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Sample records for large phylogenetic trees

  1. YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Machado, Denis Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .

  2. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy; Hyun, Young; Liberles, David A

    2004-01-01

    Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED). PMID:15117420

  3. DupTree: a program for large-scale phylogenetic analyses using gene tree parsimony.

    PubMed

    Wehe, André; Bansal, Mukul S; Burleigh, J Gordon; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    DupTree is a new software program for inferring rooted species trees from collections of gene trees using the gene tree parsimony approach. The program implements a novel algorithm that significantly improves upon the run time of standard search heuristics for gene tree parsimony, and enables the first truly genome-scale phylogenetic analyses. In addition, DupTree allows users to examine alternate rootings and to weight the reconciliation costs for gene trees. DupTree is an open source project written in C++. DupTree for Mac OS X, Windows, and Linux along with a sample dataset and an on-line manual are available at http://genome.cs.iastate.edu/CBL/DupTree

  4. Phylo.io: Interactive Viewing and Comparison of Large Phylogenetic Trees on the Web.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Oscar; Dylus, David; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic trees are pervasively used to depict evolutionary relationships. Increasingly, researchers need to visualize large trees and compare multiple large trees inferred for the same set of taxa (reflecting uncertainty in the tree inference or genuine discordance among the loci analyzed). Existing tree visualization tools are however not well suited to these tasks. In particular, side-by-side comparison of trees can prove challenging beyond a few dozen taxa. Here, we introduce Phylo.io, a web application to visualize and compare phylogenetic trees side-by-side. Its distinctive features are: highlighting of similarities and differences between two trees, automatic identification of the best matching rooting and leaf order, scalability to large trees, high usability, multiplatform support via standard HTML5 implementation, and possibility to store and share visualizations. The tool can be freely accessed at http://phylo.io and can easily be embedded in other web servers. The code for the associated JavaScript library is available at https://github.com/DessimozLab/phylo-io under an MIT open source license. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Phylo.io: Interactive Viewing and Comparison of Large Phylogenetic Trees on the Web

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Oscar; Dylus, David; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are pervasively used to depict evolutionary relationships. Increasingly, researchers need to visualize large trees and compare multiple large trees inferred for the same set of taxa (reflecting uncertainty in the tree inference or genuine discordance among the loci analyzed). Existing tree visualization tools are however not well suited to these tasks. In particular, side-by-side comparison of trees can prove challenging beyond a few dozen taxa. Here, we introduce Phylo.io, a web application to visualize and compare phylogenetic trees side-by-side. Its distinctive features are: highlighting of similarities and differences between two trees, automatic identification of the best matching rooting and leaf order, scalability to large trees, high usability, multiplatform support via standard HTML5 implementation, and possibility to store and share visualizations. The tool can be freely accessed at http://phylo.io and can easily be embedded in other web servers. The code for the associated JavaScript library is available at https://github.com/DessimozLab/phylo-io under an MIT open source license. PMID:27189561

  6. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  7. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  8. Building large trees by combining phylogenetic information: a complete phylogeny of the extant Carnivora (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Bininda-Emonds, O R; Gittleman, J L; Purvis, A

    1999-05-01

    One way to build larger, more comprehensive phylogenies is to combine the vast amount of phylogenetic information already available. We review the two main strategies for accomplishing this (combining raw data versus combining trees), but employ a relatively new variant of the latter: supertree construction. The utility of one supertree technique, matrix representation using parsimony analysis (MRP), is demonstrated by deriving a complete phylogeny for all 271 extant species of the Carnivora from 177 literature sources. Beyond providing a 'consensus' estimate of carnivore phylogeny, the tree also indicates taxa for which the relationships remain controversial (e.g. the red panda; within canids, felids, and hyaenids) or have not been studied in any great detail (e.g. herpestids, viverrids, and intrageneric relationships in the procyonids). Times of divergence throughout the tree were also estimated from 74 literature sources based on both fossil and molecular data. We use the phylogeny to show that some lineages within the Mustelinae and Canidae contain significantly more species than expected for their age, illustrating the tree's utility for studies of macroevolution. It will also provide a useful foundation for comparative and conservational studies involving the carnivores.

  9. ScripTree: scripting phylogenetic graphics.

    PubMed

    Chevenet, François; Croce, Olivier; Hebrard, Maxime; Christen, Richard; Berry, Vincent

    2010-04-15

    There is a large amount of tools for interactive display of phylogenetic trees. However, there is a shortage of tools for the automation of tree rendering. Scripting phylogenetic graphics would enable the saving of graphical analyses involving numerous and complex tree handling operations and would allow the automation of repetitive tasks. ScripTree is a tool intended to fill this gap. It is an interpreter to be used in batch mode. Phylogenetic graphics instructions, related to tree rendering as well as tree annotation, are stored in a text file and processed in a sequential way. ScripTree can be used online or downloaded at www.scriptree.org, under the GPL license. ScripTree, written in Tcl/Tk, is a cross-platform application available for Windows and Unix-like systems including OS X. It can be used either as a stand-alone package or included in a bioinformatic pipeline and linked to a HTTP server.

  10. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  11. Large multi-gene phylogenetic trees of the grasses (Poaceae): progress towards complete tribal and generic level sampling.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Salamin, Nicolas; Savolainen, Vincent; Forest, Felix; Bank, Michelle van der; Chase, Mark W; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2008-05-01

    In this paper we included a very broad representation of grass family diversity (84% of tribes and 42% of genera). Phylogenetic inference was based on three plastid DNA regions rbcL, matK and trnL-F, using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. Our results resolved most of the subfamily relationships within the major clades (BEP and PACCMAD), which had previously been unclear, such as, among others the: (i) BEP and PACCMAD sister relationship, (ii) composition of clades and the sister-relationship of Ehrhartoideae and Bambusoideae + Pooideae, (iii) paraphyly of tribe Bambuseae, (iv) position of Gynerium as sister to Panicoideae, (v) phylogenetic position of Micrairoideae. With the presence of a relatively large amount of missing data, we were able to increase taxon sampling substantially in our analyses from 107 to 295 taxa. However, bootstrap support and to a lesser extent Bayesian inference posterior probabilities were generally lower in analyses involving missing data than those not including them. We produced a fully resolved phylogenetic summary tree for the grass family at subfamily level and indicated the most likely relationships of all included tribes in our analysis.

  12. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    PubMed

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  13. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.

  14. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree

    PubMed Central

    Woese, Carl R.

    2000-01-01

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist. PMID:10900003

  15. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Woese, C R

    2000-07-18

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.

  16. TreeVector: scalable, interactive, phylogenetic trees for the web.

    PubMed

    Pethica, Ralph; Barker, Gary; Kovacs, Tim; Gough, Julian

    2010-01-28

    Phylogenetic trees are complex data forms that need to be graphically displayed to be human-readable. Traditional techniques of plotting phylogenetic trees focus on rendering a single static image, but increases in the production of biological data and large-scale analyses demand scalable, browsable, and interactive trees. We introduce TreeVector, a Scalable Vector Graphics-and Java-based method that allows trees to be integrated and viewed seamlessly in standard web browsers with no extra software required, and can be modified and linked using standard web technologies. There are now many bioinformatics servers and databases with a range of dynamic processes and updates to cope with the increasing volume of data. TreeVector is designed as a framework to integrate with these processes and produce user-customized phylogenies automatically. We also address the strengths of phylogenetic trees as part of a linked-in browsing process rather than an end graphic for print. TreeVector is fast and easy to use and is available to download precompiled, but is also open source. It can also be run from the web server listed below or the user's own web server. It has already been deployed on two recognized and widely used database Web sites.

  17. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  18. Comparison of tree-child phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. While much progress has been made to find practical algorithms for reconstructing a phylogenetic network from a set of sequences, all attempts to endorse a class of phylogenetic networks (strictly extending the class of phylogenetic trees) with a well-founded distance measure have, to the best of our knowledge and with the only exception of the bipartition distance on regular networks, failed so far. In this paper, we present and study a new meaningful class of phylogenetic networks, called tree-child phylogenetic networks, and we provide an injective representation of these networks as multisets of vectors of natural numbers, their path multiplicity vectors. We then use this representation to define a distance on this class that extends the well-known Robinson-Foulds distance for phylogenetic trees and to give an alignment method for pairs of networks in this class. Simple polynomial algorithms for reconstructing a tree-child phylogenetic network from its path multiplicity vectors, for computing the distance between two tree-child phylogenetic networks and for aligning a pair of tree-child phylogenetic networks, are provided. They have been implemented as a Perl package and a Java applet, which can be found at http://bioinfo.uib.es/~recerca/phylonetworks/mudistance/.

  19. Exploring hierarchical visualization designs using phylogenetic trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaomeng; Crouser, R. Jordan; Griffin, Garth; Gramazio, Connor; Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Childs, Hank; Chang, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research on information visualization has produced an ever-increasing number of visualization designs. Despite this activity, limited progress has been made in categorizing this large number of information visualizations. This makes understanding their common design features challenging, and obscures the yet unexplored areas of novel designs. With this work, we provide categorization from an evolutionary perspective, leveraging a computational model to represent evolutionary processes, the phylogenetic tree. The result - a phylogenetic tree of a design corpus of hierarchical visualizations - enables better understanding of the various design features of hierarchical information visualizations, and further illuminates the space in which the visualizations lie, through support for interactive clustering and novel design suggestions. We demonstrate these benefits with our software system, where a corpus of two-dimensional hierarchical visualization designs is constructed into a phylogenetic tree. This software system supports visual interactive clustering and suggesting for novel designs; the latter capacity is also demonstrated via collaboration with an artist who sketched new designs using our system.

  20. Incompletely resolved phylogenetic trees inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism.

    PubMed

    Davies, T Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J B; Salamin, Nicolas; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    The tendency for more closely related species to share similar traits and ecological strategies can be explained by their longer shared evolutionary histories and represents phylogenetic conservatism. How strongly species traits co-vary with phylogeny can significantly impact how we analyze cross-species data and can influence our interpretation of assembly rules in the rapidly expanding field of community phylogenetics. Phylogenetic conservatism is typically quantified by analyzing the distribution of species values on the phylogenetic tree that connects them. Many phylogenetic approaches, however, assume a completely sampled phylogeny: while we have good estimates of deeper phylogenetic relationships for many species-rich groups, such as birds and flowering plants, we often lack information on more recent interspecific relationships (i.e., within a genus). A common solution has been to represent these relationships as polytomies on trees using taxonomy as a guide. Here we show that such trees can dramatically inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism quantified using S. P. Blomberg et al.'s K statistic. Using simulations, we show that even randomly generated traits can appear to be phylogenetically conserved on poorly resolved trees. We provide a simple rarefaction-based solution that can reliably retrieve unbiased estimates of K, and we illustrate our method using data on first flowering times from Thoreau's woods (Concord, Massachusetts, USA).

  1. treespace: statistical exploration of landscapes of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Jombart, Thibaut; Kendall, Michelle; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Colijn, Caroline

    2017-04-04

    The increasing availability of large genomic datasets as well as the advent of Bayesian phylogenetics facilitate the investigation of phylogenetic incongruence, which can result in the impossibility of representing phylogenetic relationships using a single tree. While sometimes considered as a nuisance, phylogenetic incongruence can also reflect meaningful biological processes as well as relevant statistical uncertainty, both of which can yield valuable insights in evolutionary studies. We introduce a new tool for investigating phylogenetic incongruence through the exploration of phylogenetic tree landscapes. Our approach, implemented in the R package treespace, combines tree metrics and multivariate analysis to provide low dimensional representations of the topological variability in a set of trees, which can be used for identifying clusters of similar trees and group-specific consensus phylogenies. treespace also provides a user-friendly web interface for interactive data analysis. treespace is integrated alongside existing standards for phylogenetics and is easily accessible through a web interface. It fills a gap in the current phylogenetics toolbox in R and will facilitate the investigation of phylogenetic results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The First Darwinian Phylogenetic Tree of Plants.

    PubMed

    Hoßfeld, Uwe; Watts, Elizabeth; Levit, Georgy S

    2017-02-01

    In 1866, the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) published the first Darwinian trees of life in the history of biology in his book General Morphology of Organisms. We take a specific look at the first phylogenetic trees for the plant kingdom that Haeckel created as part of this two-volume work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Terrestrial apes and phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2010-01-01

    The image that best expresses Darwin’s thinking is the tree of life. However, Darwin’s human evolutionary tree lacked almost everything because only the Neanderthals were known at the time and they were considered one extreme expression of our own species. Darwin believed that the root of the human tree was very deep and in Africa. It was not until 1962 that the root was shown to be much more recent in time and definitively in Africa. On the other hand, some neo-Darwinians believed that our family tree was not a tree, because there were no branches, but, rather, a straight stem. The recent years have witnessed spectacular discoveries in Africa that take us close to the origin of the human tree and in Spain at Atapuerca that help us better understand the origin of the Neanderthals as well as our own species. The final form of the tree, and the number of branches, remains an object of passionate debate. PMID:20445090

  4. Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks. PMID:24916411

  5. EnsemblCompara GeneTrees: Complete, duplication-aware phylogenetic trees in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vilella, Albert J.; Severin, Jessica; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Heng, Li; Durbin, Richard; Birney, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive gene orientated phylogenetic resource, EnsemblCompara GeneTrees, based on a computational pipeline to handle clustering, multiple alignment, and tree generation, including the handling of large gene families. We developed two novel non-sequence-based metrics of gene tree correctness and benchmarked a number of tree methods. The TreeBeST method from TreeFam shows the best performance in our hands. We also compared this phylogenetic approach to clustering approaches for ortholog prediction, showing a large increase in coverage using the phylogenetic approach. All data are made available in a number of formats and will be kept up to date with the Ensembl project. PMID:19029536

  6. Visual exploration of parameter influence on phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Hess, Martin; Bremm, Sebastian; Weissgraeber, Stephanie; Hamacher, Kay; Goesele, Michael; Wiemeyer, Josef; von Landesberger, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships between organisms are frequently derived as phylogenetic trees inferred from multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). The MSA parameter space is exponentially large, so tens of thousands of potential trees can emerge for each dataset. A proposed visual-analytics approach can reveal the parameters' impact on the trees. Given input trees created with different parameter settings, it hierarchically clusters the trees according to their structural similarity. The most important clusters of similar trees are shown together with their parameters. This view offers interactive parameter exploration and automatic identification of relevant parameters. Biologists applied this approach to real data of 16S ribosomal RNA and protein sequences of ion channels. It revealed which parameters affected the tree structures. This led to a more reliable selection of the best trees.

  7. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  8. Undergraduate Students’ Difficulties in Reading and Constructing Phylogenetic Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'adah, S.; Tapilouw, F. S.; Hidayat, T.

    2017-02-01

    Representation is a very important communication tool to communicate scientific concepts. Biologists produce phylogenetic representation to express their understanding of evolutionary relationships. The phylogenetic tree is visual representation depict a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship and widely used in the biological sciences. Phylogenetic tree currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about phylogenetic tree become an important part of biological education and an interesting area for biology education research. However, research showed many students often struggle with interpreting the information that phylogenetic trees depict. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students’ difficulties in reading and constructing a phylogenetic tree. The method of this study is a descriptive method. In this study, we used questionnaires, interviews, multiple choice and open-ended questions, reflective journals and observations. The findings showed students experiencing difficulties, especially in constructing a phylogenetic tree. The students’ responds indicated that main reasons for difficulties in constructing a phylogenetic tree are difficult to placing taxa in a phylogenetic tree based on the data provided so that the phylogenetic tree constructed does not describe the actual evolutionary relationship (incorrect relatedness). Students also have difficulties in determining the sister group, character synapomorphy, autapomorphy from data provided (character table) and comparing among phylogenetic tree. According to them building the phylogenetic tree is more difficult than reading the phylogenetic tree. Finding this studies provide information to undergraduate instructor and students to overcome learning difficulties of reading and constructing phylogenetic tree.

  9. Constructing Student Problems in Phylogenetic Tree Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Steven D.

    Evolution is often equated with natural selection and is taught from a primarily functional perspective while comparative and historical approaches, which are critical for developing an appreciation of the power of evolutionary theory, are often neglected. This report describes a study of expert problem-solving in phylogenetic tree construction.…

  10. Quantifying MCMC Exploration of Phylogenetic Tree Space

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks. PMID:25631175

  11. Quantifying MCMC exploration of phylogenetic tree space.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A

    2015-05-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks.

  12. Tree thinking cannot taken for granted: challenges for teaching phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Hanno

    2008-03-01

    Tree thinking is an integral part of modern evolutionary biology, and a necessary precondition for phylogenetics and comparative analyses. Tree thinking has during the 20th century largely replaced group thinking, developmental thinking and anthropocentrism in biology. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that tree thinking can be taken for granted. The findings reported here indicate that tree thinking is very much an acquired ability which needs extensive training. I tested a sample of undergraduate and graduate students of biology by means of questionnaires. Not a single student was able to correctly interpret a simple tree drawing. Several other findings demonstrate that tree thinking is virtually absent in students unless they are explicitly taught how to read evolutionary trees. Possible causes and implications of this mental bias are discussed. It seems that biological textbooks can be an important source of confusion for students. While group and developmental thinking have disappeared from most textual representations of evolution, they have survived in the evolutionary tree drawings of many textbooks. It is quite common for students to encounter anthropocentric trees and even trees containing stem groups and paraphyla. While these biases originate from the unconscious philosophical assumptions made by authors, the findings suggest that presenting unbiased evolutionary trees in biological publications is not merely a philosophical virtue but has also clear practical implications.

  13. Tree thinking cannot taken for granted: challenges for teaching phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tree thinking is an integral part of modern evolutionary biology, and a necessary precondition for phylogenetics and comparative analyses. Tree thinking has during the 20th century largely replaced group thinking, developmental thinking and anthropocentricism in biology. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that tree thinking can be taken for granted. The findings reported here indicate that tree thinking is very much an acquired ability which needs extensive training. I tested a sample of undergraduate and graduate students of biology by means of questionnaires. Not a single student was able to correctly interpret a simple tree drawing. Several other findings demonstrate that tree thinking is virtually absent in students unless they are explicitly taught how to read evolutionary trees. Possible causes and implications of this mental bias are discussed. It seems that biological textbooks can be an important source of confusion for students. While group and developmental thinking have disappeared from most textual representations of evolution, they have survived in the evolutionary tree drawings of many textbooks. It is quite common for students to encounter anthropocentric trees and even trees containing stem groups and paraphyla. While these biases originate from the unconscious philosophical assumptions made by authors, the findings suggest that presenting unbiased evolutionary trees in biological publications is not merely a philosophical virtue but has also clear practical implications. PMID:18247075

  14. SILVA tree viewer: interactive web browsing of the SILVA phylogenetic guide trees.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Alan; Gerken, Jan; Quast, Christian; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2017-09-30

    Phylogenetic trees are an important tool to study the evolutionary relationships among organisms. The huge amount of available taxa poses difficulties in their interactive visualization. This hampers the interaction with the users to provide feedback for the further improvement of the taxonomic framework. The SILVA Tree Viewer is a web application designed for visualizing large phylogenetic trees without requiring the download of any software tool or data files. The SILVA Tree Viewer is based on Web Geographic Information Systems (Web-GIS) technology with a PostgreSQL backend. It enables zoom and pan functionalities similar to Google Maps. The SILVA Tree Viewer enables access to two phylogenetic (guide) trees provided by the SILVA database: the SSU Ref NR99 inferred from high-quality, full-length small subunit sequences, clustered at 99% sequence identity and the LSU Ref inferred from high-quality, full-length large subunit sequences. The Tree Viewer provides tree navigation, search and browse tools as well as an interactive feedback system to collect any kinds of requests ranging from taxonomy to data curation and improving the tool itself.

  15. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. Key words: phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. PMID:27343287

  16. From a phylogenetic tree to a reticulated network.

    PubMed

    Makarenkov, Vladimir; Legendre, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    In many phylogenetic problems, assuming that species have evolved from a common ancestor by a simple branching process is unrealistic. Reticulate phylogenetic models, however, have been largely neglected because the concept of reticulate evolution have not been supported by using appropriate analytical tools and software. The reticulate model can adequately describe such complicated mechanisms as hybridization between species or lateral gene transfer in bacteria. In this paper, we describe a new algorithm for inferring reticulate phylogenies from evolutionary distances among species. The algorithm is capable of detecting contradictory signals encompassed in a phylogenetic tree and identifying possible reticulate events that may have occurred during evolution. The algorithm produces a reticulate phylogeny by gradually improving upon the initial solution provided by a phylogenetic tree model. The new algorithm is compared to the popular SplitsGraph method in a reanalysis of the evolution of photosynthetic organisms. A computer program to construct and visualize reticulate phylogenies, called T-Rex (Tree and Reticulogram Reconstruction), is available to researchers at the following URL: www.fas.umontreal.ca/biol/casgrain/en/labo/t-rex.

  17. Construction of a phylogenetic tree of photosynthetic prokaryotes based on average similarities of whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Soichirou; Mimuro, Mamoru; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees have been constructed for a wide range of organisms using gene sequence information, especially through the identification of orthologous genes that have been vertically inherited. The number of available complete genome sequences is rapidly increasing, and many tools for construction of genome trees based on whole genome sequences have been proposed. However, development of a reasonable method of using complete genome sequences for construction of phylogenetic trees has not been established. We have developed a method for construction of phylogenetic trees based on the average sequence similarities of whole genome sequences. We used this method to examine the phylogeny of 115 photosynthetic prokaryotes, i.e., cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and nonphotosynthetic organisms including Archaea. Although the bootstrap values for the branching order of phyla were low, probably due to lateral gene transfer and saturated mutation, the obtained tree was largely consistent with the previously reported phylogenetic trees, indicating that this method is a robust alternative to traditional phylogenetic methods.

  18. Undergraduate Students’ Initial Ability in Understanding Phylogenetic Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'adah, S.; Hidayat, T.; Sudargo, Fransisca

    2017-04-01

    The Phylogenetic tree is a visual representation depicts a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship among taxa. Evolutionary experts use this representation to evaluate the evidence for evolution. The phylogenetic tree is currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about the phylogenetic tree has become an important part of biological education and an interesting area of biology education research. Skill to understanding and reasoning of the phylogenetic tree, (called tree thinking) is an important skill for biology students. However, research showed many students have difficulty in interpreting, constructing, and comparing among the phylogenetic tree, as well as experiencing a misconception in the understanding of the phylogenetic tree. Students are often not taught how to reason about evolutionary relationship depicted in the diagram. Students are also not provided with information about the underlying theory and process of phylogenetic. This study aims to investigate the initial ability of undergraduate students in understanding and reasoning of the phylogenetic tree. The research method is the descriptive method. Students are given multiple choice questions and an essay that representative by tree thinking elements. Each correct answer made percentages. Each student is also given questionnaires. The results showed that the undergraduate students’ initial ability in understanding and reasoning phylogenetic tree is low. Many students are not able to answer questions about the phylogenetic tree. Only 19 % undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator evaluate the evolutionary relationship among taxa, 25% undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator applying concepts of the clade, 17% undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator determines the character evolution, and only a few undergraduate student who can construct the phylogenetic tree.

  19. GENOME-WIDE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYLOGENETIC TREES: THE PROKARYOTIC FOREST OF LIFE

    PubMed Central

    Puigbò, Pere; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide comparison of phylogenetic trees is becoming an increasingly common approach in evolutionary genomics, and a variety of approaches for such comparison have been developed. In this article we present several methods for comparative analysis of large numbers of phylogenetic trees. To compare phylogenetic trees taking into account the bootstrap support for each internal branch, the Boot-Split Distance (BSD) method is introduced as an extension of the previously developed Split Distance (SD) method for tree comparison. The BSD method implements the straightforward idea that comparison of phylogenetic trees can be made more robust by treating tree splits differentially depending on the bootstrap support. Approaches are also introduced for detecting tree-like and net-like evolutionary trends in the phylogenetic Forest of Life (FOL), i.e., the entirety of the phylogenetic trees for conserved genes of prokaryotes. The principal method employed for this purpose includes mapping quartets of species onto trees to calculate the support of each quartet topology and so to quantify the tree and net contributions to the distances between species. We describe the applications methods used to analyze the FOL and the results obtained with these methods. These results support the concept of the Tree of Life (TOL) as a central evolutionary trend in the FOL as opposed to the traditional view of the TOL as a ‘species tree’. PMID:22399455

  20. Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…

  1. Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…

  2. AMY-tree: an algorithm to use whole genome SNP calling for Y chromosomal phylogenetic applications.

    PubMed

    Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Decorte, Ronny; Larmuseau, Maarten H D

    2013-02-13

    Due to the rapid progress of next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilities, an explosion of human whole genome data will become available in the coming years. These data can be used to optimize and to increase the resolution of the phylogenetic Y chromosomal tree. Moreover, the exponential growth of known Y chromosomal lineages will require an automatic determination of the phylogenetic position of an individual based on whole genome SNP calling data and an up to date Y chromosomal tree. We present an automated approach, 'AMY-tree', which is able to determine the phylogenetic position of a Y chromosome using a whole genome SNP profile, independently from the NGS platform and SNP calling program, whereby mistakes in the SNP calling or phylogenetic Y chromosomal tree are taken into account. Moreover, AMY-tree indicates ambiguities within the present phylogenetic tree and points out new Y-SNPs which may be phylogenetically relevant. The AMY-tree software package was validated successfully on 118 whole genome SNP profiles of 109 males with different origins. Moreover, support was found for an unknown recurrent mutation, wrong reported mutation conversions and a large amount of new interesting Y-SNPs. Therefore, AMY-tree is a useful tool to determine the Y lineage of a sample based on SNP calling, to identify Y-SNPs with yet unknown phylogenetic position and to optimize the Y chromosomal phylogenetic tree in the future. AMY-tree will not add lineages to the existing phylogenetic tree of the Y-chromosome but it is the first step to analyse whole genome SNP profiles in a phylogenetic framework.

  3. AMY-tree: an algorithm to use whole genome SNP calling for Y chromosomal phylogenetic applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the rapid progress of next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilities, an explosion of human whole genome data will become available in the coming years. These data can be used to optimize and to increase the resolution of the phylogenetic Y chromosomal tree. Moreover, the exponential growth of known Y chromosomal lineages will require an automatic determination of the phylogenetic position of an individual based on whole genome SNP calling data and an up to date Y chromosomal tree. Results We present an automated approach, ‘AMY-tree’, which is able to determine the phylogenetic position of a Y chromosome using a whole genome SNP profile, independently from the NGS platform and SNP calling program, whereby mistakes in the SNP calling or phylogenetic Y chromosomal tree are taken into account. Moreover, AMY-tree indicates ambiguities within the present phylogenetic tree and points out new Y-SNPs which may be phylogenetically relevant. The AMY-tree software package was validated successfully on 118 whole genome SNP profiles of 109 males with different origins. Moreover, support was found for an unknown recurrent mutation, wrong reported mutation conversions and a large amount of new interesting Y-SNPs. Conclusions Therefore, AMY-tree is a useful tool to determine the Y lineage of a sample based on SNP calling, to identify Y-SNPs with yet unknown phylogenetic position and to optimize the Y chromosomal phylogenetic tree in the future. AMY-tree will not add lineages to the existing phylogenetic tree of the Y-chromosome but it is the first step to analyse whole genome SNP profiles in a phylogenetic framework. PMID:23405914

  4. One tree to link them all: a phylogenetic dataset for the European tetrapoda.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-08-08

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty.

  5. One Tree to Link Them All: A Phylogenetic Dataset for the European Tetrapoda

    PubMed Central

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty. PMID:25685620

  6. Inferring Epidemic Contact Structure from Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; von Wyl, Viktor; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing. PMID:22412361

  7. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Gabriel E; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; Wyl, Viktor von; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  8. Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Dees, Jonathan; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, to measure the prevalence of correct taxa-relatedness interpretations, and to determine how student reasoning and correctness change in response to instruction and over time. Counting synapomorphies and nodes between taxa were the most common forms of incorrect reasoning, which presents a pedagogical dilemma concerning labeled synapomorphies on phylogenetic trees. Students also independently generated an alternative form of correct reasoning using monophyletic groups, the use of which decreased in popularity over time. Approximately half of all students were able to correctly interpret taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, and many memorized correct reasoning without understanding its application. Broad initial instruction that allowed students to generate inferences on their own contributed very little to phylogenetic tree understanding, while targeted instruction on evolutionary relationships improved understanding to some extent. Phylogenetic trees, which can directly affect student understanding of evolution, appear to offer introductory biology instructors a formidable pedagogical challenge. PMID:25452489

  9. Student interpretations of phylogenetic trees in an introductory biology course.

    PubMed

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, to measure the prevalence of correct taxa-relatedness interpretations, and to determine how student reasoning and correctness change in response to instruction and over time. Counting synapomorphies and nodes between taxa were the most common forms of incorrect reasoning, which presents a pedagogical dilemma concerning labeled synapomorphies on phylogenetic trees. Students also independently generated an alternative form of correct reasoning using monophyletic groups, the use of which decreased in popularity over time. Approximately half of all students were able to correctly interpret taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, and many memorized correct reasoning without understanding its application. Broad initial instruction that allowed students to generate inferences on their own contributed very little to phylogenetic tree understanding, while targeted instruction on evolutionary relationships improved understanding to some extent. Phylogenetic trees, which can directly affect student understanding of evolution, appear to offer introductory biology instructors a formidable pedagogical challenge.

  10. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  11. Effects of Phylogenetic Tree Style on Student Comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dees, Jonathan Andrew

    Phylogenetic trees are powerful tools of evolutionary biology that have become prominent across the life sciences. Consequently, learning to interpret and reason from phylogenetic trees is now an essential component of biology education. However, students often struggle to understand these diagrams, even after explicit instruction. One factor that has been observed to affect student understanding of phylogenetic trees is style (i.e., diagonal or bracket). The goal of this dissertation research was to systematically explore effects of style on student interpretations and construction of phylogenetic trees in the context of an introductory biology course. Before instruction, students were significantly more accurate with bracket phylogenetic trees for a variety of interpretation and construction tasks. Explicit instruction that balanced the use of diagonal and bracket phylogenetic trees mitigated some, but not all, style effects. After instruction, students were significantly more accurate for interpretation tasks involving taxa relatedness and construction exercises when using the bracket style. Based on this dissertation research and prior studies on style effects, I advocate for introductory biology instructors to use only the bracket style. Future research should examine causes of style effects and variables other than style to inform the development of research-based instruction that best supports student understanding of phylogenetic trees.

  12. PhyloPattern: regular expressions to identify complex patterns in phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Gouret, Philippe; Thompson, Julie D; Pontarotti, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background To effectively apply evolutionary concepts in genome-scale studies, large numbers of phylogenetic trees have to be automatically analysed, at a level approaching human expertise. Complex architectures must be recognized within the trees, so that associated information can be extracted. Results Here, we present a new software library, PhyloPattern, for automating tree manipulations and analysis. PhyloPattern includes three main modules, which address essential tasks in high-throughput phylogenetic tree analysis: node annotation, pattern matching, and tree comparison. PhyloPattern thus allows the programmer to focus on: i) the use of predefined or user defined annotation functions to perform immediate or deferred evaluation of node properties, ii) the search for user-defined patterns in large phylogenetic trees, iii) the pairwise comparison of trees by dynamically generating patterns from one tree and applying them to the other. Conclusion PhyloPattern greatly simplifies and accelerates the work of the computer scientist in the evolutionary biology field. The library has been used to automatically identify phylogenetic evidence for domain shuffling or gene loss events in the evolutionary histories of protein sequences. However any workflow that relies on phylogenetic tree analysis, could be automated with PhyloPattern. PMID:19765311

  13. Community Phylogenetics: Assessing Tree Reconstruction Methods and the Utility of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth E.; Adamowicz, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining phylogenetic community structure have become increasingly prevalent, yet little attention has been given to the influence of the input phylogeny on metrics that describe phylogenetic patterns of co-occurrence. Here, we examine the influence of branch length, tree reconstruction method, and amount of sequence data on measures of phylogenetic community structure, as well as the phylogenetic signal (Pagel’s λ) in morphological traits, using Trichoptera larval communities from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We find that model-based tree reconstruction methods and the use of a backbone family-level phylogeny improve estimations of phylogenetic community structure. In addition, trees built using the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) alone accurately predict metrics of phylogenetic community structure obtained from a multi-gene phylogeny. Input tree did not alter overall conclusions drawn for phylogenetic signal, as significant phylogenetic structure was detected in two body size traits across input trees. As the discipline of community phylogenetics continues to expand, it is important to investigate the best approaches to accurately estimate patterns. Our results suggest that emerging large datasets of DNA barcode sequences provide a vast resource for studying the structure of biological communities. PMID:26110886

  14. Community Phylogenetics: Assessing Tree Reconstruction Methods and the Utility of DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth E; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining phylogenetic community structure have become increasingly prevalent, yet little attention has been given to the influence of the input phylogeny on metrics that describe phylogenetic patterns of co-occurrence. Here, we examine the influence of branch length, tree reconstruction method, and amount of sequence data on measures of phylogenetic community structure, as well as the phylogenetic signal (Pagel's λ) in morphological traits, using Trichoptera larval communities from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We find that model-based tree reconstruction methods and the use of a backbone family-level phylogeny improve estimations of phylogenetic community structure. In addition, trees built using the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) alone accurately predict metrics of phylogenetic community structure obtained from a multi-gene phylogeny. Input tree did not alter overall conclusions drawn for phylogenetic signal, as significant phylogenetic structure was detected in two body size traits across input trees. As the discipline of community phylogenetics continues to expand, it is important to investigate the best approaches to accurately estimate patterns. Our results suggest that emerging large datasets of DNA barcode sequences provide a vast resource for studying the structure of biological communities.

  15. Estimating phylogenetic trees from genome-scale data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Xi, Zhenxiang; Wu, Shaoyuan; Davis, Charles C; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneity of signals in the genomes of diverse organisms poses challenges for traditional phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic methods known as "species tree" methods have been proposed to directly address one important source of gene tree heterogeneity, namely the incomplete lineage sorting that occurs when evolving lineages radiate rapidly, resulting in a diversity of gene trees from a single underlying species tree. Here we review theory and empirical examples that help clarify conflicts between species tree and concatenation methods, and misconceptions in the literature about the performance of species tree methods. Considering concatenation as a special case of the multispecies coalescent model helps explain differences in the behavior of the two methods on phylogenomic data sets. Recent work suggests that species tree methods are more robust than concatenation approaches to some of the classic challenges of phylogenetic analysis, including rapidly evolving sites in DNA sequences and long-branch attraction. We show that approaches, such as binning, designed to augment the signal in species tree analyses can distort the distribution of gene trees and are inconsistent. Computationally efficient species tree methods incorporating biological realism are a key to phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome data.

  16. Taxonomic colouring of phylogenetic trees of protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Palidwor, Gareth; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2006-02-17

    Phylogenetic analyses of protein families are used to define the evolutionary relationships between homologous proteins. The interpretation of protein-sequence phylogenetic trees requires the examination of the taxonomic properties of the species associated to those sequences. However, there is no online tool to facilitate this interpretation, for example, by automatically attaching taxonomic information to the nodes of a tree, or by interactively colouring the branches of a tree according to any combination of taxonomic divisions. This is especially problematic if the tree contains on the order of hundreds of sequences, which, given the accelerated increase in the size of the protein sequence databases, is a situation that is becoming common. We have developed PhyloView, a web based tool for colouring phylogenetic trees upon arbitrary taxonomic properties of the species represented in a protein sequence phylogenetic tree. Provided that the tree contains SwissProt, SpTrembl, or GenBank protein identifiers, the tool retrieves the taxonomic information from the corresponding database. A colour picker displays a summary of the findings and allows the user to associate colours to the leaves of the tree according to any number of taxonomic partitions. Then, the colours are propagated to the branches of the tree. PhyloView can be used at http://www.ogic.ca/projects/phyloview/. A tutorial, the software with documentation, and GPL licensed source code, can be accessed at the same web address.

  17. Large Deviations for Random Trees

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Christine

    2010-01-01

    We consider large random trees under Gibbs distributions and prove a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for the distribution of degrees of vertices of the tree. The LDP rate function is given explicitly. An immediate consequence is a Law of Large Numbers for the distribution of vertex degrees in a large random tree. Our motivation for this study comes from the analysis of RNA secondary structures. PMID:20216937

  18. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  19. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Moreno, Claudia E; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2010-09-08

    Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha) forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  20. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction.

  1. morePhyML: improving the phylogenetic tree space exploration with PhyML 3.

    PubMed

    Criscuolo, Alexis

    2011-12-01

    PhyML is a widely used Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree inference software based on a standard hill-climbing method. Starting from an initial tree, the version 3 of PhyML explores the tree space by using "Nearest Neighbor Interchange" (NNI) or "Subtree Pruning and Regrafting" (SPR) tree swapping techniques in order to find the ML phylogenetic tree. NNI-based local searches are fast but can often get trapped in local optima, whereas it is expected that the larger (but slower to cover) SPR-based neighborhoods will lead to trees with higher likelihood. Here, I verify that PhyML infers more likely trees with SPRs than with NNIs in almost all cases. However, I also show that the SPR-based local search of PhyML often does not succeed at locating the ML tree. To improve the tree space exploration, I deliver a script, named morePhyML, which allows escaping from local optima by performing character reweighting. This ML tree search strategy, named ratchet, often leads to higher likelihood estimates. Based on the analysis of a large number of amino acid and nucleotide data, I show that morePhyML allows inferring more accurate phylogenetic trees than several other recently developed ML tree inference softwares in many cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maximum parsimony, substitution model, and probability phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Weng, J F; Thomas, D A; Mareels, I

    2011-01-01

    The problem of inferring phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) is one of the main problems in computational biology. There are three main methods for inferring phylogenies-Maximum Parsimony (MP), Distance Matrix (DM) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), of which the MP method is the most well-studied and popular method. In the MP method the optimization criterion is the number of substitutions of the nucleotides computed by the differences in the investigated nucleotide sequences. However, the MP method is often criticized as it only counts the substitutions observable at the current time and all the unobservable substitutions that really occur in the evolutionary history are omitted. In order to take into account the unobservable substitutions, some substitution models have been established and they are now widely used in the DM and ML methods but these substitution models cannot be used within the classical MP method. Recently the authors proposed a probability representation model for phylogenetic trees and the reconstructed trees in this model are called probability phylogenetic trees. One of the advantages of the probability representation model is that it can include a substitution model to infer phylogenetic trees based on the MP principle. In this paper we explain how to use a substitution model in the reconstruction of probability phylogenetic trees and show the advantage of this approach with examples.

  3. [Molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Jiang, Xue-Long; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-04-01

    The tree shrew is currently located in the Order Scandentia and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and South China. Due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, the tree shrew has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is unresolved debate regarding the phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to primates and their phylogenetic position in Euarchontoglires. To help settle this debate, we summarized the available molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of the tree shrew. Most nuclear DNA data, including recent genome data, suggested that the tree shrew belongs to the Euarchonta clade harboring primates and flying lemurs (colugos). However, analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data suggested a close relationship to lagomorphs and rodents. These different clustering patterns could be explained by nuclear gene data and mtDNA data discrepancies, as well as the different phylogenetic approaches used in previous studies. Taking all available conclusions together, the robust data from whole genome of this species supports tree shrews being genetically closely related to primates.

  4. Characterization of a branch of the phylogenetic tree

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Stuart A.; Weng, Gezhi

    2003-04-11

    We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a ''tortoise and hare effect'': Those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree corresponding to a genus and accurate mathematical representations of the various stages are obtained. We apply our results to address certain controversial issues that have arisen in paleontology such as the importance of punctuated equilibrium and whether unique Cambrian phyla have survived to the present.

  5. Universal Artifacts Affect the Branching of Phylogenetic Trees, Not Universal Scaling Laws

    PubMed Central

    Altaba, Cristian R.

    2009-01-01

    taxa. This artifactual imbalance accounts for tree shape convergence of large trees. Significance There is no evidence for any universal scaling in the tree of life. Instead, there is a need for improved methods of tree analysis that can be used to discriminate the noise due to outgroups from the phylogenetic signal within the taxon of interest, and to evaluate realistic models of evolution, correcting the retrospective perspective and explicitly recognizing extinction as a driving force. Artifacts are pervasive, and can only be overcome through understanding the structure and biological meaning of phylogenetic trees. Catalan Abstract in Translation S1. PMID:19242549

  6. Phylogenetic classification and the universal tree.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, W F

    1999-06-25

    From comparative analyses of the nucleotide sequences of genes encoding ribosomal RNAs and several proteins, molecular phylogeneticists have constructed a "universal tree of life," taking it as the basis for a "natural" hierarchical classification of all living things. Although confidence in some of the tree's early branches has recently been shaken, new approaches could still resolve many methodological uncertainties. More challenging is evidence that most archaeal and bacterial genomes (and the inferred ancestral eukaryotic nuclear genome) contain genes from multiple sources. If "chimerism" or "lateral gene transfer" cannot be dismissed as trivial in extent or limited to special categories of genes, then no hierarchical universal classification can be taken as natural. Molecular phylogeneticists will have failed to find the "true tree," not because their methods are inadequate or because they have chosen the wrong genes, but because the history of life cannot properly be represented as a tree. However, taxonomies based on molecular sequences will remain indispensable, and understanding of the evolutionary process will ultimately be enriched, not impoverished.

  7. An optimization-based sampling scheme for phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Misra, Navodit; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2011-11-01

    Much modern work in phylogenetics depends on statistical sampling approaches to phylogeny construction to estimate probability distributions of possible trees for any given input data set. Our theoretical understanding of sampling approaches to phylogenetics remains far less developed than that for optimization approaches, however, particularly with regard to the number of sampling steps needed to produce accurate samples of tree partition functions. Despite the many advantages in principle of being able to sample trees from sophisticated probabilistic models, we have little theoretical basis for concluding that the prevailing sampling approaches do in fact yield accurate samples from those models within realistic numbers of steps. We propose a novel approach to phylogenetic sampling intended to be both efficient in practice and more amenable to theoretical analysis than the prevailing methods. The method depends on replacing the standard tree rearrangement moves with an alternative Markov model in which one solves a theoretically hard but practically tractable optimization problem on each step of sampling. The resulting method can be applied to a broad range of standard probability models, yielding practical algorithms for efficient sampling and rigorous proofs of accurate sampling for heated versions of some important special cases. We demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of the method by an analysis of uncertainty in tree inference over varying input sizes. In addition to providing a new practical method for phylogenetic sampling, the technique is likely to prove applicable to many similar problems involving sampling over combinatorial objects weighted by a likelihood model.

  8. An Optimization-Based Sampling Scheme for Phylogenetic Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Navodit; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R.; Schwartz, Russell

    Much modern work in phylogenetics depends on statistical sampling approaches to phylogeny construction to estimate probability distributions of possible trees for any given input data set. Our theoretical understanding of sampling approaches to phylogenetics remains far less developed than that for optimization approaches, however, particularly with regard to the number of sampling steps needed to produce accurate samples of tree partition functions. Despite the many advantages in principle of being able to sample trees from sophisticated probabilistic models, we have little theoretical basis for concluding that the prevailing sampling approaches do in fact yield accurate samples from those models within realistic numbers of steps. We propose a novel approach to phylogenetic sampling intended to be both efficient in practice and more amenable to theoretical analysis than the prevailing methods. The method depends on replacing the standard tree rearrangement moves with an alternative Markov model in which one solves a theoretically hard but practically tractable optimization problem on each step of sampling. The resulting method can be applied to a broad range of standard probability models, yielding practical algorithms for efficient sampling and rigorous proofs of accurate sampling for some important special cases. We demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of the method in an analysis of uncertainty in tree inference over varying input sizes. In addition to providing a new practical method for phylogenetic sampling, the technique is likely to prove applicable to many similar problems involving sampling over combinatorial objects weighted by a likelihood model.

  9. Why the Phylogenetic Regression Appears Robust to Tree Misspecification

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic comparative method uses estimates of evolutionary relationships to explicitly model the covariance structure of interspecific data. By accounting for common ancestry, the coevolution between 2 or more traits, as a response to one another or to environmental variables, can be studied without confounding similarities due to identity by descent. Because the true phylogeny is unknowable, an estimate must be used, introducing a source of error into phylogenetic comparative analysis that can be difficult to quantify. This manuscript aims to elucidate how tree misspecification is propagated through a comparative analysis. I focus on the phylogenetic regression under a Brownian motion model of evolution and consider the effect of local phylogenetic perturbations on the regression fit. Motivated by Felsenstein's method of independent contrasts, I derive a matrix square root of the phylogenetic covariance matrix that has an obvious phylogenetic interpretation. I use this result to transform the perturbed phylogenetic regression model into an ordinary linear regression in which one interpretable point has been affected. The simplicity of this formulation allows the contributions of data and phylogeny to be disentangled when studying the effect of tree misspecification. Consequentially, I find that branch length misspecification can be easily explained in terms of the reweighting of contrast scores between subtrees. An analytical consideration of this and other perturbations helps to explain why the phylogenetic regression appears generally to be robust to tree misspecification, and I am able to identify conditions under which the regression may not yield robust results. I discuss why soft polytomies do not meet these problematic conditions, leading to the conclusion that unresolved bifurcations should have only modest effects on the regression fit. PMID:21325220

  10. Dimensional Reduction for the General Markov Model on Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jeremy G

    2017-03-01

    We present a method of dimensional reduction for the general Markov model of sequence evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We show that taking certain linear combinations of the associated random variables (site pattern counts) reduces the dimensionality of the model from exponential in the number of extant taxa, to quadratic in the number of taxa, while retaining the ability to statistically identify phylogenetic divergence events. A key feature is the identification of an invariant subspace which depends only bilinearly on the model parameters, in contrast to the usual multi-linear dependence in the full space. We discuss potential applications including the computation of split (edge) weights on phylogenetic trees from observed sequence data.

