Science.gov

Sample records for large object capture

  1. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Missions for LEO Small Debris and for GEO Large Object Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most LEO debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with specific useful orbits. Objects in such narrow inclination bands have all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a low-orbiting base can serve as a "mother ship" that can tend and then send small, disposable common individual catcher/deboost devices--one for each debris object--as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as each higher object. The dV necessary to catch highly-eccentric orbit debris in the center of the band alternatively allows the capture of less-eccentric debris in a wider inclination range around the center. It is demonstrated that most LEO hazardous debris can be removed from orbit in three years, using a single LEO launch of one mother ship--with its onboard magazine of freeflying low-tech catchers--into each of ten identified bands, with second or potentially third launches into only the three highest-inclination bands. The nearly 1000 objects near the geostationary orbit present special challenges in mass, maneuverability, and ultimate disposal options, leading to a dramatically different architecture and technology suite than the LEO solution. It is shown that the entire population of near-GEO derelict objects can be gathered and tethered together within a 3 year period for future scrap-yard operations using achievable technologies and only two earth launches.

  2. Drifting Recovery Base Concept for GEO Derelict Object Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Over 250 objects hover within 6 m/sec of perfect geostationary orbit. Over half of these objects lie within 0.1 m/sec of the GEO velocity. Such items have 62% of the total velocity required to achieve Earth gravitational escape. A conceptual architecture is proposed to clean this orbit area of derelict objects while providing a demonstration mission for many facets of future asteroid mining operations. These near-GEO objects average nearly 2000kg each, consisting of (typically functioning) power systems, batteries, and large quantities of components and raw aerospace-grade refined materials. Such a demonstration collection system could capture, collect and remove all GEO derelict objects in an international effort to create a depot of components and of aerospace-grade raw materials--with a total mass greater than that of the International Space Station--as a space scrap depot ready for transfer to lunar or Mars orbit, using only two heavy-lift launches and 2-3 years of on-orbit operations.

  3. Dynamics and control of robot for capturing objects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Panfeng

    Space robots are expected to perform intricate tasks in future space services, such as satellite maintenance, refueling, and replacing the orbital replacement unit (ORU). To realize these missions, the capturing operation may not be avoided. Such operations will encounter some challenges because space robots have some unique characteristics unfound on ground-based robots, such as, dynamic singularities, dynamic coupling between manipulator and space base, limited energy supply and working without a fixed base, and so on. In addition, since contacts and impacts may not be avoided during capturing operation. Therefore, dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects are significant research topics if the robots are to be deployed for the space services. A typical servicing operation mainly includes three phases: capturing the object, berthing and docking the object, then repairing the target. Therefore, this thesis will focus on resolving some challenging problems during capturing the object, berthing and docking, and so on. In this thesis, I study and analyze the dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects. This work has potential impact in space robotic applications. I first study the contact and impact dynamics of space robot and objects. I specifically focus on analyzing the impact dynamics and mapping the relationship of influence and speed. Then, I develop the fundamental theory for planning the minimum-collision based trajectory of space robot and designing the configuration of space robot at the moment of capture. To compensate for the attitude of the space base during the capturing approach operation, a new balance control concept which can effectively balance the attitude of the space base using the dynamic couplings is developed. The developed balance control concept helps to understand of the nature of space dynamic coupling, and can be readily applied to compensate or minimize the disturbance to the space base

  4. Deflection of large near-earth objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1999-01-11

    The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

  5. The role of conscious perception in attentional capture and object-file updating.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Dominique; Alon, Limor; Carmel, Tomer; Shalev, Nir

    2015-01-01

    A mental process that is independent of conscious perception should run equally well with or without it. Previous investigations of unconscious processing have seldom included this comparison: They typically demonstrated only processing without conscious perception. In the research reported here, we showed that attentional capture is largely independent of conscious perception and that updating the episodic information stored about an object is entirely contingent on conscious perception. We used a spatial-cuing paradigm, in which the cue was a color-singleton distractor rendered liminal by continuous flash suppression or brief exposure. When the cue matched the participant's attentional set, it strongly captured attention whether it was subliminal or consciously perceived. In contrast, a nonmatching cue did not capture attention but instead produced a same-location cost, which was contingent on consciously perceiving the cue. Our findings demonstrate a dissociation between attention and conscious perception and unveil an important boundary condition of object-file updating.

  6. Exon capture optimization in amphibians with large genomes.

    PubMed

    McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Mount, Genevieve G; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Gathering genomic-scale data efficiently is challenging for nonmodel species with large, complex genomes. Transcriptome sequencing is accessible for organisms with large genomes, and sequence capture probes can be designed from such mRNA sequences to enrich and sequence exonic regions. Maximizing enrichment efficiency is important to reduce sequencing costs, but relatively few data exist for exon capture experiments in nonmodel organisms with large genomes. Here, we conducted a replicated factorial experiment to explore the effects of several modifications to standard protocols that might increase sequence capture efficiency for amphibians and other taxa with large, complex genomes. Increasing the amounts of c0 t-1 repetitive sequence blocker and individual input DNA used in target enrichment reactions reduced the rates of PCR duplication. This reduction led to an increase in the percentage of unique reads mapping to target sequences, essentially doubling overall efficiency of the target capture from 10.4% to nearly 19.9% and rendering target capture experiments more efficient and affordable. Our results indicate that target capture protocols can be modified to efficiently screen vertebrates with large genomes, including amphibians. PMID:27223337

  7. Image Tiling for Profiling Large Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Ajit; Schock, Harold; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional surface measurements of large objects arc required in a variety of industrial processes. The nature of these measurements is changing as optical instruments arc beginning to replace conventional contact probes scanned over the objects. A common characteristic of the optical surface profilers is the trade off between measurement accuracy and field of view. In order to measure a large object with high accuracy, multiple views arc required. An accurate transformation between the different views is needed to bring about their registration. In this paper, we demonstrate how the transformation parameters can be obtained precisely by choosing control points which lie in the overlapping regions of the images. A good starting point for the transformation parameters is obtained by having a knowledge of the scanner position. The selection of the control points arc independent of the object geometry. By successively recording multiple views and obtaining transformation with respect to a single coordinate system, a complete physical model of an object can be obtained. Since all data arc in the same coordinate system, it can thus be used for building automatic models for free form surfaces.

  8. Attentional Capture of Objects Referred to by Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants saw a small number of objects in a visual display and performed a visual detection or visual-discrimination task in the context of task-irrelevant spoken distractors. In each experiment, a visual cue was presented 400 ms after the onset of a spoken word. In experiments 1 and 2, the cue was an isoluminant color change and participants…

  9. The lack of large compact symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, `baby' (< 103 yr) and `young' (103-105 yr) radio galaxies have been found and classified, although their numbers are still small (tens). Also, they have many different names, depending on the type of survey and scientific context in which they were found: compact steep spectrum sources (CSS), giga-Hertz peaked spectrum sources (GPS) and compact-medium symmetric objects (C-MSO). The latter have the radio galaxy structure more obvious and correspond to the `babies' (CSOs; < 1 kpc) and `young' (MSOs; 1-15 kpc) radio galaxies. The log-size distribution of CSOs shows a sharp drop at 0.3 kpc. This trend continues through flat-spectrum MSOs (over the full 1-15 kpc size range). In order to find out if this lack of large CSOs and flat-spectrum MSOs is due to poor sampling (lack of surveys that probe efficiently the 0.3-15 kpc size range) and/or has physical meaning (e.g. if the lobes of CSOs expand as they grow and age, they might become CSSs, `disappearing' from the flat-spectrum MSO statistics), we have built a sample of 157 flat-spectrum radio sources with structure on ˜0.3-15 kpc scales. We are using new, archived and published data to produce and inspect hundreds of multi-frequency multi-instrument maps and models. We have already found 13 new secure CSO/MSOs. We expect to uncover ˜30-40 new CSOs and MSOs, most on the 0.3-15 kpc size range, when our project is complete.

  10. Large animal normal tissue tolerance with boron neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, P.R.; Swartz, C.D. ); Kraft, S.L. ); Briebenow, M.L. ); DeHaan, C.E.

    1994-03-30

    Normal tissue tolerance of boron neutron capture irradiation using borocaptate sodium (NA[sub 2]B[sub 12]H[sub 11]SH) in an epithermal neutron beam was studied. Large retriever-type dogs were used and the irradiations were performed by single dose, 5 [times] 10 dorsal portal. Fourteen dogs were irradiated with the epithermal neutron beam alone and 35 dogs were irradiated following intravenous administration of borocaptate sodium. Total body irradiation effect could be seen from the decreased leukocytes and platelets following irradiation. Most values returned to normal within 40 days postirradiation. Severe dermal necrosis occurred in animals given 15 Gy epithermal neutrons alone and in animals irradiated to a total peak physical dose greater than 64 Gy in animals following borocaptate sodium infusion. Lethal brain necrosis was seen in animals receiving between 27 and 39 Gy. Lethal brain necrosis occurred at 22-36 weeks postirradiation. A total peak physical dose of approximately 27 Gy and blood-boron concentrations of 25-50 ppm resulted in abnormal magnetic resonance imaging results in 6 months postexamination. Seven of eight of these animals remained normal and the lesions were not detected at the 12-month postirradiation examination. The bimodal therapy presents a complex challenge in attempting to achieve dose response assays. The resultant total radiation dose is a composite of low and high LET components. The short track length of the boron fission fragments and the geometric effect of the vessels causes much of the intravascular dose to miss the presumed critical target of the endothelial cells. The results indicate a large dose-sparing effect from the boron capture reactions within the blood. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  12. Captured metagenomics: large-scale targeting of genes based on 'sequence capture' reveals functional diversity in soils.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Hedlund, Katarina; Ahrén, Dag

    2015-12-01

    Microbial enzyme diversity is a key to understand many ecosystem processes. Whole metagenome sequencing (WMG) obtains information on functional genes, but it is costly and inefficient due to large amount of sequencing that is required. In this study, we have applied a captured metagenomics technique for functional genes in soil microorganisms, as an alternative to WMG. Large-scale targeting of functional genes, coding for enzymes related to organic matter degradation, was applied to two agricultural soil communities through captured metagenomics. Captured metagenomics uses custom-designed, hybridization-based oligonucleotide probes that enrich functional genes of interest in metagenomic libraries where only probe-bound DNA fragments are sequenced. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with targeted genes while maintaining their target diversity and their taxonomic distribution correlated well with the traditional ribosomal sequencing. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with genes related to organic matter degradation; at least five times more than similar, publicly available soil WMG projects. This target enrichment technique also preserves the functional representation of the soils, thereby facilitating comparative metagenomics projects. Here, we present the first study that applies the captured metagenomics approach in large scale, and this novel method allows deep investigations of central ecosystem processes by studying functional gene abundances.

  13. Collision free pick up and movement of large objects

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.D.; McKee, G.R.

    1998-08-01

    An automated system is described for the sensor-based precision docking and manipulation of large objects. Past work in the remote handling of large nuclear waste containers is extensible to the problems associated with the handling of large objects such as coils of flat steel in industry. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing as described here are used to control the precision docking of large objects, and swing damped motion control of overhead cranes is used to control the position of the pick up device and suspended payload during movement. Real-time sensor processing and model-based control are used to accurately position payloads.

  14. Parallel Processing of Large Scale Microphone Arrays for Sound Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Ea-Ee.

    1995-01-01

    Performance of microphone sound pick up is degraded by deleterious properties of the acoustic environment, such as multipath distortion (reverberation) and ambient noise. The degradation becomes more prominent in a teleconferencing environment in which the microphone is positioned far away from the speaker. Besides, the ideal teleconference should feel as easy and natural as face-to-face communication with another person. This suggests hands-free sound capture with no tether or encumbrance by hand-held or body-worn sound equipment. Microphone arrays for this application represent an appropriate approach. This research develops new microphone array and signal processing techniques for high quality hands-free sound capture in noisy, reverberant enclosures. The new techniques combine matched-filtering of individual sensors and parallel processing to provide acute spatial volume selectivity which is capable of mitigating the deleterious effects of noise interference and multipath distortion. The new method outperforms traditional delay-and-sum beamformers which provide only directional spatial selectivity. The research additionally explores truncated matched-filtering and random distribution of transducers to reduce complexity and improve sound capture quality. All designs are first established by computer simulation of array performance in reverberant enclosures. The simulation is achieved by a room model which can efficiently calculate the acoustic multipath in a rectangular enclosure up to a prescribed order of images. It also calculates the incident angle of the arriving signal. Experimental arrays were constructed and their performance was measured in real rooms. Real room data were collected in a hard-walled laboratory and a controllable variable acoustics enclosure of similar size, approximately 6 x 6 x 3 m. An extensive speech database was also collected in these two enclosures for future research on microphone arrays. The simulation results are shown to be

  15. Lecture Capture in Large Undergraduate Classes: What Is the Impact on the Teaching and Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron; Lupshenyuk, Denys; Wideman, Herb

    2011-01-01

    Many higher education institutions are now digitally capturing lectures in courses and making them available on the web for students to view anytime and in anyplace. This study is an attempt to understand the relationship between student perceptions of lecture capture and academic performance in large undergraduate courses where the practice is…

  16. Spacecraft Stabilization and Control for Capture of Non-Cooperative Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh; Kelkar, Atul G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses stabilization and control issues in autonomous capture and manipulation of non-cooperative space objects such as asteroids, space debris, and orbital spacecraft in need of servicing. Such objects are characterized by unknown mass-inertia properties, unknown rotational motion, and irregular shapes, which makes it a challenging control problem. The problem is further compounded by the presence of inherent nonlinearities, signi cant elastic modes with low damping, and parameter uncertainties in the spacecraft. Robust dissipativity-based control laws are presented and are shown to provide global asymptotic stability in spite of model uncertainties and nonlinearities. It is shown that robust stabilization can be accomplished via model-independent dissipativity-based controllers using thrusters alone, while stabilization with attitude and position control can be accomplished using thrusters and torque actuators.

  17. Exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yaseen, Wathiq Laftah; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    One of the Business Intelligent solutions that is currently in use is the Multi-Agent System (MAS). Communication is one of the most important elements in MAS, especially for exchanging large low level data between distributed agents (physically). The Agent Communication Language in JADE has been offered as a secure method for sending data, whereby the data is defined as an object. However, the object cannot be used to send data to another agent in a different location. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose a method for the exchange of large low level data as an object by creating a proxy agent known as a Delivery Agent, which temporarily imitates the Receiver Agent. The results showed that the proposed method is able to send large-sized data. The experiments were conducted using 16 datasets ranging from 100,000 to 7 million instances. However, for the proposed method, the RAM and the CPU machine had to be slightly increased for the Receiver Agent, but the latency time was not significantly different compared to the use of the Java Socket method (non-agent and less secure). With such results, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used to securely send large data between agents.

  18. Large project experiences with object-oriented methods and reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessale, William; Reifer, Donald J.; Weller, David

    1992-01-01

    The SSVTF (Space Station Verification and Training Facility) project is completing the Preliminary Design Review of a large software development using object-oriented methods and systematic reuse. An incremental developmental lifecycle was tailored to provide early feedback and guidance on methods and products, with repeated attention to reuse. Object oriented methods were formally taught and supported by realistic examples. Reuse was readily accepted and planned by the developers. Schedule and budget issues were handled by agreements and work sharing arranged by the developers.

  19. Full-matrix capture with phased shift migration for flaw detection in layered objects with complex geometry.

    PubMed

    Lukomski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a method for an ultrasonic imaging with a phased array based on a wave migration algorithm. The method allows for imaging layered objects with lateral velocity variations such as objects with a complex geometry or layers that are not perpendicular to the array's axis. The full-matrix capture ensures that there is enough information to reconstruct an image even when the wave indication angle is large. The method is implemented in a omega-k domain. The proposed algorithm is first tested in a single simulation of a concave object with side drilled holes under the concave surface. For evaluating the algorithm's performance three experiments are presented: one with a tilted object (surface not perpendicular with respect to the array axis) with side drilled holes and two experiments of an object with concave surface and two artificial defects under it. The results presented in the paper verify that the proposed method reconstructs images from the data gathered with the phased array.

  20. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Barbour, K.; Stallings, E.

    2003-02-25

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) has been identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. DOE must dispose of hundreds of gloveboxes from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and other DOE sites. This paper reports on the results of four technology demonstrations on decontamination of plutonium contaminated gloveboxes with each technology compared to a common baseline technology, wipedown with nitric acid.

  1. Lifting a large object from an anisotropic porous bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    An analytical study of two dimensional problem of lifting an object from the top of a fully saturated rigid porous bed is discussed. It is assumed that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature. The flow within the gap region between the object and the porous bed is assumed to be governed by Stokes equation while the flow within the porous bed is governed by Brinkman equation. The breakout phenomenon for different kinds of soil is reported. The effect of mechanical properties like anisotropic permeability, grain diameter size, and porosity on streamlines, velocity, and force is analyzed. Relevant comparison with C. C. Mei, R. W. Yeung, and K. F. Liu ["Lifting a large object from a porous bed," J. Fluid. Mech. 152, 203-215 (1985)] and Y. Chang, L. H. Huang and F. P. Y. Yang ["Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed," Phys. Fluids, 27, 053101 (2015)] is done.

  2. Fast large-scale object retrieval with binary quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Zhijiang; Tian, Qi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of large-scale object retrieval systems is to search for images that contain the target object in an image database. Where state-of-the-art approaches rely on global image representations to conduct searches, we consider many boxes per image as candidates to search locally in a picture. In this paper, a feature quantization algorithm called binary quantization is proposed. In binary quantization, a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) feature is quantized into a descriptive and discriminative bit-vector, which allows itself to adapt to the classic inverted file structure for box indexing. The inverted file, which stores the bit-vector and box ID where the SIFT feature is located inside, is compact and can be loaded into the main memory for efficient box indexing. We evaluate our approach on available object retrieval datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is fast and achieves excellent search quality. Therefore, the proposed approach is an improvement over state-of-the-art approaches for object retrieval.

  3. A Survey of Large Silicate Objects in Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, R.; Bridges, J. C.

    1995-09-01

    We present the results of a survey of large silicate objects in ordinary chondrites (OCs) from the collection of the Natural History Museum, London; 390 H-group, 386 L-group and 57 LL-group meteorites were examined. A total of 61 objects were identified (Table 1). Meteorites with light and dark, brecciated fabrics were excluded from our survey. Following Weisberg et al. [1], large silicate objects are taken to be >= 5mm in size. Macrochondrules have rounded outlines and textures - porphyritic, barred olivine, radiating pyroxene - that are indistinguishable from normal chondrules in OCs [1]. In addition, we also recognise igneous clasts and chondritic clasts. The largest macrochondrule in the collection is 4cm diameter, with a microporphyritic texture [2]. Igneous clasts are those objects whose properties indicate that they originated through melting and differentiation on a planetary body. Examples include a 2cm diameter clast, in Ness County (L6), which contains large (2mm) olivine and enstatite grains set in a plagioclase + olivine groundmass, cristobalite- and tridymite-rich clasts [3] and the FELINE feldspar-nepheline clast [4]. Chondritic clasts comprise a diverse group including a 1cm clast from Barwell (L6) which contains apparently remelted chondrules, microporphyritic clasts with K-rich mesostasis e.g. in Quenggouk (H4) and a 1cm single olivine grain with minor inclusions of anorthite and enstatite, in Julesburg (L3). The K-rich objects are similar to others described from a survey of LL-chondrites and may have an impact origin or have undergone exchange with a K-rich vapor [5]. Abundances of the three types of large silicate objects (Table 1) reflect the relative numbers of H, L and LL meteorite samples in the collection, although LL-group hosted clasts are over-represented as our work concentrated on sections of LL-chondrites. In total, 46% of the objects are macrochondrules, 18% are igneous clasts and 36% are in the indeterminate chondritic clast group

  4. Single sided tomography of extremely large dense objects

    SciTech Connect

    Thoe, R.S.

    1993-03-24

    One can envision many circumstances where radiography could be valuable but is frustrated by the geometry of the object to be radiographed. For example, extremely large objects, the separation of rocket propellants from the skin of solid fuel rocket motor, the structural integrity of an underground tank or hull of a ship, the location of buried objects, inspection of large castings etc. The author has been investigating ways to do this type of radiography and as a result has developed a technique which can be used to obtain three dimensional radiographs using Compton scattered radiation from a monochromatic source and a high efficiency, high resolution germanium spectrometer. This paper gives specific details of the reconstruction technique and presents the results of numerous numerical simulations and compares these simulations to spectra obtained in the laboratory. In addition the author presents the results of calculations made for the development of an alternative single sided radiography technique which will permit inspection of the interior of large objects. As a benchmark the author seeks to obtain three dimensional images with a resolution of about one cubic centimeter in a concrete cube 30 centimeters on a side. Such a device must use photons of very high energy. For example 30 cm of concrete represents about 15 mean free paths for photons of 100 keV, whereas at 1 MeV the attenuation is down to about five mean free paths. At these higher energies Compton scattering becomes much more probable. Although this would appear to be advantageous for single sided imaging techniques, such techniques are hampered by two side effects. In this paper the results are given of numerous Monte Carlo calculations detailing the extent of the multiple scattering and the feasibility of a variety of imaging schemes is explored.

  5. Automatic trajectory measurement of large numbers of crowded objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Ye; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2013-06-01

    Complex motion patterns of natural systems, such as fish schools, bird flocks, and cell groups, have attracted great attention from scientists for years. Trajectory measurement of individuals is vital for quantitative and high-throughput study of their collective behaviors. However, such data are rare mainly due to the challenges of detection and tracking of large numbers of objects with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We present an automatic and effective framework to measure trajectories of large numbers of crowded oval-shaped objects, such as fish and cells. We first use a novel dual ellipse locator to detect the coarse position of each individual and then propose a variance minimization active contour method to obtain the optimal segmentation results. For tracking, cost matrix of assignment between consecutive frames is trainable via a random forest classifier with many spatial, texture, and shape features. The optimal trajectories are found for the whole image sequence by solving two linear assignment problems. We evaluate the proposed method on many challenging data sets.

  6. Significance of large Neptune-crossing objects for terrestrial catastrophism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, D.

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few decades a substantial number of objects have been discovered on orbits beyond Neptune (i.e. transneptunian objects, in various sub-classes), crossing Neptune's orbit (here: the Neptune-crossers of interest), and also others crossing the orbits of any or all of the jovian planets (i.e. Centaurs). These range in size from tens of kilometres across to hundreds of kilometres and more. Although formally classified as minor planets/asteroids, plus a few dwarf planets, the physical reality of these objects is that they are giant comets. That is, they seem to be composed largely of ices and if they were to enter the inner solar system then they would demonstrate the commonly-observed behaviour of comets such as outgassing, and the formation of ion and dust tails. Commonly-observed cometary behaviour, however, also includes fragmentation events and sometimes complete disintegration for no apparent cause (such as tidal disruption or thermal stresses). One might therefore wonder what the implications would be for life on Earth and terrestrial catastrophism if and when one of these objects, say 100 to 500 kilometres in size, dropped into a short-period orbit with perihelion distance (q) less than 1 au; or even q ˜ 5 au, given what Jupiter's gravity might do to it. How often might such events occur? One way to address that question would be to conduct numerical integrations of suitable test orbits and identify how often small-q orbits result, but this comes up against the problem of identifying very-infrequent events (with annual probabilities per object perhaps of order 10^{-12}-10^{-10}. For example, Emel'yanenko et al. [1] recently followed test orbits for approximately 5 × 10^{14} particle-years (8,925 objects with 200 clones of each, for 300 Myr) but because these were selected on the basis of initial values of q only below 36 (rather than ˜30) au many were not immediately Neptune-crossers; however, many test particles did eventually migrate into small

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reduce “false positive” or so called “Type II errors” which may erroneously indicate compliance where... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency Protocols and Test Methods A Appendix A...

  8. The DataCapturer component for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafok, H.; Caillat, M.; McMullin, J.

    2006-07-01

    We describe the data capture process (DataCapturer) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) control software. This is implemented as a JAVA-based CORBA-component running in the framework of the ALMA Common Software (ACS). During an observation, data (e.g., visibilities) and meta-data (e.g., information describing the state of the hardware, antennas, source, etc) flow through the control system and need to be recorded. All meta-data flows through the DataCapturer component where it is collected and organized as an ALMA Science Data model (ASDM) dataset and then written to the ALMA archive data base. DataCapturer is the interface between the telescope and the science domain. In the telescope domain it gets raw information from the control system and the correlator and produces science formated data for ALMA subsystems in the science domain. ASDM data is delivered to the Quicklook display sub-system and the telescope calibration sub-system of the ALMA Software. The final dataset is stored at the end of a sequence of observations (combined in an execution block) in the ALMA science archive.

  9. Image Processing Method of the Motion-Capturing PSP/TSP for the Measurement of a Free-Flight Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masato; Goya, Hideki; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    The motion-capturing PSP/TSP system consists of a two-color PSP/TSP and a high-speed color camera. Red and green luminescent images are acquired simultaneously as signal and reference outputs by this system. Simply by rationing the red and the green images, we can obtain a pressure/temperature distribution on the surface of a target object. This system is applied to measure the surface pressure/temperature of a free-flight object. However, an acquired image includes motion blur, focus blur and random noise around the object. We discuss image processing methods and evaluations to optimize those uncertainties. Three types of the edge detect methods are used, which are the sobel, the laplassian and the canny. We will also show the evaluation results to discuss an optimized image processing for the motion-capturing PSP/TSP system.

  10. Cooperative capture of large prey solves scaling challenge faced by spider societies

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Eric C.; Powers, Kimberly S.; Avilés, Leticia

    2008-01-01

    A decrease in the surface area per unit volume is a well known constraint setting limits to the size of organisms at both the cellular and whole-organismal levels. Similar constraints may apply to social groups as they grow in size. The communal three-dimensional webs that social spiders build function ecologically as single units that intercept prey through their surface and should thus be subject to this constraint. Accordingly, we show that web prey capture area per spider, and thus number of insects captured per capita, decreases with colony size in a neotropical social spider. Prey biomass intake per capita, however, peaks at intermediate colony sizes because the spiders forage cooperatively and larger colonies capture increasingly large insects. A peaked prey biomass intake function would explain not only why these spiders live in groups and cooperate but also why they disperse only at large colony sizes, thus addressing both sociality and colony size range in this social spider. These findings may also explain the conspicuous absence of social spiders from higher latitudes and higher elevations, areas that we have previously shown to harbor considerably fewer insects of the largest size classes than the lowland tropical rainforests where social spiders thrive. Our findings thus illustrate the relevance of scaling laws to the size and functioning of levels of organization above the individual. PMID:18689677

  11. Free Nano-Object Ramsey Interferometry for Large Quantum Superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, C.; Scala, M.; Morley, G. W.; Rahman, ATM. A.; Ulbricht, H.; Bateman, J.; Barker, P. F.; Bose, S.; Kim, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an interferometric scheme based on an untrapped nano-object subjected to gravity. The motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of the free object is coupled to its internal spin system magnetically, and a free flight scheme is developed based on coherent spin control. The wave packet of the test object, under a spin-dependent force, may then be delocalized to a macroscopic scale. A gravity induced dynamical phase (accrued solely on the spin state, and measured through a Ramsey scheme) is used to reveal the above spatially delocalized superposition of the spin-nano-object composite system that arises during our scheme. We find a remarkable immunity to the motional noise in the c.m. (initially in a thermal state with moderate cooling), and also a dynamical decoupling nature of the scheme itself. Together they secure a high visibility of the resulting Ramsey fringes. The mass independence of our scheme makes it viable for a nano-object selected from an ensemble with a high mass variability. Given these advantages, a quantum superposition with a 100 nm spatial separation for a massive object of 1 09 amu is achievable experimentally, providing a route to test postulated modifications of quantum theory such as continuous spontaneous localization.

  12. Telecentric scanner for 3D profilometry of very large objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon; Borra, Ermanno F.; Szapiel, Stan

    1997-09-01

    Triangulation systems that are based on an autosynchronized scanning principle to provide accurate and fast acquisition of 3D shapes are able to scan large fields. It is done generally by a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) carrying a small-volume 3D camera. However the acquisition speed is limited by the CMM movement and also by the image fusion time required to get the complete 3D shape. This paper describes some practical consideration for large volume 3D inspections with emphasis on telecentric scanning. We present the analytical and the optical design of a large telecentric scanner using a large reflective surface. Some results of the laboratory prototype will be presented. We also discuss applications and the viability of this new approach.

  13. Electron capture into large-l Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedeljković, N.; Nedeljković, Lj.; Mirković, M.

    2003-07-01

    We have investigated the electron capture into large-l Rydberg states of multiply charged ionic projectiles (e.g., the core charges Z=6, 7, and 8) escaping solid surfaces with intermediate velocities (v≈1 a.u.) in the normal emergence geometry. A model of the nonresonant electron capture from the solid conduction band into the moving large angular-momentum Rydberg states of the ions is developed through a generalization of our results obtained previously for the low-l cases (l=0, 1, and 2). The model is based on the two-wave-function dynamics of the Demkov-Ostrovskii type. The electron exchange process is described by a mixed flux through a moving plane (“Firsov plane”), placed between the solid surface and the ionic projectile. Due to low eccentricities of the large-l Rydberg systems, the mixed flux must be evaluated through the whole Firsov plane. It is for this purpose that a suitable asymptotic method is developed. For intermediate ionic velocities and for all relevant values of the principal quantum number n≈Z, the population probability Pnl is obtained as a nonlinear l distribution. The theoretical predictions concerning the ions S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII are compared with the available results of the beam-foil experiments.

  14. A program to accelerate the deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage: rational, objectives and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Vello A. Kuuskraa

    2007-10-15

    This White Paper, the first of a series, analyzes one strategy for accelerating the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by the coal-fueled electricity generation industry. This strategy involves providing reimbursement for the incremental costs of installing and operating CCS systems, with reimbursement provided for retrofitting existing coal-fuelled electricity generation plants with CCS, incorporating CCS into new plants, and launching large-scale demonstrations of geologic storage of carbon. 14 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. The small numbers of large Kuiper Belt objects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Brown, Michael E.; Fraser, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the brightness distribution of the largest and brightest (m(R) < 22) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). We construct a luminosity function of the dynamically excited or hot Kuiper Belt (orbits with inclinations >5°) from the very brightest to m(R) = 23. We find for m(R) ≲ 23, a single slope appears to describe the luminosity function. We estimate that ∼12 KBOs brighter than m(R) ∼ 19.5 are present in the Kuiper Belt today. With nine bodies already discovered this suggests that the inventory of bright KBOs is nearly complete.

  16. Comparisons of amine solvents for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture: A multi-objective analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Anita S; Eslick, John C; Miller, David C; Kitchin, John R

    2013-10-01

    Amine solvents are of great interest for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture applications. Although the development of new solvents is predominantly conducted at the laboratory scale, the ability to assess the performance of newly developed solvents at the process scale is crucial to identifying the best solvents for CO{sub 2} capture. In this work we present a methodology to evaluate and objectively compare the process performance of different solvents. We use Aspen Plus, with the electrolyte-NRTL thermodynamic model for the solvent CO{sub 2} interactions, coupled with a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization to determine the best process design and operating conditions for each solvent. This ensures that the processes utilized for the comparison are those which are best suited for the specific solvent. We evaluate and compare the process performance of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) in a 90% CO{sub 2} capture process from a 550 MW coal fired power plant. From our analysis the best process specifications are amine specific and with those specific, optimized specifications DEA has the potential to be a better performing solvent than MEA, with a lower energy penalty and lower capital cost investment.

  17. Multisensory Tracking of Objects in Darkness: Capture of Positive Afterimages by the Tactile and Proprioceptive Senses

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brian W.; Tinker, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on three experiments investigating the contribution of different sensory modalities to the tracking of objects moved in total darkness. Participants sitting in the dark were exposed to a brief, bright flash which reliably induced a positive visual afterimage of the scene so illuminated. If the participants subsequently move their hand in the darkness, the visual afterimage of that hand fades or disappears; this is presumably due to conflict between the illusory visual afterimage (of the hand in its original location) and other information (e.g., proprioceptive) from a general mechanism for tracking body parts. This afterimage disappearance effect also occurs for held objects which are moved in the dark, and some have argued that this represents a case of body schema extension, i.e. the rapid incorporation of held external objects into the body schema. We demonstrate that the phenomenon is not limited to held objects and occurs in conditions where incorporation into the body schema is unlikely. Instead, we propose that the disappearance of afterimages of objects moved in darkness comes from a general mechanism for object tracking which integrates input from multiple sensory systems. This mechanism need not be limited to tracking body parts, and thus we need not invoke body schema extension to explain the afterimage disappearance. In this series of experiments, we test whether auditory feedback of object movement can induce afterimage disappearance, demonstrate that the disappearance effect scales with the magnitude of proprioceptive feedback, and show that tactile feedback alone is sufficient for the effect. Together, these data demonstrate that the visual percept of a positive afterimage is constructed not just from visual input of the scene when light reaches the eyes, but in conjunction with input from multiple other senses. PMID:26959233

  18. Detection and tracking of objects in an image sequence captured by a VTOL-UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frietsch, Natalie; Meister, Oliver; Schlaile, Christian; Wendel, Jan; Trommer, Gert F.

    2007-04-01

    This paper focusses on the automated detection and tracking of moving objects in a camera sequence, that is provided by a small, electrically powered four-rotor helicopter in a hover-and-stare scenario. Two different algorithms for identifying independently moving areas are investigated and compared. The first approach bases on the previous compensation of the camera movement by estimation of homographies. Moving regions are extracted by robust background subtraction. The second approach bases on a dense optical flow field and needs no stabilization: Single points are identified that move not consistently with the background plane. These points are merged into objects by a cluster analysis algorithm. Furthermore, a strategy for tracking these objects over time is described including a Kalman filter. Due to several reasons, not every extracted area corresponds to an independently moving object and a heuristic rule set is used to sort artifacts out. Experimental results on in-flight images are presented and the performances of the developed algorithms are compared. Finally, first steps towards a geographic location of the tracked objects are described.

  19. Object-based Encoding in Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Memory-driven Attentional Capture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zaifeng; Yu, Shixian; Zhu, Chengfeng; Shui, Rende; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Peng; Shen, Mowei

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an 'irrelevant-change distracting effect', where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants' processing manner, leading to a false-positive result. The current study conducted a strict examination of OBE in VWM, by probing whether irrelevant-features guided the deployment of attention in visual search. The participants memorized an object's colour yet ignored shape and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target line among distractor lines, each embedded within a different object. One object in the search display could match the shape, colour, or both dimensions of the memory item, but this object never contained the target line. Relative to a neutral baseline, where there was no match between the memory and search displays, search time was significantly prolonged in all match conditions, regardless of whether the memory item was displayed for 100 or 1000 ms. These results suggest that task-irrelevant shape was extracted into VWM, supporting OBE in VWM. PMID:26956084

  20. Spacial and objective decompositions for very large SCAPs

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Coffrin, Carleton

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the single commodity allocation problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight run-time constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This paper revisits the SCAP algorithm proposed in and proposes new storage allocation models that are necessary to enable the algorithm to scale to problem sizes of three orders of magnitude greater (250, 500, 1000 storage locations). The new algorithms are validated on large-scale hurricane disaster scenarios generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory using state-of-the-art disaster simulation tools.

  1. Spatial capture-recapture: a promising method for analyzing data collected using artificial cover objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Chris; Munoz, David; Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Spatial capture–recapture (SCR) is a relatively recent development in ecological statistics that provides a spatial context for estimating abundance and space use patterns, and improves inference about absolute population density. SCR has been applied to individual encounter data collected noninvasively using methods such as camera traps, hair snares, and scat surveys. Despite the widespread use of capture-based surveys to monitor amphibians and reptiles, there are few applications of SCR in the herpetological literature. We demonstrate the utility of the application of SCR for studies of reptiles and amphibians by analyzing capture–recapture data from Red-Backed Salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, collected using artificial cover boards. Using SCR to analyze spatial encounter histories of marked individuals, we found evidence that density differed little among four sites within the same forest (on average, 1.59 salamanders/m2) and that salamander detection probability peaked in early October (Julian day 278) reflecting expected surface activity patterns of the species. The spatial scale of detectability, a measure of space use, indicates that the home range size for this population of Red-Backed Salamanders in autumn was 16.89 m2. Surveying reptiles and amphibians using artificial cover boards regularly generates spatial encounter history data of known individuals, which can readily be analyzed using SCR methods, providing estimates of absolute density and inference about the spatial scale of habitat use.

  2. Fear-object perception: does it entail the involuntary capture of attention?

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, L; Castellani, E; Dalessandro, L

    2010-03-01

    The idea that fearful stimuli are automatically detected i.e. without attention, is challenged by the hypothesis that detection of threatening stimuli is facilitated by the involuntary, stimulus-driven recruitment of attentional resources. In order to clarify this question, we studied spiders detection in arachnophobic individuals by means of an iconic version of the Attentional Blink Task (AB). The experiment consisted of two tasks: 1) Probe detection within a rapid sequence of distractors, including a Critical Distractor (CD); 2) Probe detection and identification of the CD (Target). In this case, the close temporal proximity of CD-Target and Probe typically produces the so-called AB effect, that is the decrease of Probe visibility, due to competition for limited attentional resources. In both tasks, CD-Target was either a spider (50%) or an innocuous animal shape (50%), and Probe (a rabbit icon) was presented at one out of 3 possible lags from the CD-Target. At lag I (100 ms), arachnophobics, at difference with controls, exhibited an AB effect also when the spider was the CD to be ignored. Moreover, Probe detection scores were inversely correlated with spider recalls at lag I. In conclusion, our findings contrast the automatic view of threat detection, and support an attention capturing mechanism automatically driven by the fearful connotation of the stimulus.

  3. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  4. Nonlinear filtering for tracking large objects in radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenewald, John H.; Musick, Stanton H.

    2005-05-01

    Detecting and tracking a moving ground target in radar imagery is a challenge intensified by clutter, sensor anomalies, and the substantial signature variations that occur when a target's aspect angle changes rapidly. In its GMTI mode, a radar produces range-Doppler images that contain both kinematic reports and shape features. An HRR signature, when formed as the Fourier transform of the range-Doppler image across its Doppler dimension, becomes a derived measurement and an alternative source of identity information. Although HRR signatures can vary enormously with even small changes in target aspect, such signatures were vital for associating kinematic reports to tracks in this work. This development started with video phase history (VPH) data recorded from a live experiment involving a GMTI radar viewing a single moving target. Since the target could appear anywhere in the range-Doppler image derived from the VPH data, the goal was to localize it in a small range-Doppler "chip" that could be extracted and used in subsequent research. Although the clutter in any given VPH frame generally caused false chips to be formed in the full range-Doppler image, at most one chip contained the target. The most effective approach for creating any chip is to ensure that the object is present in the return from each pulse that contributes to that chip, and to correct any phase distortions arising from range gate changes. Processing constraints dictated that the algorithm for target chip extraction be coded in MATLAB with a time budget of a few seconds per frame. Furthermore, templates and shape models to describe the target were prohibited. This paper describes the nonlinear filtering approach used to reason over multiple frames of VPH data. This nonlinear approach automatically detects and segments potential targets in the range-Doppler imagery, and then extracts kinematic and shape features that are tracked over multiple data frames to ensure that the real target is in the

  5. Algorithms for detection of objects in image sequences captured from an airborne imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Gandhi, Tarak

    1995-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to design a computer vision based system that can enhance the safety of navigation by aiding the pilots in detecting various obstacles on the runway during critical section of the flight such as a landing maneuver. The primary goal is the development of algorithms for detection of moving objects from a sequence of images obtained from an on-board video camera. Image regions corresponding to the independently moving objects are segmented from the background by applying constraint filtering on the optical flow computed from the initial few frames of the sequence. These detected regions are tracked over subsequent frames using a model based tracking algorithm. Position and velocity of the moving objects in the world coordinate is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are tested using the NASA line image sequence with six static trucks and a simulated moving truck and experimental results are described. Various limitations of the currently implemented version of the above algorithm are identified and possible solutions to build a practical working system are investigated.

