commonly harvested in the northwest United States (Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, & grand fir). This work was done with a novel tracer ratio technique at a small laboratory kiln and a large commercial lumber drying facility. The measured emission factors were 0.51 g/kgOD for Douglas-fir, 0.7 g/kgOD for ponderosa pine, and 0.15 g/kgOD for grand fir. Aldehyde emission rates from lumber drying were also measured in some experiments. Results indicate that aldehyde emissions can constitute a significant percentage of the total VOC emissions.

  15. ALPS- A potential new automated lumber processing system

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin; Richard W. Conners; Henry A. Huber

    1984-01-01

    During conventional production of solid wood furniture parts, logs are first sawed into lumber having defects randomly located throughout the board. The lumber is then remanufactured and the defects removed by ripping and crosscutting. The process is labor intensive, and saw kerf losses alone waste substantial volumes of lumber.

  16. Green Lumber Grade Yields for Subfactory Class Hardwood Logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Leland F. Hanks

    1973-01-01

    Data on lumber grade yields for subfactory class logs are presented for ten species of hardwoods. Eogs of this type are expected to assume greater importance in the market. The yields, when coupled with lumber prices, will be useful to sawmill operators for developing log prices in terms of standard factory lumber.

  17. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  18. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  19. Ultrasonic inspection and analysis techniques in green and dried lumber

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Schafer; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Roy D. Adams

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of lumber has been under investigation for over 20 years, with little commercial impact. Recently, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) developed ultrasound-based scanning technology to examine both green and dried lumber. In green lumber, the bacterial infection called wetwood (a significant source of degradation in oak at the kiln-drying...

  20. Lumber recovery from ponderosa pine in northern California.

    Treesearch

    Susan Ernst; Pong W.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Lumber recovery information from 942 logs from old- and young-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) trees in northern California is presented. More than 58 percent of the lumber volume was found in 5/4 Shop, Moulding, and Select grades. About 25 percent of the total lumber volume was Moulding, and 24 percent was Standard and...

  1. Domestic hardwood lumber consumption and exports, yesterday and today

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Domestic Hardwood lumber consumption has changed considerably in this century, but how do these changes differ from changes that have occurred over the last 50 years and how have they affected lumber price? In this article, we examine how changes in consumption have influenced aggregate Hardwood lumber prices as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusted...

  2. White fur lumber recovery at a western Washington sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1957-01-01

    In April 1956 a study was made in western Washington to determine grades of lumber that could be expected from silver fir (Abies amabilis) and grand fir (Abies grandis) which are grouped together the lumber industry and sold as white fir. At the sawmill where the study was made, none of the lumber is seasoned and most of it is...

  3. Lumber grade recoverey from Hawaii-grown robusta Eucalyptus logs

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1970-01-01

    In part to supplement meager data on lumber grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped to a Michigan sawmill for processing. The logs were from 12 trees in three different stands. The lumber produced was graded according to National Hardwood Lumber Association standards. The sample was too small to provide a basis for predicting grade...

  4. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  5. Efficacy of curtailment announcements as a predictor of lumber supply

    Treesearch

    Henry. Spelter

    2001-01-01

    A practical method for tracking the effect of curtailment announcements on lumber supply is described and tested. Combining announcements of closures and curtailments with mill capacities enables the creation of accurate forward-looking assessments of lumber supply 1 to 2 months into the future. For three American and Canadian lumber- producing regions, the method...

  6. Integrated least-cost lumber grade-mix solver

    Treesearch

    U. Buehlmann; R. Buck; R.E. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hardwood lumber costs account for up to 70 percent of the total product costs of U.S. secondary wood products producers. Reducing these costs is difficult and often requires substantial capital investments. However, lumber-purchasing costs can be minimized by buying the least-cost lumber grade-mix that satisfies a company's component needs. Price differentials...

  7. Lumber grades from Douglas-fir peeler logs.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1952-01-01

    Sawmill companies often must decide whether it is more economical to sort and sell peeler logs than to cut them into lumber. If the mill owners have reliable data on the grade of lumber that can be expected from these logs, they will be better prepared to make the decision. The Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station has made several lumber grade recovery...

  8. Evaluation of an automated hardwood lumber grading system

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Chris Surak

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading technologies....

  9. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  17. Three Generations in Mars Yard, High Viewpoint

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-17

    This grouping of two test rovers and a flight spare provides a graphic comparison of three generations of Mars rovers developed at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The setting is JPL Mars Yard testing area.

  18. Three Generations of Rovers in Mars Yard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-17

    This grouping of two test rovers and a flight spare provides a graphic comparison of three generations of Mars rovers developed at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The setting is JPL Mars Yard testing area.

  19. Stress wave techniques for determining quality of dimensional lumber from switch ties

    Treesearch

    K. C. Schad; D. E. Kretschmann; K. A. McDonald; R. J. Ross; D. W. Green

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, have been studying nondestructive techniques for evaluating the strength of wood. This report describes the results of a pilot study on using these techniques to determine the quality of large dimensional lumber cut from switch ties. First, pulse echo and dynamic (transverse vibration) techniques were...

  20. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  1. Lumber grade recovery from young ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    James E. Sowder

    1953-01-01

    Young ponderosa pine produces a good grade of common lumber, and close-grown trees produce better grades than those which were open-grown. This was shown by a study at the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest near Lapine in central Oregon.

  2. Durability of wood-plastic composite lumber

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) lumber has been marketed as a low-maintenance, high-durability product. Retail sales in the United States were slightly less than $1 billion in 2008. Applications include docking, railing, windows, doors, fencing, siding, moldings, landscape timbers, car interior parts, and furniture. The majority of these products are used outdoors and...

  3. Stress grading of recycled lumber and timber

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Falk; David. Green

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of selected research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) to characterize the grade distribution and engineering properties of lumber and timber recycled from deconstructed buildings on US. Army installations. The effects of splits on timber beam and column...

  4. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Treesearch

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  5. Optimum Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Carmen Regalado; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Before the adoption of an automated system for optimizing edging and trimming in hardwood mills, the performance of present manual systems must be evaluated to provide a basis for comparison. a study was made in which lumber values recovered in actual hardwood operations were compared to the output of a computer-based procedure for edging and trimming optimization. The...

  6. Automated computer grading of hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; R.W. Conners; H.A. Huber

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an improved computer program to grade hardwood lumber. The program was created as part of a system to automate various aspects of the hardwood manufacturing industry. It enhances previous efforts by considering both faces of the board and provides easy application of species dependent rules. The program can be readily interfaced with a computer...

  7. Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Any automatic hardwood grading system must have two components. The first of these is a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on rough lumber. The second is a system for automatically grading boards based on the output of the computer vision system. This paper presents research results aimed at developing the first of these components. The...

  8. Potential Utilization of Sweetgum for Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Robert H. McAlister; Peter J. Stewart; Frederick W. Cubbage; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The forest resource base in the Southeast is rapidly changing. Dwindling reserves of high quality pine sawlogs will provide incentive to utilize low-density hardwoods such as yellow-poplar and sweetgum for structural lumber. Inventories of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua, L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera, L.) are currently high and growth is exceeding...

  9. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulate matter.

    PubMed

    McEachran, Andrew D; Blackwell, Brett R; Hanson, J Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J; Mayer, Gregory D; Cox, Stephen B; Smith, Philip N

    2015-04-01

    Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs.

  10. Louisiana, Texas fabrication yards on busy upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Responding to the continued push to produce natural gas reserves, Texas and Louisiana fabrication yards anticipate a busy 1994 season. Sixty-five oil and gas production platforms are under construction for major companies and independents; total platforms built in 1994 could approach 100. While oil prices are still volatile, most projects are focusing on shallow-water fields. Advanced technology has helped fabricators improve designs by making structures lighter and more cost-effective. PC-Based software helps yards perform more thorough analyses of a structure, which means towers and fixed platforms can be more economically built. Software also enables yards to design cost-effective structures to develop fields with a marginal level of reserves. Several projects currently under development or recently completed are described.

  11. A multivariate model and statistical method for validating tree grade lumber yield equations

    Treesearch

    Donald W. Seegrist

    1975-01-01

    Lumber yields within lumber grades can be described by a multivariate linear model. A method for validating lumber yield prediction equations when there are several tree grades is presented. The method is based on multivariate simultaneous test procedures.

  12. 16 CFR 1221.2 - Requirements for play yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards, approved on May 1, 2012... F406-13, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards, approved...

  13. 37. Exterior view of main yard. Stock room building (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Exterior view of main yard. Stock room building (left), old machine shop (center), steel fabrication building (right), and traveling yard crane (middle fore). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  14. East yard, north elevation of car department tool house (converted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, north elevation of car department tool house (converted from express car). - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  15. East yard, looking southwest at car repairer's locker house (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, looking southwest at car repairer's locker house (left), switchment shanty (center), and material storage rack (right). - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  16. Some Physics at the Railroad Hump Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.

    1982-01-01

    Regrouping cars from incoming trains into blocks of cars for outgoing trains is accomplished in railroad "hump" classification yards. Discusses: hardware and software elements of such installations; physical models on which software is based; success in predicting/regulating car speeds; and results of recent research into factors…

  17. Some Physics at the Railroad Hump Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.

    1982-01-01

    Regrouping cars from incoming trains into blocks of cars for outgoing trains is accomplished in railroad "hump" classification yards. Discusses: hardware and software elements of such installations; physical models on which software is based; success in predicting/regulating car speeds; and results of recent research into factors…

  18. Log sort yard economics, planning, and feasibility

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Robert Govett; Ted Bilek; Gerry L. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, fuels reduction, and thinning operations. A planned programming approach of objectively determining the feasibility...

  19. Dimension lumber grades from white fir in Lakeview area.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1955-01-01

    Production of white fir lumber in the western pine region amounted to a little more than a billion board feet in 1954, or about 13 percent of the output of pine-region sawmills. Moreover, production of the white fir lumber is expanding, and it is important to know what grades of lumber can be expected so that timber and log values can be more accurately appraised....

  20. Lumber Grade Yields for Graded Aspen Logs and Trees

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Robert L. Brisbin

    1978-01-01

    Green lumber grade yields for aspen were determined for use with the U.S. Forest Service hardwood log and tree grades. The yields for logs are expressed in percent of total lumber tally volume, and those for trees are expressed in board feet. Overruns for the International 1/4-inch and Scribner log rules along with lumber recovery factors are shown by log grade.

  1. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  2. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  3. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  4. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  5. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  6. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker tanks...

  7. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker tanks...

  8. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker tanks...

  9. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker tanks...

  10. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  11. 32. Photographic copy of a view of the Navy Yard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of a view of the Navy Yard published in Harper's Weekly, April 20, 1861 (From the Navy Yard Historical Center). VIEW LOOKING NORTH. BUILDING 36 IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  13. Air drying of softwood lumber, Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    George R Sampson; Forrest A. Ruppert

    1985-01-01

    Air-drying rates for two stacks of 2-inch-thick white spruce were observed in the Fairbanks area during summer 1982. The air-drying rate for the same size lumber was also observed during winter 1982-83. Very little drying occurred during the winter. Drying rates in summer were correlated with average daily temperature and average daily dew point to derive predictive...

  14. The conservation value of residential yards: linking birds and people.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S

    2011-06-01

    Urbanization is recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout the world. However, the vegetation within an urbanized landscape is diverse and includes a variety of native and exotic plant species. This variation allows for testing whether certain landscape designs outperform others in the support of native biodiversity. Residential yards represent a large component of an urban landscape and, if managed collectively for birds and other wildlife, could offset some of the negative effects of urbanization. In addition, many urbanites have their primary interaction with the natural world in their front and back yards. Therefore, ensuring positive wildlife experiences for them is essential in promoting urban biodiversity. At the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site we tested the efficacy of native landscaping in residential yards in attracting native birds. We also explored the links between socioeconomic factors, landscape designs, and urban gradient measurements with the urban bird communities. A redundancy analysis suggested that native desert bird species increased in abundance in neighborhoods with desert landscaping designs, neighborhoods closer to large desert tracts, and higher-income neighborhoods. Variance partitioning showed that collectively these three sets of environmental variables explained almost 50% of the variation in the urban bird community. Results suggested racial and economic inequities in access to biodiversity, whereby predominantly Hispanic and lower-income neighborhoods had fewer native birds. We also found that residents' satisfaction with bird diversity was positively correlated with actual bird diversity. Our study provides new insights into the relative importance of socioeconomic variables and common urban ecological measurements in explaining urban bird communities. Urban planners can use this information to develop residential landscapes that support the well-being of both birds and people.