  11. Heterogeneous Compression of Large Collections of Evolutionary Trees.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Suzanne J

    2015-01-01

    Compressing heterogeneous collections of trees is an open problem in computational phylogenetics. In a heterogeneous tree collection, each tree can contain a unique set of taxa. An ideal compression method would allow for the efficient archival of large tree collections and enable scientists to identify common evolutionary relationships over disparate analyses. In this paper, we extend TreeZip to compress heterogeneous collections of trees. TreeZip is the most efficient algorithm for compressing homogeneous tree collections. To the best of our knowledge, no other domain-based compression algorithm exists for large heterogeneous tree collections or enable their rapid analysis. Our experimental results indicate that TreeZip averages 89.03 percent (72.69 percent) space savings on unweighted (weighted) collections of trees when the level of heterogeneity in a collection is moderate. The organization of the TRZ file allows for efficient computations over heterogeneous data. For example, consensus trees can be computed in mere seconds. Lastly, combining the TreeZip compressed (TRZ) file with general-purpose compression yields average space savings of 97.34 percent (81.43 percent) on unweighted (weighted) collections of trees. Our results lead us to believe that TreeZip will prove invaluable in the efficient archival of tree collections, and enables scientists to develop novel methods for relating heterogeneous collections of trees.

  12. MulRF: a software package for phylogenetic analysis using multi-copy gene trees.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Ruchi; Fernández-Baca, David; Burleigh, John Gordon

    2015-02-01

    MulRF is a platform-independent software package for phylogenetic analysis using multi-copy gene trees. It seeks the species tree that minimizes the Robinson-Foulds (RF) distance to the input trees using a generalization of the RF distance to multi-labeled trees. The underlying generic tree distance measure and fast running time make MulRF useful for inferring phylogenies from large collections of gene trees, in which multiple evolutionary processes as well as phylogenetic error may contribute to gene tree discord. MulRF implements several features for customizing the species tree search and assessing the results, and it provides a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) with tree visualization. The species tree search is implemented in C++ and the GUI in Java Swing. MulRF's executable as well as sample datasets and manual are available at http://genome.cs.iastate.edu/CBL/MulRF/, and the source code is available at https://github.com/ruchiherself/MulRFRepo. ruchic@ufl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Ghost-tree: creating hybrid-gene phylogenetic trees for diversity analyses.

    PubMed

    Fouquier, Jennifer; Rideout, Jai Ram; Bolyen, Evan; Chase, John; Shiffer, Arron; McDonald, Daniel; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Kelley, Scott T

    2016-02-24

    Fungi play critical roles in many ecosystems, cause serious diseases in plants and animals, and pose significant threats to human health and structural integrity problems in built environments. While most fungal diversity remains unknown, the development of PCR primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) combined with next-generation sequencing has substantially improved our ability to profile fungal microbial diversity. Although the high sequence variability in the ITS region facilitates more accurate species identification, it also makes multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis unreliable across evolutionarily distant fungi because the sequences are hard to align accurately. To address this issue, we created ghost-tree, a bioinformatics tool that integrates sequence data from two genetic markers into a single phylogenetic tree that can be used for diversity analyses. Our approach starts with a "foundation" phylogeny based on one genetic marker whose sequences can be aligned across organisms spanning divergent taxonomic groups (e.g., fungal families). Then, "extension" phylogenies are built for more closely related organisms (e.g., fungal species or strains) using a second more rapidly evolving genetic marker. These smaller phylogenies are then grafted onto the foundation tree by mapping taxonomic names such that each corresponding foundation-tree tip would branch into its new "extension tree" child. We applied ghost-tree to graft fungal extension phylogenies derived from ITS sequences onto a foundation phylogeny derived from fungal 18S sequences. Our analysis of simulated and real fungal ITS data sets found that phylogenetic distances between fungal communities computed using ghost-tree phylogenies explained significantly more variance than non-phylogenetic distances. The phylogenetic metrics also improved our ability to distinguish small differences (effect sizes) between microbial communities, though results were similar to non-phylogenetic

  14. Minimum variance rooting of phylogenetic trees and implications for species tree reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees inferred using commonly-used models of sequence evolution are unrooted, but the root position matters both for interpretation and downstream applications. This issue has been long recognized; however, whether the potential for discordance between the species tree and gene trees impacts methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we introduce a new method of rooting a tree based on its branch length distribution; our method, which minimizes the variance of root to tip distances, is inspired by the traditional midpoint rerooting and is justified when deviations from the strict molecular clock are random. Like midpoint rerooting, the method can be implemented in a linear time algorithm. In extensive simulations that consider discordance between gene trees and the species tree, we show that the new method is more accurate than midpoint rerooting, but its relative accuracy compared to using outgroups to root gene trees depends on the size of the dataset and levels of deviations from the strict clock. We show high levels of error for all methods of rooting estimated gene trees due to factors that include effects of gene tree discordance, deviations from the clock, and gene tree estimation error. Our simulations, however, did not reveal significant differences between two equivalent methods for species tree estimation that use rooted and unrooted input, namely, STAR and NJst. Nevertheless, our results point to limitations of existing scalable rooting methods. PMID:28800608

  15. Minimum variance rooting of phylogenetic trees and implications for species tree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mai, Uyen; Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees inferred using commonly-used models of sequence evolution are unrooted, but the root position matters both for interpretation and downstream applications. This issue has been long recognized; however, whether the potential for discordance between the species tree and gene trees impacts methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we introduce a new method of rooting a tree based on its branch length distribution; our method, which minimizes the variance of root to tip distances, is inspired by the traditional midpoint rerooting and is justified when deviations from the strict molecular clock are random. Like midpoint rerooting, the method can be implemented in a linear time algorithm. In extensive simulations that consider discordance between gene trees and the species tree, we show that the new method is more accurate than midpoint rerooting, but its relative accuracy compared to using outgroups to root gene trees depends on the size of the dataset and levels of deviations from the strict clock. We show high levels of error for all methods of rooting estimated gene trees due to factors that include effects of gene tree discordance, deviations from the clock, and gene tree estimation error. Our simulations, however, did not reveal significant differences between two equivalent methods for species tree estimation that use rooted and unrooted input, namely, STAR and NJst. Nevertheless, our results point to limitations of existing scalable rooting methods.

  16. Is invasion success of Australian trees mediated by their native biogeography, phylogenetic history, or both?

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph T; Hui, Cang; Thornhill, Andrew; Gallien, Laure; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M

    2016-12-30

    For a plant species to become invasive it has to progress along the introduction-naturalization-invasion (INI) continuum which reflects the joint direction of niche breadth. Identification of traits that correlate with and drive species invasiveness along the continuum is a major focus of invasion biology. If invasiveness is underlain by heritable traits, and if such traits are phylogenetically conserved, then we would expect non-native species with different introduction status (i.e. position along the INI continuum) to show phylogenetic signal. This study uses two clades that contain a large number of invasive tree species from the genera Acacia and Eucalyptus to test whether geographic distribution and a novel phylogenetic conservation method can predict which species have been introduced, became naturalized, and invasive. Our results suggest that no underlying phylogenetic signal underlie the introduction status for both groups of trees, except for introduced acacias. The more invasive acacia clade contains invasive species that have smoother geographic distributions and are more marginal in the phylogenetic network. The less invasive eucalyptus group contains invasive species that are more clustered geographically, more centrally located in the phylogenetic network and have phylogenetic distances between invasive and non-invasive species that are trending toward the mean pairwise distance. This suggests that highly invasive groups may be identified because they have invasive species with smoother and faster expanding native distributions and are located more to the edges of phylogenetic networks than less invasive groups.

  17. Building phylogenetic trees by using gene Nucleotide Genomic Signals.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Paul Dan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide genomic signal (NuGS) methodology allows a molecular level approach to determine distances between homologous genes or between conserved equivalent non-coding genome regions in various species or individuals of the same species. Therefore, distances between the genes of species or individuals can be computed and phylogenetic trees can be built. The paper illustrates the use of the nucleotide imbalance (N) and nucleotide pair imbalance (P) signals to determine the distances between the genes of several Hominidae. The results are in accordance with those of other genetic or phylogenetic approaches to establish distances between Hominidae species.

  18. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  19. node.dating: dating ancestors in phylogenetic trees in R.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bradley R; Poon, Art F Y

    2017-03-15

    Phylogenetic trees encode the evolutionary distances between species or populations. With sufficient information, these evolutionary distances can be rescaled over time to provide estimates of the dates of the most recent ancestors of the species. Here we present the R program node.dating, divergence-time analysis software, which uses a maximum-likelihood method to estimate the dates of the internal nodes of a phylogenetic tree. node.dating is available as a part of the R v3.30 package ape v4.0 (cran.r-project.org). node.dating is also available in the GitHub repository: https://github.com/brj1/node.dating , along with supplementary software and tests. brj1@sfu.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Reliable Phylogenetic Trees Building: A New Web Interface for FIGENIX.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Julien; Gouret, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The community needed a reliable and user friendly tool to quickly produce robust phylogenetic trees which are crucial in evolutionary studies and genomes' functional annotation. FIGENIX is software dedicated to this and was published in 2005. Several laboratories around the world use it in their research, but it was difficult to use for non-expert users, thus we developed a new graphical user interface for the benefit of all biologists.

  1. Evaluation of properties over phylogenetic trees using stochastic logics.

    PubMed

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2016-06-14

    Model checking has been recently introduced as an integrated framework for extracting information of the phylogenetic trees using temporal logics as a querying language, an extension of modal logics that imposes restrictions of a boolean formula along a path of events. The phylogenetic tree is considered a transition system modeling the evolution as a sequence of genomic mutations (we understand mutation as different ways that DNA can be changed), while this kind of logics are suitable for traversing it in a strict and exhaustive way. Given a biological property that we desire to inspect over the phylogeny, the verifier returns true if the specification is satisfied or a counterexample that falsifies it. However, this approach has been only considered over qualitative aspects of the phylogeny. In this paper, we repair the limitations of the previous framework for including and handling quantitative information such as explicit time or probability. To this end, we apply current probabilistic continuous-time extensions of model checking to phylogenetics. We reinterpret a catalog of qualitative properties in a numerical way, and we also present new properties that couldn't be analyzed before. For instance, we obtain the likelihood of a tree topology according to a mutation model. As case of study, we analyze several phylogenies in order to obtain the maximum likelihood with the model checking tool PRISM. In addition, we have adapted the software for optimizing the computation of maximum likelihoods. We have shown that probabilistic model checking is a competitive framework for describing and analyzing quantitative properties over phylogenetic trees. This formalism adds soundness and readability to the definition of models and specifications. Besides, the existence of model checking tools hides the underlying technology, omitting the extension, upgrade, debugging and maintenance of a software tool to the biologists. A set of benchmarks justify the feasibility of our

  2. Quartet decomposition server: a platform for analyzing phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequent exchange of genetic material among prokaryotes means that extracting a majority or plurality phylogenetic signal from many gene families, and the identification of gene families that are in significant conflict with the plurality signal is a frequent task in comparative genomics, and especially in phylogenomic analyses. Decomposition of gene trees into embedded quartets (unrooted trees each with four taxa) is a convenient and statistically powerful technique to address this challenging problem. This approach was shown to be useful in several studies of completely sequenced microbial genomes. Results We present here a web server that takes a collection of gene phylogenies, decomposes them into quartets, generates a Quartet Spectrum, and draws a split network. Users are also provided with various data download options for further analyses. Each gene phylogeny is to be represented by an assessment of phylogenetic information content, such as sets of trees reconstructed from bootstrap replicates or sampled from a posterior distribution. The Quartet Decomposition server is accessible at http://quartets.uga.edu. Conclusions The Quartet Decomposition server presented here provides a convenient means to perform Quartet Decomposition analyses and will empower users to find statistically supported phylogenetic conflicts. PMID:22676320

  3. Quartet decomposition server: a platform for analyzing phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Mao, Fenglou; Williams, David; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Poptsova, Maria; Lapierre, Pascal; Gogarten, J Peter; Xu, Ying

    2012-06-07

    The frequent exchange of genetic material among prokaryotes means that extracting a majority or plurality phylogenetic signal from many gene families, and the identification of gene families that are in significant conflict with the plurality signal is a frequent task in comparative genomics, and especially in phylogenomic analyses. Decomposition of gene trees into embedded quartets (unrooted trees each with four taxa) is a convenient and statistically powerful technique to address this challenging problem. This approach was shown to be useful in several studies of completely sequenced microbial genomes. We present here a web server that takes a collection of gene phylogenies, decomposes them into quartets, generates a Quartet Spectrum, and draws a split network. Users are also provided with various data download options for further analyses. Each gene phylogeny is to be represented by an assessment of phylogenetic information content, such as sets of trees reconstructed from bootstrap replicates or sampled from a posterior distribution. The Quartet Decomposition server is accessible at http://quartets.uga.edu. The Quartet Decomposition server presented here provides a convenient means to perform Quartet Decomposition analyses and will empower users to find statistically supported phylogenetic conflicts.

  4. kdetrees: non-parametric estimation of phylogenetic tree distributions

    PubMed Central

    Weyenberg, Grady; Huggins, Peter M.; Schardl, Christopher L.; Howe, Daniel K.; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Although the majority of gene histories found in a clade of organisms are expected to be generated by a common process (e.g. the coalescent process), it is well known that numerous other coexisting processes (e.g. horizontal gene transfers, gene duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization) will cause some genes to exhibit a history distinct from those of the majority of genes. Such ‘outlying’ gene trees are considered to be biologically interesting, and identifying these genes has become an important problem in phylogenetics. Results: We propose and implement kdetrees, a non-parametric method for estimating distributions of phylogenetic trees, with the goal of identifying trees that are significantly different from the rest of the trees in the sample. Our method compares favorably with a similar recently published method, featuring an improvement of one polynomial order of computational complexity (to quadratic in the number of trees analyzed), with simulation studies suggesting only a small penalty to classification accuracy. Application of kdetrees to a set of Apicomplexa genes identified several unreliable sequence alignments that had escaped previous detection, as well as a gene independently reported as a possible case of horizontal gene transfer. We also analyze a set of Epichloë genes, fungi symbiotic with grasses, successfully identifying a contrived instance of paralogy. Availability and implementation: Our method for estimating tree distributions and identifying outlying trees is implemented as the R package kdetrees and is available for download from CRAN. Contact: ruriko.yoshida@uky.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24764459

  5. Model checking software for phylogenetic trees using distribution and database methods.

    PubMed

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2013-11-14

    Model checking, a generic and formal paradigm stemming from computer science based on temporal logics, has been proposed for the study of biological properties that emerge from the labeling of the states defined over the phylogenetic tree. This strategy allows us to use generic software tools already present in the industry. However, the performance of traditional model checking is penalized when scaling the system for large phylogenies. To this end, two strategies are presented here. The first one consists of partitioning the phylogenetic tree into a set of subgraphs each one representing a subproblem to be verified so as to speed up the computation time and distribute the memory consumption. The second strategy is based on uncoupling the information associated to each state of the phylogenetic tree (mainly, the DNA sequence) and exporting it to an external tool for the management of large information systems. The integration of all these approaches outperforms the results of monolithic model checking and helps us to execute the verification of properties in a real phylogenetic tree.

  6. Polynomial algorithms for the Maximal Pairing Problem: efficient phylogenetic targeting on arbitrary trees.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christian; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-06-02

    The Maximal Pairing Problem (MPP) is the prototype of a class of combinatorial optimization problems that are of considerable interest in bioinformatics: Given an arbitrary phylogenetic tree T and weights omegaxy for the paths between any two pairs of leaves (x, y), what is the collection of edge-disjoint paths between pairs of leaves that maximizes the total weight? Special cases of the MPP for binary trees and equal weights have been described previously; algorithms to solve the general MPP are still missing, however. We describe a relatively simple dynamic programming algorithm for the special case of binary trees. We then show that the general case of multifurcating trees can be treated by interleaving solutions to certain auxiliary Maximum Weighted Matching problems with an extension of this dynamic programming approach, resulting in an overall polynomial-time solution of complexity (n4 log n) w.r.t. the number n of leaves. The source code of a C implementation can be obtained under the GNU Public License from http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/Software/Targeting. For binary trees, we furthermore discuss several constrained variants of the MPP as well as a partition function approach to the probabilistic version of the MPP. The algorithms introduced here make it possible to solve the MPP also for large trees with high-degree vertices. This has practical relevance in the field of comparative phylogenetics and, for example, in the context of phylogenetic targeting, i.e., data collection with resource limitations.

  7. The distribution of branch lengths in phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    A lot of effort has been devoted to analyze the distribution of branching times observed in a phylogenetic tree. On the other hand, the distribution of branch lengths has not received similar attention. In this paper, the distribution of branch lengths is studied. It is shown that different types of branches within a tree have distinct distributions. Some equations to predict these distributions are derived with respect to diversification parameters and whether the size of the tree is known or not. A simulation study validated these predictions. The inferred distributions are used to develop graphical and statistical tools to assess the goodness-of-fit of diversification models. An application is presented on a recently published dated phylogeny of Carnivora. Some future developments are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Genes with minimal phylogenetic information are problematic for coalescent analyses when gene tree estimation is biased.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhenxiang; Liu, Liang; Davis, Charles C

    2015-11-01

    The development and application of coalescent methods are undergoing rapid changes. One little explored area that bears on the application of gene-tree-based coalescent methods to species tree estimation is gene informativeness. Here, we investigate the accuracy of these coalescent methods when genes have minimal phylogenetic information, including the implementation of the multilocus bootstrap approach. Using simulated DNA sequences, we demonstrate that genes with minimal phylogenetic information can produce unreliable gene trees (i.e., high error in gene tree estimation), which may in turn reduce the accuracy of species tree estimation using gene-tree-based coalescent methods. We demonstrate that this problem can be alleviated by sampling more genes, as is commonly done in large-scale phylogenomic analyses. This applies even when these genes are minimally informative. If gene tree estimation is biased, however, gene-tree-based coalescent analyses will produce inconsistent results, which cannot be remedied by increasing the number of genes. In this case, it is not the gene-tree-based coalescent methods that are flawed, but rather the input data (i.e., estimated gene trees). Along these lines, the commonly used program PhyML has a tendency to infer one particular bifurcating topology even though it is best represented as a polytomy. We additionally corroborate these findings by analyzing the 183-locus mammal data set assembled by McCormack et al. (2012) using ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and flanking DNA. Lastly, we demonstrate that when employing the multilocus bootstrap approach on this 183-locus data set, there is no strong conflict between species trees estimated from concatenation and gene-tree-based coalescent analyses, as has been previously suggested by Gatesy and Springer (2014).

  9. Climate Change Impacts on the Tree of Life: Changes in Phylogenetic Diversity Illustrated for Acropora Corals

    PubMed Central

    Faith, Daniel P.; Richards, Zoe T.

    2012-01-01

    The possible loss of whole branches from the tree of life is a dramatic, but under-studied, biological implication of climate change. The tree of life represents an evolutionary heritage providing both present and future benefits to humanity, often in unanticipated ways. Losses in this evolutionary (evo) life-support system represent losses in “evosystem” services, and are quantified using the phylogenetic diversity (PD) measure. High species-level biodiversity losses may or may not correspond to high PD losses. If climate change impacts are clumped on the phylogeny, then loss of deeper phylogenetic branches can mean disproportionately large PD loss for a given degree of species loss. Over time, successive species extinctions within a clade each may imply only a moderate loss of PD, until the last species within that clade goes extinct, and PD drops precipitously. Emerging methods of “phylogenetic risk analysis” address such phylogenetic tipping points by adjusting conservation priorities to better reflect risk of such worst-case losses. We have further developed and explored this approach for one of the most threatened taxonomic groups, corals. Based on a phylogenetic tree for the corals genus Acropora, we identify cases where worst-case PD losses may be avoided by designing risk-averse conservation priorities. We also propose spatial heterogeneity measures changes to assess possible changes in the geographic distribution of corals PD. PMID:24832524

  10. Mesoamerican tree squirrels evolution (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Federico; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    The tribe Sciurini comprehends the genera Sciurus, Syntheosiurus, Microsciurus, Tamiasciurus and Rheinthrosciurus. The phylogenetic relationships within Sciurus have been only partially done, and the relationship between Mesoamerican species remains unsolved. The phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican tree squirrels were examined using molecular data. Sequence data publicly available (12S, 16S, CYTB mitochondrial genes and IRBP nuclear gene) and cytochrome B gene sequences of four previously not sampled Mesoamerican Sciurus species were analyzed under a Bayesian multispecies coalescence model. Phylogenetic analysis of the multilocus data set showed the neotropical tree squirrels as a monophyletic clade. The genus Sciurus was paraphyletic due to the inclusion of Microsciurus species (M. alfari and M. flaviventer). The South American species S. aestuans and S. stramineus showed a sister taxa relationship. Single locus analysis based on the most compact and complete data set (i.e. CYTB gene sequences), supported the monophyly of the South American species and recovered a Mesoamerican clade including S. aureogaster, S. granatensis and S. variegatoides. These results corroborated previous findings based on cladistic analysis of cranial and post-cranial characters. Our data support a close relationship between Mesoamerican Sciurus species and a sister relationship with South American species, and corroborates previous findings in relation to the polyphyly of Microsciurus and Syntheosciurus paraphyly.

  11. Fair-balance paradox, star-tree paradox, and Bayesian phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziheng

    2007-08-01

    The star-tree paradox refers to the conjecture that the posterior probabilities for the three unrooted trees for four species (or the three rooted trees for three species if the molecular clock is assumed) do not approach 1/3 when the data are generated using the star tree and when the amount of data approaches infinity. It reflects the more general phenomenon of high and presumably spurious posterior probabilities for trees or clades produced by the Bayesian method of phylogenetic reconstruction, and it is perceived to be a manifestation of the deeper problem of the extreme sensitivity of Bayesian model selection to the prior on parameters. Analysis of the star-tree paradox has been hampered by the intractability of the integrals involved. In this article, I use Laplacian expansion to approximate the posterior probabilities for the three rooted trees for three species using binary characters evolving at a constant rate. The approximation enables calculation of posterior tree probabilities for arbitrarily large data sets. Both theoretical analysis of the analogous fair-coin and fair-balance problems and computer simulation for the tree problem confirmed the existence of the star-tree paradox. When the data size n --> infinity, the posterior tree probabilities do not converge to 1/3 each, but they vary among data sets according to a statistical distribution. This distribution is characterized. Two strategies for resolving the star-tree paradox are explored: (1) a nonzero prior probability for the degenerate star tree and (2) an increasingly informative prior forcing the internal branch length toward zero. Both appear to be effective in resolving the paradox, but the latter is simpler to implement. The posterior tree probabilities are found to be very sensitive to the prior.

  12. Why abundant tropical tree species are phylogenetically old.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    Neutral models of species diversity predict patterns of abundance for communities in which all individuals are ecologically equivalent. These models were originally developed for Panamanian trees and successfully reproduce observed distributions of abundance. Neutral models also make macroevolutionary predictions that have rarely been evaluated or tested. Here we show that neutral models predict a humped or flat relationship between species age and population size. In contrast, ages and abundances of tree species in the Panamanian Canal watershed are found to be positively correlated, which falsifies the models. Speciation rates vary among phylogenetic lineages and are partially heritable from mother to daughter species. Variable speciation rates in an otherwise neutral model lead to a demographic advantage for species with low speciation rate. This demographic advantage results in a positive correlation between species age and abundance, as found in the Panamanian tropical forest community.

  13. Implementation of a Markov model for phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Erich; Lancaster, Peter

    2006-04-07

    A recently developed mathematical model for the analysis of phylogenetic trees is applied to comparative data for 48 species. The model represents a return to fundamentals and makes no hypothesis with respect to the reversibility of the process. The species have been analysed in all subsets of three, and a measure of reliability of the results is provided. The numerical results of the computations on 17,296 triples of species are made available on the Internet. These results are discussed and the development of reliable tree structures for several species is illustrated. It is shown that, indeed, the Markov model is capable of considerably more interesting predictions than has been recognized to date.

  14. AST: an automated sequence-sampling method for improving the taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php.

  15. AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php. PMID:24892935

  16. Phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to Glires is attributed to fast evolution rate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiannan; Chen, Guangfeng; Gu, Liang; Shen, Yuefeng; Zheng, Meizhu; Zheng, Weisheng; Hu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaobai; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-02-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses have led to incongruent evolutionary relationships between tree shrews and other suborders of Euarchontoglires. What caused the incongruence remains elusive. In this study, we identified 6845 orthologous genes between seventeen placental mammals. Tree shrews and Primates were monophyletic in the phylogenetic trees derived from the first or/and second codon positions whereas tree shrews and Glires formed a monophyly in the trees derived from the third or all codon positions. The same topology was obtained in the phylogeny inference using the slowly and fast evolving genes, respectively. This incongruence was likely attributed to the fast substitution rate in tree shrews and Glires. Notably, sequence GC content only was not informative to resolve the controversial phylogenetic relationships between tree shrews, Glires, and Primates. Finally, estimation in the confidence of the tree selection strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation of tree shrews to Primates as a monophyly.

  17. Fast Construction of Near Parsimonious Hybridization Networks for Multiple Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Sajad; Wu, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization networks represent plausible evolutionary histories of species that are affected by reticulate evolutionary processes. An established computational problem on hybridization networks is constructing the most parsimonious hybridization network such that each of the given phylogenetic trees (called gene trees) is "displayed" in the network. There have been several previous approaches, including an exact method and several heuristics, for this NP-hard problem. However, the exact method is only applicable to a limited range of data, and heuristic methods can be less accurate and also slow sometimes. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for constructing near parsimonious networks for multiple binary gene trees. This method is more efficient for large numbers of gene trees than previous heuristics. This new method also produces more parsimonious results on many simulated datasets as well as a real biological dataset than a previous method. We also show that our method produces topologically more accurate networks for many datasets.

  18. Network dynamics of eukaryotic LTR retroelements beyond phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Carlos; Muñoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Bernad, Lucia; Botella, Hector; Moya, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Background Sequencing projects have allowed diverse retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons from different eukaryotic organisms to be characterized. It is known that retroviruses and other retro-transcribing viruses evolve from LTR retrotransposons and that this whole system clusters into five families: Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia, Bel/Pao and Caulimoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses usually show that these split into multiple distinct lineages but what is yet to be understood is how deep evolution occurred in this system. Results We combined phylogenetic and graph analyses to investigate the history of LTR retroelements both as a tree and as a network. We used 268 non-redundant LTR retroelements, many of them introduced for the first time in this work, to elucidate all possible LTR retroelement phylogenetic patterns. These were superimposed over the tree of eukaryotes to investigate the dynamics of the system, at distinct evolutionary times. Next, we investigated phenotypic features such as duplication and variability of amino acid motifs, and several differences in genomic ORF organization. Using this information we characterized eight reticulate evolution markers to construct phenotypic network models. Conclusion The evolutionary history of LTR retroelements can be traced as a time-evolving network that depends on phylogenetic patterns, epigenetic host-factors and phenotypic plasticity. The Ty1/Copia and the Ty3/Gypsy families represent the oldest patterns in this network that we found mimics eukaryotic macroevolution. The emergence of the Bel/Pao, Retroviridae and Caulimoviridae families in this network can be related with distinct inflations of the Ty3/Gypsy family, at distinct evolutionary times. This suggests that Ty3/Gypsy ancestors diversified much more than their Ty1/Copia counterparts, at distinct geological eras. Consistent with the principle of preferential attachment, the connectivities among phenotypic markers, taken as network

  19. A phylogenetic perspective on the individual species-area relationship in temperate and tropical tree communities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Cao, Min; Chuyong, George B; Ewango, Corneille E N; Howe, Robert; Kenfack, David; Thomas, Duncan; Wolf, Amy; Lin, Luxiang

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists have historically used species-area relationships (SARs) as a tool to understand the spatial distribution of species. Recent work has extended SARs to focus on individual-level distributions to generate individual species area relationships (ISARs). The ISAR approach quantifies whether individuals of a species tend have more or less species richness surrounding them than expected by chance. By identifying richness 'accumulators' and 'repellers', respectively, the ISAR approach has been used to infer the relative importance of abiotic and biotic interactions and neutrality. A clear limitation of the SAR and ISAR approaches is that all species are treated as evolutionarily independent and that a large amount of work has now shown that local tree neighborhoods exhibit non-random phylogenetic structure given the species richness. Here, we use nine tropical and temperate forest dynamics plots to ask: (i) do ISARs change predictably across latitude?; (ii) is the phylogenetic diversity in the neighborhood of species accumulators and repellers higher or lower than that expected given the observed species richness?; and (iii) do species accumulators, repellers distributed non-randomly on the community phylogenetic tree? The results indicate no clear trend in ISARs from the temperate zone to the tropics and that the phylogenetic diversity surrounding the individuals of species is generally only non-random on very local scales. Interestingly the distribution of species accumulators and repellers was non-random on the community phylogenies suggesting the presence of phylogenetic signal in the ISAR across latitude.

  20. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This discord may also arise from the stochastic sorting of gene lineages during the speciation process (i.e., reflecting the random coalescence of gene lineages in ancestral populations). It remains unknown whether guidelines regarding methodologies and numbers of loci established by simulation studies at shallow tree depths translate into accurate species relationships for deeper phylogenetic histories. We address this knowledge gap and specifically identify the challenges and limitations of species-tree methods that account for coalescent variance for deeper phylogenies. Using simulated data with characteristics informed by empirical studies, we evaluate both the accuracy of estimated species trees and the characteristics associated with recalcitrant nodes, with a specific focus on whether coalescent variance is generally responsible for the lack of resolution. By determining the proportion of coalescent genealogies that support a particular node, we demonstrate that (1) species-tree methods account for coalescent variance at deep nodes and (2) mutational variance - not gene-tree discord arising from the coalescent - posed the primary challenge for accurate reconstruction across the tree. For example, many nodes were accurately resolved despite predicted discord from the random coalescence of gene lineages and nodes with poor support were distributed across a range of depths (i.e., they were not restricted to a particular recent divergences). Given their broad taxonomic scope and large sampling of taxa, deep level phylogenies pose several potential methodological complications including

  1. Inference of Transmission Network Structure from HIV Phylogenetic Trees

    DOE PAGES

    Giardina, Federica; Romero-Severson, Ethan Obie; Albert, Jan; ...

    2017-01-13

    Phylogenetic inference is an attractive means to reconstruct transmission histories and epidemics. However, there is not a perfect correspondence between transmission history and virus phylogeny. Both node height and topological differences may occur, depending on the interaction between within-host evolutionary dynamics and between-host transmission patterns. To investigate these interactions, we added a within-host evolutionary model in epidemiological simulations and examined if the resulting phylogeny could recover different types of contact networks. To further improve realism, we also introduced patient-specific differences in infectivity across disease stages, and on the epidemic level we considered incomplete sampling and the age of the epidemic.more » Second, we implemented an inference method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to discriminate among three well-studied network models and jointly estimate both network parameters and key epidemiological quantities such as the infection rate. Our ABC framework used both topological and distance-based tree statistics for comparison between simulated and observed trees. Overall, our simulations showed that a virus time-scaled phylogeny (genealogy) may be substantially different from the between-host transmission tree. This has important implications for the interpretation of what a phylogeny reveals about the underlying epidemic contact network. In particular, we found that while the within-host evolutionary process obscures the transmission tree, the diversification process and infectivity dynamics also add discriminatory power to differentiate between different types of contact networks. We also found that the possibility to differentiate contact networks depends on how far an epidemic has progressed, where distance-based tree statistics have more power early in an epidemic. Finally, we applied our ABC inference on two different outbreaks from the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic.« less

  2. Inference of Transmission Network Structure from HIV Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Giardina, Federica; Romero-Severson, Ethan Obie; Albert, Jan; Britton, Tom; Leitner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is an attractive means to reconstruct transmission histories and epidemics. However, there is not a perfect correspondence between transmission history and virus phylogeny. Both node height and topological differences may occur, depending on the interaction between within-host evolutionary dynamics and between-host transmission patterns. To investigate these interactions, we added a within-host evolutionary model in epidemiological simulations and examined if the resulting phylogeny could recover different types of contact networks. To further improve realism, we also introduced patient-specific differences in infectivity across disease stages, and on the epidemic level we considered incomplete sampling and the age of the epidemic. Second, we implemented an inference method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to discriminate among three well-studied network models and jointly estimate both network parameters and key epidemiological quantities such as the infection rate. Our ABC framework used both topological and distance-based tree statistics for comparison between simulated and observed trees. Overall, our simulations showed that a virus time-scaled phylogeny (genealogy) may be substantially different from the between-host transmission tree. This has important implications for the interpretation of what a phylogeny reveals about the underlying epidemic contact network. In particular, we found that while the within-host evolutionary process obscures the transmission tree, the diversification process and infectivity dynamics also add discriminatory power to differentiate between different types of contact networks. We also found that the possibility to differentiate contact networks depends on how far an epidemic has progressed, where distance-based tree statistics have more power early in an epidemic. Finally, we applied our ABC inference on two different outbreaks from the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic.

  3. Inference of Transmission Network Structure from HIV Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Tom; Leitner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is an attractive means to reconstruct transmission histories and epidemics. However, there is not a perfect correspondence between transmission history and virus phylogeny. Both node height and topological differences may occur, depending on the interaction between within-host evolutionary dynamics and between-host transmission patterns. To investigate these interactions, we added a within-host evolutionary model in epidemiological simulations and examined if the resulting phylogeny could recover different types of contact networks. To further improve realism, we also introduced patient-specific differences in infectivity across disease stages, and on the epidemic level we considered incomplete sampling and the age of the epidemic. Second, we implemented an inference method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to discriminate among three well-studied network models and jointly estimate both network parameters and key epidemiological quantities such as the infection rate. Our ABC framework used both topological and distance-based tree statistics for comparison between simulated and observed trees. Overall, our simulations showed that a virus time-scaled phylogeny (genealogy) may be substantially different from the between-host transmission tree. This has important implications for the interpretation of what a phylogeny reveals about the underlying epidemic contact network. In particular, we found that while the within-host evolutionary process obscures the transmission tree, the diversification process and infectivity dynamics also add discriminatory power to differentiate between different types of contact networks. We also found that the possibility to differentiate contact networks depends on how far an epidemic has progressed, where distance-based tree statistics have more power early in an epidemic. Finally, we applied our ABC inference on two different outbreaks from the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic. PMID:28085876

  4. Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction Accuracy and Model Fit when Proportions of Variable Sites Change across the Tree

    PubMed Central

    Grievink, Liat Shavit; Penny, David; Hendy, Michael D.; Holland, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Commonly used phylogenetic models assume a homogeneous process through time in all parts of the tree. However, it is known that these models can be too simplistic as they do not account for nonhomogeneous lineage-specific properties. In particular, it is now widely recognized that as constraints on sequences evolve, the proportion and positions of variable sites can vary between lineages causing heterotachy. The extent to which this model misspecification affects tree reconstruction is still unknown. Here, we evaluate the effect of changes in the proportions and positions of variable sites on model fit and tree estimation. We consider 5 current models of nucleotide sequence evolution in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework as well as maximum parsimony (MP). We show that for a tree with 4 lineages where 2 nonsister taxa undergo a change in the proportion of variable sites tree reconstruction under the best-fitting model, which is chosen using a relative test, often results in the wrong tree. In this case, we found that an absolute test of model fit is a better predictor of tree estimation accuracy. We also found further evidence that MP is not immune to heterotachy. In addition, we show that increased sampling of taxa that have undergone a change in proportion and positions of variable sites is critical for accurate tree reconstruction. PMID:20525636

  5. Phylogenetic tree and sequence similarity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, H

    1993-06-01

    beta-Lactamases are the main cause of beta-lactam resistance in many pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes can be detected in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria. The cyanobacteria are also known to produce a beta-lactamase. Recently, the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional structures of some of these beta-lactamases have been clarified. On the basis of the amino acid sequences of 47 beta-lactamases and the computer-aided analysis, a phylogenetic tree is proposed in this paper. According to the tree, beta-lactamases are classified into six groups. Group 1 beta-lactamases are mainly composed of plasmid-mediated enzymes from gram-negative bacteria. However, chromosome-derived beta-lactamases from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata take part in this group. Group 2 enzymes consist of a part of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from Streptomyces, and chromosome-mediated enzymes from Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter diversus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria form group 3. Group 4 is composed of metalloenzymes, whereas group 5 consists of OXA type beta-lactamases. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-positive bacteria form group 6. Comparison of the amino acid sequences among these groups confirmed the phylogenetic tree and the classification: the beta-lactamases in each group have its particular conserved amino acid sequences. In addition, the tree provides more detailed classification and time-scale mutual relationships and predicts new types of beta-lactamases that may be found. Furthermore, the classification deduced from the tree is generally in accord with the one based on the amino acid sequences reported previously. However, the class A beta-lactamases are clearly divided into three groups: groups 1, 2, and 6. RDF2 analysis shows that some combinations between beta-lactamases and beta-lactam-interacting proteins as well as eukaryotic proteins

  6. How Ecology and Landscape Dynamics Shape Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Fanny; Ferrière, Régis; Aguilée, Robin; Lambert, Amaury

    2015-07-01

    Whether biotic or abiotic factors are the dominant drivers of clade diversification is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. The ubiquitous patterns of phylogenetic imbalance and branching slowdown have been taken as supporting the role of ecological niche filling and spatial heterogeneity in ecological features, and thus of biotic processes, in diversification. However, a proper theoretical assessment of the relative roles of biotic and abiotic factors in macroevolution requires models that integrate both types of factors, and such models have been lacking. In this study, we use an individual-based model to investigate the temporal patterns of diversification driven by ecological speciation in a stochastically fluctuating geographic landscape. The model generates phylogenies whose shape evolves as the clade ages. Stabilization of tree shape often occurs after ecological saturation, revealing species turnover caused by competition and demographic stochasticity. In the initial phase of diversification (allopatric radiation into an empty landscape), trees tend to be unbalanced and branching slows down. As diversification proceeds further due to landscape dynamics, balance and branching tempo may increase and become positive. Three main conclusions follow. First, the phylogenies of ecologically saturated clades do not always exhibit branching slowdown. Branching slowdown requires that competition be wide or heterogeneous across the landscape, or that the characteristics of landscape dynamics vary geographically. Conversely, branching acceleration is predicted under narrow competition or frequent local catastrophes. Second, ecological heterogeneity does not necessarily cause phylogenies to be unbalanced--short time in geographical isolation or frequent local catastrophes may lead to balanced trees despite spatial heterogeneity. Conversely, unbalanced trees can emerge without spatial heterogeneity, notably if competition is wide. Third, short isolation time

  7. Polynomial algorithms for the Maximal Pairing Problem: efficient phylogenetic targeting on arbitrary trees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Maximal Pairing Problem (MPP) is the prototype of a class of combinatorial optimization problems that are of considerable interest in bioinformatics: Given an arbitrary phylogenetic tree T and weights ωxy for the paths between any two pairs of leaves (x, y), what is the collection of edge-disjoint paths between pairs of leaves that maximizes the total weight? Special cases of the MPP for binary trees and equal weights have been described previously; algorithms to solve the general MPP are still missing, however. Results We describe a relatively simple dynamic programming algorithm for the special case of binary trees. We then show that the general case of multifurcating trees can be treated by interleaving solutions to certain auxiliary Maximum Weighted Matching problems with an extension of this dynamic programming approach, resulting in an overall polynomial-time solution of complexity (n4 log n) w.r.t. the number n of leaves. The source code of a C implementation can be obtained under the GNU Public License from http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/Software/Targeting. For binary trees, we furthermore discuss several constrained variants of the MPP as well as a partition function approach to the probabilistic version of the MPP. Conclusions The algorithms introduced here make it possible to solve the MPP also for large trees with high-degree vertices. This has practical relevance in the field of comparative phylogenetics and, for example, in the context of phylogenetic targeting, i.e., data collection with resource limitations. PMID:20525185

  8. Phylogenetic Stability, Tree Shape, and Character Compatibility: A Case Study Using Early Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Massimo; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Ruta, Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Phylogenetic tree shape varies as the evolutionary processes affecting a clade change over time. In this study, we examined an empirical phylogeny of fossil tetrapods during several time intervals, and studied how temporal constraints manifested in patterns of tree imbalance and character change. The results indicate that the impact of temporal constraints on tree shape is minimal and highlights the stability through time of the reference tetrapod phylogeny. Unexpected values of imbalance for Mississippian and Pennsylvanian time slices strongly support the hypothesis that the Carboniferous was a period of explosive tetrapod radiation. Several significant diversification shifts take place in the Mississippian and underpin increased terrestrialization among the earliest limbed vertebrates. Character incompatibility is relatively high at the beginning of tetrapod history, but quickly decreases to a relatively stable lower level, relative to a null distribution based on constant rates of character change. This implies that basal tetrapods had high, but declining, rates of homoplasy early in their evolutionary history, although the origin of Lissamphibia is an exception to this trend. The time slice approach is a powerful method of phylogenetic analysis and a useful tool for assessing the impact of combining extinct and extant taxa in phylogenetic analyses of large and speciose clades.

  9. Automatic Detection of Key Innovations, Rate Shifts, and Diversity-Dependence on Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Rabosky, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary numbers of time-varying diversification processes on phylogenies without specifying their locations in advance. The method uses reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo to move between model subspaces that vary in the number of distinct diversification regimes. The model assumes that changes in evolutionary regimes occur across the branches of phylogenetic trees under a compound Poisson process and explicitly accounts for rate variation through time and among lineages. Using simulated datasets, I demonstrate that the method can be used to quantify complex mixtures of time-dependent, diversity-dependent, and constant-rate diversification processes. I compared the performance of the method to the MEDUSA model of rate variation among lineages. As an empirical example, I analyzed the history of speciation and extinction during the radiation of modern whales. The method described here will greatly facilitate the exploration of macroevolutionary dynamics across large phylogenetic trees, which may have been shaped by heterogeneous mixtures of distinct evolutionary processes. PMID:24586858

  10. A Model of Desired Performance in Phylogenetic Tree Construction for Teaching Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Steven D.

    This research paper examines phylogenetic tree construction-a form of problem solving in biology-by studying the strategies and heuristics used by experts. One result of the research is the development of a model of desired performance for phylogenetic tree construction. A detailed description of the model and the sample problems which illustrate…

  11. pplacer: linear time maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic placement of sequences onto a fixed reference tree

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Likelihood-based phylogenetic inference is generally considered to be the most reliable classification method for unknown sequences. However, traditional likelihood-based phylogenetic methods cannot be applied to large volumes of short reads from next-generation sequencing due to computational complexity issues and lack of phylogenetic signal. "Phylogenetic placement," where a reference tree is fixed and the unknown query sequences are placed onto the tree via a reference alignment, is a way to bring the inferential power offered by likelihood-based approaches to large data sets. Results This paper introduces pplacer, a software package for phylogenetic placement and subsequent visualization. The algorithm can place twenty thousand short reads on a reference tree of one thousand taxa per hour per processor, has essentially linear time and memory complexity in the number of reference taxa, and is easy to run in parallel. Pplacer features calculation of the posterior probability of a placement on an edge, which is a statistically rigorous way of quantifying uncertainty on an edge-by-edge basis. It also can inform the user of the positional uncertainty for query sequences by calculating expected distance between placement locations, which is crucial in the estimation of uncertainty with a well-sampled reference tree. The software provides visualizations using branch thickness and color to represent number of placements and their uncertainty. A simulation study using reads generated from 631 COG alignments shows a high level of accuracy for phylogenetic placement over a wide range of alignment diversity, and the power of edge uncertainty estimates to measure placement confidence. Conclusions Pplacer enables efficient phylogenetic placement and subsequent visualization, making likelihood-based phylogenetics methodology practical for large collections of reads; it is freely available as source code, binaries, and a web service. PMID:21034504

  12. bcgTree: automatized phylogenetic tree building from bacterial core genomes.

    PubMed

    Ankenbrand, Markus J; Keller, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The need for multi-gene analyses in scientific fields such as phylogenetics and DNA barcoding has increased in recent years. In particular, these approaches are increasingly important for differentiating bacterial species, where reliance on the standard 16S rDNA marker can result in poor resolution. Additionally, the assembly of bacterial genomes has become a standard task due to advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. We created a bioinformatic pipeline, bcgTree, which uses assembled bacterial genomes either from databases or own sequencing results from the user to reconstruct their phylogenetic history. The pipeline automatically extracts 107 essential single-copy core genes, found in a majority of bacteria, using hidden Markov models and performs a partitioned maximum-likelihood analysis. Here, we describe the workflow of bcgTree and, as a proof-of-concept, its usefulness in resolving the phylogeny of 293 publically available bacterial strains of the genus Lactobacillus. We also evaluate its performance in both low- and high-level taxonomy test sets. The tool is freely available at github ( https://github.com/iimog/bcgTree ) and our institutional homepage ( http://www.dna-analytics.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de ).

  13. Species divergence and phylogenetic variation of ecophysiological traits in lianas and trees.

    PubMed

    Rios, Rodrigo S; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The climbing habit is an evolutionary key innovation in plants because it is associated with enhanced clade diversification. We tested whether patterns of species divergence and variation of three ecophysiological traits that are fundamental for plant adaptation to light environments (maximum photosynthetic rate [A(max)], dark respiration rate [R(d)], and specific leaf area [SLA]) are consistent with this key innovation. Using data reported from four tropical forests and three temperate forests, we compared phylogenetic distance among species as well as the evolutionary rate, phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic signal of those traits in lianas and trees. Estimates of evolutionary rates showed that R(d) evolved faster in lianas, while SLA evolved faster in trees. The mean phylogenetic distance was 1.2 times greater among liana species than among tree species. Likewise, estimates of phylogenetic distance indicated that lianas were less related than by chance alone (phylogenetic evenness across 63 species), and trees were more related than expected by chance (phylogenetic clustering across 71 species). Lianas showed evenness for R(d), while trees showed phylogenetic clustering for this trait. In contrast, for SLA, lianas exhibited phylogenetic clustering and trees showed phylogenetic evenness. Lianas and trees showed patterns of ecophysiological trait variation among species that were independent of phylogenetic relatedness. We found support for the expected pattern of greater species divergence in lianas, but did not find consistent patterns regarding ecophysiological trait evolution and divergence. R(d) followed the species-level pattern, i.e., greater divergence/evolution in lianas compared to trees, while the opposite occurred for SLA and no pattern was detected for A(max). R(d) may have driven lianas' divergence across forest environments, and might contribute to diversification in climber clades.