  6. β,β-(1,4-Dithiino)subporphyrin Dimers Capturing Fullerenes with Large Association Constants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kota; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-27

    β,β-(1,4-Dithiino)subporphyrin dimers 7-syn and 7-anti were synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of 2-bromo-3-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)subporphyrin 4 with 2,3-dimercaptosubporphyrin 5 under basic conditions followed by axial arylation. Additions of C60 or C70 to a dilute solution of 7-anti (ca. 10(-6)  m) in toluene did not cause appreciable UV/Vis spectral changes, while similar additions to a concentrated solution (ca. 10(-3)  m) resulted in precipitation of complexes. In contrast, dimer 7-syn captured C60 and C70 in different complexation stoichiometries in toluene; a 1:1 manner and a 2:1 manner, respectively, with large association constants; Ka =(1.9±0.2)×10(6)  m(-1) for C60 @7-syn, and K1 =(1.6±0.5)×10(6) and K2 =(1.8±0.9)×10(5)  m(-1) for C70 @(7-syn)2 . These association constants are the largest for fullerenes-capture by bowl-shaped molecules reported so far. The structures of C60 @7-anti, C70 @7-anti, C60 @7-syn, and C70 @7-syn have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:27238619

  7. Reward-associated features capture attention in the absence of awareness: Evidence from object-substitution masking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joseph A; Donohue, Sarah E; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Hopf, Jens-Max; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-08-15

    Reward-associated visual features have been shown to capture visual attention, evidenced in faster and more accurate behavioral performance, as well as in neural responses reflecting lateralized shifts of visual attention to those features. Specifically, the contralateral N2pc event-related-potential (ERP) component that reflects attentional shifting exhibits increased amplitude in response to task-relevant targets containing a reward-associated feature. In the present study, we examined the automaticity of such reward-association effects using object-substitution masking (OSM) in conjunction with MEG measures of visual attentional shifts. In OSM, a visual-search array is presented, with the target item to be detected indicated by a surrounding mask (here, four surrounding squares). Delaying the offset of the target-surrounding four-dot mask relative to the offset of the rest of the target/distracter array disrupts the viewer's awareness of the target (masked condition), whereas simultaneous offsets do not (unmasked condition). Here we manipulated whether the color of the OSM target was or was not of a previously reward-associated color. By tracking reward-associated enhancements of behavior and the N2pc in response to masked targets containing a previously rewarded or unrewarded feature, the automaticity of attentional capture by reward could be probed. We found an enhanced N2pc response to targets containing a previously reward-associated color feature. Moreover, this enhancement of the N2pc by reward did not differ between masking conditions, nor did it differ as a function of the apparent visibility of the target within the masked condition. Overall, these results underscore the automaticity of attentional capture by reward-associated features, and demonstrate the ability of feature-based reward associations to shape attentional capture and allocation outside of perceptual awareness. PMID:27153978

  8. Integrating resource selection into spatial capture-recapture models for large carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proffitt, Kelly M.; Goldberg, Joshua; Hebblewite, Mark; Russell, Robin E.; Jimenez, Ben; Robinson, Hugh S.; Pilgrim, Kristine; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers need reliable methods to estimate large carnivore densities and population trends; yet large carnivores are elusive, difficult to detect, and occur at low densities making traditional approaches intractable. Recent advances in spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have provided new approaches for monitoring trends in wildlife abundance and these methods are particularly applicable to large carnivores. We applied SCR models in a Bayesian framework to estimate mountain lion densities in the Bitterroot Mountains of west central Montana. We incorporate an existing resource selection function (RSF) as a density covariate to account for heterogeneity in habitat use across the study area and include data collected from harvested lions. We identify individuals through DNA samples collected by (1) biopsy darting mountain lions detected in systematic surveys of the study area, (2) opportunistically collecting hair and scat samples, and (3) sampling all harvested mountain lions. We included 80 DNA samples collected from 62 individuals in the analysis. Including information on predicted habitat use as a covariate on the distribution of activity centers reduced the median estimated density by 44%, the standard deviation by 7%, and the width of 95% credible intervals by 10% as compared to standard SCR models. Within the two management units of interest, we estimated a median mountain lion density of 4.5 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% CI = 2.9, 7.7) and 5.2 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% CI = 3.4, 9.1). Including harvested individuals (dead recovery) did not create a significant bias in the detection process by introducing individuals that could not be detected after removal. However, the dead recovery component of the model did have a substantial effect on results by increasing sample size. The ability to account for heterogeneity in habitat use provides a useful extension to SCR models, and will enhance the ability of wildlife managers to reliably and

  9. Captured metagenomics: large-scale targeting of genes based on ‘sequence capture’ reveals functional diversity in soils

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Kushwaha, Sandeep K.; Hedlund, Katarina; Ahrén, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Microbial enzyme diversity is a key to understand many ecosystem processes. Whole metagenome sequencing (WMG) obtains information on functional genes, but it is costly and inefficient due to large amount of sequencing that is required. In this study, we have applied a captured metagenomics technique for functional genes in soil microorganisms, as an alternative to WMG. Large-scale targeting of functional genes, coding for enzymes related to organic matter degradation, was applied to two agricultural soil communities through captured metagenomics. Captured metagenomics uses custom-designed, hybridization-based oligonucleotide probes that enrich functional genes of interest in metagenomic libraries where only probe-bound DNA fragments are sequenced. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with targeted genes while maintaining their target diversity and their taxonomic distribution correlated well with the traditional ribosomal sequencing. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with genes related to organic matter degradation; at least five times more than similar, publicly available soil WMG projects. This target enrichment technique also preserves the functional representation of the soils, thereby facilitating comparative metagenomics projects. Here, we present the first study that applies the captured metagenomics approach in large scale, and this novel method allows deep investigations of central ecosystem processes by studying functional gene abundances. PMID:26490729

  10. Large-scale weakly supervised object localization via latent category learning.

    PubMed

    Chong Wang; Kaiqi Huang; Weiqiang Ren; Junge Zhang; Maybank, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Localizing objects in cluttered backgrounds is challenging under large-scale weakly supervised conditions. Due to the cluttered image condition, objects usually have large ambiguity with backgrounds. Besides, there is also a lack of effective algorithm for large-scale weakly supervised localization in cluttered backgrounds. However, backgrounds contain useful latent information, e.g., the sky in the aeroplane class. If this latent information can be learned, object-background ambiguity can be largely reduced and background can be suppressed effectively. In this paper, we propose the latent category learning (LCL) in large-scale cluttered conditions. LCL is an unsupervised learning method which requires only image-level class labels. First, we use the latent semantic analysis with semantic object representation to learn the latent categories, which represent objects, object parts or backgrounds. Second, to determine which category contains the target object, we propose a category selection strategy by evaluating each category's discrimination. Finally, we propose the online LCL for use in large-scale conditions. Evaluation on the challenging PASCAL Visual Object Class (VOC) 2007 and the large-scale imagenet large-scale visual recognition challenge 2013 detection data sets shows that the method can improve the annotation precision by 10% over previous methods. More importantly, we achieve the detection precision which outperforms previous results by a large margin and can be competitive to the supervised deformable part model 5.0 baseline on both data sets. PMID:25643405

  11. Large object investigation by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Jun

    2014-10-13

    We present a method to investigate large object by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach. This method splits the original reference beam and redirects one of its branches as a second object beam. Through the modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two object beams can illuminate different parts of the large object and create a spectrum multiplexed hologram onto the focal plane array of the charge-coupled device/complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. After correct spectrum extraction and image reconstruction, the large object can be fully observed within only one single snap-shot. The flexibility and great performance make our method a very attractive and promising technique for large object investigation under common 632.8 nm illumination.

  12. Large-Vortex Capture by a Wing at Very High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. M.; Wu, J. Z.; Denny, G. A.; Lu, X. Y.

    1996-01-01

    increased (e.g., Fage and Johansen ; Critzos et al.). Figure 1 shows a typical experimental lift and drag coefficients of NACA-0012 airfoil in this whole range of angle of attack. Obviously, without overcoming the lift crisis at alpha(sub stall) the second lift peak is completely useless. Thus, the ultimate goal of post-stall lift enhancement is to fill the lift valley after stall by flow controls, so that a wing and/or flap can work at the whole range of 0 deg less than alpha less than alpha(sub m). Relevant early experimental studies have been extensively reviewed by Wu et al., who concluded that, first, similar to the leading-edge vortex on a slender wing, the lift enhancement on a large-aspect-ratio wing should be the result of capturing a vortex on the upper surface of the wing; and, second, using steady controls cannot reach the goal, and one must rely on unsteady controls with low-level power input as well. Wu et al. also conjectured that the underlying physics of post-stall lift enhancement by unsteady controls consists of a chain of mechanisms: vortex layer instability - receptivity resonance - nonlinear streaming.

  13. An air-liquid contactor for large-scale capture of CO2 from air.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Keith, David W

    2012-09-13

    We present a conceptually simple method for optimizing the design of a gas-liquid contactor for capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air, or 'air capture'. We apply the method to a slab geometry contactor that uses components, design and fabrication methods derived from cooling towers. We use mass transfer data appropriate for capture using a strong NaOH solution, combined with engineering and cost data derived from engineering studies performed by Carbon Engineering Ltd, and find that the total costs for air contacting alone-no regeneration-can be of the order of $60 per tonne CO(2). We analyse the reasons why our cost estimate diverges from that of other recent reports and conclude that the divergence arises from fundamental design choices rather than from differences in costing methodology. Finally, we review the technology risks and conclude that they can be readily addressed by prototype testing.

  14. Estimating population size of large laboratory colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite using the capture probability equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao

    2013-12-01

    The reliability of the capture probability equilibrium model developed by Su and Lee (2008) for population estimate was tested in three-directional extended foraging arenas connecting to large Plexiglas cubes (96 by 96 by 96 cm) containing approximately 100,000-400,000 workers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. After the release of marked termites in the arenas, the capture probability was averaged for three directions at equal distance from the release point. The daily data of directionally averaged capture probability were subject to a linear regression with distance as the independent variable to identify the capture probability equilibrium. When the daily data produced significant regressions with regression slope [b] < or = 0.05 or [b] approximately 0.05, the directionally averaged capture probability was considered to have reached equilibrium, and the regression intercept was used in the Lincoln index to derive the population estimate. Of the four laboratory colonies tested, three met the criteria, and the equilibrium models yielded population estimates that were not significantly different from the known numbers of workers in the arenas. PMID:24498746

  15. Fire characterization and object thermal response for a large flat plate adjacent to a large JP-4 fuel fire

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Murray, D.

    1997-01-01

    A series of three 18.9 m diameter JP-4 pool fire experiments with a large (2.1 m X 4.6 m), flat plate calorimeter adjacent to the fuel pool were recently performed. The objectives of these experiments were to: (1) gain a better understanding of fire phenomenology, (2) provide empirical input parameter estimates for simplified, deterministic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs), (3) assist in continuing fire field model code validation and development, and (4) enhance the data base of fire temperature and heat flux to object distributions. Due to different wind conditions during each experiment, data were obtained for conditions where the plate was not engulfed, fully-engulfed and partially engulfed by the continuous flame zone. Results include the heat flux distribution to the plate and flame thermocouple temperatures in the vicinity of the plate and at two cross sections within the lower region of the continuous flame zone. The results emphasize the importance of radiative coupling (i.e. the cooling of the flames by a thermally massive object) and convective coupling (including object-induced turbulence and object/wind/flame interactions) in determining the heat flux from a fire to an object. The formation of a secondary flame zone on an object adjacent to a fire via convective coupling (which increases the heat flux by a factor of two) is shown to be possible when the object is located within a distance equal to the object width from the fire.

  16. Research of autocollimating angular deformation measurement system for large-size objects control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgalieva, Tatiana V.; Konyakhin, Igor A.

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of the system were studied in laboratory conditions. The research confirmed effectiveness of the considered angular deformation measurement system for large-size objects such as the primary mirror of a radio telescope.

  17. Self-tuning at large (distances): 4D description of runaway dilaton capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; Diener, Ross; Williams, M.

    2015-10-01

    We complete here a three-part study (see also arXiv:1506.08095 and arXiv:1508.00856) of how codimension-two objects back-react gravitationally with their environment, with particular interest in situations where the transverse `bulk' is stabilized by the interplay between gravity and flux-quantization in a dilaton-Maxwell-Einstein system such as commonly appears in higher-dimensional supergravity and is used in the Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED) program. Such systems enjoy a classical flat direction that can be lifted by interactions with the branes, giving a mass to the would-be modulus that is smaller than the KK scale. We construct the effective low-energy 4D description appropriate below the KK scale once the transverse extra dimensions are integrated out, and show that it reproduces the predictions of the full UV theory for how the vacuum energy and modulus mass depend on the properties of the branes and stabilizing fluxes. In particular we show how this 4D theory learns the news of flux quantization through the existence of a space-filling four-form potential that descends from the higher-dimensional Maxwell field. We find a scalar potential consistent with general constraints, like the runaway dictated by Weinberg's theorem. We show how scale-breaking brane interactions can give this potential minima for which the extra-dimensional size, ℓ, is exponentially large relative to underlying physics scales, r B , with ℓ 2 = r B 2 e - φ where - φ ≫ 1 can be arranged with a small hierarchy between fundamental parameters. We identify circumstances where the potential at the minimum can (but need not) be parametrically suppressed relative to the tensions of the branes, provide a preliminary discussion of the robustness of these results to quantum corrections, and discuss the relation between what we find and earlier papers in the SLED program.

  18. Segmentation of Object Outlines into Parts: A Large-Scale Integrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Winter, Joeri; Wagemans, Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a large number of observers (N=201) were asked to segment a collection of outlines derived from line drawings of everyday objects (N=88). This data set was then used as a benchmark to evaluate current models of object segmentation. All of the previously proposed rules of segmentation were found supported in our results. For example,…

  19. Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects from CERES Aqua Observations: Where are the Intraseasonal Variation Signals?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2016-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES observations for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The size distributions, defined as the footprint numbers as a function of cloud object diameters, for particular MJO phases depart greatly from the combined (8-phase) distribution at large cloud-object diameters due to the reduced/increased numbers of cloud objects related to changes in the large-scale environments. The medium diameter corresponding to the combined distribution is determined and used to partition all cloud objects into "small" and "large" groups of a particular phase. The two groups corresponding to the combined distribution have nearly equal numbers of footprints. The medium diameters are 502 km for DC and 310 km for cirrostratus. The range of the variation between two extreme phases (typically, the most active and depressed phases) for the small group is 6-11% in terms of the numbers of cloud objects and the total footprint numbers. The corresponding range for the large group is 19-44%. In terms of the probability density functions of radiative and cloud physical properties, there are virtually no differences between the MJO phases for the small group, but there are significant differences for the large groups for both DC and CS types. These results suggest that the intreseasonal variation signals reside at the

  20. Background Noises Versus Intraseasonal Variation Signals: Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects From CERES Aqua Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2015-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) observations between July 2006 and June 2010 for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index, which assigns the tropics to one of the eight MJO phases each day. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The criteria for defining these cloud types are overcast footprints and cloud top pressures less than 400 hPa, but DC has higher cloud optical depths (=10) than those of CS (<10). The size distributions, defined as the footprint numbers as a function of cloud object diameters, for particular MJO phases depart greatly from the combined (8-phase) distribution at large cloud-object diameters due to the reduced/increased numbers of cloud objects related to changes in the large-scale environments. The medium diameter corresponding to the combined distribution is determined and used to partition all cloud objects into "small" and "large" groups of a particular phase. The two groups corresponding to the combined distribution have nearly equal numbers of footprints. The medium diameters are 502 km for DC and 310 km for cirrostratus. The range of the variation between two extreme phases (typically, the most active and depressed phases) for the small group is 6-11% in terms of the numbers of cloud objects and the total footprint numbers. The corresponding range for the large group is 19-44%. In

  1. Observations of two peculiar emission objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Allen, D. A.; Stencel, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visual wavelength spectra were obtained of two peculiar emission objects, Henize S63 and Sanduleak's star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Previously not observed in the near- or far-ultraviolet, both objects exhibit strong permitted and semiforbidden line emissions. Estimates based on the absolute continuum flux of the hot companion star in Hen S63 indicate that it rivals the luminosity of the carbon star primary. The emission-line profile structure in both objects does not suggest Wolf-Rayet type emission. Carbon in Sanduleak's star (LMC anonymous) is conspicuously absent, while N V, semiforbidden N IV, and semiforbidden N III dominate the UV emission-line spectrum. Nitrogen is overabundant with respect to carbon and oxygen in both objects. The large overabundance of nitrogen in Sanduleak's star suggests evidence for CNO processes material similar to that seen in Nu Car.

  2. Arboreal Ants Use the “Velcro® Principle” to Capture Very Large Prey

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Roux, Olivier; Céréghino, Régis; Orivel, Jérôme; Boulay, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as “myrmecophytes” that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro® that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker. PMID:20593032

  3. Modular, object-oriented redesign of a large-scale Monte Carlo neutron transport program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, B.S.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the modular, object-oriented redesign of a large-scale Monte Carlo neutron transport program. This effort represents a complete 'white sheet of paper' rewrite of the code. In this paper, the motivation driving this project, the design objectives for the new version of the program, and the design choices and their consequences will be discussed. The design itself will also be described, including the important subsystems as well as the key classes within those subsystems.

  4. The search for structure - Object classification in large data sets. [for astronomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning object classifications schemes are reviewed, focusing on large data sets. Classification techniques are discussed, including syntactic, decision theoretic methods, fuzzy techniques, and stochastic and fuzzy grammars. Consideration is given to the automation of MK classification (Morgan and Keenan, 1973) and other problems associated with the classification of spectra. In addition, the classification of galaxies is examined, including the problems of systematic errors, blended objects, galaxy types, and galaxy clusters.

  5. Nondestructive measurement of large objects with electron paramagnetic resonance: Pottery, sculpture, and jewel ornament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ishii, Hiroshi

    1994-12-01

    A cylindicral cavity of TE111 mode with an aperture of 3 mm in diameter has been used to measure the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of a large object placed over the aperture. EPR spectra of a precious fossil of a dinosaur tooth piece and a fossil bone of the Machikane Alligator were measured nondestructively in addition to a jadeite sculpture, a pearl and turquoise necklace, a large turmaline, a star ruby, and ceramic pottery. Thus, EPR can be a nondestructive tool to detect forgery and to test the authenticity in art as well as to allocate ancient objects in archaeological provenance study.

  6. Open-Loop Thrust Profile Development for Tethered Towing of Large Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Lee E. Z.

    Towing objects in space has become an increasingly researched mission concept. Active debris removal, satellite servicing, and asteroid retrieval concepts in many cases rely on a thrusting vehicle to redirect and steer a passive object. Focus is often placed on the method of attachment, considering techniques such as grappling or netting the passive object. However, the actual process of towing, once capture has occurred, has not yet received much attention. This research considers the process of towing in space with the tug and passive object attached by a tether. Tethers are not only an effective way of transmitting forces, but they are utilized on many of the towing concepts considered, especially in orbital debris removal. Because the two end bodies are tethered, there is a potential for collision after any maneuver. To avoid collisions, the maneuver, and therefore thrust profile, must be designed in such a way as to limit separation distance reduction between the end bodies. Open-loop input shaping techniques are developed and employed in order to control the flexible system in both deep space and on-orbit environments. To study the behavior, an active debris removal system is proposed as a case study. This system, called the tethered-tug, considers using the reserve fuel from a recently launched upper stage rocket to rendezvous with, capture, and tow a near-by debris object. The system's performance is considered for five distinct open-loop thrust control profiles including on-off/step, frequency notched, discretized notch, Posicast, and bang-off-bang. Tether property variations are also considered along with off-axis towing, slack tethers, and debris with initial rotation rates. Input shaping is not only necessary but, it can be robust to unknown system properties while nearly zeroing relative motion between the end bodies. When considering on-orbit behavior specifically, the system settles into a tumbling or gravity gradient oscillation formation. This is

  7. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    PubMed

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997516

  8. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    PubMed

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Lian; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Zhang, Baile

    2013-10-01

    A cloak that can hide living creatures from sight is a common feature of mythology but still remains unrealized as a practical device. To preserve the wave phase, the previous cloaking solution proposed by Pendry and colleagues required transformation of the electromagnetic space around the hidden object in such a way that the rays bending around the object inside the cloak region have to travel faster than those passing it by. This difficult phase preservation requirement is the main obstacle for building a broadband polarization-insensitive cloak for large objects. Here we propose a simplified version of Pendry’s cloak by abolishing the requirement for phase preservation, as it is irrelevant for observation using incoherent natural light with human eyes, which are phase and polarization insensitive. This allows for a cloak design on large scales using commonly available materials. We successfully demonstrate the cloaking of living creatures, a cat and a fish, from the eye.

  10. Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongsheng; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Lian; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Zheludev, Nikolay I; Zhang, Baile

    2013-01-01

    A cloak that can hide living creatures from sight is a common feature of mythology but still remains unrealized as a practical device. To preserve the wave phase, the previous cloaking solution proposed by Pendry and colleagues required transformation of the electromagnetic space around the hidden object in such a way that the rays bending around the object inside the cloak region have to travel faster than those passing it by. This difficult phase preservation requirement is the main obstacle for building a broadband polarization-insensitive cloak for large objects. Here we propose a simplified version of Pendry's cloak by abolishing the requirement for phase preservation, as it is irrelevant for observation using incoherent natural light with human eyes, which are phase and polarization insensitive. This allows for a cloak design on large scales using commonly available materials. We successfully demonstrate the cloaking of living creatures, a cat and a fish, from the eye.

  11. Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongsheng; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Lian; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Zhang, Baile

    2013-01-01

    A cloak that can hide living creatures from sight is a common feature of mythology but still remains unrealized as a practical device. To preserve the wave phase, the previous cloaking solution proposed by Pendry and colleagues required transformation of the electromagnetic space around the hidden object in such a way that the rays bending around the object inside the cloak region have to travel faster than those passing it by. This difficult phase preservation requirement is the main obstacle for building a broadband polarization-insensitive cloak for large objects. Here we propose a simplified version of Pendry’s cloak by abolishing the requirement for phase preservation, as it is irrelevant for observation using incoherent natural light with human eyes, which are phase and polarization insensitive. This allows for a cloak design on large scales using commonly available materials. We successfully demonstrate the cloaking of living creatures, a cat and a fish, from the eye. PMID:24153410

  12. Lecture Capture Podcasts: Differential Student Use and Performance in a Large Introductory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Adrienne E.; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; O'Dowd, Diane K.

    2016-01-01

    Video "podcast" recordings of lectures are popular with students, but are often associated with a decrease in attendance and little increase in performance. Assessment has generally focused on the class as a whole, potentially masking benefits to different subgroups. In this study, conducted in 2 sections of a large active-learning…

  13. Amplitude-only, passive, broadband, optical spatial cloaking of very large objects.

    PubMed

    Howell, John C; Howell, J Benjamin; Choi, Joseph S

    2014-03-20

    We demonstrate three amplitude cloaks that can hide very large spatial objects over the entire visible spectrum using only passive, off-the-shelf optics. The cloaked region for all of the devices exceeds 10⁶ mm³, with the largest exceeding 10⁸ mm³. Although unidirectional, these cloaks can hide the cloaked object, even if the object is transversely illuminated or self-illuminated. Due to the small usable solid angle, but simple scaling, these cloaks may be of value in hiding small field-of-view objects such as mid- to high-earth orbit satellites from earth-based observation. Active phase front manipulation can also make these cloaks invisible to some forms of image homodyning.

  14. Three Dimentional Reconstruction of Large Cultural Heritage Objects Based on Uav Video and Tls Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, T. H.; Shen, Y.; Wu, L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the synergetic use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in 3D reconstruction of cultural heritage objects. Rather than capturing still images, the UAV that equips a consumer digital camera is used to collect dynamic videos to overcome its limited endurance capacity. Then, a set of 3D point-cloud is generated from video image sequences using the automated structure-from-motion (SfM) and patch-based multi-view stereo (PMVS) methods. The TLS is used to collect the information that beyond the reachability of UAV imaging e.g., partial building facades. A coarse to fine method is introduced to integrate the two sets of point clouds UAV image-reconstruction and TLS scanning for completed 3D reconstruction. For increased reliability, a variant of ICP algorithm is introduced using local terrain invariant regions in the combined designation. The experimental study is conducted in the Tulou culture heritage building in Fujian province, China, which is focused on one of the TuLou clusters built several hundred years ago. Results show a digital 3D model of the Tulou cluster with complete coverage and textural information. This paper demonstrates the usability of the proposed method for efficient 3D reconstruction of heritage object based on UAV video and TLS data.

  15. Adsorbent materials for carbon dioxide capture from large anthropogenic point sources.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Jones, Christopher W

    2009-01-01

    Since the time of the industrial revolution, the atmospheric CO(2) concentration has risen by nearly 35 % to its current level of 383 ppm. The increased carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been suggested to be a leading contributor to global climate change. To slow the increase, reductions in anthropogenic CO(2) emissions are necessary. Large emission point sources, such as fossil-fuel-based power generation facilities, are the first targets for these reductions. A benchmark, mature technology for the separation of dilute CO(2) from gas streams is via absorption with aqueous amines. However, the use of solid adsorbents is now being widely considered as an alternative, potentially less-energy-intensive separation technology. This Review describes the CO(2) adsorption behavior of several different classes of solid carbon dioxide adsorbents, including zeolites, activated carbons, calcium oxides, hydrotalcites, organic-inorganic hybrids, and metal-organic frameworks. These adsorbents are evaluated in terms of their equilibrium CO(2) capacities as well as other important parameters such as adsorption-desorption kinetics, operating windows, stability, and regenerability. The scope of currently available CO(2) adsorbents and their critical properties that will ultimately affect their incorporation into large-scale separation processes is presented.

  16. Limited list for the objects - candidates for SETI-monitoring with large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Alexander; Filippova, Lilia; Rudnitskii, Georgiii

    There are about one million stars within one thousand light years region around the Sun that may have habitable planets and which are interesting from the point of view of the SETI problem. All these stars are acceptable in principle for monitoring with large radio telescopes with aim to catch a radio message from aliens but it is still impossible to monitor all of them due to a lack of special instruments designed for SETI like large antenna arrays. In this situation we propose a special limited list of especially interesting objects to monitor with using of usual large radio telescopes in accompanying mode together with usual astrophysical observations. This list consists of the objects of three types and there are only about three dozen objects in total in the list. The first type of objects is represented by sunlike stars satisfying the following criteria: 1) The spectral type is from F8V to K0V; 2) The estimate of the age of the star is from 4 to 6 billions of years; 3) The distance from the Sun is less than 100 light years; 4) The radial velocity is less than 50 km/sec; 5) If it is known the star to have planets, then the eccentricity of orbits is less than 0.2. The special interest among the sunlike stars satisfying the criteria 1-5 are the near-ecliptic ones, since the Earth is seen from them as a transit planet, therefore the solar system may be a preferable target to send a message for aliens from planets of such stars. The second type of objects is a number of stars that are targets of already sent space messages and at the same time which are sunlike stars satisfying the criteria 1-5. Moreover some slow narrow-band radio signal above background was observed previously from one of the second type object and the result should be verified. The objects of the third class are not stars, but they are globular clusters. We elaborate a number of criteria to select globular clusters but emphasize a high level of metallicity. Many stars in such globular clusters

  17. Illusions of having small or large invisible bodies influence visual perception of object size

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The size of our body influences the perceived size of the world so that objects appear larger to children than to adults. The mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. It has been difficult to dissociate visual rescaling of the external environment based on an individual’s visible body from visual rescaling based on a central multisensory body representation. To differentiate these potential causal mechanisms, we manipulated body representation without a visible body by taking advantage of recent developments in body representation research. Participants experienced the illusion of having a small or large invisible body while object-size perception was tested. Our findings show that the perceived size of test-objects was determined by the size of the invisible body (inverse relation), and by the strength of the invisible body illusion. These findings demonstrate how central body representation directly influences visual size perception, without the need for a visible body, by rescaling the spatial representation of the environment. PMID:27708344

  18. The effect of hardhats on head and neck response to vertical impacts from large construction objects.

    PubMed

    Suderman, Bethany L; Hoover, Ryan W; Ching, Randal P; Scher, Irving S

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of hardhats in attenuating head acceleration and neck force in vertical impacts from large construction objects. Two weight-matched objects (lead shot bag and concrete block) weighing 9.1 kg were dropped from three heights (0.91 m, 1.83 m and 2.74 m) onto the head of a 50th percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Two headgear conditions were tested: no head protection and an ANSI Type-I, Class-E hardhat. A third headgear condition (snow sport helmet) was tested at 1.83 m for comparison with the hardhat. Hardhats significantly reduced the resultant linear acceleration for the concrete block impacts by 70-95% when compared to the unprotected head condition. Upper neck compression was also significantly reduced by 26-60% with the use of a hardhat when compared to the unprotected head condition for the 0.91 and 1.83 m drop heights for both lead shot and concrete block drop objects. In this study we found that hardhats can be effective in reducing both head accelerations and compressive neck forces for large construction objects in vertical impacts.

  19. Initial characterization of the large genome of the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum using shotgun and laser capture chromosome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Keinath, Melissa C.; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya Y.; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Voss, S. Randal; Smith, Jeramiah J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates exhibit substantial diversity in genome size, and some of the largest genomes exist in species that uniquely inform diverse areas of basic and biomedical research. For example, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (the Mexican axolotl) is a model organism for studies of regeneration, development and genome evolution, yet its genome is ~10× larger than the human genome. As part of a hierarchical approach toward improving genome resources for the species, we generated 600 Gb of shotgun sequence data and developed methods for sequencing individual laser-captured chromosomes. Based on these data, we estimate that the A. mexicanum genome is ~32 Gb. Notably, as much as 19 Gb of the A. mexicanum genome can potentially be considered single copy, which presumably reflects the evolutionary diversification of mobile elements that accumulated during an ancient episode of genome expansion. Chromosome-targeted sequencing permitted the development of assemblies within the constraints of modern computational platforms, allowed us to place 2062 genes on the two smallest A. mexicanum chromosomes and resolves key events in the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Our analyses show that the capture and sequencing of individual chromosomes is likely to provide valuable information for the systematic sequencing, assembly and scaffolding of large genomes. PMID:26553646

  20. Initial characterization of the large genome of the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum using shotgun and laser capture chromosome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Keinath, Melissa C; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya Y; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Voss, S Randal; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2015-11-10

    Vertebrates exhibit substantial diversity in genome size, and some of the largest genomes exist in species that uniquely inform diverse areas of basic and biomedical research. For example, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (the Mexican axolotl) is a model organism for studies of regeneration, development and genome evolution, yet its genome is ~10× larger than the human genome. As part of a hierarchical approach toward improving genome resources for the species, we generated 600 Gb of shotgun sequence data and developed methods for sequencing individual laser-captured chromosomes. Based on these data, we estimate that the A. mexicanum genome is ~32 Gb. Notably, as much as 19 Gb of the A. mexicanum genome can potentially be considered single copy, which presumably reflects the evolutionary diversification of mobile elements that accumulated during an ancient episode of genome expansion. Chromosome-targeted sequencing permitted the development of assemblies within the constraints of modern computational platforms, allowed us to place 2062 genes on the two smallest A. mexicanum chromosomes and resolves key events in the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Our analyses show that the capture and sequencing of individual chromosomes is likely to provide valuable information for the systematic sequencing, assembly and scaffolding of large genomes.

  1. Initial characterization of the large genome of the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum using shotgun and laser capture chromosome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Keinath, Melissa C; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya Y; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Voss, S Randal; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates exhibit substantial diversity in genome size, and some of the largest genomes exist in species that uniquely inform diverse areas of basic and biomedical research. For example, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (the Mexican axolotl) is a model organism for studies of regeneration, development and genome evolution, yet its genome is ~10× larger than the human genome. As part of a hierarchical approach toward improving genome resources for the species, we generated 600 Gb of shotgun sequence data and developed methods for sequencing individual laser-captured chromosomes. Based on these data, we estimate that the A. mexicanum genome is ~32 Gb. Notably, as much as 19 Gb of the A. mexicanum genome can potentially be considered single copy, which presumably reflects the evolutionary diversification of mobile elements that accumulated during an ancient episode of genome expansion. Chromosome-targeted sequencing permitted the development of assemblies within the constraints of modern computational platforms, allowed us to place 2062 genes on the two smallest A. mexicanum chromosomes and resolves key events in the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Our analyses show that the capture and sequencing of individual chromosomes is likely to provide valuable information for the systematic sequencing, assembly and scaffolding of large genomes. PMID:26553646

  2. Three-dimensional techniques for capturing and building virtual models of complex objects for use in scientific and industrial applications, data archiving, and the entertainment industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Arthur; Chapman, Ralph E.; Wilcox, Brian

    2003-05-01

    The past 10 years have seen remarkable improvements in the capture of 3-dimesional data. Both scanning speeds and accuracy have increased by a magnitude. Software and increasingly more powerful computers allow larger data bases and faster post processing. CT, laser and optical scanners are finding increased use in the medical, manufacturing, scientific and entertainment industries. CT (Computerized Tomography) is generally used to capture internal as well as external surfaces. Medical (hospital) scanners are the most common and can be of service in industrial applications. But true industrial scanners service a much wider range of sizes and materials. Laser and optical scanners are line-of-sight, and are available in portable and permanent CMM mounting arrangements. Scanners are available to capture a wide range of objects; from entire buildings to fingernail sized parts. Solid objects requiring multiple scans, must register each scan to another for part completion. The collected data is exported as a "point cloud." The data can be used to digitally inspect complex parts, surface them for tooling and reverse engineering, or export surfaces to animation software.

  3. Insights into the life history and ecology of a large shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus captured in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lyons, K; Preti, A; Madigan, D J; Wells, R J D; Blasius, M E; Snodgrass, O E; Kacev, D; Harris, J D; Dewar, H; Kohin, S; MacKenzie, K; Lowe, C G

    2015-07-01

    In June 2013, a record-breaking female Isurus oxyrinchus (total length 373 cm, mass 600 kg) was captured by rod and reel off Huntington Beach, California, where it was subsequently donated to research and provided a rare opportunity to collect the first data for a female I. oxyrinchus of this size. Counts of vertebral band pairs estimate the shark to have been c. 22 years old, depending upon assumptions of band-pair deposition rates, and the distended uteri and spent ovaries indicated that this shark had recently given birth. The stomach contained a c. 4 year-old female California sea lion Zalophus californianus that confirmed the high trophic position of this large I. oxyrinchus, which was corroborated with the high levels of measured contaminants and tissue isotope analyses. PMID:25998058

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data Quality Objective and Lower... while still being assured of correctly demonstrating compliance. It is designed to reduce “false positive” or so called “Type II errors” which may erroneously indicate compliance where more variable...

  5. Capture of cosmic dusts and exposure of organics on the International Space Station: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei

    Finding of a wide variety of organic compounds contained in extraterrestrial bodies such as carbonaceous chondrites and comets suggested that they were important materials for the first life on the Earth. Cosmic dusts (interplanetary dust particles; IDPs) were believed to have been important carriers of extraterrestrial organics, since IDPs could deliver organics to the primitive Earth more safely than asteroids and comets. Since most IDPs have been collected in such terrestrial environments as ocean sediments, Antarctic ices, and air in stratosphere, it is difficult to judge whether biooranics found in IDPs were extraterrestrial origins or not. Thus it would be of importance to collect IDPs out of the terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission by utilizing the Exposed Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM/EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two types of experiments will be done in the Tanpopo Mission: Capture experiments and exposure experiments. In order to collect cosmic dusts (including IDPs) on the ISS, we are going to use extra-low density aerogel, since both cosmic dusts and ISS are moving at 8 km s-1 or over. We have developed novel aerogel whose density is 0.01 g cm-3. After the return of the aerogel blocks after 1 to a few years’ stay on JEM/EF, organic compounds in the captured dusts will be characterized by a wide variety of analytical techniques including FT-IR, XANES, and MS. Amino acid enantiomers will be determined after HF digestion and acid hydrolysis. A number of amino acids were detected in water extract of carbonaceous chondrites. It is controversial whether meteorites contain free amino acids or amino acid precursors. When dusts are formed from meteorites or comets in interplanetary space, they are exposed to high-energy particles and photons. In order to evaluate stability and possible alteration of amino acid-related compounds, we chose amino acids (glycine and isovaline) and hydantoins (precursors of amino

  6. SURF_ER—surface electron spin resonance (ESR) of the surface domain of large objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrling, Th.; Rehberg, J.; Jung, K.; Groth, N.

    2002-04-01

    SURF_ER is a method for spectral and spatial electron spin resonance measurements on the surface of large objects which extension is only restricted by the width of the pole gap of the magnet and the homogeneity of the magnetic field and not by the cavity dimensions. The application of several techniques like SURF_ER for spectroscopic measurements, SURF_ERM for spatial scanning and SURF_ERI for spatial measurements of the depth of the surface region are discussed and represented for the skin of a human being as an example.

  7. Object-Oriented NeuroSys: Parallel Programs for Simulating Large Networks of Biologically Accurate Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, P; Miller, P; Kim, J; Leese, T; Zabiyaka, Y

    2003-05-07

    Object-oriented NeuroSys (ooNeuroSys) is a collection of programs for simulating very large networks of biologically accurate neurons on distributed memory parallel computers. It includes two principle programs: ooNeuroSys, a parallel program for solving the large systems of ordinary differential equations arising from the interconnected neurons, and Neurondiz, a parallel program for visualizing the results of ooNeuroSys. Both programs are designed to be run on clusters and use the MPI library to obtain parallelism. ooNeuroSys also includes an easy-to-use Python interface. This interface allows neuroscientists to quickly develop and test complex neuron models. Both ooNeuroSys and Neurondiz have a design that allows for both high performance and relative ease of maintenance.

  8. The moon of the large Kuiper-belt object 2007 OR 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Kiss, Csaba; Mueller, Thomas G.

    2016-10-01

    We have identified a candidate satellite of the large Kuiper-belt object 2007 OR10. The moon has clearly been observed in one set of images and we obtained a tentative detection in a previous epoch. The moon orbits the central body at a distance of at least 15 000 km. Apart from this satellite no sign of binarity was observed, i.e. 2007 OR10 is likely a single large body. The low brightness of the moon also indicates that it cannot contribute notably to the total thermal emission of the system, i.e. 2007 OR10 has a size of ~1535 km obtained previously from Herschel and K2 data.

  9. Database Objects vs Files: Evaluation of alternative strategies for managing large remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, Chaitan; Nandigam, Viswanath; Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the geoscience user community expects modern IT capabilities to be available in service of their research and education activities, including the ability to easily access and process large remote sensing datasets via online portals such as GEON (www.geongrid.org) and OpenTopography (opentopography.org). However, serving such datasets via online data portals presents a number of challenges. In this talk, we will evaluate the pros and cons of alternative storage strategies for management and processing of such datasets using binary large object implementations (BLOBs) in database systems versus implementation in Hadoop files using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The storage and I/O requirements for providing online access to large datasets dictate the need for declustering data across multiple disks, for capacity as well as bandwidth and response time performance. This requires partitioning larger files into a set of smaller files, and is accompanied by the concomitant requirement for managing large numbers of file. Storing these sub-files as blobs in a shared-nothing database implemented across a cluster provides the advantage that all the distributed storage management is done by the DBMS. Furthermore, subsetting and processing routines can be implemented as user-defined functions (UDFs) on these blobs and would run in parallel across the set of nodes in the cluster. On the other hand, there are both storage overheads and constraints, and software licensing dependencies created by such an implementation. Another approach is to store the files in an external filesystem with pointers to them from within database tables. The filesystem may be a regular UNIX filesystem, a parallel filesystem, or HDFS. In the HDFS case, HDFS would provide the file management capability, while the subsetting and processing routines would be implemented as Hadoop programs using the MapReduce model. Hadoop and its related software libraries are freely available

  10. New objects with the B[e] phenomenon in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Saffe, C.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: The study is aimed at discovering new objects with the B[e] phenomenon in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods: We report medium-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of two newly found (ARDB 54 and NOMAD 0181-0125572) and two previously known (Hen S-59 and Hen S-137) supergiants with the B[e] phenomenon in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations were obtained with the GMOS spectrograph at the southern Gemini telescope. Results: The optical spectra and the fundamental parameters of ARDB 54 and NOMAD 0181-0125572 are presented for the first time. We found that the Balmer line profiles of Hen S-59 and Hen S-137 were different from those observed in their spectra nearly 20 years ago. We suggest a higher effective temperature and luminosity for both objects. With the new fundamental parameters, the lowest luminosity for known supergiants with the B[e] phenomenon in the Magellanic Clouds is higher that previously thought (log L/L⊙ ~ 4.5 instead of 4.0). The object Hen S-59 may be a binary system based on its UV excess, variable B - V color-index and radial velocity of emission lines, and periodically variable I-band brightness. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovacão (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  11. Size does matter: women mentally rotate large objects faster than men.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Bernt Ivar; Laeng, Bruno; Kristiansen, Kari-Ann; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-06-01

    Performance in a computerized "mental rotation" task was measured in groups of males and females while they rotated Shepard-Metzler-like cube assemblies on either a standard laptop screen (size = 36 cm) or on a large display wall (584 cm) where the stimuli appeared at considerably larger sizes and within a much wider field of view than that typically used in most spatial tasks. Males and females did not differ significantly in performance in the standard size condition with regards to response time but females performed faster than males in the large display condition. Males were also found to be significantly more accurate than females, regardless of display. We found no sign of trading accuracy for speed for either of the sexes or screen size conditions. We surmise that such an effect may be due to differences in task-solving strategies between the sexes, where a holistic strategy--which may be preferred by males--is negatively affected by large object sizes, whereas a piecemeal approach, that may be preferred by females, is virtually unaffected by display size.

  12. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder.

    PubMed

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call "variation level." We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research. PMID:27642281

  13. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R.; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call “variation level.” We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research. PMID:27642281

  14. Humans and Deep Networks Largely Agree on Which Kinds of Variation Make Object Recognition Harder

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed R.; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    View-invariant object recognition is a challenging problem that has attracted much attention among the psychology, neuroscience, and computer vision communities. Humans are notoriously good at it, even if some variations are presumably more difficult to handle than others (e.g., 3D rotations). Humans are thought to solve the problem through hierarchical processing along the ventral stream, which progressively extracts more and more invariant visual features. This feed-forward architecture has inspired a new generation of bio-inspired computer vision systems called deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which are currently the best models for object recognition in natural images. Here, for the first time, we systematically compared human feed-forward vision and DCNNs at view-invariant object recognition task using the same set of images and controlling the kinds of transformation (position, scale, rotation in plane, and rotation in depth) as well as their magnitude, which we call “variation level.” We used four object categories: car, ship, motorcycle, and animal. In total, 89 human subjects participated in 10 experiments in which they had to discriminate between two or four categories after rapid presentation with backward masking. We also tested two recent DCNNs (proposed respectively by Hinton's group and Zisserman's group) on the same tasks. We found that humans and DCNNs largely agreed on the relative difficulties of each kind of variation: rotation in depth is by far the hardest transformation to handle, followed by scale, then rotation in plane, and finally position (much easier). This suggests that DCNNs would be reasonable models of human feed-forward vision. In addition, our results show that the variation levels in rotation in depth and scale strongly modulate both humans' and DCNNs' recognition performances. We thus argue that these variations should be controlled in the image datasets used in vision research.