  15. Treatment of coal yard runoff at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmitt, R. R.; Davis, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    At the present time the steam plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is undergoing conversion from oil- to coal-fired boilers. To insure that rainwater runoff from the recently constructed coal storage yard meets current discharge standards, a three phase program was initiated. The first phase was a literature review which pointed out the great variability in chemical composition of runoff samples and demonstrated the site-specific nature of the problem. Next, a laboratory treatability study was conducted using samples of runoff from coal identical to that stored on the ORNL yard. In the last phase of the program, data from the study (i.e., chemical dosages, reaction rates, sludge characteristics) were used in the design of a treatment system. The project is currently in the final phase of detailed design.

  16. 51. AERIAL VIEW OF HULLOAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL-OAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST SHOWING COMPLETED BUILDING MODIFICATIONS TO ACCOMMODATE NEW STEAM-ENGINE, BAND SAW AND SAW-FILING ROOM AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BACK END OF MAIN SAWMILL. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1957. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  17. 50. AERIAL VIEW OF HULLOAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL-OAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE WIGWAM REFUSE BURNER LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1955. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  18. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Treesearch

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  19. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  20. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  1. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Treesearch

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  2. A STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN IDAHO, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.

    A MORE FORMAL STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY (SEE VT 002 152 AND VT 002 153) RESULTED IN IMPRESSIONS OF THE WORKERS AND WORKING CONDITIONS. THERE ARE TWO GENERAL TYPES OF EMPLOYEE--(1) THOSE VIEWING LUMBERING AS STOPGAP EMPLOYMENT WHICH SERVES AS A SOURCE OF WAGES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES OR AS AN INTERIM JOB WHILE BETTER EMPLOYMENT IS SOUGHT, AND…

  3. CT Imaging of Hardwood Logs for Lumber Production

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; A. Lynn Abbott

    1996-01-01

    Hardwood sawmill operators need to improve the conversion of raw material (logs) into lumber. Internal log scanning provides detailed information that can aid log processors in improving lumber recovery. However, scanner data (i.e. tomographic images) need to be analyzed prior to presentation to saw operators. Automatic labeling of computer tomography (CT) images is...

  4. Factors affecting the quality of walnut lumber and veneer

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Cassens

    2004-01-01

    Walnut is a unique species in both its timber and wood characteristics. Although market conditions vary it is generally considered a valuable species. Because of these factors, setting quality (value) levels for both lumber and veneer can be involved. Lumber grades are quantitative thus straight forward once the system is understood. Determining quality in veneer is...

  5. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  6. 1. VIEW NORTHEAST SHOWING LUMBER HOUSE TO THE FAR RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHEAST SHOWING LUMBER HOUSE TO THE FAR RIGHT, PRIVY (HABS No. DE-207-B) ON THE LEFT AND THE SMOKEHOUSE (HABS No. DE-207-C) IN THE MIDDLE - Monterey, Lumber House, State Road 423, East of Route 13, McDonough, New Castle County, DE

  7. Lumber yield and log values of Shasta red fir.

    Treesearch

    John B. Grantham; Douglas L. Hunt

    1963-01-01

    The value of lumber produced from each of 362 Shasta red fir logs of southern Oregon was determined through a cooperative study in 1960. Lumber grade yield from each log provided the basis for calculating the comparative value of each log grade-log diameter class, in accordance with grading and scaling practices used both east and west of the...

  8. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber

    Treesearch

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2013-01-01

    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  9. Lumber recovery from ponderosa pine in western Montana.

    Treesearch

    Marlin E. Plank

    1982-01-01

    Lumber grade yields and recovery ratios are shown for a sample of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in western Montana. About 9 percent of the lumber produced was in Select grades, 48 percent in Shop grades, and 43 percent in Common grades. Information on log scale and yield is presented in tables by log grade and diameter class....

  10. Preliminary lumber recovery for dead and live Engelmann spruce.

    Treesearch

    James M. Cahill

    1980-01-01

    Lumber recovery, lumber grade distribution, and log values are presented for logs cut from dead and live Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) trees. The dead sample includes standing and down trees killed by the Engelmann spruce beetle (Dendroctonus ruffipennis Kirby) over 20 years ago.

  11. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  12. Wane detection on rough lumber using surface approximation

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    The initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber produces boards with rough surfaces. These boards contain wane (missing wood due to the curved log exterior) that is removed by edge and trim cuts prior to sale. Because hardwood lumber value is determined using a combination of board size and quality, knowledge of wane position and defects is essential for selecting...

  13. Regional analysis of hardwood lumber production: 1963 - 2005

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2005 hardwood lumber production in the eastern United States increased by more than 50%. Production more than doubled in the northeastern and north central regions while increasing by less than 25% in the southeastern and south central regions. Increased lumber production in the northern regions was facilitated by an expanding sawtimber inventory,...

  14. U.S. hardwood lumber production: 1963 to 2003

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2003 northern hardwood lumber production more than doubled while production in the southern regions increased by less than 25 percent. In 1963 the major users of hardwood lumber were the furniture manufacturers located in the southeast region, and hardwood flooring producers located in the south central region. By contrast more than 60 percent of the...

  15. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  16. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  17. Surface shape analysis of rough lumber for wane detection

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    The initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber produces boards with rough surfaces. These boards contain wane (missing wood that emanates from the log exterior, often containing residual bark) that is removed by edge and trim cuts prior to sale. Because hardwood lumber value is determined based on board size and quality, knowledge of wane position and defects is...

  18. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  19. Predicting yields from Appalachian red oak logs and lumber

    Treesearch

    Daniel E. Dunmire

    1971-01-01

    One utilization problem is in pinpointing how to efficiently and effectively recover usable parts from logs, bolts, and lumber. Yields, which are output divided by input, provide a key to managers who make processing decisions. Research results are applied to indicate yields of graded lumber and dimension stock from graded Appalachian red oak (group) logs. How to...

  20. Lumber production in Arizona and New Mexico, 1960

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Miller

    1964-01-01

    Arizona sawmills turned out 329,859,000 board feet of lumber in 1960. New Mexico's lumber production in the same year was 227,773,000 board feet. Output in both States was generally in line with the upward trend in production in recent years.

  1. Plant conservation in temple yards of orissa.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, R B; Mohapatra, B K; Padhy, S N

    1997-10-01

    This paper is a brief survey of the role of temples and holy places in nurturing the surrounding flora and its habitat. Eightysix kinds of plants in temple yards and gardens of orissa have been enlisted where they are cultivated and preserved for different temple rituals. These plants are seen rarely in wild but are saved from extinction by their association with temple rituals and ceremonies.

  2. Radiological Survey and Remediation Report DRMO Yard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-01

    as "affected" areas as defined by NUREG /CR-5849 Manual for Conducting Radiological Surveys in Support of License Termination, (NRC, 1992): The tire...requiring survey as defined by NUREG /CR-5849, due to the uncertainty of the boundary where crushing was performed in the north end of the yard. i The...identified the following areas as "affected" areas as defined by NUREG /CR-5849 Manual for Conducting Radiological Surveys in Support of I License

  3. PLANT CONSERVATION IN TEMPLE YARDS OF ORISSA

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, R.B; Mohapatra, B.K; Padhy, S.N

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a brief survey of the role of temples and holy places in nurturing the surrounding flora and its habitat. Eightysix kinds of plants in temple yards and gardens of orissa have been enlisted where they are cultivated and preserved for different temple rituals. These plants are seen rarely in wild but are saved from extinction by their association with temple rituals and ceremonies. PMID:22556826

  4. 76 FR 23991 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Street & Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Terpstra, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington... softwood lumber from Canada and Chile each account for at least one percent of U.S. imports of...

  5. 75 FR 68328 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... & Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Terpstra, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230... from Canada and Chile each account for at least one percent of U.S. imports of softwood lumber...

  6. The effect of changes in lumber and furniture prices on wood furniture manufacturers' lumber usage

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold

    1983-01-01

    Wood furniture manufacturers' demands for oak, maple, poplar, open-grain, and close-grain lumber are estimated using cross-sectional, time-series techniques. The analyses indicate that the demand for open-grain species is more price responsive than the demand for close-grain species. The calculated cross-price elasticities indicate that furniture producers do...

  7. Turning yard waste into an upgraded biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Hu, R.; Wenzel, J.E.; Liu, H.

    2000-07-01

    A high-pressure piston-and-mold (punch-and-die) process was employed to compact yard waste (biomass) into densified biofuel. The results show that the yard waste including lawn grass clippings, leaves, pine needles, and pine cones can be compacted into dense logs (slugs) under appropriate pressure and moisture conditions. The strong and dense logs can be handled easily and stored and transported efficiently. The high-density logs also have a high energy content per unit volume and can be co-fired with coal at power plants efficiently. It was found that the appropriate moisture content for effective compaction of all the materials is in the range of 6--13%, and the optimum is in the neighborhood of 9%. To produce high quality logs, a minimum compaction pressure of 70 MPa is necessary for hardwood leaves, pine needles and pine cones, and 100 MPa for lawn grass. The logs produced under such pressure and moisture conditions can have a dry density close or higher than 0.8 kg/m{sup 3} (wet density about 0.9 kg/m{sup 3}). After compaction the yard waste can reach a density 25 to 90 times that of its loose state when piled up in a container under the action of gravity. Such volume reduction greatly improves the handling properties of the raw materials.

  8. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  9. The influence of lumber grade on machine productivity in the rough mill

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Jan Wiedenbeck; Rubin Shmulsky; Anura Perera; Anura Perera

    1999-01-01

    Lumber grade effect on hardwood-part processing time was investigated with a digitally described lumber database in conjunction with a crosscut-first rough mill yield optimization simulator. In this study, the digital lumber sample was subdivided into five hardwood lumber grades. Three cutting bills with varying degrees of difficulty were Cut." The three cutting...

  10. Second-order polynomial model to solve the least-cost lumber grade mix problem

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Xiaoqiu Zuo; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Material costs when cutting solid wood parts from hardwood lumber for secondary wood products manufacturing account for 20 to 50 percent of final product cost. These costs can be minimized by proper selection of the lumber quality used. The lumber quality selection problem is referred to as the least-cost lumber grade mix problem in the industry. The objective of this...

  11. US hardwood lumber consumption and international trade from 1991 to 2014

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Apparent US hardwood lumber consumption (developed from production, import, and export data) was contrasted with estimated consumption based on employment data and lumber utilization coefficients. The two methods of measuring domestic consumption provided similar results, but the use of employment data allowed for a comparison of appearance lumber vs industrial lumber...

  12. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  13. High-temperature kilning of southern pine poles, timbers, lumber, and thick veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1973-01-01

    At dry-bulb temperatures above the boiling point of water, with large wet-bulb depressions and high air velocities, southern pine prodcuts can be dried quickly. In an impingement-jet kiln at 300o F., veneer 3/8-inch to 5/8-inch thick can be brought to 10 percent moisture content in 40 to 75 minutes. Drying times for lumber arte linearly related...

  14. Small-scale lumber drying using wood gasification as a heat source

    Treesearch

    Richard Bergman

    2005-01-01

    Small, rural forested communities have the economic need to develop a wood products industry to replace the loss of large sawmills and maintain forest health. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of using producer (wood) gas to fire a hot water boiler for a small dry kiln capable of drying both softwood and hardwood lumber. A BioMax wood...

  15. Bending strength and stiffness of loblolly pine lumber from intensively managed stands located on the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Richard F. Daniels; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Finto Antony

    2016-01-01

    Loblolly pine is increasingly grown on intensively managed plantation forests that yield excellent growth; however, lumber cut from these trees often contains a large percentage of juvenile wood which negatively impacts strength and stiffness. Because of changing forest management and mill practices the design values for visually graded southern pine were updated in...