  14. Algorithms, data structures, and numerics for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference of huge trees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid accumulation of molecular sequence data, driven by novel wet-lab sequencing technologies, poses new challenges for large-scale maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses on trees with more than 30,000 taxa and several genes. The three main computational challenges are: numerical stability, the scalability of search algorithms, and the high memory requirements for computing the likelihood. Results We introduce methods for solving these three key problems and provide respective proof-of-concept implementations in RAxML. The mechanisms presented here are not RAxML-specific and can thus be applied to any likelihood-based (Bayesian or maximum likelihood) tree inference program. We develop a new search strategy that can reduce the time required for tree inferences by more than 50% while yielding equally good trees (in the statistical sense) for well-chosen starting trees. We present an adaptation of the Subtree Equality Vector technique for phylogenomic datasets with missing data (already available in RAxML v728) that can reduce execution times and memory requirements by up to 50%. Finally, we discuss issues pertaining to the numerical stability of the Γ model of rate heterogeneity on very large trees and argue in favor of rate heterogeneity models that use a single rate or rate category for each site to resolve these problems. Conclusions We address three major issues pertaining to large scale tree reconstruction under maximum likelihood and propose respective solutions. Respective proof-of-concept/production-level implementations of our ideas are made available as open-source code. PMID:22165866

  15. Phylogenetic trees and the future of mammalian biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Fritz, Susanne A.; Grenyer, Richard; Orme, C. David L.; Bielby, Jon; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Cardillo, Marcel; Jones, Kate E.; Gittleman, John L.; Mace, Georgina M.; Purvis, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenies describe the origins and history of species. However, they can also help to predict species' fates and so can be useful tools for managing the future of biodiversity. This article starts by sketching how phylogenetic, geographic, and trait information can be combined to elucidate present mammalian diversity patterns and how they arose. Recent diversification rates and standing diversity show different geographic patterns, indicating that cradles of diversity have moved over time. Patterns in extinction risk reflect both biological differences among mammalian lineages and differences in threat intensity among regions. Phylogenetic comparative analyses indicate that for small-bodied mammals, extinction risk is governed mostly by where the species live and the intensity of the threats, whereas for large-bodied mammals, ecological differences also play an important role. This modeling approach identifies species whose intrinsic biology renders them particularly vulnerable to increased human pressure. We outline how the approach might be extended to consider future trends in anthropogenic drivers, to identify likely future battlegrounds of mammalian conservation, and the likely casualties. This framework could help to highlight consequences of choosing among different future climatic and socioeconomic scenarios. We end by discussing priority-setting, showing how alternative currencies for diversity can suggest very different priorities. We argue that aiming to maximize long-term evolutionary responses is inappropriate, that conservation planning needs to consider costs as well as benefits, and that proactive conservation of largely intact systems should be part of a balanced strategy. PMID:18695230

  16. Including RNA secondary structures improves accuracy and robustness in reconstruction of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. Results This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Conclusions Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. Open peer review Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:20078867

  17. Large trees losing out to drought

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Large trees provide many ecological services in forests. They provide seeds for reproduction and food, habitat for plants and animals, and shade for understory vegetation. Older trees and forests store large quantities of carbon, tend to release more water to streams than their more rapidly growing younger counterparts, and provide wood for human use. Mature...

  18. T-REX: a web server for inferring, validating and visualizing phylogenetic trees and networks.

    PubMed

    Boc, Alix; Diallo, Alpha Boubacar; Makarenkov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    T-REX (Tree and reticulogram REConstruction) is a web server dedicated to the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees, reticulation networks and to the inference of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. T-REX includes several popular bioinformatics applications such as MUSCLE, MAFFT, Neighbor Joining, NINJA, BioNJ, PhyML, RAxML, random phylogenetic tree generator and some well-known sequence-to-distance transformation models. It also comprises fast and effective methods for inferring phylogenetic trees from complete and incomplete distance matrices as well as for reconstructing reticulograms and HGT networks, including the detection and validation of complete and partial gene transfers, inference of consensus HGT scenarios and interactive HGT identification, developed by the authors. The included methods allows for validating and visualizing phylogenetic trees and networks which can be built from distance or sequence data. The web server is available at: www.trex.uqam.ca.

  19. T-REX: a web server for inferring, validating and visualizing phylogenetic trees and networks

    PubMed Central

    Boc, Alix; Diallo, Alpha Boubacar; Makarenkov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    T-REX (Tree and reticulogram REConstruction) is a web server dedicated to the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees, reticulation networks and to the inference of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. T-REX includes several popular bioinformatics applications such as MUSCLE, MAFFT, Neighbor Joining, NINJA, BioNJ, PhyML, RAxML, random phylogenetic tree generator and some well-known sequence-to-distance transformation models. It also comprises fast and effective methods for inferring phylogenetic trees from complete and incomplete distance matrices as well as for reconstructing reticulograms and HGT networks, including the detection and validation of complete and partial gene transfers, inference of consensus HGT scenarios and interactive HGT identification, developed by the authors. The included methods allows for validating and visualizing phylogenetic trees and networks which can be built from distance or sequence data. The web server is available at: www.trex.uqam.ca. PMID:22675075

  20. PhyloExplorer: a web server to validate, explore and query phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Ranwez, Vincent; Clairon, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric; Pourali, Saeed; Auberval, Nicolas; Diser, Sorel; Berry, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Many important problems in evolutionary biology require molecular phylogenies to be reconstructed. Phylogenetic trees must then be manipulated for subsequent inclusion in publications or analyses such as supertree inference and tree comparisons. However, no tool is currently available to facilitate the management of tree collections providing, for instance: standardisation of taxon names among trees with respect to a reference taxonomy; selection of relevant subsets of trees or sub-trees according to a taxonomic query; or simply computation of descriptive statistics on the collection. Moreover, although several databases of phylogenetic trees exist, there is currently no easy way to find trees that are both relevant and complementary to a given collection of trees. Results We propose a tool to facilitate assessment and management of phylogenetic tree collections. Given an input collection of rooted trees, PhyloExplorer provides facilities for obtaining statistics describing the collection, correcting invalid taxon names, extracting taxonomically relevant parts of the collection using a dedicated query language, and identifying related trees in the TreeBASE database. Conclusion PhyloExplorer is a simple and interactive website implemented through underlying Python libraries and MySQL databases. It is available at: and the source code can be downloaded from: . PMID:19450253

  1. Muroid rodent phylogenetics: 900-species tree reveals increasing diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, John J.

    2017-01-01

    We combined new sequence data for more than 300 muroid rodent species with our previously published sequences for up to five nuclear and one mitochondrial genes to generate the most widely and densely sampled hypothesis of evolutionary relationships across Muroidea. An exhaustive screening procedure for publically available sequences was implemented to avoid the propagation of taxonomic errors that are common to supermatrix studies. The combined data set of carefully screened sequences derived from all available sequences on GenBank with our new data resulted in a robust maximum likelihood phylogeny for 900 of the approximately 1,620 muroids. Several regions that were equivocally resolved in previous studies are now more decisively resolved, and we estimated a chronogram using 28 fossil calibrations for the most integrated age and topological estimates to date. The results were used to update muroid classification and highlight questions needing additional data. We also compared the results of multigene supermatrix studies like this one with the principal published supertrees and concluded that the latter are unreliable for any comparative study in muroids. In addition, we explored diversification patterns as an explanation for why muroid rodents represent one of the most species-rich groups of mammals by detecting evidence for increasing net diversification rates through time across the muroid tree. We suggest the observation of increasing rates may be due to a combination of parallel increases in rate across clades and high average extinction rates. Five increased diversification-rate-shifts were inferred, suggesting that multiple, but perhaps not independent, events have led to the remarkable species diversity in the superfamily. Our results provide a phylogenetic framework for comparative studies that is not highly dependent upon the signal from any one gene. PMID:28813483

  2. [A bird's eye view of the algorithms and software packages for reconstructing phylogenetic trees].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Na; Rong, Chang-He; He, Yuan; Guan, Qiong; He, Bin; Zhu, Xing-Wen; Liu, Jia-Ni; Chen, Hong-Ju

    2013-12-01

    The prototype phylogenetic tree, i.e., evolutionary "tree" or "tree of life", was first conceived by Charles Darwin in his seminal book "The Origin of Species", and its reconstructions have been approached by generations of biologists ever since. In this article, we briefly reviewed the major algorithms and software packages for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Specifically we discuss four categories of phylogeny algorithms including distance-matrix, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian framework, as well as software packages (PHYLIP, MEGA, MrBayes) based on them.

  3. A novel approach to phylogenetic tree construction using stochastic optimization and clustering

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Chen, Yixin; Pan, Yi; Chen, Ling

    2006-01-01

    Background The problem of inferring the evolutionary history and constructing the phylogenetic tree with high performance has become one of the major problems in computational biology. Results A new phylogenetic tree construction method from a given set of objects (proteins, species, etc.) is presented. As an extension of ant colony optimization, this method proposes an adaptive phylogenetic clustering algorithm based on a digraph to find a tree structure that defines the ancestral relationships among the given objects. Conclusion Our phylogenetic tree construction method is tested to compare its results with that of the genetic algorithm (GA). Experimental results show that our algorithm converges much faster and also achieves higher quality than GA. PMID:17217517

  4. EvolView, an online tool for visualizing, annotating and managing phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huangkai; Gao, Shenghan; Lercher, Martin J; Hu, Songnian; Chen, Wei-Hua

    2012-07-01

    EvolView is a web application for visualizing, annotating and managing phylogenetic trees. First, EvolView is a phylogenetic tree viewer and customization tool; it visualizes trees in various formats, customizes them through built-in functions that can link information from external datasets, and exports the customized results to publication-ready figures. Second, EvolView is a tree and dataset management tool: users can easily organize related trees into distinct projects, add new datasets to trees and edit and manage existing trees and datasets. To make EvolView easy to use, it is equipped with an intuitive user interface. With a free account, users can save data and manipulations on the EvolView server. EvolView is freely available at: http://www.evolgenius.info/evolview.html.

  5. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Timothy G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  6. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable.

  7. Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Size of the Minimum Spanning Trees (MSTs) Forest and Branch Significance in MST-Based Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Andreia Sofia; Monteiro, Pedro T.; Carriço, João A; Ramirez, Mário; Francisco, Alexandre P.

    2015-01-01

    Trees, including minimum spanning trees (MSTs), are commonly used in phylogenetic studies. But, for the research community, it may be unclear that the presented tree is just a hypothesis, chosen from among many possible alternatives. In this scenario, it is important to quantify our confidence in both the trees and the branches/edges included in such trees. In this paper, we address this problem for MSTs by introducing a new edge betweenness metric for undirected and weighted graphs. This spanning edge betweenness metric is defined as the fraction of equivalent MSTs where a given edge is present. The metric provides a per edge statistic that is similar to that of the bootstrap approach frequently used in phylogenetics to support the grouping of taxa. We provide methods for the exact computation of this metric based on the well known Kirchhoff’s matrix tree theorem. Moreover, we implement and make available a module for the PHYLOViZ software and evaluate the proposed metric concerning both effectiveness and computational performance. Analysis of trees generated using multilocus sequence typing data (MLST) and the goeBURST algorithm revealed that the space of possible MSTs in real data sets is extremely large. Selection of the edge to be represented using bootstrap could lead to unreliable results since alternative edges are present in the same fraction of equivalent MSTs. The choice of the MST to be presented, results from criteria implemented in the algorithm that must be based in biologically plausible models. PMID:25799056

  8. Soil phosphorus heterogeneity promotes tree species diversity and phylogenetic clustering in a tropical seasonal rainforest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wumei; Ci, Xiuqin; Song, Caiyun; He, Tianhua; Zhang, Wenfu; Li, Qiaoming; Li, Jie

    2016-12-01

    The niche theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity and species diversity are positively correlated in tropical forests, whereas the neutral theory suggests that stochastic processes are more important in determining species diversity. This study sought to investigate the effects of soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) heterogeneity on tree species diversity in the Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest in southwestern China. Thirty-nine plots of 400 m(2) (20 × 20 m) were randomly located in the Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest. Within each plot, soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) availability and heterogeneity, tree species diversity, and community phylogenetic structure were measured. Soil phosphorus heterogeneity and tree species diversity in each plot were positively correlated, while phosphorus availability and tree species diversity were not. The trees in plots with low soil phosphorus heterogeneity were phylogenetically overdispersed, while the phylogenetic structure of trees within the plots became clustered as heterogeneity increased. Neither nitrogen availability nor its heterogeneity was correlated to tree species diversity or the phylogenetic structure of trees within the plots. The interspecific competition in the forest plots with low soil phosphorus heterogeneity could lead to an overdispersed community. However, as heterogeneity increase, more closely related species may be able to coexist together and lead to a clustered community. Our results indicate that soil phosphorus heterogeneity significantly affects tree diversity in the Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest, suggesting that deterministic processes are dominant in this tropical forest assembly.

  9. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Dalerum, F.

    2013-01-01

    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance. PMID:23576787

  10. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages.

    PubMed

    Dalerum, F

    2013-06-07

    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance.

  11. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kevin M; Woodall, Christopher W

    2012-03-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years apart from more than 7000 forested plots in the eastern United States, we tested three hypotheses: phylogenetic diversity is substantially different from species richness as a measure of biodiversity; forest communities have undergone recent changes in phylogenetic diversity that differ by size class, region, and seed dispersal strategy; and these patterns are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. Specifically, the magnitude of diversity change across broad regions should be greater among seedlings than in trees, should be associated with latitude and elevation, and should be greater among species with high dispersal capacity. Our analyses demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity and species richness are decoupled at small and medium scales and are imperfectly associated at large scales. This suggests that it is appropriate to apply indicators of biodiversity change based on phylogenetic diversity, which account for evolutionary relationships among species and may better represent community functional diversity. Our results also detected broadscale patterns of forest biodiversity change that are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. First, the statistically significant increase over time in seedling diversity in the South suggests that conditions there have become more favorable for the reproduction and dispersal of a wider variety of species, whereas the significant decrease in northern seedling diversity indicates that northern conditions have become less favorable. Second, we found weak correlations between seedling diversity change and latitude in both zones

  12. Climate-driven extinctions shape the phylogenetic structure of temperate tree floras.

    PubMed

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Borchsenius, Finn; Plum, Christoffer M; Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-03-01

    When taxa go extinct, unique evolutionary history is lost. If extinction is selective, and the intrinsic vulnerabilities of taxa show phylogenetic signal, more evolutionary history may be lost than expected under random extinction. Under what conditions this occurs is insufficiently known. We show that late Cenozoic climate change induced phylogenetically selective regional extinction of northern temperate trees because of phylogenetic signal in cold tolerance, leading to significantly and substantially larger than random losses of phylogenetic diversity (PD). The surviving floras in regions that experienced stronger extinction are phylogenetically more clustered, indicating that non-random losses of PD are of increasing concern with increasing extinction severity. Using simulations, we show that a simple threshold model of survival given a physiological trait with phylogenetic signal reproduces our findings. Our results send a strong warning that we may expect future assemblages to be phylogenetically and possibly functionally depauperate if anthropogenic climate change affects taxa similarly.

  13. HGT-Gen: a tool for generating a phylogenetic tree with horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Horiike, Tokumasa; Miyata, Daisuke; Tateno, Yoshio; Minai, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a common event in prokaryotic evolution. Therefore, it is very important to consider HGT in the study of molecular evolution of prokaryotes. This is true also for conducting computer simulations of their molecular phylogeny because HGT is known to be a serious disturbing factor for estimating their correct phylogeny. To the best of our knowledge, no existing computer program has generated a phylogenetic tree with HGT from an original phylogenetic tree. We developed a program called HGT-Gen that generates a phylogenetic tree with HGT on the basis of an original phylogenetic tree of a protein or gene. HGT-Gen converts an operational taxonomic unit or a clade from one place to another in a given phylogenetic tree. We have also devised an algorithm to compute the average length between any pair of branches in the tree. It defines and computes the relative evolutionary time to normalize evolutionary time for each lineage. The algorithm can generate an HGT between a pair of donor and acceptor lineages at the same evolutionary time. HGT-Gen is used with a sequence-generating program to evaluate the influence of HGT on the molecular phylogeny of prokaryotes in a computer simulation study. The database is available for free at http://www.grl.shizuoka.ac.jp/˜thoriike/HGT-Gen.html.

  14. Phylogenetic impoverishment of Amazonian tree communities in an experimentally fragmented forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bráulio A; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Melo, Felipe P L; Camargo, José L C; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian rainforests sustain some of the richest tree communities on Earth, but their ecological and evolutionary responses to human threats remain poorly known. We used one of the largest experimental datasets currently available on tree dynamics in fragmented tropical forests and a recent phylogeny of angiosperms to test whether tree communities have lost phylogenetic diversity since their isolation about two decades previously. Our findings revealed an overall trend toward phylogenetic impoverishment across the experimentally fragmented landscape, irrespective of whether tree communities were in 1-ha, 10-ha, or 100-ha forest fragments, near forest edges, or in continuous forest. The magnitude of the phylogenetic diversity loss was low (<2% relative to before-fragmentation values) but widespread throughout the study landscape, occurring in 32 of 40 1-ha plots. Consistent with this loss in phylogenetic diversity, we observed a significant decrease of 50% in phylogenetic dispersion since forest isolation, irrespective of plot location. Analyses based on tree genera that have significantly increased (28 genera) or declined (31 genera) in abundance and basal area in the landscape revealed that increasing genera are more phylogenetically related than decreasing ones. Also, the loss of phylogenetic diversity was greater in tree communities where increasing genera proliferated and decreasing genera reduced their importance values, suggesting that this taxonomic replacement is partially underlying the phylogenetic impoverishment at the landscape scale. This finding has clear implications for the current debate about the role human-modified landscapes play in sustaining biodiversity persistence and key ecosystem services, such as carbon storage. Although the generalization of our findings to other fragmented tropical forests is uncertain, it could negatively affect ecosystem productivity and stability and have broader impacts on coevolved organisms.

  15. Phylogenetic Impoverishment of Amazonian Tree Communities in an Experimentally Fragmented Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Bráulio A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Camargo, José L. C.; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian rainforests sustain some of the richest tree communities on Earth, but their ecological and evolutionary responses to human threats remain poorly known. We used one of the largest experimental datasets currently available on tree dynamics in fragmented tropical forests and a recent phylogeny of angiosperms to test whether tree communities have lost phylogenetic diversity since their isolation about two decades previously. Our findings revealed an overall trend toward phylogenetic impoverishment across the experimentally fragmented landscape, irrespective of whether tree communities were in 1-ha, 10-ha, or 100-ha forest fragments, near forest edges, or in continuous forest. The magnitude of the phylogenetic diversity loss was low (<2% relative to before-fragmentation values) but widespread throughout the study landscape, occurring in 32 of 40 1-ha plots. Consistent with this loss in phylogenetic diversity, we observed a significant decrease of 50% in phylogenetic dispersion since forest isolation, irrespective of plot location. Analyses based on tree genera that have significantly increased (28 genera) or declined (31 genera) in abundance and basal area in the landscape revealed that increasing genera are more phylogenetically related than decreasing ones. Also, the loss of phylogenetic diversity was greater in tree communities where increasing genera proliferated and decreasing genera reduced their importance values, suggesting that this taxonomic replacement is partially underlying the phylogenetic impoverishment at the landscape scale. This finding has clear implications for the current debate about the role human-modified landscapes play in sustaining biodiversity persistence and key ecosystem services, such as carbon storage. Although the generalization of our findings to other fragmented tropical forests is uncertain, it could negatively affect ecosystem productivity and stability and have broader impacts on coevolved organisms. PMID:25409011

  16. Minimizing the Average Distance to a Closest Leaf in a Phylogenetic Tree

    PubMed Central

    Matsen, Frederick A.; Gallagher, Aaron; McCoy, Connor O.

    2013-01-01

    When performing an analysis on a collection of molecular sequences, it can be convenient to reduce the number of sequences under consideration while maintaining some characteristic of a larger collection of sequences. For example, one may wish to select a subset of high-quality sequences that represent the diversity of a larger collection of sequences. One may also wish to specialize a large database of characterized “reference sequences” to a smaller subset that is as close as possible on average to a collection of “query sequences” of interest. Such a representative subset can be useful whenever one wishes to find a set of reference sequences that is appropriate to use for comparative analysis of environmentally derived sequences, such as for selecting “reference tree” sequences for phylogenetic placement of metagenomic reads. In this article, we formalize these problems in terms of the minimization of the Average Distance to the Closest Leaf (ADCL) and investigate algorithms to perform the relevant minimization. We show that the greedy algorithm is not effective, show that a variant of the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) heuristic gets stuck in local minima, and develop an exact dynamic programming approach. Using this exact program we note that the performance of PAM appears to be good for simulated trees, and is faster than the exact algorithm for small trees. On the other hand, the exact program gives solutions for all numbers of leaves less than or equal to the given desired number of leaves, whereas PAM only gives a solution for the prespecified number of leaves. Via application to real data, we show that the ADCL criterion chooses chimeric sequences less often than random subsets, whereas the maximization of phylogenetic diversity chooses them more often than random. These algorithms have been implemented in publicly available software. [Mass transport; phylogenetic diversity; sequence selection.] PMID:23843314

  17. Do Branch Lengths Help to Locate a Tree in a Phylogenetic Network?

    PubMed

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Kelk, Steven; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2016-09-01

    Phylogenetic networks are increasingly used in evolutionary biology to represent the history of species that have undergone reticulate events such as horizontal gene transfer, hybrid speciation and recombination. One of the most fundamental questions that arise in this context is whether the evolution of a gene with one copy in all species can be explained by a given network. In mathematical terms, this is often translated in the following way: is a given phylogenetic tree contained in a given phylogenetic network? Recently this tree containment problem has been widely investigated from a computational perspective, but most studies have only focused on the topology of the phylogenies, ignoring a piece of information that, in the case of phylogenetic trees, is routinely inferred by evolutionary analyses: branch lengths. These measure the amount of change (e.g., nucleotide substitutions) that has occurred along each branch of the phylogeny. Here, we study a number of versions of the tree containment problem that explicitly account for branch lengths. We show that, although length information has the potential to locate more precisely a tree within a network, the problem is computationally hard in its most general form. On a positive note, for a number of special cases of biological relevance, we provide algorithms that solve this problem efficiently. This includes the case of networks of limited complexity, for which it is possible to recover, among the trees contained by the network with the same topology as the input tree, the closest one in terms of branch lengths.

  18. Size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits: a comparison of neotropical saplings and large trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.; Zhao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Wood anatomical traits are important correlates of life-history strategies among tree species, yet little is known about wood chemical traits. Additionally, size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits have been rarely examined, although these changes may represent an important aspect of tree ontogeny. Owing to selection for pathogen resistance and biomechanical stability, we predicted that saplings would show higher lignin (L) and wood carbon (Cconv), and lower holocellulose (H) concentrations, compared with conspecific large trees. To test these expectations, we quantified H, L and Cconv in co-occurring Panamanian tree species at the large tree vs. sapling size classes. We also examined inter- and intraspecific patterns using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. In 15 of 16 species, sapling L concentration was higher than that in conspecific large trees, and in all 16 species, sapling H was lower than that in conspecific large trees. In 16 of 24 species, Cconv was higher in saplings than conspecific large trees. All large-tree traits were unrelated to sapling values and were unrelated to four life-history variables. Wood chemical traits did not show a phylogenetic signal in saplings, instead showing similar values across distantly related taxa; in large trees, only H showed a significant phylogenetic signal. Size-dependent changes in wood chemistry show consistent and predictable patterns, suggesting that ontogenetic changes in wood chemical traits are an important aspect of tree functional biology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that at early ontogenetic stages, trees are selected for greater L to defend against cellulose-decaying pathogens, or possibly to confer biomechanical stability.

  19. Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined.

    PubMed

    Willson, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly including the graph itself. In the case of phylogenetic trees, distances between extant species are frequently used to infer the phylogenetic trees by methods such as neighbor-joining. This paper proposes a tree-average distance for networks more general than trees. The notion requires a weight on each arc measuring the genetic change along the arc. For each displayed tree the distance between two leaves is the sum of the weights along the path joining them. At a hybrid vertex, each character is inherited from one of its parents. We will assume that for each hybrid there is a probability that the inheritance of a character is from a specified parent. Assume that the inheritance events at different hybrids are independent. Then for each displayed tree there will be a probability that the inheritance of a given character follows the tree; this probability may be interpreted as the probability of the tree. The tree-average distance between the leaves is defined to be the expected value of their distance in the displayed trees. For a class of rooted networks that includes rooted trees, it is shown that the weights and the probabilities at each hybrid vertex can be calculated given the network and the tree-average distances between the leaves. Hence these weights and probabilities are uniquely determined. The hypotheses on the networks include that hybrid vertices have indegree exactly 2 and that vertices that are not leaves have a tree-child.

  20. A parametric method for assessing diversification-rate variation in phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Shah, Premal; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Fordyce, James A

    2013-02-01

    Phylogenetic hypotheses are frequently used to examine variation in rates of diversification across the history of a group. Patterns of diversification-rate variation can be used to infer underlying ecological and evolutionary processes responsible for patterns of cladogenesis. Most existing methods examine rate variation through time. Methods for examining differences in diversification among groups are more limited. Here, we present a new method, parametric rate comparison (PRC), that explicitly compares diversification rates among lineages in a tree using a variety of standard statistical distributions. PRC can identify subclades of the tree where diversification rates are at variance with the remainder of the tree. A randomization test can be used to evaluate how often such variance would appear by chance alone. The method also allows for comparison of diversification rate among a priori defined groups. Further, the application of the PRC method is not restricted to monophyletic groups. We examined the performance of PRC using simulated data, which showed that PRC has acceptable false-positive rates and statistical power to detect rate variation. We apply the PRC method to the well-studied radiation of North American Plethodon salamanders, and support the inference that the large-bodied Plethodon glutinosus clade has a higher historical rate of diversification compared to other Plethodon salamanders. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as βNRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate.

  2. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as βNRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate. PMID:26098916

  3. Native fauna on exotic trees: phylogenetic conservatism and geographic contingency in two lineages of phytophages on two lineages of trees.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Chao, Anne; Bailey, Richard I; Prinzing, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    The relative roles of evolutionary history and geographical and ecological contingency for community assembly remain unknown. Plant species, for instance, share more phytophages with closer relatives (phylogenetic conservatism), but for exotic plants introduced to another continent, this may be overlaid by geographically contingent evolution or immigration from locally abundant plant species (mass effects). We assessed within local forests to what extent exotic trees (Douglas-fir, red oak) recruit phytophages (Coleoptera, Heteroptera) from more closely or more distantly related native plants. We found that exotics shared more phytophages with natives from the same major plant lineage (angiosperms vs. gymnosperms) than with natives from the other lineage. This was particularly true for Heteroptera, and it emphasizes the role of host specialization in phylogenetic conservatism of host use. However, for Coleoptera on Douglas-fir, mass effects were important: immigration from beech increased with increasing beech abundance. Within a plant phylum, phylogenetic proximity of exotics and natives increased phytophage similarity, primarily in younger Coleoptera clades on angiosperms, emphasizing a role of past codiversification of hosts and phytophages. Overall, phylogenetic conservatism can shape the assembly of local phytophage communities on exotic trees. Whether it outweighs geographic contingency and mass effects depends on the interplay of phylogenetic scale, local abundance of native tree species, and the biology and evolutionary history of the phytophage taxon.

  4. The Reliability and Stability of an Inferred Phylogenetic Tree from Empirical Data.

    PubMed

    Katsura, Yukako; Stanley, Craig E; Kumar, Sudhir; Nei, Masatoshi

    2017-01-18

    The reliability of a phylogenetic tree obtained from empirical data is usually measured by the bootstrap probability (Pb) of interior branches of the tree. If the bootstrap probability is high for most branches, the tree is considered to be reliable. If some interior branches show relatively low bootstrap probabilities, we are not sure that the inferred tree is really reliable. Here, we propose another quantity measuring the reliability of the tree called the stability of a subtree. This quantity refers to the probability of obtaining a subtree (Ps) of an inferred tree obtained. We then show that if the tree is to be reliable, both Pb and Ps must be high. We also show that Ps is given by a bootstrap probability of the subtree with the closest outgroup sequence, and computer program RESTA for computing the Pb and Ps values will be presented.

  5. W-IQ-TREE: a fast online phylogenetic tool for maximum likelihood analysis.

    PubMed

    Trifinopoulos, Jana; Nguyen, Lam-Tung; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2016-07-08

    This article presents W-IQ-TREE, an intuitive and user-friendly web interface and server for IQ-TREE, an efficient phylogenetic software for maximum likelihood analysis. W-IQ-TREE supports multiple sequence types (DNA, protein, codon, binary and morphology) in common alignment formats and a wide range of evolutionary models including mixture and partition models. W-IQ-TREE performs fast model selection, partition scheme finding, efficient tree reconstruction, ultrafast bootstrapping, branch tests, and tree topology tests. All computations are conducted on a dedicated computer cluster and the users receive the results via URL or email. W-IQ-TREE is available at http://iqtree.cibiv.univie.ac.at It is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  6. W-IQ-TREE: a fast online phylogenetic tool for maximum likelihood analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trifinopoulos, Jana; Nguyen, Lam-Tung; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents W-IQ-TREE, an intuitive and user-friendly web interface and server for IQ-TREE, an efficient phylogenetic software for maximum likelihood analysis. W-IQ-TREE supports multiple sequence types (DNA, protein, codon, binary and morphology) in common alignment formats and a wide range of evolutionary models including mixture and partition models. W-IQ-TREE performs fast model selection, partition scheme finding, efficient tree reconstruction, ultrafast bootstrapping, branch tests, and tree topology tests. All computations are conducted on a dedicated computer cluster and the users receive the results via URL or email. W-IQ-TREE is available at http://iqtree.cibiv.univie.ac.at. It is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. PMID:27084950

  7. MrsRF: an efficient MapReduce algorithm for analyzing large collections of evolutionary trees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MapReduce is a parallel framework that has been used effectively to design large-scale parallel applications for large computing clusters. In this paper, we evaluate the viability of the MapReduce framework for designing phylogenetic applications. The problem of interest is generating the all-to-all Robinson-Foulds distance matrix, which has many applications for visualizing and clustering large collections of evolutionary trees. We introduce MrsRF (MapReduce Speeds up RF), a multi-core algorithm to generate a t × t Robinson-Foulds distance matrix between t trees using the MapReduce paradigm. Results We studied the performance of our MrsRF algorithm on two large biological trees sets consisting of 20,000 trees of 150 taxa each and 33,306 trees of 567 taxa each. Our experiments show that MrsRF is a scalable approach reaching a speedup of over 18 on 32 total cores. Our results also show that achieving top speedup on a multi-core cluster requires different cluster configurations. Finally, we show how to use an RF matrix to summarize collections of phylogenetic trees visually. Conclusion Our results show that MapReduce is a promising paradigm for developing multi-core phylogenetic applications. The results also demonstrate that different multi-core configurations must be tested in order to obtain optimum performance. We conclude that RF matrices play a critical role in developing techniques to summarize large collections of trees. PMID:20122186

  8. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Thuillard, Marc; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative approach to phylogenies based on the reduction of multistate characters to binary-state characters. We show that the reduction to binary characters’ approach can be applied to both character- and distance-based phylogenies and provides a unifying framework to explain simply and intuitively the similarities and differences between distance- and character-based phylogenies. Building on these results, this article gives a possible explanation on why phylogenetic trees obtained from a distance matrix or a set of characters are often quite reasonable despite lateral transfers of genetic material between taxa. In the presence of lateral transfers, outer planar networks furnish a better description of evolution than phylogenetic trees. We present a polynomial-time reconstruction algorithm for perfect outer planar networks with a fixed number of states, characters, and lateral transfers. PMID:26508826

  9. Comparing Phylogenetic Trees by Matching Nodes Using the Transfer Distance Between Partitions.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof

    2017-02-08

    Ability to quantify dissimilarity of different phylogenetic trees describing the relationship between the same group of taxa is required in various types of phylogenetic studies. For example, such metrics are used to assess the quality of phylogeny construction methods, to define optimization criteria in supertree building algorithms, or to find horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. Among the set of metrics described so far in the literature, the most commonly used seems to be the Robinson-Foulds distance. In this article, we define a new metric for rooted trees-the Matching Pair (MP) distance. The MP metric uses the concept of the minimum-weight perfect matching in a complete bipartite graph constructed from partitions of all pairs of leaves of the compared phylogenetic trees. We analyze the properties of the MP metric and present computational experiments showing its potential applicability in tasks related to finding the HGT events.

  10. Phylogenetic Paleoecology: Tree-Thinking and Ecology in Deep Time.

    PubMed

    Lamsdell, James C; Congreve, Curtis R; Hopkins, Melanie J; Krug, Andrew Z; Patzkowsky, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    The new and emerging field of phylogenetic paleoecology leverages the evolutionary relationships among species to explain temporal and spatial changes in species diversity, abundance, and distribution in deep time. This field is poised for rapid progress as knowledge of the evolutionary relationships among fossil species continues to expand. In particular, this approach will lend new insights to many of the longstanding questions in evolutionary biology, such as: the relationships among character change, ecology, and evolutionary rates; the processes that determine the evolutionary relationships among species within communities and along environmental gradients; and the phylogenetic signal underlying ecological selectivity in background and mass extinctions and in major evolutionary radiations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Papionina using concatenation and species tree methods.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Elaine E; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    The Papionina is a geographically widespread subtribe of African cercopithecid monkeys whose evolutionary history is of particular interest to anthropologists. The phylogenetic relationships among arboreal mangabeys (Lophocebus), baboons (Papio), and geladas (Theropithecus) remain unresolved. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed marked gene tree incongruence for these taxa, and several recent concatenated phylogenetic analyses of multilocus datasets have supported different phylogenetic hypotheses. To address this issue, we investigated the phylogeny of the Lophocebus + Papio + Theropithecus group using concatenation methods, as well as alternative methods that incorporate gene tree heterogeneity to estimate a 'species tree.' Our compiled DNA sequence dataset was ∼56 kb pairs long and included 57 independent partitions. All analyses of concatenated alignments strongly supported a Lophocebus + Papio clade and a basal position for Theropithecus. The Bayesian concordance analysis supported the same phylogeny. A coalescent-based Bayesian method resulted in a very poorly resolved species tree. The topological agreement between concatenation and the Bayesian concordance analysis offers considerable support for a Lophocebus + Papio clade as the dominant relationship across the genome. However, the results of the Bayesian concordance analysis indicate that almost half the genome has an alternative history. As such, our results offer a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the Papio/Lophocebus/Theropithecus trichotomy, while at the same time providing evidence for a complex evolutionary history that likely includes hybridization among lineages.

  12. Assessing statistical reliability of phylogenetic trees via a speedy double bootstrap method.

    PubMed

    Ren, Aizhen; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2013-05-01

    Evaluating the reliability of estimated phylogenetic trees is of critical importance in the field of molecular phylogenetics, and for other endeavors that depend on accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The bootstrap method is a well-known computational approach to phylogenetic tree assessment, and more generally for assessing the reliability of statistical models. However, it is known to be biased under certain circumstances, calling into question the accuracy of the method. Several advanced bootstrap methods have been developed to achieve higher accuracy, one of which is the double bootstrap approach, but the computational burden of this method has precluded its application to practical problems of phylogenetic tree selection. We address this issue by proposing a simple method called the speedy double bootstrap, which circumvents the second-tier resampling step in the regular double bootstrap approach. We also develop an implementation of the regular double bootstrap for comparison with our speedy method. The speedy double bootstrap suffers no significant loss of accuracy compared with the regular double bootstrap, while performing calculations significantly more rapidly (at minimum around 371 times faster, based on analysis of mammalian mitochondrial amino acid sequences and 12S and 16S rRNA genes). Our method thus enables, for the first time, the practical application of the double bootstrap technique in the context of molecular phylogenetics. The approach can also be used more generally for model selection problems wherever the maximum likelihood criterion is used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolview v2: an online visualization and management tool for customized and annotated phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    He, Zilong; Zhang, Huangkai; Gao, Shenghan; Lercher, Martin J; Chen, Wei-Hua; Hu, Songnian

    2016-07-08

    Evolview is an online visualization and management tool for customized and annotated phylogenetic trees. It allows users to visualize phylogenetic trees in various formats, customize the trees through built-in functions and user-supplied datasets and export the customization results to publication-ready figures. Its 'dataset system' contains not only the data to be visualized on the tree, but also 'modifiers' that control various aspects of the graphical annotation. Evolview is a single-page application (like Gmail); its carefully designed interface allows users to upload, visualize, manipulate and manage trees and datasets all in a single webpage. Developments since the last public release include a modern dataset editor with keyword highlighting functionality, seven newly added types of annotation datasets, collaboration support that allows users to share their trees and datasets and various improvements of the web interface and performance. In addition, we included eleven new 'Demo' trees to demonstrate the basic functionalities of Evolview, and five new 'Showcase' trees inspired by publications to showcase the power of Evolview in producing publication-ready figures. Evolview is freely available at: http://www.evolgenius.info/evolview/.

  14. Evolview v2: an online visualization and management tool for customized and annotated phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    He, Zilong; Zhang, Huangkai; Gao, Shenghan; Lercher, Martin J.; Chen, Wei-Hua; Hu, Songnian

    2016-01-01

    Evolview is an online visualization and management tool for customized and annotated phylogenetic trees. It allows users to visualize phylogenetic trees in various formats, customize the trees through built-in functions and user-supplied datasets and export the customization results to publication-ready figures. Its ‘dataset system’ contains not only the data to be visualized on the tree, but also ‘modifiers’ that control various aspects of the graphical annotation. Evolview is a single-page application (like Gmail); its carefully designed interface allows users to upload, visualize, manipulate and manage trees and datasets all in a single webpage. Developments since the last public release include a modern dataset editor with keyword highlighting functionality, seven newly added types of annotation datasets, collaboration support that allows users to share their trees and datasets and various improvements of the web interface and performance. In addition, we included eleven new ‘Demo’ trees to demonstrate the basic functionalities of Evolview, and five new ‘Showcase’ trees inspired by publications to showcase the power of Evolview in producing publication-ready figures. Evolview is freely available at: http://www.evolgenius.info/evolview/. PMID:27131786

  15. Calibrated birth-death phylogenetic time-tree priors for bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J

    2015-05-01

    Here we introduce a general class of multiple calibration birth-death tree priors for use in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. All tree priors in this class separate ancestral node heights into a set of "calibrated nodes" and "uncalibrated nodes" such that the marginal distribution of the calibrated nodes is user-specified whereas the density ratio of the birth-death prior is retained for trees with equal values for the calibrated nodes. We describe two formulations, one in which the calibration information informs the prior on ranked tree topologies, through the (conditional) prior, and the other which factorizes the prior on divergence times and ranked topologies, thus allowing uniform, or any arbitrary prior distribution on ranked topologies. Although the first of these formulations has some attractive properties, the algorithm we present for computing its prior density is computationally intensive. However, the second formulation is always faster and computationally efficient for up to six calibrations. We demonstrate the utility of the new class of multiple-calibration tree priors using both small simulations and a real-world analysis and compare the results to existing schemes. The two new calibrated tree priors described in this article offer greater flexibility and control of prior specification in calibrated time-tree inference and divergence time dating, and will remove the need for indirect approaches to the assessment of the combined effect of calibration densities and tree priors in Bayesian phylogenetic inference.

  16. Calibrated Birth–Death Phylogenetic Time-Tree Priors for Bayesian Inference

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Alexei J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce a general class of multiple calibration birth–death tree priors for use in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. All tree priors in this class separate ancestral node heights into a set of “calibrated nodes” and “uncalibrated nodes” such that the marginal distribution of the calibrated nodes is user-specified whereas the density ratio of the birth–death prior is retained for trees with equal values for the calibrated nodes. We describe two formulations, one in which the calibration information informs the prior on ranked tree topologies, through the (conditional) prior, and the other which factorizes the prior on divergence times and ranked topologies, thus allowing uniform, or any arbitrary prior distribution on ranked topologies. Although the first of these formulations has some attractive properties, the algorithm we present for computing its prior density is computationally intensive. However, the second formulation is always faster and computationally efficient for up to six calibrations. We demonstrate the utility of the new class of multiple-calibration tree priors using both small simulations and a real-world analysis and compare the results to existing schemes. The two new calibrated tree priors described in this article offer greater flexibility and control of prior specification in calibrated time-tree inference and divergence time dating, and will remove the need for indirect approaches to the assessment of the combined effect of calibration densities and tree priors in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. PMID:25398445

  17. Estimating the Effective Sample Size of Tree Topologies from Bayesian Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lanfear, Robert; Hua, Xia; Warren, Dan L.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian phylogenetic analyses estimate posterior distributions of phylogenetic tree topologies and other parameters using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Before making inferences from these distributions, it is important to assess their adequacy. To this end, the effective sample size (ESS) estimates how many truly independent samples of a given parameter the output of the MCMC represents. The ESS of a parameter is frequently much lower than the number of samples taken from the MCMC because sequential samples from the chain can be non-independent due to autocorrelation. Typically, phylogeneticists use a rule of thumb that the ESS of all parameters should be greater than 200. However, we have no method to calculate an ESS of tree topology samples, despite the fact that the tree topology is often the parameter of primary interest and is almost always central to the estimation of other parameters. That is, we lack a method to determine whether we have adequately sampled one of the most important parameters in our analyses. In this study, we address this problem by developing methods to estimate the ESS for tree topologies. We combine these methods with two new diagnostic plots for assessing posterior samples of tree topologies, and compare their performance on simulated and empirical data sets. Combined, the methods we present provide new ways to assess the mixing and convergence of phylogenetic tree topologies in Bayesian MCMC analyses. PMID:27435794

  18. PhyloPen: Phylogenetic Tree Browsing Using a Pen and Touch Interface

    PubMed Central

    Wehrer, Anthony; Yee, Andrew; Lisle, Curtis; Hughes, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are used by researchers across multiple fields of study to display historical relationships between organisms or genes. Trees are used to examine the speciation process in evolutionary biology, to classify families of viruses in epidemiology, to demonstrate co-speciation in host and pathogen studies, and to explore genetic changes occurring during the disease process in cancer, among other applications. Due to their complexity and the amount of data they present in visual form, phylogenetic trees have generally been difficult to render for publication and challenging to directly interact with in digital form. To address these limitations, we developed PhyloPen, an experimental novel multi-touch and pen application that renders a phylogenetic tree and allows users to interactively navigate within the tree, examining nodes, branches, and auxiliary information, and annotate the tree for note-taking and collaboration. We present a discussion of the interactions implemented in PhyloPen and the results of a formative study that examines how the application was received after use by practicing biologists -- faculty members and graduate students in the discipline. These results are to be later used for a fully supported implementation of the software where the community will be welcomed to participate in its development. PMID:26693078

  19. PhyloPen: Phylogenetic Tree Browsing Using a Pen and Touch Interface.

    PubMed

    Wehrer, Anthony; Yee, Andrew; Lisle, Curtis; Hughes, Charles

    2015-11-23

    Phylogenetic trees are used by researchers across multiple fields of study to display historical relationships between organisms or genes. Trees are used to examine the speciation process in evolutionary biology, to classify families of viruses in epidemiology, to demonstrate co-speciation in host and pathogen studies, and to explore genetic changes occurring during the disease process in cancer, among other applications. Due to their complexity and the amount of data they present in visual form, phylogenetic trees have generally been difficult to render for publication and challenging to directly interact with in digital form. To address these limitations, we developed PhyloPen, an experimental novel multi-touch and pen application that renders a phylogenetic tree and allows users to interactively navigate within the tree, examining nodes, branches, and auxiliary information, and annotate the tree for note-taking and collaboration. We present a discussion of the interactions implemented in PhyloPen and the results of a formative study that examines how the application was received after use by practicing biologists -- faculty members and graduate students in the discipline. These results are to be later used for a fully supported implementation of the software where the community will be welcomed to participate in its development.