  15. Motivation and challenge to capture both large-scale and local transport in next generation accretion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Nauman, Farrukh

    2015-10-01

    > Accretion disc theory is less developed than stellar evolution theory although a similarly mature phenomenological picture is ultimately desired. While the interplay of theory and numerical simulations has amplified community awareness of the role of magnetic fields in angular momentum transport, there remains a long term challenge to incorporate the insights gained from simulations into improving practical models for comparison with observations. What has been learned from simulations that can lead to improvements beyond SS73 in practical models? Here, we emphasize the need to incorporate the role of non-local transport more precisely. To show where large-scale transport would fit into the theoretical framework and how it is currently missing, we review why the wonderfully practical approach of Shakura & Sunyaev (Astron. Astrophys., vol. 24, 1973, pp. 337-355, SS73) is necessarily a mean field theory, and one which does not include large-scale transport. Observations of coronae and jets, combined with the interpretation of results from shearing box simulations, of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) suggest that a significant fraction of disc transport is indeed non-local. We show that the Maxwell stresses in saturation are dominated by large-scale contributions and that the physics of MRI transport is not fully captured by a viscosity. We also clarify the standard physical interpretation of the MRI as it applies to shearing boxes. Computational limitations have so far focused most attention toward local simulations, but the next generation of global simulations should help to inform improved mean field theories. Mean field accretion theory and mean field dynamo theory should in fact be unified into a single theory that predicts the time evolution of spectra and luminosity from separate disc, corona and outflow contributions. Finally, we note that any mean field theory, including that of SS73, has a finite predictive precision that needs to be quantified

  16. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    PubMed

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  17. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Katapally, Tarun R.; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-01-01

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. PMID:26371015

  18. GenASiS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-06-11

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. Lastly, these classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes themmore » useful for physics simulations in many fields.« less

  19. GENASIS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-11-01

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual 'unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GENASIS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  20. Architecture of a large object-oriented database for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, Erik

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the proposed Intelligent Information Fusion System (IIFS) within the framework of the Intelligent Data Management project at NASA-Goddard. IIFS is to use connectionist architectures to extract high-level attributes from incoming sensor images, and then send those characterizations and their associated ephemeris and ancillary image data to a large object-oriented database which will serve as the master catalog of sensor data. Important issues facing this project include the choice of rapid-access data structures (RADSs) for cataloging images by their high-level characterization, the implementation of efficient spatial data structures for cataloging images by their scene location, the automated population of such a database from a continuous stream of incoming ephemeris and ancillary data, and the translation and optimization of natural-language database queries so that RADSs are employed when appropriate.

  1. GENASIS   Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-11-01

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual 'unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GENASIS  (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  2. GenASiS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-06-11

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. Lastly, these classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  3. Polyvinylidene fluoride/siloxane nanofibrous membranes for long-term continuous CO2 -capture with large absorption-flux enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Wang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Hua; Chang, Kai-Shiun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2014-02-01

    In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/siloxane nanofibrous layers that are modified with hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) functional groups and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes, the PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous layer in highly porous FAS-modified membranes can prevent the wetting of the membrane by the amine absorbent; this extends the periods of continuous CO2 absorption and results in a high CO2 absorption flux with a minimum of 500 % enhancement over that of the uncoated membranes. This study suggests the potential use of an FAS-modified PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membrane in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants.

  4. Scalable multi-objective control for large scale water resources systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Quinn, Julianne; Herman, Jonathan; Castelletti, Andrea; Reed, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The use of mathematical models to support the optimal management of environmental systems is rapidly expanding over the last years due to advances in scientific knowledge of the natural processes, efficiency of the optimization techniques, and availability of computational resources. However, undergoing changes in climate and society introduce additional challenges for controlling these systems, ultimately motivating the emergence of complex models to explore key causal relationships and dependencies on uncontrolled sources of variability. In this work, we contribute a novel implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS) method for controlling environmental systems under uncertainty. The proposed approach combines direct policy search (DPS) with hierarchical parallelization of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and offers a threefold advantage: the DPS simulation-based optimization can be combined with any simulation model and does not add any constraint on modeled information, allowing the use of exogenous information in conditioning the decisions. Moreover, the combination of DPS and MOEAs prompts the generation or Pareto approximate set of solutions for up to 10 objectives, thus overcoming the decision biases produced by cognitive myopia, where narrow or restrictive definitions of optimality strongly limit the discovery of decision relevant alternatives. Finally, the use of large-scale MOEAs parallelization improves the ability of the designed solutions in handling the uncertainty due to severe natural variability. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a challenging water resources management problem represented by the optimal control of a network of four multipurpose water reservoirs in the Red River basin (Vietnam). As part of the medium-long term energy and food security national strategy, four large reservoirs have been constructed on the Red River tributaries, which are mainly operated for hydropower

  5. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient-derived xenograft models capture the molecular and biological heterogeneity of the disease.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Cheng, Hongwei; Watahiki, Akira; Ducar, Matthew D; Tan, Yuxiang; Chen, Linfeng; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Ouyang, Jing; Christie, Amanda L; Zhang, Liye; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Abo, Ryan P; Farinha, Pedro; von Bonin, Frederike; Thorner, Aaron R; Sun, Heather H; Gascoyne, Randy D; Pinkus, Geraldine S; van Hummelen, Paul; Wulf, Gerald G; Aster, Jon C; Weinstock, David M; Monti, Stefano; Rodig, Scott J; Wang, Yuzhuo; Shipp, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease defined by transcriptional classifications, specific signaling and survival pathways, and multiple low-frequency genetic alterations. Preclinical model systems that capture the genetic and functional heterogeneity of DLBCL are urgently needed. Here, we generated and characterized a panel of large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, including 8 that reflect the immunophenotypic, transcriptional, genetic, and functional heterogeneity of primary DLBCL and 1 that is a plasmablastic lymphoma. All LBCL PDX models were subjected to whole-transcriptome sequencing to classify cell of origin and consensus clustering classification (CCC) subtypes. Mutations and chromosomal rearrangements were evaluated by whole-exome sequencing with an extended bait set. Six of the 8 DLBCL models were activated B-cell (ABC)-type tumors that exhibited ABC-associated mutations such as MYD88, CD79B, CARD11, and PIM1. The remaining 2 DLBCL models were germinal B-cell type, with characteristic alterations of GNA13, CREBBP, and EZH2, and chromosomal translocations involving IgH and either BCL2 or MYC Only 25% of the DLBCL PDX models harbored inactivating TP53 mutations, whereas 75% exhibited copy number alterations of TP53 or its upstream modifier, CDKN2A, consistent with the reported incidence and type of p53 pathway alterations in primary DLBCL. By CCC criteria, 6 of 8 DLBCL PDX models were B-cell receptor (BCR)-type tumors that exhibited selective surface immunoglobulin expression and sensitivity to entospletinib, a recently developed spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In summary, we have established and characterized faithful PDX models of DLBCL and demonstrated their usefulness in functional analyses of proximal BCR pathway inhibition.

  6. Multilevel fast multipole algorithm for elastic wave scattering by large three-dimensional objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Mei Song; Chew, Weng Cho

    2009-02-01

    Multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is developed for solving elastic wave scattering by large three-dimensional (3D) objects. Since the governing set of boundary integral equations (BIE) for the problem includes both compressional and shear waves with different wave numbers in one medium, the double-tree structure for each medium is used in the MLFMA implementation. When both the object and surrounding media are elastic, four wave numbers in total and thus four FMA trees are involved. We employ Nyström method to discretize the BIE and generate the corresponding matrix equation. The MLFMA is used to accelerate the solution process by reducing the complexity of matrix-vector product from O(N2) to O(NlogN) in iterative solvers. The multiple-tree structure differs from the single-tree frame in electromagnetics (EM) and acoustics, and greatly complicates the MLFMA implementation due to the different definitions for well-separated groups in different FMA trees. Our Nyström method has made use of the cancellation of leading terms in the series expansion of integral kernels to handle hyper singularities in near terms. This feature is kept in the MLFMA by seeking the common near patches in different FMA trees and treating the involved near terms synergistically. Due to the high cost of the multiple-tree structure, our numerical examples show that we can only solve the elastic wave scattering problems with 0.3-0.4 millions of unknowns on our Dell Precision 690 workstation using one core.

  7. Large micromirror array for generating programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2012-09-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) is a powerful tool for space and ground-based telescopes for the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. This technique requires a programmable slit mask for astronomical object selection. We are engaged in a European development of micromirror arrays (MMA) for generating reflective slit masks in future MOS, called MIRA. The 100 x 200 μm2 micromirrors are electrostatically tilted providing a precise angle. The main requirements are cryogenic environment capabilities, precise and uniform tilt angle over the whole device, uniformity of the mirror voltage-tilt hysteresis and a low mirror deformation. A first MMA with single-crystal silicon micromirrors was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. A new generation of micromirror arrays composed of 2048 micromirrors (32 x 64) and modelled for individual addressing were fabricated using fusion and eutectic wafer-level bonding. These micromirrors without coating show a peak-to-valley deformation less than 10 nm, a tilt angle of 24° for an actuation voltage of 130 V. Individual addressing capability of each mirror has been demonstrated using a line-column algorithm based on an optimized voltage-tilt hysteresis. Devices are currently packaged, wire-bonded and integrated to a dedicated electronics to demonstrate the individual actuation of all micromirrors on an array. An operational test of this large array with gold coated mirrors has been done at cryogenic temperature (162 K): the micromirrors were actuated successfully before, during and after the cryogenic experiment. The micromirror surface deformation was measured at cryo and is below 30 nm peak-to-valley.

  8. Development of Numerical Codes for Modeling Electromagnetic Behavior at High Frequencies Near Large Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, R. P.; Deshpande, M. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A study into the problem of determining electromagnetic solutions at high frequencies for problems involving complex geometries, large sizes and multiple sources (e.g. antennas) has been initiated. Typical applications include the behavior of antennas (and radiators) installed on complex conducting structures (e.g. ships, aircrafts, etc..) with strong interactions between antennas, the radiation patterns, and electromagnetic signals is of great interest for electromagnetic compatibility control. This includes the overall performance evaluation and control of all on-board radiating systems, electromagnetic interference, and personnel radiation hazards. Electromagnetic computational capability exists at NASA LaRC, and many of the codes developed are based on the Moment Method (MM). However, the MM is computationally intensive, and this places a limit on the size of objects and structures that can be modeled. Here, two approaches are proposed: (i) a current-based hybrid scheme that combines the MM with Physical optics, and (ii) an Alternating Direction Implicit-Finite Difference Time Domain (ADI-FDTD) method. The essence of a hybrid technique is to split the overall scattering surface(s) into two regions: (a) a MM zone (MMZ) which can be used over any part of the given geometry, but is most essential over irregular and "non-smooth" geometries, and (b) a PO sub-region (POSR). Currents induced on the scattering and reflecting surfaces can then be computed in two ways depending on whether the region belonged to the MMZ or was part of the POSR. For the MMZ, the current calculations proceed in terms of basis functions with undetermined coefficients (as in the usual MM method), and the answer obtained by solving a system of linear equations. Over the POSR, conduction is obtained as a superposition of two contributions: (i) currents due to the incident magnetic field, and (ii) currents produced by the mutual induction from conduction within the MMZ. This effectively leads to

  9. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.

  10. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR-FORMING REGION N206

    SciTech Connect

    Romita, Krista Alexandra; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Carlson, Lynn Redding; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J. L. E-mail: carlson@stsci.ed E-mail: brian@sal.wisc.ed E-mail: jhora@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-20

    We present analysis of the energetic star-forming region Henize 206 (N206) located near the southern edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on photometric data from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-LMC; IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 {mu}m and MIPS 24 {mu}m), Infrared Survey Facility near-infrared survey (J, H, K{sub s}), and the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS UBVI) covering a wavelength range of 0.36-24 {mu}m. Young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified based upon their location in infrared color-magnitude space and classified by the shapes of their spectral energy distributions in comparison with a pre-computed grid of YSO models. We identify 116 YSO candidates: 102 are well characterized by the YSO models, predominately Stage I, and 14 may be multiple sources or young sources with transition disks. Careful examination of the individual sources and their surrounding environment allows us to identify a factor of {approx}14.5 more YSO candidates than have already been identified. The total mass of these well-fit YSO candidates is {approx}520 M{sub sun}. We calculate a current star formation rate of 0.27 x 10{sup -1} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. The distribution of YSO candidates appears to follow shells of neutral material in the interstellar medium.

  11. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks. PMID:25408295

  12. Multi-objective four-dimensional vehicle motion planning in large dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Paul P-Y; Campbell, Duncan; Merz, Torsten

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents Multi-Step A∗ (MSA∗), a search algorithm based on A∗ for multi-objective 4-D vehicle motion planning (three spatial and one time dimensions). The research is principally motivated by the need for offline and online motion planning for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). For UAVs operating in large dynamic uncertain 4-D environments, the motion plan consists of a sequence of connected linear tracks (or trajectory segments). The track angle and velocity are important parameters that are often restricted by assumptions and a grid geometry in conventional motion planners. Many existing planners also fail to incorporate multiple decision criteria and constraints such as wind, fuel, dynamic obstacles, and the rules of the air. It is shown that MSA∗ finds a cost optimal solution using variable length, angle, and velocity trajectory segments. These segments are approximated with a grid-based cell sequence that provides an inherent tolerance to uncertainty. The computational efficiency is achieved by using variable successor operators to create a multiresolution memory-efficient lattice sampling structure. The simulation studies on the UAV flight planning problem show that MSA∗ meets the time constraints of online replanning and finds paths of equivalent cost but in a quarter of the time (on average) of a vector neighborhood-based A∗.

  13. Multi-objective four-dimensional vehicle motion planning in large dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Paul P-Y; Campbell, Duncan; Merz, Torsten

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents Multi-Step A∗ (MSA∗), a search algorithm based on A∗ for multi-objective 4-D vehicle motion planning (three spatial and one time dimensions). The research is principally motivated by the need for offline and online motion planning for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). For UAVs operating in large dynamic uncertain 4-D environments, the motion plan consists of a sequence of connected linear tracks (or trajectory segments). The track angle and velocity are important parameters that are often restricted by assumptions and a grid geometry in conventional motion planners. Many existing planners also fail to incorporate multiple decision criteria and constraints such as wind, fuel, dynamic obstacles, and the rules of the air. It is shown that MSA∗ finds a cost optimal solution using variable length, angle, and velocity trajectory segments. These segments are approximated with a grid-based cell sequence that provides an inherent tolerance to uncertainty. The computational efficiency is achieved by using variable successor operators to create a multiresolution memory-efficient lattice sampling structure. The simulation studies on the UAV flight planning problem show that MSA∗ meets the time constraints of online replanning and finds paths of equivalent cost but in a quarter of the time (on average) of a vector neighborhood-based A∗. PMID:20851795

  14. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Morten; Fordyce, Sarah L.; Montiel, Rafael; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples. We tested the performance of Agilent's SureSelect and Mycroarray's MySelect in-solution capture systems on Illumina sequencing libraries built from ancient maize to identify key factors influencing aDNA capture experiments. High levels of clonality as well as the presence of multiple-copy sequences in the capture targets led to biases in the data regardless of the capture method. Neither method consistently outperformed the other in terms of average target enrichment, and no obvious difference was observed either when two tiling designs were compared. In addition to demonstrating the plausibility of capturing aDNA from ancient plant material, our results also enable us to provide useful recommendations for those planning targeted-sequencing on aDNA. PMID:22355593

  15. Two Wheels are Better than One: The Importance of Capturing the Home Literacy Environment in Large-Scale Assessments of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Pisani, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Children's reading skill development is influenced by availability of reading materials, reading habits and opportunity to read. Save the Children's Literacy Boost data have replicated this finding across numerous developing contexts. Meanwhile international large-scale reading assessments do not capture detail on current home literacy.…

  16. Subjective and objective wine quality in Central Mediterranean in relation to large scale climate patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina; Dalu, John David; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovannangelo; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Subjective wine ranking is based on three factors: appearance (eye), smell (nose) and taste (palate); this kind of subjective ranking is often preferred over that based on technical objective means. Wine quality depends on its composition, which is a function of a number of factors: grapevine variety, soil type, cultivation techniques, and climate conditions. Between them, the soil is the main fixed factor; the positive trend is determined by a combination of improved cultural techniques and of warming related to climate change; while the climate variability is the main factor in determining the year-to-year wine quality variations. Therefore, the analysis of the grape composition before harvest is crucial for establishing the quality-climate correlations. In this work, 40 years of objective and subjective wine quality data collected in Italy are analyzed in relation to the climate conditions. Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of the precipitations in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine; weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall; i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over Atlantic diverts most of

  17. Identifying young stellar objects in nine Large Magellanic Cloud star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, L. R.; Sewiło, M.; Meixner, M.; Romita, K. A.; Lawton, B.

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a new set of selection criteria for the identification of infrared bright young stellar object (YSO) candidates and apply them to nine Hii regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), focusing particularly on lower mass candidates missed by most surveys. Data are from the Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program SAGE (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution; Meixner et al. 2006, AJ, 132, 2268), combined with optical photometry from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS; Zaritsky et al. 1997, AJ, 114, 1002) and near-infrared photometry from the InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF; Kato et al. 2007, PASJ, 59, 615). We choose regions of diverse physical size, star formation rates (SFRs), and ages. We also cover a wide range of locations and surrounding environments in the LMC. These active star-forming regions are LHA 120-N 11, N 44, N 51, N 105, N 113, N 120, N 144, N 160, and N 206. Some have been well-studied (e.g., N11, N44, N160) in the past, while others (e.g., N51, N144) have received little attention. We identify 1045 YSO candidates, including 918 never before identified and 127 matching previous candidate lists. We characterize the evolutionary stage and physical properties of each candidate using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitter of Robitaille et al. (2007, ApJS, 169, 328) and estimate mass functions and SFRs for each region. Full Tables 1-3, 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A66

  18. ICE CHEMISTRY IN EMBEDDED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J. M.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Indebetouw, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sloan, G. C.; Woods, P. M.; Kemper, F.; Gordon, K. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Shiao, B.; Meixner, M.; Madden, S.; Speck, A. K.; Marengo, M.

    2009-12-20

    We present spectroscopic observations of a sample of 15 embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These observations were obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) as part of the SAGE-Spec Legacy program. We analyze the two prominent ice bands in the IRS spectral range: the bending mode of CO{sub 2} ice at 15.2 mum and the ice band between 5 and 7 mum that includes contributions from the bending mode of water ice at 6 mum among other ice species. The 5-7 mum band is difficult to identify in our LMC sample due to the conspicuous presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission superimposed onto the ice spectra. We identify water ice in the spectra of two sources; the spectrum of one of those sources also exhibits the 6.8 mum ice feature attributed in the literature to ammonium and methanol. We model the CO{sub 2} band in detail, using the combination of laboratory ice profiles available in the literature. We find that a significant fraction (approx>50%) of CO{sub 2} ice is locked in a water-rich component, consistent with what is observed for Galactic sources. The majority of the sources in the LMC also require a pure-CO{sub 2} contribution to the ice profile, evidence of thermal processing. There is a suggestion that CO{sub 2} production might be enhanced in the LMC, but the size of the available sample precludes firmer conclusions. We place our results in the context of the star formation environment in the LMC.

  19. Optical Spectra of the Large Kuiper Belt Objects 2003 EL61 and 2005 FY9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Grundy, W.; Consolmagno, G.; Romanishin, W.; Mogren, K.

    2006-09-01

    We present optical spectra (0.40 - 0.95 micron; fwhm 0.0020 micron) of the large Kuiper belt objects 2003 EL61 and 2005 FY9. The spectra were obtained with the Red Channel Spectrograph and the 6.5 meter MMT telescope on Mt Hopkins, AZ. Five 600-sec spectra of 2003 EL61 span 40 % of its rotational period. We find no evidence of ice absorption bands in any of the spectra nor any evidence of differences between the spectra. By combining the five spectra, we achieve a continuum signal to noise ratio of 200 near 0.577 and 0.627 micron. Such a signal to noise ratio enables us to rule out the presence of O2-ice on 2003 EL61 at an abundance seen on the surface of Ganymede (Spencer et al. 1995). In addition, the lack of the 0.890 micron CH4-ice band in our spectrum allows us to set an upper limit on the thickness of a global glaze of CH 4-ice at 0.3 mm. Our spectrum of 2005 FY9 exhibits deep CH 4-ice absorption at 0.620, 0.730, 0.786, 0.799, 0.844, 0.869, 0.890, and 0.902 micron in agreement with spectra of Licandro et al. 2006. The wavelengths of these absorption bands are consistent with pure CH4-ice. In addition, our spectrum exhibits weak CH 4-ice bands at 0.54, 0.58, and 0.60 micron. This is the first detection of these weak ice bands in laboratory or astrophysical spectra. We thank the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program for financial support of this research and the Steward Telescope Allocation Committee for allocation of telescope time.

  20. Imaging properties of dielectric photonic crystal slabs for large object distances.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guilin; Jugessur, Aju S; Kirk, Andrew G

    2006-07-24

    We extend the understanding of the imaging properties of dielectric photonic crystal slabs to object distances that are larger than the slab thickness. We specifically consider hexagonal crystal lattices in the second band. For object distances smaller than the slab thickness, the image distance is a negative linear function of the object distance as expected for negative refractive index materials. The effective refractive index extracted from this linear object-image relation is close to the negative unity value calculated for infinite photonic crystal using the plane wave expansion method. In contrast to previous predictions, we find that a real image can still be formed for object distances up to twice the slab thickness. In this regime the image distance changes little as the object distance increases, and can thus be described as the saturated image regime. Sub-wavelength resolution performance can be approximately maintained even for these larger object distances. The full-width half-maximum spot size at the image is approximately (0.43-0.55)lambda up to object distances 1.5 times the slab thickness. By evaluating the image angular frequency spectrum we show that this sub-wavelength resolution imaging at larger object distances is due to evanescent waves that arise within the slab, rather than being directly transferred from the object. The eventual loss of image resolution is due to interference side lobes which enter the image plane.

  1. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  2. HIGH- AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendl, Robert A.; Chu, Y.-H. E-mail: chu@astro.illinois.edu

    2009-09-01

    Archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and MIPS observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been used to search for young stellar objects (YSOs). We have carried out independent aperture photometry of these data and merged the results from different passbands to produce a photometric catalog. To verify our methodology we have also analyzed the data from the SAGE and SWIRE Legacy programs; our photometric measurements are in general agreement with the photometry released by these programs. A detailed completeness analysis for our photometric catalog of the LMC shows that the 90% completeness limits are, on average, 16.0, 15.0, 14.3, 13.1, and 9.2 mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. Using our mid-infrared photometric catalogs and two simple selection criteria, [4.5]-[8.0]>2.0 to exclude normal and evolved stars and [8.0]>14-([4.5]-[8.0]) to exclude background galaxies, we have identified a sample of 2910 sources in the LMC that could potentially be YSOs. We then used the Spitzer observations complemented by optical and near-infrared data to carefully assess the nature of each source. To do so we simultaneously considered multiwavelength images and photometry to assess the source morphology, spectral energy distribution (SED) from the optical through the mid-infrared wavelengths, and the surrounding interstellar environment to determine the most likely nature of each source. From this examination of the initial sample, we suggest that 1172 sources are most likely YSOs. We have also identified 1075 probable background galaxies, consistent with the expected number estimated from the SWIRE survey. Spitzer IRS observations of 269 of the brightest YSOs from our sample have confirmed that {approx}>95% are indeed YSOs. An examination of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams shows no simple criteria in color-magnitude space that can unambiguously separate the LMC YSOs from all asymptotic giant branch (AGB)/post-AGB stars, planetary

  3. Memory for object location and route direction in virtual large-scale space.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Gabriele

    2006-03-01

    In everyday life people have to deal with tasks such as finding a novel path to a certain goal location, finding one's way back, finding a short cut, or making a detour. In all of these tasks people acquire route knowledge. For finding the same way back they have to remember locations of objects like buildings and additionally direction changes. In three experiments using recognition tasks as well as conscious and unconscious spatial priming paradigms memory processes underlying wayfinding behaviour were investigated. Participants learned a route through a virtual environment with objects either placed at intersections (i.e., decision points) where another route could be chosen or placed along the route (non-decision points). Analyses indicate first that objects placed at decision points are recognized faster than other objects. Second, they indicate that the direction in which a route is travelled is represented only at locations that are relevant for wayfinding (e.g., decision points). The results point out the efficient way in which memory for object location and memory for route direction interact.

  4. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building, and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 34 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers, and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  5. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.

    2004-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 3 - 4 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  6. Rotation of large asymmetrical absorbing objects by Laguerre-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Herne, Catherine M; Capuzzi, Kristina M; Sobel, Emily; Kropas, Ryan T

    2015-09-01

    In this Letter, we show the manipulation and rotation of opaque graphite through adhesion with optically trapped polystyrene spheres. The absorbing graphite is rotated by the orbital angular momentum transfer from a Laguerre-Gauss laser mode and is trapped due to the presence of refracting spheres. This technique is effective for trapping and rotating absorbing objects of all sizes, including those larger than the laser mode.

  7. Three-axis optic-electronic autocollimation system for the inspection of large-scale objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Alexandr N.; Konyakhin, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    Ways of refining autocollimation systems for the inspection of angular deformation of industrial objects are analyzed. Control elements based on tetrahedral reflectors with plane and cylinder reflecting sides are researched. Results of an analysis the action matrix of tetrahedral reflectors are considered. The features of tetrahedral reflector as the control elements for three-axis angular systems are discussed. Equations for static characteristics of the measuring system are shown.

  8. 1998 SM165: A large Kuiper belt object with an irregular shape

    PubMed Central

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Rettig, T. W.; Consolmagno, G.; Botthof, B.

    2001-01-01

    The recent discovery of an ancient reservoir of icy bodies at and beyond the orbit of Neptune—the Kuiper belt—has opened a new frontier in astronomy. Measurements of the physical and chemical nature of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) can constrain our ideas of the processes of planet formation and evolution. Our 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and charge-coupled device camera observations of the KBO 1998 SM165 indicate its brightness periodically varies by 0.56 magnitudes over a 4-h interval. If we assume a uniform albedo of 0.04, which is typical of values found in the literature for a handful of KBOs, and an “equator-on” aspect, we find 1998 SM165 has axes of length 600 × 360 km. If our assumptions are correct, such dimensions put 1998 SM165 among the largest elongated objects known in our solar system. Perhaps long ago, two nearly spherical KBOs of comparable size coalesced to form a compound object, or perhaps 1998 SM165 is the residual core of a catastrophic fragmentation of a larger precursor. PMID:11572937

  9. 1998 SM165: a large Kuiper belt object with an irregular shape.

    PubMed

    Romanishin, W; Tegler, S C; Rettig, T W; Consolmagno, G; Botthof, B

    2001-10-01

    The recent discovery of an ancient reservoir of icy bodies at and beyond the orbit of Neptune-the Kuiper belt-has opened a new frontier in astronomy. Measurements of the physical and chemical nature of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) can constrain our ideas of the processes of planet formation and evolution. Our 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and charge-coupled device camera observations of the KBO 1998 SM(165) indicate its brightness periodically varies by 0.56 magnitudes over a 4-h interval. If we assume a uniform albedo of 0.04, which is typical of values found in the literature for a handful of KBOs, and an "equator-on" aspect, we find 1998 SM(165) has axes of length 600 x 360 km. If our assumptions are correct, such dimensions put 1998 SM(165) among the largest elongated objects known in our solar system. Perhaps long ago, two nearly spherical KBOs of comparable size coalesced to form a compound object, or perhaps 1998 SM(165) is the residual core of a catastrophic fragmentation of a larger precursor. PMID:11572937

  10. Indexing Large Visual Vocabulary by Randomized Dimensions Hashing for High Quantization Accuracy: Improving the Object Retrieval Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Heng; Wang, Qing; He, Zhoucan

    The bag-of-visual-words approach, inspired by text retrieval methods, has proven successful in achieving high performance in object retrieval on large-scale databases. A key step of these methods is the quantization stage which maps the high-dimensional image feature vectors to discriminatory visual words. In this paper, we consider the quantization step as the nearest neighbor search in large visual vocabulary, and thus proposed a randomized dimensions hashing (RDH) algorithm to efficiently index and search the large visual vocabulary. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can effectively increase the quantization accuracy compared to the vocabulary tree based methods which represent the state-of-the-art. Consequently, the object retrieval performance can be significantly improved by our method in the large-scale database.

  11. Capturing and stitching images with a large viewing angle and low distortion properties for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya-Cheng; Chung, Chien-Kai; Lai, Jyun-Yi; Chang, Han-Chao; Hsu, Feng-Yi

    2013-06-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies are primarily performed to observe the pathologies of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. However, when an endoscope is pushed into the esophagus or stomach by the physician, the organs behave similar to a balloon being gradually inflated. Consequently, their shapes and depth-of-field of images change continually, preventing thorough examination of the inflammation or anabrosis position, which delays the curing period. In this study, a 2.9-mm image-capturing module and a convoluted mechanism was incorporated into the tube like a standard 10- mm upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm was adopted to implement disease feature extraction on a koala doll. Following feature extraction, the smoothly varying affine stitching (SVAS) method was employed to resolve stitching distortion problems. Subsequently, the real-time splice software developed in this study was embedded in an upper gastrointestinal endoscope to obtain a panoramic view of stomach inflammation in the captured images. The results showed that the 2.9-mm image-capturing module can provide approximately 50 verified images in one spin cycle, a viewing angle of 120° can be attained, and less than 10% distortion can be achieved in each image. Therefore, these methods can solve the problems encountered when using a standard 10-mm upper gastrointestinal endoscope with a single camera, such as image distortion, and partial inflammation displays. The results also showed that the SIFT algorithm provides the highest correct matching rate, and the SVAS method can be employed to resolve the parallax problems caused by stitching together images of different flat surfaces.

  12. Distributed calculation method for large-pixel-number holograms by decomposition of object and hologram planes.

    PubMed

    Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Miyata, Hiroaki; Ohkawa, Takeshi; Ootsu, Kanemitsu; Yokota, Takashi; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Baba, Takanobu

    2014-12-15

    A method has been proposed to reduce the communication overhead in computer-generated hologram (CGH) calculations on parallel and distributed computing devices. The method uses the shifting property of Fourier transform to decompose calculations, thereby avoiding data dependency and communication. This enables the full potential of parallel and distributed computing devices. The proposed method is verified by simulation and optical experiments and can achieve a 20 times speed improvement compared to conventional methods, while using large data sizes.

  13. Large-Scale Multi-Objective Optimization for the Management of Seawater Intrusion, Santa Barbara, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Z. P.; Nishikawa, T.; Paulinski, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Santa Barbara, located in coastal southern California, is concerned that excessive groundwater pumping will lead to chloride (Cl) contamination of its groundwater system from seawater intrusion (SWI). In addition, the city wishes to estimate the effect of continued pumping on the groundwater basin under a variety of initial and climatic conditions. A SEAWAT-based groundwater-flow and solute-transport model of the Santa Barbara groundwater basin was optimized to produce optimal pumping schedules assuming 5 different scenarios. Borg, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, was coupled with the SEAWAT model to identify optimal management strategies. The optimization problems were formulated as multi-objective so that the tradeoffs between maximizing pumping, minimizing SWI, and minimizing drawdowns can be examined by the city. Decisions can then be made on a pumping schedule in light of current preferences and climatic conditions. Borg was used to produce Pareto optimal results for all 5 scenarios, which vary in their initial conditions (high water levels, low water levels, or current basin state), simulated climate (normal or drought conditions), and problem formulation (objective equations and decision-variable aggregation). Results show mostly well-defined Pareto surfaces with a few singularities. Furthermore, the results identify the precise pumping schedule per well that was suitable given the desired restriction on drawdown and Cl concentrations. A system of decision-making is then possible based on various observations of the basin's hydrologic states and climatic trends without having to run any further optimizations. In addition, an assessment of selected Pareto-optimal solutions was analyzed with sensitivity information using the simulation model alone. A wide range of possible groundwater pumping scenarios is available and depends heavily on the future climate scenarios and the Pareto-optimal solution selected while managing the pumping wells.

  14. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  15. X-ray tomography of large objects with limited measurement angle

    SciTech Connect

    Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Markkanen, Markku; Sundberg, Pauli

    2014-02-18

    In this paper we present an efficient implementation of an algorithm for reconstructing a 3D volume from limited angle projection data, based on statistical inversion theory. We demonstrate the strength of the method for detecting structural defects in large composite aerospace components, whose dimensions prevent acquiring measurements over the full circle. In comparison with a number of other tomographic reconstruction methods that can be applied to the limited angle case, such as tomosynthesis or simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), we achieve superior depth resolution with reduced noise and artifacts.

  16. The Impact of a Large Object with Jupiter in July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Wesley, A.; Orton, G.; Chodas, P.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Legarreta, J.; Gomez-Forrellad, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The only major impact ever observed directly in the Solar System was that of a large fragmented comet with Jupiter in July (1994) (Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9; SL9). We report here the observation of a second, single, large impact on Jupiter that occurred on 19 July 2009 at a latitude of -55° with an orthogonal entry trajectory and a lower incidence angle compared to those of SL9. The size of the initial aerosol cloud debris was 4,800 km East-West and 2,500 km North-South. Comparison its properties with those produced by the SL9 fragments, coupled with dynamical calculations of possible pre-impact orbits, indicates that the impactor was most probably an icy body with a size of 0.5-1 km. We calculate that the rate of collisions of this magnitude may be five to ten times more frequent than previously thought. The search for unpredicted impacts, such as the current one, could be best performed in the near-infrared methane absorption bands at 890 nm and in the 2.12 to 2.3 μm K methane-hydrogen absorption band, where the high-altitude aerosols detach by their brightness relative to Jupiter's primary clouds. We present measurements of the debris dispersion by Jovian winds from a long-term imaging campaign with ground-based telescopes. Ackowledgements: Work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07, by NASA funds to JPL, Caltech, by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at JPL, and by the Glasstone Fellowship program at Oxford.

  17. A LARGE, MASSIVE, ROTATING DISK AROUND AN ISOLATED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Beuther, Henrik; Steinacker, Juergen; Linz, Hendrik; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Birkmann, Stephan M.

    2010-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations and a radiative transfer model of a newly discovered massive circumstellar disk of gas and dust which is one of the largest disks known today. Seen almost edge-on, the disk is resolved in high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) images and appears as a dark lane of high opacity intersecting a bipolar reflection nebula. Based on molecular line observations, we estimate the distance to the object to be 3.5 kpc. This leads to a size for the dark lane of {approx}10,500 AU but due to shadowing effects the true disk size could be smaller. In Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 {mu}m images, the elongated shape of the bipolar reflection nebula is still preserved and the bulk of the flux seems to come from disk regions that can be detected due to the slight inclination of the disk. At longer IRAC wavelengths, the flux is mainly coming from the central regions penetrating directly through the dust lane. Interferometric observations of the dust continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths with the Submillimeter Array confirm this finding as the peak of the unresolved millimeter-emission coincides perfectly with the peak of the Spitzer/IRAC 5.8 {mu}m flux and the center of the dark lane seen in the NIR images. Simultaneously acquired CO data reveal a molecular outflow along the northern part of the reflection nebula which seems to be the outflow cavity. An elongated gaseous disk component is also detected and shows signs of rotation. The emission is perpendicular to the molecular outflow and thus parallel to but even more extended than the dark lane in the NIR images. Based on the dust continuum and the CO observations, we estimate a disk mass of up to a few solar masses depending on the underlying assumptions. Whether the disk-like structure is an actual accretion disk or rather a larger-scale flattened envelope or pseudodisk is difficult to discriminate with the current data set. The existence of HCO{sup +}/H{sup 13}CO{sup +} emission proves the presence of

  18. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-06-15

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps {approx}10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching {approx}25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an {approx}35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the {approx}4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  19. THE IMPACT OF A LARGE OBJECT ON JUPITER IN 2009 JULY

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Orton, G.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Chodas, P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Legarreta, J.; De Pater, I.; Hammel, H.; Simon-Miller, A.; Gomez-Forrellad, J. M.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Puetter, R. C.

    2010-06-01

    On 2009 July 19, we observed a single, large impact on Jupiter at a planetocentric latitude of 55{sup 0}S. This and the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) impacts on Jupiter in 1994 are the only planetary-scale impacts ever observed. The 2009 impact had an entry trajectory in the opposite direction and with a lower incidence angle than that of SL9. Comparison of the initial aerosol cloud debris properties, spanning 4800 km east-west and 2500 km north-south, with those produced by the SL9 fragments and dynamical calculations of pre-impact orbit indicates that the impactor was most probably an icy body with a size of 0.5-1 km. The collision rate of events of this magnitude may be five to ten times more frequent than previously thought. The search for unpredicted impacts, such as the current one, could be best performed in 890 nm and K (2.03-2.36 {mu}m) filters in strong gaseous absorption, where the high-altitude aerosols are more reflective than Jupiter's primary clouds.

  20. The Impact of a Large Object on Jupiter in 2009 July

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Wesley, A.; Orton, G.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Legarreta, J.; de Pater, I.; Hammel, H.; Simon-Miller, A.; Gomez-Forrellad, J. M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Puetter, R. C.; Chodas, P.

    2010-01-01

    On 2009 July 19, we observed a single, large impact on Jupiter at a planetocentric latitude of 55 S. This and the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) impacts on Jupiter in 1994 are the only planetary-scale impacts ever observed. The 2009 impact had an entry trajectory in the opposite direction and with a Tower incidence angle than that of SL9. Comparison of the initial aerosol cloud debris properties, spanning 4800 km east west and 2500 km north south, with those produced by the SL9 fragments and dynamical calculations of pre-impact orbit indicates that the impactor was most probably an icy body with a size of 0.5-1 km. The collision rate of events of this magnitude may be five to ten times more frequent than previously thought. The search for unpredicted impacts, such as the current one, could be best performed in 890 nm and K (2.03--2.36 micrometer) filters in strong gaseous absorption, where the high-altitude aerosols are more reflective than Jupiter's primary clouds.

  1. Objective identification of multiple large fire climatologies: an application to a Mediterranean ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffault, J.; Moron, V.; Trigo, R. M.; Curt, T.

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence that the climatic conditions favorable to the occurrence of large fires (LFs) might not be unique within a homogeneous biogeographic area. But the identification of these coexistent multi-scalar climatologies often relies on empirical observations. Here we classify summer LFs (>120 ha) in Mediterranean France for the period 1973 to 2012, according to their local-scale weather conditions (i.e. temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and fuel moisture proxies). Three distinct climatologies were identified, and were referred as fire weather types (FWTs). (i) One of them is associated with near-normal atmospheric conditions. (ii) A heat-driven (HD) type is mostly discriminated by warm anomalies. (iii) A wind-driven (WD) type is mostly discriminated by faster winds, but cooler anomalies than usual. The frequency of WD and near-normal LFs sharply decreased in southern France over the last decades while the frequency of HD fires remained unchanged. In addition the current increase in HD potential fire days indicates a potential shift in the dominant FWT for this region. This approach offers a better understanding of the variations in fire activity and fire spread patterns in the context of contemporaneous global changes.

  2. Circularity measuring system: A shape gauge designed especially for use on large objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrkaste, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Circularity Measuring System (CMS) was developed to make an in-situ determination of shape similarity for selected fit large cylinders (RSRM segments). It does this to a repeatable accuracy of 0.10 mm (0.004 inch). This is less that the goal of 0.07 mm (0.003 inch), but was determined adequate because of the addition of an assembly aid that increased the entry chamfer of the clevis side of the joint. The usefulness of the CMS is demonstrated by the application to measurements other than its specified design purpose, such as submarine hull circularity, SRM mid-case circularity, as well as circularity of interfacing SRM tooling, specifically the rounding devices and horizontal disassembly devices. Commercialization of the tool is being pursued, since it is an enhancement of metrology technology for circularity determination. The most accurate in-situ technology it replaces is determined from a template. The CMS is an improvement in accuracy and operation.

  3. QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT SELECTION ALGORITHM USING TIME VARIABILITY AND MACHINE LEARNING: SELECTION OF 1620 QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT CANDIDATES FROM MACHO LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Alcock, Charles; Trichas, Markos; Byun, Yong-Ik; Khardon, Roni

    2011-07-10

    We present a new quasi-stellar object (QSO) selection algorithm using a Support Vector Machine, a supervised classification method, on a set of extracted time series features including period, amplitude, color, and autocorrelation value. We train a model that separates QSOs from variable stars, non-variable stars, and microlensing events using 58 known QSOs, 1629 variable stars, and 4288 non-variables in the MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) database as a training set. To estimate the efficiency and the accuracy of the model, we perform a cross-validation test using the training set. The test shows that the model correctly identifies {approx}80% of known QSOs with a 25% false-positive rate. The majority of the false positives are Be stars. We applied the trained model to the MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) data set, which consists of 40 million light curves, and found 1620 QSO candidates. During the selection none of the 33,242 known MACHO variables were misclassified as QSO candidates. In order to estimate the true false-positive rate, we crossmatched the candidates with astronomical catalogs including the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution LMC catalog and a few X-ray catalogs. The results further suggest that the majority of the candidates, more than 70%, are QSOs.

  4. Quasi-stellar Object Selection Algorithm Using Time Variability and Machine Learning: Selection of 1620 Quasi-stellar Object Candidates from MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Byun, Yong-Ik; Alcock, Charles; Khardon, Roni; Trichas, Markos

    2011-07-01

    We present a new quasi-stellar object (QSO) selection algorithm using a Support Vector Machine, a supervised classification method, on a set of extracted time series features including period, amplitude, color, and autocorrelation value. We train a model that separates QSOs from variable stars, non-variable stars, and microlensing events using 58 known QSOs, 1629 variable stars, and 4288 non-variables in the MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) database as a training set. To estimate the efficiency and the accuracy of the model, we perform a cross-validation test using the training set. The test shows that the model correctly identifies ~80% of known QSOs with a 25% false-positive rate. The majority of the false positives are Be stars. We applied the trained model to the MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) data set, which consists of 40 million light curves, and found 1620 QSO candidates. During the selection none of the 33,242 known MACHO variables were misclassified as QSO candidates. In order to estimate the true false-positive rate, we crossmatched the candidates with astronomical catalogs including the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution LMC catalog and a few X-ray catalogs. The results further suggest that the majority of the candidates, more than 70%, are QSOs.