  16. Engineered lumber: An alternative to old-growth resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D. )

    1993-11-01

    People and the environment both have a stake in the future of our forest. Any solution that doesn't consider the two will not resolve the current conflicts such as those occurring in the Pacific Northwest. One answer to the threatened shortage of dimension lumber, and the possibility of reduced harvests in many areas throughout the nation, comes from new-generation technology that can turn logs from young, fast-growing trees into high-quality framing lumber -- the kind that is traditionally obtained from the embattled old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Used primarily in residential construction, [open quotes]engineered lumber[close quotes] is made from strands of wood or veneer generally cut from small-diameter, plentiful trees. High-tech processes bond these wood fibers together with adhesives under heat and pressure to produce structurally engineered lumber. Engineered lumber also has applications in commercial and industrial construction, both as a structural material and as a decorative product. For instance, engineered lumber products were used to create a curved roof truss system on a factory in Austria, while exposed engineered beams adorn the lobbies of office buildings worldwide. Unlike alternative material such as plastic and steel, engineered lumber products are made from a renewable resource and their manufacture consumes far less energy.

  17. Guideway, center platform, Bridge Street Station and train yard. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Guideway, center platform, Bridge Street Station and train yard. Looking northeast from Pratt Street Station. - Frankford Elevated, 52100-5400 Frankford Avenue (guideway & stations), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) § 25.56.... (b) The inventory shall include the following information: (1) The name, address, and contact information for the reporting entity (junk, salvage yard, recycler); (2) VIN; (3) The date the automobile...

  19. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) § 25.56.... (b) The inventory shall include the following information: (1) The name, address, and contact information for the reporting entity (junk, salvage yard, recycler); (2) VIN; (3) The date the automobile...

  20. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) § 25.56.... (b) The inventory shall include the following information: (1) The name, address, and contact information for the reporting entity (junk, salvage yard, recycler); (2) VIN; (3) The date the automobile...

  1. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) § 25.56.... (b) The inventory shall include the following information: (1) The name, address, and contact information for the reporting entity (junk, salvage yard, recycler); (2) VIN; (3) The date the automobile...

  2. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) § 25.56.... (b) The inventory shall include the following information: (1) The name, address, and contact information for the reporting entity (junk, salvage yard, recycler); (2) VIN; (3) The date the automobile...

  3. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  4. Incidence of the 1996 U.S.-Canada Softwood lumber agreement among landowners, loggers, and lumber manufacturers in the U.S. South

    Treesearch

    Yanshu Li; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A framework was developed to estimate the welfare incidence of the 1996 U.S.-Canada Softwood Lumber Agreement among producers in two-processing-stage markets--timberland owners, loggers, and lumber manufacturers--in the U.S. South. Timberland owners are the largest beneficiary whereas lumber manufacturers are the second and loggers the least. Empirically, without...

  5. 20. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF UPPER LEVEL (LUMBER STORAGE) IN EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF UPPER LEVEL (LUMBER STORAGE) IN EAST BUILDING SHOWING BUILDING FRAMEWORK, IRON HANGING RODS, AND CEDAR PLANKS BEING SEASONED FOR BOAT CONSTRUCTION. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  6. Solar and air lumber drying during winter in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    de S. Oliveira, L.C.; Skaar, C.; Wengert, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A greenhouse-type solar lumber dryer with a transparent south wall and transparent 45 degrees sloped roof was used to dry 4/4 oak lumber in the winter in Virginia. A pile of end-matched samples was also air-dried during the same time period. The solar-dried lumber reached 20 percent moisture content (MC) in 80 days and 6 percent MC in 125 days; the air-dried pile reached 20 percent MC in 105 days and 14 percent MC in 162 days. Solar-dried lumber at 6 percent MC was without end checks and free of casehardening stresses. In order to permit comparisons of this dryer with other dryers or after modification of the existing dryer, a method of calculating an efficiency factor using standard meteorological data is explained. (Refs. 17).

  7. The Research and Development of COM-PLY Lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert H. McAlister

    1989-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1986, a Southeastern Station Research Work Unit developed standards for composite studs, joists, and truss lumber and manufactured and demonstrated the materials. Economic feasibility was considered in every stage of research. Further development is left to industry.

  8. Pierce Lumber, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  9. Examination of lumber price trends for major hardwood species

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, trends in interspecies and intergrade hardwood lumber prices have been erratic. In the early 1960s, high- and midgrade hard maple commanded high prices while red oak was the least valuable lumber regardless of grade. In the 1980s, high- and midgrade oak prices surged, but prices of all grades of maple and yellow-poplar declined. During the 1990s...

  10. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed. PMID:26858559

  11. Data bank for short-length red oak lumber

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1994-01-01

    This data bank for short-length lumber (less than 8 feet long) contains information on board outlines and defect size and quality for 426 414-inch-thick red oak boards. The Selects, 1 Common, 2A Common, and 3A Common grades are represented in the data bank. The data bank provides the kind of detailed lumber description that is required as input by computer programs...

  12. Long length cuttings from no. 2 common hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Edwin L. Lucas; Edwin L. Lucas

    1973-01-01

    Long length cuttings (up to 60 inches) are obtainable in abundance from No. 2 Common oak lumber. Cutting for the maximum area of clear one face (ClF) parts 18 to 60 inches in length, we found that 46 percent of all the cuttings were 36 inches long or longer. The recovery of the long length cuttings did not reduce the overall yield of parts produced from the lumber....

  13. Method for estimating air-drying times of lumber

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; C. Arthur Hart

    2001-01-01

    Published information on estimated air-drying times of lumber is of limited usefulness because it is restricted to a specific location or to the time of year the lumber is stacked for drying. At best, these estimates give a wide range of possible times over a broad range of possible locations and stacking dates. In this paper, we describe a method for estimating air-...

  14. Investment opportunity : the FPL EGAR lumber manufacturing system

    Treesearch

    George B. Harpole; Ed Williston; Hiram H. Hallock

    1979-01-01

    A model of present-day computer-controlled sawmilling technology is modified for the manufacture of any desired width of EGAR dimension lumber from small logs. EGAR lumber is manufactured via headrig production of 2-inch-thick flitches which are in turn dried, edged full width, edge-glued, and gang-novelty-ripped to wide widths (EGAR). The EGAR system is compared to...

  15. Development of an Improved Hardboard-Lumber Pallet Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    73 plate embedded in the concrete floor pallet was monitored by changes in (2/ 4 Discussion of Results Handling Impact Tests Lumber control pallets ...AD06100 FOREST PRODUCTS LAB MADISON WI F/6 11/12 DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED NARDBOARD-LUMBER PALLET DESIGN.(U) DEC 80 R K STERN UNCLASSIFIED FSRP-FPL...December 1980PaltD sg Pallet D sign ..LE..i.. ......................... 01= - -1C 1C - 1r-3 r

  16. Effect of cross grain on stress waves in lumber

    Treesearch

    C.C. Gerhards

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the effect of cross grain on the transit time of longitudinal compression stress waves in Douglas-fir 2 by 8 lumber. Cross grain causes the stress wave to advance with a front or contour skewed in the direction of the grain angle, rather than to advance with a front normal to the long axis of lumber. Thus, the timing of the stress wave in...

  17. Lumber and plywood used in California apartment construction, 1969

    Treesearch

    George B. Harpole

    1973-01-01

    The volume of lumber and plywood products used in apartment construction in California was estimated from a sample of apartments for which architectural plans were completed in 1969. Excluding wood mouldings, doors, cabinets, and shelving, an average of 4.85 board feet of lumber and 2.03 square feet (318-inch basis) of plywood per square foot of floor area were used in...

  18. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  19. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard...

  20. 77 FR 52272 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... report of an infant fatality in the bassinet accessory of a play yard. The child died when the sleeping... unique among play yard accessories because they are intended to be used as a sleeping environment, and... sleeping surface of the bassinet can result in an infant getting into a position where he or she is...

  1. 77 FR 52220 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... sleeping environment for children. It may fold for storage or travel.'' Play yards are intended for... times) can simulate a lifetime of use. The tests found in the play yard standard were developed over... costs ] out over a longer period of time, 6 months is common in the industry. For example, 6 months...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey 'Plan of Navy Yard at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey 'Plan of Navy Yard at Washington Showing the Position and Dimensions of the Ground Plans of all Buildings as They Were 1st January 1858.' Photocopy of original drawing on file at Naval Station Public Works Department, Washington, D.C. - Navy Yard, Main Gate, Eighth & M Streets Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lands. Yard waste does not include two items: (a) Construction, renovation, and demolition wastes that... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lands. Yard waste does not include two items: (a) Construction, renovation, and demolition wastes that... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain...

  8. Is it time to revisit the log-sort yard?

    Treesearch

    John Dramm; Gerry Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Log-sort yards provide better utilization and marketing with improved value recovery of currently available timber resources in North America. Log-sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, manufacturing, sorting, and adding value to logs. Such operations supply forest products firms with desired raw materials, which...

  9. Back yard blasting on the quiet

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1983-06-01

    When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

  10. Effect of rotation age on lumber grade, yield, and strength of unthinned loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; McAlister, R.H.; Saucier, J.R.; Reitter, K.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the effect of rotation age on the grade, yield, and strength of lumber produced from unthinned loblolly pine stands in the coastal plain of Georgia. Six stands representing 22-, 28-, and 40-year rotations were sampled. A stratified random sample of trees with diameters at breast height ranging from 8 to 16 inches was selected from each stand and processed into limber. The strength, yield, and grade of lumber produced increased with increasing rotation age. Based on study data, equations were developed to predict total lumber volume, lumber volume by lumber grade, sawlog stem weight, and cubic volume. Because the yeild of higher grade lumber increased in older trees, the value of lumber produced per cubic foot increased significantly with increasing age. A financial analysis of a simulated plantation harvested at ages ranging from 20 to 40 years illustrates the effects of increasing lumber value and rotation age on net present value of an unthinned loblolly pine stand.

  11. 75 FR 71458 - Cranberry Lumber Company Including Workers of the Following Operating Entities: Butternut One...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... employment related to the production of green and kiln dried lumber. The workers are not separately... conjunction with other entities to produce green and kiln dried lumber: Butternut One, Ltd., Cranberry...

  12. 76 FR 53816 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... This rule establishes a Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 RIN 0581-AD03 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION...

  13. 76 FR 22751 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Referendum Procedures... 0581-AD03 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order... Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order) is favored by domestic...

  14. Durability of structural lumber products after exposure at 82°C and 80% relative humidity

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; James W. Evans; Cherilyn A. Hatfield; Pamela J. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Solid-sawn lumber (Douglas-fir, southern pine, Spruce–Pine–Fir, and yellow-poplar), laminated veneer lumber (Douglas-fir, southern pine, and yellow-poplar), and laminated strand lumber (aspen and yellow-poplar) were heated continuously at 82°C (180°F) and 80% relative humidity (RH) for periods of up to 24 months. The lumber was then reconditioned to room temperature at...

  15. Crook and overlength in hardwood lumber:results from a 14-mill survey

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify how crook and overlength are related to lumber grade and size from mill to mill. The amount of crook in a sample of dry, 4/4 thickness, red oak lumber was significantly influenced by lumber grade and length, supply region, and mill. There were no differences in crook...

  16. 76 FR 22757 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    .... The program would be financed by an assessment on softwood lumber domestic manufacturers and importers.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is conducting a referendum among eligible domestic softwood lumber... through June 10, 2011. To be eligible to vote, softwood lumber domestic manufacturers and importers...

  17. Chapter 9:Red maple lumber resources for glued-laminated timber beams

    Treesearch

    John J. Janowiak; Harvey B. Manbeck; Roland Hernandez; Russell C. Moody

    2005-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of red maple glulam beams made from two distinctly different lumber resources: 1. logs sawn using practices normally used for hardwood appearance lumber recovery; and 2. lower-grade, smaller-dimension lumber primarily obtained from residual log cants.

  18. Shrinkage and footage loss from drying 4/4-inch hard maple lumber.

    Treesearch

    Daniel E. Dunmire

    1968-01-01

    Equations are presented for estimating shrinkage and resulting footage losses due to drying hard maple lumber. The equations, based on board shrinkage data taken from a representative lumber sample, are chiefly intended for use with lots of hard maple lumber, such as carloads, truckloads, or kiln loads, but also can be used for estimating the average shrinkage of...