  20. Sharing and re-use of phylogenetic trees (and associated data) to facilitate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Arlin; O'Meara, Brian; Whitacre, Jamie; Mounce, Ross; Gillespie, Emily L; Kumar, Sudhir; Rosauer, Dan F; Vos, Rutger A

    2012-10-22

    Recently, various evolution-related journals adopted policies to encourage or require archiving of phylogenetic trees and associated data. Such attention to practices that promote sharing of data reflects rapidly improving information technology, and rapidly expanding potential to use this technology to aggregate and link data from previously published research. Nevertheless, little is known about current practices, or best practices, for publishing trees and associated data so as to promote re-use. Here we summarize results of an ongoing analysis of current practices for archiving phylogenetic trees and associated data, current practices of re-use, and current barriers to re-use. We find that the technical infrastructure is available to support rudimentary archiving, but the frequency of archiving is low. Currently, most phylogenetic knowledge is not easily re-used due to a lack of archiving, lack of awareness of best practices, and lack of community-wide standards for formatting data, naming entities, and annotating data. Most attempts at data re-use seem to end in disappointment. Nevertheless, we find many positive examples of data re-use, particularly those that involve customized species trees generated by grafting to, and pruning from, a much larger tree. The technologies and practices that facilitate data re-use can catalyze synthetic and integrative research. However, success will require engagement from various stakeholders including individual scientists who produce or consume shareable data, publishers, policy-makers, technology developers and resource-providers. The critical challenges for facilitating re-use of phylogenetic trees and associated data, we suggest, include: a broader commitment to public archiving; more extensive use of globally meaningful identifiers; development of user-friendly technology for annotating, submitting, searching, and retrieving data and their metadata; and development of a minimum reporting standard (MIAPA) indicating

  1. Sharing and re-use of phylogenetic trees (and associated data) to facilitate synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, various evolution-related journals adopted policies to encourage or require archiving of phylogenetic trees and associated data. Such attention to practices that promote sharing of data reflects rapidly improving information technology, and rapidly expanding potential to use this technology to aggregate and link data from previously published research. Nevertheless, little is known about current practices, or best practices, for publishing trees and associated data so as to promote re-use. Findings Here we summarize results of an ongoing analysis of current practices for archiving phylogenetic trees and associated data, current practices of re-use, and current barriers to re-use. We find that the technical infrastructure is available to support rudimentary archiving, but the frequency of archiving is low. Currently, most phylogenetic knowledge is not easily re-used due to a lack of archiving, lack of awareness of best practices, and lack of community-wide standards for formatting data, naming entities, and annotating data. Most attempts at data re-use seem to end in disappointment. Nevertheless, we find many positive examples of data re-use, particularly those that involve customized species trees generated by grafting to, and pruning from, a much larger tree. Conclusions The technologies and practices that facilitate data re-use can catalyze synthetic and integrative research. However, success will require engagement from various stakeholders including individual scientists who produce or consume shareable data, publishers, policy-makers, technology developers and resource-providers. The critical challenges for facilitating re-use of phylogenetic trees and associated data, we suggest, include: a broader commitment to public archiving; more extensive use of globally meaningful identifiers; development of user-friendly technology for annotating, submitting, searching, and retrieving data and their metadata; and development of a minimum reporting

  2. Networks in a Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis: Reconstructing Evolutionary History of Asparagales (Lilianae) Based on Four Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Mark W.; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis aims to produce a bifurcating tree, which disregards conflicting signals and displays only those that are present in a large proportion of the data. However, any character (or tree) conflict in a dataset allows the exploration of support for various evolutionary hypotheses. Although data-display network approaches exist, biologists cannot easily and routinely use them to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing hundreds of taxa. Here, we constructed an original neighbour-net for a large dataset of Asparagales to highlight the aspects of the resulting network that will be important for interpreting phylogeny. The analyses were largely conducted with new data collected for the same loci as in previous studies, but from different species accessions and greater sampling in many cases than in published analyses. The network tree summarised the majority data pattern in the characters of plastid sequences before tree building, which largely confirmed the currently recognised phylogenetic relationships. Most conflicting signals are at the base of each group along the Asparagales backbone, which helps us to establish the expectancy and advance our understanding of some difficult taxa relationships and their phylogeny. The network method should play a greater role in phylogenetic analyses than it has in the past. To advance the understanding of evolutionary history of the largest order of monocots Asparagales, absolute diversification times were estimated for family-level clades using relaxed molecular clock analyses. PMID:23544071

  3. The probability of a gene tree topology within a phylogenetic network with applications to hybridization detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun; Degnan, James H; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-01-01

    Gene tree topologies have proven a powerful data source for various tasks, including species tree inference and species delimitation. Consequently, methods for computing probabilities of gene trees within species trees have been developed and widely used in probabilistic inference frameworks. All these methods assume an underlying multispecies coalescent model. However, when reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization occur, these methods are inadequate, as they do not account for such events. Methods that account for both hybridization and deep coalescence in computing the probability of a gene tree topology currently exist for very limited cases. However, no such methods exist for general cases, owing primarily to the fact that it is currently unknown how to compute the probability of a gene tree topology within the branches of a phylogenetic network. Here we present a novel method for computing the probability of gene tree topologies on phylogenetic networks and demonstrate its application to the inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. We reanalyze a Saccharomyces species data set for which multiple analyses had converged on a species tree candidate. Using our method, though, we show that an evolutionary hypothesis involving hybridization in this group has better support than one of strict divergence. A similar reanalysis on a group of three Drosophila species shows that the data is consistent with hybridization. Further, using extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate the power of gene tree topologies at obtaining accurate estimates of branch lengths and hybridization probabilities of a given phylogenetic network. Finally, we discuss identifiability issues with detecting hybridization, particularly in cases that involve extinction or incomplete sampling of taxa.

  4. The Probability of a Gene Tree Topology within a Phylogenetic Network with Applications to Hybridization Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun; Degnan, James H.; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-01-01

    Gene tree topologies have proven a powerful data source for various tasks, including species tree inference and species delimitation. Consequently, methods for computing probabilities of gene trees within species trees have been developed and widely used in probabilistic inference frameworks. All these methods assume an underlying multispecies coalescent model. However, when reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization occur, these methods are inadequate, as they do not account for such events. Methods that account for both hybridization and deep coalescence in computing the probability of a gene tree topology currently exist for very limited cases. However, no such methods exist for general cases, owing primarily to the fact that it is currently unknown how to compute the probability of a gene tree topology within the branches of a phylogenetic network. Here we present a novel method for computing the probability of gene tree topologies on phylogenetic networks and demonstrate its application to the inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. We reanalyze a Saccharomyces species data set for which multiple analyses had converged on a species tree candidate. Using our method, though, we show that an evolutionary hypothesis involving hybridization in this group has better support than one of strict divergence. A similar reanalysis on a group of three Drosophila species shows that the data is consistent with hybridization. Further, using extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate the power of gene tree topologies at obtaining accurate estimates of branch lengths and hybridization probabilities of a given phylogenetic network. Finally, we discuss identifiability issues with detecting hybridization, particularly in cases that involve extinction or incomplete sampling of taxa. PMID:22536161

  5. The vestigial olfactory receptor subgenome of odontocete whales: phylogenetic congruence between gene-tree reconciliation and supermatrix methods.

    PubMed

    McGowen, Michael R; Clark, Clay; Gatesy, John

    2008-08-01

    The macroevolutionary transition of whales (cetaceans) from a terrestrial quadruped to an obligate aquatic form involved major changes in sensory abilities. Compared to terrestrial mammals, the olfactory system of baleen whales is dramatically reduced, and in toothed whales is completely absent. We sampled the olfactory receptor (OR) subgenomes of eight cetacean species from four families. A multigene tree of 115 newly characterized OR sequences from these eight species and published data for Bos taurus revealed a diverse array of class II OR paralogues in Cetacea. Evolution of the OR gene superfamily in toothed whales (Odontoceti) featured a multitude of independent pseudogenization events, supporting anatomical evidence that odontocetes have lost their olfactory sense. We explored the phylogenetic utility of OR pseudogenes in Cetacea, concentrating on delphinids (oceanic dolphins), the product of a rapid evolutionary radiation that has been difficult to resolve in previous studies of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of OR pseudogenes using both gene-tree reconciliation and supermatrix methods yielded fully resolved, consistently supported relationships among members of four delphinid subfamilies. Alternative minimizations of gene duplications, gene duplications plus gene losses, deep coalescence events, and nucleotide substitutions plus indels returned highly congruent phylogenetic hypotheses. Novel DNA sequence data for six single-copy nuclear loci and three mitochondrial genes (> 5000 aligned nucleotides) provided an independent test of the OR trees. Nucleotide substitutions and indels in OR pseudogenes showed a very low degree of homoplasy in comparison to mitochondrial DNA and, on average, provided more variation than single-copy nuclear DNA. Our results suggest that phylogenetic analysis of the large OR superfamily will be effective for resolving relationships within Cetacea whether supermatrix or gene-tree reconciliation procedures are

  6. Building Phylogenetic Trees from DNA Sequence Data: Investigating Polar Bear and Giant Panda Ancestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Caroline Alexandra

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students seek answers to questions about evolutionary relationships by using genetic databases and bioinformatics software. Students build genetic distance matrices and phylogenetic trees based on molecular sequence data using web-based resources. Provides a flowchart of steps involved in accessing, retrieving, and…

  7. Building a Phylogenetic Tree of the Human and Ape Superfamily Using DNA-DNA Hybridization Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Caroline Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The study describes the process of DNA-DNA hybridization and the history of its use by Sibley and Alquist in simple, straightforward, and interesting language that students easily understand to create their own phylogenetic tree of the hominoid superfamily. They calibrate the DNA clock and use it to estimate the divergence dates of the various…

  8. Building a Phylogenetic Tree of the Human and Ape Superfamily Using DNA-DNA Hybridization Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Caroline Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The study describes the process of DNA-DNA hybridization and the history of its use by Sibley and Alquist in simple, straightforward, and interesting language that students easily understand to create their own phylogenetic tree of the hominoid superfamily. They calibrate the DNA clock and use it to estimate the divergence dates of the various…

  9. Building Phylogenetic Trees from DNA Sequence Data: Investigating Polar Bear and Giant Panda Ancestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Caroline Alexandra

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students seek answers to questions about evolutionary relationships by using genetic databases and bioinformatics software. Students build genetic distance matrices and phylogenetic trees based on molecular sequence data using web-based resources. Provides a flowchart of steps involved in accessing, retrieving, and…

  10. Bio.Phylo: A unified toolkit for processing, analyzing and visualizing phylogenetic trees in Biopython

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ongoing innovation in phylogenetics and evolutionary biology has been accompanied by a proliferation of software tools, data formats, analytical techniques and web servers. This brings with it the challenge of integrating phylogenetic and other related biological data found in a wide variety of formats, and underlines the need for reusable software that can read, manipulate and transform this information into the various forms required to build computational pipelines. Results We built a Python software library for working with phylogenetic data that is tightly integrated with Biopython, a broad-ranging toolkit for computational biology. Our library, Bio.Phylo, is highly interoperable with existing libraries, tools and standards, and is capable of parsing common file formats for phylogenetic trees, performing basic transformations and manipulations, attaching rich annotations, and visualizing trees. We unified the modules for working with the standard file formats Newick, NEXUS and phyloXML behind a consistent and simple API, providing a common set of functionality independent of the data source. Conclusions Bio.Phylo meets a growing need in bioinformatics for working with heterogeneous types of phylogenetic data. By supporting interoperability with multiple file formats and leveraging existing Biopython features, this library simplifies the construction of phylogenetic workflows. We also provide examples of the benefits of building a community around a shared open-source project. Bio.Phylo is included with Biopython, available through the Biopython website, http://biopython.org. PMID:22909249

  11. How much does horizontal gene transfer affect the phylogenetic tree of bacteria?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Boisvert, Philippe; Higgs, Paul

    2004-03-01

    Ribosomal RNA sequences are frequently used in bacterial phylogenetics. We have developed RNA-specific phylogenetic methods that take account of the conserved secondary structure of these sequences. Our method uses Monte Carlo simulations to generate a representative sample of evolutionary trees (analogous to an equilibrium ensemble in physics). It is known that horizontal transfer of genes can occur between bacterial species, although the frequency and implications of this are not fully understood. If horizontal transfer were frequent, there would be no consistent evolutionary tree for bacteria. We compared trees for 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and tRNA genes from Proteobacteria (a diverse group for which many complete genome sequences are available). The gene trees are consistent with one another in most respects. Minor differences can almost all be attributed to uncertainties and unreliabilities in the phylogenetic method. We therefore conclude that these genes all give a coherent picture of the phylogeny of the organisms, and that horizontal transfer of these genes is too rare to obscure the signal of the organismal tree.

  12. Equality of Shapley value and fair proportion index in phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Michael; Jin, Emma Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Shapley value and the fair proportion index of phylogenetic trees have been introduced recently for the purpose of making conservation decisions in genetics. Moreover, also very recently, Hartmann (J Math Biol 67:1163-1170, 2013) has presented data which shows that there is a strong correlation between a slightly modified version of the Shapley value (which we call the modified Shapley value) and the fair proportion index. He gave an explanation of this correlation by showing that the contribution of both indices to an edge of the tree becomes identical as the number of taxa tends to infinity. In this note, we show that the Shapley value and the fair proportion index are in fact the same. Moreover, we also consider the modified Shapley value and show that its covariance with the fair proportion index in random phylogenetic trees under the Yule-Harding model and uniform model is indeed close to one.

  13. Frugivores bias seed-adult tree associations through nonrandom seed dispersal: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Razafindratsima, Onja H; Dunham, Amy E

    2016-08-01

    Frugivores are the main seed dispersers in many ecosystems, such that behaviorally driven, nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal are a common process; but patterns are poorly understood. Characterizing these patterns may be essential for understanding spatial organization of fruiting trees and drivers of seed-dispersal limitation in biodiverse forests. To address this, we studied resulting spatial associations between dispersed seeds and adult tree neighbors in a diverse rainforest in Madagascar, using a temporal and phylogenetic approach. Data show that by using fruiting trees as seed-dispersal foci, frugivores bias seed dispersal under conspecific adults and under heterospecific trees that share dispersers and fruiting time with the dispersed species. Frugivore-mediated seed dispersal also resulted in nonrandom phylogenetic associations of dispersed seeds with their nearest adult neighbors, in nine out of the 16 months of our study. However, these nonrandom phylogenetic associations fluctuated unpredictably over time, ranging from clustered to overdispersed. The spatial and phylogenetic template of seed dispersal did not translate to similar patterns of association in adult tree neighborhoods, suggesting the importance of post-dispersal processes in structuring plant communities. Results suggest that frugivore-mediated seed dispersal is important for structuring early stages of plant-plant associations, setting the template for post-dispersal processes that influence ultimate patterns of plant recruitment. Importantly, if biased patterns of dispersal are common in other systems, frugivores may promote tree coexistence in biodiverse forests by limiting the frequency and diversity of heterospecific interactions of seeds they disperse. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Influence of tree shape and evolutionary time-scale on phylogenetic diversity metrics

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, F.; Davies, T.J; Gallien, L.; Renaud, J.; Groussin, M.; Münkemüller, T.; Thuiller, W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, describing, analysing and understanding the phylogenetic structure of species assemblages has been a central theme in both community ecology and macro-ecology. Among the wide variety of phylogenetic structure metrics, three have been predominant in the literature: Faith’s phylogenetic diversity (PDFaith), which represents the sum of the branch lengths of the phylogenetic tree linking all species of a particular assemblage, the mean pairwise distance between all species in an assemblage (MPD) and the pairwise distance between the closest relatives in an assemblage (MNTD). Comparisons between studies using one or several of these metrics are difficult because there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the phylogenetic properties each metric captures. In particular it is unknown how PDFaith relates to MDP and MNTD. Consequently, it is possible that apparently opposing patterns in different studies might simply reflect differences in metric properties. Here, we aim to fill this gap by comparing these metrics using simulations and empirical data. We first used simulation experiments to test the influence of community structure and size on the mismatch between metrics whilst varying the shape and size of the phylogenetic tree of the species pool. Second we investigated the mismatch between metrics for two empirical datasets (gut microbes and global carnivoran assemblages). We show that MNTD and PDFaith provide similar information on phylogenetic structure, and respond similarly to variation in species richness and assemblage structure. However, MPD demonstrate a very different behaviour, and is highly sensitive to deep branching structure. We suggest that by combining complementary metrics that are sensitive to processes operating at different phylogenetic depths (i.e. MPD and MNTD or PDFaith) we can obtain a better understanding of assemblage structure. PMID:27713599

  15. Influence of tree shape and evolutionary time-scale on phylogenetic diversity metrics.

    PubMed

    Mazel, F; Davies, T J; Gallien, L; Renaud, J; Groussin, M; Münkemüller, T; Thuiller, W

    2016-10-01

    During the last decades, describing, analysing and understanding the phylogenetic structure of species assemblages has been a central theme in both community ecology and macro-ecology. Among the wide variety of phylogenetic structure metrics, three have been predominant in the literature: Faith's phylogenetic diversity (PDFaith), which represents the sum of the branch lengths of the phylogenetic tree linking all species of a particular assemblage, the mean pairwise distance between all species in an assemblage (MPD) and the pairwise distance between the closest relatives in an assemblage (MNTD). Comparisons between studies using one or several of these metrics are difficult because there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the phylogenetic properties each metric captures. In particular it is unknown how PDFaith relates to MDP and MNTD. Consequently, it is possible that apparently opposing patterns in different studies might simply reflect differences in metric properties. Here, we aim to fill this gap by comparing these metrics using simulations and empirical data. We first used simulation experiments to test the influence of community structure and size on the mismatch between metrics whilst varying the shape and size of the phylogenetic tree of the species pool. Second we investigated the mismatch between metrics for two empirical datasets (gut microbes and global carnivoran assemblages). We show that MNTD and PDFaith provide similar information on phylogenetic structure, and respond similarly to variation in species richness and assemblage structure. However, MPD demonstrate a very different behaviour, and is highly sensitive to deep branching structure. We suggest that by combining complementary metrics that are sensitive to processes operating at different phylogenetic depths (i.e. MPD and MNTD or PDFaith) we can obtain a better understanding of assemblage structure.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis at deep timescales: unreliable gene trees, bypassed hidden support, and the coalescence/concatalescence conundrum.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, John; Springer, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Large datasets are required to solve difficult phylogenetic problems that are deep in the Tree of Life. Currently, two divergent systematic methods are commonly applied to such datasets: the traditional supermatrix approach (= concatenation) and "shortcut" coalescence (= coalescence methods wherein gene trees and the species tree are not co-estimated). When applied to ancient clades, these contrasting frameworks often produce congruent results, but in recent phylogenetic analyses of Placentalia (placental mammals), this is not the case. A recent series of papers has alternatively disputed and defended the utility of shortcut coalescence methods at deep phylogenetic scales. Here, we examine this exchange in the context of published phylogenomic data from Mammalia; in particular we explore two critical issues - the delimitation of data partitions ("genes") in coalescence analysis and hidden support that emerges with the combination of such partitions in phylogenetic studies. Hidden support - increased support for a clade in combined analysis of all data partitions relative to the support evident in separate analyses of the various data partitions, is a hallmark of the supermatrix approach and a primary rationale for concatenating all characters into a single matrix. In the most extreme cases of hidden support, relationships that are contradicted by all gene trees are supported when all of the genes are analyzed together. A valid fear is that shortcut coalescence methods might bypass or distort character support that is hidden in individual loci because small gene fragments are analyzed in isolation. Given the extensive systematic database for Mammalia, the assumptions and applicability of shortcut coalescence methods can be assessed with rigor to complement a small but growing body of simulation work that has directly compared these methods to concatenation. We document several remarkable cases of hidden support in both supermatrix and coalescence paradigms and argue

  17. Genetic Distances and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Trees from Microsatellite DNA

    PubMed Central

    Takezaki, N.; Nei, M.

    1996-01-01

    Recently many investigators have used microsatellite DNA loci for studying the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations or species, and some authors proposed new genetic distance measures for this purpose. However, the efficiencies of these distance measures in obtaining the correct tree topology remains unclear. We therefore investigated the probability of obtaining the correct topology (P(C)) for these new distances as well as traditional distance measures by using computer simulation. We used both the infinite-allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), which seem to be appropriate for classical markers and microsatellite loci, respectively. The results show that in both the IAM and SMM CAVALLI-SFORZA and EDWARDS' chord distance (D(C)) and NEI et al.'s D(A) distance generally show higher P(C) values than other distance measures, whether the bottleneck effect exists or not. For estimating evolutionary times, however, NEI's standard distance and GOLDSTEIN et al.'s (δ μ)(2) are more appropriate than other distances. Microsatellite DNA seems to be very useful for clarifying the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations. PMID:8878702

  18. Molecular phylogenetics reveal multiple tertiary vicariance origins of the African rain forest trees

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas LP; Chatrou, Lars W; Sosef, Marc SM; Richardson, James E

    2008-01-01

    Background Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regions: the West-Central Guineo-Congolian region and the coastal and montane regions of East Africa. These regions have strong floristic affinities with each other, suggesting a former connection via an Eocene pan-African rain forest. High levels of endemism observed in both regions have been hypothesized to be the result of either 1) a single break-up followed by a long isolation or 2) multiple fragmentation and reconnection since the Oligocene. To test these hypotheses the evolutionary history of endemic taxa within a rain forest restricted African lineage of the plant family Annonaceae was studied. Molecular phylogenies and divergence dates were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed uncorrelated molecular clock assumption accounting for both calibration and phylogenetic uncertainties. Results Our results provide strong evidence that East African endemic lineages of Annonaceae have multiple origins dated to significantly different times spanning the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Moreover, these successive origins (c. 33, 16 and 8 million years – Myr) coincide with known periods of aridification and geological activity in Africa that would have recurrently isolated the Guineo-Congolian rain forest from the East African one. All East African taxa were found to have diversified prior to Pleistocene times. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic dating analyses of this large pan-African clade of Annonaceae unravels an interesting pattern of diversification for rain forest restricted trees co-occurring in West/Central and East African rain forests. Our results suggest that repeated reconnections between the West/Central and East African rain forest blocks allowed for biotic exchange while the break-ups induced speciation via vicariance, enhancing the levels of

  19. SATCHMO-JS: a webserver for simultaneous protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Raffi; Davidson, John R; Datta, Ruchira S; Samad, Bushra; Jarvis, Glen R; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2010-07-01

    We present the jump-start simultaneous alignment and tree construction using hidden Markov models (SATCHMO-JS) web server for simultaneous estimation of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) and phylogenetic trees. The server takes as input a set of sequences in FASTA format, and outputs a phylogenetic tree and MSA; these can be viewed online or downloaded from the website. SATCHMO-JS is an extension of the SATCHMO algorithm, and employs a divide-and-conquer strategy to jump-start SATCHMO at a higher point in the phylogenetic tree, reducing the computational complexity of the progressive all-versus-all HMM-HMM scoring and alignment. Results on a benchmark dataset of 983 structurally aligned pairs from the PREFAB benchmark dataset show that SATCHMO-JS provides a statistically significant improvement in alignment accuracy over MUSCLE, Multiple Alignment using Fast Fourier Transform (MAFFT), ClustalW and the original SATCHMO algorithm. The SATCHMO-JS webserver is available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/satchmo-js. The datasets used in these experiments are available for download at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/satchmo-js/supplementary/.

  20. Characterizing the phylogenetic tree community structure of a protected tropical rain forest area in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Manel, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world.

  1. Lack of phylogenetic signals within environmental niches of tropical tree species across life stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caicai; Yang, Jie; Sha, Liqing; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Cao, Min; Brown, Calum; Swenson, Nathan G.; Lin, Luxiang

    2017-01-01

    The lasting imprint of phylogenetic history on current day ecological patterns has long intrigued biologists. Over the past decade ecologists have increasingly sought to quantify phylogenetic signals in environmental niche preferences and, especially, traits to help uncover the mechanisms driving plant community assembly. However, relatively little is known about how phylogenetic patterns in environmental niches and traits compare, leaving significant uncertainty about the ecological implications of trait-based analyses. We examined phylogenetic signals within known environmental niches of 64 species, at seedling and adult life stages, in a Chinese tropical forest, to test whether local environmental niches had consistent relationships with phylogenies. Our analyses show that local environmental niches are highly phylogenetically labile for both seedlings and adult trees, with closely related species occupying niches that are no more similar than expected by random chance. These findings contrast with previous trait-based studies in the same forest, suggesting that phylogenetic signals in traits might not a reliable guide to niche preferences or, therefore, to community assembly processes in some ecosystems, like the tropical seasonal rainforest in this study. PMID:28181524

  2. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J W; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-08-03

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Local-Scale Tree Soil Associations in a Lowland Moist Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schreeg, Laura A.; Kress, W. John; Erickson, David L.; Swenson, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water). We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the ‘traits’ (i.e., soil variables) evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. Conclusions Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny-wide signal. Trends

  4. T-BAS: Tree-Based Alignment Selector toolkit for phylogenetic-based placement, alignment downloads and metadata visualization: an example with the Pezizomycotina tree of life.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Ignazio; White, James B; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Miller, Mark A; Kauff, Frank; U'Ren, Jana M; May, Georgiana; Lutzoni, François

    2017-04-15

    High-quality phylogenetic placement of sequence data has the potential to greatly accelerate studies of the diversity, systematics, ecology and functional biology of diverse groups. We developed the Tree-Based Alignment Selector (T-BAS) toolkit to allow evolutionary placement and visualization of diverse DNA sequences representing unknown taxa within a robust phylogenetic context, and to permit the downloading of highly curated, single- and multi-locus alignments for specific clades. In its initial form, T-BAS v1.0 uses a core phylogeny of 979 taxa (including 23 outgroup taxa, as well as 61 orders, 175 families and 496 genera) representing all 13 classes of largest subphylum of Fungi-Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota)-based on sequence alignments for six loci (nr5.8S, nrLSU, nrSSU, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2 ). T-BAS v1.0 has three main uses: (i) Users may download alignments and voucher tables for members of the Pezizomycotina directly from the reference tree, facilitating systematics studies of focal clades. (ii) Users may upload sequence files with reads representing unknown taxa and place these on the phylogeny using either BLAST or phylogeny-based approaches, and then use the displayed tree to select reference taxa to include when downloading alignments. The placement of unknowns can be performed for large numbers of Sanger sequences obtained from fungal cultures and for alignable, short reads of environmental amplicons. (iii) User-customizable metadata can be visualized on the tree. T-BAS Version 1.0 is available online at http://tbas.hpc.ncsu.edu . Registration is required to access the CIPRES Science Gateway and NSF XSEDE's large computational resources. icarbon@ncsu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. The algebra of the general Markov model on phylogenetic trees and networks.

    PubMed

    Sumner, J G; Holland, B R; Jarvis, P D

    2012-04-01

    It is known that the Kimura 3ST model of sequence evolution on phylogenetic trees can be extended quite naturally to arbitrary split systems. However, this extension relies heavily on mathematical peculiarities of the associated Hadamard transformation, and providing an analogous augmentation of the general Markov model has thus far been elusive. In this paper, we rectify this shortcoming by showing how to extend the general Markov model on trees to include incompatible edges; and even further to more general network models. This is achieved by exploring the algebra of the generators of the continuous-time Markov chain together with the “splitting” operator that generates the branching process on phylogenetic trees. For simplicity, we proceed by discussing the two state case and then show that our results are easily extended to more states with little complication. Intriguingly, upon restriction of the two state general Markov model to the parameter space of the binary symmetric model, our extension is indistinguishable from the Hadamard approach only on trees; as soon as any incompatible splits are introduced the two approaches give rise to differing probability distributions with disparate structure. Through exploration of a simple example, we give an argument that our extension to more general networks has desirable properties that the previous approaches do not share. In particular, our construction allows for convergent evolution of previously divergent lineages; a property that is of significant interest for biological applications.

  6. PANTHER version 7: improved phylogenetic trees, orthologs and collaboration with the Gene Ontology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Dong, Qing; Muruganujan, Anushya; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewis, Suzanna; Thomas, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations.

  7. Chemical classification of cattle. 2. Phylogenetic tree and specific status of the Zebu.

    PubMed

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M

    1980-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees for the ten major breed groups of cattle were constructed by Farris's (1972) maximum parsimony method, or Fitch & Margoliash's (1967) method, which averages ou the deviation over the entire assemblage. Both techniques yield essentially identical trees. The phylogenetic tree for the ten major cattle breed groups can be superimposed on a map of Europe and western Asia, the root of the tree being close to the 'fertile crescent' in Asia Minor, believed to be a primary centre of bovine domestication. For some but not all protein variants there is a cline of gene frequencies as one proceeds from the British Isles and northwest Europe towards southeast Europe and Asia Minor, with the most extreme gene frequencies in the Zebu breeds of India. It is not clear to what extent the observed clines are primary or secondary, i.e., consequent to the initial migrations of cattle towards the end of the Pleistocene or consequent to the many migrations of man with his domesticated cattle. Such clines as exist are not in themselves sufficient to prove either selection versus genetic drift or to establish taxonomic ranking. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, the biochemical evidence supports Linnaeus's original conclusions: Bos taurus and Bos indicus are distinct species.

  8. Integrated Automatic Workflow for Phylogenetic Tree Analysis Using Public Access and Local Web Services.

    PubMed

    Damkliang, Kasikrit; Tandayya, Pichaya; Sangket, Unitsa; Pasomsub, Ekawat

    2016-11-28

    At the present, coding sequence (CDS) has been discovered and larger CDS is being revealed frequently. Approaches and related tools have also been developed and upgraded concurrently, especially for phylogenetic tree analysis. This paper proposes an integrated automatic Taverna workflow for the phylogenetic tree inferring analysis using public access web services at European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), and our own deployed local web services. The workflow input is a set of CDS in the Fasta format. The workflow supports 1,000 to 20,000 numbers in bootstrapping replication. The workflow performs the tree inferring such as Parsimony (PARS), Distance Matrix - Neighbor Joining (DIST-NJ), and Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithms of EMBOSS PHYLIPNEW package based on our proposed Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) similarity score. The local web services are implemented and deployed into two types using the Soaplab2 and Apache Axis2 deployment. There are SOAP and Java Web Service (JWS) providing WSDL endpoints to Taverna Workbench, a workflow manager. The workflow has been validated, the performance has been measured, and its results have been verified. Our workflow's execution time is less than ten minutes for inferring a tree with 10,000 replicates of the bootstrapping numbers. This paper proposes a new integrated automatic workflow which will be beneficial to the bioinformaticians with an intermediate level of knowledge and experiences. All local services have been deployed at our portal http://bioservices.sci.psu.ac.th.

  9. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    PubMed

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  10. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of Pyrus has been difficult due to the wide distribution of the genus and lack of informative data. In this study, we collected 110 accessions representing 25 Pyrus species and constructed both phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks based on multiple DNA sequence d...

  11. PANTHER in 2013: modeling the evolution of gene function, and other gene attributes, in the context of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Huaiyu; Muruganujan, Anushya; Thomas, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    The data and tools in PANTHER—a comprehensive, curated database of protein families, trees, subfamilies and functions available at http://pantherdb.org—have undergone continual, extensive improvement for over a decade. Here, we describe the current PANTHER process as a whole, as well as the website tools for analysis of user-uploaded data. The main goals of PANTHER remain essentially unchanged: the accurate inference (and practical application) of gene and protein function over large sequence databases, using phylogenetic trees to extrapolate from the relatively sparse experimental information from a few model organisms. Yet the focus of PANTHER has continually shifted toward more accurate and detailed representations of evolutionary events in gene family histories. The trees are now designed to represent gene family evolution, including inference of evolutionary events, such as speciation and gene duplication. Subfamilies are still curated and used to define HMMs, but gene ontology functional annotations can now be made at any node in the tree, and are designed to represent gain and loss of function by ancestral genes during evolution. Finally, PANTHER now includes stable database identifiers for inferred ancestral genes, which are used to associate inferred gene attributes with particular genes in the common ancestral genomes of extant species. PMID:23193289

  12. PANTHER in 2013: modeling the evolution of gene function, and other gene attributes, in the context of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Muruganujan, Anushya; Thomas, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The data and tools in PANTHER-a comprehensive, curated database of protein families, trees, subfamilies and functions available at http://pantherdb.org-have undergone continual, extensive improvement for over a decade. Here, we describe the current PANTHER process as a whole, as well as the website tools for analysis of user-uploaded data. The main goals of PANTHER remain essentially unchanged: the accurate inference (and practical application) of gene and protein function over large sequence databases, using phylogenetic trees to extrapolate from the relatively sparse experimental information from a few model organisms. Yet the focus of PANTHER has continually shifted toward more accurate and detailed representations of evolutionary events in gene family histories. The trees are now designed to represent gene family evolution, including inference of evolutionary events, such as speciation and gene duplication. Subfamilies are still curated and used to define HMMs, but gene ontology functional annotations can now be made at any node in the tree, and are designed to represent gain and loss of function by ancestral genes during evolution. Finally, PANTHER now includes stable database identifiers for inferred ancestral genes, which are used to associate inferred gene attributes with particular genes in the common ancestral genomes of extant species.

  13. Epidemic Reconstruction in a Phylogenetics Framework: Transmission Trees as Partitions of the Node Set

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Woolhouse, Mark; Rambaut, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetic data to reconstruct the transmission tree of infectious disease epidemics and outbreaks has been the subject of an increasing number of studies, but previous approaches have usually either made assumptions that are not fully compatible with phylogenetic inference, or, where they have based inference on a phylogeny, have employed a procedure that requires this tree to be fixed. At the same time, the coalescent-based models of the pathogen population that are employed in the methods usually used for time-resolved phylogeny reconstruction are a considerable simplification of epidemic process, as they assume that pathogen lineages mix freely. Here, we contribute a new method that is simultaneously a phylogeny reconstruction method for isolates taken from an epidemic, and a procedure for transmission tree reconstruction. We observe that, if one or more samples is taken from each host in an epidemic or outbreak and these are used to build a phylogeny, a transmission tree is equivalent to a partition of the set of nodes of this phylogeny, such that each partition element is a set of nodes that is connected in the full tree and contains all the tips corresponding to samples taken from one and only one host. We then implement a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) procedure for simultaneous sampling from the spaces of both trees, utilising a newly-designed set of phylogenetic tree proposals that also respect node partitions. We calculate the posterior probability of these partitioned trees based on a model that acknowledges the population structure of an epidemic by employing an individual-based disease transmission model and a coalescent process taking place within each host. We demonstrate our method, first using simulated data, and then with sequences taken from the H7N7 avian influenza outbreak that occurred in the Netherlands in 2003. We show that it is superior to established coalescent methods for reconstructing the topology and node heights of the

  14. Weighted bootstrapping: a correction method for assessing the robustness of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-parametric bootstrapping is a widely-used statistical procedure for assessing confidence of model parameters based on the empirical distribution of the observed data [1] and, as such, it has become a common method for assessing tree confidence in phylogenetics [2]. Traditional non-parametric bootstrapping does not weigh each tree inferred from resampled (i.e., pseudo-replicated) sequences. Hence, the quality of these trees is not taken into account when computing bootstrap scores associated with the clades of the original phylogeny. As a consequence, traditionally, the trees with different bootstrap support or those providing a different fit to the corresponding pseudo-replicated sequences (the fit quality can be expressed through the LS, ML or parsimony score) contribute in the same way to the computation of the bootstrap support of the original phylogeny. Results In this article, we discuss the idea of applying weighted bootstrapping to phylogenetic reconstruction by weighting each phylogeny inferred from resampled sequences. Tree weights can be based either on the least-squares (LS) tree estimate or on the average secondary bootstrap score (SBS) associated with each resampled tree. Secondary bootstrapping consists of the estimation of bootstrap scores of the trees inferred from resampled data. The LS and SBS-based bootstrapping procedures were designed to take into account the quality of each "pseudo-replicated" phylogeny in the final tree estimation. A simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performances of the five weighting strategies which are as follows: LS and SBS-based bootstrapping, LS and SBS-based bootstrapping with data normalization and the traditional unweighted bootstrapping. Conclusions The simulations conducted with two real data sets and the five weighting strategies suggest that the SBS-based bootstrapping with the data normalization usually exhibits larger bootstrap scores and a higher robustness compared to the four

  15. Epidemic Reconstruction in a Phylogenetics Framework: Transmission Trees as Partitions of the Node Set.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Woolhouse, Mark; Rambaut, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The use of genetic data to reconstruct the transmission tree of infectious disease epidemics and outbreaks has been the subject of an increasing number of studies, but previous approaches have usually either made assumptions that are not fully compatible with phylogenetic inference, or, where they have based inference on a phylogeny, have employed a procedure that requires this tree to be fixed. At the same time, the coalescent-based models of the pathogen population that are employed in the methods usually used for time-resolved phylogeny reconstruction are a considerable simplification of epidemic process, as they assume that pathogen lineages mix freely. Here, we contribute a new method that is simultaneously a phylogeny reconstruction method for isolates taken from an epidemic, and a procedure for transmission tree reconstruction. We observe that, if one or more samples is taken from each host in an epidemic or outbreak and these are used to build a phylogeny, a transmission tree is equivalent to a partition of the set of nodes of this phylogeny, such that each partition element is a set of nodes that is connected in the full tree and contains all the tips corresponding to samples taken from one and only one host. We then implement a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) procedure for simultaneous sampling from the spaces of both trees, utilising a newly-designed set of phylogenetic tree proposals that also respect node partitions. We calculate the posterior probability of these partitioned trees based on a model that acknowledges the population structure of an epidemic by employing an individual-based disease transmission model and a coalescent process taking place within each host. We demonstrate our method, first using simulated data, and then with sequences taken from the H7N7 avian influenza outbreak that occurred in the Netherlands in 2003. We show that it is superior to established coalescent methods for reconstructing the topology and node heights of the

  16. Diversity of Hepatitis B genotypes in Nepal and updated Phylogenetic Tree: a Pilot Survey in 2012.

    PubMed

    Paudel, D; Aung, M N; Nguanmoo, P S; Suvedi, S; Paudel, A; Sharma, D

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a current global health problem. HBV genotypes influence the treatment and long term outcome of HBV infected patients. Moreover, HBV genotypes differ in various region of the world. Such data was reported haphazardly but yet to be comprehensive for Nepal. This study attempted to find out the diverse hepatitis B genotypes in Nepal. A convenient serum sample of 58 HBsAg positive patients from different parts of the country mainly from Nepalgunj, Palpa and Kathmandu were screened for hepatitis B genotype. Sequencing was done and Phylogenetic tree was created. Among 58 samples, 23 were genotype D, 17were genotype A and B wereC/D recombinant. Phylogenetic trees were created by distance-matrix and neighbor-joining analyses after bootstrapping to 1000 replicates. HBV genotypes A and D are the most common genotype in Nepal. Horizontal transmission is common in these genotypes. C/D recombinant genotype may be transmitted from Tibetan people living in Kathmandu. Prophylactic major controlling, horizontal and cross border transmission could be effective. Three major genotypes of HBV in Nepal were found to be A, C and D. Despite being a low prevalence area, Nepal has a diversity of hepatitis B genotypes Keywords: genotypes; HBV; phylogenetic.

  17. The future of large old trees in urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Darren S; Ikin, Karen; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D; Gibbons, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha(-1); and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity.

  18. The Future of Large Old Trees in Urban Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Darren S.; Ikin, Karen; Lindenmayer, David B.; Manning, Adrian D.; Gibbons, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha−1; and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity. PMID:24941258

  19. Iteratively refined guide trees help improving alignment and phylogenetic inference in the mushroom family Bolbitiaceae.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Annamária; Hausknecht, Anton; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling traditional classifications, morphology, and the phylogenetic relationships of brown-spored agaric mushrooms has proven difficult in many groups, due to extensive convergence in morphological features. Here, we address the monophyly of the Bolbitiaceae, a family with over 700 described species and examine the higher-level relationships within the family using a newly constructed multilocus dataset (ITS, nrLSU rDNA and EF1-alpha). We tested whether the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences can be accurately aligned across the family, by comparing the outcome of two iterative alignment refining approaches (an automated and a manual) and various indel-treatment strategies. We used PRANK to align sequences in both cases. Our results suggest that--although PRANK successfully evades overmatching of gapped sites, referred previously to as alignment overmatching--it infers an unrealistically high number of indel events with natively generated guide-trees. This 'alignment undermatching' could be avoided by using more rigorous (e.g. ML) guide trees. The trees inferred in this study support the monophyly of the core Bolbitiaceae, with the exclusion of Panaeolus, Agrocybe, and some of the genera formerly placed in the family. Bolbitius and Conocybe were found monophyletic, however, Pholiotina and Galerella require redefinition. The phylogeny revealed that stipe coverage type is a poor predictor of phylogenetic relationships, indicating the need for a revision of the intrageneric relationships within Conocybe.

  20. Auto-validating von Neumann rejection sampling from small phylogenetic tree spaces

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In phylogenetic inference one is interested in obtaining samples from the posterior distribution over the tree space on the basis of some observed DNA sequence data. One of the simplest sampling methods is the rejection sampler due to von Neumann. Here we introduce an auto-validating version of the rejection sampler, via interval analysis, to rigorously draw samples from posterior distributions over small phylogenetic tree spaces. Results The posterior samples from the auto-validating sampler are used to rigorously (i) estimate posterior probabilities for different rooted topologies based on mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee and gorilla, (ii) conduct a non-parametric test of rate variation between protein-coding and tRNA-coding sites from three primates and (iii) obtain a posterior estimate of the human-neanderthal divergence time. Conclusion This solves the open problem of rigorously drawing independent and identically distributed samples from the posterior distribution over rooted and unrooted small tree spaces (3 or 4 taxa) based on any multiply-aligned sequence data. PMID:19128477

  1. Iteratively Refined Guide Trees Help Improving Alignment and Phylogenetic Inference in the Mushroom Family Bolbitiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Annamária; Hausknecht, Anton; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G.

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling traditional classifications, morphology, and the phylogenetic relationships of brown-spored agaric mushrooms has proven difficult in many groups, due to extensive convergence in morphological features. Here, we address the monophyly of the Bolbitiaceae, a family with over 700 described species and examine the higher-level relationships within the family using a newly constructed multilocus dataset (ITS, nrLSU rDNA and EF1-alpha). We tested whether the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences can be accurately aligned across the family, by comparing the outcome of two iterative alignment refining approaches (an automated and a manual) and various indel-treatment strategies. We used PRANK to align sequences in both cases. Our results suggest that – although PRANK successfully evades overmatching of gapped sites, referred previously to as alignment overmatching – it infers an unrealistically high number of indel events with natively generated guide-trees. This 'alignment undermatching' could be avoided by using more rigorous (e.g. ML) guide trees. The trees inferred in this study support the monophyly of the core Bolbitiaceae, with the exclusion of Panaeolus, Agrocybe, and some of the genera formerly placed in the family. Bolbitius and Conocybe were found monophyletic, however, Pholiotina and Galerella require redefinition. The phylogeny revealed that stipe coverage type is a poor predictor of phylogenetic relationships, indicating the need for a revision of the intrageneric relationships within Conocybe. PMID:23418526

  2. Algorithms for efficient near-perfect phylogenetic tree reconstruction in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Srinath; Dhamdhere, Kedar; Blelloch, Guy; Halperin, Eran; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing near-perfect phylogenetic trees using binary character states (referred to as BNPP). A perfect phylogeny assumes that every character mutates at most once in the evolutionary tree, yielding an algorithm for binary character states that is computationally efficient but not robust to imperfections in real data. A near-perfect phylogeny relaxes the perfect phylogeny assumption by allowing at most a constant number of additional mutations. We develop two algorithms for constructing optimal near-perfect phylogenies and provide empirical evidence of their performance. The first simple algorithm is fixed parameter tractable when the number of additional mutations and the number of characters that share four gametes with some other character are constants. The second, more involved algorithm for the problem is fixed parameter tractable when only the number of additional mutations is fixed. We have implemented both algorithms and shown them to be extremely efficient in practice on biologically significant data sets. This work proves the BNPP problem fixed parameter tractable and provides the first practical phylogenetic tree reconstruction algorithms that find guaranteed optimal solutions while being easily implemented and computationally feasible for data sets of biologically meaningful size and complexity.

  3. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2014-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. There is concern about reports of global decline of big trees. Based on observations from Finland and the United States we report that trends of big trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990's as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of tree populations especially with reference to large trees. Large trees affect greatly the carbon density of forests and usually have deeper roots and relatively lower mortality than small trees. An accumulating stock of large trees in forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate because from changes in transpiration or forest albedo. Large trees have particular ecological importance and often constitute an unusually large proportion of biomass carbon stocks in a forest. Understanding the changes in big tree distributions in different regions of the world and the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of the role of forests in the global carbon budget.

  4. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor), an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/. PMID:27635331

  5. Inferring ‘weak spots’ in phylogenetic trees: application to mosasauroid nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mosasauroid squamates represented the apex predators within the Late Cretaceous marine and occasionally also freshwater ecosystems. Proper understanding of the origin of their ecological adaptations or paleobiogeographic dispersals requires adequate knowledge of their phylogeny. The studies assessing the position of mosasauroids on the squamate evolutionary tree and their origins have long given conflicting results. The phylogenetic relationships within Mosasauroidea, however, have experienced only little changes throughout the last decades. Considering the substantial improvements in the development of phylogenetic methodology that have undergone in recent years, resulting, among others, in numerous alterations in the phylogenetic hypotheses of other fossil amniotes, we test the robustness in our understanding of mosasauroid beginnings and their evolutionary history. We re-examined a data set that results from modifications assembled in the course of the last 20 years and performed multiple parsimony analyses and Bayesian tip-dating analysis. Following the inferred topologies and the ‘weak spots’ in the phylogeny of mosasauroids, we revise the nomenclature of the ‘traditionally’ recognized mosasauroid clades, to acknowledge the overall weakness among branches and the alternative topologies suggested previously, and discuss several factors that might have an impact on the differing phylogenetic hypotheses and their statistical support. PMID:28929018

  6. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Dan F; Wisecaver, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor), an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/.

  7. Mapping the shapes of phylogenetic trees from human and zoonotic RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Poon, Art F Y; Walker, Lorne W; Murray, Heather; McCloskey, Rosemary M; Harrigan, P Richard; Liang, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    A phylogeny is a tree-based model of common ancestry that is an indispensable tool for studying biological variation. Phylogenies play a special role in the study of rapidly evolving populations such as viruses, where the proliferation of lineages is constantly being shaped by the mode of virus transmission, by adaptation to immune systems, and by patterns of human migration and contact. These processes may leave an imprint on the shapes of virus phylogenies that can be extracted for comparative study; however, tree shapes are intrinsically difficult to quantify. Here we present a comprehensive study of phylogenies reconstructed from 38 different RNA viruses from 12 taxonomic families that are associated with human pathologies. To accomplish this, we have developed a new procedure for studying phylogenetic tree shapes based on the 'kernel trick', a technique that maps complex objects into a statistically convenient space. We show that our kernel method outperforms nine different tree balance statistics at correctly classifying phylogenies that were simulated under different evolutionary scenarios. Using the kernel method, we observe patterns in the distribution of RNA virus phylogenies in this space that reflect modes of transmission and pathogenesis. For example, viruses that can establish persistent chronic infections (such as HIV and hepatitis C virus) form a distinct cluster. Although the visibly 'star-like' shape characteristic of trees from these viruses has been well-documented, we show that established methods for quantifying tree shape fail to distinguish these trees from those of other viruses. The kernel approach presented here potentially represents an important new tool for characterizing the evolution and epidemiology of RNA viruses.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic trees - On the validity of the Goodman-Moore augmentation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    A response is made to the reply of Nei and Tateno (1979) to the letter of Holmquist (1978) supporting the validity of the augmentation algorithm of Moore (1977) in reconstructions of nucleotide substitutions by means of the maximum parsimony principle. It is argued that the overestimation of the augmented numbers of nucleotide substitutions (augmented distances) found by Tateno and Nei (1978) is due to an unrepresentative data sample and that it is only necessary that evolution be stochastically uniform in different regions of the phylogenetic network for the augmentation method to be useful. The importance of the average value of the true distance over all links is explained, and the relative variances of the true and augmented distances are calculated to be almost identical. The effects of topological changes in the phylogenetic tree on the augmented distance and the question of the correctness of ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony are also clarified.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic trees - On the validity of the Goodman-Moore augmentation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1979-01-01

    A response is made to the reply of Nei and Tateno (1979) to the letter of Holmquist (1978) supporting the validity of the augmentation algorithm of Moore (1977) in reconstructions of nucleotide substitutions by means of the maximum parsimony principle. It is argued that the overestimation of the augmented numbers of nucleotide substitutions (augmented distances) found by Tateno and Nei (1978) is due to an unrepresentative data sample and that it is only necessary that evolution be stochastically uniform in different regions of the phylogenetic network for the augmentation method to be useful. The importance of the average value of the true distance over all links is explained, and the relative variances of the true and augmented distances are calculated to be almost identical. The effects of topological changes in the phylogenetic tree on the augmented distance and the question of the correctness of ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony are also clarified.