  5. A multi-resolution strategy for a multi-objective deformable image registration framework that accommodates large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bel, Arjan

    2014-03-01

    Currently, two major challenges dominate the field of deformable image registration. The first challenge is related to the tuning of the developed methods to specific problems (i.e. how to best combine different objectives such as similarity measure and transformation effort). This is one of the reasons why, despite significant progress, clinical implementation of such techniques has proven to be difficult. The second challenge is to account for large anatomical differences (e.g. large deformations, (dis)appearing structures) that occurred between image acquisitions. In this paper, we study a framework based on multi-objective optimization to improve registration robustness and to simplify tuning for specific applications. Within this framework we specifically consider the use of an advanced model-based evolutionary algorithm for optimization and a dual-dynamic transformation model (i.e. two "non-fixed" grids: one for the source- and one for the target image) to accommodate for large anatomical differences. The framework computes and presents multiple outcomes that represent efficient trade-offs between the different objectives (a so-called Pareto front). In image processing it is common practice, for reasons of robustness and accuracy, to use a multi-resolution strategy. This is, however, only well-established for single-objective registration methods. Here we describe how such a strategy can be realized for our multi-objective approach and compare its results with a single-resolution strategy. For this study we selected the case of prone-supine breast MRI registration. Results show that the well-known advantages of a multi-resolution strategy are successfully transferred to our multi-objective approach, resulting in superior (i.e. Pareto-dominating) outcomes.

  6. Multiscale method for modeling binding phenomena involving large objects: application to kinesin motor domains motion along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes. PMID:26988596

  7. Multiscale method for modeling binding phenomena involving large objects: application to kinesin motor domains motion along microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil

    2016-03-01

    Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes.

  8. Multiscale method for modeling binding phenomena involving large objects: application to kinesin motor domains motion along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes. PMID:26988596

  9. Non-uniform object counting method in large-format pyramid images applied to CD31 vessel counting in whole-mount digital pathology sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mayan; Hill, Melissa L.; Liu, Kela; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Whole-mount pathology imaging has the potential to revolutionize clinical practice by preserving context lost when tissue is cut to fit onto conventional slides. Whole-mount digital images are very large, ranging from 4GB to greater than 50GB, making concurrent processing infeasible. Block-processing is a method commonly used to divide the image into smaller blocks and process them individually. This approach is useful for certain tasks, but leads to over-counting objects located on the seams between blocks. This issue is exaggerated as the block size decreases. In this work we apply a novel technique to enumerate vessels, a clinical task that would benefit from automation in whole-mount images. Whole-mount sections of rabbit VX2 tumors were digitized. Color thresholding was used to segment the brown CD31- DAB stained vessels. This vessel enumeration was applied to the entire whole-mount image in two distinct phases of block-processing. The first (whole-processing) phase used a basic grid and only counted objects that did not intersect the block's borders. The second (seam-processing) phase used a shifted grid to ensure all blocks captured the block-seam regions from the original grid. Only objects touching this seam-intersection were counted. For validation, segmented vessels were randomly embedded into a whole-mount image. The technique was tested on the image using 24 different block-widths. Results indicated that the error reaches a minimum at a block-width equal to the maximum vessel length, with no improvement as the block-width increases further. Object-density maps showed very good correlation between the vessel-dense regions and the pathologist outlined tumor regions.

  10. Neutron-capture Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36, and Sm-150 in large chondrites: Evidence for high fluences of thermalized neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Garrison, D. H.; Wiesmann, H.; Herzog, G. F.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Klein, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured significant concentrations of Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36 from decay of Cl-36, and Sm-150 produced from the capture of thermalized neutrons in the large Chico L6 chondrite. Activities of Cl-36 and Ca-41, corrected for a high-energy spallogenic component and a terrestrial age of approximately 50 ka, give average neutron-capture production rates of 208 atoms/min/g-Cl and 1525 atoms/min/kg-Ca, which correspond to thermal neutron (n) fluxes of 6.2 n/sq cm/s and 4.3 n/sq cm/s, respectively. If sustained for the approximately 65 Ma single-stage, cosmic ray exposure age of Chico, these values correspond to thermal neutron fluences of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 16) and 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm for Cl-36 and Ca-41, respectively. Stepwise temperature extraction of Ar in Chico impact melt shows Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios as large as approximately 9. The correlation of high Ar-36/Ar-38 with high Cl/Ca phases in neutron-irradiated Chico indicates that the excess Ar-36 above that expected from spallation is due to decay of neutron-produced Cl-36. Excess Ar-36 in Chico requires a thermal neutron fluence of 0.9-1.7 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Decreases in Sm-149/Sm-152 due to neutron-capture by Sm-149 correlate with increases in Sm-150/Sm-152 for three samples of Chico, and one of the Torino H-chondrite. The 0.08% decrease in Sm-149 shown by Chico corresponds to a neutron fluence of 1.23 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. This fluence derived from Sm considers capture of epithermal neutrons and effects of chemical composition on the neutron energy distribution. Excess Ar-36 identified in the Arapahoe, Bruderheim, and Torino chondrites and the Shallowater aubrite suggest exposure to neutron fluences of approximately 0.2-0.2 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Depletion of Sm-149 in Torino and the LEW86010 angrite suggest neutron fluences of 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm and 0.25 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm, respectively. Neutron fluences of approximately 10(exp 16) n/sq cm in Chico are almost as large as those previously

  11. A large spectroscopic sample of L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS: peculiar objects, binaries, and space density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Zhang, Z. H.; Smart, R. L.; Gomes, J. I.; Smith, L.

    2015-06-01

    We present the spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of late-M, L, and T dwarfs from the United Kingdom Deep Infrared Sky Survey. Using the YJHK photometry from the Large Area Survey and the red-optical photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we selected a sample of 262 brown dwarf candidates and we have followed-up 196 of them using the echelle spectrograph X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope. The large wavelength coverage (0.30-2.48 μm) and moderate resolution (R ˜ 5000-9000) of X-shooter allowed us to identify peculiar objects including 22 blue L dwarfs, 2 blue T dwarfs, and 2 low-gravity M dwarfs. Using a spectral indices-based technique, we identified 27 unresolved binary candidates, for which we have determined the spectral type of the potential components via spectral deconvolution. The spectra allowed us to measure the equivalent width of the prominent absorption features and to compare them to atmospheric models. Cross-correlating the spectra with a radial velocity standard, we measured the radial velocity of our targets, and we determined the distribution of the sample, which is centred at -1.7 ± 1.2 km s-1 with a dispersion of 31.5 km s-1. Using our results, we estimated the space density of field brown dwarfs and compared it with the results of numerical simulations. Depending on the binary fraction, we found that there are (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 to (1.00 ± 0.64) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L4-L6.5 range, (0.73 ± 0.47) × 10-3 to (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L7-T0.5 range, and (0.74 ± 0.48) × 10-3 to (0.88 ± 0.56) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the T1-T4.5 range. We notice that there seems to be an excess of objects in the L-T transition with respect to the late-T dwarfs, a discrepancy that could be explained assuming a higher binary fraction than expected for the L-T transition, or that objects in the high-mass end and low-mass end of this regime form in different environments, i.e. following

  12. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Johnny King L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Douis, Hassan; Balani, Alex; Bickerton, Wai-ling; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280) of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke). Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing. PMID:25685713

  13. Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    IMPACCT Project: SES is developing a process to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants by desublimation - the conversion of a gas to a solid. Capturing CO2 as a solid and delivering it as a liquid avoids the large energy cost of CO2 gas compression. SES’ capture technology facilitates the prudent use of available energy resources. Coal is our most abundant energy resource and is an excellent fuel for baseline power production. SES capture technology can capture 99% of the CO2 emissions in addition to a wide range of other pollutants more efficiently and at lower costs than existing capture technologies. SES’ capture technology can be readily added to our existing energy infrastructure.

  14. Documentation for the machine-readable version of a deep objective-prism survey for large Magellanic cloud members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This catalog contains 1273 proven or probable Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) members, as found on deep objective-prism plates taken with the Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The stars are generally brighter than about photographic magnitude 14. Approximate spectral types were determined by examination of the 580 A/mm objective-prism spectra; approximate 1975 positions were obtained by measuring relative to the 1975 coordinate grids on the Uppsala-Mount Stromlo Atlas of the LMC (Gascoigne and Westerlund 1961), and approximate photographic magnitudes were determined by averaging image density measures from the plates and image-diameter measures on the 'B' charts. The machine-readable version of the LMC survey catalog is described to enable users to read and process the tape file without problems or guesswork.

  15. Large Scale Discovery and De Novo-Assisted Sequencing of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPs) by Microparticle Capture and Electron-Transfer Dissociation (ETD) Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Juba, Melanie L; Russo, Paul S; Devine, Megan; Barksdale, Stephanie; Rodriguez, Carlos; Vliet, Kent A; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L; Bishop, Barney M

    2015-10-01

    The identification and sequencing of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) have proven challenging due to the limitations associated with traditional proteomics methods and difficulties sequencing peptides present in complex biomolecular mixtures. We present here a process for large-scale identification and de novo-assisted sequencing of newly discovered CAMPs using microparticle capture followed by tandem mass spectrometry equipped with electron-transfer dissociation (ETD). This process was initially evaluated and verified using known CAMPs with varying physicochemical properties. The effective parameters were then applied in the analysis of a complex mixture of peptides harvested from American alligator plasma using custom-made (Bioprospector) functionalized hydrogel particles. Here, we report the successful sequencing process for CAMPs that has led to the identification of 340 unique peptides and the discovery of five novel CAMPs from American alligator plasma. PMID:26327436

  16. Large Scale Discovery and De Novo-Assisted Sequencing of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPs) by Microparticle Capture and Electron-Transfer Dissociation (ETD) Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Juba, Melanie L; Russo, Paul S; Devine, Megan; Barksdale, Stephanie; Rodriguez, Carlos; Vliet, Kent A; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L; Bishop, Barney M

    2015-10-01

    The identification and sequencing of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) have proven challenging due to the limitations associated with traditional proteomics methods and difficulties sequencing peptides present in complex biomolecular mixtures. We present here a process for large-scale identification and de novo-assisted sequencing of newly discovered CAMPs using microparticle capture followed by tandem mass spectrometry equipped with electron-transfer dissociation (ETD). This process was initially evaluated and verified using known CAMPs with varying physicochemical properties. The effective parameters were then applied in the analysis of a complex mixture of peptides harvested from American alligator plasma using custom-made (Bioprospector) functionalized hydrogel particles. Here, we report the successful sequencing process for CAMPs that has led to the identification of 340 unique peptides and the discovery of five novel CAMPs from American alligator plasma.

  17. A Large Number of Hα Emission Stars and Herbig-Haro Objects in and around Bright-Rimmed Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, K.; Sugitani, K.

    We present the results of our Hα grism spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging observations of bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) in search of candidate pre-main sequence stars of the T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be and related types, and of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects. We have detected altogether 460 Hα emission stars down to about R = 20, around all but two of the 28 BRCs observed. The present study has, for the first time, reached down nearly to the faintest classical T Tauri stars in OB associations. Twelve new HH objects have also been found. Most are of small apparent size, emphasizing the need for deep searches at high spatial resolution. These stars and HH objects are concentrated near the tip of BRCs, thus supporting our hypothesis of ``small-scale sequential star formation''. The presence of such a large number of Hα emission stars around BRCs implies that second-generation formation of low-mass stars in HII regions is relatively extensive, and further supports the notion of cohabitation of high- and low-mass populations in OB associations.

  18. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects LANL Release No: LA-UR-02-0072

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Stallings, E.; Barbour, K.

    2002-02-26

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) is identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. The previously conducted demonstrations supported characterization and ''front end'' aspects of the Los Alamos Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) project. The first demonstration was shown to save the DVRS project approximately $200,000 per year and characterization technologies have been estimated to save DVRS a month of DVRS operation per year. In FY01 demonstrations for decontamination technologies, communication systems, and waste data collection systems have provided additional savings equivalent to another $200K per year of operation. The Los Alamos Large Scale demonstration and Deployment Project continues to provide substantial cost savings to the DVRS process in this second round of demonstrations. DVRS cost savings of $400K per year can now be counted, with additional efficiency savings of up to 30% on many tasks.

  19. Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    White, Curt M; Strazisar, Brian R; Granite, Evan J; Hoffman, James S; Pennline, Henry W

    2003-06-01

    The topic of global warming as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration is arguably the most important environmental issue that the world faces today. It is a global problem that will need to be solved on a global level. The link between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 with increased atmospheric CO2 levels and, in turn, with increased global temperatures has been well established and accepted by the world. International organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have been formed to address this issue. Three options are being explored to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global temperatures without severely and negatively impacting standard of living: (1) increasing energy efficiency, (2) switching to less carbon-intensive sources of energy, and (3) carbon sequestration. To be successful, all three options must be used in concert. The third option is the subject of this review. Specifically, this review will cover the capture and geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from large point sources, namely fossil-fuel-fired power gasification plants. Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is necessary to meet the President's Global Climate Change Initiative target of an 18% reduction in GHG intensity by 2012. Further, the best strategy to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 results from a multifaceted approach where sequestration of CO2 into geological formations is combined with increased efficiency in electric power generation and utilization, increased conservation, increased use of lower carbon-intensity fuels, and increased use of nuclear energy and renewables. This review covers the separation and capture of CO2 from both flue gas and fuel gas using wet scrubbing technologies, dry regenerable sorbents, membranes, cryogenics, pressure and temperature swing adsorption, and other advanced concepts. Existing

  20. Stellar Archaeology and Galaxy Genesis: The Need for Large Area Multi-Object Spectrograph on 8 m-Class Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Mike J.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    The origin and evolution of galaxies like the Milky Way and M31 remain among the key questions in astrophysics. The galaxies we see today in and around the Local Group are representatives of the general field population of the Universe and have been evolving for the majority of cosmic time. As our nearest neighbour systems they can be studied in far more detail than their distant counterparts and hence provide our best hope for understanding star formation and prototypical galaxy evolution over the lifetime of the Universe [K. Freeman, J. Bland-Hawthorn in Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 487 (2002)]. Significant observational progress has been made, but we are still a long way from understanding galaxy genesis. To unravel this formative epoch, detailed large area multi-object spectroscopy of spatial, kinematic and chemical structures on 8 m-class telescopes are required, to provide the link between local near-field cosmology and predictions from the high-redshift Universe.

  1. Monte-Carlo modelling of multi-object adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Morris, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multi-object adaptive optics system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte-Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool, DASP, with relevance for proposed instruments such as MOSAIC. We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, actuator pitch and natural guide star availability. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost, and provide solutions that would enable such an instrument to be built with currently available technology. Our key recommendations include a trade-off for laser guide star wavefront sensor pixel scale of about 0.7 arcseconds per pixel, and a field of view of at least 7 arcseconds, that EMCCD technology should be used for natural guide star wavefront sensors even if reduced frame rate is necessary, and that sky coverage can be improved by a slight reduction in natural guide star sub-aperture count without significantly affecting tomographic performance. We find that adaptive optics correction can be maintained across a wide field of view, up to 7 arcminutes in diameter. We also recommend the use of at least 4 laser guide stars, and include ground-layer and multi-object adaptive optics performance estimates.

  2. Targeted Capture Sequencing in Whitebark Pine Reveals Range-Wide Demographic and Adaptive Patterns Despite Challenges of a Large, Repetitive Genome.

    PubMed

    Syring, John V; Tennessen, Jacob A; Jennings, Tara N; Wegrzyn, Jill; Scelfo-Dalbey, Camille; Cronn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) inhabits an expansive range in western North America, and it is a keystone species of subalpine environments. Whitebark is susceptible to multiple threats - climate change, white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and fire exclusion - and it is suffering significant mortality range-wide, prompting the tree to be listed as 'globally endangered' by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and 'endangered' by the Canadian government. Conservation collections (in situ and ex situ) are being initiated to preserve the genetic legacy of the species. Reliable, transferrable, and highly variable genetic markers are essential for quantifying the genetic profiles of seed collections relative to natural stands, and ensuring the completeness of conservation collections. We evaluated the use of hybridization-based target capture to enrich specific genomic regions from the 27 GB genome of whitebark pine, and to evaluate genetic variation across loci, trees, and geography. Probes were designed to capture 7,849 distinct genes, and screening was performed on 48 trees. Despite the inclusion of repetitive elements in the probe pool, the resulting dataset provided information on 4,452 genes and 32% of targeted positions (528,873 bp), and we were able to identify 12,390 segregating sites from 47 trees. Variations reveal strong geographic trends in heterozygosity and allelic richness, with trees from the southern Cascade and Sierra Range showing the greatest distinctiveness and differentiation. Our results show that even under non-optimal conditions (low enrichment efficiency; inclusion of repetitive elements in baits), targeted enrichment produces high quality, codominant genotypes from large genomes. The resulting data can be readily integrated into management and gene conservation activities for whitebark pine, and have the potential to be applied to other members of 5-needle pine group (Pinus subsect. Quinquefolia) due to their

  3. Targeted Capture Sequencing in Whitebark Pine Reveals Range-Wide Demographic and Adaptive Patterns Despite Challenges of a Large, Repetitive Genome

    PubMed Central

    Syring, John V.; Tennessen, Jacob A.; Jennings, Tara N.; Wegrzyn, Jill; Scelfo-Dalbey, Camille; Cronn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) inhabits an expansive range in western North America, and it is a keystone species of subalpine environments. Whitebark is susceptible to multiple threats – climate change, white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and fire exclusion – and it is suffering significant mortality range-wide, prompting the tree to be listed as ‘globally endangered’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and ‘endangered’ by the Canadian government. Conservation collections (in situ and ex situ) are being initiated to preserve the genetic legacy of the species. Reliable, transferrable, and highly variable genetic markers are essential for quantifying the genetic profiles of seed collections relative to natural stands, and ensuring the completeness of conservation collections. We evaluated the use of hybridization-based target capture to enrich specific genomic regions from the 27 GB genome of whitebark pine, and to evaluate genetic variation across loci, trees, and geography. Probes were designed to capture 7,849 distinct genes, and screening was performed on 48 trees. Despite the inclusion of repetitive elements in the probe pool, the resulting dataset provided information on 4,452 genes and 32% of targeted positions (528,873 bp), and we were able to identify 12,390 segregating sites from 47 trees. Variations reveal strong geographic trends in heterozygosity and allelic richness, with trees from the southern Cascade and Sierra Range showing the greatest distinctiveness and differentiation. Our results show that even under non-optimal conditions (low enrichment efficiency; inclusion of repetitive elements in baits), targeted enrichment produces high quality, codominant genotypes from large genomes. The resulting data can be readily integrated into management and gene conservation activities for whitebark pine, and have the potential to be applied to other members of 5-needle pine group (Pinus subsect. Quinquefolia) due to

  4. Tracking a large number of closely spaced objects based on the particle probability hypothesis density filter via optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangkui; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Sheng, Weidong; Xu, Dan

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to tracking a large number of closely spaced objects (CSO) in image sequences that is based on the particle probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter and multiassignment data association. First, the particle PHD filter is adopted to eliminate most of the clutters and to estimate multitarget states. In the particle PHD filter, a noniterative multitarget estimation technique is introduced to reliably estimate multitarget states, and an improved birth particle sampling scheme is present to effectively acquire targets among clutters. Then, an integrated track management method is proposed to realize multitarget track continuity. The core of the track management is the track-to-estimation multiassignment association, which relaxes the traditional one-to-one data association restriction due to the unresolved focal plane CSO measurements. Meanwhile, a unified technique of multiple consecutive misses for track deletion is used jointly to cope with the sensitivity of the PHD filter to the missed detections and to eliminate false alarms further, as well as to initiate tracks of large numbers of CSO. Finally, results of two simulations and one experiment show that the proposed approach is feasible and efficient.

  5. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species. PMID

  6. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed “accessible prey”. Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14–135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1–45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32–632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15–1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10–289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  7. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  8. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However

  9. Object-Based Classification of Ikonos Imagery for Mapping Large-Scale Vegetation Communities in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Renaud; Aryal, Jagannath; Chong, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Effective assessment of biodiversity in cities requires detailed vegetation maps. To date, most remote sensing of urban vegetation has focused on thematically coarse land cover products. Detailed habitat maps are created by manual interpretation of aerial photographs, but this is time consuming and costly at large scale. To address this issue, we tested the effectiveness of object-based classifications that use automated image segmentation to extract meaningful ground features from imagery. We applied these techniques to very high resolution multispectral Ikonos images to produce vegetation community maps in Dunedin City, New Zealand. An Ikonos image was orthorectified and a multi-scale segmentation algorithm used to produce a hierarchical network of image objects. The upper level included four coarse strata: industrial/commercial (commercial buildings), residential (houses and backyard private gardens), vegetation (vegetation patches larger than 0.8/1ha), and water. We focused on the vegetation stratum that was segmented at more detailed level to extract and classify fifteen classes of vegetation communities. The first classification yielded a moderate overall classification accuracy (64%, κ = 0.52), which led us to consider a simplified classification with ten vegetation classes. The overall classification accuracy from the simplified classification was 77% with a κ value close to the excellent range (κ = 0.74). These results compared favourably with similar studies in other environments. We conclude that this approach does not provide maps as detailed as those produced by manually interpreting aerial photographs, but it can still extract ecologically significant classes. It is an efficient way to generate accurate and detailed maps in significantly shorter time. The final map accuracy could be improved by integrating segmentation, automated and manual classification in the mapping process, especially when considering important vegetation classes with limited

  10. The Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Thermal Processing of Circumstellar Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Looney, Leslie W.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy of the CO2 ice absorption feature at 15.2 μm toward 41 high-mass young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As the shape of the CO2 absorption profile is a measure of both the composition and thermal history of the ice, we have performed a decomposition of the spectral profiles to determine the nature of the CO2 ice. We fit the absorption profiles to laboratory analogues of ice spectra with two different methods: (1) a five-component fit with polar and apolar ices and (2) a two-component fit with a polar and an annealed H2O:CH3OH:CO2 ice mixture. Many of the LMC sources have a pronounced double peak in their CO2 feature profiles analogous to that seen from pure CO2 or annealed CO2 laboratory ice mixtures; these represent the first direct detections of the characteristic double peak in an extragalactic environment. Fits to annealed laboratory ices suggest that the ices around massive LMC young stellar objects (YSOs) have been warmed and thermally processed. We find that a majority of the CO2 is embedded in a polar ice matrix; however, the observations suggest that a lower fraction of CO2 is locked in polar ices in the LMC compared to the Milky Way, which is in agreement with the proposed lower LMC abundance of water ice. In addition, we find that the ices are best fit with laboratory ice mixtures composed of less than 50% methanol, and most absorption spectra can be fit by ices with no methanol. Finally, we corroborate mounting evidence of an enhanced CO2 ice abundance in the LMC relative to the Milky Way, and determine a CO2/H2O ratio of 0.33 ± 0.01 by combining the column densities of these observations with those in the literature.

  11. Integral field spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects in the N113 H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. L.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sewiło, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) survey has allowed the identification and analysis of significant samples of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). However, the angular resolution of Spitzer is relatively poor meaning that at the distance of the LMC, it is likely that many of the Spitzer YSO candidates in fact contain multiple components. We present high-resolution K-band integral field spectroscopic observations of the three most prominent massive YSO candidates in the N113 H II region using Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT/SINFONI). We have identified six K-band continuum sources within the three Spitzer sources and we have mapped the morphology and velocity fields of extended line emission around these sources. Br γ, He I and H2 emission is found at the position of all six K-band sources; we discuss whether the emission is associated with the continuum sources or whether it is ambient emission. H2 emission appears to be mostly ambient emission and no evidence of CO emission arising in the discs of YSOs has been found. We have mapped the centroid velocities of extended Br γ emission and He I emission and found evidence of two expanding compact H II regions. One source shows compact and strong H2 emission suggestive of a molecular outflow. The diversity of spectroscopic properties observed is interpreted in the context of a range of evolutionary stages associated with massive star formation.

  12. A Large-Particle Monte Carlo Code for Simulating Non-Linear High-Energy Processes Near Compact Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Boris E.; Svensson, Roland; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    1995-01-01

    High-energy radiation processes in compact cosmic objects are often expected to have a strongly non-linear behavior. Such behavior is shown, for example, by electron-positron pair cascades and the time evolution of relativistic proton distributions in dense radiation fields. Three independent techniques have been developed to simulate these non-linear problems: the kinetic equation approach; the phase-space density (PSD) Monte Carlo method; and the large-particle (LP) Monte Carlo method. In this paper, we present the latest version of the LP method and compare it with the other methods. The efficiency of the method in treating geometrically complex problems is illustrated by showing results of simulations of 1D, 2D and 3D systems. The method is shown to be powerful enough to treat non-spherical geometries, including such effects as bulk motion of the background plasma, reflection of radiation from cold matter, and anisotropic distributions of radiating particles. It can therefore be applied to simulate high-energy processes in such astrophysical systems as accretion discs with coronae, relativistic jets, pulsar magnetospheres and gamma-ray bursts.

  13. A BRIGHT RADIO HH OBJECT WITH LARGE PROPER MOTIONS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W75N

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos; Anglada, Guillem; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Torrelles, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira

    2010-06-15

    We analyze radio continuum and line observations from the archives of the Very Large Array (VLA), as well as X-ray observations from the Chandra archive of the region of massive star formation W75N. Five radio continuum sources are detected: VLA 1, VLA 2, VLA 3, Bc, and VLA 4. VLA 3 appears to be a radio jet; we detect J = 1-0, v = 0 SiO emission toward it, probably tracing the inner parts of a molecular outflow. The radio continuum source Bc, previously believed to be tracing an independent star, is found to exhibit important changes in total flux density, morphology, and position. These results suggest that source Bc is actually a radio Herbig-Haro object, one of the brightest known, powered by the VLA 3 jet source. VLA 4 is a new radio continuum component, located a few arcsec to the south of the group of previously known radio sources. Strong and broad (1,1) and (2,2) ammonia emission is detected from the region containing the radio sources VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3. Finally, the 2-10 keV emission seen in the Chandra/ACIS image shows two regions that could be the termination shocks of the outflows from the multiple sources observed in W75N.

  14. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  15. Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    White, Curt M; Strazisar, Brian R; Granite, Evan J; Hoffman, James S; Pennline, Henry W

    2003-06-01

    The topic of global warming as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration is arguably the most important environmental issue that the world faces today. It is a global problem that will need to be solved on a global level. The link between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 with increased atmospheric CO2 levels and, in turn, with increased global temperatures has been well established and accepted by the world. International organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have been formed to address this issue. Three options are being explored to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global temperatures without severely and negatively impacting standard of living: (1) increasing energy efficiency, (2) switching to less carbon-intensive sources of energy, and (3) carbon sequestration. To be successful, all three options must be used in concert. The third option is the subject of this review. Specifically, this review will cover the capture and geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from large point sources, namely fossil-fuel-fired power gasification plants. Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is necessary to meet the President's Global Climate Change Initiative target of an 18% reduction in GHG intensity by 2012. Further, the best strategy to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 results from a multifaceted approach where sequestration of CO2 into geological formations is combined with increased efficiency in electric power generation and utilization, increased conservation, increased use of lower carbon-intensity fuels, and increased use of nuclear energy and renewables. This review covers the separation and capture of CO2 from both flue gas and fuel gas using wet scrubbing technologies, dry regenerable sorbents, membranes, cryogenics, pressure and temperature swing adsorption, and other advanced concepts. Existing

  16. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  17. Large-scale computer-generated absorption holograms of 3D objects: I. Theoretical background and visual concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin D.; Payne, Douglas A.; Sheerin, David T.; Slinger, Christopher W.; Phillips, Nicholas J.; Dodd, Adrian K.

    1999-03-01

    Over many years, the subject of computer generation of holograms has been visited in various guises. Historically, the obvious restrictions imposed by computational power and computer generated hologram (CGH) fabrication techniques have placed limits on what can be taken seriously in terms of image complexity. Modern advances in computational hardware and electro-optic systems now permit both the calculation and the manufacture of CGH's of complex 3D objects which fill a significant volume of space. New methods permit the recording to be made within a reasonable timescale. In addition to advancing fixed CGH generation techniques, the motivation for the work reported here includes assessment of design algorithms, modulation strategies and image quality metrics. These results are of relevance for a novel electroholography system, currently under development at DERA Malvern. This paper describes a complete process of data generation, computation, data manipulation and recording leading to practical techniques for the creation of large area CGH's. As a support to the advances in theoretical understanding and computational methods, we describe (in Part II) a new laser plotter technique that enables, in principle, an unlimited size of pixel array to be plotted efficiently with a rigorous estimate of duration of the plot run time. The results reported here are limited to 2048 X 2048 pixels. In this example, the novel switching techniques employed on the laser plotter permit the pixel array to be printed in approximately 1 hour. However, paths towards easily raising the pixel count and its associated printing rate are presented for both the computational engine and laser plotting processes.

  18. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  19. Capturing Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter's outermost large moon, Callisto, as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in late February. New Horizons' closest approach distance to Jupiter was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), not far outside Callisto's orbit, which has a radius of 1.9 million kilometers (1.2 million miles). However, Callisto happened to be on the opposite side of Jupiter during the spacecraft's pass through the Jupiter system, so these images, taken from 4.7 million kilometers (3.0 million miles) and 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) away, are the closest of Callisto that New Horizons obtained.

    Callisto's ancient, crater-scarred surface makes it very different from its three more active sibling satellites, Io, Europa and Ganymede. Callisto, 4,800 kilometers (3000 miles) in diameter, displays no large-scale geological features other than impact craters, and every bright spot in these images is a crater. The largest impact feature on Callisto, the huge basin Valhalla, is visible as a bright patch at the 10 o'clock position. The craters are bright because they have excavated material relatively rich in water ice from beneath the dark, dusty material that coats most of the surface.

    The two images show essentially the same side of Callisto -- the side that faces Jupiter -- under different illumination conditions. The images accompanied scans of Callisto's infrared spectrum with New Horizons' Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). The New Horizons science team designed these scans to study how the infrared spectrum of Callisto's water ice changes as lighting and viewing conditions change, and as the ice cools through Callisto's late afternoon. The infrared spectrum of water ice depends slightly on its temperature, and a goal of New Horizons when it reaches the Pluto system (in 2015) is to use the water ice features in the spectrum of Pluto's moon Charon, and

  20. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  1. Heterotic Haplotype Capture: precision breeding for hybrid performance.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Rod J; Abbadi, Amine; Kox, Tobias; Schmutzer, Thomas; Leckband, Gunhild

    2015-07-01

    The need to improve hybrid performance, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance without compromising seed quality makes the targeted capture of untapped diversity a major objective for crop breeders. Here we introduce the concept of Heterotic Haplotype Capture (HHC), in which genome sequence imputation is used to trace novel heterozygous chromosome blocks contributing to hybrid performance in large, structured populations of interrelated F1 hybrids containing interesting new diversity for breeding.

  2. ESO Very Large Telescope Optical Spectroscopy of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. New Spectra and Properties of the Full Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Barattini, M.; Decarli, R.; Kotilainen, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present the last chapter of a spectroscopy program aimed at deriving the redshift or a lower limit to the redshift of BL Lac objects using medium-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report new spectra for 33 BL Lac object candidates obtained in 2008-2009, confirming the BL Lac nature of 25 sources and obtaining new redshifts for 5 objects. These new observations are combined with our previous data in order to construct a homogeneous sample of ~70 BL Lac objects with high-quality spectroscopy. All these spectra can be accessed at the Web site http://www.oapd.inaf.it/zbllac/. The average spectrum, beaming properties of the full sample, discussion of intervening systems, and future perspectives are addressed.

  3. Ideas for fast and cheap object capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Philip C. D.

    1998-12-01

    This paper is a preliminary description of three technologies for use in scanning and printing. There aren't a lot of experimental data here, unfortunately, because the ideas are new. They came out of a current effort to build a pocket-sized, battery-operated, non-contact 3D input device. The concept of this pocket 3D scanner is to allow someone to take simultaneous range and intensity images of a 10-50 cm diameter area in half a second, store a hundred or so of them, then play them back into a PC IR pot for OCR, printing, archival storage, or further processing. Such areas include flat or crinkled paper, hands and faces, machined parts, textures, and many others. Besides their use in input devices, these technologies could greatly improve the performance of low-end printers, at very low cost. None of these techniques is yet at a high state of development. The first is a scanning technique that should allow increasing pixel rates by a factor of 10 or more without significant additional optical or mechanical complexity; the second is an extremely fast focus actuator that should reduce the field flatness and accuracy requirements of the scan lens and scanner assembly, by allowing fast focus correction even within a scan line; an the third is a 'mass customizing' wavefront aberration correction method for producing very high quality laser beams from low quality optics, without requiring any hand work.

  4. τ- capture in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huan, Ching; Oset, Eulogio

    1991-04-01

    We determine the capture rate of a τ- from inner atomic orbits in medium and heavy nuclei through the reaction τ-p-->nvτ, The capture rates are of the order of 2×109 s-1, a factor 150 larger than the muon capture rates in heavy nuclei, and three orders of magnitude smaller than the ordinary free τ- width. The investigatiion of this and related τ- capture channels would allow the exploration of the nuclear excitation mechanisms in an unsusual regime of momentum transfer and would provide valuable information on the axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfer. Permanent address: Departmento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) Spain.

  5. Laser capture.

    PubMed

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes detailed methods used for laser capture microdissection (LCM) of discrete subpopulations of cells. Topics covered include preparing tissue blocks, cryostat sectioning, processing slides, performing the LCM, and purification of RNA from LCM samples. Notes describe the fine points of each operation, which can often mean the difference between success and failure. PMID:22639264

  6. Capturing Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    The idea for the art lesson presented in this article grew out of watching the lively actions of fourth grade students. Since drawing is the author's first love, she is always looking for new ways to teach it. This time, instead of setting up a still life, she decided to teach students how to capture their actions on paper. (Contains 5 online…

  7. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent

  8. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A.; Maguire, C.F.

    1995-10-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

  9. Do different attention capture paradigms measure different types of capture?

    PubMed

    Roque, Nelson A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R

    2016-10-01

    When something captures our attention, why does it do so? This topic has been hotly debated, with some arguing that attention is captured only by salient stimuli (bottom-up view) and others arguing capture is always due to a match between a stimulus and our goals (top-down view). Many different paradigms have provided evidence for 1 view or the other. If either of these strong views are correct, then capture represents a unitary phenomenon, and there should be a high correlation between capture in these paradigms. But if there are different types of capture (top-down, bottom-up), then some attention capture effects should be correlated and some should not. In 2 studies, we collected data from several paradigms used in support of claims of top-down and bottom-up capture in relatively large samples of participants. Contrary to either prediction, measures of capture were not strongly correlated. Results suggest that capture may in fact be strongly determined by idiosyncratic task demands and strategies. Relevant to this lack of relations among tasks, we observed that classic measures of attention capture demonstrated low reliability, especially among measures used to support bottom-up capture. Implications for the low reliability of capture measures are discussed. We also observed that the proportion of participants demonstrating a pattern of responses consistent with capture varied widely among classic measures of capture. Overall, results demonstrate that, even for relatively simple laboratory measures of attention, there are still important gaps in knowledge regarding what these paradigms measure and how they are related.

  10. Enhancement of low-quality reconstructed digital hologram images based on frequency extrapolation of large objects under the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Weiliang; Zhao, Dongxue

    2016-06-01

    During the reconstruction of a digital hologram, the reconstructed image is usually degraded by speckle noise, which makes it hard to observe the original object pattern. In this paper, a new reconstructed image enhancement method is proposed, which first reduces the speckle noise using an adaptive Gaussian filter, then calculates the high frequencies that belong to the object pattern based on a frequency extrapolation strategy. The proposed frequency extrapolation first calculates the frequency spectrum of the Fourier-filtered image, which is originally reconstructed from the +1 order of the hologram, and then gives the initial parameters for an iterative solution. The analytic iteration is implemented by continuous gradient threshold convergence to estimate the image level and vertical gradient information. The predicted spectrum is acquired through the analytical iteration of the original spectrum and gradient spectrum analysis. Finally, the reconstructed spectrum of the restoration image is acquired from the synthetic correction of the original spectrum using the predicted gradient spectrum. We conducted our experiment very close to the diffraction limit and used low-quality equipment to prove the feasibility of our method. Detailed analysis and figure demonstrations are presented in the paper.

  11. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Monticello, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H

    2010-07-29

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for LHD. This instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of < 2 cm and ≥ 10 ms. The stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES, will be used for the tomographic inversion of the spectral data. The spectrometer layout and instrumental features are largely determined by the magnetic field structure of LHD.

  12. Capture of terrestrial-sized moons by gas giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Darren M

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial moons with masses >0.1 M (symbol in text) possibly exist around extrasolar giant planets, and here we consider the energetics of how they might form. Binary-exchange capture can occur if a binary-terrestrial object (BTO) is tidally disrupted during a close encounter with a giant planet and one of the binary members is ejected while the other remains as a moon. Tidal disruption occurs readily in the deep gravity wells of giant planets; however, the large encounter velocities in the wells make binary exchange more difficult than for planets of lesser mass. In addition, successful capture favors massive binaries with large rotational velocities and small component mass ratios. Also, since the interaction tends to leave the captured moons on highly elliptical orbits, permanent capture is only possible around planets with sizable Hill spheres that are well separated from their host stars. PMID:23537110

  13. Capture of terrestrial-sized moons by gas giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Darren M

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial moons with masses >0.1 M (symbol in text) possibly exist around extrasolar giant planets, and here we consider the energetics of how they might form. Binary-exchange capture can occur if a binary-terrestrial object (BTO) is tidally disrupted during a close encounter with a giant planet and one of the binary members is ejected while the other remains as a moon. Tidal disruption occurs readily in the deep gravity wells of giant planets; however, the large encounter velocities in the wells make binary exchange more difficult than for planets of lesser mass. In addition, successful capture favors massive binaries with large rotational velocities and small component mass ratios. Also, since the interaction tends to leave the captured moons on highly elliptical orbits, permanent capture is only possible around planets with sizable Hill spheres that are well separated from their host stars.

  14. Brownfield site investigation: a new technology for the detection of large objects based on passive seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharouli, S.; Aspray, T. J.; Grojean, Q.; Steirou, E.

    2013-12-01

    In assessing brownfield sites for redevelopment, intrusive investigations are carried out to assess contamination, geology and hydrogeology. Such investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment, which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they provide information for discrete sample ';windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), and have been applied to brownfield sites. Their ability in detecting pollution e.g. buried canisters, is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. This study is focused on the use, for the first time, of short period seismometers as an alternative, non-intrusive, passive seismic method to detect the presence of objects buried under the ground surface even when on-site conditions are not favourable. We used five low detection threshold seismometers with a flat response within the frequency range 1 - 80 Hz. We conducted experiments both in the lab and in the field. Three series of lab experiments were conducted in sand, under controlled conditions, using ambient noise as the only source of generating seismic waves. Results revealed that there is a distinct difference in the amplitude of the power density spectra of the recorded signals in cases where objects e.g. concrete block, polystyrene block, wood, were present. To validate these results in field scale, we conducted a series of experiments that took place in Heriot-Watt University campus on a field for which we had information for the subsurface from an electromagnetic survey. We used the same monitoring equipment to try and detect the presence of a 6m long PVC pipe buried 0.5m below the ground surface. Results were consistent with those obtained from lab experiments. This supports our initial hypothesis on the

  15. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  16. Wide-field adaptive optics performance in cosmological deep fields for multi-object spectroscopy with the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Evans, C. J.; Morris, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    A multi-object spectrograph on the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope will be required to operate with good sky coverage. Many of the interesting deep cosmological fields were deliberately chosen to be free of bright foreground stars, and therefore are potentially challenging for adaptive optics (AO) systems. Here, we investigate multi-object AO performance using subfields chosen at random from within the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-S field, which is the worst case scenario for five deep fields used extensively in studies of high-redshift galaxies. Our AO system model is based on that of the proposed MOSAIC instrument but our findings are equally applicable to plans for multi-object spectroscopy on any of the planned Extremely Large Telescopes. Potential guide stars within these subfields are identified and used for simulations of AO correction. We achieve ensquared energies within 75 mas of between 25-35 per cent depending on the subfield, which is sufficient to probe sub-kpc scales in high-redshift galaxies. We also investigate the effect of detector readout noise on AO system performance, and consider cases where natural guide stars are used for both high-order and tip-tilt-only AO correction. We also consider how performance scales with ensquared energy box size. In summary, the expected AO performance is sufficient for a MOSAIC-like instrument, even within deep fields characterized by a lack of bright foreground stars.

  17. A Paradigm for the Nondestructive Assay of Spent Fuel Assemblies and Similar Large Objects, with Emphasis on the Role of Photon-Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolind, Alan Michael

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials has, until now, been focused primarily (1) on smaller objects (2) with less fissile material and (3) with less self-generated radiation. The transition to the application of NDA to spent fuel assemblies and similar large objects violates these three conditions, thereby bringing the assumptions and paradigm of traditional NDA practice into question for the new applications. In this paper, a new paradigm for these new applications is presented which is based on the fundamental principles of nuclear engineering. It is shown that the NDA of spent fuel assemblies is mostly a three-dimensional problem that requires the integration of three independent NDA measurements in order to achieve a unique and accurate assay. The only NDA techniques that can avoid this requirement are those that analyze signals that are characteristic to specific isotopes (such as those caused by characteristic resonance interactions), and that are neither distorted nor overly attenuated by the other surrounding material. Some photon-based NDA techniques fall into this exceptional category. Such exceptional NDA techniques become essential to employ when assaying large objects that, unlike spent fuel assemblies, do not have a consistent geometry. With this new NDA paradigm, the advanced photon-based NDA techniques can be put into their proper context, and their development can thereby be properly motivated.

  18. See-Through Imaging of Laser-Scanned 3d Cultural Heritage Objects Based on Stochastic Rendering of Large-Scale Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Okamoto, N.; Umegaki, R.; Wang, S.; Uemura, M.; Okamoto, A.; Koyamada, K.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for the precise 3D see-through imaging, or transparent visualization, of the large-scale and complex point clouds acquired via the laser scanning of 3D cultural heritage objects. Our method is based on a stochastic algorithm and directly uses the 3D points, which are acquired using a laser scanner, as the rendering primitives. This method achieves the correct depth feel without requiring depth sorting of the rendering primitives along the line of sight. Eliminating this need allows us to avoid long computation times when creating natural and precise 3D see-through views of laser-scanned cultural heritage objects. The opacity of each laser-scanned object is also flexibly controllable. For a laser-scanned point cloud consisting of more than 107 or 108 3D points, the pre-processing requires only a few minutes, and the rendering can be executed at interactive frame rates. Our method enables the creation of cumulative 3D see-through images of time-series laser-scanned data. It also offers the possibility of fused visualization for observing a laser-scanned object behind a transparent high-quality photographic image placed in the 3D scene. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to festival floats of high cultural value. These festival floats have complex outer and inner 3D structures and are suitable for see-through imaging.