  19. Manufacturers and distributors in the U.S. hardwood lumber supply chain: Perceptions of industry trends

    Treesearch

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Global competition, a slowing housing market, and shifts in the customer base have contributed to reduced demand for hardwood lumber and have increased the need for specialized services by suppliers of hardwood lumber such as sawmills or distributors. Customers of hardwood lumber suppliers also have started initiatives to reduce internal costs dramatically, frequently...

  20. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of lumber and building materials sales. 779... Service Establishments Lumber and Building Materials Dealers § 779.355 Classification of lumber and... classification as previously explained in this subpart, but will not be considered to include the...

  1. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of lumber and building materials sales. 779... Service Establishments Lumber and Building Materials Dealers § 779.355 Classification of lumber and... classification as previously explained in this subpart, but will not be considered to include the...

  2. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of lumber and building materials sales. 779... Service Establishments Lumber and Building Materials Dealers § 779.355 Classification of lumber and... classification as previously explained in this subpart, but will not be considered to include the...

  3. 76 FR 46185 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... importers of softwood lumber may be considered small entities. Regarding value of the commodity, with... years of $237 per thousand board feet,\\15\\ the average annual value for softwood lumber is about $5.8 billion. According to Customs data, the average annual value for softwood lumber imports for 2008 and...

  4. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification of lumber and building materials sales. 779... Service Establishments Lumber and Building Materials Dealers § 779.355 Classification of lumber and building materials sales. (a) General. In determining, for purposes of the section 13(a)(2) and...

  5. 29 CFR 779.355 - Classification of lumber and building materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of lumber and building materials sales. 779... Service Establishments Lumber and Building Materials Dealers § 779.355 Classification of lumber and building materials sales. (a) General. In determining, for purposes of the section 13(a)(2) and...

  6. Evaluation of the retail market potential for locally produced paper birch lumber in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the retail market potential for random-width paper birch ( Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber in Alaska was conducted. Information from lumber manufacturers and retail managers was used to identify current barriers to customer acceptance of locally produced paper birch lumber. Major retail markets and paper birch producing regions throughout Alaska were...

  7. HaLT: A computerized training program for hardwood lumber graders

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; C.J. Schwehm; Charles W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1989-01-01

    A computer program for training both novice and experienced hardwood lumber graders in accordance with the National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) rules is presented. It is anticipated that this program will help alleviate the problems of improper grading by improved and continued training and make lumber manufacturers and purchasers more knowledgeable of the rules...

  8. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than eight...

  9. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  10. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry or...

  11. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than eight...

  12. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than eight...

  13. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry or...

  14. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry or...

  15. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry or...

  16. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than eight...

  17. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry or...

  18. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  19. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  20. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  1. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  2. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than eight...

  3. 75 FR 53014 - Notice and Modification of Action: Canada-Compliance with Softwood Lumber Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice and Modification of Action: Canada--Compliance with Softwood Lumber... action. SUMMARY: Under the 2006 Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA), Canada agreed to impose export measures on Canadian exports of softwood lumber products to the United States. At the request of the...

  4. Influence of edging practices on cutting yields of Alaska birch lumber

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; J.W. Funck; C.C. Brunner; J.E. Reeb

    2009-01-01

    Birch lumber is often characterized by a high degree of knots, bark pockets, heartwood, and other features which force sawmill owners to decide whether to edge and trim boards to produce standard grade lumber vs. proprietary grade character-marked lumber. In addition, the edging strategies used with irregularly shaped flitches can greatly influence cut-stock recovery....

  5. Characterizing the adoption of low-grade hardwood lumber by the secondary wood processing industry

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Smith; Wibke Pohle; Philip Araman; Dan Cumbo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of low-grade lumber in the secondary hardwood industry. Factors influencing decisions regarding the utilization of low-grade lumber were identified and value-added opportunities to increase the use of low-grade lumber among manufacturers currently using higher grades were evaluated. Data were collected via a nationwide mail survey...

  6. A profile of the nonresidential nonbuilding construction market for lumber and plywood

    Treesearch

    H. N. Spelter

    Estimates of the amounts of lumber and plywood used in constructing nonresidential nonbuilding structures in 1982 are presented. The market is stratified by six construction types. Lumber and plywood use is stratified by two end-use categories. Total lumber use is estimated at 507 million board feet. Total plywood use at 362 million square feet (3/8-in. basis)....

  7. Enhancement of the Computer Lumber Grading Program to Support Polygonal Defects

    Treesearch

    Powsiri Klinkhachorn; R. Kathari; D. Yost; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Computer grading of hardwood lumber promises to avoid regrading of the same lumber because of disagreements between the buyer and the seller. However, the first generation of computer programs for hardwood lumber grading simplify the process by modeling defects on the board as rectangles. This speeds up the grading process buy can inadvertently put a board into a lower...

  8. Procedures used to estimate hardwood lumber consumption from 1963 to 2002

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an explanation for and procedures used to estimate hardwood lumber consumption by secondary hardwood processing industries from 1963 to 2002. This includes: classification of industry and industry groups, development of proxy prices used to estimate lumber consumption, assumptions used to convert dimension purchases to lumber consumption, estimation...

  9. New estimates of hardwood lumber exports from the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    W. Luppold; E. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Exports have become an increasingly important part of the overall hardwood lumber market. However, recent findings indicate that much of the reported growth of hardwood lumber exports in the 1980's was based on inflated volume data. This paper presents new estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Asia and Europe with emphasis on the central hardwood region of the...

  10. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  11. Influence of markets and forest composition on lumber production in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...

  12. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  13. Lumber recovery from dead ponderosa pine in the Colorado front range.

    Treesearch

    Susan Willits; Richard O. Woodfin; Thomas A. Snellgrove

    1990-01-01

    Lumber recovery information from live and beetle-killed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Colorado Front Range is presented. No significant difference in lumber volume was found among the samples. Significant differences were found in lumber value among the live, 1-year-dead, and 3- to 5-year-dead samples. About 10 percent of...

  14. LamLum : a tool for evaluating the financial feasibility of laminated lumber plants

    Treesearch

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based computer program called LamLum was created to analyze the economics of value- added laminated lumber manufacturing facilities. Such facilities manufacture laminations, typically from lower grades of structural lumber, then glue these laminations together to make various types of higher value laminated lumber products. This report provides the...

  15. An ultrasonic technique for predicting tensile strength of southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    D. Rajeshwar; D.A. Bender; D.E. Bray; K.A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology to enhance mechanical stress rating of lumber. An ultrasonic NDE technique was developed that is sensitive to grain angle and edge knots in lumber - two primary determinants of lumber strength. The presence of edge knots increased the acoustic wave travel time and selectively...

  16. Effect of cutting bill requirements on lumber yield in a rip-first rough mill

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; E. Earl Kline; E. Earl Kline

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, producers of solid wood dimension parts have emphasized improvements in lumber yield, focusing primarily on lumber grade and cutting technology rather than cutting bill design. Yet, cutting bills have a significant impact on yield. Using rip-first rough mill simulation software, a data bank of red oak lumber samples, and a cutting bill that resembles...

  17. Evaluation of a multi-sensor machine vision system for automated hardwood lumber grading

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading technologies. The...

  18. Automated hardwood lumber grading utilizing a multiple sensor machine vision technology

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading...

  19. Predicting internal lumber grade from log surface knots: actual and simulated results.

    Treesearch

    Christine Todoroki; Robert A. Monserud; Dean L. Parry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) compare actual with simulated lumber yields; 2) examine the effect of measurement errors associated with knot angles and morphology. on lumber grade; and 3) investigate methods for predicting lumber quality within unsawn logs from surface knots. Twenty-eight Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii(Mii irb.)...

  20. Preliminary estimate of 1942 lumber production in the Carolinas, Virginia, West Virgina, Kentucky, and Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Ardie D. Toler

    1943-01-01

    This report, giving the estimated 1942 lumber production in six states of the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station's territory, is based on a complete canvass of all sawmills. It was made during the first half of 1943 by the U.S. Forest Service in cooperation wit the Bureau of the Census, the Lumber and Lumber products Branch of the War Production Board, and the...

  1. Assessment of the lumber drying industry and current potential for value-added processing in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Kenneth A. Kilborn

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was done of the lumber drying industry in Alaska. Part 1 of the assessment included an evaluation of kiln capacity, kiln type, and species dried, by geographic region of the state. Part 2 of the assessment considered the value-added potential associated with lumber drying. Various costs related to lumber drying were evaluated in an Excel spreadsheet....

  2. Maintenance Procedures for North American Visually-graded Dimension Lumber Design Values

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann; Don DeVisser; Kevin Cheung; Bob Browder; Al Rozek

    2014-01-01

    ASTM International D1990 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Properties for Visually-Graded Dimension Lumber from In-Grade Tests of Full-Size Specimens, that governs the development of design values for dimension lumber in North America, was first adopted in 1991with recognition that the resource and manufacturing of lumber could change over time impacting...

  3. Intermediaries in the U.S. hardwood lumber market: comparing and contrasting sawmills and distributors

    Treesearch

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Robert. Smith

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand changes in the hardwood lumber supply chain from the perspective of lumber producers and distributors and to assess the degree of judgmental convergence between suppliers and buyers of hardwood lumber. Results from two nationwide surveys conducted in 2008 and 2009 were used for the analysis. Findings confirmed a...

  4. Simulation of rail yard emissions transport to the near-source environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rail yards are critical nodes in the freight transportation network and locations of clustered emission sources. When people reside in close proximity to an active rail yard, the near-field effect of rail yard emissions is of concern. Field characterization of near-rail yard ai...

  5. Simulation of rail yard emissions transport to the near-source environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rail yards are critical nodes in the freight transportation network and locations of clustered emission sources. When people reside in close proximity to an active rail yard, the near-field effect of rail yard emissions is of concern. Field characterization of near-rail yard ai...

  6. 7. EAST PORTAL OF CONCRETE LINED CULVERT LOCATED 30 YARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EAST PORTAL OF CONCRETE LINED CULVERT LOCATED 30 YARDS WEST OF HAPPY ISLES BRIDGE. NOTE ROCK & CONCRETE FLOOR. - Happy Isles Bridge, Spanning Merced River on Service road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elisa R.; Sampselle, Carolyn M.; Ronis, David L.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. Methods A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. PMID:26992864

  8. 9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of construction near southeast corner - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 3. EASTERN EDGE OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERN EDGE OF POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD, LOOKING 312 DEGREES NORTH WEST, EUCALYPTUS TREES DENOTE EDGE OF PRESIDIO. - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 26. NORTHERN VIEW OF ORE YARD WITH ORE BRIDGES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. NORTHERN VIEW OF ORE YARD WITH ORE BRIDGES IN THE BACKGROUND. BLAST FURNACES ALONG THE RIGHT SIDE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING CRANE RAILS, GREY IRON CUPOLA AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING CRANE MOTOR AND MALLEABLE CUPOLAS WITH OPEN TOPS AND EMISSION RECOVERY DUCTS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, GLINES DAM, AND LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  14. GLINES POWERHOUSE, TAILRACE, AND SURGE TANK WITH TRANSFORMER YARD IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GLINES POWERHOUSE, TAILRACE, AND SURGE TANK WITH TRANSFORMER YARD IN FOREGROUND; DAM AND RESERVOIR TO SOUTH. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  15. VIEW TO EAST FROM HILLTOP: SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST FROM HILLTOP: SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD, WITH POWERHOUSE AND RIVER BELOW. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  16. VIEW OF SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD FROM HILL ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD FROM HILL ABOVE POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  17. HISTORIC SHED (NOW WAREHOUSE) AT TRANSFORMER YARD ABOVE GLINES POWERHOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC SHED (NOW WAREHOUSE) AT TRANSFORMER YARD ABOVE GLINES POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  18. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  19. 11. SOUTHWEST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM ADJACENT SCRAP YARD. Pittsburgh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTHWEST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM ADJACENT SCRAP YARD. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. BRICK RETAINING WALL AND STEPS AT FRONT YARD OF CROATAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRICK RETAINING WALL AND STEPS AT FRONT YARD OF CROATAN, VIEW TOWARD GARDEN, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  1. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail spur and dumping location. Concrete vault foundation in foreground. Stone foundation and wood foundation in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  3. View of ATSF rail yard from top of El Tovar, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of ATSF rail yard from top of El Tovar, view east. Note superindent's house (distant left) and Grand Canyon rail station (center). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  5. 28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  6. 24. VIEW OF TAINTER GATE BULKHEADS IN STORAGE YARD, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF TAINTER GATE BULKHEADS IN STORAGE YARD, SHOWING BULKHEAD CARS AND TRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  7. 9. Fuel tanks engine piping yard equipment details, sheet 94 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Fuel tanks engine piping yard equipment details, sheet 94 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Fuel Tanks, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  8. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING BOOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. 40. VIEW TO WEST; EAST FRONT YARD MASTER'S OFFICE, INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW TO WEST; EAST FRONT YARD MASTER'S OFFICE, INSIDE GARAGE, SECOND FLOOR, MBE BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. VIEW OF EUREKA NO. 36 HOUSING. YARD AND GARDEN DECORATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EUREKA NO. 36 HOUSING. YARD AND GARDEN DECORATED FOR EASTER, REFLECTING AN ATTEMPT TO BEAUTIFY HOMES. HILL IN BACKGROUND IS A REPLANTED BONEY PILE. - Town of Eureka No. 36, Northeast of Windber, Windber, Somerset County, PA