  10. On implementing large binary tree architectures in VLSI and WSI

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, H.Y.; Singh, A.D.

    1989-04-01

    The complete binary tree is known to support the parallel execution of important algorithms, which has given rise to much interest in implementing such architectures in VLSI and WSI. For large trees, the classical H-tree layout approaches suffers from area inefficiency and long interconnects. Other proposed schemes are not well suited for the implementation of defect-tolerant designs. This paper presents an efficient scheme for the layout of large binary tree architectures by embedding the complete binary tree in a two-dimensional array of processing elements.

  11. New approach for phylogenetic tree recovery based on genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Gamermann, Daniel; Montagud, Arnaud; Conejero, J Alberto; Urchueguía, Javier F; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2014-07-01

    A wide range of applications and research has been done with genome-scale metabolic models. In this work, we describe an innovative methodology for comparing metabolic networks constructed from genome-scale metabolic models and how to apply this comparison in order to infer evolutionary distances between different organisms. Our methodology allows a quantification of the metabolic differences between different species from a broad range of families and even kingdoms. This quantification is then applied in order to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for sets of various organisms.

  12. Fast Computation of the Exact Hybridization Number of Two Phylogenetic Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yufeng; Wang, Jiayin

    Hybridization is a reticulate evolutionary process. An established problem on hybridization is computing the minimum number of hybridization events, called the hybridization number, needed in the evolutionary history of two phylogenetic trees. This problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, we present a new practical method to compute the exact hybridization number. Our approach is based on an integer linear programming formulation. Simulation results on biological and simulated datasets show that our method (as implemented in program SPRDist) is more efficient and robust than an existing method.

  13. Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees and Search for a Central Trend in the “Forest of Life”

    PubMed Central

    Puigbò, Pere; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The widespread exchange of genes among prokaryotes, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is often considered to “uproot” the Tree of Life (TOL). Indeed, it is by now fully clear that genes in general possess different evolutionary histories. However, the possibility remains that the TOL concept can be reformulated and remain valid as a statistical central trend in the phylogenetic “Forest of Life” (FOL). This article describes a computational pipeline developed to chart the FOL by comparative analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees. This analysis reveals a distinct, consistent phylogenetic signal that is particularly strong among the Nearly Universal Trees (NUTs), which correspond to genes represented in all or most of the analyzed organisms. Despite the substantial amount of apparent HGT seen even among the NUTs, these gene transfers appear to be distributed randomly and do not obscure the central tree-like trend. PMID:21457008

  14. Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegle, Erin

    Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees

  15. Uncertain-tree: discriminating among competing approaches to the phylogenetic analysis of phenotype data

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Alastair R.; Fleming, James F.; Tarver, James E.; Pisani, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Morphological data provide the only means of classifying the majority of life's history, but the choice between competing phylogenetic methods for the analysis of morphology is unclear. Traditionally, parsimony methods have been favoured but recent studies have shown that these approaches are less accurate than the Bayesian implementation of the Mk model. Here we expand on these findings in several ways: we assess the impact of tree shape and maximum-likelihood estimation using the Mk model, as well as analysing data composed of both binary and multistate characters. We find that all methods struggle to correctly resolve deep clades within asymmetric trees, and when analysing small character matrices. The Bayesian Mk model is the most accurate method for estimating topology, but with lower resolution than other methods. Equal weights parsimony is more accurate than implied weights parsimony, and maximum-likelihood estimation using the Mk model is the least accurate method. We conclude that the Bayesian implementation of the Mk model should be the default method for phylogenetic estimation from phenotype datasets, and we explore the implications of our simulations in reanalysing several empirical morphological character matrices. A consequence of our finding is that high levels of resolution or the ability to classify species or groups with much confidence should not be expected when using small datasets. It is now necessary to depart from the traditional parsimony paradigms of constructing character matrices, towards datasets constructed explicitly for Bayesian methods. PMID:28077778

  16. Reconstruction of the cophylogenetic history of related phylogenetic trees with divergence timing information.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we present a method and a corresponding tool called Tarzan for cophylogeny analysis of phylogenetic trees where the nodes are labelled with divergence timing information. The tool can be used for example to infer the common history of hosts and their parasites, of insect-plant relations or symbiotic relationships. Our method does the reconciliation analysis using an event-based concept where each event is assigned a cost and cost minimal solutions are sought. The events that are used by Tarzan are cospeciations, sortings, duplications, and (host) switches. Different from existing tools, Tarzan can handle more complex timing information of the phylogenetic trees for the analysis. This is important because several recent studies of cophylogenetic relationship have shown that timing information can be very important for the correct interpretation of results from cophylogenetic analysis. We present two examples (one host-parasite system and one insect-plant system) that show how divergence timing information can be integrated into reconciliation analysis and how this influences the results.

  17. BuddySuite: Command-line toolkits for manipulating sequences, alignments, and phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Bond, Stephen R; Keat, Karl E; Barreira, Sofia N; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2017-02-25

    The ability to manipulate sequence, alignment, and phylogenetic tree files has become an increasingly important skill in the life sciences, whether to generate summary information or to prepare data for further downstream analysis. The command line can be an extremely powerful environment for interacting with these resources, but only if the user has the appropriate general-purpose tools on hand. BuddySuite is a collection of four independent yet interrelated command-line toolkits that facilitate each step in the workflow of sequence discovery, curation, alignment, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Most common sequence, alignment, and tree file formats are automatically detected and parsed, and over 100 tools have been implemented for manipulating these data. The project has been engineered to easily accommodate the addition of new tools, it is written in the popular programming language Python, and is hosted on the Python Package Index and GitHub to maximize accessibility. Documentation for each BuddySuite tool, including usage examples, is available at http://tiny.cc/buddysuite wiki. All software is open source and freely available through http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/software/BuddySuite.

  18. Uncertain-tree: discriminating among competing approaches to the phylogenetic analysis of phenotype data.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; O'Reilly, Joseph E; Tanner, Alastair R; Fleming, James F; Clark, James; Holloway, Lucy; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Parry, Luke A; Tarver, James E; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-01-11

    Morphological data provide the only means of classifying the majority of life's history, but the choice between competing phylogenetic methods for the analysis of morphology is unclear. Traditionally, parsimony methods have been favoured but recent studies have shown that these approaches are less accurate than the Bayesian implementation of the Mk model. Here we expand on these findings in several ways: we assess the impact of tree shape and maximum-likelihood estimation using the Mk model, as well as analysing data composed of both binary and multistate characters. We find that all methods struggle to correctly resolve deep clades within asymmetric trees, and when analysing small character matrices. The Bayesian Mk model is the most accurate method for estimating topology, but with lower resolution than other methods. Equal weights parsimony is more accurate than implied weights parsimony, and maximum-likelihood estimation using the Mk model is the least accurate method. We conclude that the Bayesian implementation of the Mk model should be the default method for phylogenetic estimation from phenotype datasets, and we explore the implications of our simulations in reanalysing several empirical morphological character matrices. A consequence of our finding is that high levels of resolution or the ability to classify species or groups with much confidence should not be expected when using small datasets. It is now necessary to depart from the traditional parsimony paradigms of constructing character matrices, towards datasets constructed explicitly for Bayesian methods.

  19. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2015-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. Some reports have raised concerns about the global decline of large trees. Based on observations from two regions in Finland and three regions in the United States we report that trends of large trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common in the Northeast since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990s as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of the diameter-class distributions of tree populations. Large trees have significant benefits; for example, they can constitute a large proportion of the carbon stock and affect greatly the carbon density of forests. Large trees usually have deeper roots and long lifetimes. They affect forest structure and function and provide habitats for other species. An accumulating stock of large trees in existing forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate through transpiration or forest albedo. Understanding changes in the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of forests in the global carbon budget and to assessing other ecosystem services of forests.

  20. On implementing large binary tree architectures in VLSI and WSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hee Yong; Singh, Adit D.

    1989-04-01

    An efficient scheme for the layout of large binary-tree architectures is presented. The method involves embedding the complete binary tree in a two-dimensional array of processing elements and utilizes virtually 100 percent of the processing elements in the array as computing elements; it also shows substantial improvements in propagation delay and maximum edge length over H-tree layouts. It is shown that the layouts obtained readily lend themselves to fault-tolerant designs for overcoming fabrication defects in large-area and wafer-scale implementations of binary-tree architectures.

  1. A Large and Phylogenetically Diverse Class of Type 1 Opsins Lacking a Canonical Retinal Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Erin A.; Yao, Andrew I.; Seitzer, Phillip M.; Kind, Tobias; Wang, Ting; Eigenheer, Rich; Shao, Katie S. Y.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Facciotti, Marc T.

    2016-01-01

    Opsins are photosensitive proteins catalyzing light-dependent processes across the tree of life. For both microbial (type 1) and metazoan (type 2) opsins, photosensing depends upon covalent interaction between a retinal chromophore and a conserved lysine residue. Despite recent discoveries of potential opsin homologs lacking this residue, phylogenetic dispersal and functional significance of these abnormal sequences have not yet been investigated. We report discovery of a large group of putatively non-retinal binding opsins, present in a number of fungal and microbial genomes and comprising nearly 30% of opsins in the Halobacteriacea, a model clade for opsin photobiology. We report phylogenetic analyses, structural modeling, genomic context analysis and biochemistry, to describe the evolutionary relationship of these recently described proteins with other opsins, show that they are expressed and do not bind retinal in a canonical manner. Given these data, we propose a hypothesis that these abnormal opsin homologs may represent a novel family of sensory opsins which may be involved in taxis response to one or more non-light stimuli. If true, this finding would challenge our current understanding of microbial opsins as a light-specific sensory family, and provides a potential analogy with the highly diverse signaling capabilities of the eukaryotic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), of which metazoan type 2 opsins are a light-specific sub-clade. PMID:27327432

  2. A Large and Phylogenetically Diverse Class of Type 1 Opsins Lacking a Canonical Retinal Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Becker, Erin A; Yao, Andrew I; Seitzer, Phillip M; Kind, Tobias; Wang, Ting; Eigenheer, Rich; Shao, Katie S Y; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Facciotti, Marc T

    2016-01-01

    Opsins are photosensitive proteins catalyzing light-dependent processes across the tree of life. For both microbial (type 1) and metazoan (type 2) opsins, photosensing depends upon covalent interaction between a retinal chromophore and a conserved lysine residue. Despite recent discoveries of potential opsin homologs lacking this residue, phylogenetic dispersal and functional significance of these abnormal sequences have not yet been investigated. We report discovery of a large group of putatively non-retinal binding opsins, present in a number of fungal and microbial genomes and comprising nearly 30% of opsins in the Halobacteriacea, a model clade for opsin photobiology. We report phylogenetic analyses, structural modeling, genomic context analysis and biochemistry, to describe the evolutionary relationship of these recently described proteins with other opsins, show that they are expressed and do not bind retinal in a canonical manner. Given these data, we propose a hypothesis that these abnormal opsin homologs may represent a novel family of sensory opsins which may be involved in taxis response to one or more non-light stimuli. If true, this finding would challenge our current understanding of microbial opsins as a light-specific sensory family, and provides a potential analogy with the highly diverse signaling capabilities of the eukaryotic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), of which metazoan type 2 opsins are a light-specific sub-clade.

  3. Conserving the functional and phylogenetic trees of life of European tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Maiorano, Luigi; Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Lavergne, Sébastien; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Mouillot, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are pivotal tools for biodiversity conservation on the Earth. Europe has had an extensive protection system since Natura 2000 areas were created in parallel with traditional parks and reserves. However, the extent to which this system covers not only taxonomic diversity but also other biodiversity facets, such as evolutionary history and functional diversity, has never been evaluated. Using high-resolution distribution data of all European tetrapods together with dated molecular phylogenies and detailed trait information, we first tested whether the existing European protection system effectively covers all species and in particular, those with the highest evolutionary or functional distinctiveness. We then tested the ability of PAs to protect the entire tetrapod phylogenetic and functional trees of life by mapping species' target achievements along the internal branches of these two trees. We found that the current system is adequately representative in terms of the evolutionary history of amphibians while it fails for the rest. However, the most functionally distinct species were better represented than they would be under random conservation efforts. These results imply better protection of the tetrapod functional tree of life, which could help to ensure long-term functioning of the ecosystem, potentially at the expense of conserving evolutionary history. PMID:25561666

  4. TreSpEx—Detection of Misleading Signal in Phylogenetic Reconstructions Based on Tree Information

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Torsten H

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenies of species or genes are commonplace nowadays in many areas of comparative biological studies. However, for phylogenetic reconstructions one must refer to artificial signals such as paralogy, long-branch attraction, saturation, or conflict between different datasets. These signals might eventually mislead the reconstruction even in phylogenomic studies employing hundreds of genes. Unfortunately, there has been no program allowing the detection of such effects in combination with an implementation into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx (Tree Space Explorer) now combines different approaches (including statistical tests), which utilize tree-based information like nodal support or patristic distances (PDs) to identify misleading signals. The program enables the parallel analysis of hundreds of trees and/or predefined gene partitions, and being command-line driven, it can be integrated into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx is implemented in Perl and supported on Linux, Mac OS X, and MS Windows. Source code, binaries, and additional material are freely available at http://www.annelida.de/research/bioinformatics/software.html. PMID:24701118

  5. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees.

    PubMed

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of anatomical trees is hard to perform due to differences in the topological structure of the trees. In this paper we define statistical properties of leaf-labeled anatomical trees with geometric edge attributes by considering the anatomical trees as points in the geometric space of leaf-labeled trees. This tree-space is a geodesic metric space where any two trees are connected by a unique shortest path, which corresponds to a tree deformation. However, tree-space is not a manifold, and the usual strategy of performing statistical analysis in a tangent space and projecting onto tree-space is not available. Using tree-space and its shortest paths, a variety of statistical properties, such as mean, principal component, hypothesis testing and linear discriminant analysis can be defined. For some of these properties it is still an open problem how to compute them; others (like the mean) can be computed, but efficient alternatives are helpful in speeding up algorithms that use means iteratively, like hypothesis testing. In this paper, we take advantage of a very large dataset (N = 8016) to obtain computable approximations, under the assumption that the data trees parametrize the relevant parts of tree-space well. Using the developed approximate statistics, we illustrate how the structure and geometry of airway trees vary across a population and show that airway trees with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease come from a different distribution in tree-space than healthy ones. Software is available from http://image.diku.dk/aasa/software.php.

  6. Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    N. Price, Morgan; S. Dehal, Paramvir; P. Arkin, Adam

    2009-07-31

    Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's topologies had higher likelihoods. FastTree is available at http://microbesonline.org/fasttree.

  7. The ecology, distribution, conservation and management of large old trees.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Laurance, William F

    2017-08-01

    Large old trees are some of the most iconic biota on earth and are integral parts of many terrestrial ecosystems including those in tropical, temperate and boreal forests, deserts, savannas, agro-ecological areas, and urban environments. In this review, we provide new insights into the ecology, function, evolution and management of large old trees through broad cross-disciplinary perspectives from literatures in plant physiology, growth and development, evolution, habitat value for fauna and flora, and conservation management. Our review reveals that the diameter, height and longevity of large old trees varies greatly on an inter-specific basis, thereby creating serious challenges in defining large old trees and demanding an ecosystem- and species-specific definition that will only rarely be readily transferable to other species or ecosystems. Such variation is also manifested by marked inter-specific differences in the key attributes of large old trees (beyond diameter and height) such as the extent of buttressing, canopy architecture, the extent of bark micro-environments and the prevalence of cavities. We found that large old trees play an extraordinary range of critical ecological roles including in hydrological regimes, nutrient cycles and numerous ecosystem processes. Large old trees strongly influence the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of individuals of the same species and populations of numerous other plant and animal species. We suggest many key characteristics of large old trees such as extreme height, prolonged lifespans, and the presence of cavities - which confer competitive and evolutionary advantages in undisturbed environments - can render such trees highly susceptible to a range of human influences. Large old trees are vulnerable to threats ranging from droughts, fire, pests and pathogens, to logging, land clearing, landscape fragmentation and climate change. Tackling such diverse threats is challenging because they often

  8. Phylogenetic Constraints Do Not Explain the Rarity of Nitrogen-Fixing Trees in Late-Successional Temperate Forests

    PubMed Central

    Menge, Duncan N. L.; DeNoyer, Jeanne L.; Lichstein, Jeremy W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees are rare in late-successional temperate forests, even though these forests are often N limited. Two hypotheses could explain this paradox. The ‘phylogenetic constraints hypothesis’ states that no late-successional tree taxa in temperate forests belong to clades that are predisposed to N fixation. Conversely, the ‘selective constraints hypothesis’ states that such taxa are present, but N-fixing symbioses would lower their fitness. Here we test the phylogenetic constraints hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using U.S. forest inventory data, we derived successional indices related to shade tolerance and stand age for N-fixing trees, non-fixing trees in the ‘potentially N-fixing clade’ (smallest angiosperm clade that includes all N fixers), and non-fixing trees outside this clade. We then used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test for associations between these successional indices and N fixation. Four results stand out from our analysis of U.S. trees. First, N fixers are less shade-tolerant than non-fixers both inside and outside of the potentially N-fixing clade. Second, N fixers tend to occur in younger stands in a given geographical region than non-fixers both inside and outside of the potentially N-fixing clade. Third, the potentially N-fixing clade contains numerous late-successional non-fixers. Fourth, although the N fixation trait is evolutionarily conserved, the successional traits are relatively labile. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that selective constraints, not phylogenetic constraints, explain the rarity of late-successional N-fixing trees in temperate forests. Because N-fixing trees could overcome N limitation to net primary production if they were abundant, this study helps to understand the maintenance of N limitation in temperate forests, and therefore the capacity of this biome to sequester carbon. PMID:20700466

  9. Multiple alignment analysis on phylogenetic tree of the spread of SARS epidemic using distance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiroch, S.; Pradana, M. S.; Irawan, M. I.; Mukhlash, I.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple Alignment (MA) is a particularly important tool for studying the viral genome and determine the evolutionary process of the specific virus. Application of MA in the case of the spread of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic is an interesting thing because this virus epidemic a few years ago spread so quickly that medical attention in many countries. Although there has been a lot of software to process multiple sequences, but the use of pairwise alignment to process MA is very important to consider. In previous research, the alignment between the sequences to process MA algorithm, Super Pairwise Alignment, but in this study used a dynamic programming algorithm Needleman wunchs simulated in Matlab. From the analysis of MA obtained and stable region and unstable which indicates the position where the mutation occurs, the system network topology that produced the phylogenetic tree of the SARS epidemic distance method, and system area networks mutation.

  10. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2456 Neotropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Baker, Timothy R; Easdale, Tomás A; ter Steege, Hans; Webb, Campbell O

    2006-12-01

    Wood density is a crucial variable in carbon accounting programs of both secondary and old-growth tropical forests. It also is the best single descriptor of wood: it correlates with numerous morphological, mechanical, physiological, and ecological properties. To explore the extent to which wood density could be estimated for rare or poorly censused taxa, and possible sources of variation in this trait, we analyzed regional, taxonomic, and phylogenetic variation in wood density among 2456 tree species from Central and South America. Wood density varied over more than one order of magnitude across species, with an overall mean of 0.645 g/cm3. Our geographical analysis showed significant decreases in wood density with increasing altitude and significant differences among low-altitude geographical regions: wet forests of Central America and western Amazonia have significantly lower mean wood density than dry forests of Central and South America, eastern and central Amazonian forests, and the Atlantic forests of Brazil; and eastern Amazonian forests have lower wood densities than the dry forests and the Atlantic forest. A nested analysis of variance showed that 74% of the species-level wood density variation was explained at the genus level, 34% at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) family level, and 19% at the APG order level. This indicates that genus-level means give reliable approximations of values of species, except in a few hypervariable genera. We also studied which evolutionary shifts in wood density occurred in the phylogeny of seed plants using a composite phylogenetic tree. Major changes were observed at deep nodes (Eurosid 1), and also in more recent divergences (for instance in the Rhamnoids, Simaroubaceae, and Anacardiaceae). Our unprecedented wood density data set yields consistent guidelines for estimating wood densities when species-level information is lacking and should significantly reduce error in Central and South American carbon accounting

  11. Species-time-area and phylogenetic-time-area relationships in tropical tree communities

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Nathan G; Mi, Xiangcheng; Kress, W John; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, María; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2013-01-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has proven to be one of the few strong generalities in ecology. The temporal analog of the SAR, the species-time relationship (STR), has received considerably less attention. Recent work primarily from the temperate zone has aimed to merge the SAR and the STR into a synthetic and unified species-time-area relationship (STAR) as originally envisioned by Preston (1960). Here we test this framework using two tropical tree communities and extend it by deriving a phylogenetic-time-area relationship (PTAR). The work finds some support for Preston's prediction that diversity-time relationships, both species and phylogenetic, are sensitive to the spatial scale of the sampling. Contrary to the Preston's predictions we find a decoupling of diversity-area and diversity-time relationships in both forests as the time period used to quantify the diversity-area relationship changes. In particular, diversity-area and diversity-time relationships are positively correlated using the initial census to quantify the diversity-area relationship, but weakly or even negatively correlated when using the most recent census. Thus, diversity-area relationships could forecast the temporal accumulation of biodiversity of the forests, but they failed to “back-cast” the temporal accumulation of biodiversity suggesting a decoupling of space and time. PMID:23762505

  12. Species-time-area and phylogenetic-time-area relationships in tropical tree communities.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Mi, Xiangcheng; Kress, W John; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, María; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2013-05-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has proven to be one of the few strong generalities in ecology. The temporal analog of the SAR, the species-time relationship (STR), has received considerably less attention. Recent work primarily from the temperate zone has aimed to merge the SAR and the STR into a synthetic and unified species-time-area relationship (STAR) as originally envisioned by Preston (1960). Here we test this framework using two tropical tree communities and extend it by deriving a phylogenetic-time-area relationship (PTAR). The work finds some support for Preston's prediction that diversity-time relationships, both species and phylogenetic, are sensitive to the spatial scale of the sampling. Contrary to the Preston's predictions we find a decoupling of diversity-area and diversity-time relationships in both forests as the time period used to quantify the diversity-area relationship changes. In particular, diversity-area and diversity-time relationships are positively correlated using the initial census to quantify the diversity-area relationship, but weakly or even negatively correlated when using the most recent census. Thus, diversity-area relationships could forecast the temporal accumulation of biodiversity of the forests, but they failed to "back-cast" the temporal accumulation of biodiversity suggesting a decoupling of space and time.

  13. Inferring species trees from gene trees: a phylogenetic analysis of the Elapidae (Serpentes) based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins.

    PubMed

    Slowinski, J B; Knight, A; Rooney, A P

    1997-12-01

    Toward the goal of recovering the phylogenetic relationships among elapid snakes, we separately found the shortest trees from the amino acid sequences for the venom proteins phospholipase A2 and the short neurotoxin, collectively representing 32 species in 16 genera. We then applied a method we term gene tree parsimony for inferring species trees from gene trees that works by finding the species tree which minimizes the number of deep coalescences or gene duplications plus unsampled sequences necessary to fit each gene tree to the species tree. This procedure, which is both logical and generally applicable, avoids many of the problems of previous approaches for inferring species trees from gene trees. The results support a division of the elapids examined into sister groups of the Australian and marine (laticaudines and hydrophiines) species, and the African and Asian species. Within the former clade, the sea snakes are shown to be diphyletic, with the laticaudines and hydrophiines having separate origins. This finding is corroborated by previous studies, which provide support for the usefulness of gene tree parsimony.

  14. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and

  15. Comparison of methods for rooting phylogenetic trees: a case study using Orcuttieae (Poaceae: Chloridoideae).

    PubMed

    Boykin, Laura M; Kubatko, Laura Salter; Lowrey, Timothy K

    2010-03-01

    DNA sequence data (cpDNA trnL intron and nrDNA ITS1 and ITS2) were analyzed to identify relationships within Orcuttieae, a small tribe of endangered grasses endemic to vernal pools in California and Baja California. The tribe includes three genera: Orcuttia, Tuctoria, and Neostapfia. All three genera carry out C(4) photosynthesis but aquatic taxa of Orcuttia lack Kranz anatomy. The unusual habitat preference of the tribe is coupled with the atypical development of C(4) photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy. Furthermore, the tribe has no known close relatives and has been noted to be phylogenetically isolated within the subfamily Chloridoideae. In this study we examine the problem of inferring the root of the tribe in the absence of an identified outgroup, analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the constituent taxa, and evaluate the evolutionary development of C(4) photosynthesis. We compare four methods for inferring the root of the tree: (1) the outgroup method, (2) midpoint rooting, the imposition of a molecular clock for both (3) maximum likelihood (ML) and (4) Bayesian analysis. We examine the consequences of each method for the inferred phylogenetic relationships. Three of the methods (outgroup rooting and the ML and Bayesian molecular clock analyses) suggest that the root of Orcuttieae is between Neostapfia and the Tuctoria/Orcuttia lineage, while midpoint rooting gives a different root. The Bayesian method additionally provides information about probabilities associated with other possible root locations. Assuming that the true root of Orcuttieae is between Neostapfia and the Tuctoria/Orcuttia lineage, our data indicate Neostapfia and Orcuttia are both monophyletic, while Tuctoria is paraphyletic (with no synapomorphies in either dataset) and forming a grade between the other two genera and needs taxonomic revision. Our data support the hypothesis that Orcuttieae was derived from a terrestrial ancestor and evolved specializations to an aquatic environment

  16. Improved Phylogenetic Analyses Corroborate a Plausible Position of Martialis heureka in the Ant Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kück, Patrick; Hita Garcia, Francisco; Misof, Bernhard; Meusemann, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Martialinae are pale, eyeless and probably hypogaeic predatory ants. Morphological character sets suggest a close relationship to the ant subfamily Leptanillinae. Recent analyses based on molecular sequence data suggest that Martialinae are the sister group to all extant ants. However, by comparing molecular studies and different reconstruction methods, the position of Martialinae remains ambiguous. While this sister group relationship was well supported by Bayesian partitioned analyses, Maximum Likelihood approaches could not unequivocally resolve the position of Martialinae. By re-analysing a previous published molecular data set, we show that the Maximum Likelihood approach is highly appropriate to resolve deep ant relationships, especially between Leptanillinae, Martialinae and the remaining ant subfamilies. Based on improved alignments, alignment masking, and tree reconstructions with a sufficient number of bootstrap replicates, our results strongly reject a placement of Martialinae at the first split within the ant tree of life. Instead, we suggest that Leptanillinae are a sister group to all other extant ant subfamilies, whereas Martialinae branch off as a second lineage. This assumption is backed by approximately unbiased (AU) tests, additional Bayesian analyses and split networks. Our results demonstrate clear effects of improved alignment approaches, alignment masking and data partitioning. We hope that our study illustrates the importance of thorough, comprehensible phylogenetic analyses using the example of ant relationships. PMID:21731644

  17. Bioinformatics analysis and construction of phylogenetic tree of aquaporins from Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Ye, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Cyst echinococcosis caused by the matacestodal larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (Eg), is a chronic, worldwide, and severe zoonotic parasitosis. The treatment of cyst echinococcosis is still difficult since surgery cannot fit the needs of all patients, and drugs can lead to serious adverse events as well as resistance. The screen of target proteins interacted with new anti-hydatidosis drugs is urgently needed to meet the prevailing challenges. Here, we analyzed the sequences and structure properties, and constructed a phylogenetic tree by bioinformatics methods. The MIP family signature and Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites were predicted in all nine EgAQPs. α-helix and random coil were the main secondary structures of EgAQPs. The numbers of transmembrane regions were three to six, which indicated that EgAQPs contained multiple hydrophobic regions. A neighbor-joining tree indicated that EgAQPs were divided into two branches, seven EgAQPs formed a clade with AQP1 from human, a "strict" aquaporins, other two EgAQPs formed a clade with AQP9 from human, an aquaglyceroporins. Unfortunately, homology modeling of EgAQPs was aborted. These results provide a foundation for understanding and researches of the biological function of E. granulosus.

  18. Wood nitrogen concentrations in tropical trees: phylogenetic patterns and ecological correlates.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam R; Erickson, David L; Kress, W John; Thomas, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    In tropical and temperate trees, wood chemical traits are hypothesized to covary with species' life-history strategy along a 'wood economics spectrum' (WES), but evidence supporting these expected patterns remains scarce. Due to its role in nutrient storage, we hypothesize that wood nitrogen (N) concentration will covary along the WES, being higher in slow-growing species with high wood density (WD), and lower in fast-growing species with low WD. In order to test this hypothesis we quantified wood N concentrations in 59 Panamanian hardwood species, and used this dataset to examine ecological correlates and phylogenetic patterns of wood N. Wood N varied > 14-fold among species between 0.04 and 0.59%; closely related species were more similar in wood N than expected by chance. Wood N was positively correlated with WD, and negatively correlated with log-transformed relative growth rates, although these relationships were relatively weak. We found evidence for co-evolution between wood N and both WD and log-transformed mortality rates. Our study provides evidence that wood N covaries with tree life-history parameters, and that these patterns consistently co-evolve in tropical hardwoods. These results provide some support for the hypothesized WES, and suggest that wood is an increasingly important N pool through tropical forest succession.

  19. Bears in a forest of gene trees: phylogenetic inference is complicated by incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Verena E; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L; Fain, Steven R; Janke, Axel

    2014-08-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal.

  20. Bears in a Forest of Gene Trees: Phylogenetic Inference Is Complicated by Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Verena E.; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L.; Fain, Steven R.; Janke, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal. PMID:24903145

  1. Sensitivity of missing values in classification tree for large sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Norsida; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Mustapha, Norwati; Abu Bakar, Mohd Rizam

    2012-05-01

    Missing values either in predictor or in response variables are a very common problem in statistics and data mining. Cases with missing values are often ignored which results in loss of information and possible bias. The objectives of our research were to investigate the sensitivity of missing data in classification tree model for large sample. Data were obtained from one of the high level educational institutions in Malaysia. Students' background data were randomly eliminated and classification tree was used to predict students degree classification. The results showed that for large sample, the structure of the classification tree was sensitive to missing values especially for sample contains more than ten percent missing values.

  2. Deduction of probable events of lateral gene transfer through comparison of phylogenetic trees by recursive consolidation and rearrangement.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Dave; Charlebois, Robert L; Doolittle, Ford; Bapteste, Eric

    2005-04-08

    When organismal phylogenies based on sequences of single marker genes are poorly resolved, a logical approach is to add more markers, on the assumption that weak but congruent phylogenetic signal will be reinforced in such multigene trees. Such approaches are valid only when the several markers indeed have identical phylogenies, an issue which many multigene methods (such as the use of concatenated gene sequences or the assembly of supertrees) do not directly address. Indeed, even when the true history is a mixture of vertical descent for some genes and lateral gene transfer (LGT) for others, such methods produce unique topologies. We have developed software that aims to extract evidence for vertical and lateral inheritance from a set of gene trees compared against an arbitrary reference tree. This evidence is then displayed as a synthesis showing support over the tree for vertical inheritance, overlaid with explicit lateral gene transfer (LGT) events inferred to have occurred over the history of the tree. Like splits-tree methods, one can thus identify nodes at which conflict occurs. Additionally one can make reasonable inferences about vertical and lateral signal, assigning putative donors and recipients. A tool such as ours can serve to explore the reticulated dimensionality of molecular evolution, by dissecting vertical and lateral inheritance at high resolution. By this, we mean that individual nodes can be examined not only for congruence, but also for coherence in light of LGT. We assert that our tools will facilitate the comparison of phylogenetic trees, and the interpretation of conflicting data.

  3. Monte Carlo estimation of total variation distance of Markov chains on large spaces, with application to phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Herbei, Radu; Kubatko, Laura

    2013-03-26

    Markov chains are widely used for modeling in many areas of molecular biology and genetics. As the complexity of such models advances, it becomes increasingly important to assess the rate at which a Markov chain converges to its stationary distribution in order to carry out accurate inference. A common measure of convergence to the stationary distribution is the total variation distance, but this measure can be difficult to compute when the state space of the chain is large. We propose a Monte Carlo method to estimate the total variation distance that can be applied in this situation, and we demonstrate how the method can be efficiently implemented by taking advantage of GPU computing techniques. We apply the method to two Markov chains on the space of phylogenetic trees, and discuss the implications of our findings for the development of algorithms for phylogenetic inference.

  4. Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed 2995 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data (nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND2 genes), using parsimony and model-based approaches to infer phylogenetic relationships of the woodpeckers and allies, yielding novel hypotheses for several critical gaps in the knowledge of picid phylogeny. We tested the monophyly of sub-families within the Picidae, and sampled from widely distributed and diverse genera (Celeus, Colaptes, Dryocopus, Melanerpes, Picoides, Picumnus, Sasia, Piculus, and Picus). Relationships of three poorly known Southeast Asian genera (Dinopium, Reinwardtipicus, and Blythipicus) were also examined, revealing unexpected sister relationships. All phylogenetic approaches recovered largely congruent topologies, supporting a monophyletic Picinae and paraphyletic Picumninae, with the monotypic piculet, Nesoctites micromegas, as sister to the Picinae. We report paraphyly for Celeus and Piculus, whereas the broadly distributed genera Picumnus and Dryocopus were supported as monophyletic. Our phylogenetic results indicate a complex geographic history for the Picidae, with multiple disjunct sister lineages distributed between the New World and Asia. The relationships and geographic distribution of basal picid lineages indicates an Old World origin of the Picidae; however, the geographic origin of the Picinae remains equivocal, as the sister relationship between the Caribbean N. micromegas and the true woodpeckers presents the possibility of a New World origin for the Picinae.

  5. Integrating Markov clustering and molecular phylogenetics to reconstruct the cyanobacterial species tree from conserved protein families.

    PubMed

    Swingley, Wesley D; Blankenship, Robert E; Raymond, Jason

    2008-04-01

    Attempts to classify living organisms by their physical characteristics are as old as biology itself. The advent of protein and DNA sequencing--most notably the use of 16S ribosomal RNA--defined a new level of classification that now forms our basic understanding of the history of life on earth. High-throughput sequencing currently provides DNA sequences at an unprecedented rate, not only providing a wealth of information but also posing considerable analytical challenges. Here we present comparative genomics-based methods useful for automating evolutionary analysis between any number of species. As a practical example, we applied our method to the well-studied cyanobacterial lineage. The 24 cyanobacterial genomes compared here occupy a wide variety of environmental niches and play major roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. By integrating phylogenetic data inferred for upward of 1,000 protein-coding genes common to all or most cyanobacteria, we have reconstructed an evolutionary history of the phylum, establishing a framework for resolving key issues regarding the evolution of their metabolic and phenotypic diversity. Greater resolution on individual branches can be attained by telescoping inward to the larger set of conserved proteins between fewer taxa. The construction of all individual protein phylogenies allows for quantitative tree scoring, providing insight into the evolutionary history of each protein family as well as probing the limits of phylogenetic resolution. The tools incorporated here are fast, computationally tractable, and easily extendable to other phyla and provide a scaleable framework for contrasting and integrating the information present in thousands of protein-coding genes within related genomes.

  6. Rooting the tree of life: the phylogenetic jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Gouy, Richard; Baurain, Denis; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to shed light on difficulties in rooting the tree of life (ToL) and to explore the (sociological) reasons underlying the limited interest in accurately addressing this fundamental issue. First, we briefly review the difficulties plaguing phylogenetic inference and the ways to improve the modelling of the substitution process, which is highly heterogeneous, both across sites and over time. We further observe that enriched taxon samplings, better gene samplings and clever data removal strategies have led to numerous revisions of the ToL, and that these improved shallow phylogenies nearly always relocate simple organisms higher in the ToL provided that long-branch attraction artefacts are kept at bay. Then, we note that, despite the flood of genomic data available since 2000, there has been a surprisingly low interest in inferring the root of the ToL. Furthermore, the rare studies dealing with this question were almost always based on methods dating from the 1990s that have been shown to be inaccurate for much more shallow issues! This leads us to argue that the current consensus about a bacterial root for the ToL can be traced back to the prejudice of Aristotle's Great Chain of Beings, in which simple organisms are ancestors of more complex life forms. Finally, we demonstrate that even the best models cannot yet handle the complexity of the evolutionary process encountered both at shallow depth, when the outgroup is too distant, and at the level of the inter-domain relationships. Altogether, we conclude that the commonly accepted bacterial root is still unproven and that the root of the ToL should be revisited using phylogenomic supermatrices to ensure that new evidence for eukaryogenesis, such as the recently described Lokiarcheota, is interpreted in a sound phylogenetic framework. PMID:26323760

  7. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Capsalidae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) inferred from large subunit rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Whittington, I D; Deveney, M R; Morgan, J A T; Chisholm, L A; Adlard, R D

    2004-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Capsalidae (Monogenea) were examined using large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences from 17 capsalid species (representing 7 genera, 5 subfamilies), 2 outgroup taxa (Monocotylidae) plus Udonella caligorum (Udonellidae). Trees were constructed using maximum likelihood, minimum evolution and maximum parsimony algorithms. An initial tree, generated from sequences 315 bases long, suggests that Capsalinae, Encotyllabinae, Entobdellinae and Trochopodinae are monophyletic, but that Benedeniinae is paraphyletic. Analyses indicate that Neobenedenia, currently in the Benedeniinae, should perhaps be placed in a separate subfamily. An additional analysis was made which omitted 3 capsalid taxa (for which only short sequences were available) and all outgroup taxa because of alignment difficulties. Sequence length increased to 693 bases and good branch support was achieved. The Benedeniinae was again paraphyletic. Higher-level classification of the Capsalidae, evolution of the Entobdellinae and issues of species identity in Neobenedenia are discussed.

  8. Mutational analysis employing a phylogenetic mass tree approach in a study of the evolution of the influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Akand, Elma H; Downard, Kevin M

    2017-07-01

    A mass based approach has been advanced to enable mutations associated with the evolution of proteins to be both charted and interrogated using phylogenetic trees built solely from the masses of peptides generated upon protein proteolysis. The modified MassTree algorithm identifies and displays all such mutations and calculates the frequency of a particular mutation across a tree. Its significance in terms of its position(s) on the tree is scored, where mutations that occur toward the basis of the tree are weighted more favourably. A comparison with data generated from a conventional sequence based tree demonstrates the reliability of mutational analysis employing this approach. Although illustrated for the study of the evolution of influenza hemagglutinin in this work, the approach has far broader applicability and can be applied to investigate the evolution of any organism. In the case of simple microorganisms this can be achieved even without the separation of component proteins. Given the central role that mass map or fingerprint data plays in protein identification in proteomics, this work demonstrates that such data can be successfully employed in a phylogenetics strategy to better understand and predict future evolutionary trends from the perspective of functional proteins expressed by the organism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Constraining the timing of the Great Oxidation Event within the Rubisco phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Kacar, B; Hanson-Smith, V; Adam, Z R; Boekelheide, N

    2017-09-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, or Rubisco) catalyzes a key reaction by which inorganic carbon is converted into organic carbon in the metabolism of many aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Across the broader Rubisco protein family, homologs exhibit diverse biochemical characteristics and metabolic functions, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity are unclear. Evidence of the timing of Rubisco family emergence and diversification of its different forms has been obscured by a meager paleontological record of early Earth biota, their subcellular physiology and metabolic components. Here, we use computational models to reconstruct a Rubisco family phylogenetic tree, ancestral amino acid sequences at branching points on the tree, and protein structures for several key ancestors. Analysis of historic substitutions with respect to their structural locations shows that there were distinct periods of amino acid substitution enrichment above background levels near and within its oxygen-sensitive active site and subunit interfaces over the divergence between Form III (associated with anoxia) and Form I (associated with oxia) groups in its evolutionary history. One possible interpretation is that these periods of substitutional enrichment are coincident with oxidative stress exerted by the rise of oxygenic photosynthesis in the Precambrian era. Our interpretation implies that the periods of Rubisco substitutional enrichment inferred near the transition from anaerobic Form III to aerobic Form I ancestral sequences predate the acquisition of Rubisco by fully derived cyanobacterial (i.e., dual photosystem-bearing, oxygen-evolving) clades. The partitioning of extant lineages at high clade levels within our Rubisco phylogeny indicates that horizontal transfer of Rubisco is a relatively infrequent event. Therefore, it is possible that the mutational enrichment periods between the Form III and Form I common ancestral sequences correspond to the

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of endophytic leaf fungus isolates from the medicinal tree Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Rhoden, S A; Garcia, A; Rubin Filho, C J; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2012-08-16

    Various types of organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria, live within vegetal organs and tissues, without causing damage to the plant. These microorganisms, which are called endophytes, can be useful for biological control and plant growth promotion; bioactive compounds from these organisms may have medical and pharmaceutical applications. Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae) is a native tree that grows abundantly in several regions of Brazil. Preparations using the leaves, seeds, bark, and roots of many species of the Meliaceae family have been widely used in traditional medicine, and some members of the Trichilia genus are used in Brazilian popular medicine. We assessed the diversity of endophytic fungi from two wild specimens of T. elegans, collected from a forest remnant, by sequencing ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of rDNA of the isolates. The fungi were isolated and purified; 97 endophytic fungi were found; they were separated into 17 morpho-groups. Of the 97 endophytic fungi, four genera (Phomopsis, Diaporthe, Dothideomycete, and Cordyceps) with 11 morpho-groups were identified. Phomopsis was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis showed two major clades: Sordariomycetes, which includes three genera, Phomopsis, Diaporthe, and Cordyceps, and the clade Dothideomycetes, which was represented by the order Pleosporales.

  11. PhyD3: a phylogenetic tree viewer with extended phyloXML support for functional genomics data visualization.

    PubMed

    Kreft, Lukasz; Botzki, Alexander; Coppens, Frederik; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Bel, Michiel

    2017-09-15

    Comparative and evolutionary studies utilize phylogenetic trees to analyze and visualize biological data. Recently, several web-based tools for the display, manipulation and annotation of phylogenetic trees, such as iTOL and Evolview, have released updates to be compatible with the latest web technologies. While those web tools operate an open server access model with a multitude of registered users, a feature-rich open source solution using current web technologies is not available. Here, we present an extension of the widely used PhyloXML standard with several new options to accommodate functional genomics or annotation datasets for advanced visualization. Furthermore, PhyD3 has been developed as a lightweight tool using the JavaScript library D3.js to achieve a state-of-the-art phylogenetic tree visualization in the web browser, with support for advanced annotations. The current implementation is open source, easily adaptable and easy to implement in third parties' web sites. More information about PhyD3 itself, installation procedures and implementation links are available at http://phyd3.bits.vib.be and at http://github.com/vibbits/phyd3/ . klaas.vandepoele@ugent.vib.be or michiel.vanbel@ugent.vib.be. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Family structure and phylogenetic analysis of odorant receptor genes in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemosensory receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), come in four types: odorant receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors, trace-amine associated receptors and formyl peptide receptor-like proteins. The ORs are the most important receptors for detecting a wide range of environmental chemicals in daily life. Most fish OR genes have been identified from genome databases following the completion of the genome sequencing projects of many fishes. However, it remains unclear whether these OR genes from the genome databases are actually expressed in the fish olfactory epithelium. Thus, it is necessary to clone the OR mRNAs directly from the olfactory epithelium and to examine their expression status. Results Eighty-nine full-length and 22 partial OR cDNA sequences were isolated from the olfactory epithelium of the large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis classified the vertebrate OR genes into two types, with several clades within each type, and showed that the L. crocea OR genes of each type are more closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback than they are to those of medaka, zebrafish and frog. The reconciled tree showed 178 duplications and 129 losses. The evolutionary relationships among OR genes in these fishes accords with their evolutionary history. The fish OR genes have experienced functional divergence, and the different clades of OR genes have evolved different functions. The result of real-time PCR shows that different clades of ORs have distinct expression levels. Conclusion We have shown about 100 OR genes to be expressed in the olfactory epithelial tissues of L. crocea. The OR genes of modern fishes duplicated from their common ancestor, and were expanded over evolutionary time. The OR genes of L. crocea are closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback, which is consistent with its evolutionary position. The different expression levels of OR genes of large

  13. Quantification and functional analysis of modular protein evolution in a dense phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew D; Grath, Sonja; Schüler, Andreas; Huylmans, Ann K; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2013-05-01

    Modularity is a hallmark of molecular evolution. Whether considering gene regulation, the components of metabolic pathways or signaling cascades, the ability to reuse autonomous modules in different molecular contexts can expedite evolutionary innovation. Similarly, protein domains are the modules of proteins, and modular domain rearrangements can create diversity with seemingly few operations in turn allowing for swift changes to an organism's functional repertoire. Here, we assess the patterns and functional effects of modular rearrangements at high resolution. Using a well resolved and diverse group of pancrustaceans, we illustrate arrangement diversity within closely related organisms, estimate arrangement turnover frequency and establish, for the first time, branch-specific rate estimates for fusion, fission, domain addition and terminal loss. Our results show that roughly 16 new arrangements arise per million years and that between 64% and 81% of these can be explained by simple, single-step modular rearrangement events. We find evidence that the frequencies of fission and terminal deletion events increase over time, and that modular rearrangements impact all levels of the cellular signaling apparatus and thus may have strong adaptive potential. Novel arrangements that cannot be explained by simple modular rearrangements contain a significant amount of repeat domains that occur in complex patterns which we term "supra-repeats". Furthermore, these arrangements are significantly longer than those with a single-step rearrangement solution, suggesting that such arrangements may result from multi-step events. In summary, our analysis provides an integrated view and initial quantification of the patterns and functional impact of modular protein evolution in a well resolved phylogenetic tree. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The emerging dynamic view of proteins: Protein plasticity in allostery, evolution and self-assembly.