  19. River Capture in Disequilibrium Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.; Willett, S.; Goren, L.

    2013-12-01

    The process of river piracy or river capture has long drawn interest as a potential mechanism by which drainage basins large and small evolve towards an equilibrium state. River capture transfers both drainage area and drainage lines from one river basin to another, which can cause large, abrupt shifts in network topology, drainage divide positions, and river incision rates. Despite numerous case studies in which river capture has been proposed to have occurred, there is no general, mechanistic framework for understanding the controls on river capture, nor are there quantitative criteria for determining if capture has occurred. Here we use new metrics of landscape disequilibrium to first identify landscapes in which drainage reorganization is occurring. These metrics are based on a balance between an integral of the contributing drainage area and elevation. In an analysis of rivers in the Eastern United States we find that many rivers are in a state of disequilibrium and are experiencing recent or ongoing area exchange between basins. In these disequilibrium basins we find widespread evidence for network rearrangement via river capture at multiple scales. We then conduct numerical experiments with a 2-D landscape evolution model to explore the conditions in which area exchange among drainage basins is likely to occur as discrete capture events as opposed to continuous divide migration. These experiments indicate that: (1) capture activity increases with the degree of disequilibrium induced by persistent spatial gradients in tectonic forcing or by temporal changes in climate or tectonic forcing; (2) capture activity is strongly controlled by the initial planform drainage network geometry; and (3) capture activity scales with the fluvial incision rate constant in the river power erosion law.

  20. Smart grid initialization reduces the computational complexity of multi-objective image registration based on a dual-dynamic transformation model to account for large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Peter A. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated the strong potential of using dual-dynamic transformation models when tackling deformable image registration problems involving large anatomical differences. Dual-dynamic transformation models employ two moving grids instead of the common single moving grid for the target image (and single fixed grid for the source image). We previously employed powerful optimization algorithms to make use of the additional flexibility offered by a dual-dynamic transformation model with good results, directly obtaining insight into the trade-off between important registration objectives as a result of taking a multi-objective approach to optimization. However, optimization has so far been initialized using two regular grids, which still leaves a great potential of dual-dynamic transformation models untapped: a-priori grid alignment with image structures/areas that are expected to deform more. This allows (far) less grid points to be used, compared to using a sufficiently refined regular grid, leading to (far) more efficient optimization, or, equivalently, more accurate results using the same number of grid points. We study the implications of exploiting this potential by experimenting with two new smart grid initialization procedures: one manual expert-based and one automated image-feature-based. We consider a CT test case with large differences in bladder volume with and without a multi-resolution scheme and find a substantial benefit of using smart grid initialization.

  1. Frequency bandwidth extension by use of multiple Zeeman field offsets for electron spin-echo EPR oxygen imaging of large objects

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Payam; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Electron spin-echo (ESE) oxygen imaging is a new and evolving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging (EPRI) modality that is useful for physiological in vivo applications, such as EPR oxygen imaging (EPROI), with potential application to imaging of multicentimeter objects as large as human tumors. A present limitation on the size of the object to be imaged at a given resolution is the frequency bandwidth of the system, since the location is encoded as a frequency offset in ESE imaging. The authors’ aim in this study was to demonstrate the object size advantage of the multioffset bandwidth extension technique.Methods: The multiple-stepped Zeeman field offset (or simply multi-B) technique was used for imaging of an 8.5-cm-long phantom containing a narrow single line triaryl methyl compound (trityl) solution at the 250 MHz imaging frequency. The image is compared to a standard single-field ESE image of the same phantom.Results: For the phantom used in this study, transverse relaxation (T2e) electron spin-echo (ESE) images from multi-B acquisition are more uniform, contain less prominent artifacts, and have a better signal to noise ratio (SNR) compared to single-field T2e images.Conclusions: The multi-B method is suitable for imaging of samples whose physical size restricts the applicability of the conventional single-field ESE imaging technique. PMID:21815379

  2. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results. PMID:24334896

  3. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results.

  4. Intact capture of hypervelocity particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Albee, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the phase, structure, and crystallography of cosmic particles, as well as their elemental and isotopic compositions, would be very valuable information toward understanding the nature of our solar system. This information can be obtained from the intact capture of large mineral grains of cosmic particles from hypervelocity impacts. Hypervelocity experiments of intact capture in underdense media have indicated realistic potential in this endeaver. The recovery of the thermal blankets and louvers from the Solar Max spacecraft have independently verified this potential in the unintended capture of cosmic materials from hypervelocity impacts. Passive underdense media will permit relatively simple and inexpensive missions to capture cosmic particles intact, either by going to a planetary body or by waiting for the particles to come to the Shuttle or the Space Station. Experiments to explore the potential of using various underdense media for an intact comet sample capture up to 6.7 km/s were performed at NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Gun Range. Explorative hypervelocity experiments up to 7.9 km/s were also made at the Ernst Mach Institute. These experiments have proven that capturing intact particles at hypervelocity impacts is definitely possible. Further research is being conducted to achieve higher capture ratios at even higher hypervelocities for even smaller projectiles.

  5. Intact capture of hypervelocity particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Albee, A. L.

    Knowledge of the phase, structure, and crystallography of cosmic particles, as well as their elemental and isotopic compositions, would be very valuable information toward understanding the nature of our solar system. This information can be obtained from the intact capture of large mineral grains of cosmic particles from hypervelocity impacts. Hypervelocity experiments of intact capture in underdense media have indicated realistic potential in this endeaver. The recovery of the thermal blankets and louvers from the Solar Max spacecraft have independently verified this potential in the unintended capture of cosmic materials from hypervelocity impacts. Passive underdense media will permit relatively simple and inexpensive missions to capture cosmic particles intact, either by going to a planetary body or by waiting for the particles to come to the Shuttle or the Space Station. Experiments to explore the potential of using various underdense media for an intact comet sample capture up to 6.7 km/s were performed at NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Gun Range. Explorative hypervelocity experiments up to 7.9 km/s were also made at the Ernst Mach Institute. These experiments have proven that capturing intact particles at hypervelocity impacts is definitely possible. Further research is being conducted to achieve higher capture ratios at even higher hypervelocities for even smaller projectiles.

  6. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter G.; Borovicha, Jiri; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbeny, Lukas

    2016-10-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an initial mass of ~5 kg and diameter of 15 cm, with a maximum Earth-relative velocity just over 11.0 km/s. Spectral observations prove its natural origin. Back-integration across observational uncertainties yields a 92 - 98% probability of TCO behaviour, with close lunar dynamical interaction. The capture duration varies across observational uncertainties from 48 days to 5+ years. We also report on two low-speed impacts recorded by US Government sensors, and we examine Prairie Network event PN39078 from 1965 having an extremely low entry speed of 10.9 km/s. In these cases uncertainties in measurement and origin make TCO designation uncertain.

  7. Impact Detections of Temporarily Captured Natural Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter; Borovička, Jiří; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Temporarily captured orbiters (TCOs) are near-Earth objects (NEOs) that make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts that capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun–Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behavior, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of 2014 January 13 with a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades-long monitoring by networks worldwide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an initial mass of ∼5 kg and diameter of 15 cm, with a maximum Earth-relative velocity just over 11.0 km s‑1. Spectral observations prove its natural origin. Back integration across observational uncertainties yields a 92%–98% probability of TCO behavior, with close lunar dynamical interaction. The capture duration varies across observational uncertainties from 48 days to 5+ years. We also report on two low-speed impacts recorded by US Government sensors, and we examine Prairie Network event PN39078 from 1965 with an extremely low entry speed of 10.9 km s‑1. In these cases uncertainties in measurement and origin make TCO designation uncertain.

  8. Impact Detections of Temporarily Captured Natural Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter; Borovička, Jiří; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Temporarily captured orbiters (TCOs) are near-Earth objects (NEOs) that make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts that capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behavior, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of 2014 January 13 with a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades-long monitoring by networks worldwide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an initial mass of ˜5 kg and diameter of 15 cm, with a maximum Earth-relative velocity just over 11.0 km s-1. Spectral observations prove its natural origin. Back integration across observational uncertainties yields a 92%-98% probability of TCO behavior, with close lunar dynamical interaction. The capture duration varies across observational uncertainties from 48 days to 5+ years. We also report on two low-speed impacts recorded by US Government sensors, and we examine Prairie Network event PN39078 from 1965 with an extremely low entry speed of 10.9 km s-1. In these cases uncertainties in measurement and origin make TCO designation uncertain.

  9. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  10. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  11. Neutron-Resonance Capture Analysis of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, H.; Bode, P.; Blaauw, M.; Corvi, F.

    1999-11-14

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is a well-established approach to improve the sensitivity for certain elements by suppressing the activation of interfering elements. If epithermal neutrons of a given energy could be selected, the signal-to-noise ratio might be further improved by taking advantage of resonance capture. This reaction occurs mainly by intermediate and heavy nuclei. Moreover, most of these reactions take place with epithermal or fast neutrons. Intense epithermal neutrons are available as ''white'' beams at accelerator-driven neutron sources. Neutron resonance capture offers interesting analytical opportunities. Low-Z elements have little capture of epithermal neutrons and are thus virtually absent in the time-of-flight spectrum. Relatively large objects can be placed in the neutron beam and analyzed nondestructively. The induced radioactivity is relatively low. If an element has several stable isotopes, each of these isotopes can be recognized by its specific resonances. This would allow for multitracer studies with several isotopically labeled compounds. Different from mass spectrometry, the sample remains intact and can be used for further studies after analysis. Applications may be in the field of archaeology, metallurgy, and certification of reference materials.

  12. Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

    2008-04-15

    In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles.

  13. Resonance capture at arbitrary inclination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance capture is studied numerically in the three-body problem for arbitrary inclinations. Massless particles are set to drift from outside the 1:5 resonance with a Jupiter-mass planet thereby encountering the web of the planet's diverse mean motion resonances. Randomly constructed samples explore parameter space for inclinations from 0 to 180° with 5° increments totalling nearly 6 × 105 numerical simulations. 30 resonances internal and external to the planet's location are monitored. We find that retrograde resonances are unexpectedly more efficient at capture than prograde resonances and that resonance order is not necessarily a good indicator of capture efficiency at arbitrary inclination. Capture probability drops significantly at moderate sample eccentricity for initial inclinations in the range [10°,110°]. Orbit inversion is possible for initially circular orbits with inclinations in the range [60°,130°]. Capture in the 1:1 co-orbital resonance occurs with great likelihood at large retrograde inclinations. The planet's orbital eccentricity, if larger than 0.1, reduces the capture probabilities through the action of the eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism. A capture asymmetry appears between inner and outer resonances as prograde orbits are preferentially trapped in inner resonances. The relative capture efficiency of retrograde resonance suggests that the dynamical lifetimes of Damocloids and Centaurs on retrograde orbits must be significantly larger than those on prograde orbits implying that the recently identified asteroids in retrograde resonance, 2006 BZ8, 2008 SO218, 2009 QY6 and 1999 LE31 may be among the oldest small bodies that wander between the outer giant planets.

  14. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  15. Capture-ejector satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Eldred, C. H.; Martin, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A satellite in the form of a large rotating rim which can be used to boost spacecraft from low-Earth orbit to higher orbits is described. The rim rotates in the plane of its orbit such that the lower portion of the rim is traveling at suborbital velocity, while the upper portion is travelling at greater than orbital velocity. Ascending spacecraft or payloads arrive at the lowest portion of the rim at suborbital velocities, where the payloads are released on a trajectory for higher orbits; descending payloads employ the reverse procedure. Electric thrusters placed on the rim maintain rim rotational speed and altitude. From the standpoint of currently known materials, the capture-ejector concept may be useful for relatively small velocity increments.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy in the C-H stretching region towards embedded high-mass young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Dartois, Emmanuel; Onaka, Takashi; Boulanger, François

    2015-08-01

    Since cosmic metallicity is believed to be increasing in time with the evolution of our universe, interstellar chemistry in low metallicity environments is crucial to understand chemical processes in the past universe. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is an excellent target to study such low metallicity interstellar chemistry thanks to its metal-poor environment and proximity. We here report the results of infrared spectroscopic observations of embedded high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the LMC with the Very Large Telescope. We obtained medium resolution spectra in the 3-4 micron range for nine LMC YSOs and detected absorption bands due to solid H2O and CH3OH as well as the 3.47 micron absorption band. The properties of these bands are investigated based on comparisons with Galactic embedded sources. We found that the 3.53 micron CH3OH ice absorption band for the LMC high-mass YSOs is absent or very weak compared to that seen toward Galactic counterparts. We estimate the column densities and abundance of the CH3OH ice using the obtained spectra, which suggests that solid CH3OH is less abundant in the LMC than in our Galaxy. We propose that grain surface reactions at relatively high dust temperature (warm ice chemistry) are responsible for the observed characteristics of ice chemical compositions in the LMC; i.e., the low abundance of solid CH3OH presented in this work as well as the high abundance of solid CO2 reported in previous observations. The 3.47 micron absorption band, which is generally seen in embedded sources, is detected toward five out of nine LMC YSOs. In contrast to the CH3OH ice band, strength ratios of the 3.47 micron band and water ice band are found to be similar between LMC and Galactic samples. Although the carrier of the 3.47 micron band is still under debate, our result suggests that the low metallicity and different interstellar environment of the LMC have little effect on the formation of the band carrier. In this presentation, we

  17. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  18. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  19. Development of an integrated hydrological modeling system for near-real-time multi-objective reservoir operation in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.

    2010-12-01

    The climate change-induced variability in hydrological cycles directly affects regional water resources management. For improved multiple multi-objective reservoir operation, an integrated modeling system has been developed by incorporating a global optimization system (SCE-UA) into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM) coupled with the reservoir routing module. The reservoir storage change is estimated from the difference between the simulated inflows and outflows; while the reservoir water level can be defined from the updated reservoir storage by using the H-V curve. According to the reservoir water level, the new operation rule can be decided. For optimization: (1) WEB-DHM is calibrated for each dam’s inflows separately; (2) then the calibrated WEB-DHM is used to simulate inflows and outflows by assuming outflow proportional to inflow; and (3) the proportion coefficients are optimized with Shuffle Complex Evolution method (SCE-UA), to fulfill an objective function towards minimum flood risk at downstream and maximum reservoir water storage for future use. The GSMaP product offers hourly global precipitation maps in near real-time (about four hours after observation). Aiming at near real-time reservoir operation in large river basins, the integrated modeling system takes the inputs from both an operational global quantitative precipitation forecast (JMA-GPV; to achieve an optimal operation rule in the assumed lead time period) and the GSMaP product (to perform current operation with the obtained optimal rule, after correction by gauge rainfall). The newly-developed system was then applied to the Red River Basin, with an area of 160,000 km2, to test its performance for near real-time dam operation. In Vietnam, three reservoirs are located in the upstream of Hanoi city, with Hoa Binh the largest (69% of total volume). After calibration with the gauge rainfall, the inflows to three reservoirs are well simulated; the discharge and water level at

  20. Membrane-based systems for carbon capture and hydrogen purification

    SciTech Connect

    Berchtold, Kathryn A

    2010-11-24

    This presentation describes the activities being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop carbon capture technologies for power systems. This work is aimed at continued development and demonstration of a membrane based pre- and post-combustion carbon capture technology and separation schemes. Our primary work entails the development and demonstration of an innovative membrane technology for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide that operates over a broad range of conditions relevant to the power industry while meeting the US DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program goals of 90% CO{sub 2} capture at less than a 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Separating and capturing carbon dioxide from mixed gas streams is a first and critical step in carbon sequestration. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic temperatures and pressures as well as be compatible with large gas volumes. Our project team is developing polymer membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) chemistries that can purify hydrogen and capture CO{sub 2} at industrially relevant temperatures. Our primary objectives are to develop and demonstrate polymer-based membrane chemistries, structures, deployment platforms, and sealing technologies that achieve the critical combination of high selectivity, high permeability, chemical stability, and mechanical stability all at elevated temperatures (> 150 C) and packaged in a scalable, economically viable, high area density system amenable to incorporation into an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. Stability requirements are focused on tolerance to the primary synthesis gas components and impurities at various locations in the IGCC process. Since the process stream compositions and conditions (temperature and pressure) vary throughout the IGCC process, the project is focused on the

  1. A simple method for the analysis of neutron resonance capture spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Clarijs, Martijn C.; Bom, Victor R.; Eijk, Carel W. E. van

    2009-03-15

    Neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is a method used to determine the bulk composition of various kinds of objects and materials. It is based on analyzing direct capture resonance peaks. However, the analysis is complicated by scattering followed by capture effects in the object itself. These effects depend on the object's shape and size. In this paper the new Delft elemental analysis program (DEAP) is presented which can automatically and quickly analyze multiple NRCA spectra in a practical and simple way, yielding the elemental bulk composition of an object, largely independent of its shape and size. The DEAP method is demonstrated with data obtained with a Roman bronze water tap excavated in Nijmegen (The Netherlands). DEAP will also be used in the framework of the Ancient Charm project as data analysis program for neutron resonance capture imaging (NRCI) experiments. NRCI provides three-dimensional visualization and quantification of the internal structure of archaeological objects by performing scanning measurements with narrowly collimated neutron beams on archaeological objects in computed tomography based experimental setups. The large amounts (hundreds to thousands) of spectra produced during a NRCI experiment can automatically and quickly be analyzed by DEAP.

  2. Model of Large-format EO-IR sensor for calculating the probability of true and false detection and tracking for moving and fixed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Andrew R.; Grossman, Stanley I.

    2015-05-01

    A model was developed to understand the effects of spatial resolution and Signal to Noise ratio on the detection and tracking performance of wide-field, diffraction-limited electro-optic and infrared motion imagery systems. False positive detection probability and false positive rate per frame were calculated as a function of target-to-background contrast and object size. Results showed that moving objects are fundamentally more difficult to detect than stationary objects because SNR for fixed objects increases and false positive probability detection rates diminish rapidly with successive frames whereas for moving objects the false detection rate remains constant or increases with successive frames. The model specifies that the desired performance of a detection system, measured by the false positive detection rate, can be achieved by image system designs with different combinations of SNR and spatial resolution, usually requiring several pixels resolving the object; this capability to tradeoff resolution and SNR enables system design trades and cost optimization. For operational use, detection thresholds required to achieve a particular false detection rate can be calculated. Interestingly, for moderate size images the model converges to the Johnson Criteria. Johnson found that an imaging system with an SNR >3.5 has a probability of detection >50% when the resolution on the object is 4 pixels or more. Under these conditions our model finds the false positive rate is less than one per hundred image frames, and the ratio of the probability of object detection to false positive detection is much greater than one. The model was programmed into Matlab to generate simulated images frames for visualization.

  3. Testing the Capture Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image of a model capture magnet was taken after an experiment in a Mars simulation chamber at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. It has some dust on it, but not as much as that on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's capture magnet. The capture and filter magnets on both Mars Exploration Rovers were delivered by the magnetic properties team at the Center for Planetary Science, Copenhagen, Denmark.

  4. Spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  5. Design and evaluation of new color-corrected rigid endomicroscopic high NA GRIN-objectives with a sub-micron resolution and large field of view.

    PubMed

    Matz, Gregor; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Gross, Herbert

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate new GRIN-based endomicroscopic objectives for high resolution single photon fluorescence imaging modalities. Two endoscopic optical design approaches are presented in detail utilizing firstly diffractive and secondly refractive optical elements for the color correction in a spectral range from 488 nm to 550 nm. They are compared with their precursor device experimentally and by simulation. Inherent aberrations for off-axis field points could be lowered remarkably compared with the values of the state-of-the-art system by increasing the intrinsic optical complexity but maintaining the outer spatial dimensions. As a result, those presented objectives predict a diffraction-limited imaging of objects up to 300 μm in diameter with a numerical aperture of 0.8 while keeping an overall outer diameter of the assembly at 1.4 mm. Lastly, confocal fluorescence imaging experiments focus on the comparison between the numerical predicted and the practically achieved quality parameters. PMID:27409921

  6. Large proper motion of the Thorne-Żytkow object candidate HV 2112 reveals its likely nature as foreground Galactic S-star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    Using the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) catalogue, we show that the candidate Thorne-Żytkow object HV 2112 has a proper motion implying a space velocity of about 3000 {km} {s}^{-1}if the object is located at the distance of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The proper motion is statistically different from that of the SMC at approximately 4σ in SPM, although the result can drop to about 3σ significance by including the UCAC4 data and considering systematic uncertainties in addition to the statistical ones. Assuming the measurement is robust, this proper motion is sufficient to exclude its proposed membership of the SMC and to argue instead that it is likely to be a foreground star in the Milky Way halo. The smaller distance and therefore lower brightness argue against its proposed nature as a Thorne-Żytkow object (the hypothesized star-like object formed when a normal star and a neutron star merge) or a Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. Instead we propose a binary scenario where this star is the companion of a former massive AGB star, which polluted the object with via its stellar wind, i.e. a special case of an extrinsic S star. Our new scenario solves two additional problems with the two existing scenarios for its nature as Thorne-Żytkow object or present-day super AGB star. The puzzling high ratio of the strength of calcium to iron absorption lines is unexpected for SMC supergiants, but is fully consistent with the expectations for halo abundances. Secondly, its strong variability can now be explained naturally as a manifestation of the Mira phenomenon. We discuss further observational tests that could distinguish between the foreground and SMC scenarios in advance of the improved proper motion measurements likely to come from Gaia.

  7. LISA and Capture Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennrich, Oliver

    LISA is a joint ESA/NASA mission to detect and observe gravitational waves. It is designed to register the change in distance between free-falling reference points to picometer accuracy, allowing to measure the effect of gravitational waves created by the coalescence of massive black holes almost anywhere in the universe, stellar mass black holes and neutron stars spiraling into massive black holes in other galaxies at intermediate distances, and tightly orbiting binary stars in our galaxy. LISA will be able to detect gravitational waves from coalescing massive black holes to redshifts of z ˜ 10 and higher, allowing an unprecedented view into the early stages of galaxy formation. The signals from the many million binary stars in our galaxy yield information about the evolution and the morphology of our galaxy, giving a view of the population of binary stars unobstructed by dust. Among the most challenging, yet scientifically interesting sources are the captures of a small massive object by massive black holes where the mass ratio exceeds 1,000. Those events, named extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRI), create very complex waveforms and allow to test general relativity to very high precision. LISA has been recently confirmed as a candidate for the L1 mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision program and is foreseen to be launched in the 2018 time frame.

  8. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  9. Capturing the semiotic relationship between terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargood, Charlie; Millard, David E.; Weal, Mark J.

    2010-04-01

    Tags describing objects on the web are often treated as facts about a resource, whereas it is quite possible that they represent more subjective observations. Existing methods of term expansion expand terms based on dictionary definitions or statistical information on term occurrence. Here we propose the use of a thematic model for term expansion based on semiotic relationships between terms; this has been shown to improve a system's thematic understanding of content and tags and to tease out the more subjective implications of those tags. Such a system relies on a thematic model that must be made by hand. In this article, we explore a method to capture a semiotic understanding of particular terms using a rule-based guide to authoring a thematic model. Experimentation shows that it is possible to capture valid definitions that can be used for semiotic term expansion but that the guide itself may not be sufficient to support this on a large scale. We argue that whilst the formation of super definitions will mitigate some of these problems, the development of an authoring support tool may be necessary to solve others.

  10. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  12. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  13. Large Size and Slow Rotation of the Trans-Neptunian Object (225088) 2007 OR10 Discovered from Herschel and K2 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, András; Kiss, Csaba; Müller, Thomas G.; Molnár, László; Szabó, Róbert; Szabó, Gyula M.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Kiss, László L.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first comprehensive thermal and rotational analysis of the second most distant trans-Neptunian object (TNOs) (225088) 2007 OR10. We combined optical light curves provided by the Kepler Space Telescope–K2 extended mission and thermal infrared data provided by the Herschel Space Observatory. We found that (225088) 2007 OR10 is likely to be larger and darker than derived by earlier studies: we obtained a diameter of d={1535}-225+75 {{km}} which places (225088) 2007 OR10 in the biggest top three TNOs. The corresponding visual geometric albedo is {p}V={0.089}-0.009+0.031. The light-curve analysis revealed a slow rotation rate of Prot = 44.81 ± 0.37 hr, superseded by very few objects. The most likely light-curve solution is double-peaked with a slight asymmetry; however, we cannot safely rule out the possibility of having a rotation period of Prot = 22.40 ± 0.18 hr, which corresponds to a single-peaked solution. Due to the size and slow rotation, the shape of the object should be a MacLaurin ellipsoid, so the light variation should be caused by surface inhomogeneities. Its newly derived larger diameter also implies larger surface gravity and a more likely retention of volatiles—CH4, CO, and N2—on the surface.

  14. Large Size and Slow Rotation of the Trans-Neptunian Object (225088) 2007 OR10 Discovered from Herschel and K2 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, András; Kiss, Csaba; Müller, Thomas G.; Molnár, László; Szabó, Róbert; Szabó, Gyula M.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Kiss, László L.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first comprehensive thermal and rotational analysis of the second most distant trans-Neptunian object (TNOs) (225088) 2007 OR10. We combined optical light curves provided by the Kepler Space Telescope-K2 extended mission and thermal infrared data provided by the Herschel Space Observatory. We found that (225088) 2007 OR10 is likely to be larger and darker than derived by earlier studies: we obtained a diameter of d={1535}-225+75 {{km}} which places (225088) 2007 OR10 in the biggest top three TNOs. The corresponding visual geometric albedo is {p}V={0.089}-0.009+0.031. The light-curve analysis revealed a slow rotation rate of Prot = 44.81 ± 0.37 hr, superseded by very few objects. The most likely light-curve solution is double-peaked with a slight asymmetry; however, we cannot safely rule out the possibility of having a rotation period of Prot = 22.40 ± 0.18 hr, which corresponds to a single-peaked solution. Due to the size and slow rotation, the shape of the object should be a MacLaurin ellipsoid, so the light variation should be caused by surface inhomogeneities. Its newly derived larger diameter also implies larger surface gravity and a more likely retention of volatiles—CH4, CO, and N2—on the surface.

  15. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  16. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

    2015-02-01

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  17. Improving outpatient charge capture.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Daniel; Sanderson, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals can identify opportunities to enhance revenue collection by closely analyzing outpatient charge-capture data. A hospital can bolster its charge-capture analysis by performing a charge-capture process walk-through and scrutinizing subsystem links, third-party payer contracts, and electronic health record structures. The hospital then can integrate charge-integrity functions into clinical departments as needed by developing charge-reconciliation tools and reports and monitoring their utilization, and incorporating charge-reconciliation responsibilities into clinical department managers' job descriptions and goals. PMID:25647902

  18. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  19. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Steven Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.

  20. A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zannin, Paulo H.T.; Calixto, Alfredo; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose A.C

    2003-03-01

    This study describes the reaction to environmental noise of the population of Curitiba ({approx}1.6 million inhabitants). Out of 1000 distributed forms, 860 were returned. The main isolated noise sources revealed by the survey as disturbing were traffic (73%) and neighbors (38%). As a class, neighborhood noise was pointed out as the most disturbing type of noise as 100% of the surveyed people indicated at least one of the items belonging to this class: neighbors, animals, sirens, civil construction, religion temples, night clubs, toys and domestic electric appliances. The main outcomes of exposure to noise were: irritability (58%), difficulty to concentrate (42%), sleeping disorders (20%) and headaches (20%). In this survey, the importance of the realization of objective surveys, in other words, noise emission measurements in conjunction with the subjective evaluation of the reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise, is also discussed. The present survey shows that in the subjective evaluation performed in the city of Curitiba, the perception of the population is that the urban noise has increased. On the other hand, another study conducted in the same city, where only the noise emission levels were evaluated, has showed a decrease on the urban noise.

  1. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  2. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  3. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air are two advanced technologies for carbon sequestration that aim at maintaining access to the vast fossil energy resources for centuries to come. While it is straightforward to dispose of carbon dioxide in limited amounts and for a limited time, permanent disposal of trillions of tons of carbon poses serious challenges. The formation of solid mineral carbonates from readily available minerals would provide safe and permanent storage. Capture of carbon dioxide from air makes it possible to sequester carbon dioxide emissions from sources other than power plants. This is important considering that even the relatively minor reductions suggested by the Kyoto Accord would have required the US to eliminate carbon dioxide emissions comparable to those of the entire 1990 coal fired power plant fleet. Capture of carbon dioxide from the air, would make it possible to close the carbon cycle in the transportation sector without phasing out liquid hydrocarbon fuels. It eliminates the need for long distance transport of carbon dioxide and allows the continued use of the existing energy infrastructure. Mineral sequestration at remote sites combined with on site carbon dioxide capture from air, would allow for long term stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. I will outline the current state of the technology and point to advances required before these approaches are ready for large-scale implementation.

  5. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  6. Spatial Knowledge Capture Library

    2005-05-16

    The Spatial Knowledge Capture Library is a set of algorithms to capture regularities in shapes and trajectories through space and time. We have applied Spatial Knowledge Capture to model the actions of human experts in spatial domains, such as an AWACS Weapons Director task simulation. The library constructs a model to predict the expert’s response to sets of changing cues, such as the movements and actions of adversaries on a battlefield, The library includes amore » highly configurable feature extraction functionality, which supports rapid experimentation to discover causative factors. We use k-medoid clustering to group similar episodes of behavior, and construct a Markov model of system state transitions induced by agents’ actions.« less

  7. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of {approx} {+-}22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than {approx} 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance {approx} 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance {approx} 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  8. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  9. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of therapeutic change. Reviewing maturation and development in relation to the resumption of psychological growth suggests that the provision of a beneficient environment, the "white keys," may lead to the resumption of maturational growth and change. The difference between the two modalities would be in the relative need for a significant other to bring about such change. Expanding on Hartmann and Kris, we can say that maturation requires a certain level of human stimulation and a supportive environment to unfold. At times in our work we encounter a psychoanalysis of and about maturation rather than primarily transference and interpretation. By and large the structure and functions of the ego that have been impeded in their exercise by traumatic circumstances in the environment are reactivated by a generalized holding environment rather than a relationship. In the practice of psychoanalysis this means that the child analyst may be more relaxed about the nonverbal play and relational aspects of the work; he need not fear that dynamics not captured in secondary process are lost to change. To the extent that the analysis provides an opportunity for maturational expression, growth will occur. When growth has been impeded by direct and significant interpersonal factors, the standard interpretative clarifications of defense, drive, and object relations in the context of removing the transference distortions regarding the analyst (and the world) are essential for recovery. Where the sequence of repetition through practice to mastery has become frozen by thwarting and stunting relationships, these potentially dead-end examples of neurotic object constancy must be played out on the "black keys." The amalgamation of the black of transference developments and the white of maturational emergence is paradigmatic for the discovery of new objects and new senses of self. In everyday life and analysis, maturation may lead to

  10. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of therapeutic change. Reviewing maturation and development in relation to the resumption of psychological growth suggests that the provision of a beneficient environment, the "white keys," may lead to the resumption of maturational growth and change. The difference between the two modalities would be in the relative need for a significant other to bring about such change. Expanding on Hartmann and Kris, we can say that maturation requires a certain level of human stimulation and a supportive environment to unfold. At times in our work we encounter a psychoanalysis of and about maturation rather than primarily transference and interpretation. By and large the structure and functions of the ego that have been impeded in their exercise by traumatic circumstances in the environment are reactivated by a generalized holding environment rather than a relationship. In the practice of psychoanalysis this means that the child analyst may be more relaxed about the nonverbal play and relational aspects of the work; he need not fear that dynamics not captured in secondary process are lost to change. To the extent that the analysis provides an opportunity for maturational expression, growth will occur. When growth has been impeded by direct and significant interpersonal factors, the standard interpretative clarifications of defense, drive, and object relations in the context of removing the transference distortions regarding the analyst (and the world) are essential for recovery. Where the sequence of repetition through practice to mastery has become frozen by thwarting and stunting relationships, these potentially dead-end examples of neurotic object constancy must be played out on the "black keys." The amalgamation of the black of transference developments and the white of maturational emergence is paradigmatic for the discovery of new objects and new senses of self. In everyday life and analysis, maturation may lead to

  11. Proton capture resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.E. |; Bilpuch, E.G. |; Bybee, C.R. |; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. |; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. |; Shriner, J.F. Jr. |; Vavrina, G.A. |; Wallace, P.M. |

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema

    Jeffrey Long

    2016-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  13. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  14. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  15. Neutron capture therapies

    DOEpatents

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  16. Capturing the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Digital lecture capture and broadcast solutions have been around for only about 10 years, but are poised for healthy growth. Frost & Sullivan research analysts estimate that the market (which amounts to $25 million currently) will quadruple by 2013. It's still dominated by a few key players, however: Sonic Foundry holds a hefty 40 percent-plus…

  17. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Y; Sorescu, D C; Luebke, D; Li, B Y; Zhang, K; King, D

    2013-05-16

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; A further objective is to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  18. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  19. Three-body capture of Jupiter's irregular satellites and resonant history of the Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, Catherine M.

    We examine the capture of small, irregular satellites, which, with their distant, eccentric, and inclined paths, must have originated in heliocentric orbits. We investigate a new theory: capture of one member of a pair of ˜100-km asteroids after tidal disruption. The energy loss from disruption is sufficient for capture, but it cannot deliver the bodies directly to the currently observed orbits. Instead, the long-lived capture orbits must evolve inward after capture, perhaps due to interactions with a tenuous circumplanetary gas disk. We find that at Jupiter, binaries offer an increase of a factor of ˜10 in the capture rate of 100-km objects as compared to single bodies, for objects separated by tens of radii that approach the planet on relatively low-energy trajectories. These bodies are at risk of collision with Callisto, but may be preserved by gas drag if their pericenters are raised quickly enough. We conclude that our mechanism is as capable of producing large irregular satellites as previous suggestions, and it avoids several problems faced by alternative models. To investigate possible source populations for these captured satellites, we simulated escaping asteroids from Jupiter's Trojan region and the outer main belt, calculating the Jacobi constant during close approaches and comparing with three-body capture statistics. We found that Trojans' high approach speeds make them unlikely source bodies, but asteroids from the outer main belt, especially those interior to Jupiter's 4:3 resonance, approach with low speeds that favor capture. Unlike irregular satellites, regular satellites formed with their planets. Gravitational resonances are important for these bodies, and we study the most famous of them. Io, Europa, and Ganymede are in the Laplace resonance, meaning that they have orbital periods in the ratio of 1:2:4. We focused our work on Io and Europa's orbital lock and modeled passage through the 2:1 resonances. We discovered cases where damping from

  20. Neutron capture strategy and technique developments for GNEP

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The initial three years of neutron capture measurements have been very successful in providing data for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative/Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (AFCI/GNEP) program. Now that the most straightforward measurements have been completed, additional technical challenges face future measurements. In particular, techniques are needed to perform measurements that exhibit at least one of three major problems -- large fission:capture ratios, large capture:capture ratios, and high intrinsic activity samples. This paper will set forward a plan for attacking these technical challenges and moving forward with future measurements.

  1. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  2. Advanced Telemetry Data Capturing

    SciTech Connect

    Paschke, G.A.

    2000-05-16

    This project developed a new generation or advanced data capturing process specifically designed for use in future telemetry test systems at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Although similar data capturing processes are performed both commercially and at other DOE weapon facilities, the equipment used is not specifically designed to perform acceptance testing requirements unique to the KCP. Commercially available equipment, despite very high cost (up to $125,000), is deficient in reliability and long-term maintainability necessary in test systems at this facility. There are no commercial sources for some requirements, specifically Terminal Data Analyzer (TDA) data processing. Although other custom processes have been developed to satisfy these test requirements, these designs have become difficult to maintain and upgrade.

  3. Laser capture microdissection technology.

    PubMed

    Espina, Virginia; Heiby, Michael; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Liotta, Lance A

    2007-09-01

    Deciphering the cellular and molecular interactions that drive disease within the tissue microenvironment holds promise for discovering drug targets of the future. In order to recapitulate the in vivo interactions through molecular analysis, one must be able to analyze specific cell populations within the context of their heterogeneous tissue microecology. Laser capture microdissection is a method to procure subpopulations of tissue cells under direct microscopic visualization. Laser capture microdissection technology can harvest the cells of interest directly or can isolate specific cells by cutting away unwanted cells to give histologically pure enriched cell populations. A variety of downstream applications exist: DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, mass spectrometry proteomics discovery and signal pathway profiling.

  4. Neutron-capture Element Abundances in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n-capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s-process enrichments of Kr (0.6–1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5–0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2–3 M ⊙ progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s-process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2–0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n-capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s-process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Gemini-South Telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile.

  5. Molecular nanosprings in spider capture-silk threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nathan; Oroudjev, Emin; Mutz, Stephanie; Cleveland, Jason P.; Hansma, Paul K.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Hansma, Helen G.

    2003-04-01

    Spider capture silk is a natural material that outperforms almost any synthetic material in its combination of strength and elasticity. The structure of this remarkable material is still largely unknown, because spider-silk proteins have not been crystallized. Capture silk is the sticky spiral in the webs of orb-weaving spiders. Here we are investigating specifically the capture spiral threads from Araneus, an ecribellate orb-weaving spider. The major protein of these threads is flagelliform protein, a variety of silk fibroin. We present models for molecular and supramolecular structures of flagelliform protein, derived from amino acid sequences, force spectroscopy (molecular pulling) and stretching of bulk capture web. Pulling on molecules in capture-silk fibres from Araneus has revealed rupture peaks due to sacrificial bonds, characteristic of other self-healing biomaterials. The overall force changes are exponential for both capture-silk molecules and intact strands of capture silk.

  6. The IRMIS object model and services API.

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Dohan, D. A.; Arnold, N. D.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    The relational model developed for the Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) toolkit has been successfully used to capture the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system software (EPICS process variables and their definitions). The relational tables are populated by a crawler script that parses each Input/Output Controller (IOC) start-up file when an IOC reboot is detected. User interaction is provided by a Java Swing application that acts as a desktop for viewing the process variable information. Mapping between the display objects and the relational tables was carried out with the Hibernate Object Relational Modeling (ORM) framework. Work is well underway at the APS to extend the relational modeling to include control system hardware. For this work, due in part to the complex user interaction required, the primary application development environment has shifted from the relational database view to the object oriented (Java) perspective. With this approach, the business logic is executed in Java rather than in SQL stored procedures. This paper describes the object model used to represent control system software, hardware, and interconnects in IRMIS. We also describe the services API used to encapsulate the required behaviors for creating and maintaining the complex data. In addition to the core schema and object model, many important concepts in IRMIS are captured by the services API. IRMIS is an ambitious collaborative effort for defining and developing a relational database and associated applications to comprehensively document the large and complex EPICS-based control systems of today's accelerators. The documentation effort includes process variables, control system hardware, and interconnections. The approach could also be used to document all components of the accelerator, including mechanical, vacuum, power supplies, etc. One key aspect of IRMIS is that it is a documentation framework, not a design and development tool. We do not

  7. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  8. OPIC: Ontology-driven Patient Information Capturing system for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Zhao, Meng; Luo, Lingyun; Bozorgi, Alireza; Gupta, Deepak; Lhatoo, Samden D; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of paper or document-based forms for capturing patient information in various clinical settings, for example in epilepsy centers, is a critical barrier for large-scale, multi-center research studies that require interoperable, consistent, and error-free data collection. This challenge can be addressed by a web-accessible and flexible patient data capture system that is supported by a common terminological system to facilitate data re-usability, sharing, and integration. We present OPIC, an Ontology-driven Patient Information Capture (OPIC) system that uses a domain-specific epilepsy and seizure ontology (EpSO) to (1) support structured entry of multi-modal epilepsy data, (2) proactively ensure quality of data through use of ontology terms in drop-down menus, and (3) identify and index clinically relevant ontology terms in free-text fields to improve accuracy of subsequent analytical queries (e.g. cohort identification). EpSO, modeled using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), conforms to the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and terminological commission. OPIC has been developed using agile software engineering methodology for rapid development cycles in close collaboration with domain expert and end users. We report the result from the initial deployment of OPIC at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UH CMC) epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as part of the NIH-funded project on Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Preliminary user evaluation shows that OPIC has achieved its design objectives to be an intuitive patient information capturing system that also reduces the potential for data entry errors and variability in use of epilepsy terms. PMID:23304354

  9. OPIC: Ontology-driven Patient Information Capturing system for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Zhao, Meng; Luo, Lingyun; Bozorgi, Alireza; Gupta, Deepak; Lhatoo, Samden D; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of paper or document-based forms for capturing patient information in various clinical settings, for example in epilepsy centers, is a critical barrier for large-scale, multi-center research studies that require interoperable, consistent, and error-free data collection. This challenge can be addressed by a web-accessible and flexible patient data capture system that is supported by a common terminological system to facilitate data re-usability, sharing, and integration. We present OPIC, an Ontology-driven Patient Information Capture (OPIC) system that uses a domain-specific epilepsy and seizure ontology (EpSO) to (1) support structured entry of multi-modal epilepsy data, (2) proactively ensure quality of data through use of ontology terms in drop-down menus, and (3) identify and index clinically relevant ontology terms in free-text fields to improve accuracy of subsequent analytical queries (e.g. cohort identification). EpSO, modeled using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), conforms to the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and terminological commission. OPIC has been developed using agile software engineering methodology for rapid development cycles in close collaboration with domain expert and end users. We report the result from the initial deployment of OPIC at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UH CMC) epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as part of the NIH-funded project on Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Preliminary user evaluation shows that OPIC has achieved its design objectives to be an intuitive patient information capturing system that also reduces the potential for data entry errors and variability in use of epilepsy terms.