  12. General view of east yard, facing south (note from right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of east yard, facing south (note from right to left: cell block fourteen, cell block eleven, cell block fifteen, cell block two, greenhouse, and cell block ten) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  14. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  15. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  16. 1. May 1960 COURT YARD FROM STREET GATE (SHOWING BELGIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. May 1960 COURT YARD FROM STREET GATE (SHOWING BELGIAN BLOCK DRIVEWAYS AND PILES OF FIREPLACE WOOD) - Farley Blacksmith Shop, 82 Memorial Parkway (moved to Johnson Park, Piscataway), New Brunswick, Middlesex County, NJ

  17. Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  18. FOUNDRY BUILDING SCAPE SOUTHSOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY BUILDING SCAPE SOUTH-SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING VALVE ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS AND DISTANT ROOF OF THE SHIPPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 13. Exterior of main offices and stock room from yard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Exterior of main offices and stock room from yard. Middle Building formerly mold loft #1. Building at left is stock room desk and offices. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH c. 1920's, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF RAILROAD YARD LOOKING NORTH. Office and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF RAILROAD YARD LOOKING NORTH. Office and Car and Wheel Shops to left, Engine House No. 1 to right. Ebensburg Processing Plant and Powerhouse (Colver Mine) in far left background. - Cambria & Indiana Railroad, Colver, Cambria County, PA

  2. 76 FR 58167 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... abrasive. Five injuries related to the mattress pad or the floor of the play yard. Examples of injuries in... material that was too abrasive. ASTM F 406-11 contains several performance requirements and test methods...

  3. 14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  4. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. OVERALL VIEW OF MILL YARD FROM HALEKO ROAD. QUONSET WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF MILL YARD FROM HALEKO ROAD. QUONSET WAREHOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND, BOILING HOUSE IN MIDDLE, WAREHOUSE AND ELECTRIC SHOP TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING SOUTH c. 1920's - LEFT, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  9. Evaluation of recycled plastic lumber for marine applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, B.

    1993-09-01

    The report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). The lumber is produced from difficult-to-market post consumer plastic materials which have been recovered from a mixed municipal solid waste stream at CR Transfer's New Stanton material recovery facility (MRF). A battery of tests was performed on the RPM to determine strength, creep, serviceability, biological compatibility, and toxicity of the plastic lumber. These tests were selected to characterize the behavior of the material for marine application. The findings show that the plastic lumber produced by CRC has significant creep characteristics which must be adequately addressed by appropriate architectural design when using this material. Flexural stiffness properties are less than 1/10 that of wood. Biological testing has indicated a far lower toxicity for the plastic than for chromium copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood.

  10. Recording and Analysis of the Rec Yard at Alcatraz Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, R.; Toz, T. K.; Everett, M.; DeSmet, T.; Billingsley, A.; Hagin, J.

    2013-07-01

    In the summer of 2012 students and professors from the Concrete Industry Management (CIM ) program at California State University Chico, along with their partners at National Park Service, invited Texas A&M students and professors to join forces and perform a condition assessment of the Recreation Yard at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The Recreation Yard is a heavily visited area by tourists who are drawn to the island because of its history as a maximum security prison in the 20th c. Because of its history, first as a military fort in the 19thc., later as a military prison, and finally as a federal prison, many difficult historical and preservation related questions exist. This team was formed to begin research on the historical and preservation questions with respect to the Recreation Yard. This paper and presentation will focus on the integration of documentation technologies employed to aid the research necessary for answering preservation and historical questions regarding the recreations yard. Since that yard was constructed on top of the historic 19th c masonry fort it was requested that we also seek the location of tunnels below the Recreation Yard and their relationship with the walls. Teams were formed to perform Non-destructive testing of concrete walls to determine the size and location of rebar, Ground Penetrating Radar for determining the location of the masonry tunnels and photogrammetry and laser scanning to provide both overall and detailed dimensional information of the current state of material decay.

  11. Dielectric Detection of Knots in Green Red Oak and Southern Pine Lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Jerome E.; Steele, Philip H.; Mitchell, Brian

    2007-03-01

    Forest products industry automation requires accurate detection of knots in lumber. A radio frequency system has been patented and commercialized that relies on signal attenuation to detect knots in green softwood lumber. Signal attenuation has proven less reliable for hardwood species and for application to green lumber where moisture content may range from 60 to 150 percent. This paper reports on knot detection in green southern yellow pine and red oak lumber with a system that utilizes phase shift data to supplement attenuation data. Phase shift was found to be considerably more reliable than signal attenuation for knot detection in green lumber.

  12. User's Manual for the TVA Lumber Yield and Value File Utility Program. Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, S.D.

    1982-11-01

    The Lumber Yield and Value File Utility Program (LYVPFUTL) is designed to provide easy access to Lumber Yield and Value Program (LYVP) initialization files. Specifically, the LYVPFUTL permits a user to change the species that the LYVP recognizes, redefine the lumber price table, or examine the intermediate results of the Lumber Yield and Value Program during execution. The LYVPFUTL program does not process the field inventory data; that is the function of the Lumber Yield and Value Program. The LYVPFUTL is used to redefine the environment under which the LYVPFUTL program processes data. For example, a typical use of the LYVPFUTL program is to redefine the current lumber prices used in predicting lumber value.

  13. An analysis of the lumber planning process: Part I

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1955-01-01

    Report of study of the peripheral-milling process of planing lumber. Relationships were determined between cutterhead horsepower and various combinations of specimen, cutterhead, and feed factors. Power demand curves are interpreted by comparion with simultaneous one micro-second photos of chips. Secondary consideration is given to quality of surface obtained. The...

  14. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Treesearch

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  15. Acoustic analysis of warp potential of green ponderosa pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 ft) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  16. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  17. Some bivariate distributions for modeling the strength properties of lumber

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Johnson; James W. Evans; David W. Green

    Accurate modeling of the joint stochastic nature of the strength properties of dimension lumber is essential to the determination of reliability-based design safety factors. This report reviews the major techniques for obtaining bivariate distributions and then discusses bivariate distributions whose marginal distributions suggest they might be useful for modeling the...

  18. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  19. Forest thinnings for integrated lumber and paper production

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; C.T. Scott; R. Gleisner; D. Mann; D.W. Vahey; D.P. Dykstra; G.H. Quinn; L.L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Integrated lumber and paper productions using forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests can significantly reduce the cost of prescriptive thinning operations. Many of the trees removed during forest thinnings are in small-diameter classes (diameter at breast height

  20. Lumber recovery from incense-cedar in central California.

    Treesearch

    Pong W.Y.; James M. Cahill

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 130 incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens Torr.) trees was selected from the Eldorado National Forest in California. The trees were felled and bucked into 403 woods-length logs and processed through a sawmill cutting Shop and Common grades of lumber. Recovery estimates are shown for woods-length logs based on Scribner board-foot scale and...

  1. Predictors of job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf

    1973-01-01

    Multiple discriminant analysis was used to identify biographic and employment history variables associated with job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill. Several variables-friends and relatives, type of housing, commuting distance, and prior work experience in the wood industry-were found to be significant.

  2. 34. General view of flume, just west of lumber storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. General view of flume, just west of lumber storage shed, looking west from south side of the flume. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. Evaluation of lumber recycled from an industrial military building

    Treesearch

    R. H. Falk; D. W. Green; S. C. Lantz

    1999-01-01

    During the past century, millions of structures were built from sawn lumber and timber. When these structures reach the end of their service lives, contemporary practices emphasize landfill disposal. In recent years, the public has expressed a strong interest in developing environmentally acceptable and efficient reuse options for this solid-wood material. As a result...

  4. A STUDY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN IDAHO, PART III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUDERMILK, KENNETH M.; AND OTHERS

    DATA COLLECTED FROM 27 LUMBER MILLS THROUGH 131 SUPERVISOR INTERVIEWS AND 1,192 EMPLOYEE QUESTIONNAIRES IDENTIFIED 188 JOB TITLES FOR 3,871 EMPLOYEES. EMPLOYMENT EXPANSION WAS PLANNED BY 36 FIRMS, AND A DECREASE WAS EXPECTED BY 20 FIRMS. MOST FIRMS MADE EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS ON AN ANNUAL BASIS, REFLECTING THEIR ANNUAL BUDGET PRACTICES.…

  5. A lumber grading system for the future: an update evaluation

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Virginia Tech and the Southern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service have jointly developed and refined a multiple-sensor lumber-scanning prototype to demonstrate and test applicable scanning technologies (Conners et al. 1997, Kline et al. 1997, Kline et al. 1998). This R&D effort has led to a patented wood color and grain sorting system (Conners and Lu 1998...

  6. Some technical aspects of trimming lumber in the planing mill

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1952-01-01

    This paper discusses four classes of lumber timming machines applicable to the planning mill. The classification is made according to function as follows: Irregularity or defect removal to increase the value of residual portion. Double end trimming to a length standard acceptable by the trade, trimming to specified length of the higher grades of stock after it has been...

  7. Epicormic branches affect lumber grade and value in willow oak

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; E.C. Burkhardt

    2001-01-01

    A case study was conducted in a 50-yr-old bottomland oak stand in central Alabama to investigate the relationship between epicormic branches and lumber grade and value in willow oak (Quercus phellos L.). The stand had been thinned from below 7–10 yr earlier, resulting in a wide variety of epicormic branch conditions on the residual trees. A...

  8. Price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir lumber.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Thomas D. Fahey; Roger D. Fight

    1988-01-01

    Grade-specific price projections were developed for Douglas-fir lumber produced in the Douglas-fir region. These grade-specific price projections can be used as an aid in evaluating management practices that will affect the quality of saw logs that are produced.

  9. Assessing the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington

    Treesearch

    Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The production structure of the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington was investigated using a translog cost function with capital. labor, and sawlog inputs. Analyses were performed with a panel data set of biennial observations from 1972 to 2002 on a cross section of 16 western Washington counties. Production structure was examined using Allen and...

  10. Proper Edging and Trimming Will Help Improve Lumber Value

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Decisions on where to edge and trim waning edged boards, or to trim other boards, can have a major effect on the performance of a sawmill. Optimum decisions are difficult for a number of reasons, including: complexity of grading rules; operator skills; operator fatigue or lack of interest at times; and, the inability of operators to include lumber prices in decisions....

  11. Production of lumber, lath, and shingles in 1918

    Treesearch

    Henry S. Graves

    1920-01-01

    In this bulletin, which is one of an annual series covering the period 1904 to 1918, inclusive, with the exception of 1914, are detailed statistics of the 1918 production of lumber, lath, and shingles in the continental United States, with comparative figures from previous annual reports.

  12. Productivity and trade during the softwood lumber dispute

    Treesearch

    Rao V Nagubadi; Henry Thompson; Daowei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The gap in total factor productivity in sawmills and wood preservation between the US and Canada generally increased from 1958 to 2005. The present paper examines the effects of the various phases of the softwood lumber dispute, including relatively free trade, Canadian export taxes, and low and high countervailing duties, on this productivity gap. Exogeneous control...

  13. Estimating air drying times of lumber with multiple regression

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the applicability of a multiple regression equation for estimating air drying times of red oak, sugar maple, and ponderosa pine lumber was evaluated. The equation allows prediction of estimated air drying times from historic weather records of temperature and relative humidity at any desired location.