  14. Testing robustness of relative complexity measure method constructing robust phylogenetic trees for Galanthus L. Using the relative complexity measure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most phylogeny analysis methods based on molecular sequences use multiple alignment where the quality of the alignment, which is dependent on the alignment parameters, determines the accuracy of the resulting trees. Different parameter combinations chosen for the multiple alignment may result in different phylogenies. A new non-alignment based approach, Relative Complexity Measure (RCM), has been introduced to tackle this problem and proven to work in fungi and mitochondrial DNA. Result In this work, we present an application of the RCM method to reconstruct robust phylogenetic trees using sequence data for genus Galanthus obtained from different regions in Turkey. Phylogenies have been analyzed using nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Results showed that, the tree obtained from nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequences was more robust, while the tree obtained from the chloroplast DNA showed a higher degree of variation. Conclusions Phylogenies generated by Relative Complexity Measure were found to be robust and results of RCM were more reliable than the compared techniques. Particularly, to overcome MSA-based problems, RCM seems to be a reasonable way and a good alternative to MSA-based phylogenetic analysis. We believe our method will become a mainstream phylogeny construction method especially for the highly variable sequence families where the accuracy of the MSA heavily depends on the alignment parameters. PMID:23323678

  15. Preliminary experimentation in mechanically planting large seeded tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, T.W.; Graves, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    Present methods of reforestation are very limiting to the mining industry in its attempts to reclaim large areas to commercially important tree species. A possible solution to some of the limitations would be the use of a mechanical planter that can plant and fertilize tree seed on steep mine slopes. This paper is a report on the preliminary work being done in the development of such a planter. A commercially available planter is being modified for this purpose and initial success is encouraging further development.

  16. Selection of Orthologous Genes for Construction of a Highly Resolved Phylogenetic Tree and Clarification of the Phylogeny of Trichosporonales Species

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Masako; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Iwasaki, Wataru; Ohyama, Akira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The order Trichosporonales (Tremellomycotina, Basidiomycota) includes various species that have clinical, agricultural and biotechnological value. Thus, understanding why and how evolutionary diversification occurred within this order is extremely important. This study clarified the phylogenetic relationships among Tricosporonales species. To select genes suitable for phylogenetic analysis, we determined the draft genomes of 17 Trichosporonales species and extracted 30 protein-coding DNA sequences (CDSs) from genomic data. The CDS regions of Trichosporon asahii and T. faecale were identified by referring to mRNA sequence data since the intron positions of the respective genes differed from those of Cryptococcus neoformans (outgroup) and are not conserved within this order. A multiple alignment of the respective gene was first constructed using the CDSs of T. asahii, T. faecale and C. neoformans, and those of other species were added and aligned based on codons. The phylogenetic trees were constructed based on each gene and a concatenated alignment. Resolution of the maximum-likelihood trees estimated from the concatenated dataset based on both nucleotide (72,531) and amino acid (24,173) sequences were greater than in previous reports. In addition, we found that several genes, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase TOR1 and glutamate synthase (NADH), had good resolution in this group (even when used alone). Our study proposes a set of genes suitable for constructing a phylogenetic tree with high resolution to examine evolutionary diversification in Trichosporonales. These can also be used for epidemiological and biogeographical studies, and may also serve as the basis for a comprehensive reclassification of pleomorphic fungi. PMID:26241762

  17. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years...

  18. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) gene family in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Liu, Wen-Jing; Xiao, Ji; Xia, Hou-Jun; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Feng; He, Bao-Li; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-12-10

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. The phylogenetics of KLFs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. Here, we identified 17 KLFs from Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). KLF proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. The CtBP binding site, Sin3A binding site and nuclear localization signals are largely conserved between tree shrews and human beings. Tupaia belangeri (Tb) KLF5 contains several conserved post-transcriptional modification motifs. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of multiple tbKLFs are tissue-specific . TbKLF5, like hKLF5, significantly promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide insight for future studies regarding the structure and function of the tbKLF gene family.

  19. Large-scale inference of gene function through phylogenetic annotation of Gene Ontology terms: case study of the apoptosis and autophagy cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Feuermann, Marc; Gaudet, Pascale; Mi, Huaiyu; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Thomas, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a paradigm for large-scale phylogenomic analysis of gene families that takes advantage of the large corpus of experimentally supported Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. This ‘GO Phylogenetic Annotation’ approach integrates GO annotations from evolutionarily related genes across ∼100 different organisms in the context of a gene family tree, in which curators build an explicit model of the evolution of gene functions. GO Phylogenetic Annotation models the gain and loss of functions in a gene family tree, which is used to infer the functions of uncharacterized (or incompletely characterized) gene products, even for human proteins that are relatively well studied. Here, we report our results from applying this paradigm to two well-characterized cellular processes, apoptosis and autophagy. This revealed several important observations with respect to GO annotations and how they can be used for function inference. Notably, we applied only a small fraction of the experimentally supported GO annotations to infer function in other family members. The majority of other annotations describe indirect effects, phenotypes or results from high throughput experiments. In addition, we show here how feedback from phylogenetic annotation leads to significant improvements in the PANTHER trees, the GO annotations and GO itself. Thus GO phylogenetic annotation both increases the quantity and improves the accuracy of the GO annotations provided to the research community. We expect these phylogenetically based annotations to be of broad use in gene enrichment analysis as well as other applications of GO annotations. Database URL: http://amigo.geneontology.org/amigo PMID:28025345

  20. Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other

  1. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article "Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum" [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information." [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8) with the Pfam database, "Pfam: the protein families database" [4].

  2. A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): a dated 1000-tip tree

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Solanaceae is a plant family of great economic importance. Despite a wealth of phylogenetic work on individual clades and a deep knowledge of particular cultivated species such as tomato and potato, a robust evolutionary framework with a dated molecular phylogeny for the family is still lacking. Here we investigate molecular divergence times for Solanaceae using a densely-sampled species-level phylogeny. We also review the fossil record of the family to derive robust calibration points, and estimate a chronogram using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock. Results Our densely-sampled phylogeny shows strong support for all previously identified clades of Solanaceae and strongly supported relationships between the major clades, particularly within Solanum. The Tomato clade is shown to be sister to section Petota, and the Regmandra clade is the first branching member of the Potato clade. The minimum age estimates for major splits within the family provided here correspond well with results from previous studies, indicating splits between tomato & potato around 8 Million years ago (Ma) with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) 7–10 Ma, Solanum & Capsicum c. 19 Ma (95% HPD 17–21), and Solanum & Nicotiana c. 24 Ma (95% HPD 23–26). Conclusions Our large time-calibrated phylogeny provides a significant step towards completing a fully sampled species-level phylogeny for Solanaceae, and provides age estimates for the whole family. The chronogram now includes 40% of known species and all but two monotypic genera, and is one of the best sampled angiosperm family phylogenies both in terms of taxon sampling and resolution published thus far. The increased resolution in the chronogram combined with the large increase in species sampling will provide much needed data for the examination of many biological questions using Solanaceae as a model system. PMID:24283922

  3. Measuring Cluster Stability in a Large Scale Phylogenetic Analysis of Functional Genes in Metagenomes Using pplacer.

    PubMed

    Land, Tyler A; Fizzano, Perry; Kodner, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of metagenomic sequence data requires a multi-stage workflow. The results of each intermediate step possess an inherent uncertainty and potentially impact the as-yet-unmeasured statistical significance of downstream analyses. Here, we describe our phylogenetic analysis pipeline which uses the pplacer program to place many shotgun sequences corresponding to a single functional gene onto a fixed phylogenetic tree. We then use the squash clustering method to compare multiple samples with respect to that gene. We approximate the statistical significance of each gene's clustering result by measuring its cluster stability, the consistency of that clustering result when the probabilistic placements made by pplacer are systematically reassigned and then clustered again, as measured by the adjusted Rand Index. We find that among the genes investigated, the majority of analyses are stable, based on the average adjusted Rand Index. We investigated properties of each gene that may explain less stable results. These genes tended to have less convex reference trees, less total reads recruited to the gene, and a greater Expected Distance between Placement Locations as given by pplacer when examined in aggregate. However, for an individual functional gene, these measures alone do not predict cluster stability.

  4. A multi-neighbor-joining approach for phylogenetic tree reconstruction and visualization.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Estela A da; Villanueva, Wilfredo J P; Knidel, Helder; Bonato, Viniacute Cius; Reis, Sérgio F dos; Von Zuben, Fernando J

    2005-09-30

    The computationally challenging problem of reconstructing the phylogeny of a set of contemporary data, such as DNA sequences or morphological attributes, was treated by an extended version of the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm. The original NJ algorithm provides a single-tree topology, after a cascade of greedy pairing decisions that tries to simultaneously optimize the minimum evolution and the least squares criteria. Given that some sub-trees are more stable than others, and that the minimum evolution tree may not be achieved by the original NJ algorithm, we propose a multi-neighbor-joining (MNJ) algorithm capable of performing multiple pairing decisions at each level of the tree reconstruction, keeping various partial solutions along the recursive execution of the NJ algorithm. The main advantages of the new reconstruction procedure are: 1) as is the case for the original NJ algorithm, the MNJ algorithm is still a low-cost reconstruction method; 2) a further investigation of the alternative topologies may reveal stable and unstable sub-trees; 3) the chance of achieving the minimum evolution tree is greater; 4) tree topologies with very similar performances will be simultaneously presented at the output. When there are multiple unrooted tree topologies to be compared, a visualization tool is also proposed, using a radial layout to uniformly distribute the branches with the help of well-known metaheuristics used in computer science.

  5. TreeCmp: Comparison of Trees in Polynomial Time

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Borys

    2012-01-01

    When a phylogenetic reconstruction does not result in one tree but in several, tree metrics permit finding out how far the reconstructed trees are from one another. They also permit to assess the accuracy of a reconstruction if a true tree is known. TreeCmp implements eight metrics that can be calculated in polynomial time for arbitrary (not only bifurcating) trees: four for unrooted (Matching Split metric, which we have recently proposed, Robinson-Foulds, Path Difference, Quartet) and four for rooted trees (Matching Cluster, Robinson-Foulds cluster, Nodal Splitted and Triple). TreeCmp is the first implementation of Matching Split/Cluster metrics and the first efficient and convenient implementation of Nodal Splitted. It allows to compare relatively large trees. We provide an example of the application of TreeCmp to compare the accuracy of ten approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction with trees up to 5000 external nodes, using a measure of accuracy based on normalized similarity between trees.

  6. Lack of premating isolation at the base of a phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Grant, B Rosemary; Grant, Peter R

    2002-07-01

    Darwin's finches in the Galápagos archipelago are an unusual example of adaptive radiation in that the basal split separates two lineages of warbler finches (Certhidea olivacea and Certhidea fusca) believed until recently to be only one species. The large genetic difference between them contrasts with their similarity in plumage, size, shape, and courtship behavior. They differ in song, which is a key factor in premating isolation of other sympatric Darwin's finches. We conducted playback experiments to see whether members of the population of C. olivacea on Santa Cruz Island would respond to songs of C. fusca from two islands, Genovesa and Pinta, and songs of C. olivacea from another island (Isabela). Another set of experiments was performed, using the same playback tapes, with C. fusca on Genovesa. Some members of both populations responded to all playbacks; therefore, the hypothesis of complete premating isolation on the basis of song is rejected. Discrimination between songs of the two lineages was inconsistent. We conclude that premating barriers to interbreeding among the tested populations have not arisen in the 1.5-2.0 m.yr. of their geographical isolation on different islands. This contrasts with strong premating barriers between more recently derived sympatric species. Early learning of song associated with morphology is later used in mate recognition. This explains why sympatric species that are vocally and morphologically distinct yet genetically less differentiated than Certhidea do not interbreed, whereas the Certhidea lineages that are genetically well differentiated but vocally and morphologically similar have no apparent premating barrier. We discuss this unusual situation in terms of the forces that have produced similarities and differences in song, morphology, and ecology and their relevance to phylogenetic and biological species concepts. Neither principles nor details are unique to Darwin's finches, and we conclude by pointing out strong

  7. Analysis of full-length genomes of porcine teschovirus (PTV) and the effect of purifying selection on phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Villanova, Fabiola; Cui, Shangjin; Ai, Xia; Leal, Élcio

    2016-05-01

    To study the outcome of natural selection using phylogenetic trees, we analyzed full-length genome sequences of porcine teschovirus (PTV). PTV belongs to the family Picornaviridae and has a positive-stranded RNA genome, the replication of which is carried out by the error-prone viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The viral RNA encodes a single polyprotein that is cleaved into structural (i.e., L, VP4, VP2, VP3 and VP1) and nonstructural proteins (i.e., 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, and 3C). A high degree of genetic diversity was found based on the pairwise nucleotide distances and on the mean ratio of the number of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitutions (dN/dS) in the structural genes. Conversely, the diversity of the nonstructural genes was lower. The differences in genetic diversity between the structural and nonstructural genomic regions were likely due to strong purifying selection; consequently, the estimates of phylogenies were also discordant among these genes. In particular, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods generated short-branched trees when loci that are under strong purifying selection were used. These findings indicate that even in an RNA virus with an intrinsically high mutation rate, a strong purifying selection will curb genetic diversity and should be considered an important source of bias in future studies based on phylogenetic methods.

  8. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-11-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. PMID:26527652

  10. Very fast algorithms for evaluating the stability of ML and Bayesian phylogenetic trees from sequence data.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Peter J; Kishino, Hirohisa; Ota, Rissa

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary trees sit at the core of all realistic models describing a set of related sequences, including alignment, homology search, ancestral protein reconstruction and 2D/3D structural change. It is important to assess the stochastic error when estimating a tree, including models using the most realistic likelihood-based optimizations, yet computation times may be many days or weeks. If so, the bootstrap is computationally prohibitive. Here we show that the extremely fast "resampling of estimated log likelihoods" or RELL method behaves well under more general circumstances than previously examined. RELL approximates the bootstrap (BP) proportions of trees better that some bootstrap methods that rely on fast heuristics to search the tree space. The BIC approximation of the Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) of trees is made more accurate by including an additional term related to the determinant of the information matrix (which may also be obtained as a product of gradient or score vectors). Such estimates are shown to be very close to MCMC chain values. Our analysis of mammalian mitochondrial amino acid sequences suggest that when model breakdown occurs, as it typically does for sequences separated by more than a few million years, the BPP values are far too peaked and the real fluctuations in the likelihood of the data are many times larger than expected. Accordingly, several ways to incorporate the bootstrap and other types of direct resampling with MCMC procedures are outlined. Genes evolve by a process which involves some sites following a tree close to, but not identical with, the species tree. It is seen that under such a likelihood model BP (bootstrap proportions) and BPP estimates may still be reasonable estimates of the species tree. Since many of the methods studied are very fast computationally, there is no reason to ignore stochastic error even with the slowest ML or likelihood based methods.

  11. A Method to Quantify Plant Availability and Initiating Event Frequency Using a Large Event Tree, Small Fault Tree Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, Ernest J.; Sun, Alice; Rodgers, Shawn; Popova, ElmiraV; Nelson, Paul; Moiseytseva, Vera; Wang, Eric

    2006-07-01

    South Texas Project uses a large fault tree to produce scenarios (minimal cut sets) used in quantification of plant availability and event frequency predictions. On the other hand, the South Texas Project probabilistic risk assessment model uses a large event tree, small fault tree for quantifying core damage and radioactive release frequency predictions. The South Texas Project is converting its availability and event frequency model to use a large event tree, small fault in an effort to streamline application support and to provide additional detail in results. The availability and event frequency model as well as the applications it supports (maintenance and operational risk management, system engineering health assessment, preventive maintenance optimization, and RIAM) are briefly described. A methodology to perform availability modeling in a large event tree, small fault tree framework is described in detail. How the methodology can be used to support South Texas Project maintenance and operations risk management is described in detail. Differences with other fault tree methods and other recently proposed methods are discussed in detail. While the methods described are novel to the South Texas Project Risk Management program and to large event tree, small fault tree models, concepts in the area of application support and availability modeling have wider applicability to the industry. (authors)

  12. A Method to Study Response of Large Trees to Different Amounts of Available Soil Water

    Treesearch

    Donald H. Marx; Shi-jean S. Sung; James S. Cunningham; Michael D. Thompson; Linda M. White

    1995-01-01

    A method was developed to manipulate available soil water on large trees by intercepting thrufall with gutters placed under tree canopies and irrigating the intercepted thrufall onto other trees. With this design, trees were exposed for 2 years to either 25 percent less thrufall, normal tbrufall,or 25 percent additional thrufall. Undercanopy construction in these plots...

  13. A method to study response of large trees to different amounts of available soil water

    Treesearch

    D.H. Marx; Shi-Jean S. Sung; J.S. Cunningham; M.D. Thompson; L.M. White

    1995-01-01

    A method was developed to manipulate available soil water on large trees by intercepting thrufall with gutters placed under tree canopies and irrigating the intercepted thrufall onto other trees. With this design, trees were exposed for 2 years to either 25% less thrufall, normal thrufall, or 25% additional thrufall.Undercanopy construction in these plots moderately...

  14. EvoDB: a database of evolutionary rate profiles, associated protein domains and phylogenetic trees for PFAM-A.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Andrew; Durand, Pierre M; Hazelhurst, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary rate at codon sites across protein-coding nucleotide sequences represents a valuable tier of information for aligning sequences, inferring homology and constructing phylogenetic profiles. However, a comprehensive resource for cataloguing the evolutionary rate at codon sites and their corresponding nucleotide and protein domain sequence alignments has not been developed. To address this gap in knowledge, EvoDB (an Evolutionary rates DataBase) was compiled. Nucleotide sequences and their corresponding protein domain data including the associated seed alignments from the PFAM-A (protein family) database were used to estimate evolutionary rate (ω = dN/dS) profiles at codon sites for each entry. EvoDB contains 98.83% of the gapped nucleotide sequence alignments and 97.1% of the evolutionary rate profiles for the corresponding information in PFAM-A. As the identification of codon sites under positive selection and their position in a sequence profile is usually the most sought after information for molecular evolutionary biologists, evolutionary rate profiles were determined under the M2a model using the CODEML algorithm in the PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood) suite of software. Validation of nucleotide sequences against amino acid data was implemented to ensure high data quality. EvoDB is a catalogue of the evolutionary rate profiles and provides the corresponding phylogenetic trees, PFAM-A alignments and annotated accession identifier data. In addition, the database can be explored and queried using known evolutionary rate profiles to identify domains under similar evolutionary constraints and pressures. EvoDB is a resource for evolutionary, phylogenetic studies and presents a tier of information untapped by current databases.

  15. EvoDB: a database of evolutionary rate profiles, associated protein domains and phylogenetic trees for PFAM-A

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Andrew; Durand, Pierre M.; Hazelhurst, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary rate at codon sites across protein-coding nucleotide sequences represents a valuable tier of information for aligning sequences, inferring homology and constructing phylogenetic profiles. However, a comprehensive resource for cataloguing the evolutionary rate at codon sites and their corresponding nucleotide and protein domain sequence alignments has not been developed. To address this gap in knowledge, EvoDB (an Evolutionary rates DataBase) was compiled. Nucleotide sequences and their corresponding protein domain data including the associated seed alignments from the PFAM-A (protein family) database were used to estimate evolutionary rate (ω = dN/dS) profiles at codon sites for each entry. EvoDB contains 98.83% of the gapped nucleotide sequence alignments and 97.1% of the evolutionary rate profiles for the corresponding information in PFAM-A. As the identification of codon sites under positive selection and their position in a sequence profile is usually the most sought after information for molecular evolutionary biologists, evolutionary rate profiles were determined under the M2a model using the CODEML algorithm in the PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood) suite of software. Validation of nucleotide sequences against amino acid data was implemented to ensure high data quality. EvoDB is a catalogue of the evolutionary rate profiles and provides the corresponding phylogenetic trees, PFAM-A alignments and annotated accession identifier data. In addition, the database can be explored and queried using known evolutionary rate profiles to identify domains under similar evolutionary constraints and pressures. EvoDB is a resource for evolutionary, phylogenetic studies and presents a tier of information untapped by current databases. Database URL: http://www.bioinf.wits.ac.za/software/fire/evodb PMID:26140928

  16. Application of unweighted pair group methods with arithmetic average (UPGMA) for identification of kinship types and spreading of ebola virus through establishment of phylogenetic tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, Tri; Irawan, Mohammad Isa

    2017-08-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a disease caused by a virus of the genus Ebolavirus (EBOV), family Filoviridae. Ebola virus is classifed into five types, namely Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV), Tai Forest ebolavirus also known as Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV), and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV). Identification of kinship types of Ebola virus can be performed using phylogenetic trees. In this study, the phylogenetic tree constructed by UPGMA method in which there are Multiple Alignment using Progressive Method. The results concluded that the phylogenetic tree formation kinship ebola virus types that kind of Tai Forest ebolavirus close to Bundibugyo ebolavirus but the layout state ebola epidemic spread far apart. The genetic distance for this type of Bundibugyo ebolavirus with Tai Forest ebolavirus is 0.3725. Type Tai Forest ebolavirus similar to Bundibugyo ebolavirus not inuenced by the proximity of the area ebola epidemic spread.

  17. Mapping trees in high resolution imagery across large areas using locally variable thresholds guided by medium resolution tree maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Adrian; Danaher, Tim; Gill, Tony

    2017-06-01

    Large area tree maps, important for environmental monitoring and natural resource management, are often based on medium resolution satellite imagery. These data have difficulty in detecting trees in fragmented woodlands, and have significant omission errors in modified agricultural areas. High resolution imagery can better detect these trees, however, as most high resolution imagery is not normalised it is difficult to automate a tree classification method over large areas. The method developed here used an existing medium resolution map derived from either Landsat or SPOT5 satellite imagery to guide the classification of the high resolution imagery. It selected a spatially-variable threshold on the green band, calculated based on the spatially-variable percentage of trees in the existing map of tree cover. The green band proved more consistent at classifying trees across different images than several common band combinations. The method was tested on 0.5 m resolution imagery from airborne digital sensor (ADS) imagery across New South Wales (NSW), Australia using both Landsat and SPOT5 derived tree maps to guide the threshold selection. Accuracy was assessed across 6 large image mosaics revealing a more accurate result when the more accurate tree map from SPOT5 imagery was used. The resulting maps achieved an overall accuracy with 95% confidence intervals of 93% (90-95%), while the overall accuracy of the previous SPOT5 tree map was 87% (86-89%). The method reduced omission errors by mapping more scattered trees, although it did increase commission errors caused by dark pixels from water, building shadows, topographic shadows, and some soils and crops. The method allows trees to be automatically mapped at 5 m resolution from high resolution imagery, provided a medium resolution tree map already exists.

  18. Biological pattern and transcriptomic exploration and phylogenetic analysis in the odd floral architecture tree: Helwingia willd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Odd traits in few of plant species usually implicate potential biology significances in plant evolutions. The genus Helwingia Willd, a dioecious medical shrub in Aquifoliales order, has an odd floral architecture-epiphyllous inflorescence. The potential significances and possible evolutionary origin of this specie are not well understood due to poorly available data of biological and genetic studies. In addition, the advent of genomics-based technologies has widely revolutionized plant species with unknown genomic information. Results Morphological and biological pattern were detailed via anatomical and pollination analyses. An RNA sequencing based transcriptomic analysis were undertaken and a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on single-copy genes in more than 80 species of seed plants, including H. japonica. It is verified that a potential fusion of rachis to the leaf midvein facilitates insect pollination. RNA sequencing yielded a total of 111450 unigenes; half of them had significant similarity with proteins in the public database, and 20281 unigenes were mapped to 119 pathways. Deduced from the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy genes, the group of Helwingia is closer with Euasterids II and rather than Euasterids, congruent with previous reports using plastid sequences. Conclusions The odd flower architecture make H. Willd adapt to insect pollination by hosting those insects larger than the flower in size via leave, which has little common character that other insect pollination plants hold. Further the present transcriptome greatly riches genomics information of Helwingia species and nucleus genes based phylogenetic analysis also greatly improve the resolution and robustness of phylogenetic reconstruction in H. japonica. PMID:24969969

  19. The ecology of the phyllosphere: geographic and phylogenetic variability in the distribution of bacteria on tree leaves

    PubMed Central

    Redford, Amanda J.; Bowers, Robert M.; Knight, Rob; Linhart, Yan; Fierer, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Summary Large populations of bacteria live on leaf surfaces and these phyllosphere bacteria can have important effects on plant health. However, we currently have a limited understanding of bacterial diversity on tree leaves and the inter- and intra-specific variability in phyllosphere community structure. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique to characterize the bacterial communities from leaves of 56 tree species in Boulder, Colorado, USA, quantifying the intra- and inter-individual variability in the bacterial communities from 10 of these species. We also examined the geographic variability in phyllosphere communities on Pinus ponderosa from several locations across the globe. Individual tree species harboured high levels of bacterial diversity and there was considerable variability in community composition between trees. The bacterial communities were organized in patterns predictable from the relatedness of the trees as there was significant correspondence between tree phylogeny and bacterial community phylogeny. Inter-specific variability in bacterial community composition exceeded intra-specific variability, a pattern that held even across continents where we observed minimal geographic differentiation in the bacterial communities on P. ponderosa needles. PMID:20545741

  20. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The ‘tree lobsters’ are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the ‘tree lobster’ body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22 Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  1. An Efficient Independence Sampler for Updating Branches in Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo Sampling of Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Aberer, Andre J; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Sampling tree space is the most challenging aspect of Bayesian phylogenetic inference. The sheer number of alternative topologies is problematic by itself. In addition, the complex dependency between branch lengths and topology increases the difficulty of moving efficiently among topologies. Current tree proposals are fast but sample new trees using primitive transformations or re-mappings of old branch lengths. This reduces acceptance rates and presumably slows down convergence and mixing. Here, we explore branch proposals that do not rely on old branch lengths but instead are based on approximations of the conditional posterior. Using a diverse set of empirical data sets, we show that most conditional branch posteriors can be accurately approximated via a [Formula: see text] distribution. We empirically determine the relationship between the logarithmic conditional posterior density, its derivatives, and the characteristics of the branch posterior. We use these relationships to derive an independence sampler for proposing branches with an acceptance ratio of ~90% on most data sets. This proposal samples branches between 2× and 3× more efficiently than traditional proposals with respect to the effective sample size per unit of runtime. We also compare the performance of standard topology proposals with hybrid proposals that use the new independence sampler to update those branches that are most affected by the topological change. Our results show that hybrid proposals can sometimes noticeably decrease the number of generations necessary for topological convergence. Inconsistent performance gains indicate that branch updates are not the limiting factor in improving topological convergence for the currently employed set of proposals. However, our independence sampler might be essential for the construction of novel tree proposals that apply more radical topology changes.

  2. [Phylogeny of genus Spermophilus and position of Alashan ground squirrel (Spermophilus alashanicus, Buchner, 1888) on phylogenetic tree of Paleartic short-tailed ground squirrels].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, S Yu; Brandler, O V; Adiya, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within a group of Paleartic short tailed ground squirrels (Spermophilus), recently defined as genus, are not sufficiently clear and need a critical revision. Interspecies hybridization, found in Eurasian Spermophilus, can affect the results of reconstruction of molecular phylogeny. Alashan ground squirrel position on the phylogenetic tree needs clarification. We analyzed eight nucleotide sequences of cytb gene of S. alashanicus and 127 sequences of other Spermophilus species form GenBank. S.alashanicus and S. dauricus close phylogenetic relationship, and their affinity to ancestral forms of the group are revealed. Monophyly of Colobotis subgenus was confirmed. Paraphyly of eastern and western forms of S. relictus was shown.

  3. The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisburg, W. G.; Giovannoni, S. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred.

  4. The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisburg, W. G.; Giovannoni, S. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred.

  5. PHYLOViZ Online: web-based tool for visualization, phylogenetic inference, analysis and sharing of minimum spanning trees

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Francisco, Alexandre P.; Vaz, Cátia; Ramirez, Mário; Carriço, João André

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods generated allele and single nucleotide polymorphism information for thousands of bacterial strains that are publicly available in online repositories and created the possibility of generating similar information for hundreds to thousands of strains more in a single study. Minimum spanning tree analysis of allelic data offers a scalable and reproducible methodological alternative to traditional phylogenetic inference approaches, useful in epidemiological investigations and population studies of bacterial pathogens. PHYLOViZ Online was developed to allow users to do these analyses without software installation and to enable easy accessing and sharing of data and analyses results from any Internet enabled computer. PHYLOViZ Online also offers a RESTful API for programmatic access to data and algorithms, allowing it to be seamlessly integrated into any third party web service or software. PHYLOViZ Online is freely available at https://online.phyloviz.net. PMID:27131357

  6. The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction.

    PubMed

    Weisburg, W G; Giovannoni, S J; Woese, C R

    1989-01-01

    Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred.

  7. Recent diversification rates in North American tiger beetles estimated from a dated mtDNA phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Timothy G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2002-10-01

    Species-level phylogenies derived from DNA sequence data provide a tool for estimating diversification rates and how these rates change over time, but to date there have been few empirical studies, particularly on insect groups. We use a densely sampled phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial DNA to investigate diversification rates in the North American tiger beetles (genus Cicindela). Using node ages estimated from sequence data and calibrated by biogeographical evidence, we estimate an average per-lineage diversification rate of at least 0.22 +/- 0.08 species/Myr over the time interval since the most recent colonization that led to a radiation within the continent. In addition, we find evidence for a weak, recent increase in the net diversification rate. This is more consistent with a late Pleistocene increase in the speciation rate than with a constant rate of background extinction, but the results are sensitive to the dating method and taxon sampling. We discuss practical limitations to phylogenetic studies of diversification rates.

  8. Early positive effects of tree species richness on herbivory in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment influence tree growth.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Andreas; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Ma, Keping; von Oheimb, Goddert; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-05-01

    Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical China that features random and non-random extinction scenarios of tree mixtures numbering between one and 24 species. In contrast to random species loss, the non-random extinction scenarios were based on the tree species' local rarity and specific leaf area - traits that may strongly influence the way herbivory is affected by plant species richness. Herbivory increased with tree species richness across all scenarios and was unaffected by the different species compositions in the random and non-random extinction scenarios. Whereas tree growth rates were positively related to herbivory on plots with smaller trees, growth rates significantly declined with increasing herbivory on plots with larger trees. Our results suggest that the effects of herbivory on growth rates increase from monocultures to the most species-rich plant communities and that negative effects with increasing tree species richness become more pronounced with time as trees grow larger. Synthesis. Our results indicate that key trophic interactions can be quick to become established in forest plantations (i.e. already 2.5 years after tree planting). Stronger herbivory effects on tree growth with increasing tree species richness suggest a potentially important role of herbivory in regulating ecosystem functions and the structural development of species-rich forests from the very start of secondary forest succession. The lack of significant differences between the extinction scenarios, however, contrasts with findings from natural forests of higher successional age, where rarity had negative effects on herbivory. This indicates that the

  9. Early positive effects of tree species richness on herbivory in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment influence tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Andreas; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Ma, Keping; von Oheimb, Goddert; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical China that features random and non-random extinction scenarios of tree mixtures numbering between one and 24 species. In contrast to random species loss, the non-random extinction scenarios were based on the tree species’ local rarity and specific leaf area – traits that may strongly influence the way herbivory is affected by plant species richness. Herbivory increased with tree species richness across all scenarios and was unaffected by the different species compositions in the random and non-random extinction scenarios. Whereas tree growth rates were positively related to herbivory on plots with smaller trees, growth rates significantly declined with increasing herbivory on plots with larger trees. Our results suggest that the effects of herbivory on growth rates increase from monocultures to the most species-rich plant communities and that negative effects with increasing tree species richness become more pronounced with time as trees grow larger. Synthesis. Our results indicate that key trophic interactions can be quick to become established in forest plantations (i.e. already 2.5 years after tree planting). Stronger herbivory effects on tree growth with increasing tree species richness suggest a potentially important role of herbivory in regulating ecosystem functions and the structural development of species-rich forests from the very start of secondary forest succession. The lack of significant differences between the extinction scenarios, however, contrasts with findings from natural forests of higher successional age, where rarity had negative effects on herbivory. This indicates that

  10. Interacting Factors Driving a Major Loss of Large Trees with Cavities in a Forest Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Laurance, William F.; Stein, John A. R.; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia – forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006–2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57–100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide. PMID:23071486

  11. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  12. Interim Report on Multiple Sequence Alignments and TaqMan Signature Mapping to Phylogenetic Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S; Jaing, C

    2012-03-27

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, addressing a significant capability gap for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the Taqman signature development for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  13. Sampling strategies for improving tree accuracy and phylogenetic analyses: a case study in ciliate protists, with notes on the genus Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela; Hu, Xiaozhong; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2014-02-01

    In order to assess how dataset-selection for multi-gene analyses affects the accuracy of inferred phylogenetic trees in ciliates, we chose five genes and the genus Paramecium, one of the most widely used model protist genera, and compared tree topologies of the single- and multi-gene analyses. Our empirical study shows that: (1) Using multiple genes improves phylogenetic accuracy, even when their one-gene topologies are in conflict with each other. (2) The impact of missing data on phylogenetic accuracy is ambiguous: resolution power and topological similarity, but not number of represented taxa, are the most important criteria of a dataset for inclusion in concatenated analyses. (3) As an example, we tested the three classification models of the genus Paramecium with a multi-gene based approach, and only the monophyly of the subgenus Paramecium is supported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frugivore loss limits recruitment of large-seeded trees

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, Debra M.; Kelly, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Although global declines in frugivores may disrupt seed dispersal mutualisms and inhibit plant recruitment, quantifying the likely reduction in plant regeneration has been difficult and rarely attempted. We use a manipulative factorial experiment to quantify dependence of recruitment on dispersal (i.e. fruit pulp removal and movement of seed away from parental area) in two large-seeded New Zealand tree species. Complete dispersal failure would cause a 66 to 81 per cent reduction in recruitment to the 2-year-old seedling stage, and synergistic interactions with introduced mammalian seed and seedling predators increase the reduction to 92 to 94 per cent. Dispersal failure reduced regeneration through effects on seed predation, germination and (especially) seedling survival, including distance- and density-dependent (Janzen–Connell) effects. Dispersal of both species is currently largely dependent on a single frugivore, and many fruits today remain uneaten. Present-day levels of frugivore loss and mammal seed and seedling predators result in 57 to 84 per cent fewer seedlings after 2 years. Our study demonstrates the importance of seed dispersal for local plant population persistence, and validates concerns about the community consequences of frugivore declines. PMID:21450732

  15. Three Phylogenetic Groups of nodA and nifH Genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium Isolates from Leguminous Trees Growing in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Haukka, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Young, J. Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels. PMID:9464375

  16. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships in Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Atlantic ocean using mtMutS and nad2 genes tree reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia-Alcyoniina and Anthomastus-Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  17. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    PubMed

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  18. Channel-dynamic control on the establishment of riparian trees after large floods in northwestern California

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1989-01-01

    Abstract - Large floods in northwestern California in the past two decades have mobilized extensive areas of valley floors, removed streamside trees, and widened channels. Channel cross sections were surveyed to illustrate an hypothesis on the linkage between sediment transport, colonization of channel margins by trees, and streambank recovery. Riparian trees, e.g.,...

  19. Channel-Dynamic Control on the Establishment of Riparian Trees After Large Floods in Northwestern California

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1989-01-01

    Large floods in northwestern California in the past two decades have mobilized extensive areas of valley floors, removed streamside trees, and widened channels. Channel cross sections were surveyed to illustrate an hypothesis on the linkage between sediment transport, colonization of channel margins by trees, and streambank recovery. Riparian trees, e.g., white alder...

  20. Molecular Phylogenetics and Systematics of the Bivalve Family Ostreidae Based on rRNA Sequence-Structure Models and Multilocus Species Tree

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassotreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics. PMID:25250663

  1. Molecular phylogenetics and systematics of the bivalve family Ostreidae based on rRNA sequence-structure models and multilocus species tree.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassostreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized [corrected]. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics.

  2. Twentieth-century decline of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Franklin, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa

  3. RidgeRace: ridge regression for continuous ancestral character estimation on phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Kratsch, Christina; McHardy, Alice C

    2014-09-01

    Ancestral character state reconstruction describes a set of techniques for estimating phenotypic or genetic features of species or related individuals that are the predecessors of those present today. Such reconstructions can reach into the distant past and can provide insights into the history of a population or a set of species when fossil data are not available, or they can be used to test evolutionary hypotheses, e.g. on the co-evolution of traits. Typical methods for ancestral character state reconstruction of continuous characters consider the phylogeny of the underlying data and estimate the ancestral process along the branches of the tree. They usually assume a Brownian motion model of character evolution or extensions thereof, requiring specific assumptions on the rate of phenotypic evolution. We suggest using ridge regression to infer rates for each branch of the tree and the ancestral values at each inner node. We performed extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of this method and have shown that the accuracy of its reconstructed ancestral values is competitive to reconstructions using other state-of-the-art software. Using a hierarchical clustering of gene mutation profiles from an ovarian cancer dataset, we demonstrate the use of the method as a feature selection tool. The algorithm described here is implemented in C++ as a stand-alone program, and the source code is freely available at http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/RidgeRace.tar.gz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Predicting MicroRNA Biomarkers for Cancer Using Phylogenetic Tree and Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are shown to be involved in the initiation and progression of cancers in the literature, and the expression of miRNAs is used as an important cancer prognostic tool. The aim of this study is to predict high-confidence miRNA biomarkers for cancer. We adopt a method that combines miRNA phylogenetic structure and miRNA microarray data analysis to discover high-confidence miRNA biomarkers for colon, prostate, pancreatic, lung, breast, bladder and kidney cancers. There are 53 miRNAs selected through this method that either have potential to involve a single cancer’s development or to involve several cancers’ development. These miRNAs can be used as high-confidence miRNA biomarkers of these seven investigated cancers for further experiment validation. miR-17, miR-20, miR-106a, miR-106b, miR-92, miR-25, miR-16, miR-195 and miR-143 are selected to involve a single cancer’s development in these seven cancers. They have the potential to be useful miRNA biomarkers when the result can be confirmed by experiments. PMID:27213352

  5. Temporal turnover in the composition of tropical tree communities: functional determinism and phylogenetic stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Stegen, James C; Davies, Stuart J; Erickson, David L; Forero-Montaña, Jimena; Hurlbert, Allen H; Kress, W John; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, María; Wright, S Joseph; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2012-03-01

    The degree to which turnover in biological communities is structured by deterministic or stochastic factors and the identities of influential deterministic factors are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions in ecology. Answers to these questions are particularly important for projecting the fate of forests with diverse disturbance histories worldwide. To uncover the processes governing turnover we use species-level molecular phylogenies and functional trait data sets for two long-term tropical forest plots with contrasting disturbance histories: one forest is older-growth, and one was recently disturbed. Having both phylogenetic and functional information further allows us to parse out the deterministic influences of different ecological filters. With the use of null models we find that compositional turnover was random with respect to phylogeny on average, but highly nonrandom with respect to measured functional traits. Furthermore, as predicted by a deterministic assembly process, the older-growth and disturbed forests were characterized by less than and greater than expected functional turnover, respectively. These results suggest that the abiotic environment, which changes due to succession in the disturbed forest, strongly governs the temporal dynamics of disturbed and undisturbed tropical forests. Predicting future changes in the composition of disturbed and undisturbed forests may therefore be tractable when using a functional-trait-based approach.

  6. The Forest behind the Tree: Phylogenetic Exploration of a Dominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain Lineage from a High Tuberculosis Burden Country

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Oelemann, Maranibia; Gomes, Harrison M.; Willery, Eve; Possuelo, Lia; Batista Lima, Karla Valéria; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Locht, Camille; Goguet de la Salmonière, Yves-Olivier L.; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Suffys, Philip; Supply, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is a powerful tool for epidemiological control of tuberculosis (TB) and phylogenetic exploration of the pathogen. Standardized PCR-based typing, based on 15 to 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci combined with spoligotyping, has been shown to have adequate resolution power for tracing TB transmission and to be useful for predicting diverse strain lineages in European settings. Its informative value needs to be tested in high TB-burden countries, where the use of genotyping is often complicated by dominance of geographically specific, genetically homogeneous strain lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested this genotyping system for molecular epidemiological analysis of 369 M. tuberculosis isolates from 3 regions of Brazil, a high TB-burden country. Deligotyping, targeting 43 large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs), and the MIRU-VNTRplus identification database were used to assess phylogenetic predictions. High congruence between the different typing results consistently revealed the countrywide supremacy of the Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, comprised of three main branches. In addition to an already known RDRio branch, at least one other branch characterized by a phylogenetically informative LAM3 spoligo-signature seems to be globally distributed beyond Brazil. Nevertheless, by distinguishing 321 genotypes in this strain population, combined MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping demonstrated the presence of multiple distinct clones. The use of 15 to 24 loci discriminated 21 to 25% more strains within the LAM lineage, compared to a restricted lineage-specific locus set suggested to be used after SNP analysis. Noteworthy, 23 of the 28 molecular clusters identified were exclusively composed of patient isolates from a same region, consistent with expected patterns of mostly local TB transmission. Conclusions/Significance Standard MIRU

  7. Streamlining and Large Ancestral Genomes in Archaea Inferred with a Phylogenetic Birth-and-Death Model

    PubMed Central

    Miklós, István

    2009-01-01

    Homologous genes originate from a common ancestor through vertical inheritance, duplication, or horizontal gene transfer. Entire homolog families spawned by a single ancestral gene can be identified across multiple genomes based on protein sequence similarity. The sequences, however, do not always reveal conclusively the history of large families. To study the evolution of complete gene repertoires, we propose here a mathematical framework that does not rely on resolved gene family histories. We show that so-called phylogenetic profiles, formed by family sizes across multiple genomes, are sufficient to infer principal evolutionary trends. The main novelty in our approach is an efficient algorithm to compute the likelihood of a phylogenetic profile in a model of birth-and-death processes acting on a phylogeny. We examine known gene families in 28 archaeal genomes using a probabilistic model that involves lineage- and family-specific components of gene acquisition, duplication, and loss. The model enables us to consider all possible histories when inferring statistics about archaeal evolution. According to our reconstruction, most lineages are characterized by a net loss of gene families. Major increases in gene repertoire have occurred only a few times. Our reconstruction underlines the importance of persistent streamlining processes in shaping genome composition in Archaea. It also suggests that early archaeal genomes were as complex as typical modern ones, and even show signs, in the case of the methanogenic ancestor, of an extremely large gene repertoire. PMID:19570746

  8. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Silla-Martínez, José M.; Gabaldón, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Multiple sequence alignments are central to many areas of bioinformatics. It has been shown that the removal of poorly aligned regions from an alignment increases the quality of subsequent analyses. Such an alignment trimming phase is complicated in large-scale phylogenetic analyses that deal with thousands of alignments. Here, we present trimAl, a tool for automated alignment trimming, which is especially suited for large-scale phylogenetic analyses. trimAl can consider several parameters, alone or in multiple combinations, for selecting the most reliable positions in the alignment. These include the proportion of sequences with a gap, the level of amino acid similarity and, if several alignments for the same set of sequences are provided, the level of consistency across different alignments. Moreover, trimAl can automatically select the parameters to be used in each specific alignment so that the signal-to-noise ratio is optimized. Availability: trimAl has been written in C++, it is portable to all platforms. trimAl is freely available for download (http://trimal.cgenomics.org) and can be used online through the Phylemon web server (http://phylemon2.bioinfo.cipf.es/). Supplementary Material is available at http://trimal.cgenomics.org/publications. Contact: tgabaldon@crg.es PMID:19505945

  9. Faster growth in warmer winters for large trees in a Mediterranean-climate ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Seth W. Bigelow; Michael J. Papaik; Caroline Caum; Malcolm P. North

    2014-01-01

    Large trees (>76 cm breast-height diameter) are vital components of Sierra Nevada/Cascades mixed-conifer ecosystems because of their fire resistance, ability to sequester large amounts of carbon, and role as preferred habitat for sensitive species such as the California spotted owl. To investigate the likely performance of large trees in a rapidly changing...

  10. Shrines in Central Italy conserve plant diversity and large trees.

    PubMed

    Frascaroli, Fabrizio; Bhagwat, Shonil; Guarino, Riccardo; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Sacred natural sites (SNS) are instances of biocultural landscapes protected for spiritual motives. These sites frequently host important biological values in areas of Asia and Africa, where traditional resource management is still upheld by local communities. In contrast, the biodiversity value of SNS has hardly been quantitatively tested in Western contexts, where customs and traditions have relatively lost importance due to modernization and secularization. To assess whether SNS in Western contexts retain value for biodiversity, we studied plant species composition at 30 SNS in Central Italy and compared them with a paired set of similar but not sacred reference sites. We demonstrate that SNS are important for conserving stands of large trees and habitat heterogeneity across different land-cover types. Further, SNS harbor higher plant species richness and a more valuable plant species pool, and significantly contribute to diversity at the landscape scale. We suggest that these patterns are related not only to pre-existent features, but also to traditional management. Conservation of SNS should take into account these specificities, and their cultural as well as biological values, by supporting the continuation of traditional management practices.

  11. SUNPLIN: Simulation with Uncertainty for Phylogenetic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative analyses usually rely on a single consensus phylogenetic tree in order to study evolutionary processes. However, most phylogenetic trees are incomplete with regard to species sampling, which may critically compromise analyses. Some approaches have been proposed to integrate non-molecular phylogenetic information into incomplete molecular phylogenies. An expanded tree approach consists of adding missing species to random locations within their clade. The information contained in the topology of the resulting expanded trees can be captured by the pairwise phylogenetic distance between species and stored in a matrix for further statistical analysis. Thus, the random expansion and processing of multiple phylogenetic trees can be used to estimate the phylogenetic uncertainty through a simulation procedure. Because of the computational burden required, unless this procedure is efficiently implemented, the analyses are of limited applicability. Results In this paper, we present efficient algorithms and implementations for randomly expanding and processing phylogenetic trees so that simulations involved in comparative phylogenetic analysis with uncertainty can be conducted in a reasonable time. We propose algorithms for both randomly expanding trees and calculating distance matrices. We made available the source code, which was written in the C++ language. The code may be used as a standalone program or as a shared object in the R system. The software can also be used as a web service through the link: http://purl.oclc.org/NET/sunplin/. Conclusion We compare our implementations to similar solutions and show that significant performance gains can be obtained. Our results open up the possibility of accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty in evolutionary and ecological analyses of large datasets. PMID:24229408

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome from South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and its impact in Siluriformes phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.

  13. Sampling strategies for species trees: the effects on phylogenetic inference of the number of genes, number of individuals, and whether loci are mitochondrial, sex-linked, or autosomal.