  10. Capturing Nature's Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  11. Capturing Darwin's dream.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biologists from Darwin forward have dreamed of having data that would elucidate our understanding of evolutionary history and the diversity of life. Sequence capture is a relatively old DNA technology, but its use is growing rapidly due to advances in (i) massively parallel DNA sequencing approaches and instruments, (ii) massively parallel bait construction, (iii) methods to identify target regions and (iv) sample preparation. We give a little historical context to these developments, summarize some of the important advances reported in this special issue and point to further advances that can be made to help fulfill Darwin's dream. PMID:27454358

  12. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  13. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (P<0.001). No other blood parameter differed significantly between the two methods of capture. In addition, recorded capture time confirmed that noosing takes significantly longer time compared with e-stunning (P<0.001), overall indicating that e-stunning seems to be the better option for restraint of especially large numbers of crocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  14. Small Schools in Small School Districts and Small Schools in Large School Districts: Are There Cost Differences That Should Be Captured in the Small School Adjustment of the Wyoming School Funding Formula? Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.; Seder, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the cost structure of small schools located in large Wyoming school districts differed from the cost structure of small schools located in small districts across the state, and if a difference was found to recommend possible changes to the small school adjustment in the Wyoming school funding model.…

  15. Last chance for carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Vivian; Gilfillan, Stuart; Markusson, Nils; Chalmers, Hannah; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Anthropogenic energy-related CO2 emissions are higher than ever. With new fossil-fuel power plants, growing energy-intensive industries and new sources of fossil fuels in development, further emissions increase seems inevitable. The rapid application of carbon capture and storage is a much heralded means to tackle emissions from both existing and future sources. However, despite extensive and successful research and development, progress in deploying carbon capture and storage has stalled. No fossil-fuel power plants, the greatest source of CO2 emissions, are using carbon capture and storage, and publicly supported demonstration programmes are struggling to deliver actual projects. Yet, carbon capture and storage remains a core component of national and global emissions-reduction scenarios. Governments have to either increase commitment to carbon capture and storage through much more active market support and emissions regulation, or accept its failure and recognize that continued expansion of power generation from burning fossil fuels is a severe threat to attaining objectives in mitigating climate change.

  16. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi E-mail: umeda@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M{sub Sun} and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  17. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  18. Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sudowe, Ralf; Folden, Charles M., III; Nitsche, Heino; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objective of this project is the measurement of neutron capture cross sections of importance to stewardship science and astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis, while at the same time helping to train the next generation of scientists with expertise relevant to U.S. national nuclear security missions and to stewardship science. A primary objective of this project is to study neutron capture cross sections for various stable and unstable isotopes that will contribute to the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program by providing improved data for modeling and interpretation of nuclear device performance. Much of the information obtained will also be important in astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis. Measurements of these neutron capture cross sections are being conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility using the unique Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). In our early discussions with the DANCE group, decisions were made on the first cross sections to be measured and how our expertise in target preparation, radiochemical separations chemistry, and data analysis could best be applied. The initial emphasis of the project was on preparing suitable targets of both natural and separated stable europium isotopes in preparation for the ultimate goal of preparing a sufficiently large target of radioactive 155Eu (t1/2 = 4.7 years) and other radioactive and stable species for neutron cross-section measurements at DANCE. Our Annual Report, ''Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei'' by J. M. Schwantes, R. Sudowe, C. M. Folden III, H. Nitsche, and D. C. Hoffman, submitted to NNSA in December 2003, gives details about the initial considerations and scope of the project. During the current reporting period, electroplated targets of natural Eu together with valuable, stable, and isotopically pure 151Eu and 153Eu, and isotopically separated 154Sm were measured for

  19. Fragment capture device

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  20. Passive Ball Capture Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloyd, Richard A. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A passive ball capture joint has a sleeve with a plurality of bores distributed about a circumference thereof and formed therethrough at an acute angle relative to the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A spring-loaded retainer is slidingly fitted in each bore and is biased such that, if allowed, will extend at least partially into the sleeve to retain a ball therein. A ring, rotatably mounted about the bores, has an interior wall defining a plurality of shaped races that bear against the spring-loaded retainers. A mechanized rotational force producer is coupled to the ring. The ring can be rotated from a first position (that presses the retainers into the sleeve to lock the ball in place) to a second position (that allows the retainers to springback out of the sleeve to release the ball).

  1. Particle capture device

    DOEpatents

    Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-23

    In example embodiments, particle collection efficiency in aerosol analyzers and other particle measuring instruments is improved by a particle capture device that employs multiple collisions to decrease momentum of particles until the particles are collected (e.g., vaporized or come to rest). The particle collection device includes an aperture through which a focused particle beam enters. A collection enclosure is coupled to the aperture and has one or more internal surfaces against which particles of the focused beam collide. One or more features are employed in the collection enclosure to promote particles to collide multiple times within the enclosure, and thereby be vaporized or come to rest, rather than escape through the aperture.

  2. Laser-capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Espina, Virginia; Wulfkuhle, Julia D; Calvert, Valerie S; VanMeter, Amy; Zhou, Weidong; Coukos, George; Geho, David H; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2006-01-01

    Deciphering the cellular and molecular interactions that drive disease within the tissue microenvironment holds promise for discovering drug targets of the future. In order to recapitulate the in vivo interactions thorough molecular analysis, one must be able to analyze specific cell populations within the context of their heterogeneous tissue microecology. Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) is a method to procure subpopulations of tissue cells under direct microscopic visualization. LCM technology can harvest the cells of interest directly or can isolate specific cells by cutting away unwanted cells to give histologically pure enriched cell populations. A variety of downstream applications exist: DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery and signal-pathway profiling. Herein we provide a thorough description of LCM techniques, with an emphasis on tips and troubleshooting advice derived from LCM users. The total time required to carry out this protocol is typically 1-1.5 h.

  3. Properties of Earth's temporarily-captured flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the Moon, a population of small temporarily-captured NEOs is predicted to orbit the Earth. The definition of a natural Earth satellite is that it is on an elliptic geocentric orbit within 0.03 au from the Earth. The population is further divided into temporarily-captured orbiters (TCOs, or minimoons, making at least one full revolution around the Earth in a coordinate system co-rotating with the Sun) and temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs) which fail to make a full revolution, but are temporarily on an elliptic orbit around the Earth. Only one minimoon has been discovered to date, but it is expected that next generation surveys will be able to detect these objects regularly.Granvik et al. (2012) performed an extensive analysis of the behaviour of these temporarily-captured objects. One of the main results was that at any given moment there is at least one 1-meter-diameter minimoon in orbit around the Earth. However, the results of Granvik et al. (2012) raised questions considering the NES population such as the bimodality of the capture duration distribution and a distinctive lack of test particles within Earth's Hill sphere, which requires investigating the statistical properties also of the TCF population.In this work we confirm the population characteristics for minimoons described by Granvik et al. (2012), and extend the analysis to TCFs. For the calculations we use a Bulirsch-Stoer integrator implemented in the OpenOrb software package (Granvik et al. 2009). We study, e.g., the capture statistics, residence-time distributions, and steady-state properties of TCFs. Our preliminary results indicate that TCFs may be suitable targets for asteroid-redirect missions. More detailed knowledge of the TCF population will also improve our understanding of the link between temporarily-captured objects and NEOs in general.References: Granvik et al. (2009) MPS 44(12), 1853-1861; Granvik et al. (2012) Icarus 218, 262-277.

  4. Sulfur capture in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Baars, D.M.; Hunter, C.A.; Keitelman, E.N.

    1981-06-01

    Sulfur capture in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) both with and without recycle of fines elutriated from the bed was studied. Two empirical correlations, one by Babcock and Wilcox and the other by Westinghouse, correlate sulfur capture as a function of the calcium-to-sulfur mole ratio and gas residence time. Both correlations fit the experimental no-recycle results quite well. Of the limestones tested with no recycle, Vulcan Materials exhibits the best sulfur-capture performance. Data collected with Reed limestone indicates that recycle improves sulfur-capture compared with once-through performance. However, there is a decreasing effect on sulfur capture as the recycle rate is increased to large values. At 90% sulfur capture, the fractional reduction of fresh limestone feed attributable to recycle is 24 to 35% over a gas-residence time range of 0.7 to 0.4 s.

  5. Tidal capture of stars by a massive black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novikov, I. D.; Pethick, C. J.; Polnarev, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The processes leading to tidal capture of stars by a massive black hole and the consequences of these processes in a dense stellar cluster are discussed in detail. When the amplitude of a tide and the subsequent oscillations are sufficiently large, the energy deposited in a star after periastron passage and formation of a bound orbit cannot be estimated directly using the linear theory of oscillations of a spherical star, but rather numerical estimates must be used. The evolution of a star after tidal capture is discussed. The maximum ratio R of the cross-section for tidal capture to that for tidal disruption is about 3 for real systems. For the case of a stellar system with an empty capture loss cone, even in the case when the impact parameter for tidal capture only slightly exceeds the impact parameter for direct tidal disruption, tidal capture would be much more important than tidal disruption.

  6. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  7. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  8. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  9. Capture-recapture methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  10. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  11. Inland capture fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  12. Inland capture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  13. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The physics of intact capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter; Griffiths, D. J.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to capture projectiles intact at hypervelocities in underdense media open a new area of study in physics. Underdense material behaves markedly different than solid, liquid, or gas upon hypervelocity impact. This new phenomenon enables applications in science that would either not be possible or would be very costly by other means. This phenomenon has been fully demonstrated in the laboratory and validated in space. Even more interesting is the fact that this hypervelocity intact capture was accomplished passively. A better understanding of the physics of intact capture will lead to improvements in intact capture. A collection of physical observations of this phenomenon is presented here.

  15. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  16. Gadolinium as a Neutron Capture Therapy Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Jing-Luen Allen

    The clinical results of treating brain tumors with boron neutron capture therapy are very encouraging and researchers around the world are once again making efforts to develop this therapeutic modality. Boron-10 is the agent receiving the most attention for neutron capture therapy but ^{157}Gd is a nuclide that also holds interesting properties of being a neutron capture therapy agent. The objective of this study is to evaluate ^{157}Gd as a neutron capture therapy agent. In this study it is determined that tumor concentrations of about 300 mug ^{157}Gd/g tumor can be achieved in brain tumors with some FDA approved MRI contrast agents such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, and up to 628 mug ^{157 }Gd/g tumor can be established in bone tumors with Gd-EDTMP. Monte Carlo calculations show that with only 250 ppm of ^{157}Gd in tumor, neutron capture therapy can deliver 2,000 cGy to a tumor of 2 cm diameter or larger with 5 times 10^{12} n/cm ^2 fluence at the tumor. Dose measurements which were made with films and TLD's in phantoms verified these calculations. More extended Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate that neutron capture therapy with Gd possesses comparable dose distribution to B neutron capture therapy. With 5 times 10^{12 } n/cm^2 thermal neutrons at the tumor, Auger electrons from the Gd produced an optical density enhancement on the films that is similar to the effect caused by about 300 cGy of Gd prompt gamma dose which will further enhance the therapeutic effects. A technique that combines brachytherapy with Gd neutron capture therapy has been evaluated. Monte Carlo calculations show that 5,000 cGy of prompt gamma dose can be delivered to a treatment volume of 40 cm^3 with a 3-plane implant of a total of 9 Gd needles. The tumor to normal tissue advantage of this method is as good as ^{60} Co brachytherapy. Measurements of prompt gamma dose with films and TLD-700's in a lucite phantom verify the Monte Carlo evaluation. A technique which displays the Gd

  17. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR)

    This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters.

    This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

    This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  18. Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.

    SciTech Connect

    chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

  19. Progress and new developments in carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Litynski, J.T.; McIlvried, H.G.; Srivastava, R.D.

    2009-07-01

    Growing concern over the impact on global climate change of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has resulted in proposals to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at large point sources and store it in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations, referred to as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There are three options for capturing CO{sub 2} from point sources: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Several processes are available to capture CO{sub 2}, and new or improved processes are under development. However, CO{sub 2} capture is the most expensive part of CCS, typically accounting for 75% of overall cost. CCS will benefit significantly from the development of a lower cost post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process that can be retrofitted to existing power plants. Once captured, the CO{sub 2} is compressed to about 150 atm and pipelined at supercritical conditions to a suitable storage site. Oil and gas reservoirs, because they have assured seals and are well characterized, are promising early opportunity sites. Saline formations are much more extensive and have a huge potential storage capacity, but are much less characterized. Several commercial and a number of pilot CCS projects are underway around the world.

  20. Improvement of solid material for affinity resins by application of long PEG spacers to capture the whole target complex of FK506.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadashi; Ueda, Masahiro; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Tanaka, Akito

    2015-07-15

    Solid materials for affinity resins bearing long PEG spacers between a functional group used for immobilization of a bio-active compound and the solid surface were synthesized to capture not only small target proteins but also large and/or complex target proteins. Solid materials with PEG1000 or PEG2000 as spacers, which bear a benzenesulfonamide derivative, exhibited excellent selectivity between the specific binding protein carbonic anhydrase type II (CAII) and non-specific ones. These materials also exhibited efficacy in capturing a particular target at a maximal amount. Affinity resins using solid materials with PEG1000 or PEG2000 spacers, bear a FK506 derivative, successfully captured the whole target complex of specific binding proteins at the silver staining level, while all previously known affinity resins with solid materials failed to achieve this objective. These novel affinity resins captured other specific binding proteins such as dynamin and neurocalcin δ as well. PMID:26025877

  1. Intact capture of cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this development effort is to capture dust particles at hypervelocities intact and unmelted in order to preserve volatile organics. At the same time, the capture process must minimize any organic elemental or compound contamination to prevent any compromise of exobiological analyses. Inorganic silicate aerogel has been developed as a successful capture medium to satisfy both requirements of intact capture and minimal organic contamination. Up to 6 km/s, silicate projectiles from a few microns up to 100 microns have been captured intact without any melting and with minimal loss of mass. Carbon in silicate aerogel can be reduced to less than 1 part in 1000 and hydrogen 3 parts in 1000 when baked in air. Under controlled inert gas environments, additional hydrocarbon reduction can be achieved.

  2. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    corrosive nature of the typical amine-based separation process leads to high plant capital investment. According to recent DOE-NETL studies, MEA-based CCS will increase the cost of electricity of a new pulverized coal plant by 80-85% and reduce the net plant efficiency by about 30%. Non-power industrial facilities will incur similar production output and efficiency penalties when implementing conventional carbon capture systems. The proposed large scale demonstration project combining advanced amine CO{sub 2} capture integrated with commercial EOR operations significantly advances post-combustion technology development toward the DOE objectives of reducing the cost of energy production and improving the efficiency of CO{sub 2} Capture technologies. WPC has assembled a strong multidisciplinary team to meet the objectives of this project. WPC will provide the host site and Hitachi will provide the carbon capture technology and advanced solvent. Burns and Roe bring expertise in overall engineering integration and plant design to the team. Core Energy, an active EOR producer/operator in the State of Michigan, is committed to support the detailed design, construction and operation of the CO{sub 2} pipeline and storage component of the project. This team has developed a Front End Engineering Design and Cost Estimate as part of Phase 1 of DOE Award DE-FE0002477.

  3. Object Tracking Benchmark.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Object tracking has been one of the most important and active research areas in the field of computer vision. A large number of tracking algorithms have been proposed in recent years with demonstrated success. However, the set of sequences used for evaluation is often not sufficient or is sometimes biased for certain types of algorithms. Many datasets do not have common ground-truth object positions or extents, and this makes comparisons among the reported quantitative results difficult. In addition, the initial conditions or parameters of the evaluated tracking algorithms are not the same, and thus, the quantitative results reported in literature are incomparable or sometimes contradictory. To address these issues, we carry out an extensive evaluation of the state-of-the-art online object-tracking algorithms with various evaluation criteria to understand how these methods perform within the same framework. In this work, we first construct a large dataset with ground-truth object positions and extents for tracking and introduce the sequence attributes for the performance analysis. Second, we integrate most of the publicly available trackers into one code library with uniform input and output formats to facilitate large-scale performance evaluation. Third, we extensively evaluate the performance of 31 algorithms on 100 sequences with different initialization settings. By analyzing the quantitative results, we identify effective approaches for robust tracking and provide potential future research directions in this field.

  4. CAPTURE OF PLANETESIMALS BY GAS DRAG FROM CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Suetsugu, Ryo; Tanigawa, Takayuki

    2013-12-01

    Growing giant planets have circumplanetary disks around them in the late stage of their formation if their mass is sufficiently large. We examine capture of relatively large planetesimals that are decoupled from the gas inflow, due to gas drag from a circumplanetary disk of a growing giant planet. Assuming that the structure of the circumplanetary disk is axisymmetric, and solving the three-body problem including gas drag, we perform analytic and numerical calculations for capture of planetesimals. When planetesimal random velocity is small, planetesimals approaching in the retrograde direction are more easily captured, owing to their larger velocity relative to the gas. Planetesimals with large orbital inclinations interact with the disk for a short period of time and show lower capture rates. The effect of ablation on capture rates seems insignificant, although mass loss due to ablation would be significant in the case of high random velocity. We also examine the effect of non-uniform radial distribution of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk due to gap opening by the planet. When the random velocity of planetesimals is small, the planetesimal capture rate decreases rapidly as the half width of the gap in the planetesimal disk increases from two planetary Hill radii to three planetary Hill radii; planetesimals with low random velocities cannot approach the planet in the case of a sufficiently wide gap. Our results show that the radial distribution and random velocity of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk are essentially important for the understanding of capture of planetesimals by circumplanetary disks.

  5. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  6. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  7. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  8. Neutron capture measurements for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifarth, Rene

    2005-04-01

    Almost all of the heavy elements are produced via neutron capture reactions in a multitude of stellar production sites. The predictive power of the underlying stellar models is currently limited because they contain poorly constrained physics components such as convection, rotation or magnetic fields. Neutron captures measurements on heavy radioactive isotopes provide a unique opportunity to largely improve these physics components, and thereby address important questions of nuclear astrophysics. Such species are branch-points in the otherwise uniquely defined path of subsequent n-captures along the s-process path in the valley of stability. These branch points reveal themselves through unmistakable signatures recovered from pre-solar meteoritic grains that originate in individual element producing stars. Measurements on radioactive isotopes for neutron energies in the keV region represent a stringent challenge for further improvements of experimental techniques. This holds true for the neutron sources, the detection systems and the technology to handle radioactive material. Though the activation method or accelerator mass spectroscopy of the reaction products could be applied in a limited number of cases, Experimental facilities like DANCE at LANL, USA and n-TOF at CERN, Switzerland are addressing the need for such measurements on the basis of the more universal method of detecting the prompt capture gamma-rays, which is required for the application of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) techniques. With a strongly optimized neutron facility at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) isotopes with half-lives down to tens of days could be investigated, while present facilities require half-lives of a few hundred days. Recent neutron capture experiments on radioactive isotopes with relevance for nuclear astrophysics and possibilities for future experimental setups will be discussed during the talk.

  9. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-markovian transitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider capture-recapture studies where release and recapture data are available from each of a number of strata on every capture occasion. Strata may, for example, be geographic locations or physiological states. Movement of animals among strata occurs with unknown probabilities, and estimation of these unknown transition probabilities is the objective. We describe a computer routine for carrying out the analysis under a model that assumes Markovian transitions and under reduced parameter versions of this model. We also introduce models that relax the Markovian assumption and allow 'memory' to operate (i.e., allow dependence of the transition probabilities on the previous state). For these models, we sugg st an analysis based on a conditional likelihood approach. Methods are illustrated with data from a large study on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in three geographic regions. The assumption of Markovian transitions is rejected convincingly for these data, emphasizing the importance of the more general models that allow memory.

  10. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (<~100 mCi) species. The measurements made possible with this array will be useful in answering outstanding questions in the areas of national security, threat reduction, nuclear astrophysics, advanced reactor design and accelerator transmutation of waste. Since the commissioning of DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  11. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  12. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-12

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (> or approx.100 {mu}g) and/or radioactive (< or approx. 100 mCi) species. The measurements made possible with this array will be useful in answering outstanding questions in the areas of national security, threat reduction, nuclear astrophysics, advanced reactor design and accelerator transmutation of waste. Since the commissioning of DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on {sup 241,243}Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio ({alpha} = {sigma}{sub {gamma}}/{sigma}{sub f}) for {sup 235}U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  13. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  14. Capture methods for Musk Ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Hemmings, J.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Musk Ducks Biziura lobata are endemic to wetlands, river systems and coastal oceanic waters of temperate Australia. Individuals of this species are difficult to capture because of their excellent swimming and diving abilities and frequent use of deep-water habitats. Night-lighting, baited clover-leaf traps and walk-in-nest-traps were used to capture Musk Ducks at Murray Lagoon, Cape Gantheaume Conservation Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. These techniques should be useful for capturing Musk Ducks at other locations in Australia.

  15. Hubble Captures Celestial Fireworks Within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is a color Hubble Space Telescope (HST) heritage image of supernova remnant N49, a neighboring galaxy, that was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Color filters were used to sample light emitted by sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen. The color image was superimposed on a black and white image of stars in the same field also taken with Hubble. Resembling a fireworks display, these delicate filaments are actually sheets of debris from a stellar explosion.

  16. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

    2010-12-31

    In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the

  17. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  18. Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Carpenter, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy held September 14--17, 1992 in Columbus, Ohio. Individual papers were separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  19. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  20. ISS Update: Capturing a Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Melanie Miller, Robotics Officer, about the capture of the SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo craft by the Expedition 33 crew of the International Spa...

  1. ISS Update: Capturing a Dragon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with space station training instructors Jeff Tuxhorn and Graeme Newman, who trained the space station crews on how to capture SpaceX’s Dragon spacecr...

  2. Radiative capture reactions in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Carl R.; Davids, Barry

    2015-08-07

    Here, the radiative capture reactions of greatest importance in nuclear astrophysics are identified and placed in their stellar contexts. Recent experimental efforts to estimate their thermally averaged rates are surveyed.

  3. Tracking visual objects using pyramidal rotation invariant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paheding, Sidike; Essa, Almabrok; Krieger, Evan; Asari, Vijayan

    2016-02-01

    Challenges in object tracking such as object deformation, occlusion, and background variations require a robust tracker to ensure accurate object location estimation. To address these issues, we present a Pyramidal Rotation Invariant Features (PRIF) that integrates Gaussian Ringlet Intensity Distribution (GRID) and Fourier Magnitude of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (FMHOG) methods for tracking objects from videos in challenging environments. In this model, we initially partition a reference object region into increasingly fine rectangular grid regions to construct a pyramid. Histograms of local features are then extracted for each level of pyramid. This allows the appearance of a local patch to be captured at multiple levels of detail to make the algorithm insensitive to partial occlusion. Then GRID and magnitude of discrete Fourier transform of the oriented gradient are utilized to achieve a robust rotation invariant feature. The GRID feature creates a weighting scheme to emphasize the object center. In the tracking stage, a Kalman filter is employed to estimate the center of the object search regions in successive frames. Within the search regions, we use a sliding window technique to extract the PRIF of candidate objects, and then Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) is used to classify the best matched candidate features with respect to the reference. Our PRIF object tracking algorithm is tested on two challenging Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) datasets, namely Columbus Large Image Format (CLIF) and Large Area Image Recorder (LAIR), to evaluate its robustness. Experimental results show that the proposed PRIF approach yields superior results compared to state-of-the-art feature based object trackers.

  4. Minimum required capture radius in a coplanar model of the aerial combat problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.; Merz, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Coplanar aerial combat is modeled with constant speeds and specified turn rates. The minimum capture radius which will always permit capture, regardless of the initial conditions, is calculated. This 'critical' capture radius is also the maximum range which the evader can guarantee indefinitely if the initial range, for example, is large. A composite barrier is constructed which gives the boundary, at any heading, of relative positions for which the capture radius is less than critical.

  5. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Litynski, John T.; Brickett, Lynn A.; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  6. Medical management of Captured Persons.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Robin G; Wilson, D; Tuck, J J

    2014-03-01

    In most conflicts there is the potential that there will be Captured Persons (CPERS) whose medical care is the responsibility of the capturing army. The standard of this care should be to the same standard as that afforded to one's own troops. However the medical practicalities of maintaining such standards can be difficult. This article reviews the practicalities of the medical care of CPERS as part of the UK deployment in Afghanistan on Operation HERRICK. PMID:24125800

  7. A procedural, pragmatist account of ethical objectivity.

    PubMed

    Roth, Amanda

    2013-06-01

    This article offers a procedural, pragmatist account of objectivity in the domain of the good that is inspired by pragmatic and feminist critiques of objectivity in philosophy of science and epistemology. I begin by asking first what we want to capture--or ought to want to capture--with a notion of ethical objectivity and in answer to this question I identify four "points" to ethical objectivity: undergirding the possibility of mistakenness, making genuine disagreement possible, making sense of our appreciation of the ethical perspectives of others, and making possible a sense of ethical improvement or learning. I then lay out a process-based account of objectivity in ethics that makes good on the four points I have identified. Finally, I consider worries related to convergence, bias, and ontology and defend the procedural, pragmatist account in light of those potential objections.

  8. A method for modeling contact dynamics for automated capture mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    Logicon Control Dynamics develops contact dynamics models for space-based docking and berthing vehicles. The models compute contact forces for the physical contact between mating capture mechanism surfaces. Realistic simulation requires proportionality constants, for calculating contact forces, to approximate surface stiffness of contacting bodies. Proportionality for rigid metallic bodies becomes quite large. Small penetrations of surface boundaries can produce large contact forces.

  9. Revisiting the Effect of Capture Heterogeneity on Survival Estimates in Capture-Mark-Recapture Studies: Does It Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Fitsum; Botha, Andre; Altwegg, Res

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed capture-mark-recapture methods allow us to account for capture heterogeneity among individuals in the form of discrete mixtures and continuous individual random effects. In this article, we used simulations and two case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of continuously distributed individual random effects at removing potential bias due to capture heterogeneity, and to evaluate in what situation the added complexity of these models is justified. Simulations and case studies showed that ignoring individual capture heterogeneity generally led to a small negative bias in survival estimates and that individual random effects effectively removed this bias. As expected, accounting for capture heterogeneity also led to slightly less precise survival estimates. Our case studies also showed that accounting for capture heterogeneity increased in importance towards the end of study. Though ignoring capture heterogeneity led to a small bias in survival estimates, such bias may greatly impact management decisions. We advocate reducing potential heterogeneity at the sampling design stage. Where this is insufficient, we recommend modelling individual capture heterogeneity in situations such as when a large proportion of the individuals has a low detection probability (e.g. in the presence of floaters) and situations where the most recent survival estimates are of great interest (e.g. in applied conservation). PMID:23646131

  10. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  11. Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric capture and gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure C02 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as welL To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from un-reacted carbon oxides (C02- CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents, zeolites, and new technologies. This paper and presentation will summarize the results of an extensive literature review and laboratory evaluations of candidate technologies for the capture and separation of C02 and other relevant gases.

  12. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Paczian, Tobias; Glass, Elizabeth; Wilke, Andreas; Meyer, Folker

    2014-12-08

    Background: As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. These tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack themore » appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results: Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusion: Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility.« less

  13. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Paczian, Tobias; Glass, Elizabeth; Wilke, Andreas; Meyer, Folker

    2014-12-08

    Background: As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. These tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results: Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusion: Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility.

  14. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. Unfortunately, these tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusions Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility. PMID:25780508

  15. Electron capture on iron group nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, D.J.; Chatterjee, L.; Strayer, M.R.; Dean, D.J.; Chatterjee, L.; Langanke, K.; Chatterjee, L.; Radha, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    We present Gamow-Teller strength distributions from shell model Monte Carlo studies of fp-shell nuclei that may play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernovas. We then use these strength distributions to calculate the electron-capture cross sections and rates in the zero-momentum transfer limit. We also discuss the thermal behavior of the cross sections. We find large differences in these cross sections and rates when compared to the naive single-particle estimates. These differences need to be taken into account for improved modeling of the early stages of type-II supernova evolution. thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Capturing carbon and saving coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.

    2007-10-15

    Electric utilities face a tangle of choices when figuring how to pull CO{sub 2} from coal-fired plants. The article explains the three basic approaches to capturing CO{sub 2} - post-combustion, oxyfuel combustion and pre-combustion. Researchers at US DOE labs and utilities are investigating new solvents that capture CO{sub 2} more efficiently than amines and take less energy. Ammonium carbonate has been identified by EPRI as one suitable solvent. Field research projects on this are underway in the USA. Oxyfuel combustion trials are also being planned. Pre-combustion, or gasification is a completely different way of pulling energy from coal and, for electricity generation, this means IGCC systems. AEP, Southern Cinergy and Xcel are considering IGCC plants but none will capture CO{sub 2}. Rio Tinto and BP are planning a 500 MW facility to gasify coke waste from petroleum refining and collect and sequester CO{sub 2}. However, TECO recently dropped a project to build a 789 MW IGCC coal fired plant even though it was to receive a tax credit to encourage advanced coal technologies. The plant would not have captured CO{sub 2}. The company said that 'with uncertainty of carbon capture and sequestration regulations being discussed at the federal and state levels, the timing was not right'. 4 figs.

  17. Featured Image: Fireball After a Temporary Capture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    This image of a fireball was captured in the Czech Republic by cameras at a digital autonomous observatory in the village of Kunak. This observatory is part of a network of stations known as the European Fireball Network, and this particular meteoroid detection, labeled EN130114, is notable because it has the lowest initial velocity of any natural object ever observed by the network. Led by David Clark (University of Western Ontario), the authors of a recent study speculate that before this meteoroid impacted Earth, it may have been a Temporarily Captured Orbiter (TCO). TCOs are near-Earth objects that make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one has ever been observed to date, and though they are thought to make up 0.1% of all meteoroids, EN130114 is the first event ever detected that exhibits conclusive behavior of a TCO. For more information on EN130114 and why TCOs are important to study, check out the paper below!CitationDavid L. Clark et al 2016 AJ 151 135. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/6/135

  18. Relaxing the constraints on image capture for iris recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter A.; Rickman, John M.; Hartsell, Jeremy W.

    2012-06-01

    Iris recognition is considered to be one of the most accurate biometrics, but user inconvenience during the image acquisition phase has limited its widespread use. Image capture is largely constrained to well-controlled situations, where subjects must remain relatively stationary or within a capture "volume" close to the camera. As a consequence, iris recognition systems have a reputation for being borderline intrusive, and less friendly for both subjects and operators. To support the development of a more natural and acceptable iris capture system, we have sought to develop a pre-processor driven imaging system that predicts a maximal opportunity window for iris capture for a subject engaged in natural motion based on predictive head and eye movement algorithms. This paper describes a first-generation prototype iris capture system that utilizes this approach. A wide field of view camera is used to track a person's face and provide head pose data as input to the predictive algorithm. The algorithm is then used to direct a second narrow field of view camera to capture the iris image more reliably. This system serves as a platform for further development of head movement prediction algorithms used to enhance the probability of iris capture in moving or uncooperative subjects.

  19. TEMPORARY CAPTURE OF PLANETESIMALS BY A PLANET FROM THEIR HELIOCENTRIC ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Suetsugu, Ryo; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Tanigawa, Takayuki

    2011-12-15

    When planetesimals encounter a planet, they can be temporarily captured by the planet's gravity and orbit about it for an extended period of time before escaping from the planet's vicinity. Such a process may have played an important role in the origin of irregular satellites or the dynamical evolution of short-period comets. Using three-body orbital integration, we study the temporary capture of planetesimals by a planet from their heliocentric eccentric orbits. We examine the dependence of the orbital characteristics during temporary capture as well as the rate of capture on the pre-capture heliocentric orbital parameters. We find that typical orbital size and direction of revolution around the planet change depending on planetesimals' initial eccentricity and energy. When initial eccentricity is so small that Kepler shear dominates the relative velocity between planetesimals and the planet, temporary capture typically occurs in the retrograde direction in the vicinity of the planet's Hill sphere, while large retrograde capture orbits outside the Hill sphere are predominant for large eccentricities. Long prograde capture occurs in a very narrow range of planetesimal eccentricity and energy. We obtain the rate of temporary capture of planetesimals and find that the rate of long capture increases with increasing eccentricity at low and high eccentricities, but decreases with increasing eccentricity in intermediate values of eccentricity. We also examine the dependence of capture rate on the duration of capture and find an approximate power-law dependence.

  20. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  1. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kim E; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. PMID:26926987

  2. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Kim E.; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R.; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. PMID:26926987

  3. P-d capture reactions in muonic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Capture reactions for very low-energy n-d and p-d systems are calculated and compared with experiment, as are low-energy n-d and p-d scattering. We find excellent agreement for the n-d scattering lengths, but poor agreement for the p-d case, which we believe is a problem with the experimental extrapolation. The n-d radiative capture is sensitive to details of the meson-exchange currents, but reasonable models agree with the data. The latter models are in good agreement with experiment when extended to the p-d case. Our large quartet capture rate resolves a long-standing anomaly. The EO capture matrix element recently obtained from a reanalysis of internal conversion in muonic molecules is in excellent agreement with our predictions. This matrix element is very clean theoretically and provides the best test of the calculations. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Conditional capture probability for Scaphirhynchus spp. in drifting trammel nets

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Christopher S.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; Gerrity, Paul C.

    2009-06-01

    Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus are commonly sampled using drifting-trammel nets in the Missouri River basin. Despite that drifting trammel nets have been used for decades to sample these species, little is known about the capture efficiency of this gear. We estimated conditional capture probability and gear efficiency for drifting trammel nets. In addition we examined several abiotic variables that were assumed to influence the success of capturing a pallid sturgeon or shovelnose sturgeon in a drifting trammel net. Conditional capture probability varied from 0.36 on the first attempt to 0.50 on the second attempt. Drifting trammel nets are relatively efficient and we suggest that they continue to be used to sample in large turbid rivers. The high variability associated with sampling pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon using drifting trammel nets is likely related to low abundance and patchy distributions. Thus, we suggest using more appropriate sampling designs for rare species.

  5. Electron Capture Reactions and Beta Decays in Steller Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Mao, H.; Honma, M.; Yoshida, T.; Kajino, T.; Otsuka, T.

    2011-10-28

    Electron capture reactions on Ni and Co isotopes are investigated by shell model calculations in steller environments. The capture rates depend sensitively on the distribution of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength. The capture rates obtained by using GXPF1J Hamiltonian for fp-shell are found to be consistent with the rates obtained from experimental GT strength in {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni. Capture rates in Co isotopes, where there were large discrepancies among previous calculations, are also investigated. Beta decays of the N = 126 isotones are studied by shell model calculations taking into account both the GT and first-forbidden (FF) transitions. The FF transitions are found to be important to reduce the half-lives by twice to several times of those by the GT contributions only. Implications of the short half-lives of the waiting point nuclei on the r-process nucleosynthesis are discussed for various astrophysical conditions.

  6. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  7. The Ices on Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bergh, C.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Brunetto, R.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Schmitt, B.

    Transneptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are small bodies orbiting the Sun in the cold outer regions of the Solar System. TNOs include Pluto and its satellite Charon, and Neptune's large satellite Triton is thought to have been captured from the TNO population. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of a number of the brightest of these bodies shows surface ices of H2O, CH4, N2, CH3OH, C2H6, CO, CO2, NH3•nH2O, and possibly HCN, in various combinations; water ice is by far the most common. Silicate minerals and solid complex carbonaceous materials are thought to occur on these bodies, but their spectral signatures have not yet been positively identified. The pronounced red color of several TNOs and Centaurs is presumed to result from the presence of carbonaceous materials. In all, the TNOs and Centaurs are thought to be primitive bodies in the sense that they have undergone relatively little modification by heating and by the space environment since their condensation in the volatile-rich outer regions of the solar nebula. As such, they hold the potential to yield important information on the chemical and physical conditions of the solar nebula. Continued and expanded studies of TNOs and Centaurs require additional basic laboratory data on the physical and the optical properties of the ices already identified and those candidate materials that have not yet been confirmed. New sky surveys and large telescopes projected for operation in the near future will reveal many more objects in the outer Solar System for detailed study.

  8. Use of models to map potential capture of surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of ground-water withdrawals on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation have become important considerations in water-availability studies. Ground water withdrawn by a well initially comes from storage around the well, but with time can eventually increase inflow to the aquifer and (or) decrease natural outflow from the aquifer. This increased inflow and decreased outflow is referred to as “capture.” For a given time, capture can be expressed as a fraction of withdrawal rate that is accounted for as increased rates of inflow and decreased rates of outflow. The time frames over which capture might occur at different locations commonly are not well understood by resource managers. A ground-water model, however, can be used to map potential capture for areas and times of interest. The maps can help managers visualize the possible timing of capture over large regions. The first step in the procedure to map potential capture is to run a ground-water model in steady-state mode without withdrawals to establish baseline total flow rates at all sources and sinks. The next step is to select a time frame and appropriate withdrawal rate for computing capture. For regional aquifers, time frames of decades to centuries may be appropriate. The model is then run repeatedly in transient mode, each run with one well in a different model cell in an area of interest. Differences in inflow and outflow rates from the baseline conditions for each model run are computed and saved. The differences in individual components are summed and divided by the withdrawal rate to obtain a single capture fraction for each cell. Values are contoured to depict capture fractions for the time of interest. Considerations in carrying out the analysis include use of realistic physical boundaries in the model, understanding the degree of linearity of the model, selection of an appropriate time frame and withdrawal rate, and minimizing error in the global mass balance of the model.

  9. Shape inspection system with real-time adaptation to the luminance of the objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Daniel F.; Usamentiaga, Ruben; Marin, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Juan A.; de Abajo, Nicolas

    2001-04-01

    This work presents an automated shape inspection system for 2D objects with variable luminance. The system installed in the steel industry, captures linear images of plates at high temperature (700 - 1200 degree(s)C) while they are moving on a roll path. The main objective of the system is to capture the shape of the head and tail of the plates. These shapes are used to optimize the rolling parameters of the plate mill in order to minimize waste. The radiation generated by the plates in the visible and infrared zones of the spectrum (largely dependent on their temperature) is directly captured by the linear camera of the system with no additional artificial illumination. While most of the research work has been focused on obtaining the optimal illumination for the objects inspected, this work deals with the particular case of objects which irradiate their own light. This system automatically adapts itself to acquire images of plates with different levels of luminance using a mechanisms that calculates the proper exposure time to acquire each image. The mechanism integrates two basic actions: a feedforward control and an adaptive feedback control loop.

  10. Adding ecology to particle capture models: numerical simulations of capture on a moving cylinder in crossflow.

    PubMed

    Krick, Julian; Ackerman, Josef Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The particle capture efficiency, η, of systems that remove suspended particles from ambient flow (e.g. suspension feeding, abiotic pollination) has been studied using static collectors in steady flows. Particle deposition on collectors moving due to fluid flow remains largely unknown, despite its ecological relevance. We used numerical modeling to simulate particle deposition on a 2D circular cylinder subject to flow-induced oscillation in a cross flow. Using parameter values relevant to wind pollination and other natural biological systems, we examined the influence of the direction, amplitude and frequency of the oscillation, the Stokes number (Stk=0.01-5, characterizing particle behavior), as well as the Reynolds number (Re=662 and 3309, characterizing flow regime) in steady and unsteady flow, on η. The numerical model was validated with empirical results for parts of the parameter space. Particle capture occurred via "inertial impaction", "direct interception" and "leeward deposition", as well as via a new mechanism, "collector chasing" for moving collectors. The η of an oscillating cylinder varied significantly relative to a static cylinder, depending on the parameters used, and on the magnitude of a numerical error that caused loss of particles. This variance of η was due to a change in relative momentum between the particle and the moving collector, which depends on Re, Stk and the oscillation parameters. Collector oscillation transverse to oncoming flow direction strongly increased η, whereas collector motion parallel to flow had little effect on capture efficiency. The oscillation also changed leeward capture significantly in some cases. For most conditions, however, leeward deposition was small. Results suggest that collector motion could have significant influence on the particle capture efficiency of natural systems, which indicates the need to incorporate these ecologically more relevant findings into current models. Empirical studies, however

  11. Adding ecology to particle capture models: numerical simulations of capture on a moving cylinder in crossflow.

    PubMed

    Krick, Julian; Ackerman, Josef Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The particle capture efficiency, η, of systems that remove suspended particles from ambient flow (e.g. suspension feeding, abiotic pollination) has been studied using static collectors in steady flows. Particle deposition on collectors moving due to fluid flow remains largely unknown, despite its ecological relevance. We used numerical modeling to simulate particle deposition on a 2D circular cylinder subject to flow-induced oscillation in a cross flow. Using parameter values relevant to wind pollination and other natural biological systems, we examined the influence of the direction, amplitude and frequency of the oscillation, the Stokes number (Stk=0.01-5, characterizing particle behavior), as well as the Reynolds number (Re=662 and 3309, characterizing flow regime) in steady and unsteady flow, on η. The numerical model was validated with empirical results for parts of the parameter space. Particle capture occurred via "inertial impaction", "direct interception" and "leeward deposition", as well as via a new mechanism, "collector chasing" for moving collectors. The η of an oscillating cylinder varied significantly relative to a static cylinder, depending on the parameters used, and on the magnitude of a numerical error that caused loss of particles. This variance of η was due to a change in relative momentum between the particle and the moving collector, which depends on Re, Stk and the oscillation parameters. Collector oscillation transverse to oncoming flow direction strongly increased η, whereas collector motion parallel to flow had little effect on capture efficiency. The oscillation also changed leeward capture significantly in some cases. For most conditions, however, leeward deposition was small. Results suggest that collector motion could have significant influence on the particle capture efficiency of natural systems, which indicates the need to incorporate these ecologically more relevant findings into current models. Empirical studies, however

  12. Why capture CO2 from the atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Keith, David W

    2009-09-25

    Air capture is an industrial process for capturing CO2 from ambient air; it is one of an emerging set of technologies for CO2 removal that includes geological storage of biotic carbon and the acceleration of geochemical weathering. Although air capture will cost more than capture from power plants when both are operated under the same economic conditions, air capture allows one to apply industrial economies of scale to small and mobile emission sources and enables a partial decoupling of carbon capture from the energy infrastructure, advantages that may compensate for the intrinsic difficulty of capturing carbon from the air.