  14. Simulations of solid lumber strength property monitoring tests

    Treesearch

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann; James W. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Dimension lumber, visually graded in accordance with the National Grading Rule and assigned design values derived in accordance with procedures found in ASTM D 1990, has provided satisfactory performance in homes and other structural applications for many years. This ongoing satisfactory performance depends upon a recognition that all standards are living documents...

  15. Quality distribution of pallet parts from low-grade lumber

    Treesearch

    Hollis R. Large; Richard E. Frost

    1974-01-01

    To produce better pallets, the higher quality parts should be used in the more vulnerable positions in the pallet. To determine the feasibility of doing this, pallet parts cut from commonly used lumber mixes were graded into four quality levels. The distributions obtained indicate that sufficient numbers of high-quality parts can be cut from existing raw material to...

  16. What's stopping the recycling of recovered CCA-treated lumber

    Treesearch

    R. Smith; D. Alderman; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    The awareness and concerns regarding the environmental impacts and disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products are increasing. Several investigators predict that the quantities of CCA-treated lumber will increase significantly in the upcoming decades. Additionally, with the number of landfills decreasing, landfill tipping fees increasing, and...

  17. TRSys: a hardwood lumber grading training and remanufacturing system

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; R. Kotharl; R. annavajjhala; Charles W. McMilling

    1994-01-01

    The training and remanufacturing system( TRsys) is a new training tool for teaching both hardwood lumber and grading and remanufacturing of lower grade boards into smaller boards of higher total value. TRSys is based on HaLT2. REGS, and enhanced HARem computer programs. The mosti mportant feature of this new program is its ability to evaluate remanufacturing beyond...

  18. TRSys: A hardwood lumber grading training and remanufacturing system

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; R. Kothari; R. Annavajjhala; Charles W. McMillin

    1994-01-01

    The Training and Remanufacturing System (TRSys) is a new training tool for teaching both hardwood lumber grading and remanufacturing of lower grade boards into smaller boards of higher total value. TRSys is based on the HaLT2, ReGS, and enhanced HaRem computer programs. The most important feature of this new program is its ablilty to evaluate remanufacturing beyond...

  19. Epicormic Branches and Lumber Grade of Bottomland Oak

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows

    1995-01-01

    Epicormic branches can be a serious problem in management of hardwood forests for high-quality sawtimber production. In one study in central Alabama, defects caused by epicormic branches that developed following a partial cutting resulted in a 13 percent reduction in the value of willow oak lumber. Production of epicormic branches along the boles of hardwood trees is...

  20. An analysis of the lumber planning process: Part II

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1956-01-01

    This study is part II of an investigation pertaining to the peripheral-milling process of planing lumber. Some relationships were determined between cutterhead horsepower and various combinations of specimen, cutterhead, and feed factors. Power demand curves were interpreted through comparison with simultaneously taken one micro-second photos of the forming chips....

  1. Ponderosa pine lumber recovery in north-central Washington.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    Prior to World War 11, the U. S. Forest Service (Region 6) adopted the policy of appraising ponderosa pine timber with a standardized set of lumber grade recovery data obtained from representative pine mills which are known to use average care in manufacturing and marketing. Such data were derived by combining the results of several mill studies made about 20 to 25...

  2. Production of lumber, lath, and shingles in 1917

    Treesearch

    Franklin H. Smith; Albert H. Pierson

    1919-01-01

    In this bulletin, which is one of an annual series covering the period 1904 to 1917, inclusive, with the exception of 1914, are detailed statistics of the 1917 production of lumber, lath, and shingles in the continental United States, with comparative figures from previous annual reports. The collection and compilation of the statistics for the Western States was done...

  3. Kiln Size Affects Energy Required to Dry Lumber

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements for lumber drying kilns can depend on kiln size and range from 18,000 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 10 board food capacity kiln to 1,600 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 100,000 board foot capacity kiln.

  4. Impact of human error on lumber yield in rough mills

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Rough sawn, kiln-dried lumber contains characteristics such as knots and bark pockets that are considered by most people to be defects. When using boards to produce furniture components, these defects are removed to produce clear, defect-free parts. Currently, human operators identify and locate the unusable board areas containing defects. Errors in determining a...

  5. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  6. Recognizing interactions among lumber grading rules, gang-ripping technology, and industry needs could increase the use of No.2 Common lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Charles J. Gatchell

    1989-01-01

    Recognizing the interactions among lumber grading rules, gang-ripping technology, and the parts needs of the furniture and cabinet industries could increase the use of No. 2 Common lumber as a raw material. The minimum piece size used in establishing the No.2 Common grade is 3 inches by 2 feet. Industry often needs shorter and narrower pieces than this. No.2 Common...

  7. Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carducci, Christiane M.

    Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that

  8. East yard, 3/4 view of east and north elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, 3/4 view of east and north elevations of car departments tool house. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  9. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Treesearch

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  10. Estimated demand for lumber and plywood in Hawaii by the year 2000

    Treesearch

    George D. Frazier

    1965-01-01

    By the year 2000, total lumber consumption in Hawaii is expected to be between 78 and 128 million board feet. Hardwood lumber consumption is expected to exceed 16 million board feet — an increase of nearly 2½ times the present level of use. In contrast, softwood lumber use is expected to remain at about the present level of 79 million board feet. Plywood...

  11. Changes in U.S. hardwood lumber exports, 1990 to 2008

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    The volume of hardwood lumber exported from the United States grew by 63 percent between 1990 and 2006 before decreasing by 29 percent between 2006 and 2008. Canada is both the largest export market for U.S. hardwood lumber and the largest source country for hardwood lumber imported into the United States. In the last 19 years China/Hong Kong has displaced Japan as the...

  12. 13. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 25.00. (See HAER No. DE-12 & 12A for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  13. 12. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 25.00. (See HAER No. DE-12 & 12A for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  14. Eratosthenes' Teachings with a Globe in a School Yard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozic, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of…

  15. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EASTNORTHEAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST AT THE SOUTH END OF THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2, LOOKING ACROSS SOUTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF REAR YARDS AND TERRAIN, SHOWING FACILITIES 571 AND 507. CONDOMINIUM TOWERS CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND FACILITY 618. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BLOCK AND BACK YARD TERRACING BEHIND FACILITY 624, SHOWING CLOTHESLINE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Overall view of gantry crane and storage yard. Taken June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of gantry crane and storage yard. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13770 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Curved limestone wall at east end of rail yard. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curved limestone wall at east end of rail yard. Note cut off valves at base of stump in right foreground, and utility tunnel in middle distance, superindent's house at right, looking NW. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 10. DIAMOND MINE YARD FROM THE NORTH SHOWING A COMPRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DIAMOND MINE YARD FROM THE NORTH SHOWING A COMPRESSED AIR PIPE AND TRESTLE IN THE LOWER LEFT, AND THE LORRY HOUSE. A PART OF A RETAINING WALL IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE RAILROAD CUT - Butte Mineyards, Diamond Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. 52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate rail on sled/roller railway). Steel fabrication building and traveling crane in background. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  6. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % {sup 235}U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % {sup 235}U, and the grams of {sup 235}U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities.

  7. 5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of complex. South side of railroad yard. Machine shop section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) at far left. Engine house section of roundhouse at center. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  8. Eratosthenes' Teachings with a Globe in a School Yard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozic, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of…

  9. 50. Rail Yards to North and West of Breaker, Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Rail Yards to North and West of Breaker, Looking West along Rock Belt Line Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown Originally taken by Glen Alden Safety Department, 18 August 1954; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  10. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Construction, renovation, and demolition wastes that are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Construction, renovation, and demolition wastes that are exempt from the definition of “municipal solid waste... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal...

  12. 78 FR 50328 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... other two sides were attached with plastic clips. After the infant was left to sleep, one of the plastic... in place to secure the bassinet accessory, the bassinet sleep surface tilted, and the infant slid... accessory'' is defined in ASTM F406-13 as ``an elevated sleep surface that attaches to a play yard designed...

  13. 42. VIEW OF MARISCAL QUICKSILVER MINE ENTRANCE TWENTY YARDS SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF MARISCAL QUICKSILVER MINE ENTRANCE TWENTY YARDS SOUTHWEST OF MAIN SHAFT LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CLOSURE BY PARK SERVICE, 1995. NOTE CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS IN THE CENTER OF IMAGE BEHIND OPENING FOR MAIN-SHAFT HOIST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  14. 11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & O STORAGE FACILITY ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. TURNTABLE LIES OUT OF VIEW BEHIND TRAIN SHED. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  15. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  16. 5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, milk house to left, barn ramp at center, and east side of dairy barn at center right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM EXERCISE YARD OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH WING LOOKING NORTHWEST (NOTE: AREA TO LEFT OF CENTER ARCH IS THE CARETAKER'S DWELLING, AND TO THE RIGHT, THE CARRIAGE HOUSE) - Belair, Stables, Belair Drive at East end of Tulip Grove Drive, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  18. VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 16 CFR § 1221.2 - Requirements for play yards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, each play yard must comply with all applicable provisions of ASTM F406-12a....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, P.O. Box 0700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428; http://www.astm.org. You may inspect a copy at the Office...

  20. 4. VIEW NORTH, YARD NORTH OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, YARD NORTH OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING WATER TANK AND SHOP Photocopy of photograph, 1941 (Courtesy of Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum; L. W. Rice, photographer) - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  1. Lumber recovery studies of Alaska sawmills, 1997 to 1999.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth A. Kilborn

    2002-01-01

    This report looks at solid wood product recovery based on the results of 23 studies conducted from April 1997 to July 1999 of 22 sawmills in Alaska (during these years, these mills represented over 90 percent of the State’s annual lumber production). Results for all mills studied within the State were reviewed for differences (1) in recovery by regions of the State, (2...

  2. West Virginia yellow-poplar lumber defect database

    Treesearch

    Lawrence E. Osborn; Charles J. Gatchell; Curt C. Hassler; Curt C. Hassler

    1992-01-01

    Describes the data collection methods and the format of the new West Virginia yellow-poplar lumber defect database that was developed for use with computer simulation programs. The database contains descriptions of 627 boards, totaling approximately 3,800 board. feet, collected in West Virginia in grades FAS, FASlF, No. 1 Common, No. 2A Common, and No. 2B Common. The...

  3. Effect of knots on stress waves in lumber

    Treesearch

    C.C. Gerhards

    1982-01-01

    An impact stress wave was induced in the end of 2 by 6 lumber containing knots. Rather than a normal, perpendicular-to-the-axis profile in transiting by a knot, the stress wave tended to Iead in zones of clear wood in the direction of the slope of grain or slope of the annual rings and to lag behind the knot. Of three methods evaluated to time the stress wave, the...

  4. Treatability of SPF framing lumber with CCA and borate preservatives

    Treesearch

    Cherilyn Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in preservative pressure-treatment of framing lumber to prevent attack by decay fungi and insects. However, the Spruce– pine–Fir species group that is often used in framing construction can be difficult to penetrate with preservatives. We compared solution uptake and penetration of boron and copper from a borax–copper (BC) preservative to...

  5. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  6. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  7. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  8. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  9. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  10. Yarding cost for the Koller K300 cable yarder: results from field trials and simulations

    Treesearch

    Neil K. Huyler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes results from field studies and simulation that can be used to estimate the yarding cost for the Koller K300 cable yarder. Yarding costs can be estimated for clearcuts and light and heavy thinnings in eastern hardwoods. Yarding costs can be estimated with a handheld calculator, or the data can be incorporated into stump-to-mill desktop PC and...

  11. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-10

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered.

  12. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    PubMed Central

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  13. [Analysis of accidents at work in building yards: correlation between risk and law defaults in yards of Palermo].

    PubMed

    Arcadipane, C; Verso, M G; Schillaci, S; Picciotto, D

    2007-01-01

    In the last years the building firm underwent real boom for investments and workers but not for safety measures. In the building sector there is a great accidents risks for falls from the top. The aim of present study is to analyze trend of accidents at work in building yards according to INAIL DATA and we will identify causes and risks then we will correlate these risks with frequent law defaults that we noticed in the province of Palermo. At the end we will value possible preventive measures to avoid this phenomenon. DATA INAIL of period 2001-2005 about building sector show us a reduction of denounced accidents at work but this phenomenon is changeable. Palermo is the first sicilian province for accidents at work although the number of denounced accidents (from 2001 to 2005) is decreasing while this number in Catania is increasing, CPT of Palermo gave us data (from 2004 to 2006) about inspections in building yards. Our study interests 609 yards and 1827 work stages. We noticed the most number of rests in civil yards.