    PubMed

    Corl, Ammon; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Systematists can now use multi-locus data to construct species trees that take into account the stochastic nature of gene tree divergence among populations. There is a need to evaluate the new methods for species tree reconstruction in order to determine what kinds of loci to use and the most effective sampling schemes in terms of numbers of genes and numbers of individuals per species. Here we study sampling strategies with an empirical data set for six shorebird species in which we sequenced 1 mitochondrial, 12 autosomal, and 12 Z-linked loci for >8 individuals/species. We found that sampling greater numbers of genes resulted in substantial improvements to the resolution of the species tree, but sampling greater numbers of individuals had minor effects. We found that Z-linked loci significantly outperformed autosomal loci at all levels of sampling, which likely resulted from the lower effective population size of the Z-linked loci. Therefore, sex-linked loci are likely to be a powerful tool for multi-locus phylogenetic studies. We found that adding a mitochondrial gene to a set of Z-linked or autosomal loci substantially improved the resolution of the tree. Overall, our results help evaluate how best to maximize phylogenetic resolution while minimizing the costs of sequencing and computation when performing species tree analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-11-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  15. Ecological Importance of Large-Diameter Trees in a Temperate Mixed-Conifer Forest

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, James A.; Larson, Andrew J.; Swanson, Mark E.; Freund, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m2. We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances <10 m. Competition alone was insufficient to explain the spatial patterns of large-diameter trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by a

  16. Ecological importance of large-diameter trees in a temperate mixed-conifer forest.

    PubMed

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Swanson, Mark E; Freund, James A

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m(2). We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances <10 m. Competition alone was insufficient to explain the spatial patterns of large-diameter trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by

  17. Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from the chiton Liolophura japonica and a phylogenetic tree for molluscan globins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Furukohri, T; Okamoto, S

    1993-02-01

    Myoglobin was isolated from the radular muscle of the chiton Liolophura japonica, a primitive archigastropodic mollusc. Liolophura contains three monomeric myoglobins (I, II, and III), and the complete amino acid sequence of myoglobin I has been determined. It is composed of 145 amino acid residues, and the molecular mass was calculated to be 16,070 D. The E7 distal histidine, which is replaced by valine or glutamine in several molluscan globins, is conserved in Liolophura myoglobin. The autoxidation rate at physiological conditions indicated that Liolophura oxymyoglobin is fairly stable when compared with other molluscan myoglobins. The amino acid sequence of Liolophura myoglobin shows low homology (11-21%) with molluscan dimeric myoglobins and hemoglobins, but shows higher homology (26-29%) with monomeric myoglobins from the gastropodic molluscs Aplysia, Dolabella, and Bursatella. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from 19 molluscan globin sequences. The tree separated them into two distinct clusters, a cluster for muscle myoglobins and a cluster for erythrocyte or gill hemoglobins. The myoglobin cluster is divided further into two subclusters, corresponding to monomeric and dimeric myoglobins, respectively. Liolophura myoglobin was placed on the branch of monomeric myoglobin lineage, showing that it diverged earlier from other monomeric myoglobins. The hemoglobin cluster is also divided into two subclusters. One cluster contains homodimeric, heterodimeric, tetrameric, and didomain chains of erythrocyte hemoglobins of the blood clams Anadara, Scapharca, and Barbatia. Of special interest is the other subcluster. It consists of three hemoglobin chains derived from the bacterial symbiontharboring clams Calyptogena and Lucina, in which hemoglobins are supposed to play an important role in maintaining the symbiosis with sulfide bacteria.

  18. Impacts of savanna trees on forage quality for a large African herbivore

    PubMed Central

    De Kroon, Hans; Prins, Herbert H. T.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, cover of large trees in African savannas has rapidly declined due to elephant pressure, frequent fires and charcoal production. The reduction in large trees could have consequences for large herbivores through a change in forage quality. In Tarangire National Park, in Northern Tanzania, we studied the impact of large savanna trees on forage quality for wildebeest by collecting samples of dominant grass species in open grassland and under and around large Acacia tortilis trees. Grasses growing under trees had a much higher forage quality than grasses from the open field indicated by a more favourable leaf/stem ratio and higher protein and lower fibre concentrations. Analysing the grass leaf data with a linear programming model indicated that large savanna trees could be essential for the survival of wildebeest, the dominant herbivore in Tarangire. Due to the high fibre content and low nutrient and protein concentrations of grasses from the open field, maximum fibre intake is reached before nutrient requirements are satisfied. All requirements can only be satisfied by combining forage from open grassland with either forage from under or around tree canopies. Forage quality was also higher around dead trees than in the open field. So forage quality does not reduce immediately after trees die which explains why negative effects of reduced tree numbers probably go initially unnoticed. In conclusion our results suggest that continued destruction of large trees could affect future numbers of large herbivores in African savannas and better protection of large trees is probably necessary to sustain high animal densities in these ecosystems. PMID:18309522

  19. Phylogenetic assessment of introns and SINEs within the Y chromosome using the cat family felidae as a species tree.

    PubMed

    Pecon-Slattery, J; Pearks Wilkerson, A J; Murphy, W J; O'Brien, S J

    2004-12-01

    The cat family Felidae was used as a species tree to assess the phylogenetic performance of genes, and their embedded SINE elements, within the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY). Genomic segments from single-copy X-Y homologs SMCY, UBE1Y, and ZFY (3,604 bp) were amplified in 36 species of cat. These genes are located within the X-degenerate region of the NRY and are thought to be molecular "fossils" that ceased conventional recombination with the X chromosome early within the placental mammal evolution. The pattern and tempo of evolution at these three genes is significant in light of the recent, rapid evolution of the family over approximately 12 Myr and provides exceptional support for each of the eight recognized felid lineages, as well as clear diagnostic substitutions identifying nearly all species. Bootstrap support and Bayesian posterior probabilities are uniformly high for defining each of the eight monophyletic lineages. Further, the preferential use of specific target-site motifs facilitating SINE insertion is empirically supported by sequence analyses of SINEs embedded within the three genes. Target-site insertion is thought to explain the contradiction between intron phylogeny and results of the SMCY SINE phylogeny that unites distantly related species. Overall, our data suggest X-degenerate genes within the NRY are singularly powerful markers and offer a valuable patrilineal perspective in species evolution.

  20. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianjun; Song, Xuxia; Li, Xuebo; Wong, Kah Keng; Li, Jiaoyang; Zhang, Fengcong; Wang, Changyun; Wang, Zhenguo

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources.

  1. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuxia; Li, Xuebo; Zhang, Fengcong; Wang, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources. PMID:28191021

  2. Comparing species tree estimation with large anchored phylogenomic and small Sanger-sequenced molecular datasets: an empirical study on Malagasy pseudoxyrhophiine snakes.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Sara; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Burbrink, Frank T

    2015-10-12

    Using molecular data generated by high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms to infer phylogeny is becoming common as costs go down and the ability to capture loci from across the genome goes up. While there is a general consensus that greater numbers of independent loci should result in more robust phylogenetic estimates, few studies have compared phylogenies resulting from smaller datasets for commonly used genetic markers with the large datasets captured using NGS. Here, we determine how a 5-locus Sanger dataset compares with a 377-locus anchored genomics dataset for understanding the evolutionary history of the pseudoxyrhophiine snake radiation centered in Madagascar. The Pseudoxyrhophiinae comprise ~86 % of Madagascar's serpent diversity, yet they are poorly known with respect to ecology, behavior, and systematics. Using the 377-locus NGS dataset and the summary statistics species-tree methods STAR and MP-EST, we estimated a well-supported species tree that provides new insights concerning intergeneric relationships for the pseudoxyrhophiines. We also compared how these and other methods performed with respect to estimating tree topology using datasets with varying numbers of loci. Using Sanger sequencing and an anchored phylogenomics approach, we sequenced datasets comprised of 5 and 377 loci, respectively, for 23 pseudoxyrhophiine taxa. For each dataset, we estimated phylogenies using both gene-tree (concatenation) and species-tree (STAR, MP-EST) approaches. We determined the similarity of resulting tree topologies from the different datasets using Robinson-Foulds distances. In addition, we examined how subsets of these data performed compared to the complete Sanger and anchored datasets for phylogenetic accuracy using the same tree inference methodologies, as well as the program *BEAST to determine if a full coalescent model for species tree estimation could generate robust results with fewer loci compared to the summary statistics species

  3. Large carnivores make savanna tree communities less thorny.

    PubMed

    Ford, Adam T; Goheen, Jacob R; Otieno, Tobias O; Bidner, Laura; Isbell, Lynne A; Palmer, Todd M; Ward, David; Woodroffe, Rosie; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-10-17

    Understanding how predation risk and plant defenses interactively shape plant distributions is a core challenge in ecology. By combining global positioning system telemetry of an abundant antelope (impala) and its main predators (leopards and wild dogs) with a series of manipulative field experiments, we showed that herbivores' risk-avoidance behavior and plants' antiherbivore defenses interact to determine tree distributions in an African savanna. Well-defended thorny Acacia trees (A. etbaica) were abundant in low-risk areas where impala aggregated but rare in high-risk areas that impala avoided. In contrast, poorly defended trees (A. brevispica) were more abundant in high- than in low-risk areas. Our results suggest that plants can persist in landscapes characterized by intense herbivory, either by defending themselves or by thriving in risky areas where carnivores hunt.

  4. Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy.

    PubMed

    Blicharska, Malgorzata; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing key ecological functions, large old trees are a part of a social realm and as such provide numerous social-cultural benefits to people. However, their social and cultural values are often neglected when designing conservation policies and management guidelines. We believe that awareness of large old trees as a part of human identity and cultural heritage is essential when addressing the issue of their decline worldwide. Large old trees provide humans with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historic values, as well as concrete tangible benefits, such as leaves, branches, or nuts. In many cultures particularly large trees are treated with reverence. Also, contemporary popular culture utilizes the image of trees as sentient beings and builds on the ancient myths that attribute great powers to large trees. Although the social and cultural role of large old trees is usually not taken into account in conservation, accounting for human-related values of these trees is an important part of conservation policy because it may strengthen conservation by highlighting the potential synergies in protecting ecological and social values. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Spherical Model on a Cayley Tree: Large Deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    We study the spherical model of a ferromagnet on a Cayley tree and show that in the case of empty boundary conditions a ferromagnetic phase transition takes place at the critical temperature T_c =6√{2}/5J, where J is the interaction strength. For any temperature the equilibrium magnetization, m_n, tends to zero in the thermodynamic limit, and the true order parameter is the renormalized magnetization r_n=n^{3/2}m_n, where n is the number of generations in the Cayley tree. Below T_c, the equilibrium values of the order parameter are given by ± ρ ^*, where ρ ^*=2π /(√{2-1)^2}√{1-T/T_c}. One more notable temperature in the model is the penetration temperature T_p=J/W_Cayley(3/2)( 1-1/√{2}( h/2J) ^2) . Below T_p the influence of homogeneous boundary field of magnitude h penetrates throughout the tree. The main new technical result of the paper is a complete set of orthonormal eigenvectors for the discrete Laplace operator on a Cayley tree.

  6. A highly conserved nuclear gene for low-level phylogenetics: elongation factor-1 alpha recovers morphology-based tree for heliothine moths.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Mitchell, A; Regier, J C; Mitter, C; Poole, R W; Friedlander, T P; Zhao, S

    1995-07-01

    Molecular systematists need increased access to nuclear genes. Highly conserved, low copy number protein-encoding nuclear genes have attractive features for phylogenetic inference but have heretofore been applied mostly to very ancient divergences. By virtue of their synonymous substitutions, such genes should contain a wealth of information about lower-level taxonomic relationships as well, with the advantage that amino acid conservatism makes both alignment and primer definition straightforward. We tested this postulate for the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene in the noctuid moth subfamily Heliothinae, which has probably diversified since the middle Tertiary. We sequenced 1,240 bp in 18 taxa representing heliothine groupings strongly supported by previous morphological and allozyme studies. The single most parsimonious gene tree and the neighbor-joining tree for all nucleotides show almost complete concordance with the morphological tree. Homoplasy and pairwise divergence levels are low, transition/transversion ratios are high, and phylogenetic information is spread evenly across gene regions. The EF-1 alpha gene and presumably other highly conserved genes hold much promise for phylogenetics of Tertiary age eukaryote groups.

  7. Genome-scale phylogenetic function annotation of large and diverse protein families.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Srouji, John R; Brenner, Steven E

    2011-11-01

    The Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships (SIFTER) framework uses a statistical graphical model that applies phylogenetic principles to automate precise protein function prediction. Here we present a revised approach (SIFTER version 2.0) that enables annotations on a genomic scale. SIFTER 2.0 produces equivalently precise predictions compared to the earlier version on a carefully studied family and on a collection of 100 protein families. We have added an approximation method to SIFTER 2.0 and show a 500-fold improvement in speed with minimal impact on prediction results in the functionally diverse sulfotransferase protein family. On the Nudix protein family, previously inaccessible to the SIFTER framework because of the 66 possible molecular functions, SIFTER achieved 47.4% accuracy on experimental data (where BLAST achieved 34.0%). Finally, we used SIFTER to annotate all of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins with experimental functional characterizations, based on annotations from proteins in 46 fungal genomes. SIFTER precisely predicted molecular function for 45.5% of the characterized proteins in this genome, as compared with four current function prediction methods that precisely predicted function for 62.6%, 30.6%, 6.0%, and 5.7% of these proteins. We use both precision-recall curves and ROC analyses to compare these genome-scale predictions across the different methods and to assess performance on different types of applications. SIFTER 2.0 is capable of predicting protein molecular function for large and functionally diverse protein families using an approximate statistical model, enabling phylogenetics-based protein function prediction for genome-wide analyses. The code for SIFTER and protein family data are available at http://sifter.berkeley.edu.

  8. Genome-scale phylogenetic function annotation of large and diverse protein families

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Srouji, John R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships (SIFTER) framework uses a statistical graphical model that applies phylogenetic principles to automate precise protein function prediction. Here we present a revised approach (SIFTER version 2.0) that enables annotations on a genomic scale. SIFTER 2.0 produces equivalently precise predictions compared to the earlier version on a carefully studied family and on a collection of 100 protein families. We have added an approximation method to SIFTER 2.0 and show a 500-fold improvement in speed with minimal impact on prediction results in the functionally diverse sulfotransferase protein family. On the Nudix protein family, previously inaccessible to the SIFTER framework because of the 66 possible molecular functions, SIFTER achieved 47.4% accuracy on experimental data (where BLAST achieved 34.0%). Finally, we used SIFTER to annotate all of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins with experimental functional characterizations, based on annotations from proteins in 46 fungal genomes. SIFTER precisely predicted molecular function for 45.5% of the characterized proteins in this genome, as compared with four current function prediction methods that precisely predicted function for 62.6%, 30.6%, 6.0%, and 5.7% of these proteins. We use both precision-recall curves and ROC analyses to compare these genome-scale predictions across the different methods and to assess performance on different types of applications. SIFTER 2.0 is capable of predicting protein molecular function for large and functionally diverse protein families using an approximate statistical model, enabling phylogenetics-based protein function prediction for genome-wide analyses. The code for SIFTER and protein family data are available at http://sifter.berkeley.edu. PMID:21784873

  9. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.

    PubMed

    Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Keesing, Felicia; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2010-03-01

    1. Savanna ecosystems are defined largely by tree-grass mixtures, and tree establishment is a key driver of community structure and ecosystem function in these systems. The factors controlling savanna tree establishment are understudied, but likely involve some combination of seed, microsite and predator/fire limitation. In African savannas, suppression and killing of adult trees by large mammals like elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, 1797) and giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) can maintain tree-grass co-dominance, although the impacts of even these conspicuous herbivores on tree establishment also are poorly understood. 2. We combined seed addition and predator exclusion experiments with a large-scale, long-term field manipulation of large herbivores to investigate the relative importance of seeds, microsites and predators in limiting establishment of a monodominant tree (Acacia drepanolobium Sjostedt) in a Kenyan savanna. 3. Both wild and domestic (i.e. cattle; Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758) large herbivores facilitated tree establishment by suppressing abundances of rodents, the most important seed and seedling predators. However, this indirect, positive effect of wild herbivores was negated by wild herbivores' suppression of seed production. Cattle did not have this direct, negative impact; rather, they further assisted tree establishment by reducing cover of understorey grasses. Thus, the impacts of both groups of large herbivores on tree establishment were largely routed through other taxa, with a negligible net effect of wild herbivores and a positive net effect of cattle on tree establishment. 4. The distinction between the (positive) net effect of cattle and (neutral) net effect of wild herbivores is due to the inclusion of browsers and mixed feeders within the assemblage of wild herbivores. Browsing by wild herbivores limited seed production, which reduced tree recruitment; grazing by cattle was more pronounced than that by wild

  10. System for the Analysis and Visualization of Large 3D Anatomical Trees

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kun-Chang; Ritman, Erik L.; Higgins, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Modern micro-CT and multi-detector helical CT scanners can produce high-resolution 3D digital images of various anatomical trees. The large size and complexity of these trees make it essentially impossible to define them interactively. Automatic approaches have been proposed for a few specific problems, but none of these approaches guarantee extracting geometrically accurate multi-generational tree structures. This paper proposes an interactive system for defining and visualizing large anatomical trees and for subsequent quantitative data mining. The system consists of a large number of tools for automatic image analysis, semi-automatic and interactive tree editing, and an assortment of visualization tools. Results are presented for a variety of 3D high-resolution images. PMID:17669390

  11. Planting seedlings in tree islands versus plantations as a large-scale tropical forest restoration strategy

    Treesearch

    K. D. Holl; R. A. Zahawi; R. J. Cole; R. Ostertag; S. Cordell

    2010-01-01

    Planting tree seedlings in small patches (islands) has been proposed as a method to facilitate forest recovery that is less expensive than planting large areas and better simulates the nucleation process of recovery. We planted seedlings of four tree species at 12 formerly agricultural sites in southern Costa Rica in two designs: plantation (entire 50 × 50 m area...

  12. LSHPlace: fast phylogenetic placement using locality-sensitive hashing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel G; Truszkowski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of phylogenetic placement, in which large numbers of sequences (often next-generation sequencing reads) are placed onto an existing phylogenetic tree. We adapt our recent work on phylogenetic tree inference, which uses ancestral sequence reconstruction and locality-sensitive hashing, to this domain. With these ideas, new sequences can be placed onto trees with high fidelity in strikingly fast runtimes. Our results are two orders of magnitude faster than existing programs for this domain, and show a modest accuracy tradeoff. Our results offer the possibility of analyzing many more reads in a next-generation sequencing project than is currently possible.

  13. Directional biases in phylogenetic structure quantification: a Mediterranean case study

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Roquet, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing effort to incorporate phylogenetic hypotheses to the study of community assembly processes. The incorporation of such evolutionary information has been eased by the emergence of specialized software for the automatic estimation of partially resolved supertrees based on published phylogenies. Despite this growing interest in the use of phylogenies in ecological research, very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential biases related to the use of partially resolved phylogenies and to branch length accuracy, and no work has examined how tree shape may affect inference of community phylogenetic metrics. In this study, using a large plant community and elevational dataset, we tested the influence of phylogenetic resolution and branch length information on the quantification of phylogenetic structure; and also explored the impact of tree shape (stemminess) on the loss of accuracy in phylogenetic structure quantification due to phylogenetic resolution. For this purpose, we used 9 sets of phylogenetic hypotheses of varying resolution and branch lengths to calculate three indices of phylogenetic structure: the mean phylogenetic distance (NRI), the mean nearest taxon distance (NTI) and phylogenetic diversity (stdPD) metrics. The NRI metric was the less sensitive to phylogenetic resolution, stdPD showed an intermediate sensitivity, and NTI was the most sensitive one; NRI was also less sensitive to branch length accuracy than NTI and stdPD, the degree of sensitivity being strongly dependent on the dating method and the sample size. Directional biases were generally towards type II errors. Interestingly, we detected that tree shape influenced the accuracy loss derived from the lack of phylogenetic resolution, particularly for NRI and stdPD. We conclude that well-resolved molecular phylogenies with accurate branch length information are needed to identify the underlying phylogenetic structure of communities, and also that

  14. Molecular phylogenetics before sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Mark A; Bernard, Guillaume; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2014-01-01

    From 1971 to 1985, Carl Woese and colleagues generated oligonucleotide catalogs of 16S/18S rRNAs from more than 400 organisms. Using these incomplete and imperfect data, Carl and his colleagues developed unprecedented insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the large RNA components of the translational apparatus. They recognized a third domain of life, revealed the phylogenetic backbone of bacteria (and its limitations), delineated taxa, and explored the tempo and mode of microbial evolution. For these discoveries to have stood the test of time, oligonucleotide catalogs must carry significant phylogenetic signal; they thus bear re-examination in view of the current interest in alignment-free phylogenetics based on k-mers. Here we consider the aims, successes, and limitations of this early phase of molecular phylogenetics. We computationally generate oligonucleotide sets (e-catalogs) from 16S/18S rRNA sequences, calculate pairwise distances between them based on D2 statistics, compute distance trees, and compare their performance against alignment-based and k-mer trees. Although the catalogs themselves were superseded by full-length sequences, this stage in the development of computational molecular biology remains instructive for us today. PMID:24572375

  15. Increased sampling of both genes and taxa improves resolution of phylogenetic relationships within Magnoliidae, a large and early-diverging clade of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Massoni, Julien; Forest, Félix; Sauquet, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Magnoliidae have been supported as a clade in the majority of large-scale molecular phylogenetic studies of angiosperms. This group consists of about 10,000 species assigned to 20 families and four orders, Canellales, Piperales, Laurales, and Magnoliales. Some relationships among the families are still largely debated. Here, we reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Magnoliidae as a whole, sampling 199 species (representing ca. 75% of genera) and 12 molecular markers from the three genomes (plastid atpB, matK, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, ndhF, rbcL; mitochondrial atp1, matR, mtSSU, mtLSU; nuclear 18s rDNA, 26S rDNA). Maximum likelihood, Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses yielded congruent trees, with good resolution and high support values for higher-level relationships. This study further confirms, with greater levels of support, two major clades in Magnoliidae: Canellales+Piperales and Laurales+Magnoliales. Relationships among the 20 families are, in general, well resolved and supported. Several previously ambiguous relationships are now well supported. For instance, the Aristolochiaceae s.l. (incl. Asaroideae, Aristolochioideae, and Lactoris) are monophyletic with high support when Hydnoraceae are excluded. The latter family was not included in most previous studies because of the lack of suitable plastid sequences, a consequence of the parasitic habit of its species. Here, we confirm that it belongs in Aristolochiaceae. Our analyses also provide moderate support for a sister group relationship between Lauraceae and Monimiaceae. Conversely, the exact position of Magnoliaceae remains very difficult to determine. This study provides a robust phylogenetic background to address the evolutionary history of an important and highly diverse clade of early-diverging angiosperms.

  16. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  17. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    DOE PAGES

    Young-Robertson, Jessica M.; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma S.; ...

    2016-07-12

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8–20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7–10.2% of the Yukonmore » River’s annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2–12% (0.4–2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10–30% (2.0–5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.« less

  18. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Young-Robertson, Jessica M.; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma S.; Cristobal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8–20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7–10.2% of the Yukon River’s annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2–12% (0.4–2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10–30% (2.0–5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  19. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Young-Robertson, Jessica M.; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma S.; Cristóbal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8–20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7–10.2% of the Yukon River’s annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2–12% (0.4–2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10–30% (2.0–5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds. PMID:27404274

  20. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young-Robertson, Jessica M.; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma S.; Cristóbal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8–20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7–10.2% of the Yukon River’s annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2–12% (0.4–2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10–30% (2.0–5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  1. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Jessica; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma; Cristobal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8–20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7–10.2% of the Yukon River’s annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2–12% (0.4–2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10–30% (2.0–5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  2. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Young-Robertson, Jessica M; Bolton, W Robert; Bhatt, Uma S; Cristóbal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21-25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8-20.9 billion m(3) of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7-10.2% of the Yukon River's annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2-12% (0.4-2.2 billion m(3)) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10-30% (2.0-5.2 billion m(3)) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1-15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3-3 billion m(3) of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships in the mushroom genus Coprinus and dark-spored allies based on sequence data from the nuclear gene coding for the large ribosomal subunit RNA: divergent domains, outgroups, and monophyly.

    PubMed

    Hopple, J S; Vilgalys, R

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were investigated in the mushroom genus Coprinus based on sequence data from the nuclear encoded large-subunit rDNA gene. Forty-seven species of Coprinus and 19 additional species from the families Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae, Bolbitiaceae, Agaricaceae, Podaxaceae, and Montagneaceae were studied. A total of 1360 sites was sequenced across seven divergent domains and intervening sequences. A total of 302 phylogenetically informative characters was found. Ninety-eight percent of the average divergence between taxa was located within the divergent domains, with domains D2 and D8 being most divergent and domains D7 and D10 the least divergent. An empirical test of phylogenetic signal among divergent domains also showed that domains D2 and D3 had the lowest levels of homoplasy. Two equally most parsimonious trees were resolved using Wagner parsimony. A character-state weighted analysis produced 12 equally most parsimonious trees similar to those generated by Wagner parsimony. Phylogenetic analyses employing topological constraints suggest that none of the major taxonomic systems proposed for subgeneric classification is able to completely reflect phylogenetic relationships in Coprinus. A strict consensus integration of the two Wagner trees demonstrates the problematic nature of choosing outgroups within dark-spored mushrooms. The genus Coprinus is found to be polyphyletic and is separated into three distinct clades. Most Coprinus taxa belong to the first two clades, which together form a larger monophyletic group with Lacrymaria and Psathyrella in basal positions. A third clade contains members of Coprinus section Comati as well as the genus Leucocoprinus, Podaxis pistillaris, Montagnea arenaria, and Agaricus pocillator. This third clade is separated from the other species of Coprinus by members of the families Strophariaceae and Bolbitiaceae and the genus Panaeolus.

  4. Malpighiales phylogenetics: Gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life.

    PubMed

    Wurdack, Kenneth J; Davis, Charles C

    2009-08-01

    The eudicot order Malpighiales contains ∼16000 species and is the most poorly resolved large rosid clade. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in the order, we used maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data from 13 gene regions, totaling 15604 bp, and representing all three genomic compartments (i.e., plastid: atpB, matK, ndhF, and rbcL; mitochondrial: ccmB, cob, matR, nad1B-C, nad6, and rps3; and nuclear: 18S rDNA, PHYC, and newly developed low-copy EMB2765). Our sampling of 190 taxa includes representatives from all families of Malpighiales. These data provide greatly increased support for the recent additions of Aneulophus, Bhesa, Centroplacus, Ploiarium, and Rafflesiaceae to Malpighiales; sister relations of Phyllanthaceae + Picrodendraceae, monophyly of Hypericaceae, and polyphyly of Clusiaceae. Oxalidales + Huaceae, followed by Celastrales are successive sisters to Malpighiales. Parasitic Rafflesiaceae, which produce the world's largest flowers, are confirmed as embedded within a paraphyletic Euphorbiaceae. Novel findings show a well-supported placement of Ctenolophonaceae with Erythroxylaceae + Rhizophoraceae, sister-group relationships of Bhesa + Centroplacus, and the exclusion of Medusandra from Malpighiales. New taxonomic circumscriptions include the addition of Bhesa to Centroplacaceae, Medusandra to Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Calophyllaceae applied to Clusiaceae subfamily Kielmeyeroideae, Peraceae applied to Euphorbiaceae subfamily Peroideae, and Huaceae included in Oxalidales.

  5. Using DNA barcoding and phylogenetics to identify Antarctic invertebrate larvae: Lessons from a large scale study.

    PubMed

    Heimeier, Dorothea; Lavery, Shane; Sewell, Mary A

    2010-01-01

    Ecological studies of the diversity and distribution of marine planktonic larvae are increasingly depending on molecular methods for accurate taxonomic identification. The greater coverage of reference marine species on genetic databases such as GenBank and BoLD (Barcoding of Life Data Systems; www.boldystems.org); together with the decreasing costs for DNA sequencing have made large scale larval identification studies using molecular methods more feasible. Here, we present the development and implementation of a practical molecular approach to identify over 2000 individual marine invertebrate larvae that were collected in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, during the austral summer over five years (2002-2007) as part of the LGP (Latitudinal Gradient Project). Larvae for molecular ID were morphologically identified to belong to the Phyla Mollusca, Echinodermata, Nemertea and Annelida (Class Polychaeta), but also included unidentified early developmental stages which could not be assigned a specific taxon (e.g., eggs, blastulae). The use of a 100μm mesh plankton net makes this one of the first larval identification studies to simultaneously consider both embryos and larvae. Molecular identification methods included amplification of up to three molecular loci for each specimen, a pre-identification step using BLAST with GenBank, phylogenetic reconstructions and cross-validation of assigned Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). This combined approach of morphological and molecular methods assigned about 700 individuals to 53 MOTUs, which were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. During the course of this long-term study we identified several procedural difficulties, including issues with the collection of larvae, locus amplification, contamination, assignment and validation of MOTUs. The practical guidelines that we describe here should greatly assist other researchers to conduct reliable molecular identification studies of larvae in the future

  6. Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Tohver, Ingrid Marisa; Ray, David; Moutinho, Paulo; Cardinot, Georgina

    2007-09-01

    Severe drought episodes such as those associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events influence large areas of tropical forest and may become more frequent in the future. One of the most important forest responses to severe drought is tree mortality, which alters forest structure, composition, carbon content, and flammability, and which varies widely. This study tests the hypothesis that tree mortality increases abruptly during drought episodes when plant-available soil water (PAW) declines below a critical minimum threshold. It also examines the effect of tree size, plant life form (palm, liana, tree) and potential canopy position (understory, midcanopy, overstory) on drought-induced plant mortality. A severe, four-year drought episode was simulated by excluding 60% of incoming throughfall during each wet season using plastic panels installed in the understory of a 1-ha forest treatment plot, while a 1-ha control plot received normal rainfall. After 3.2 years, the treatment resulted in a 38% increase in mortality rates across all stems >2 cm dbh. Mortality rates increased 4.5-fold among large trees (>30 cm dbh) and twofold among medium trees (10-30 cm dbh) in response to the treatment, whereas the smallest stems were less responsive. Recruitment rates did not compensate for the elevated mortality of larger-diameter stems in the treatment plot. Overall, lianas proved more susceptible to drought-induced mortality than trees or palms, and potential overstory tree species were more vulnerable than midcanopy and understory species. Large stems contributed to 90% of the pretreatment live aboveground biomass in both plots. Large-tree mortality resulting from the treatment generated 3.4 times more dead biomass than the control plot. The dramatic mortality response suggests significant, adverse impacts on the global carbon cycle if climatic changes follow current trends.

  7. Multiple resonance damping or how do trees escape dangerously large oscillations?

    PubMed

    Spatz, Hanns-Christof; Brüchert, Franka; Pfisterer, Jochen

    2007-10-01

    To further understand the mechanics of trees under dynamic loads, we recorded damped oscillations of a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) tree and of its stem without branches. Eigenfrequencies of the branches were calculated and compared to the oscillation frequency of the intact tree. The term eigenfrequency is used here to characterize the calculated resonance frequency of a branch fixed at the proximal end to a solid support. All large branches had nearly the same frequency as the tree. This property is a prerequisite for the distribution of mechanical energy between stem and branches and leads to an enhanced efficiency of damping. We propose that trees constitute systems of coupled oscillators tuned to allow optimal energy dissipation.

  8. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young-Robertson, J. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Bhatt, U. S.; Cristobal, J.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. We conducted a two year field study utilizing time domain reflectometry to measure tree water content in deciduous and coniferous trees in a watershed in Interior Alaska's boreal forest. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21-25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%. We found that deciduous trees removed 17.8-20.9 billion m3 of snowmelt water, which is equivalent to 8.7-10.2% of the Yukon River's annual discharge. Deciduous trees transpired 2-12% (0.4-2.2 billion m3) of the absorbed snowmelt water immediately after leaf-out, increasing favorable conditions for atmospheric convection, and an additional 10-30% (2.0-5.2 billion m3) between leaf-out and mid-summer. By 2100, boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1-15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3-3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  9. Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and Excavata.

    PubMed

    Moreira, David; von der Heyden, Sophie; Bass, David; López-García, Purificación; Chao, Ema; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Resolution of the phylogenetic relationships among the major eukaryotic groups is one of the most important problems in evolutionary biology that is still only partially solved. This task was initially addressed using a single marker, the small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), although in recent years it has been shown that it does not contain enough phylogenetic information to robustly resolve global eukaryotic phylogeny. This has prompted the use of multi-gene analyses, especially in the form of long concatenations of numerous conserved protein sequences. However, this approach is severely limited by the small number of taxa for which such a large number of protein sequences is available today. We have explored the alternative approach of using only two markers but a large taxonomic sampling, by analysing a combination of SSU and large-subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences. This strategy allows also the incorporation of sequences from non-cultivated protists, e.g., Radiozoa (=radiolaria minus Phaeodarea). We provide the first LSU rRNA sequences for Heliozoa, Apusozoa (both Apusomonadida and Ancyromonadida), Cercozoa and Radiozoa. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses for 91 eukaryotic combined SSU+LSU sequences yielded much stronger support than hitherto for the supergroup Rhizaria (Cercozoa plus Radiozoa plus Foraminifera) and several well-recognised groups and also for other problematic clades, such as the Retaria (Radiozoa plus Foraminifera) and, with more moderate support, the Excavata. Within opisthokonts, the combined tree strongly confirms that the filose amoebae Nuclearia are sisters to Fungi whereas other Choanozoa are sisters to animals. The position of some bikont taxa, notably Heliozoa and Apusozoa, remains unresolved. However, our combined trees suggest a more deeply diverging position for Ancyromonas, and perhaps also Apusomonas, than for other bikonts, suggesting that apusozoan zooflagellates may be central for understanding the early evolution of

  10. Tree Age Distributions Reveal Large-Scale Disturbance-Recovery Cycles in Three Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing realization that a large share of apparently ‘virgin’ or ‘old-growth’ tropical forests carries a legacy of past natural or anthropogenic disturbances that have a substantial effect on present-day forest composition, structure and dynamics. Yet, direct evidence of such disturbances is scarce and comparisons of disturbance dynamics across regions even more so. Here we present a tree-ring based reconstruction of disturbance histories from three tropical forest sites in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand. We studied temporal patterns in tree regeneration of shade-intolerant tree species, because establishment of these trees is indicative for canopy disturbance. In three large areas (140–300 ha), stem disks and increment cores were collected for a total of 1154 trees (>5 cm diameter) from 12 tree species to estimate the age of every tree. Using these age estimates we produced population age distributions, which were analyzed for evidence of past disturbance. Our approach allowed us to reconstruct patterns of tree establishment over a period of around 250 years. In Bolivia, we found continuous regeneration rates of three species and a peaked age distribution of a long-lived pioneer species. In both Cameroon and Thailand we found irregular age distributions, indicating strongly reduced regeneration rates over a period of 10–60 years. Past fires, windthrow events or anthropogenic disturbances all provide plausible explanations for the reported variation in tree age across the three sites. Our results support the recent idea that the long-term dynamics of tropical forests are impacted by large-scale disturbance-recovery cycles, similar to those driving temperate forest dynamics. PMID:28105034

  11. Tree Age Distributions Reveal Large-Scale Disturbance-Recovery Cycles in Three Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing realization that a large share of apparently 'virgin' or 'old-growth' tropical forests carries a legacy of past natural or anthropogenic disturbances that have a substantial effect on present-day forest composition, structure and dynamics. Yet, direct evidence of such disturbances is scarce and comparisons of disturbance dynamics across regions even more so. Here we present a tree-ring based reconstruction of disturbance histories from three tropical forest sites in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand. We studied temporal patterns in tree regeneration of shade-intolerant tree species, because establishment of these trees is indicative for canopy disturbance. In three large areas (140-300 ha), stem disks and increment cores were collected for a total of 1154 trees (>5 cm diameter) from 12 tree species to estimate the age of every tree. Using these age estimates we produced population age distributions, which were analyzed for evidence of past disturbance. Our approach allowed us to reconstruct patterns of tree establishment over a period of around 250 years. In Bolivia, we found continuous regeneration rates of three species and a peaked age distribution of a long-lived pioneer species. In both Cameroon and Thailand we found irregular age distributions, indicating strongly reduced regeneration rates over a period of 10-60 years. Past fires, windthrow events or anthropogenic disturbances all provide plausible explanations for the reported variation in tree age across the three sites. Our results support the recent idea that the long-term dynamics of tropical forests are impacted by large-scale disturbance-recovery cycles, similar to those driving temperate forest dynamics.

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of tung tree (Vernicia fordii): Organization and phylogenetic relationships with other angiosperms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an economically important plant widely cultivated for industrial oil production in China. To better understand the molecular basis of tung tree chloroplasts, we sequenced and characterized the complete chloroplast genome. The chloroplast genome was 161,524 bp in length...

  13. Growth habit of the late Paleozoic rhizomorphic tree-lycopsid family Diaphorodendraceae: phylogenetic, evolutionary, and paleoecological significance.

    PubMed

    Dimichele, William A; Elrick, Scott D; Bateman, Richard M

    2013-08-01

    Rhizomorphic lycopsids evolved the tree habit independently of all other land plants. Newly discovered specimens allow radical revision of our understanding of the growth architectures of the extinct Paleozoic sister-genera Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. Detailed descriptions of six remarkable adpression specimens from the Pennsylvanian of the USA and three casts from the late Mississippian of Scotland are used to revise and reanalyze a previously published morphological cladistic matrix and to reinterpret their remarkable growth forms. Contrary to previous assertions, Synchysidendron resembled Diaphorodendron in having a distinct and relatively complex growth habit that emphasized serially homologous, closely spaced, deciduous lateral branches at the expense of reduced monocarpic crown branches. Lateral branches originated through several strongly anisotomous dichotomies before producing during extended periods large numbers of Achlamydocarpon strobili. The comparatively large diameter of abscission scars remaining on the main trunk and the emergence of branches above the horizontal plane suggest that the lateral branch systems were robust. Lateral branches were borne in two opposite rows on the main trunk and continued upward into an isotomously branched, determinate crown; their striking distichous arrangement caused preferred orientation of fallen trunks on bedding planes. This discovery identifies the plagiotropic growth habit, dominated by serial lateral branches, as ubiquitous in the Diaphorodendraceae and also as unequivocally primitive within Isoetales s.l., a conclusion supported by both the revised morphological cladistic analysis and relative first appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Previously assumed complete homology between crown branching in Lepidodendraceae and that of all earlier-divergent genera requires reassessment. Saltational phenotypic transitions via modification of key developmental switches remains the most credible

  14. Large-Scale Wind Disturbances Promote Tree Diversity in a Central Amazon Forest

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m2) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583±46 trees ha−1) (mean±99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7±2.4 m2 ha−1). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha−1 and 14.9 m2 ha−1, respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition and species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m2) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind disturbances at the

  15. Large-scale wind disturbances promote tree diversity in a Central Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E; Ribeiro, Gabriel H P M; Dos Santos, Joaquim; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m(2)) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583 ± 46 trees ha(-1)) (mean ± 99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7 ± 2.4 m(2) ha(-1)). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha(-1) and 14.9 m(2) ha(-1), respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition and species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m(2)) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind

  16. The All-Species Living Tree project: a 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree of all sequenced type strains.

    PubMed

    Yarza, Pablo; Richter, Michael; Peplies, Jörg; Euzeby, Jean; Amann, Rudolf; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2008-09-01

    The signing authors together with the journal Systematic and Applied Microbiology (SAM) have started an ambitious project that has been conceived to provide a useful tool especially for the scientific microbial taxonomist community. The aim of what we have called "The All-Species Living Tree" is to reconstruct a single 16S rRNA tree harboring all sequenced type strains of the hitherto classified species of Archaea and Bacteria. This tree is to be regularly updated by adding the species with validly published names that appear monthly in the Validation and Notification lists of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. For this purpose, the SAM executive editors, together with the responsible teams of the ARB, SILVA, and LPSN projects (www.arb-home.de, www.arb-silva.de, and www.bacterio.cict.fr, respectively), have prepared a 16S rRNA database containing over 6700 sequences, each of which represents a single type strain of a classified species up to 31 December 2007. The selection of sequences had to be undertaken manually due to a high error rate in the names and information fields provided for the publicly deposited entries. In addition, from among the often occurring multiple entries for a single type strain, the best-quality sequence was selected for the project. The living tree database that SAM now provides contains corrected entries and the best-quality sequences with a manually checked alignment. The tree reconstruction has been performed by using the maximum likelihood algorithm RAxML. The tree provided in the first release is a result of the calculation of a single dataset containing 9975 single entries, 6728 corresponding to type strain gene sequences, as well as 3247 additional high-fquality sequences to give robustness to the reconstruction. Trees are dynamic structures that change on the basis of the quality and availability of the data used for their calculation. Therefore, the addition of new type strain sequences in

  17. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  18. Large variations in diurnal and seasonal patterns of sap flux among Aleppo pine trees in semi-arid forest reflect tree-scale hydraulic adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M.; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Adjustments and adaptations of trees to drought vary across different biomes, species and habitats, with important implications for tree mortality and forest dieback associated with global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between the patterns of variations in water flux dynamics and drought resistance in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees in a semi-arid stand (Yatir forest, Israel). We measured sap flow (SF) and variations in stem diameter, complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of water vapour and CO2 gas exchange, branch water potential and hydraulic conductivity, as well as eddy flux measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a permanent flux tower at the site. SF rates were well synchronized with ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees during the rainy season (Dec-Apr). However, during the dry season (May-Nov), the daily trend in the rates of SF greatly varied among trees, allowing classification into three tree classes: 1) trees with SF maximum rate constantly occurring in mid-day (12:00-13:00); 2)trees showing a shift to an early morning SF peak (04:00-06:00); and 3) trees shifting their daily SF peak to the evening (16:00-18:00). This classification did not change during the four years study period, between 2010 and 2014. Checking for correlation of tree parameters as DBH, tree height, crown size, and competition indices with rates of SF, indicated that timing of maximum SF in summer was mainly related to tree size (DBH), when large trees tended to have a later SF maximum. Dendrometer measurements indicated that large trees (high DBH) had maximum daily diameter in the morning during summer and winter, while small trees typically had maximum daily diameter during midday and afternoon in winter and summer, respectively. Leaf-scale transpiration (T) measurements showed typical morning peak in all trees, and another peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Different diurnal

  19. The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees to Forest Structural Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, James A.; Larson, Andrew J.; Freund, James A.; Swanson, Mark E.; Bible, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. However, their attendant contributions to forest heterogeneity are rarely addressed. We established the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot, a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all 30,973 woody stems ≥1 cm dbh, all 1,966 snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m2. Basal area of the 26 woody species was 62.18 m2/ha, of which 61.60 m2/ha was trees and 0.58 m2/ha was tall shrubs. Large-diameter trees (≥100 cm dbh) comprised 1.5% of stems, 31.8% of basal area, and 17.6% of the heterogeneity of basal area, with basal area dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Small-diameter subpopulations of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata, as well as all tree species combined, exhibited significant aggregation relative to the null model of complete spatial randomness (CSR) up to 9 m (P≤0.001). Patterns of large-diameter trees were either not different from CSR (Tsuga heterophylla), or exhibited slight aggregation (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata). Significant spatial repulsion between large-diameter and small-diameter Tsuga heterophylla suggests that large-diameter Tsuga heterophylla function as organizers of tree demography over decadal timescales through competitive interactions. Comparison among two forest dynamics plots suggests that forest structural diversity responds to intermediate-scale environmental heterogeneity and disturbances, similar to hypotheses about patterns of species richness, and richness- ecosystem function. Large mapped plots with detailed within-plot environmental spatial covariates will be required to test these hypotheses. PMID:24376579

  20. The importance of large-diameter trees to forest structural heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; Bible, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. However, their attendant contributions to forest heterogeneity are rarely addressed. We established the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot, a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all 30,973 woody stems ≥ 1 cm dbh, all 1,966 snags ≥ 10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥ 2 m(2). Basal area of the 26 woody species was 62.18 m(2)/ha, of which 61.60 m(2)/ha was trees and 0.58 m(2)/ha was tall shrubs. Large-diameter trees (≥ 100 cm dbh) comprised 1.5% of stems, 31.8% of basal area, and 17.6% of the heterogeneity of basal area, with basal area dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Small-diameter subpopulations of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata, as well as all tree species combined, exhibited significant aggregation relative to the null model of complete spatial randomness (CSR) up to 9 m (P ≤ 0.001). Patterns of large-diameter trees were either not different from CSR (Tsuga heterophylla), or exhibited slight aggregation (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata). Significant spatial repulsion between large-diameter and small-diameter Tsuga heterophylla suggests that large-diameter Tsuga heterophylla function as organizers of tree demography over decadal timescales through competitive interactions. Comparison among two forest dynamics plots suggests that forest structural diversity responds to intermediate-scale environmental heterogeneity and disturbances, similar to hypotheses about patterns of species richness, and richness- ecosystem function. Large mapped plots with detailed within-plot environmental spatial covariates will be required to test these hypotheses.

  1. Insect phylogenetics in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christopher H; Dmitriev, Dmitry A

    2016-12-01

    Insect systematists have long used digital data management tools to facilitate phylogenetic research. Web-based platforms developed over the past several years support creation of comprehensive, openly accessible data repositories and analytical tools that support large-scale collaboration, accelerating efforts to document Earth's biota and reconstruct the Tree of Life. New digital tools have the potential to further enhance insect phylogenetics by providing efficient workflows for capturing and analyzing phylogenetically relevant data. Recent initiatives streamline various steps in phylogenetic studies and provide community access to supercomputing resources. In the near future, automated, web-based systems will enable researchers to complete a phylogenetic study from start to finish using resources linked together within a single portal and incorporate results into a global synthesis.