  13. Why Capture CO2 from the Atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, David W.

    2009-09-01

    Air capture is an industrial process for capturing CO2 from ambient air; it is one of an emerging set of technologies for CO2 removal that includes geological storage of biotic carbon and the acceleration of geochemical weathering. Although air capture will cost more than capture from power plants when both are operated under the same economic conditions, air capture allows one to apply industrial economies of scale to small and mobile emission sources and enables a partial decoupling of carbon capture from the energy infrastructure, advantages that may compensate for the intrinsic difficulty of capturing carbon from the air.

  14. Orbital electron capture by the nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambynek, W.; Behrens, H.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Fitzpatrick, M. L.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Genz, H.; Mutterer, M.; Intemann, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of nuclear electron capture is reviewed in the light of current understanding of weak interactions. Experimental methods and results regarding capture probabilities, capture ratios, and EC/Beta(+) ratios are summarized. Radiative electron capture is discussed, including both theory and experiment. Atomic wave function overlap and electron exchange effects are covered, as are atomic transitions that accompany nuclear electron capture. Tables are provided to assist the reader in determining quantities of interest for specific cases.

  15. River Captures and Erosional Disequilibrium Along Strike-slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Fayon, A. K.; Perg, L. A.; Paola, C.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Mota, M.; Moran-Ical, S.

    2005-12-01

    River captures are internal instabilities of erosion systems and are inherently promoted by strike-slip faulting. A capture event can generate a wave of incision that propagates from the capture site upstream and/or downstream, resulting in an increased bulk erosion rate around the capture site. Thus, under steady boundary conditions, drainage diversions trigger pulses of erosion, sediment production, rock exhumation and isostatic rebound. Therefore, a significant part of the erosion in oblique tectonics can be achieved in a state of significant departure from short-term dynamic equilibrium. The frequency, intensity, and duration of these events set the timescale over which their integrated effects can be regarded as the expression of a long-term dynamic equilibrium. We are investigating the effects of a large river capture on the oblique collision between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala. Several thousands of kilometers of strike-slip displacement have been accommodated along this boundary during the Tertiary. The deformation is now concentrated mostly along the E-W Motagua strike-slip fault. Oblique tectonics is discernable within a 50 km wide topographic belt, north of this fault (Sierra de las Minas - Sierra de Chuacus range). On the northern flank of this range, deformation includes 130 km offset across the Polochic strike-slip fault, documented by both geological structures and drainage patterns. Numerous elbows and dry valleys show the progressive transformation of the initial transverse (S-N) drainage crossing the fault into a transverse-parallel (E-W) system that developed during increasing displacement along the fault. The drainage reorganization operates by river lengthening, captures, and avulsions. One of the latest capture sites is surrounded by a large (110x30 km) zone of deeply (1500 m) dissected landscape that coincides with the captured catchment. This zone sharply contrasts with the surrounding areas where large fragments of a

  16. Distant Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. Lynne; Bernstein, Gary; Malhotra, Renu

    2001-02-01

    Kuiper Belt Object surveys indicate a lack of objects with semi- major axis a⪆50 AU in low eccentricity, low inclination orbits. This presents a problem for the simplest theories of Kuiper Belt evolution, which predict a dense, primordial outer Kuiper Belt. A possible solution is that the outer Belt is very dynamically cold, appearing as a razor-thin plane on the sky. If this disk was inclined only 0.5° from the ecliptic, present surveys could fail to detect it since the deep surveys (limiting magnitude R~26) lack sufficient sky coverage and the shallow surveys (limiting mag R~24.4) lack sufficient depth to see small (radius ⪉130 km) objects beyond 50 AU. If this cold, dense disk were to cross a Mosaic field with a limiting magnitude R=25.8, we would expect to see at least 15 distant KBOs. By observing strategically placed large fields we could detect any cold, dense distant disk inclined at up to 0.7° from the invariable plane. This would place a strong constraint on the location of a cold, dense outer Kuiper Belt.

  17. Density estimation in a wolverine population using spatial capture-recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Magoun, Audrey J.; Gardner, Beth; Valkenbury, Patrick; Lowell, Richard E.; McKelvey, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Classical closed-population capture-recapture models do not accommodate the spatial information inherent in encounter history data obtained from camera-trapping studies. As a result, individual heterogeneity in encounter probability is induced, and it is not possible to estimate density objectively because trap arrays do not have a well-defined sample area. We applied newly-developed, capture-recapture models that accommodate the spatial attribute inherent in capture-recapture data to a population of wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Southeast Alaska in 2008. We used camera-trapping data collected from 37 cameras in a 2,140-km2 area of forested and open habitats largely enclosed by ocean and glacial icefields. We detected 21 unique individuals 115 times. Wolverines exhibited a strong positive trap response, with an increased tendency to revisit previously visited traps. Under the trap-response model, we estimated wolverine density at 9.7 individuals/1,000-km2(95% Bayesian CI: 5.9-15.0). Our model provides a formal statistical framework for estimating density from wolverine camera-trapping studies that accounts for a behavioral response due to baited traps. Further, our model-based estimator does not have strict requirements about the spatial configuration of traps or length of trapping sessions, providing considerable operational flexibility in the development of field studies.

  18. An efficient method of capturing Painted Buntings and other small granivorous passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    To study survival in the eastern breeding population of the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris), I developed a technique to capture a large sample of buntings for color marking with leg-bands. This involved the use of bird feeders and an array of three short mist nets located at 40 sites in four states, each site meeting five specific criteria. In five years of mist netting (1999-2003), 4174 captures (including recaptures) of Painted Buntings were made in 3393 net-hours or 123 captures per 100 net-hours. The technique proved to be effective and efficient, and may have broad application for capturing large numbers of small granivorous passerines.

  19. Capture and transparency in coarse quantized images.

    PubMed

    Morrone, M C; Burr, D C

    1997-09-01

    This study examines the effect of coarse quantization (blocking) on image recognition, and explores possible mechanisms. Thresholds for noise corruption showed that coarse quantization reduces drastically the recognizability of both faces and letters, well beyond the levels expected by equivalent blurring. Phase-shifting the spurious high frequencies introduced by the blocking (with an operation designed to leave both overall and local contrast unaffected, and feature localization) greatly improved recognizability of both faces and letters. For large phase shifts, the low spatial frequencies appear in transparency behind a grid structure of checks or lines. We also studied a more simple example of blocking, the checkerboard, that can be considered as a coarse quantized diagonal sinusoidal plaid. When one component of the plaid was contrast-inverted, it was seen in transparency against the checkerboard, while the other remained "captured" within the block structure. If the higher harmonics are then phase-shifted by pi, the contrast-reversed fundamental becomes captured and the other seen in transparency. Intermediate phase shifts of the higher harmonics cause intermediate effects, which we measured by adjusting the relative contrast of the fundamentals until neither orientation dominated. The contrast match varied considerably with the phase of the higher harmonics, over a range of about 1.5 log units. Simulations with the local energy model predicted qualitatively the results of the recognizability of both faces and letters, and quantitatively the apparent orientation of the modified checkerboard pattern. More generally, the model predicts the conditions under which an image will be "captured" by coarse quantization, or seen in transparency.

  20. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  1. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  2. Penetration of multiple thin films in micrometeorite capture cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to develop cosmic dust detectors/collectors for use in space, we performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments on combined sensor/capture-cell assemblies using 10-200-micron-diameter glass projectiles and olivine crystals at velocities of 0.9-14.4 km/s. The design objective of the space-flight instrument is to measure the trajectories of individual particles with sufficient accuracy to permit identification of their parent bodies and to capture enough impactor material to allow chemical and isotopic analyses of samples returned to Earth. Three different multiple-film small-particle capture cell designs (0.1-100-micron-thick Al foils with approx. 10, 100, and 1800 micron spacing) were evaluated for their ability to capture impactor fragments and residue. Their performances were compared to two other types of capture cells, foil covered Ge crystals, and 0.50 and 0.120 g/cu cm aerogels. All capture cells were tested behind multifilm (1.4-6.0-micron-thick) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) velocity/trajectory sensor devices. Several tests were also done without the PVDF sensors for comparison. The results of this study were reported by Simon in a comprehensive report in which the morphology of impacts and impactor residues in various types of capture cells after passage through two PVDF sensor films is discussed. Impactor fragments in selected capture cells from impacts at velocities up to 6.4 km/s were identified using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS).

  3. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Subaru/HDS study of CH stars: elemental abundances for stellar neutron-capture process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako; Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive abundance analysis providing rare insight into the chemical history of lead stars is still lacking. We present results from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) spectral analyses of three CH stars, HD 26, HD 198269 and HD 224959, and, a carbon star with a dusty envelope, HD 100764. Previous studies on these objects are limited by both resolution and wavelength regions and the results differ significantly from each other. We have undertaken to reanalyse the chemical composition of these objects based on high-resolution Subaru spectra covering the wavelength regions 4020-6775 Å. Considering local thermodynamic equilibrium and using model atmospheres, we have derived the stellar parameters, the effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, and metallicities [Fe/H] for these objects. The derived parameters for HD 26, HD 100764, HD 198269 and HD 224959 are (5000, 1.6, -1.13), (4750, 2.0 -0.86), (4500, 1.5, -2.06) and (5050, 2.1, -2.44), respectively. The stars are found to exhibit large enhancements of heavy elements relative to iron in conformity to previous studies. Large enhancement of Pb with respect to iron is also confirmed. Updates on the elemental abundances for several s-process elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pb) along with the first-time estimates of abundances for a number of other heavy elements (Sr, Ba, Pr, Eu, Er and W) are reported. Our analysis suggests that neutron-capture elements in HD 26 primarily originate in the s-process while the major contributions to the abundances of neutron-capture elements in the more metal-poor objects HD 224959 and HD 198269 are from the r-process, possibly from materials that are pre-enriched with products of the r-process.

  5. Automatic run-time provenance capture for scientific dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, J.; Slaughter, P.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance---the directed graph of a dataset's processing history---is difficult to capture effectively. Human- generated provenance, as narrative metadata, is labor-intensive and thus often incorrect, incomplete, or simply not recorded. Workflow systems capture some provenance implicitly in workflow specifications, but these systems are not ubiquitous or standardized, and a workflow specification may not capture all of the factors involved in a dataset's production. System audit trails capture potentially all processing activities, but not the relationships between them. We describe a system that transparently (i.e., without any modification to science codes) and automatically (i.e. without any human intervention) captures the low-level interactions (files read/written, parameters accessed, etc.) between scientific processes, and then synthesizes these relationships into a provenance graph. This system---the Earth System Science Server (ES3)---is sufficiently general that it can accommodate any combination of stand-alone programs, interpreted codes (e.g. IDL), and command- language scripts. Provenance in ES3 can be published in well-defined XML formats (including formats suitable for graphical visualization), and queried to determine the ancestors or descendants of any specific data file or process invocation. We demonstrate how ES3 can be used to capture the provenance of a large operational ocean color dataset.

  6. Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan

    2015-08-18

    Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible even for an annihilation cross section in the range expected for thermal relic dark matter. Since the captured number of particles are competitive with asymmetric dark matter models in a large range of parameter space, one may expect solar physics to be altered by the capture of Dirac dark matter. It is thus possible that solutions to the solar composition problem may be searched for in these type of models.

  7. Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan E-mail: scl@kth.se

    2015-08-01

    Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible even for an annihilation cross section in the range expected for thermal relic dark matter. Since the captured number of particles are competitive with asymmetric dark matter models in a large range of parameter space, one may expect solar physics to be altered by the capture of Dirac dark matter. It is thus possible that solutions to the solar composition problem may be searched for in these type of models.

  8. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  9. Neutron Capture from 87Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Raut, R.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Baramsai, B.; Kelley, J. H.; Mitchell, G.; Bredeweg, T.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Rundberg, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.

    2011-10-01

    The neutron-capture resonances of the reaction 87Sr(n , γ)88Sr are significant to nuclear astrophysics to estimate the neutron density during the s process, whose path is split by the branching nucleus 85Kr, and for a possible use of the 87Rb-87Sr chronometric pair to measure the age of our Galaxy. In addition, the γ rays of the product nucleus 88Sr are of importance to nuclear structure and the study of the pygmy resonance observed earlier in (γ ,γ') measurements. We report results from a neutron-capture experiment on 87Sr carried out with the 4 π BaF2 array, DANCE, at LANL. Spin values of neutron resonances have been deduced using the multiplicity and angular distributions of the cascade γ rays following the neutron capture. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under grants DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-97ER41042, DE-FG02-97ER41041, and DE-FG52-06NA26155.

  10. Spacecraft capture and docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kinyuen (Inventor); Rafeek, Shaheed (Inventor); Myrick, Thomas (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system for capturing and docking an active craft to a passive craft has a first docking assembly on the active craft with a first contact member and a spike projecting outwardly, a second docking assembly on the passive craft having a second contact member and a flexible net deployed over a target area with an open mesh for capturing the end of the spike of the active craft, and a motorized net drive for reeling in the net and active craft to mate with the passive craft's docking assembly. The spike has extendable tabs to allow it to become engaged with the net. The net's center is coupled to a net spool for reeling in. An alignment funnel has inclined walls to guide the net and captured spike towards the net spool. The passive craft's docking assembly includes circumferentially spaced preload wedges which are driven to lock the wedges against the contact member of the active craft. The active craft's docking assembly includes a rotary table and drive for rotating it to a predetermined angular alignment position, and mating connectors are then engaged with each other. The system may be used for docking spacecraft in zero or low-gravity environments, as well as for docking underwater vehicles, docking of ancillary craft to a mother craft in subsonic flight, in-flight refueling systems, etc.

  11. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  12. Use of Lecture Capture in Undergraduate Biological Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Candace; Newton, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of lecture capture in students in a large 3rd year undergraduate biological science course at the University of Guelph. Data regarding viewing behaviour, academic performance, and attendance were analyzed in relation to student learning approach (as assessed by the R-SPQ-2F), gender, and year of post-secondary…

  13. Immunomagnetic capture of Bacillus anthracis spores from food.

    PubMed

    Shields, Michael J; Hahn, Kristen R; Janzen, Timothy W; Goji, Noriko; Thomas, Matthew C; Kingombe, Cesar Bin I; Paquet, Chantal; Kell, Arnold J; Amoako, Kingsley K

    2012-07-01

    Food is a vulnerable target for potential bioterrorist attacks; therefore, a critical mitigation strategy is needed for the rapid concentration and detection of biothreat agents from food matrices. Magnetic beads offer a unique advantage in that they have a large surface area for efficient capture of bacteria. We have demonstrated the efficient capture and concentration of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) spores using immunomagnetic beads for a potential food application. Magnetic beads from three different sources, with varying sizes and surface chemistries, were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies from commercial sources and used to capture and concentrate anthrax spores from spiked food matrices, including milk, apple juice, bagged salad, processed meat, and bottled water. The results indicated that the Pathatrix beads were more effective in the binding and capture of anthrax spores than the other two bead types investigated. Furthermore, it was observed that the use of polyclonal antibodies resulted in a more efficient recovery of anthrax spores than the use of monoclonal antibodies. Three different magnetic capture methods, inversion, the Pathatrix Auto system, and the new i CropTheBug system, were investigated. The i CropTheBug system yielded a much higher recovery of spores than the Pathatrix Auto system. Spore recoveries ranged from 80 to 100% for the i CropTheBug system when using pure spore preparations, whereas the Pathatrix Auto system had recoveries from 20 to 30%. Spore capture from food samples inoculated at a level of 1 CFU/ml resulted in 80 to 100% capture for milk, bottled water, and juice samples and 60 to 80% for processed meat and bagged salad when using the i CropTheBug system. This efficient capture of anthrax spores at very low concentrations without enrichment has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of downstream detection technologies and will be a useful method in a foodborne bioterrorism response. PMID

  14. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V. ); Moore, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  15. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V.; Moore, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  16. Speckle-learning-based object recognition through scattering media.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-12-28

    We experimentally demonstrated object recognition through scattering media based on direct machine learning of a number of speckle intensity images. In the experiments, speckle intensity images of amplitude or phase objects on a spatial light modulator between scattering plates were captured by a camera. We used the support vector machine for binary classification of the captured speckle intensity images of face and non-face data. The experimental results showed that speckles are sufficient for machine learning. PMID:26832049

  17. New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

    2012-04-30

    The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

  18. Graspable Objects Shape Number Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object–number vs. number–object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses – for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience. PMID:22164141

  19. An Observational Measure of Children's Attachments to Soft Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, Alison J.; Lehman, Elyse Brauch

    2000-01-01

    Developed direct observational measure of children's attachment to inanimate objects such as blankets and soft toys among object-attached and non-object-attached 15- to 31-month-olds. Procedure varied arousal levels across situations. Found support for validity of the procedure in, among other factors, its ability to capture the preference of…

  20. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  1. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  2. Coloring RDF Triples to Capture Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouris, Giorgos; Fundulaki, Irini; Pediaditis, Panagiotis; Theoharis, Yannis; Christophides, Vassilis

    Recently, the W3C Linking Open Data effort has boosted the publication and inter-linkage of large amounts of RDF datasets on the Semantic Web. Various ontologies and knowledge bases with millions of RDF triples from Wikipedia and other sources, mostly in e-science, have been created and are publicly available. Recording provenance information of RDF triples aggregated from different heterogeneous sources is crucial in order to effectively support trust mechanisms, digital rights and privacy policies. Managing provenance becomes even more important when we consider not only explicitly stated but also implicit triples (through RDFS inference rules) in conjunction with declarative languages for querying and updating RDF graphs. In this paper we rely on colored RDF triples represented as quadruples to capture and manipulate explicit provenance information.

  3. Upwind and symmetric shock-capturing schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    The development of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws has been a rapidly growing area for the last ten years. Many of the fundamental concepts and state-of-the-art developments can only be found in meeting proceedings or internal reports. This review paper attempts to give an overview and a unified formulation of a class of shock-capturing methods. Special emphasis is on the construction of the basic nonlinear scalar second-order schemes and the methods of extending these nonlinear scalar schemes to nonlinear systems via the extact Riemann solver, approximate Riemann solvers, and flux-vector splitting approaches. Generalization of these methods to efficiently include real gases and large systems of nonequilibrium flows is discussed. The performance of some of these schemes is illustrated by numerical examples for one-, two- and three-dimensional gas dynamics problems.

  4. Stellar encounters as the origin of distant Solar System objects in highly eccentric orbits.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Scott J; Bromley, Benjamin C

    2004-12-01

    The Kuiper belt extends from the orbit of Neptune at 30 au to an abrupt outer edge about 50 au from the Sun. Beyond the edge is a sparse population of objects with large orbital eccentricities. Neptune shapes the dynamics of most Kuiper belt objects, but the recently discovered planet 2003 VB12 (Sedna) has an eccentric orbit with a perihelion distance of 70 au, far beyond Neptune's gravitational influence. Although influences from passing stars could have created the Kuiper belt's outer edge and could have scattered objects into large, eccentric orbits, no model currently explains the properties of Sedna. Here we show that a passing star probably scattered Sedna from the Kuiper belt into its observed orbit. The likelihood that a planet at 60-80 au can be scattered into Sedna's orbit is about 50 per cent; this estimate depends critically on the geometry of the fly-by. Even more interesting is the approximately 10 per cent chance that Sedna was captured from the outer disk of the passing star. Most captures have very high inclination orbits; detection of such objects would confirm the presence of extrasolar planets in our own Solar System. PMID:15577903

  5. What You See Is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Steven B.; Scholl, Brian J.; Clifford, Erin R.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a theoretical and experimental attempt to relate and contrast 2 traditionally separate research programs: inattentional blindness and attention capture. Inattentional blindness refers to failures to notice unexpected objects and events when attention is otherwise engaged. Attention capture research has traditionally used…

  6. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  7. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  8. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  9. Capturing geometry in real-time using a tracked Microsoft Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenedorio, Daniel; Fecho, Marlena; Schwartzhaupt, Jorge; Pardridge, Robert; Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the suitability of the Microsoft Kinect device for capturing real-world objects and places. Our new geometry scanning system permits the user to obtain detailed triangle models of non-moving objects with a tracked Kinect. The system generates a texture map for the triangle mesh using video frames from the Kinect's color camera and displays a continually-updated preview of the textured model in real-time, allowing the user to re-scan the scene from any direction to fill holes or increase the texture resolution. We also present filtering methods to maintain a high-quality model of reasonable size by removing overlapping or low-precision range scans. Our approach works well in the presence of degenerate geometry or when closing loops about the scanned subject. We demonstrate the ability of our system to acquire 3D models at human scale with a prototype implementation in the StarCAVE, a virtual reality environment at the University of California, San Diego. We designed the capturing algorithm to support the scanning of large areas, provided that accurate tracking is available.

  10. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  11. Chromosome Conformation Capture in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Linear chromatin fiber is packed inside the nuclei as a complex three-dimensional structure, and the organization of the chromatin has important roles in the appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. To understand how chromatin organizes inside nuclei, and how regulatory proteins physically interact with genes, chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique provides a powerful and sensitive tool to detect both short- and long-range DNA-DNA interaction. Here I describe the 3C technique to detect the DNA-DNA interactions mediated by insulator proteins that are closely related to PcG in Drosophila, which is also broadly applicable to other systems. PMID:27659987

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  13. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

  14. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R.; Modine, Normand A.

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  15. Depletion and capture: revisiting "the source of water derived from wells".

    PubMed

    Konikow, L F; Leake, S A

    2014-09-01

    A natural consequence of groundwater withdrawals is the removal of water from subsurface storage, but the overall rates and magnitude of groundwater depletion and capture relative to groundwater withdrawals (extraction or pumpage) have not previously been well characterized. This study assesses the partitioning of long-term cumulative withdrawal volumes into fractions derived from storage depletion and capture, where capture includes both increases in recharge and decreases in discharge. Numerical simulation of a hypothetical groundwater basin is used to further illustrate some of Theis' (1940) principles, particularly when capture is constrained by insufficient available water. Most prior studies of depletion and capture have assumed that capture is unconstrained through boundary conditions that yield linear responses. Examination of real systems indicates that capture and depletion fractions are highly variable in time and space. For a large sample of long-developed groundwater systems, the depletion fraction averages about 0.15 and the capture fraction averages about 0.85 based on cumulative volumes. Higher depletion fractions tend to occur in more arid regions, but the variation is high and the correlation coefficient between average annual precipitation and depletion fraction for individual systems is only 0.40. Because 85% of long-term pumpage is derived from capture in these real systems, capture must be recognized as a critical factor in assessing water budgets, groundwater storage depletion, and sustainability of groundwater development. Most capture translates into streamflow depletion, so it can detrimentally impact ecosystems.

  16. Depletion and capture: revisiting “The source of water derived from wells"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    A natural consequence of groundwater withdrawals is the removal of water from subsurface storage, but the overall rates and magnitude of groundwater depletion and capture relative to groundwater withdrawals (extraction or pumpage) have not previously been well characterized. This study assesses the partitioning of long-term cumulative withdrawal volumes into fractions derived from storage depletion and capture, where capture includes both increases in recharge and decreases in discharge. Numerical simulation of a hypothetical groundwater basin is used to further illustrate some of Theis' (1940) principles, particularly when capture is constrained by insufficient available water. Most prior studies of depletion and capture have assumed that capture is unconstrained through boundary conditions that yield linear responses. Examination of real systems indicates that capture and depletion fractions are highly variable in time and space. For a large sample of long-developed groundwater systems, the depletion fraction averages about 0.15 and the capture fraction averages about 0.85 based on cumulative volumes. Higher depletion fractions tend to occur in more arid regions, but the variation is high and the correlation coefficient between average annual precipitation and depletion fraction for individual systems is only 0.40. Because 85% of long-term pumpage is derived from capture in these real systems, capture must be recognized as a critical factor in assessing water budgets, groundwater storage depletion, and sustainability of groundwater development. Most capture translates into streamflow depletion, so it can detrimentally impact ecosystems.

  17. The behavioral urgency of objects approaching your avatar.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N L

    2015-11-01

    The behavioral-urgency hypothesis (Franconeri & Simons, Psychological Science, 19, 686-692, 2003) states that dynamic visual properties capture human visual attention if they signal the need for immediate action. The seminal example is the potential collision of a looming object with one's body. However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body. Here we report evidence that behavioral urgency transfers to an avatar in a simple 2-D computer game. By controlling the avatar, the participant responded to shape changes of the target in a visual search task. Simultaneously, and completely irrelevant to the task, one of the objects on screen could move. Responses were overall fastest when the target happened to be the moving object and was on a collision course with the avatar, as compared to when the moving target just passed by the avatar or moved away from it. The effects on search efficiency were less consistent, except that search was more efficient overall whenever a target moved. Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object. Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify.

  18. The behavioral urgency of objects approaching your avatar.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N L

    2015-11-01

    The behavioral-urgency hypothesis (Franconeri & Simons, Psychological Science, 19, 686-692, 2003) states that dynamic visual properties capture human visual attention if they signal the need for immediate action. The seminal example is the potential collision of a looming object with one's body. However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body. Here we report evidence that behavioral urgency transfers to an avatar in a simple 2-D computer game. By controlling the avatar, the participant responded to shape changes of the target in a visual search task. Simultaneously, and completely irrelevant to the task, one of the objects on screen could move. Responses were overall fastest when the target happened to be the moving object and was on a collision course with the avatar, as compared to when the moving target just passed by the avatar or moved away from it. The effects on search efficiency were less consistent, except that search was more efficient overall whenever a target moved. Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object. Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify. PMID:26231510

  19. Global-scale object detection using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, R.; O'Hara, S.; Tabb, M.

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the availability of high-resolution commercial satellite imagery, enabling a variety of new remote-sensing applications. One of the main challenges for these applications is the accurate and efficient extraction of semantic information from satellite imagery. In this work, we investigate an important instance of this class of challenges which involves automatic detection of multiple objects in satellite images. We present a system for large-scale object training and detection, leveraging recent advances in feature representation and aggregation within the bag-of-words paradigm. Given the scale of the problem, one of the key challenges in learning object detectors is the acquisition and curation of labeled training data. We present a crowd-sourcing based framework that allows efficient acquisition of labeled training data, along with an iterative mechanism to overcome the label noise introduced by the crowd during the labeling process. To show the competence of the presented scheme, we show detection results over several object-classes using training data captured from close to 200 cities and tested over multiple geographic locations.

  20. Plant N capture from pulses: effects of pulse size, growth rate, and other soil resources.

    PubMed

    James, J J; Richards, J H

    2005-08-01

    In arid ecosystems, the ability to rapidly capture nitrogen (N) from brief pulses is expected to influence plant growth, survival, and competitive ability. Theory and data suggest that N capture from pulses should depend on plant growth rate and availability of other limiting resources. Theory also predicts trade-offs in plant stress tolerance and ability to capture N from different size pulses. We injected K15NO3, to simulate small and large N pulses at three different times during the growing season into soil around the co-dominant Great Basin species Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. consimilis, and Distichlis spicata. Soils were amended with water and P in a partial factorial design. As predicted, all study species showed a comparable decline in N capture from large pulses through the season as growth rates slowed. Surprisingly, however, water and P availability differentially influenced the ability of these species to capture N from pulses. Distichlis N capture increased up to tenfold with water addition while Chrysothamnus N capture increased up to threefold with P addition. Sarcobatus N capture was not affected by water or P availability. Opposite to our prediction, Sarcobatus, the most stress tolerant species, captured less N from small pulses but more N from large pulses relative to the other species. These observations suggest that variation in N pulse timing and size can interact with variable soil water and P supply to determine how N is partitioned among co-existing Great Basin species.

  1. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  2. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsou, P; Griffiths, D J

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  3. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  4. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  5. The role of depth of encoding in attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Sasin, Edyta; Nieuwenstein, Mark; Johnson, Addie

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether depth of encoding influences attentional capture by recently attended objects. In Experiment 1, participants first had to judge whether a word referred to a living or a nonliving thing (deep encoding condition) or whether the word was written in lower- or uppercase (shallow encoding condition), and they then had to identify a digit displayed midway in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of 8 pictures. A picture corresponding to the previously processed word was presented either before or after the target digit. The results showed that this picture captured attention, thus resulting in an attentional blink for identification of a target digit, in the deep encoding condition but not in the shallow encoding condition. In Experiment 2, this capture effect was found to be abolished when an additional working-memory (WM) task was performed directly after the word-judgment task, suggesting that the capture effect stemmed from residual WM activation that could be erased by means of a secondary WM task. Taken together, these results suggest that deep and shallow encoding result in different degrees of WM activation, which in turn influences the likelihood of memory-driven attentional capture. PMID:25690580

  6. Acceleration of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using graphic processing unit.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Hee-Seung; Hong, Sung-In; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2012-10-01

    Speed enhancement of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using a graphic processing unit is reported. Integral imaging based method enables exact hologram capture of real-existing three-dimensional objects under regular incoherent illumination. In our implementation, we apply parallel computation scheme using the graphic processing unit, accelerating the processing speed. Using enhanced speed of hologram capture, we also implement a pseudo real-time hologram capture and optical reconstruction system. The overall operation speed is measured to be 1 frame per second.

  7. Filament capturing with the multimaterial moment-of-fluid method*

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, Matthew; Sussman, Mark; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-15

    A novel method for capturing two-dimensional, thin, under-resolved material configurations, known as “filaments,” is presented in the context of interface reconstruction. This technique uses a partitioning procedure to detect disconnected regions of material in the advective preimage of a cell (indicative of a filament) and makes use of the existing functionality of the Multimaterial Moment-of-Fluid interface reconstruction method to accurately capture the under-resolved feature, while exactly conserving volume. An algorithm for Adaptive Mesh Refinement in the presence of filaments is developed so that refinement is introduced only near the tips of filaments and where the Moment-of-Fluid reconstruction error is still large. Comparison to the standard Moment-of-Fluid method is made. As a result, it is demonstrated that using filament capturing at a given resolution yields gains in accuracy comparable to introducing an additional level of mesh refinement at significantly lower cost.

  8. A Versatile Microarray Platform for Capturing Rare Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Haller, Anna; Gorges, Tobias M.; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Riethdorf, Sabine; Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Fuchs, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of rare events occurring at extremely low frequencies in body fluids are still challenging. We established a versatile microarray-based platform able to capture single target cells from large background populations. As use case we chose the challenging application of detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) - about one cell in a billion normal blood cells. After incubation with an antibody cocktail, targeted cells are extracted on a microarray in a microfluidic chip. The accessibility of our platform allows for subsequent recovery of targets for further analysis. The microarray facilitates exclusion of false positive capture events by co-localization allowing for detection without fluorescent labelling. Analyzing blood samples from cancer patients with our platform reached and partly outreached gold standard performance, demonstrating feasibility for clinical application. Clinical researchers free choice of antibody cocktail without need for altered chip manufacturing or incubation protocol, allows virtual arbitrary targeting of capture species and therefore wide spread applications in biomedical sciences.

  9. Filament capturing with the Multimaterial Moment-of-Fluid method

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, Matthew; Sussman, Mark; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2015-03-15

    A novel method for capturing two-dimensional, thin, under-resolved material configurations, known as “filaments,” is presented in the context of interface reconstruction. This technique uses a partitioning procedure to detect disconnected regions of material in the advective preimage of a cell (indicative of a filament) and makes use of the existing functionality of the Multimaterial Moment-of-Fluid interface reconstruction method to accurately capture the under-resolved feature, while exactly conserving volume. An algorithm for Adaptive Mesh Refinement in the presence of filaments is developed so that refinement is introduced only near the tips of filaments and where the Moment-of-Fluid reconstruction error is still large. Comparison to the standard Moment-of-Fluid method is made. It is demonstrated that using filament capturing at a given resolution yields gains in accuracy comparable to introducing an additional level of mesh refinement at significantly lower cost.

  10. From object structure to object function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Stoyanka D.; Vaina, Lucia M.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we provide a mathematical support for the nature of the shape representation methods useful for the computation of possible functions of an objects as derived from its shape structure. We discuss the concepts of parts and subparts of objects in the framework of axis based shape representation methods and boundary based methods. We propose a new method for obtaining descriptions of parts which based on a theorem from differential geometry (Pogorelov 1974) that any regular surface can be approximated in a finite environment with a given accuracy by a parabolloid of one of the following types - elliptic, hyperbolic and a parabolloid degenerating into a plane or a parabolic cylinder. Based on these considerations we suggest a heuristic for the approximation of convex object parts by a polyhedra, cylinder, ellipsoid or generalized cone with straight axis depending on the presence of plane, parabolic, elliptic subsets in their boundary, and nonconvex object parts by generalized cones with curved axis. This approach allows to obtain a primitive based shape description after the decomposition of the object shape through the more general boundary-based methods. We present examples of decomposing and describing shapes of common objects in terms of their parts, subparts and associated features.

  11. The elements of design knowledge capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will present the basic constituents of a design knowledge capture effort. This will include a discussion of the types of knowledge to be captured in such an effort and the difference between design knowledge capture and more traditional knowledge base construction. These differences include both knowledge base structure and knowledge acquisition approach. The motivation for establishing a design knowledge capture effort as an integral part of major NASA programs will be outlined, along with the current NASA position on that subject. Finally the approach taken in design knowledge capture for Space Station will be contrasted with that used in the HSTDEK project.

  12. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  13. Visual Marking Inhibits Singleton Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how we prioritize the selection of new objects in visual scenes. We present four experiments investigating the effects of distractor previews on visual search through new objects. Participants viewed a set of to-be-ignored nontargets, with the task being to search for a target in a second set, added to the first after…

  14. Scalable Photogrammetric Motion Capture System "mosca": Development and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment) has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  15. Recent Advances in Carbon Capture with Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Queen, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    The escalating level of CO(2) in the atmosphere is one of the most critical environmental issues of our age. The carbon capture and storage from pilot test plants represents an option for reducing CO(2) emissions, however, the energy cost associated with post-combustion carbon capture process alone is ∼30% of the total energy generated by the power plant. Thus, the generation of carbon capture adsorbents with high uptake capacities, great separation performance and low cost is of paramount importance. Metal-organic frameworks are infinite networks of metal-containing nodes bridged by organic ligands through coordination bonds into porous extended structures and several reports have revealed that they are ideal candidates for the selective capture of CO(2). In this review we summarize recent advances related to the synthesis of porous MOFs and the latest strategies to enhance the CO(2) adsorption enthalpies and capacities at low-pressures, increase hydrolytic and mechanical stabilities, and improve the ease of regeneration. Although they show great promise for post-combustion carbon capture, there are still major challenges that must be overcome before they can be used for such a large-scale application.

  16. Earth-Mars transfers with ballistic capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topputo, F.; Belbruno, E.

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in substantial savings in capture from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain assumptions as well as an alternate way for spacecraft to transfer to Mars. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by using stable sets, which are sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a definition of orbital stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of low capture , flexibility of launch period from the Earth, moderate flight time, and the benign nature of the capture process.

  17. Paired arrangement of kinetochores together with microtubule pivoting and dynamics drive kinetochore capture in meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Cojoc, Gheorghe; Florescu, Ana-Maria; Krull, Alexander; Klemm, Anna H; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank; Tolić, Iva M

    2016-05-11

    Kinetochores are protein complexes on the chromosomes, whose function as linkers between spindle microtubules and chromosomes is crucial for proper cell division. The mechanisms that facilitate kinetochore capture by microtubules are still unclear. In the present study, we combine experiments and theory to explore the mechanisms of kinetochore capture at the onset of meiosis I in fission yeast. We show that kinetochores on homologous chromosomes move together, microtubules are dynamic and pivot around the spindle pole, and the average capture time is 3-4 minutes. Our theory describes paired kinetochores on homologous chromosomes as a single object, as well as angular movement of microtubules and their dynamics. For the experimentally measured parameters, the model reproduces the measured capture kinetics and shows that the paired configuration of kinetochores accelerates capture, whereas microtubule pivoting and dynamics have a smaller contribution. Kinetochore pairing may be a general feature that increases capture efficiency in meiotic cells.

  18. Paired arrangement of kinetochores together with microtubule pivoting and dynamics drive kinetochore capture in meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Cojoc, Gheorghe; Florescu, Ana-Maria; Krull, Alexander; Klemm, Anna H.; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank; Tolić, Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetochores are protein complexes on the chromosomes, whose function as linkers between spindle microtubules and chromosomes is crucial for proper cell division. The mechanisms that facilitate kinetochore capture by microtubules are still unclear. In the present study, we combine experiments and theory to explore the mechanisms of kinetochore capture at the onset of meiosis I in fission yeast. We show that kinetochores on homologous chromosomes move together, microtubules are dynamic and pivot around the spindle pole, and the average capture time is 3–4 minutes. Our theory describes paired kinetochores on homologous chromosomes as a single object, as well as angular movement of microtubules and their dynamics. For the experimentally measured parameters, the model reproduces the measured capture kinetics and shows that the paired configuration of kinetochores accelerates capture, whereas microtubule pivoting and dynamics have a smaller contribution. Kinetochore pairing may be a general feature that increases capture efficiency in meiotic cells. PMID:27166749

  19. Paired arrangement of kinetochores together with microtubule pivoting and dynamics drive kinetochore capture in meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Cojoc, Gheorghe; Florescu, Ana-Maria; Krull, Alexander; Klemm, Anna H; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank; Tolić, Iva M

    2016-01-01

    Kinetochores are protein complexes on the chromosomes, whose function as linkers between spindle microtubules and chromosomes is crucial for proper cell division. The mechanisms that facilitate kinetochore capture by microtubules are still unclear. In the present study, we combine experiments and theory to explore the mechanisms of kinetochore capture at the onset of meiosis I in fission yeast. We show that kinetochores on homologous chromosomes move together, microtubules are dynamic and pivot around the spindle pole, and the average capture time is 3-4 minutes. Our theory describes paired kinetochores on homologous chromosomes as a single object, as well as angular movement of microtubules and their dynamics. For the experimentally measured parameters, the model reproduces the measured capture kinetics and shows that the paired configuration of kinetochores accelerates capture, whereas microtubule pivoting and dynamics have a smaller contribution. Kinetochore pairing may be a general feature that increases capture efficiency in meiotic cells. PMID:27166749

  20. Prey capture in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis: coordination of the capture sequence and strike movements.

    PubMed

    Corrette, B J

    1990-01-01

    Coordination of the complete capture sequence of the praying mantis has been studied in detail using several specially developed photographic techniques. The mantis was able to attack prey throughout a large three-dimensional capture zone by changing body orientation relative to its perch. This orientation centred prey on the median plane and brought it within an attack zone relative to the prothorax. Alignment with the median plane simplifies the attack since the prey can then be localized using only two dimensions. The attack comprised several stereotyped components which together formed a single movement sequence of all six legs. Although too rapid for visual feedback, a simple mechanism permits steering of these movements to capture prey at particular locations within the attack zone. These findings are contrasted with those from studies of mantis visual behaviour and a simple mechanism is suggested for how prey location is encoded to produce steering of the attack. PMID:2407798

  1. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  2. Popularity and user diversity of online objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Han, Jingti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The popularity has been widely used to describe the object property of online user-object bipartite networks regardless of the user characteristics. In this paper, we introduce a measurement namely user diversity to measure diversity of users who select or rate one type of objects by using the information entropy. We empirically calculate the user diversity of objects with specific degree for both MovieLens and Diggs data sets. The results indicate that more types of users select normal-degree objects than those who select large-degree and small-degree objects. Furthermore, small-degree objects are usually selected by large-degree users while large-degree objects are usually selected by small-degree users. Moreover, we define 15% objects of smallest degrees as unpopular objects and 10% ones of largest degrees as popular objects. The timestamp is introduced to help further analyze the evolution of user diversity of popular objects and unpopular objects. The dynamic analysis shows that as objects become popular gradually, they are more likely accepted by small-degree users but lose attention among the large-degree users.

  3. Borehole parametric study for neutron induced capture gamma-ray spectrometry using the MCNP code.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, M; Sohrabpour, M

    2000-01-01

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate neutron transport from an Am-Be source into a granite formation surrounding a borehole. The effects of the moisture and the neutron poison on the thermal neutron flux distribution and the capture by the absorbing elements has been calculated. Thermal and nonthermal captures for certain absorbers having resonance structures in the epithermal and fast energy regions such as W and Si were performed. It is shown that for those absorbers having large resonances in the epithermal regions when they are present in dry formation or when accompanied by neutron poisons the resonance captures may be significant compared to the thermal captures.

  4. Nonequilibrium Diffusion and Capture Mechanism Ensures Tip Localization of Regulating Proteins on Dynamic Filaments.

    PubMed

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Reese, Louis; Frey, Erwin

    2016-08-12

    Diffusive motion of regulatory enzymes on biopolymers with eventual capture at a reaction site is a common feature in cell biology. Using a lattice gas model we study the impact of diffusion and capture for a microtubule polymerase and a depolymerase. Our results show that the capture mechanism localizes the proteins and creates large-scale spatial correlations. We develop an analytic approximation that globally accounts for relevant correlations and yields results that are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our results show that diffusion and capture operates most efficiently at cellular enzyme concentrations which points to in vivo relevance. PMID:27564001

  5. Nonequilibrium Diffusion and Capture Mechanism Ensures Tip Localization of Regulating Proteins on Dynamic Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Reese, Louis; Frey, Erwin

    2016-08-01

    Diffusive motion of regulatory enzymes on biopolymers with eventual capture at a reaction site is a common feature in cell biology. Using a lattice gas model we study the impact of diffusion and capture for a microtubule polymerase and a depolymerase. Our results show that the capture mechanism localizes the proteins and creates large-scale spatial correlations. We develop an analytic approximation that globally accounts for relevant correlations and yields results that are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our results show that diffusion and capture operates most efficiently at cellular enzyme concentrations which points to in vivo relevance.

  6. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Tracking dissipation in capture reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Materna, T.; Bouchat, V.; Kinnard, V.; Hanappe, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.; Schmitt, C.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Aritomo, Y.; Bogatchev, A.; Prokhorova, E.; Ohta, M.

    2004-04-12

    Nuclear dissipation in capture reactions is investigated using backtracing. Combining the analysis procedure with dynamical models, the difficult and long-standing problem of competition and mixing of quasi-fission and fusion-fission is solved for the first time. At low excitation energy a new protocol able to handle low statistics data gives access to the precession neutron multiplicity in two different systems 48Ca + 208Pb, Pu. The results are in agreement with a domination of fusion-fission in the case of 256No and an equal mixing of quasi-fission and fusion-fission in the case of Z = 114. The nature of the relevant dissipation is determined as one-body dissipation.