  14. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Treesearch

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  15. Composition, volume, and prices for major softwood lumber types in western Oregon and Washington, 1971-2020.

    Treesearch

    James F. Weigand

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of lumber prices provided regressions for price trends during the period 1971-95 for composite lumber grades of major timber species found in the Pacific Northwest west of the crest of the Cascade Range. The analysis included data for coastal Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber; coastal and inland Pacific Northwest ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines; and...

  16. Hardwood lumber widths and grades used by the furniture and cabinet industries: Results of a 14-mill survey

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast

    2003-01-01

    Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...

  17. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... similar building products? 393.118 Section 393.118 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing dressed lumber or similar building products? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such...

  18. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... similar building products? 393.118 Section 393.118 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing dressed lumber or similar building products? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such...

  19. Feasibility of producing value-added wood products from reclaimed hemlock lumber

    Treesearch

    John J. Janowiak; Robert H. Falk; Jeffery D. Kimmel

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of producing value-added wood products from hemlock lumber salvaged from building deconstruction. About 6,000 board feet of lumber, ranging in size from 3 in. by 8 in. to 3 in. by 12 in., was remilled into four products including log cabin siding, V-groove paneling, beadboard (wainscoting), and tongue and groove flooring. The...

  20. Framing Lumber from Building Removal: How do We Best Utilize This Untapped Structural Resource?

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Falk; Steven Cramer; James Evans

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other construction materials, wood products are environmentally attractive because they sequester carbon, are renewable, and are low in embodied energy. Lumber salvaged from building removal possesses these same qualities but with additional environmental attributes. In spite of the environmental attractiveness of reclaimed lumber, its widespread...

  1. An analysis of declines in hardwood lumber price of the past 40 years

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, hardwood lumber prices have fluctuated as a result of overall economic activity and periodic inventory adjustment. Still, the decline in price for major hardwood species that began in the spring of 2004 and continued until the summer of 2009 is by far the most significant. In this article, we will examine just how much hardwood lumber prices...

  2. Wood-framed building deconstruction : a source of lumber for construction?

    Treesearch

    Bob Falk

    2002-01-01

    The sounds are much like those found at any building site. Hammers pounding. Saws whining. Lumber in motion. However, everything here seems to be in reverse ... windows and doors are being unhung rather than set in place, nails are being pounded out of boards instead of into them, lumber is being stacked up, banded, and hauled away rather than delivered and unstacked....

  3. Hardwood lumber and stumpage prices in two eastern hardwood markets: The real story

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Paul S. DeBald; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    Current and real prices of hardwood lumber and stumpage prices are discussed. Results show that inflation wiped out most of the apparent price increases in two major hardwood lumber markets. Stumpage prices also failed to increase in real terms for most species in Ohio. Current and real prices trends for eight major eastern species are shown for the period 1964 through...

  4. Relative price trends for hardwood stumpage, sawlogs, and lumber in Ohio

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; William G. Luppold

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, the hardwood lumber industry experienced a rapidly changing domestic and international hardwood product market. These changes have significantly affected prices of hardwood lumber, and subsequently affected prices of hardwood sawlogs and stumpage. To illustrate these changes, this paper examines deflated prices and price trends for hardwood...

  5. Grade Distribution and Drying Degrade of Sweetgum and Yellow-poplar Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust

    1990-01-01

    The fact that the supply of southern pine timber is changing to include more lower quality plantation stock may provide incentive for utilizing lower density hardwoods for structural lumber. Yellow-poplar and sweetgum are potential substitutes for southern pine. A major problem in utilizing soft hardwoods for structural lumber is the difficulties associated with drying...

  6. Potential sources of variation that influence the final moisture content of kiln-dried hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; Timothy M. Young; William W. Moschler; Brian H. Bond

    2004-01-01

    Excessive variability in the final moisture content (MC) of hardwood lumber may have a significant impact on secondary wood processing and final product performance. Sources of final MC variation during kiln- drying have been studied in prior research. A test examining the final MC of red oak (Quercus spp.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) lumber after kiln-...

  7. Lumber recovery from Douglas-fir thinnings at a bandmill and two chipping canters.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; Douglas L. Hunt

    1972-01-01

    Trees cut in thinning of Douglas-fir stands were processed into lumber at a profiled cant chipper, a square cant chipper with resaw, and a bandmill. Results are reported in terms of both cubic feet and Scribner long log scale. Included are tables by log input by diameter class for three studies, recovery by lumber grade and dimension item for three...

  8. Green lumber grade yields from factory grade logs of three oak species

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy

    1986-01-01

    Multivariate regression models were developed to predict green board foot yields for the seven common factory lumber grades processed from white, black, and chestnut oak factory grade logs. These models use the standard log measurements of grade, scaling diameter, log length, and proportion of scaling defect. Any combination of lumber grades (such as 1 Common and...

  9. Confidence intervals for predicting lumber strength properties based on ratios of percentiles from two Weibull populations.

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Johnson; James W. Evans; David W. Green

    2003-01-01

    Ratios of strength properties of lumber are commonly used to calculate property values for standards. Although originally proposed in terms of means, ratios are being applied without regard to position in the distribution. It is now known that lumber strength properties are generally not normally distributed. Therefore, nonparametric methods are often used to derive...

  10. The international hardwood lumber market and potential impacts on your bottom line

    Treesearch

    Bill Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    Even if you don't sell logs or lumber to foreign customers, the international hardwood market can impact your business in significant ways, and smart business leaders are taking notice so that they are ready for shifting market impacts. Many people believe that lumber exporting is only an opportunity for larger sawmills. However, even if you have a portable mill...

  11. An examination of the relationships between hardwood lumber and stumpage prices in Ohio

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between hardwood lumber and stumpage prices is critical in evaluating market efficiency and in understanding the potential impact of changing technology on stumpage markets. Unfortunately, the complexity of the hardwood lumber market and lack of reliable data make it difficult to evaluate this relationship using traditional econometric...

  12. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., Research and Information Order (Order). Hardwood lumber and hardwood plywood are used in products like... varies according to the product manufactured. The purpose of the program would be to strengthen the... hardwood plywood. Hardwood lumber products are used in residential and commercial construction...

  13. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Treesearch

    Neal. Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  14. Character-marked furniture: potential for lumber yield increase in crosscut-first rough mills

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; E. Earl Kline; E. Earl Kline

    1999-01-01

    Including character marks in dimension parts of the furniture, cabinet, and dimension industries offers an opportunity to increase lumber yield substantially. However, little quantitative knowledge exists as to how the incorporation of character marks in parts influences yield when processing lumber in a crosscut-first rough mill. Using computer simulation, this study...

  15. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bowe Bergman

    2008-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the US. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using life-cycle inventory methodology. Material flow and energy use were identified for hardwood sawmills in northeastern US. A hardwood log volume conversion of 43.7% to planed dry lumber was found. Values of 608 MJ/m3 of electrical and...

  16. Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing hardwood lumber in Southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the building industry have become of increasing importance. Materials and energy consumed during manufacture of building materials such as lumber affect a building’s environmental performance. This study determined environmental impacts of manufacturing hardwood lumber in the southeastern US using the life-cycle inventory method....

  17. Defect reduction in low-value white oak lumber using restrained drying

    Treesearch

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Oluwatosin Adedipe; Charlie II Collins; Brian Cox; Colin Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on alternative processing methods for low-value hardwoods. Extensive research has shown that drying softwood lumber using edge-wise restraint improves product and value yields. Currently, the effects of restraint drying on product and value yields from low-grade hardwood lumber have not been investigated. We evaluated the use of a...

  18. Infrared and colorimetric characterization of discolored kiln-dried hard maple lumber

    Treesearch

    Benjamin E. Dawson-Andoh; Michael Wiemann; Laurent Matuana; John Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    Discoloration of hard maple lumber commonly occurs during kiln-drying. In this study, discolored andnondiscolored kiln-dried hard maple lumber boards were characterized using a colorimetric method and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Colorimetric measurements (L*, a*, b*) were found to be in good agreement with visual...

  19. Characterization of Defects in Lumber Using Color, Shape, and Density Information

    Treesearch

    B.H. Bond; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    To help guide the development of multi-sensor machine vision systems for defect detection in lumber, a fundamental understanding of wood defects is needed. The purpose of this research was to advance the basic understanding of defects in lumber by describing them in terms of parameters that can be derived from color and x-ray scanning technologies and to demonstrate...

  20. Determinant Product and Supplier Attributes in Domestic Markets for Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Product and supplier attributes that are critical in hardwood lumber purchase decisions (i.e., determinant) were investigated in four segments of the domestic market for hardwood lumber: millwork producers (Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2431), hardwood dimension and flooring producers (SIC 2426), wood household furniture producers (SIC 2511), and wood...

  1. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  2. Lumber recovery of Douglas-fir from the Coast and Cascade Ranges of Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Susan Willits; Thomas D. Fahey

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of lumber recovery studies at four sawmills in western Oregon and western Washington; two dimension mills, one grade mill, and one timber mill were included. Results from individual mills are reported and discussed. The four mills were also combined to approximate "average" conversion of logs to lumber for the region....

  3. A computer model to simulate solar and solar-dehumidification lumber drying

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, W.A.; Chen, P.Y.S.; Vaidya, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    A computer simulation model was developed for a solar lumber drier and a solardehumidification drier. Experimental data taken on an existing solar and solardehumidification drier compared well with the computer prediction. The solardehumidification lumber drier is able to dry wood about as fast as a conventional drier and yet use less than 50 percent of the fossel fuel energy at the site.

  4. Lumber recovery from young-growth red and white fir in northern California.

    Treesearch

    W.Y. Pong

    1982-01-01

    Lumber recovery data from 1,106 logs from 341 young-growth white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) and red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr) trees are presented. All logs were processed through a quad-band headsaw. Nominal 2x4's and 2x6's made up over 93 percent of the lumber volume; nearly 70...

  5. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams

    Treesearch

    J. J. Janowiak; H. B. Manbeck; R. Hernandez; R. C. Moody; P. R. Blankenhorn; P. Labosky

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glued-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated: (1) a glulam combination designed with E-rated lumber in 25 percent of the outer laminations (top and bottom) and No. 3 grade...

  6. International trade of U.S. hardwood lumber and logs, 1990-2013

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    United States (U.S.) hardwood log and lumber exports surged in the early- and mid-1970s in response to the adoption of floating exchange rates. However, assessing these changes in international trade became difficult in the 1980s due to increased underreporting of hardwood lumber and log shipments between the U.S. and Canada. By 1990, these data problems were rectified...

  7. A system for optimal edging and trimming of rough hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of improving lumber processing early in manufacturing, scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. This paper describes a prototype system that scans...

  8. Increasing Hardwood Lumber Recovery and Value at the Edger and Trimmer

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; C. Regalado

    1991-01-01

    There are over 3500 sawmills producing hardwood lumber in the Southeastern portion of the United States for the household furniture, cabinet, millwork, dimension, and flooring industries as well as for the export market. To stay in business, these sawmills must be able to produce the highest possible value lumber from any given saw log. In these mills, about 20 percent...

  9. Softwood lumber prices for evaluation of small diameter timber stands in the Intermountain West.

    Treesearch

    John T. Chmelik; Roger D. Fight; R. James. Barbour

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports prices for aggregations of lumber grades that are representative of the quality and volume of lumber produced from small-diameter timber stands in the Intermountain West area encompassing Idaho and Montana and land east of the Cascade Mountain range in Oregon and Washington. Price data are reported for Douglas Fir1Larch, Hem1Fir, ponderosa pine, and...

  10. From a contractors perspective: what is needed to recover used CCA treated lumber?

    Treesearch

    Delton R. Alderman; Robert L. Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    The rationale of this research was to discern the factors that currently are preventing contractors from recovering and recycling spent chromated copper arsenate (CCA) lumber. This study examines the effects of evaluations and beliefs, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and awareness of the contractor's decision intention to recover used CCA lumber....

  11. Lumber-grade recovery from 110-year-old Douglas-fir thinnings.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    What lumber-grade and yield recovery is possible from thinnings in low Site III, 110-year-old, young-growth Douglas -fir stand? A lumber-grade recovery study of sawtimber cut in recent thinning experiments at the Wind River Experimental Forest, Skamania County, Washington, gives some idea of the answer. The thinning experiments were designed to determine increment and...

  12. Effect of treatment pressure on treatment quality and bending properties of red pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; William J. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Although higher treatment pressures have the potential to improve preservative penetration, higher pressures may possibly result in greater reduction in mechanical properties. The present study evaluated the effect of treatment pressure on the treatment quality and mechanical properties of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) lumber. End-matched sections of red pine lumber...

  13. U.S. Policy and Canadian Lumber: Effects of the 1986 Memorandum of Understanding

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Karen J. Lee

    1993-01-01

    A 1986 Memorandum of Understanding on softwood lumber imports (MOU) between Canada and the United States required that provinvial governments levy export taxes on softwood lumber shipped to the United States. This agreement, with subsequent amendments, influenced trade from 1987 until it was abandoned by Canada in October of 1991. This paper investigates the market...

  14. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Treesearch

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  15. Test method for assessing resistance of pine lumber and waferboard to mold

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Michael West

    2005-01-01

    Methods are needed to evaluate the ability of framing lumber and composite construction materials to withstand mold growth when they are exposed to rain between manufacture and installation. A laboratory-controlled rain chamber was developed to expose biocide-treated specimens of pine lumber and waferboard to bi-weekly wetting followed by re-inoculation with test fungi...

  16. Impact of elliptical shaped red oak logs on lumber grade and volume recovery

    Treesearch

    Patrick M. Rappold; Brian H. Bond; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Roncs Ese-Etame

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the grade and volume of lumber recovered from red oak logs with elliptical shaped cross sections. The volume and grade of lumber recovered from red oak logs with low (e ≤ 0.3) and high (e ≥ 0.4) degrees of ellipticity was measured at four hardwood sawmills. There was no significant difference (...

  17. Rough-Part Sizes Needed from Lumber for Manufacturing Furniture and Kitchen Cabinets

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the results from a recent survey of the rough-part sizes needed from lumber for manufacturing furniture and kitchen cabinets. Twenty furniture and twelve cabinet companies participated in the survey. Lumber thicknesses needed and rough-part qualities desired are presented along with distributions describing the required rough-part dimensions....

  18. 75 FR 41529 - Stimson Lumber Company, Clatskanie, OR; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... complained of was based on a mistake in the determination of facts not previously considered; or (3) if in... foreign country softwood dimensional lumber (or like or directly competitive articles) and did not increase its imports of softwood dimensional lumber (or like or directly competitive articles). During the...

  19. 78 FR 77329 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and... Board (Board) established under the Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry..., Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act) (7 U.S.C. 7411-7425). Executive Orders 12866 and 13563...

  20. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). The Board administers the...--SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER 0 1. The authority...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1217 Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion...

  1. Knot, heartwood, and sapwood extractives related to VOCs from drying southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Leonard L. Ingram; M. Curry Templeton; G. Wayne McGraw; Richard W. Hemingway

    2000-01-01

    The presence of knots or heartwood influences the amount and composition of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with drying of southern pine lumber. Experimental kiln charges of lumber containing 0 to 5% of knot volume gave VOC emissions ranging from 2.86 to 4.25 lb of carbonldry ton of wood. Studies of emissions from sapwood and knots showed that...

  2. Investigating the linearity assumption between lumber grade mix and yield using design of experiments (DOE)

    Treesearch

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Solving the least-cost lumber grade mix problem allows dimension mills to minimize the cost of dimension part production. This problem, due to its economic importance, has attracted much attention from researchers and industry in the past. Most solutions used linear programming models and assumed that a simple linear relationship existed between lumber grade mix and...

  3. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1211 RIN 0581-AD24 Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... determine whether issuance of a proposed Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and...

  4. [Work condition of electricians servicing railway shunting and maneuvering yards].

    PubMed

    Talivanova, R V; Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The article represents main occupational hazards and work conditions of such railway occupation as electromechanic and electromounter of shunting yards of railway stations. Complete hygienic evaluation of the occupational activities is given for individuals working at Moskovskaya, Oktjabrskaya and Sevemaya railroads. Health state of the workers was studied according to transitory disablement materials, the morbidity and its structure were analyzed. The authors outline some suggestions to improve the work conditions and decrease the morbidity.

  5. VIEW OF TRANSFER CAR (BATTERYELECTRIC POWERED) FROM BILLET YARD POSITIONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TRANSFER CAR (BATTERY-ELECTRIC POWERED) FROM BILLET YARD POSITIONED FOR LOADING BILLETS INTO FURNACE; HEATER (BEHIND SCREEN IN CENTER) MOVES THE TRANSFER CAR INTO POSITION. BILLETS FROM THE TRANSFER CAR ARE PLACED ON HAND-OPERATED TURNTABLE. THE FURNACE IS NATURAL-GAS FIRED, WITH BILLETS HEATED AT NOT MORE THAN 2400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  6. Eratosthenes' teachings with a globe in a school yard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-03-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 by installing globes in many school and university courtyards.

  7. Break-even zones for cable yarding by log size

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    The use of cable logging to extract small pieces of residue wood may result in low rates of production and a high cost per unit of wood produced. However, the logging manager can improve yarding productivity and break-even in cable residue removal operations by using the proper planning techniques. In this study, break-even zones for specific young-growth stands were...

  8. Acoustic evaluation of loblolly pine tree- and lumber-length logs allows for segregation of lumber modulus of elasticity, not for modulus of rupture

    Treesearch

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes; Finto Antony; Richard F. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Key message Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) logs can be evaluated using acoustic velocity whereby threshold acoustic velocity values can be set to ensure lumber meets specified mechanical property design values for modulus of elasticity. Context...

  9. Experiences of a Rail Yard Community: Life Is Hard

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Montgomery, Susanne; Dougherty, Molly; Valladares, Johanny; Rangel, Sany; Gleason, Peter; Soret, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Community groups and local air pollution control agencies have identified the San Bernardino Railyard (SBR) as a significant public health and environmental justice issue. In response, the authors conducted a comprehensive study with community members living in close proximity to the rail yard. The purpose of this article is to share the community's perceptions about the rail yard and ideas on sustainable change. A qualitative study using key informant interviews and focus group discussions was conducted and resulted in four emerging themes. Themes emerged as follows: “health as an unattainable value,” “air quality challenges,” “rail yard pros and cons,” and “violence and unemployment ripple effect.” Community participants expressed concern for poor air quality, but other challenges took priority. The authors' findings suggest that future mitigation work to reduce air pollution exposure should not only focus on reducing risk from air pollution but address significant cooccurring community challenges. A “Health in All Policies” approach is warranted in addressing impacted communities in close proximity to the goods movement industry. PMID:25226779

  10. Experiences of a rail yard community: life is hard.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Montgomery, Susanne; Dougherty, Molly; Valladares, Johanny; Rangel, Sany; Gleason, Peter; Soret, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Community groups and local air pollution control agencies have identified the San Bernardino Railyard (SBR) as a significant public health and environmental justice issue. In response, the authors conducted a comprehensive study with community members living in close proximity to the rail yard. The purpose of this article is to share the community's perceptions about the rail yard and ideas on sustainable change. A qualitative study using key informant interviews and focus group discussions was conducted and resulted in four emerging themes. Themes emerged as follows: "health as an unattainable value," "air quality challenges," "rail yard pros and cons," and "violence and unemployment ripple effect." Community participants expressed concern for poor air quality, but other challenges took priority. The authors' findings suggest that future mitigation work to reduce air pollution exposure should not only focus on reducing risk from air pollution but address significant co-occurring community challenges. A "Health in All Policies" approach is warranted in addressing impacted communities in close proximity to the goods movement industry.

  11. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  12. Alternatives to lumber and plywood in home construction

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, E.

    1993-04-01

    The diminished supply and unstable price of lumber is compelling designers, builders, and developers to explore alternative materials for residential construction. The report discusses several commercially available alternative materials or building systems that may be used in framing and sheathing, including: engineered wood products; laminated fiberboard that can be used for sheathing walls; light-gauge structural steel components for floors, walls and roof systems; foam core structure sandwich panels for walls and roofs; and a variety of concrete and concrete block systems, many of which include insulation material.

  13. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the lumber industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular lumber firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  14. LOGCALC: A Calculator Program Series to Calculate Log Volume, Lumber Recovery, and Log Scale (for a TI-59 Calculator with Printer),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    TI-59 programmable calculator . The following calculations are made by the program series: Log volume by Smalian’s Formula; Lumber Recovery Factor...computer field, there is a general lack of special purpose programs that are well documented and easy to use. The main competitors in the programmable ... calculator market do offer large numbers of documented program for many applications. The applications that this publication addresses, however, are

  15. Effects of soil type, irrigation volume and plant species on treatment of log yard run-off in lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Elowson, Torbjörn

    2004-09-01

    Wet storage of timber and pulpwood produces large quantities of run-off water. A study was conducted to determine the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems for log yard run-off. Sixteen 1200-l lysimeters (1.2 m deep soil columns) with clay or sand soil were planted with willow (Salix sp.) or alder (Alnus glutinosa), and irrigated with run-off from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. Drainage water was analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), phenols, total P and total N in order to determine concentrations and levels of retention. High retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred in the lysimeters, but no clear differences between willows and alder or clay and sand were identified. Lysimeters with high levels of irrigation showed greater retention than those with low levels. Soil-plant systems using willow and alder could provide an alternative for log yard run-off purification: the key requirement is to optimise irrigation rather than manipulate the plants or soils.

  16. 21. FROM 30th STREET COACH YARDS, LOOKING NORTH, NEAR WASHER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. FROM 30th STREET COACH YARDS, LOOKING NORTH, NEAR WASHER. - Pennsylvania Railroad, West Philadelphia Elevated, Parallel to Schuylkill River, north of Arsenal Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Mechanical Treatment of Raw Waste Lumber an Effective Way to Preserve the Ecology and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Anatoly A.; Gusev, Vladimir G.; Yudin, Roman V.; Timerbaev, Nail F.; Retyunskiy, Oleg Yu

    2016-08-01

    Alternative process flowsheet machining of the machining of raw waste lumber were analysed, and it was implemented in a real machine model based on the chosen scheme. The forming process of the treated surface of the stock material was examined, and consequently the mathematical models of the geometric errors in terms of independent factors of the profile milling process were defined. Based on these models is possible to construct a treatment process of the raw waste lumber with minimal errors on the surfaces which were treated. The manufacturing of products from raw waste lumber allows to reduce the volume of deforestation and helps to preserve the ecology and economize the material resources.

  18. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Janowiak, J.J.; Manbeck, H.B.; Hernandez, R.; Moody, R.C.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glue-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated. Test results of 42 red maple glulam beams showed that it was feasible to develop structural glulam timber from cant-swan lumber. The glulam combinations made from E-rated lumber exceeded the target design bending stress of 2,400 lb/in 2 and met the target modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 1.8 x 106 lb/in 2.

  19. Gobar gas plant sludge is superior to farm yard manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnappa, A.M.; Ranganna, B.; Deshpande, P.B.; Venkatrao, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation conducted to compare the efficiency of sludge from biogas plants with farm-yard manure are reported. With regard to nutrient content, the sludge is seen to have a higher content of moisture, nitrogen, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, K/sub 2/O and organic carbon, as well as a higher N/C ratio. Both materials were used to fertilize fields of potato and ragi. The yield for potato fertilized with sludge increased by 6% while that for ragi increased by 17%.

  20. Wealth distribution under Yard-Sale exchange with proportional taxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent analysis of a Yard-Sale (YS) exchange model supplemented with redistributive proportional taxation suggested an asymptotic behavior P(w)˜1/wμ for the wealth distribution, with a parameter-dependent exponent μ. Revisiting this problem, it is here shown analytically, and confirmed by extensive numerical simulation, that the asymptotic behavior of P(w) is not power-law but rather a Gaussian. When taxation is weak, we furthermore show that a restricted-range power-law behavior appears for wealths around the mean value. The corresponding power-law exponent equals 3/2 when the return distribution has zero mean.