  8. Boron-neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, A. M.; Moschini, G.; Valkovic, Vlado; Zafiropoulos, D.

    1995-03-01

    The final goal of any radiotherapy project is to expose the tumor as the target to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation, sparing thereby the surrounding healthy tissues to a maximum extent. Precise treatment is nevertheless essential for cure, since the danger exists that the tumor might re-establish itself if every cancer cell is not destroyed. The conventional therapy treatments existing to date, e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, have been successful in curing some kinds of cancers, but still there are many exceptions. In the following, the progress of a promising therapy tool, called the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), which has made its dynamic evolution in recent years, is briefly described. The approach towards clinical trials with BNCT is described in detail.

  9. Bad data packet capture device

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-04-20

    An apparatus and method for capturing data packets for analysis on a network computing system includes a sending node and a receiving node connected by a bi-directional communication link. The sending node sends a data transmission to the receiving node on the bi-directional communication link, and the receiving node receives the data transmission and verifies the data transmission to determine valid data and invalid data and verify retransmissions of invalid data as corresponding valid data. A memory device communicates with the receiving node for storing the invalid data and the corresponding valid data. A computing node communicates with the memory device and receives and performs an analysis of the invalid data and the corresponding valid data received from the memory device.

  10. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  11. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  12. Temperature Cancellation Method of Motion-Capturing Pressure-Sensitive Paint System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaue, Hirotaka; Yamada, Yuki; Okabe, Taika; Miyazaki, Takeshi

    2013-11-01

    Motion-capturing pressure-sensitive paint system uses two luminescent outputs to extract the pressure field on an aerodynamic object. This uses a luminescent imaging technique to relate the luminescent output to the pressure. In the previous study, this system is applied to capture the time-resolved unsteady pressure fields on a fluttering airfoil, and a bullet-shaped model. Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has a temperature dependency, which is a major error source for the PSP measurement. Motion-capturing PSP system also involves the temperature dependency of PSP itself. In the presentation, we propose a temperature-cancellation method of the motion-capturing PSP system. This method does not require a separate temperature measurement for the temperature correction that is advantage for capturing the pressure field on a moving object.

  13. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  14. Interobject spacing explains the attentional bias toward interacting objects.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Schwan, Stephan; Huff, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Spatio-temporal interactions between simple geometrical shapes typically elicit strong impressions of intentionality. Recent research has started to explore the link between attentional processes and the detection of interacting objects. Here, we asked whether visual attention is biased toward such interactions. We investigated probe discrimination performance in algorithmically generated animations that involved two chasing objects and two randomly moving objects. In Experiment 1, we observed a pronounced attention capture effect for chasing objects. Because reduced interobject spacing is an inherent feature of interacting objects, in Experiment 2 we designed randomly moving objects that were matched to the chasing objects with respect to interobject spacing at probe onset. In this experiment, the capture effect attenuated completely. Therefore, we argue that reduced interobject spacing reflects an efficient cue to guide visual attention toward objects that interact intentionally. PMID:23921510

  15. Non-Statistical Effects in Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, P. E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Guber, K. H.; Harvey, J. A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wiarda, D.; Wouters, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many reports of non-statistical effects in neutron-capture measurements. However, reports of deviations of reduced-neutron-width (Γn0) distributions from the expected Porter-Thomas (PT) shape largely have been ignored. Most of these deviations have been reported for odd-A nuclides. Because reliable spin (J) assignments have been absent for most resonances for such nuclides, it is possible that reported deviations from PT might be due to incorrect J assignments. We recently developed a new method for measuring spins of neutron resonances by using the DANCE detector at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Measurements made with a 147Sm sample allowed us to determine spins of almost all known resonances below 1 keV. Furthermore, analysis of these data revealed that the Γn0 distribution was in good agreement with PT for resonances below 350 eV, but in disagreement with PT for resonances between 350 and 700 eV. Our previous (n,α) measurements had revealed that the α strength function also changes abruptly at this energy. There currently is no known explanation for these two non-statistical effects. Recently, we have developed another new method for determining the spins of neutron resonances. To implement this technique required a small change (to record pulse-height information for coincidence events) to a much simpler apparatus: A pair of C6D6 γ-ray detectors which we have employed for many years to measure neutron-capture cross sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Measurements with a 95Mo sample revealed that not only does the method work very well for determining spins, but it also makes possible parity assignments. Taken together, these new techniques at LANSCE and ORELA could be very useful for further elucidation of non-statistical effects.

  16. Non-Statistical Effects in Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Paul Edward; Bredeweg, t a; Guber, Klaus H; Harvey, John A; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Wouters, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many reports of non-statistical effects in neutron-capture measurements. However, reports of deviations of reduced-neutron-width ({Gamma}n{sup 0}) distributions from the expected Porter-Thomas (PT) shape largely have been ignored. Most of these deviations have been reported for odd-A nuclides. Because reliable spin (J) assignments have been absent for most resonances for such nuclides, it is possible that reported deviations from PT might be due to incorrect J assignments. We recently developed a new method for measuring spins of neutron resonances by using the DANCE detector at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Measurements made with a 147Sm sample allowed us to determine spins of almost all known resonances below 1 keV. Furthermore, analysis of these data revealed that the {Gamma}n{sup 0} distribution was in good agreement with PT for resonances below 350 eV, but in disagreement with PT for resonances between 350 and 700 eV. Our previous (n,{alpha}) measurements had revealed that the {alpha} strength function also changes abruptly at this energy. There currently is no known explanation for these two non-statistical effects. Recently, we have developed another new method for determining the spins of neutron resonances. To implement this technique required a small change (to record pulse-height information for coincidence events) to a much simpler apparatus: A pair of C6D6 ?-ray detectors which we have employed for many years to measure neutron-capture cross sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Measurements with a 95Mo sample revealed that not only does the method work very well for determining spins, but it also makes possible parity assignments. Taken together, these new techniques at LANSCE and ORELA could be very useful for further elucidation of non-statistical effects.

  17. Non-Statistical Effects in Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P. E.; Guber, K. H.; Harvey, J. A.; Wiarda, D.; Bredeweg, T. A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Reifarth, R.

    2009-01-28

    There have been many reports of non-statistical effects in neutron-capture measurements. However, reports of deviations of reduced-neutron-width ({gamma}{sub n}{sup 0}) distributions from the expected Porter-Thomas (PT) shape largely have been ignored. Most of these deviations have been reported for odd-A nuclides. Because reliable spin (J) assignments have been absent for most resonances for such nuclides, it is possible that reported deviations from PT might be due to incorrect J assignments. We recently developed a new method for measuring spins of neutron resonances by using the DANCE detector at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Measurements made with a {sup 147}Sm sample allowed us to determine spins of almost all known resonances below 1 keV. Furthermore, analysis of these data revealed that the {gamma}{sub n}{sup 0} distribution was in good agreement with PT for resonances below 350 eV, but in disagreement with PT for resonances between 350 and 700 eV. Our previous (n,{alpha}) measurements had revealed that the {alpha} strength function also changes abruptly at this energy. There currently is no known explanation for these two non-statistical effects. Recently, we have developed another new method for determining the spins of neutron resonances. To implement this technique required a small change (to record pulse-height information for coincidence events) to a much simpler apparatus: A pair of C{sub 6}D{sub 6}{gamma}-ray detectors which we have employed for many years to measure neutron-capture cross sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Measurements with a {sup 95}Mo sample revealed that not only does the method work very well for determining spins, but it also makes possible parity assignments. Taken together, these new techniques at LANSCE and ORELA could be very useful for further elucidation of non-statistical effects.

  18. Direct Neutron Capture Calculations with Covariant Density Functional Theory Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Peng, Jin-Peng; Smith, Michael S.; Arbanas, Goran; Kozub, Ray L.

    2014-09-01

    Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculate the direct capture cross sections for E1 transitions using nuclear structure information from a covariant density functional theory as input for the FRESCO coupled-channels reaction code. We find good agreement of our predictions with experimental cross section data on the double closed-shell targets 16O, 48Ca, and 90Zr, and the exotic nucleus 36S. Extensions of the technique for unstable nuclei and for large-scale calculations will be discussed. Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculate the direct capture cross sections for E1 transitions using nuclear structure information from a covariant density functional theory as input for the FRESCO coupled-channels reaction code. We find good agreement of our predictions with experimental cross section data on the double closed-shell targets 16O, 48Ca, and 90Zr, and the exotic nucleus 36S. Extensions of the technique for unstable nuclei and for large-scale calculations will be discussed. Supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  19. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  20. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  1. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  2. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  3. Direct-Semidirect Thermal Neutron Capture Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Arbanas, G; Dietrich, F S; Kerman, A K

    2005-12-20

    A method for computing direct-semidirect (DSD) neutron radiative capture is presented and applied to thermal neutron capture on {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28,29.30}Si, {sup 35,37}Cl, {sup 39,41}K, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 238}U, in support of data evaluation effort at the O.R.N.L. The DSD method includes both direct and semidirect capture; the latter is a core-polarization term in which the giant dipole resonance is formed. We study the effects of a commonly used ''density'' approximation to the EM operator and find it to be unsatisfactory for the nuclei considered here. We also study the magnitude of semidirect capture relative to the pure direct capture. Furthermore, we compare our results with those obtained from another direct capture code (Tedca [17]). We also compare our results with those obtained from analytical expression for external capture derived by Lane and Lynn [3], and its extension to include internal capture [7]. To estimate the effect of nuclear deformation on direct capture, we computed direct thermal capture on {sup 238}U with and without imposition of spherical symmetry. Direct capture for a spherically symmetric {sup 238}U was approximately 6 mb, while a quadrupole deformation of 0.215 on the shape of {sup 238}U lowers this cross section down to approximately 2 mb. This result suggests that effects of nuclear deformation on direct capture warrant a further study. We also find out that contribution to the direct capture on {sup 238}U from the nuclear interior significantly cancels that coming from the exterior region, and hence both contributions must be taken into account. We reproduced a well known discrepancy between the computed and observed branching ratios in {sup 56}Fe(n,{gamma}). This will lead us to revisit the concept of doorway states in the particle-hole model.

  4. Effects of capture and handling on survival of female northern pintails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of capture and handling procedures that influence survival of waterfowl has important research and management implications. We captured 347 female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) using rocket nets, fitted them with harness (backpack-type) radio transmitters, and monitored their survival during the first 10 d following release. Females were 16 times more likely to die during the first 4 d of exposure than during days 5-10. Survival of females captured with small numbers of waterfowl (n < 172) was not related to holding time (time from capture until release), but survival of females captured with large numbers of waterfowl (n = 594) declined as holding time increased. Survival did not vary with age (immature or adult) or body condition (body mass adjusted for body size) of females. Survival was positively related to flight quality (scored as poor, moderate, or good) of females upon release; poor and moderate fliers were twice as likely to die as those scored in the next higher level of flight quality. Flight quality of females captured with small numbers of waterfowl was unrelated to holding time, but that of females captured with large numbers of waterfowl declined as holding time increased. In all cases where cause of mortalities could be determined (n = 12), we attributed proximate cause of death to predation. We recommend that holding time of ducks be minimized, particularly for those captured with large numbers of waterfowl in rocket nets.

  5. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  6. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  7. Neurite Tracing With Object Process.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sreetama; Ooi, Wei Tsang; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a pipeline for automatic analysis of neuronal morphology: from detection, modeling to digital reconstruction. First, we present an automatic, unsupervised object detection framework using stochastic marked point process. It extracts connected neuronal networks by fitting special configuration of marked objects to the centreline of the neurite branches in the image volume giving us position, local width and orientation information. Semantic modeling of neuronal morphology in terms of critical nodes like bifurcations and terminals, generates various geometric and morphology descriptors such as branching index, branching angles, total neurite length, internodal lengths for statistical inference on characteristic neuronal features. From the detected branches we reconstruct neuronal tree morphology using robust and efficient numerical fast marching methods. We capture a mathematical model abstracting out the relevant position, shape and connectivity information about neuronal branches from the microscopy data into connected minimum spanning trees. Such digital reconstruction is represented in standard SWC format, prevalent for archiving, sharing, and further analysis in the neuroimaging community. Our proposed pipeline outperforms state of the art methods in tracing accuracy and minimizes the subjective variability in reconstruction, inherent to semi-automatic methods. PMID:26742129

  8. A multi-dimensional model for localization of highly variable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppertshofen, Heike; Bülow, Thomas; von Berg, Jens; Schmidt, Sarah; Beyerlein, Peter; Salah, Zein; Rose, Georg; Schramm, Hauke

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we present a new type of model for object localization, which is well suited for anatomical objects exhibiting large variability in size, shape and posture, for usage in the discriminative generalized Hough transform (DGHT). The DGHT combines the generalized Hough transform (GHT) with a discriminative training approach to automatically obtain robust and efficient models. It has been shown to be a strong tool for object localization capable of handling a rather large amount of shape variability. For some tasks, however, the variability exhibited by different occurrences of the target object becomes too large to be represented by a standard DGHT model. To be able to capture such highly variable objects, several sub-models, representing the modes of variability as seen by the DGHT, are created automatically and are arranged in a higher dimensional model. The modes of variability are identified on-the-fly during training in an unsupervised manner. Following the concept of the DGHT, the sub-models are jointly trained with respect to a minimal localization error employing the discriminative training approach. The procedure is tested on a dataset of thorax radiographs with the target to localize the clavicles. Due to different arm positions, the posture and arrangement of the target and surrounding bones differs strongly, which hampers the training of a good localization model. Employing the new model approach the localization rate improves by 13% on unseen test data compared to the standard model.

  9. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  10. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  11. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  12. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  13. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  14. The Language of Objection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

  15. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  16. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  17. Circumference imaging for optical based identification of cylindrical and conical objects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.A.; Sitter, D.N.; Ferrell, R.K.; Breeding, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    Inspection and identification of cylindrical or conical shaped objects presents a unique challenge for a machine vision system. Due to the circular nature of the objects it is difficult to image the whole object using traditional area cameras and image capture methods. This work describes a unique technique to acquire a two dimensional image of the entire surface circumference of a cylindrical/conical shaped object. The specific application of this method is the identification of large caliber (155 mm) ammunition rounds in the field as they are transported between or within vehicles. The proposed method utilizes a line scan camera in combination with high speed image acquisition and processing hardware to acquire images from multiple cameras and generate a single, geometrically accurate, surface image. The primary steps involved are the capture of multiple images as the ammunition moves by on the conveyor followed by warping to correct for the distortion induced by the curved projectile surface. The individual images are then tiled together to form one two-dimensional image of the complete circumference. Once this image has been formed an automatic identification algorithm begins the feature extraction and classification process.

  18. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  19. Silica Aerogel Captures Cosmic Dust Intact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mesostructure of silica aerogel resembles stings of grapes, ranging in size from 10 to 100 angstrom. This fine mesostructure transmits nearly 90 percent of incident light in the visible, while providing sufficiently gentle dissipation of the kinetric energy of hypervelocity cosmic dust particles to permit their intact capture. We introduced silica aerogel in 1987 as capture medium to take advantage of its low density, fine mesostruicture and most importantly, its transparency, allowing optical location of captured micron sized particles.

  20. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  1. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Soong, Yee; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  2. Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegler, S. C.; Romanishin, W.

    1999-09-01

    The Kuiper belt represents an exciting, new frontier in solar system research. About 200 Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with diameters larger than 100 km are known to exist between 30 and 50 AU from the Sun. Surveys indicate that there may be as many as 100,000 KBOs larger than 100 km and perhaps billions of KBOs larger than 1 km between 30 and 50 AU. Although the total mass in these bodies is perhaps a few tenths of an Earth mass, accretion calculations indicate that the primordial Kuiper belt must have contained 10 to 30 Earth masses of material between 30 and 50 AU in order to explain the growth of large KBOs and the Pluto and Charon system in the 100 million years before the onset of the disruptive influence of Neptune. Once Neptune reached a fraction of its current mass, dynamical studies indicate that a combination of erosional collisions and mean motion and secular resonances sculpted the belt into its present day mass and structure. The influence of the resonances can be seen in the belt today as about one-third of the known KBOs are in a stable 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune, i.e. eccentric and inclined orbits, that approach or cross the orbit of Neptune, and semi-major axes, a, about 39.4 AU. Many KBOs with a > 42 AU are sufficiently far from Neptune that they are on stable, low inclination, low eccentricity, non-resonant orbits. A combination of resonances and disruptive collisions continue to deplete the Kuiper belt today as they inject KBOs or collision fragments inward into the solar system as Centaur objects and Jupiter family comets. Physical studies of KBOs are in their infancy. Perhaps one of the most surprising results is the observation that KBO colors and hence their surface compositions divide neatly into a grey and an extraordinarily red population. The red population suggests some surfaces are rich in complex carbon-bearing molecules. The colors exhibit no trend with resonant or non-resonant orbits or object size and suggest that

  3. AN IMPROVED TRAP TO CAPTURE ADULT CONTAINER-INHABITING MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    BARRERA, ROBERTO; MACKAY, ANDREW J.; AMADOR, MANUEL

    2015-01-01

    Although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Puerto Rico, Aedes mediovittatus, the Caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. This species is native to the Greater Antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. Consequently, it has been suggested that Ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. This study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine whether BG-Sentinel traps (BGS traps) could be used to collect adults of this mosquito and could be modified to increase the number of captures of this species in the field. We conducted experiments to test the relative attractiveness of BGS traps to Ae. mediovittatus and Ae. aegypti and explored the effects of chemical lures (BG-Lure, CO2, octenol) and optical properties (color, size) on the capture rates of BGS traps in a large, outdoor cage in San Juan city, Puerto Rico. We also conducted field tests to compare modified BGS traps with the original traps in a rural community in Patillas municipality, Puerto Rico. Results obtained from the large, outdoor cage experiments indicated that trap captures of both mosquito species could be significantly enhanced by using black instead of white BGS traps combined with BG-Lure. Field experiments revealed that the modified traps captured a significantly greater number of Ae. aegypti, Ae. mediovittatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, with greater sensitivity for the latter 2 species, and also captured a larger number of mosquito species and a smaller ratio of Ae. aegypti to Ae. mediovittatus, with greater than expected species co-occurrences. PMID:24551969

  4. Input shaped large thrust maneuver with a tethered debris object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Lee; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2014-03-01

    In order to reduce the debris population in LEO, remediation is necessary. An active debris removal method is explored that utilizes fuel reserves on a recently launched upper stage to rendezvous with, and tether to, debris. The system's tethered dynamics are explored using a discretized tether model attached to six degree of freedom end bodies. The thrust output is shaped to remove the spectral energy at the natural frequencies of the tether, significantly reducing the post-burn relative motion between the vehicles. The sensitivity of the input shaping performance due to imperfect knowledge of the debris mass demonstrates that a double notch spanning multiple frequencies around the first mode is necessary to be robust to unknown debris mass. On-orbit simulations show that input shaping helps the tethered system achieve smooth oscillations about a gravity gradient alignment, reducing collision likelihood.

  5. Input Shaped Large Thrust Maneuver with a Tethered Debris Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, L.; Schaub, H.

    2013-08-01

    In order to reduce the debris population in LEO, remediation is necessary. An active debris removal method is explored that utilizes fuel reserves on a recently launched upper stage to rendezvous with, and tether to, debris. The system's tethered dynamics are explored using a discretized tether model attached to six degree of freedom end bodies. The thrust output is shaped to remove the spectral energy at the natural frequencies of the tether, significantly reducing the post-burn relative motion between the vehicles. The sensitivity of the input shaping performance due to imperfect knowledge of the debris mass demonstrates that a double notch spanning multiple frequencies around the first mode is necessary to be robust to unknown debris mass. On-orbit simulations show that input shaping helps the tethered system achieve smooth oscillations about a gravity gradient alignment, reducing collision likelihood.

  6. Emulsions Droplet Capture Mechanism in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidani, Khalil; Polikar, Marcel

    2006-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the physics of emulsion flow in porous media. The objective of experiments were to study the applicability of oil-in-water emulsion as a plugging agent in the vicinity of the well bore for thousands of Canadian gas wells that are continuously leaking gas to surface. The motion of oil droplets and the capture mechanisms were investigated through visualized experiments. Well-characterized emulsions were injected into a micro model resembling a two parallel plate model packed with glass beads. Effects of emulsion properties and wettability of the medium were studied on a plugging mechanism. The results demonstrate the reduction in permeability mainly due to droplets size exclusion compared to the pore constrictions. Also, smaller droplets may lodge and coalesce in pores crevices thereby accelerating the blockage process. Moreover, more viscous emulsions are more effective compared with the less viscous ones due to combined effects of capillary and viscous forces. The deposition of droplets was adjusted through utilizing different preflush solutions. Criteria were set for enhancing emulsion penetration depth thereby defining the extent of the blocked region. In conclusion, this work characterizes the physics of emulsion flow in porous media and demonstrates its application as a novel sealant in near well bore region. The novelty, which constitutes a step-change in technology, is a method that emplaces an emulsion at a desired location in underground media.

  7. Is Carbon Capture and Storage Really Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; Williams, Kent Alan; Aaron, D

    2010-01-01

    Two of the greatest contemporary global challenges are anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and energy sustainability. A popular proposed solution to the former problem is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Unfortunately, CCS has little benefit for energy sustainability and introduces significant long-term costs and risks. Thus, we propose the adoption of 'virtual CCS' by directing the resources that would have been spent on CCS to alternative energy technologies. (The term 'virtual' is used here because the concept described in this work satisfies the Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of virtual: 'being such in essence or effect though not formally recognized or admitted.') In this example, we consider wind and nuclear power and use the funds that would have been required by CCS to invest in installation and operation of these technologies. Many other options exist in addition to wind and nuclear power including solar, biomass, geothermal, and others. These additional energy technologies can be considered in future studies. While CCS involves spending resources to concentrate CO{sub 2} in sinks, such as underground reservoirs, low-carbon alternative energy produces power, which will displace fossil fuel use while simultaneously generating revenues. Thus, these alternative energy technologies achieve the same objective as that of CCS, namely, the avoidance of atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. Stimulus-driven attentional capture by subliminal onset cues.

    PubMed

    Schoeberl, Tobias; Fuchs, Isabella; Theeuwes, Jan; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In two experiments, we tested whether subliminal abrupt onset cues capture attention in a stimulus-driven way. An onset cue was presented 16 ms prior to the stimulus display that consisted of clearly visible color targets. The onset cue was presented either at the same side as the target (the valid cue condition) or on the opposite side of the target (the invalid cue condition). Because the onset cue was presented 16 ms before other placeholders were presented, the cue was subliminal to the participant. To ensure that this subliminal cue captured attention in a stimulus-driven way, the cue's features did not match the top-down attentional control settings of the participants: (1) The color of the cue was always different than the color of the non-singleton targets ensuring that a top-down set for a specific color or for a singleton would not match the cue, and (2) colored targets and distractors had the same objective luminance (measured by the colorimeter) and subjective lightness (measured by flicker photometry), preventing a match between the top-down set for target and cue contrast. Even though a match between the cues and top-down settings was prevented, in both experiments, the cues captured attention, with faster response times in valid than invalid cue conditions (Experiments 1 and 2) and faster response times in valid than the neutral conditions (Experiment 2). The results support the conclusion that subliminal cues capture attention in a stimulus-driven way. PMID:25520044

  9. RAD Capture (Rapture): Flexible and Efficient Sequence-Based Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Ali, Omar A; O'Rourke, Sean M; Amish, Stephen J; Meek, Mariah H; Luikart, Gordon; Jeffres, Carson; Miller, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has revolutionized many areas of biology, but sequencing large amounts of DNA in many individuals is cost-prohibitive and unnecessary for many studies. Genomic complexity reduction techniques such as sequence capture and restriction enzyme-based methods enable the analysis of many more individuals per unit cost. Despite their utility, current complexity reduction methods have limitations, especially when large numbers of individuals are analyzed. Here we develop a much improved restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing protocol and a new method called Rapture ( R: AD c APTURE: ). The new RAD protocol improves versatility by separating RAD tag isolation and sequencing library preparation into two distinct steps. This protocol also recovers more unique (nonclonal) RAD fragments, which improves both standard RAD and Rapture analysis. Rapture then uses an in-solution capture of chosen RAD tags to target sequencing reads to desired loci. Rapture combines the benefits of both RAD and sequence capture, i.e., very inexpensive and rapid library preparation for many individuals as well as high specificity in the number and location of genomic loci analyzed. Our results demonstrate that Rapture is a rapid and flexible technology capable of analyzing a very large number of individuals with minimal sequencing and library preparation cost. The methods presented here should improve the efficiency of genetic analysis for many aspects of agricultural, environmental, and biomedical science. PMID:26715661

  10. Scout: orbit analysis and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Chamberlin, Alan B.

    2016-10-01

    It typically takes a few days for a newly discovered asteroid to be officially recognized as a real object. During this time, the tentative discovery is published on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP) until additional observations confirm that the object is a real asteroid rather than an observational artifact or an artificial object. Also, NEOCP objects could have a limited observability window and yet be scientifically interesting, e.g., radar and lightcurve targets, mini-moons (temporary Earth captures), mission accessible targets, close approachers or even impactors. For instance, the only two asteroids discovered before an impact, 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, both reached the Earth less than a day after discovery. For these reasons we developed Scout, an automated system that provides an orbital and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects within minutes after the observations are available. Scout's rapid analysis increases the chances of securing the trajectory of interesting NEOCP objects before the ephemeris uncertainty grows too large or the observing geometry becomes unfavorable. The generally short observation arcs, perhaps only a few hours or even less, lead severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. To overcome these degeneracies Scout relies on systematic ranging, a technique that derives possible orbits by scanning a grid in the poorly constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane-of-sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to derive a distribution of the possible orbits and in turn identify the NEOCP objects of most interest to prioritize followup efforts. In particular, Scout ranks objects according to the likelihood of an impact, estimates the close approach distance, the Earth-relative minimum orbit intersection distance and v-infinity, and computes scores to identify objects more likely to be an NEO, a km-sized NEO, a Potentially

  11. Flexible Electrostatic Technology for Capture and Handling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew; Bryan, Tom; Horwitz, Chris; Rakoczy, John; Waggoner, Jason

    2015-01-01

    To NASA unfunded & planned missions: This new capability to sense proximity, flexibly align to, and attractively grip and capture practically any object in space without any pre-designed physical features or added sensors or actuators will enable or enhance many of MSFC's strategic emphasis areas in space transportation, and space systems such as: 1. A Flexible Electrostatic gripper can enable the capture, gripping and releasing of an extraterrestrial sample of different minerals or a sample canister (metallic or composite) without requiring a handle or grapple fixture.(B) 2. Flexible self-aligning in-space capture/soft docking or berthing of ISS resupply vehicles, pressurized modules, or nodes for in-space assembly and shielding, radiator, and solar Array deployment for space habitats (C) 3. The flexible electrostatic gripper when combined with a simple steerable extendible boom can grip, position, and release objects of various shapes and materials with low mass and power without any prior handles or physical accommodations or surface contamination for ISS experiment experiments and in-situ repair.(F)(G) 4. The Dexterous Docking concept previously proposed to allow simple commercial resupply ships to station-keep and capture either ISS or an Exploration vehicle for supply or fluid transfer lacked a self-sensing, compliant, soft capture gripper like FETCH that could retract and attach to a CBM. (I) 5. To enable a soft capture and de-orbit of a piece of orbital debris will require self-aligning gripping and holding an object wherever possible (thermal coverings or shields of various materials, radiators, solar arrays, antenna dishes) with little or no residual power while adding either drag or active low level thrust.(K) 6. With the scalability of the FETCH technology, small satellites can be captured and handled or can incorporate FETCH gripper to dock to and handle other small vehicles and larger objects for de-orbiting or mitigating Orbital debris (L) 7. Many of

  12. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Phase B: Data capture facility definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Aerospace Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to obtain more accurate measurements of tropical rainfall then ever before. The measurements are to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms effecting the intra-annual and interannual variability of the Earth's climate. The TRMM is largely dependent upon the handling and processing of the data by the TRMM Ground System supporting the mission. The objective of the TRMM is to obtain three years of climatological determinations of rainfall in the tropics, culminating in data sets of 30-day average rainfall over 5-degree square areas, and associated estimates of vertical distribution of latent heat release. The scope of this study is limited to the functions performed by TRMM Data Capture Facility (TDCF). These functions include capturing the TRMM spacecraft return link data stream; processing the data in the real-time, quick-look, and routine production modes, as appropriate; and distributing real time, quick-look, and production data products to users. The following topics are addressed: (1) TRMM end-to-end system description; (2) TRMM mission operations concept; (3) baseline requirements; (4) assumptions related to mission requirements; (5) external interface; (6) TDCF architecture and design options; (7) critical issues and tradeoffs; and (8) recommendation for the final TDCF selection process.

  13. Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 μm FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics. PMID:23412009

  14. How Sedna and family were captured in a close encounter with a solar sibling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jílková, Lucie; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Pijloo, Tjibaria; Hammer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of 2012 VP113 initiated the debate on the origin of the Sedna family of planetesimals in orbit around the Sun. Sednitos roam the outer regions of the Solar system between the Egeworth-Kuiper belt and the Oort Cloud, in extraordinary wide (a > 150 au) orbits with a large perihelion distance of q > 30 au compared to the Earth's (a ≡ 1 au and eccentricity e ≡ (1 - q/a) ≃ 0.0167 or q ≃ 1 au). This population is composed of a dozen objects, which we consider a family because they have similar perihelion distance and inclination with respect to the ecliptic i = 10°-30°. They also have similar argument of perihelion ω = 340° ± 55°. There is no ready explanation for their origin. Here we show that these orbital parameters are typical for a captured population from the planetesimal disc of another star. Assuming that the orbital elements of Sednitos have not changed since they acquired their orbits, we reconstruct the encounter that led to their capture. We conclude that they might have been captured in a near miss with a 1.8 M⊙ star that impacted the Sun at ≃ 340 au at an inclination with respect to the ecliptic of 17°-34° with a relative velocity at infinity of ˜4.3 km s-1. We predict that the Sednitos region is populated by 930 planetesimals and the inner Oort Cloud acquired ˜440 planetesimals through the same encounter.

  15. Better Enzymes for Carbon Capture: Low-Cost Biological Catalyst to Enable Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Codexis is developing new and efficient forms of enzymes known as carbonic anhydrases to absorb CO2 more rapidly and under challenging conditions found in the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. Carbonic anhydrases are common and are among the fastest enzymes, but they are not robust enough to withstand the harsh environment found in the power plant exhaust steams. In this project, Codexis will be using proprietary technology to improve the enzymes’ ability to withstand high temperatures and large swings in chemical composition. The project aims to develop a carbon-capture process that uses less energy and less equipment than existing approaches. This would reduce the cost of retrofitting today’s coal-fired power plants.

  16. HUBBLE CAPTURES UNVEILING OF PLANETARY NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image captures the infancy of the Stingray nebula (Hen-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula. In this image, the bright central star is in the middle of the green ring of gas. Its companion star is diagonally above it at 10 o'clock. A spur of gas (green) is forming a faint bridge to the companion star due to gravitational attraction. The image also shows a ring of gas (green) surrounding the central star, with bubbles of gas to the lower left and upper right of the ring. The wind of material propelled by radiation from the hot central star has created enough pressure to blow open holes in the ends of the bubbles, allowing gas to escape. The red curved lines represent bright gas that is heated by a 'shock' caused when the central star's wind hits the walls of the bubbles. The nebula is as large as 130 solar systems, but, at its distance of 18,000 light-years, it appears only as big as a dime viewed a mile away. The Stingray is located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar). The colors shown are actual colors emitted by nitrogen (red), oxygen (green), and hydrogen (blue). The filters used were F658N ([N II]), F502N ([O III]), and F487N (H-beta). The observations were made in March 1996. Credit: Matt Bobrowsky, Orbital Sciences Corporation and NASA

  17. Carbon dioxide capture using polyethylenimine-loaded mesoporous carbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jitong; Chen, Huichao; Zhou, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiaojun; Qiao, Wenming; Long, Donghui; Ling, Licheng

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency sorbent for CO2 capture was developed by loading polyethylenimine (PEI) on mesoporous carbons which possessed well-developed mesoporous structures and large pore volume. The physicochemical properties of the sorbent were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques followed by testing for CO2 capture. Factors that affected the sorption capacity of the sorbent were studied. The sorbent exhibited extraordinary capture capacity with CO2 concentration ranging from 5% to 80%. The optimal PEI loading was determined to be 65 wt.% with a CO2 sorption capacity of 4.82 mmol-CO2/g-sorbent in 15% CO2/N2 at 75 degrees C, owing to low mass-transfer resistance and a high utilization ratio of the amine compound (63%). Moisture had a promoting effect on the sorption separation of CO2. In addition, the developed sorbent could be regenerated easily at 100 degrees C, and it exhibited excellent regenerability and stability. These results indicate that this PEI-loaded mesoporous carbon sorbent should have a good potential for CO2 capture in the future.

  18. Water challenges for geologic carbon capture and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Newmark, Robin L; Friedmann, Samuel J; Carroll, Susan A

    2010-04-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the "capture penalty" for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use.

  19. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use. PMID:20127328

  20. A Bayesian, combinatorial approach to capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    García-Pelayo, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    It is shown that, in the capture-recapture method, the widely used formulae of Bailey or Chapman-Seber give the most likely value for the size of the population, but systematically underestimate the probability that the population is larger than any given size. We take here a first step in a combinatorial approach which does not suffer from this flaw: formulae are given which can be used in the closed case (no birth, death or migrations between captures) when at least two animals have been recaptured and when there is homogeneity with regard to capture probability. Numerical and heuristic evidence is presented pointing to the fact that the error incurred when using the formulae of Bailey or Chapman-Seber depends asymptotically only on the number of recaptured animals, and will not diminish if the number of captured animals becomes large while the number of recaptured animals remains constant. A result that was stated and left unproven by Darroch is proven here.

  1. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  2. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  3. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  4. The Bells' Capture note TH-3054-CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Ed P.

    2014-01-29

    This document revisits the paper by M. Bell and J. S. Bell “Capture of Cooling Electrons by Cool Protons” TH-3054-CERN (March 30, 1981). I expand the treatment to include e+e- capture.

  5. Neutron capture in the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Surman, Rebecca; Mclaughlin, Gail C; Mumpower, Matthew; Hix, William Raphael; Jones, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have shown that neutron capture rates on nuclei near stability significantly influence the r-process abundance pattern. We discuss the different mechanisms by which the abundance pattern is sensitive to the capture rates and identify key nuclei whose rates are of particular im- portance. Here we consider nuclei in the A = 130 and A = 80 regions.

  6. Phase Errors and the Capture Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J., and Machorro, E.

    2011-11-01

    This slide-show presents analysis of spectrograms and the phase error of filtered noise in a signal. When the filtered noise is smaller than the signal amplitude, the phase error can never exceed 90{deg}, so the average phase error over many cycles is zero: this is called the capture effect because the largest signal captures the phase and frequency determination.

  7. Perceptions of Presentation Capture in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert; Miller, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Lecture/presentation capture is a gradually emerging technology at many colleges and universities and will likely increase in use because students prefer courses that offer online lectures over traditional classes that do not. Many capture products also allow faculty to segment and edit lectures, add/exchange notations, view lectures on mobile…

  8. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  9. Indentured Parts List Maintenance and Part Assembly Capture Tool - IMPACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Bobby; Morris, Jill; Sharpe, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) indentured parts list (IPL) maintenance and parts assembly capture tool (IMPACT) is an easy-to-use graphical interface for viewing and maintaining the complex assembly hierarchies of large databases. IMPACT, already in use at JSC to support the International Space Station (ISS), queries, updates, modifies, and views data in IPL and associated resource data, functions that it can also perform, with modification, for any large commercial database. By enabling its users to efficiently view and manipulate IPL hierarchical data, IMPACT performs a function unlike that of any other tool. Through IMPACT, users will achieve results quickly, efficiently, and cost effectively.

  10. Improved Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleaford, Brad; Firestone, Richard; Summers, Neil; Escher, Jutta

    2012-10-01

    The neutron capture reaction is of fundamental use in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown object as it gives unambiguous information on which isotopes are absorbing the neutrons. There are known data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes which are critical to various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes. This database is used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the unresolved quasi continuum part of the gamma cascades are not experimentally available. This continuum can contain up to 90% of all the decay energy, in this work it is modeled with the statistical nuclear structure code Dicebox. We plan to continue the Dicebox approach through the resolved resonance region where spin and parity information is partially known. At higher energies to 20 MeV we are applying Hauser Feshbach models to predict the cross sections of gamma spectra to improve the neutron data libraries used for transport modeling of unknown objects.

  11. Evaluation of satellite-based precipitation estimates in winter season using an object-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Hsu, K.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sorooshian, S.

    2012-12-01

    Verification has become an integral component of satellite precipitation algorithms and products. A number of object-based verification methods have been proposed to provide diagnostic information regarding the precipitation products' ability to capture the spatial pattern, intensity, and placement of precipitation. However, most object-based methods are not capable of investigating precipitation objects at the storm-scale. In this study, an image processing approach known as watershed segmentation was adopted to detect the storm-scale rainfall objects. Then, a fuzzy logic-based technique was utilized to diagnose and analyze storm-scale object attributes, including centroid distance, area ratio, intersection area ratio and orientation angle difference. Three verification metrics (i.e., false alarm ratio, missing ratio and overall membership score) were generated for validation and verification. Three satellite-based precipitation products, including PERSIANN, CMORPH, 3B42RT, were evaluated against NOAA stage IV MPE multi-sensor composite rain analysis at 0.25° by 0.25° on a daily scale in the winter season of 2010 over the contiguous United States. Winter season is dominated by frontal systems which usually have larger area coverage. All three products and the stage IV observation tend to find large size storm objects. With respect to the evaluation attributes, PERSIANN tends to obtain larger area ratio and consequently has larger centroid distance to the stage IV observations, while 3B42RT are found to be closer to the stage IV for the object size. All evaluation products give small orientation angle differences but vary significantly for the missing ratio and false alarm ratio. This implies that satellite estimates can fail to detect storms in winter. The overall membership scores are close for all three different products which indicate that all three satellite-based precipitation products perform well for capturing the spatial and geometric characteristics of

  12. Preliminary system design of a Three Arm Capture Mechanism (TACM) flight demonstration article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Otto; Stasi, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of the Three Arm Capture Mechanism (TACM) is to serve as a demonstration of capability for capture of objects in space. These objects could be satellites, expended boosters, pieces of debris, etc.; anything of significant size. With this capability we can significantly diminish the danger of major collisions of debris with valuable space assets and with each other, which would otherwise produce many smaller, high velocity pieces of debris which also become concerns. The captured objects would be jettisoned into the atmosphere, relocated in 'parking' orbits, or recovered for disposition or refurbishment. The dollar value of satellites launched into space continues to grow along with the cost of insurance; having a capture capability takes a positive step towards diminishing this added cost. The effort covered is a planning step towards a flight demonstration of the satellite capture capability. Based on the requirement to capture a communication class satellite, its associated booster, or both, a preliminary system definition of a retrieval kit is defined. The objective of the flight demonstration is to demonstrate the techniques proposed to perform the mission and to obtain data on technical issues requiring an in situ space environment. The former especially includes issues such as automated image recognition techniques and control strategies that enable an unmanned vehicle to rendezvous and capture a satellite, contact dynamics between the two bodies, and the flight segment level of automation required to support the mission. A development plan for the operational retrieval capability includes analysis work, computer and ground test simulations, and finally a flight demonstration. A concept to perform a selected mission capturing a precessing communications satellite is described. Further development efforts using analytical tools and laboratory facilities are required prior to reaching the point at which a full commitment to the flight

  13. Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2007-08-04

    present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hydride shell is placed inside the array. The purpose of using the spherical array of detectors is to cover all possible directions of emitted {gamma} rays, so we will come as close as possible to complete detection of all the prompt {gamma}-ray cascades emitted in a capture reaction. The sum of the energy of the {gamma} cascades is a measure of the binding energy of the capture neutron. The binding energy is the energy required to remove a bound neutron from the nucleus. The measured mass of the nucleus is smaller than the masses of the target nucleus plus the captured neutron, and the difference (converted to energy) is the binding energy of the capture neutron. Because the detector is segmented into a large number of independent detectors, additional information on event multiplicities (number of {gamma} rays emitted) and other properties can be determined.

  14. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  15. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  16. Ten objectives for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Hu, A

    2000-02-01

    Sustainable development is one of the fundamental strategies for China's socioeconomic development in its 10th 5-Year Plan (2001-2005) period and beyond. It is a human-centered strategy focusing on improved quality of life in which environmental quality is an important part. This article presents 10 objectives that must be achieved for the sustainable development strategy to succeed. These objectives are: 1) continue to implement the family planning program; 2) maintain a dynamic balance of arable land (not less than 123 million hectares) and implement an agricultural development strategy; 3) maintain a dynamic balance of water resources by reducing water consumption for every unit of gross development product growth and agricultural value added; 4) import large quantities of oil and natural gas; 5) control emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide by large cities and industries and close high-pollution thermal power plants; 6) compensate for ¿forest deficit¿ with ¿trade surplus¿ by reducing timber production and increase timber import; 7) import large quantities of iron ore, copper, zinc, aluminum, and other minerals and encourage foreign participation in resource exploration and development; 8) make time-bound commitments to clean up large cities, rivers, and lakes and forcefully close down seriously polluting enterprises; 9) implement a massive ecological construction project to slow down ecological degradation; and 10) develop the environmental industry and eco-buildup to expand domestic demand, increase employment, and alleviate poverty.

  17. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  18. Bibliographic Instruction Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Mary M.

    The objectives presented define the basic information required of a student operating in the Library System of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. These statements of objectives are intended to provide a tangible framework for all public service personnel in the Undergraduate Library, and their various components can be coordinated to…

  19. Objects in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the use of artifacts as primary sources within the classroom. Provides examples of this technique, as well as the use of objects from personal family history. Explains how objects can help students learn more about history and society. (CMK)

  20. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...