  2. Striking pseudogenization in avian phylogenetics: Numts are large and common in falcons.

    PubMed

    Nacer, Deborah F; Raposo do Amaral, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes (numts) are a well-known feature of eukaryotic genomes and a concern in systematics, as they can mislead phylogenetic inferences when inadvertently used. Studies on avian numts initially based on the chicken genome suggest that numts may be uncommon and relatively short among birds. Here we ask how common numts are in falcons, based on recently sequenced genomes of the Saker falcon (Falco cherrug) and Peregrine falcon (F. peregrinus). We identified numts by BLASTN searches and then extracted CYTB, ND2 and COI sequences from them, which were then used for phylogeny inference along with several sequences from other species in Falconiformes. Our results indicate that avian numts may be much more frequent and longer than previously thought. Phylogenetic inferences revealed multiple independent nuclear insertions throughout the history of the Falconiformes, including cases of sequences available in public databases and wrongly identified as authentic mtDNA. New sequencing technologies and ongoing efforts for whole genome sequencing will provide exciting opportunities for avian numt research in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic Inferences Reveal a Large Extent of Novel Biodiversity in Chemically Rich Tropical Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekera, Sarath P.; Gerwick, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic marine cyanobacteria are known for their prolific biosynthetic capacities to produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites with biomedical application and their ability to form cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. In an effort to provide taxonomic clarity to better guide future natural product drug discovery investigations and harmful algal bloom monitoring, this study investigated the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical natural product-producing marine cyanobacteria on the basis of their evolutionary relatedness. Our phylogenetic inferences of marine cyanobacterial strains responsible for over 100 bioactive secondary metabolites revealed an uneven taxonomic distribution, with a few groups being responsible for the vast majority of these molecules. Our data also suggest a high degree of novel biodiversity among natural product-producing strains that was previously overlooked by traditional morphology-based taxonomic approaches. This unrecognized biodiversity is primarily due to a lack of proper classification systems since the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical, benthic marine cyanobacteria has only recently been analyzed by phylogenetic methods. This evolutionary study provides a framework for a more robust classification system to better understand the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical marine cyanobacteria and the distribution of natural products in marine cyanobacteria. PMID:23315747

  4. VIEW OF CRESCENTSHAPED ISLAND/MEDIAN WITH LARGE MONKEYPOD TREE AT SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CRESCENT-SHAPED ISLAND/MEDIAN WITH LARGE MONKEYPOD TREE AT SOUTHEAST “CORNER” OF BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Estimating snag and large tree densities and distributions on a landscape for wildlife management.

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Bate; Edward O. Garton; Michael J. Wisdom

    1999-01-01

    We provide efficient and accurate methods for sampling snags and large trees on a landscape to conduct compliance and effectiveness monitoring for wildlife in relation to the habitat standards and guidelines on National Forests. Included online are the necessary spreadsheets, macros, and instructions to conduct all surveys and analyses pertaining to estimation of snag...

  6. Restored connectivity facilitates recruitment by an endemic large-seeded tree in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Minor, Emily S; Howe, Henry F

    2016-09-01

    Many large-seeded Neotropical trees depend on a limited guild of animals for seed dispersal. Fragmented landscapes reduce animal abundance and movement, limiting seed dispersal between distant forest remnants. In 2006, experimental plantings were established in pasture to determine whether plantings enhance seed dispersal and, ultimately, seedling recruitment. We examined patterns of naturally recruited seedlings of Ocotea uxpanapana, a large-seeded bird-dispersed tree endemic to southern Mexico that occurs in the surrounding landscape. We used GIS and least-cost path analysis to ask: (1) Do restoration efforts alter recruitment patterns? (2) What is the importance of canopy cover and likely dispersal pathways to establishment? Patterns of seedling establishment indicated that dispersal agents crossed open pastures to wooded plots. Recruitment was greatest under woody canopies. Also, by reducing movement cost or risk for seed dispersers, wooded canopies increased influx of large, animal-dispersed seeds, thereby restoring a degree of functional connectivity to the landscape. Together, canopy openness and path distance from potential parent trees in the surrounding landscape explained 73% of the variance in O. uxpanapana seedling distribution. Preliminary results suggest that strategic fenced plantings in pastures increase dispersal and establishment of large-seeded trees, thereby accelerating forest succession in restorations and contributing to greater connectivity among forest fragments. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting tree species assemblages across large domains

    Treesearch

    Andrew O. Finley; Sudipto Banerjee; Ronald E. McRoberts

    2009-01-01

    Spatially explicit data layers of tree species assemblages, referred to as forest types or forest type groups, are a key component in large-scale assessments of forest sustainability, biodiversity, timber biomass, carbon sinks and forest health monitoring. This paper explores the utility of coupling georeferenced national forest inventory (NFI) data with readily...

  8. Suffix tree searcher: exploration of common substrings in large DNA sequence sets.

    PubMed

    Minkley, David; Whitney, Michael J; Lin, Song-Han; Barsky, Marina G; Kelly, Chris; Upton, Chris

    2014-07-23

    Large DNA sequence data sets require special bioinformatics tools to search and compare them. Such tools should be easy to use so that the data can be easily accessed by a wide array of researchers. In the past, the use of suffix trees for searching DNA sequences has been limited by a practical need to keep the trees in RAM. Newer algorithms solve this problem by using disk-based approaches. However, none of the fastest suffix tree algorithms have been implemented with a graphical user interface, preventing their incorporation into a feasible laboratory workflow. Suffix Tree Searcher (STS) is designed as an easy-to-use tool to index, search, and analyze very large DNA sequence datasets. The program accommodates very large numbers of very large sequences, with aggregate size reaching tens of billions of nucleotides. The program makes use of pre-sorted persistent "building blocks" to reduce the time required to construct new trees. STS is comprised of a graphical user interface written in Java, and four C modules. All components are automatically downloaded when a web link is clicked. The underlying suffix tree data structure permits extremely fast searching for specific nucleotide strings, with wild cards or mismatches allowed. Complete tree traversals for detecting common substrings are also very fast. The graphical user interface allows the user to transition seamlessly between building, traversing, and searching the dataset. Thus, STS provides a new resource for the detection of substrings common to multiple DNA sequences or within a single sequence, for truly huge data sets. The re-searching of sequence hits, allowing wild card positions or mismatched nucleotides, together with the ability to rapidly retrieve large numbers of sequence hits from the DNA sequence files, provides the user with an efficient method of evaluating the similarity between nucleotide sequences by multiple alignment or use of Logos. The ability to re-use existing suffix tree pieces

  9. Phyx: phylogenetic tools for unix.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph W; Walker, Joseph F; Smith, Stephen A

    2017-06-15

    The ease with which phylogenomic data can be generated has drastically escalated the computational burden for even routine phylogenetic investigations. To address this, we present phyx : a collection of programs written in C ++ to explore, manipulate, analyze and simulate phylogenetic objects (alignments, trees and MCMC logs). Modelled after Unix/GNU/Linux command line tools, individual programs perform a single task and operate on standard I/O streams that can be piped to quickly and easily form complex analytical pipelines. Because of the stream-centric paradigm, memory requirements are minimized (often only a single tree or sequence in memory at any instance), and hence phyx is capable of efficiently processing very large datasets. phyx runs on POSIX-compliant operating systems. Source code, installation instructions, documentation and example files are freely available under the GNU General Public License at https://github.com/FePhyFoFum/phyx. eebsmith@umich.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. The phylogenetic utility of acetyltransferase (ARD1) and glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QtRNA) for reconstructing Cenozoic relationships as exemplified by the large Australian cicada Pauropsalta generic complex.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher L; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The Pauropsalta generic complex is a large group of cicadas (72 described spp.; >82 undescribed spp.) endemic to Australia. No previous molecular work on deep level relationships within this complex has been conducted, but a recent morphological revision and phylogenetic analysis proposed relationships among the 11 genera. We present here the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the complex using five loci (1 mtDNA, 4 nDNA), two of which are from nuclear genes new to cicada systematics. We compare the molecular phylogeny to the morphological phylogeny. We evaluate the phylogenetic informativeness of the new loci to traditional cicada systematics loci to generate a baseline of performance and behavior to aid in gene choice decisions in future systematic and phylogenomic studies. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies strongly support the monophyly of most of the newly described genera; however, relationships among genera differ from the morphological phylogeny. A comparison of phylogenetic informativeness among all loci revealed that COI 3rd positions dominate the informativeness profiles relative to all other loci but exhibit some among taxon nucleotide bias. After removing COI 3rd positions, COI 1st positions dominate near the terminals, while the period intron has the most phylogenetic informativeness near the root. Among the nuclear loci, ARD1 and QtRNA have lower phylogenetic informativeness than period intron and elongation factor 1 alpha intron, but the informativeness increases at you move from the tips to the root. The increase in phylogenetic informativeness deeper in the tree suggests these loci may be useful for resolving older relationships.

  11. Large tree crowns in closed forest canopies: Measuring structure and estimating light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolosin, Michael Stephen

    Trees compete for light. Crown traits are the result of an evolutionary history dominated by this fact, and species exhibit a range of strategies including characteristic shapes and light-foraging abilities in response to this competition. Shape plasticity and crown asymmetry result from the growth and death of branches over long time scales. It is impossible to track every branch in stand-scale forest models, and there are no good approaches that accurately capture the emergent tree-level properties of this branch-scale process. Most forest models therefore ignore tree shape and asymmetry. Models of tree size and shape are important in both scientific research and in evaluating policy questions. Light absorption in large canopy trees determines their own demographic rates and sets the template of light levels that drives understory growth and mortality, driving both community and ecosystem processes. Models that ignore crown shape and asymmetry could lead to faulty inferences and predictions. Our work attempts to overcome some of the difficulties in both measuring and modeling large crown shape and light availability. We develop a new approach to extracting three-dimensional crown structural information from high resolution digital stereo imagery to accurately measure crown structure of over nine hundred well-studied large canopy trees. We also present a statistical model that integrates multiple data sources into estimates of the "true" but unmeasurable light available to individual trees. Third, we develop two crown models for forest simulations that capture their space-filling nature with minimum detail, and we parameterize these models from data; one models crown shape, the other crown location. Fourth, we investigate the relationship between light availability and growth. We extract extensive fine-scale structural detail from the imagery, and generate detailed crown envelopes. We find that light availability predicts the growth rates of large trees primarily

  12. Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules.

    PubMed

    Berny, Stephane; Blouin, Nicolas; Distler, Andreas; Egelhaaf, Hans-Joachim; Krompiec, Michal; Lohr, Andreas; Lozman, Owen R; Morse, Graham E; Nanson, Lana; Pron, Agnieszka; Sauermann, Tobias; Seidler, Nico; Tierney, Steve; Tiwana, Priti; Wagner, Michael; Wilson, Henry

    2016-05-01

    The technology behind a large area array of flexible solar cells with a unique design and semitransparent blue appearance is presented. These modules are implemented in a solar tree installation at the German pavilion in the EXPO2015 in Milan/IT. The modules show power conversion efficiencies of 4.5% and are produced exclusively using standard printing techniques for large-scale production.

  13. Root–shoot allometry of tropical forest trees determined in a large-scale aeroponic system

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Amram; Grünzweig, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy–root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. Methods Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa. Growth and allometric parameters of 12-month-old saplings grown in a large-scale aeroponic system and in 50-L soil containers were compared. The main advantage of growing plants in aeroponics is that their root systems are fully accessible throughout the plant life, and can be fully recovered for harvesting. Key Results The expected differences in shoot and root size between the fast-growing C. pentandra and the slower-growing K. anthotheca were evident in both growth systems. Roots were recovered from the aeroponically grown saplings only, and their distribution among various diameter classes followed the patterns expected from the literature. Stem, branch and leaf allometric parameters were similar for saplings of each species grown in the two systems. Conclusions The aeroponic tree growth system can be utilized for determining the basic allometric relationships between root and shoot components of these trees, and hence can be used to study carbon allocation and fluxes of whole above- and below-ground tree parts. PMID:23250916

  14. FuncTree: Functional Analysis and Visualization for Large-Scale Omics Data.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Takeru; Irie, Mitsuru; Mori, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Ken; Yamada, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Exponential growth of high-throughput data and the increasing complexity of omics information have been making processing and interpreting biological data an extremely difficult and daunting task. Here we developed FuncTree (http://bioviz.tokyo/functree), a web-based application for analyzing and visualizing large-scale omics data, including but not limited to genomic, metagenomic, and transcriptomic data. FuncTree allows user to map their omics data onto the "Functional Tree map", a predefined circular dendrogram, which represents the hierarchical relationship of all known biological functions defined in the KEGG database. This novel visualization method allows user to overview the broad functionality of their data, thus allowing a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the omics information. FuncTree provides extensive customization and calculation methods to not only allow user to directly map their omics data to identify the functionality of their data, but also to compute statistically enriched functions by comparing it to other predefined omics data. We have validated FuncTree's analysis and visualization capability by mapping pan-genomic data of three different types of bacterial genera, metagenomic data of the human gut, and transcriptomic data of two different types of human cell expression. All three mapping strongly confirms FuncTree's capability to analyze and visually represent key functional feature of the omics data. We believe that FuncTree's capability to conduct various functional calculations and visualizing the result into a holistic overview of biological function, would make it an integral analysis/visualization tool for extensive omics base research.

  15. primers4clades: a web server that uses phylogenetic trees to design lineage-specific PCR primers for metagenomic and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Sachman-Ruiz, Bernardo; Figueroa-Palacios, Iraís; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    Primers4clades is an easy-to-use web server that implements a fully automatic PCR primer design pipeline for cross-species amplification of novel sequences from metagenomic DNA, or from uncharacterized organisms, belonging to user-specified phylogenetic clades or taxa. The server takes a set of non-aligned protein coding genes, with or without introns, aligns them and computes a neighbor-joining tree, which is displayed on screen for easy selection of species or sequence clusters to design lineage-specific PCR primers. Primers4clades implements an extended CODEHOP primer design strategy based on both DNA and protein multiple sequence alignments. It evaluates several thermodynamic properties of the oligonucleotide pairs, and computes the phylogenetic information content of the predicted amplicon sets from Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like branch support values of maximum likelihood phylogenies. A non-redundant set of primer formulations is returned, ranked according to their thermodynamic properties. An amplicon distribution map provides a convenient overview of the coverage of the target locus. Altogether these features greatly help the user in making an informed choice between alternative primer pair formulations. Primers4clades is available at two mirror sites: http://maya.ccg.unam.mx/primers4clades/and http://floresta.eead.csic.es/primers4clades/. Three demo data sets and a comprehensive documentation/tutorial page are provided for easy testing of the server's capabilities and interface.

  16. Fast blood-flow simulation for large arterial trees containing thousands of vessels.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alexandre; Clarke, Richard; Ho, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Blood flow modelling has previously been successfully carried out in arterial trees to study pulse wave propagation using nonlinear or linear flow solvers. However, the number of vessels used in the simulations seldom grows over a few hundred. The aim of this work is to present a computationally efficient solver coupled with highly detailed arterial trees containing thousands of vessels. The core of the solver is based on a modified transmission line method, which exploits the analogy between electrical current in finite-length conductors and blood flow in vessels. The viscoelastic behaviour of the arterial-wall is taken into account using a complex elastic modulus. The flow is solved vessel by vessel in the frequency domain and the calculated output pressure is then used as an input boundary condition for daughter vessels. The computational results yield pulsatile blood pressure and flow rate for every segment in the tree. This solver is coupled with large arterial trees generated from a three-dimensional constrained constructive optimisation algorithm. The tree contains thousands of blood vessels with radii spanning ~1 mm in the root artery to ~30 μm in leaf vessels. The computation takes seconds to complete for a vasculature of 2048 vessels and less than 2 min for a vasculature of 4096 vessels on a desktop computer.

  17. Evolutionary history of the Afro-Madagascan Ixora species (Rubiaceae): species diversification and distribution of key morphological traits inferred from dated molecular phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, J.; Dessein, S.; Buerki, S.; Groeninckx, I.; Mouly, A.; Bremer, B.; Smets, E. F.; De Block, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous work on the pantropical genus Ixora has revealed an Afro-Madagascan clade, but as yet no study has focused in detail on the evolutionary history and morphological trends in this group. Here the evolutionary history of Afro-Madagascan Ixora spp. (a clade of approx. 80 taxa) is investigated and the phylogenetic trees compared with several key morphological traits in taxa occurring in Madagascar. Methods Phylogenetic relationships of Afro-Madagascan Ixora are assessed using sequence data from four plastid regions (petD, rps16, rpoB-trnC and trnL-trnF) and nuclear ribosomal external transcribed spacer (ETS) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The phylogenetic distribution of key morphological characters is assessed. Bayesian inference (implemented in BEAST) is used to estimate the temporal origin of Ixora based on fossil evidence. Key Results Two separate lineages of Madagascan taxa are recovered, one of which is nested in a group of East African taxa. Divergence in Ixora is estimated to have commenced during the mid Miocene, with extensive cladogenesis occurring in the Afro-Madagascan clade during the Pliocene onwards. Conclusions Both lineages of Madagascan Ixora exhibit morphological innovations that are rare throughout the rest of the genus, including a trend towards pauciflorous inflorescences and a trend towards extreme corolla tube length, suggesting that the same ecological and selective pressures are acting upon taxa from both Madagascan lineages. Novel ecological opportunities resulting from climate-induced habitat fragmentation and corolla tube length diversification are likely to have facilitated species radiation on Madagascar. PMID:24142919

  18. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Background Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. Findings In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. Conclusion ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files. PMID:19646243

  19. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  20. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms associated with climate change.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Lei; Wang, Wei; Mortimer, Peter E; Li, Rui-Qi; Li, De-Zhu; Hyde, Kevin D; Xu, Jian-Chu; Soltis, Douglas E; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2015-09-10

    Nitrogen is fundamental to all life forms and is also one of the most limiting of nutrients for plant growth. Several clades of angiosperms have developed symbiotic relationships with actinorhizal bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase access to this nutrient. However, the evolutionary patterns of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses remain unclear to date. Furthermore the underlying environmental pressures that led to the gain of symbiotic actinorhizal nitrogen fixation have never been investigated. Here, we present the most comprehensive genus-level phylogenetic analysis of the nitrogen-fixing angiosperms based on three plastid loci. We found that actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing species are distributed in nine distinct lineages. By dating the branching events, we determined that seven actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing lineages originated during the Late Cretaceous, and two more emerged during the Eocene. We put forward a hypothesis that multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms may have been associated with increased global temperatures and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide during these two time periods, as well as the availability of open habitats with high light conditions. Our nearly complete genus-level time-tree for the nitrogen-fixing clade is a significant advance in understanding the evolutionary and ecological background of this important symbiosis between plants and bacteria.

  1. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms associated with climate change

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Lei; Wang, Wei; Mortimer, Peter E.; Li, Rui-Qi; Li, De-Zhu; Hyde, Kevin D.; Xu, Jian-Chu; Soltis, Douglas E.; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is fundamental to all life forms and is also one of the most limiting of nutrients for plant growth. Several clades of angiosperms have developed symbiotic relationships with actinorhizal bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase access to this nutrient. However, the evolutionary patterns of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses remain unclear to date. Furthermore the underlying environmental pressures that led to the gain of symbiotic actinorhizal nitrogen fixation have never been investigated. Here, we present the most comprehensive genus-level phylogenetic analysis of the nitrogen-fixing angiosperms based on three plastid loci. We found that actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing species are distributed in nine distinct lineages. By dating the branching events, we determined that seven actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing lineages originated during the Late Cretaceous, and two more emerged during the Eocene. We put forward a hypothesis that multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms may have been associated with increased global temperatures and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide during these two time periods, as well as the availability of open habitats with high light conditions. Our nearly complete genus-level time-tree for the nitrogen-fixing clade is a significant advance in understanding the evolutionary and ecological background of this important symbiosis between plants and bacteria. PMID:26354898

  2. Support vector machines and kd-tree for separating quasars from large survey data bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2008-05-01

    We compare the performance of two automated classification algorithms, k-dimensional tree (kd-tree) and support vector machines (SVMs), to separate quasars from stars in the data bases of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) catalogues. The two algorithms are trained on subsets of SDSS and 2MASS objects whose nature is known via spectroscopy. We choose different attribute combination as input patterns to train the classifier using photometric data only and present the classification results obtained by these two methods. Performance metrics, such as precision and recall, true positive rate and true negative rate, F-measure, G-mean and Weighted Accuracy, are computed to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms. The study shows that both kd-tree and SVMs are effective automated algorithms to classify point sources. SVMs show slightly higher accuracy, but kd-tree requires less computation time. Given different input patterns based on various parameters (e.g. magnitudes, colour information), we conclude that both kd-tree and SVMs show better performance with fewer features. What is more, our results also indicate that the accuracy using the four colours (u - g,g - r,r - i and i - z) and r magnitude based on SDSS model magnitudes adds up to the highest value. The classifiers trained by kd-tree and SVMs can be used to solve the automated classification problems faced by the virtual observatory (VO); moreover, they can all be applied for the photometric preselection of quasar candidates for large survey projects in order to optimise the efficiency of telescopes.

  3. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  4. Small-scale human-biometeorological impacts of shading by a large tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    This study provides evidences on the beneficial small-scale human-biometeorological effects of a large shade tree during the daytime in summer. We carried out detailed measurement from 10 am to 6 pm with two human-biometeorological stations on a popular square in Szeged, Hungary. One of the stations stood under a great Sophora japonica, while the other in the sun. Compared to the sunny location, we found 0.5°C lower air temperature, 2% higher relative humidity and 0.4 hPa higher vapor pressure under the tree. From human-biometeorological point of view, we observed more significant differences. The tree reduced the mean radiant temperature by 22.1°C and the physiological equivalent temperature by 9.3°C - indicating about two categories lower physiological stress on the human body. In order to demonstrate the background mechanisms of these differences, we analyzed separately the components of the radiation budget. The effect of tree crown on radiation components was found to be greater in the short-wave domain than in the long-wave domain. The extended foliage reduced the solar radiation from the upper hemisphere and thus lowered the radiation from the ground (the reflected short-wave and the emitted longwave flux densities) along with the radiation from the lateral directions.

  5. Vertical Stability of Ephemeral Step-Pool Streams Largely Controlled By Tree Roots, Central Kentucky, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmannis, K. R.; Hawley, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling stability on small streams in steep settings are not well documented but have many implications related to stream integrity and water quality. For example, channel instability on first and second order streams is a potential source of sediment in regulated areas with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) on water bodies that are impaired for sedimentation, such as the Chesapeake Bay. Management strategies that preserve stream integrity and protect channel stability are critical to communities that may otherwise require large capital investments to meet TMDLs and other water quality criteria. To contribute to an improved understanding of ephemeral step-pool systems, we collected detailed hydrogeomorphic data on 4 steep (0.06 - 0.12 meter/meter) headwater streams draining to lower relief alluvial valleys in Spencer County, Kentucky, USA. The step-pool streams (mean step height of 0.47 meter, mean step spacing of 4 meters) drained small undeveloped catchments dominated by early successional forest. Data collection for each of the 4 streams included 2 to 3 cross section surveys, bed material particle counts at cross section locations, and profile surveys ranging from approximately 125 to 225 meters in length. All survey data was systematically processed to understand geometric parameters such as cross sectional area, depth, and top width; bed material gradations; and detailed profile measurements such as slope, pool and riffle lengths, pool spacing, pool depth, step height, and step length. We documented the location, frequency, and type of step-forming materials (i.e., large woody debris (LWD), rock, and tree roots), compiling a database of approximately 130 total steps. Lastly, we recorded a detailed tree assessment of all trees located within 2 meters of the top of bank, detailing the species of tree, trunk diameter, and approximate distance from the top of bank. Analysis of geometric parameters illustrated correlations between channel

  6. Probabilistic Graphical Model Representation in Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A.; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J.; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis–Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. [Computation; graphical models; inference; modularization; statistical phylogenetics; tree plate.] PMID:24951559

  7. Improved description of the bipolar ciliate, Euplotes petzi, and definition of its basal position in the Euplotes phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Erra, Fabrizio; Paolo Frontini, Francesco; Dini, Fernando; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2014-08-01

    Data improving the characterization of the marine Euplotes species, E. petzi Wilbert and Song, 2008, were obtained from morphological, ecological and genetic analyses of Antarctic and Arctic wild-type strains. This species is identified by a minute (mean size, 46 μm × 32 μm) and ellipsoidal cell body which is dorsally decorated with an argyrome of the double-patella type, five dorsal kineties (of which the median one contains 8-10 dikinetids), five sharp-edged longitudinal ridges, and a right anterior spur. Ventrally, it bears 10 fronto-ventral, five transverse, two caudal and two marginal cirri, 30-35 adoral membranelles, and three inconspicuous ridges. Euplotes petzi grows well at 4 °C on green algae, does not produce cysts, undergoes mating under the genetic control of a multiple mating-type system, constitutively secretes water-borne pheromones, and behaves as a psychrophilic microorganism unable to survive at >15 °C. While the α-tubulin gene sequence determination did not provide useful information on the E. petzi molecular phylogeny, the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence determination provided solid evidence that E. petzi clusters with E. sinicus Jiang et al., 2010a, into a clade which represents the deepest branch at the base of the Euplotes phylogentic tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Large-Subunit Genes from Deep-Sea Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Hosam; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, E.C. 4.1.1.39) large-subunit genes of deep-sea microorganisms was analyzed. Bulk genomic DNA was isolated from seven samples, including samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and various deep-sea habitats around Japan. The kinds of samples were hydrothermal vent water and chimney fragment; reducing sediments from a bathyal seep, a hadal seep, and a presumed seep; and symbiont-bearing tissues of the vent mussel, Bathymodiolus sp., and the seep vestimentiferan tubeworm, Lamellibrachia sp. The RuBisCO genes that encode both form I and form II large subunits (cbbL and cbbM) were amplified by PCR from the seven deep-sea sample DNA populations, cloned, and sequenced. From each sample, 50 cbbL clones and 50 cbbM clones, if amplified, were recovered and sequenced to group them into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 29 OTUs were recorded from the 300 total cbbL clones, and a total of 24 OTUs were recorded from the 250 total cbbM clones. All the current OTUs have the characteristic RuBisCO amino acid motif sequences that exist in other RuBisCOs. The recorded OTUs were related to different RuBisCO groups of proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, and eukarya. The diversity of the RuBisCO genes may be correlated with certain characteristics of the microbial habitats. The RuBisCO sequences from the symbiont-bearing tissues showed a phylogenetic relationship with those from the ambient bacteria. Also, the RuBisCO sequences of known species of thiobacilli and those from widely distributed marine habitats were closely related to each other. This suggests that the Thiobacillus-related RuBisCO may be distributed globally and contribute to the primary production in the deep sea. PMID:11282630

  9. Computing Manhattan Path-Difference MedianTrees: a Practical Local Search Approach.

    PubMed

    Markin, Alexey; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2017-06-22

    Median tree problems are powerful tools for inferring large-scale phylogenetic trees that hold enormous promise for society at large. Such problems seek a median tree for a given collection of input trees under some problem-specific distance. Here, we introduce a median tree problem under the classic Manhattan path-difference distance. We show that this problem is NP-hard, devise an ILP formulation, and provide an effective local search heuristic that is based on solving a local search problem exactly. Our algorithm for the local search problem improves asymptotically by a factor of n on the best-known (naive) solution, where n is the overall number of taxa in the input trees. Finally, comparative phylogenetic studies using considerably large empirical data and an accuracy analysis for smaller phylogenetic trees reveal the ability of our novel heuristic.

  10. Inventory-based sensitivity analysis of the Large Tree Diameter Growth Submodel of the Southern Variant of the FVS

    Treesearch

    Giorgio Vacchiano; John D. Shaw; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long

    2008-01-01

    Diameter increment is an important variable in modeling tree growth. Most facets of predicted tree development are dependent in part on diameter or diameter increment, the most commonly measured stand variable. The behavior of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) largely relies on the performance of the diameter increment model and the subsequent use of predicted dbh...

  11. Sensitivity of a Riparian Large Woody Debris Recruitment Model to the Number of Contributing Banks and Tree Fall Pattern

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    Riparian large woody debris (LWD) recruitment simulations have traditionally applied a random angle of tree fall from two well-forested stream banks. We used a riparian LWD recruitment model (CWD, version 1.4) to test the validity these assumptions. Both the number of contributing forest banks and predominant tree fall direction significantly influenced simulated...

  12. Sensitivity of tree ring growth to local and large-scale climate variability in a region of Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venegas-González, Alejandro; Chagas, Matheus Peres; Anholetto Júnior, Claudio Roberto; Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between tree growth in two tropical species and local and large-scale climate variability in Southeastern Brazil. Tree ring width chronologies of Tectona grandis (teak) and Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) trees were compared with local (Water Requirement Satisfaction Index—WRSI, Standardized Precipitation Index—SPI, and Palmer Drought Severity Index—PDSI) and large-scale climate indices that analyze the equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (Trans-Niño Index-TNI and Niño-3.4-N3.4) and atmospheric circulation variations in the Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic Oscillation-AAO). Teak trees showed positive correlation with three indices in the current summer and fall. A significant correlation between WRSI index and Caribbean pine was observed in the dry season preceding tree ring formation. The influence of large-scale climate patterns was observed only for TNI and AAO, where there was a radial growth reduction in months preceding the growing season with positive values of the TNI in teak trees and radial growth increase (decrease) during December (March) to February (May) of the previous (current) growing season with positive phase of the AAO in teak (Caribbean pine) trees. The development of a new dendroclimatological study in Southeastern Brazil sheds light to local and large-scale climate influence on tree growth in recent decades, contributing in future climate change studies.

  13. Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (nu ITS2 rRNA) Sequence-Structure Phylogenetics: Towards an Automated Reconstruction of the Green Algal Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Mark A.; Keller, Alexander; Koetschan, Christian; Förster, Frank; Merget, Benjamin; Wolf, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Background Chloroplast-encoded genes (matK and rbcL) have been formally proposed for use in DNA barcoding efforts targeting embryophytes. Extending such a protocol to chlorophytan green algae, though, is fraught with problems including non homology (matK) and heterogeneity that prevents the creation of a universal PCR toolkit (rbcL). Some have advocated the use of the nuclear-encoded, internal transcribed spacer two (ITS2) as an alternative to the traditional chloroplast markers. However, the ITS2 is broadly perceived to be insufficiently conserved or to be confounded by introgression or biparental inheritance patterns, precluding its broad use in phylogenetic reconstruction or as a DNA barcode. A growing body of evidence has shown that simultaneous analysis of nucleotide data with secondary structure information can overcome at least some of the limitations of ITS2. The goal of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of an automated, sequence-structure approach for analysis of IT2 data from a large sampling of phylum Chlorophyta. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences and secondary structures from 591 chlorophycean, 741 trebouxiophycean and 938 ulvophycean algae, all obtained from the ITS2 Database, were aligned using a sequence structure-specific scoring matrix. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by Profile Neighbor-Joining coupled with a sequence structure-specific, general time reversible substitution model. Results from analyses of the ITS2 data were robust at multiple nodes and showed considerable congruence with results from published phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions/Significance Our observations on the power of automated, sequence-structure analyses of ITS2 to reconstruct phylum-level phylogenies of the green algae validate this approach to assessing diversity for large sets of chlorophytan taxa. Moreover, our results indicate that objections to the use of ITS2 for DNA barcoding should be weighed against the utility of an automated

  14. Phylogenetic evidence for extensive lateral acquisition of cellular genes by Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA viruses (NCLDV), a diverse group that infects a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, exhibit a large heterogeneity in genome size (between 100 kb and 1.2 Mb) but have been suggested to form a monophyletic group on the basis of a small subset of approximately 30 conserved genes. NCLDV were proposed to have evolved by simplification from cellular organism although some of the giant NCLDV have clearly grown by gene accretion from a bacterial origin. Results We demonstrate here that many NCLDV lineages appear to have undergone frequent gene exchange in two different ways. Viruses which infect protists directly (Mimivirus) or algae which exist as intracellular protists symbionts (Phycodnaviruses) acquire genes from a bacterial source. Metazoan viruses such as the Poxviruses show a predominant acquisition of host genes. In both cases, the laterally acquired genes show a strong tendency to be positioned at the tip of the genome. Surprisingly, several core genes believed to be ancestral in the family appear to have undergone lateral gene transfers, suggesting that the NCLDV ancestor might have had a smaller genome than previously believed. Moreover, our data show that the larger the genome, the higher is the number of laterally acquired genes. This pattern is incompatible with a genome reduction from a cellular ancestor. Conclusion We propose that the NCLDV viruses have evolved by significant growth of a simple DNA virus by gene acquisition from cellular sources. PMID:19036122

  15. Each flying fox on its own branch: a phylogenetic tree for Pteropus and related genera (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Francisca C; Giannini, Norberto P; Simmons, Nancy B; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2014-08-01

    Pteropodidae is a diverse Old World family of non-echolocating, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats that includes the flying foxes (genus Pteropus) and allied genera. The subfamily Pteropodinae includes the largest living bats and is distributed across an immense geographic range from islands in East Africa to the Cook Islands of Polynesia. These bats are keystone species in their ecosystems and some carry zoonotic diseases that are increasingly a focus of interest in biomedical research. Here we present a comprehensive phylogeny for pteropodines focused on Pteropus. The analyses included 50 of the ∼63 species of Pteropus and 11 species from 7 related genera. We obtained sequences of the cytochrome b and the 12S rRNA mitochondrial genes for all species and sequences of the nuclear RAG1, vWF, and BRCA1 genes for a subsample of taxa. Some of the sequences of Pteropus were obtained from skin biopsies of museum specimens including that of an extinct species, P. tokudae. The resulting trees recovered Pteropus as monophyletic, although further work is needed to determine whether P. personatus belongs in the genus. Monophyly of the majority of traditionally-recognized Pteropus species groups was rejected, but statistical support was strong for several clades on which we based a new classification of the Pteropus species into 13 species groups. Other noteworthy results emerged regarding species status of several problematic taxa, including recognition of P. capistratus and P. ennisae as distinct species, paraphyly of the P. hypomelanus complex, and conspecific status of P. pelewensis pelewensis and P. p. yapensis. Relationships among the pteropodine genera were not completely resolved with the current dataset. Divergence time analysis suggests that Pteropus originated in the Miocene and that two independent bursts of diversification occurred in the Pleistocene in different regions of the Indo-Pacific realm. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Large-Scale, Full-Wave Scattering Phenomenology Characterization of Realistic Trees: Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    2 Fig. 2 Sassafras tree model ...............................................................................2 Fig. 3 Eastern cottonwood...to right Fig. 2 Sassafras tree model Fig. 3 Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) tree model After the mesh has been properly processed

  17. Planktic Tychonema (Cyanobacteria) in the large lakes south of the Alps: phylogenetic assessment and toxigenic potential.

    PubMed

    Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Boscaini, Adriano; Capelli, Camilla

    2016-10-01

    This work allowed assessing a widespread occurrence of Tychonema bourrellyi in the largest lakes south of the Alps (Garda, Iseo, Como and Maggiore). The taxonomy of the species was confirmed adopting a polyphasic approach, which included microscopic examinations, molecular (16S rRNA and rbcLX sequences) and (Lake Garda) ecological characterisations. Over 70% of the 36 isolates of Tychonema sampled from the four lakes tested positive for the presence of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of anatoxins (anaF and/or anaC) and for the production of anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). A detailed analysis carried out in Lake Garda showed strong ongoing changes in the cyanobacterial community, with populations of Tychonema developing with higher biovolumes compared to the microcystins (MCs) producer Planktothrix rubescens Moreover, the time × depth distribution of Tychonema was paralleled by a comparable distribution of ATX and HTX. The increasing importance of Tychonema in Lake Garda was also suggested by the opposite trends of ATX and MCs observed since 2009. These results suggest that radical changes are occurring in the largest lakes south of the Alps. Their verification and implications will require to be assessed by extending a complete experimental work to the other large perialpine lakes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Deadwood stocks increase with selective logging and large tree frequency in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ben S; Koerner, Sally E; Medjibe, Vincent P; White, Lee J T; Poulsen, John R

    2017-04-01

    Deadwood is a major component of aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and is important as habitat and for nutrient cycling and carbon storage. With deforestation and degradation taking place throughout the tropics, improved understanding of the magnitude and spatial variation in deadwood is vital for the development of regional and global carbon budgets. However, this potentially important carbon pool is poorly quantified in Afrotropical forests and the regional drivers of deadwood stocks are unknown. In the first large-scale study of deadwood in Central Africa, we quantified stocks in 47 forest sites across Gabon and evaluated the effects of disturbance (logging), forest structure variables (live AGB, wood density, abundance of large trees), and abiotic variables (temperature, precipitation, seasonality). Average deadwood stocks (measured as necromass, the biomass of deadwood) were 65 Mg ha(-1) or 23% of live AGB. Deadwood stocks varied spatially with disturbance and forest structure, but not abiotic variables. Deadwood stocks increased significantly with logging (+38 Mg ha(-1) ) and the abundance of large trees (+2.4 Mg ha(-1) for every tree >60 cm dbh). Gabon holds 0.74 Pg C, or 21% of total aboveground carbon in deadwood, a threefold increase over previous estimates. Importantly, deadwood densities in Gabon are comparable to those in the Neotropics and respond similarly to logging, but represent a lower proportion of live AGB (median of 18% in Gabon compared to 26% in the Neotropics). In forest carbon accounting, necromass is often assumed to be a constant proportion (9%) of biomass, but in humid tropical forests this ratio varies from 2% in undisturbed forest to 300% in logged forest. Because logging significantly increases the deadwood carbon pool, estimates of tropical forest carbon should at a minimum use different ratios for logged (mean of 30%) and unlogged forests (mean of 18%).

  19. Evolutionary relationships of the Critically Endangered frog Ericabatrachus baleensis Largen, 1991 with notes on incorporating previously unsampled taxa into large-scale phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of many taxa remain poorly known because of a lack of appropriate data and/or analyses. Despite substantial recent advances, amphibian phylogeny remains poorly resolved in many instances. The phylogenetic relationships of the Ethiopian endemic monotypic genus Ericabatrachus has been addressed thus far only with phenotypic data and remains contentious. Results We obtained fresh samples of the now rare and Critically Endangered Ericabatrachus baleensis and generated DNA sequences for two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Analyses of these new data using de novo and constrained-tree phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support a close relationship between Ericabatrachus and Petropedetes, and allow us to reject previously proposed alternative hypotheses of a close relationship with cacosternines or Phrynobatrachus. Conclusions We discuss the implications of our results for the taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of E. baleensis, and suggest a two-tiered approach to the inclusion and analyses of new data in order to assess the phylogenetic relationships of previously unsampled taxa. Such approaches will be important in the future given the increasing availability of relevant mega-alignments and potential framework phylogenies. PMID:24612655

  20. Glycoprotein-G-gene-based molecular and phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses associated with a large outbreak of bovine rabies in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Juliana F; de Quadros, João M; Martins, Mathias; Batista, Helena B C R; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2017-08-30

    A large outbreak of hematophagous-bat-associated bovine rabies has been occurring in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost Brazilian state, since 2011, with official estimates exceeding 50,000 cattle deaths. The present article describes a genetic characterization of rabies virus (RABV) recovered from 59 affected cattle and two sheep, from 56 herds in 16 municipalities (2012-2016). Molecular analysis was performed using the nucleotide (nt) and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of RABV glycoprotein G (G). A high level of nt and aa sequence identity was observed among the examined G sequences, ranging from 98.4 to 100%, and from 97.3 to 100%, respectively. Likewise, high levels of nt and aa sequence identity were observed with bovine (nt, 99.8%; aa, 99.8%) and hematophagous bat (nt, 99.5%; aa, 99.4%) RABV sequences from GenBank, and lower levels were observed with carnivore RABV sequences (nt, 92.8%; aa, 88.1%). Some random mutations were observed in the analyzed sequences, and a few consistent mutations were observed in some sequences belonging to cluster 2, subcluster 2b. The clustering of the sequences was observed in a phylogenetic tree, where two distinct clusters were evident. Cluster 1 comprised RABV sequences covering the entire study period (2012 to 2016), but subclusters corresponding to different years could be identified, indicating virus evolution and/or introduction of new viruses into the population. In some cases, viruses from the same location obtained within a short period grouped into different subclusters, suggesting co-circulation of viruses of different origins. Subcluster segregation was also observed in sequences obtained in the same region during different periods, indicating the involvement of different viruses in the cases at different times. In summary, our results indicate that the outbreaks occurring in RS (2012 to 2016) probably involved RABV of different origins, in addition to a possible evolution of RABV isolates within this

  1. A Deliberate Practice Approach to Teaching Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, F. Collin; Johnson, Daniel J.; Kearns, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of postsecondary education is to assist students in developing expert-level understanding. Previous attempts to encourage expert-level understanding of phylogenetic analysis in college science classrooms have largely focused on isolated, or “one-shot,” in-class activities. Using a deliberate practice instructional approach, we designed a set of five assignments for a 300-level plant systematics course that incrementally introduces the concepts and skills used in phylogenetic analysis. In our assignments, students learned the process of constructing phylogenetic trees through a series of increasingly difficult tasks; thus, skill development served as a framework for building content knowledge. We present results from 5 yr of final exam scores, pre- and postconcept assessments, and student surveys to assess the impact of our new pedagogical materials on student performance related to constructing and interpreting phylogenetic trees. Students improved in their ability to interpret relationships within trees and improved in several aspects related to between-tree comparisons and tree construction skills. Student feedback indicated that most students believed our approach prepared them to engage in tree construction and gave them confidence in their abilities. Overall, our data confirm that instructional approaches implementing deliberate practice address student misconceptions, improve student experiences, and foster deeper understanding of difficult scientific concepts. PMID:24297294

  2. A deliberate practice approach to teaching phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, F Collin; Johnson, Daniel J; Kearns, Katherine D

    2013-01-01

    One goal of postsecondary education is to assist students in developing expert-level understanding. Previous attempts to encourage expert-level understanding of phylogenetic analysis in college science classrooms have largely focused on isolated, or "one-shot," in-class activities. Using a deliberate practice instructional approach, we designed a set of five assignments for a 300-level plant systematics course that incrementally introduces the concepts and skills used in phylogenetic analysis. In our assignments, students learned the process of constructing phylogenetic trees through a series of increasingly difficult tasks; thus, skill development served as a framework for building content knowledge. We present results from 5 yr of final exam scores, pre- and postconcept assessments, and student surveys to assess the impact of our new pedagogical materials on student performance related to constructing and interpreting phylogenetic trees. Students improved in their ability to interpret relationships within trees and improved in several aspects related to between-tree comparisons and tree construction skills. Student feedback indicated that most students believed our approach prepared them to engage in tree construction and gave them confidence in their abilities. Overall, our data confirm that instructional approaches implementing deliberate practice address student misconceptions, improve student experiences, and foster deeper understanding of difficult scientific concepts.

  3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the large-seeded tree Protorhus deflexa (Anacardiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroki; Adenyo, Christopher; Harata, Tsuyoshi; Nanami, Satoshi; Itoh, Akira; Takahata, Yukio; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Protorhus deflexa is an endemic large-seeded tree in Madagascar that depends heavily on insects for cross-pollination and on large-bodied frugivores for seed dispersal. Because such mutualistic relationships are vulnerable to human disturbance, the development of microsatellite markers will enhance analyses of gene flow in this tree species in degraded forests. • Methods and Results: Nineteen microsatellite markers were developed for P. deflexa using 454 pyrosequencing. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine, and the ranges of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.200–0.800 and 0.303–0.821, respectively. The parentage exclusion probability by the 19 loci reached 0.98583 for the first parent and 0.99971 for the second parent. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for studying gene flow via pollination and seed dispersal by animals and the genetic structure of P. deflexa in protected and degraded forests in Madagascar. PMID:25202590

  4. Transcriptome Sequencing of Two Phenotypic Mosaic Eucalyptus Trees Reveals Large Scale Transcriptome Re-Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Padovan, Amanda; Patel, Hardip R.; Chuah, Aaron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Krause, Sandra T.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.; Külheim, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic mosaic trees offer an ideal system for studying differential gene expression. We have investigated two mosaic eucalypt trees from two closely related species (Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon), which each support two types of leaves: one part of the canopy is resistant to insect herbivory and the remaining leaves are susceptible. Driving this ecological distinction are differences in plant secondary metabolites. We used these phenotypic mosaics to investigate genome wide patterns of foliar gene expression with the aim of identifying patterns of differential gene expression and the somatic mutation(s) that lead to this phenotypic mosaicism. We sequenced the mRNA pool from leaves of the resistant and susceptible ecotypes from both mosaic eucalypts using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We found large differences in pathway regulation and gene expression between the ecotypes of each mosaic. The expression of the genes in the MVA and MEP pathways is reflected by variation in leaf chemistry, however this is not the case for the terpene synthases. Apart from the terpene biosynthetic pathway, there are several other metabolic pathways that are differentially regulated between the two ecotypes, suggesting there is much more phenotypic diversity than has been described. Despite the close relationship between the two species, they show large differences in the global patterns of gene and pathway regulation. PMID:25978451

  5. Comments on the gonotyl of Proctocaecum macroclemidis (Tkach and Snyder, 2003) n. comb. (Digenea: Acanthostomidae: Acanthostominae), with a key to the genera of acanthostominae and new phylogenetic tree for Proctocaecum Baugh, 1957.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Daniel R

    2004-06-01

    The species recently described as Acanthostomum macroclemidis possesses the gonotyl in the form of a solid muscular pad uniquely diagnostic for species of Proctocaecum and is accordingly transferred to that genus. An artificial key to the 5 acanthostomine genera, as well as an updated phylogenetic hypothesis for the 10 known species of Proctocaecum, based on 11 characters and including 2 species described since the last phylogenetic analysis, are presented. The single most parsimonious phylogenetic tree with a consistency index of 87.5% suggests that Proctocaecum originated in Africa and spread to North America and South America before the breakup of Pangaea. As a result, the 2 North American and 1 South American species are most closely related to different African members of the genus. African and Indo-Pacific species inhabit crocodylids; hence, the occurrence of North American species in alligatorids and chelonians and a South American species in alligatorids are the result of host switches.

  6. Speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, Japan, from the viewpoint of the contradictory phylogenetic trees generated from chloroplast and nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Sudarmono; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    To understand the speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to a special environment (serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, central Honshu, Japan), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were employed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. isensis with related species in Japan. Allozymic polymorphisms were also used to analyze genetic relationships among Salvia species. A contradiction in the phylogenetic positions of species studied was detected when phylogenetic trees were constructed using cpDNA or nrDNA, i.e., S. isensis was a sister to the other species in phylogenetic trees generated from cpDNA, while S. japonica was a sister to the other species in the case of nrDNA. Genetic relationships between Salvia species estimated from allozymic polymorphisms did not contradict to the topology for nrDNA. Using the present results, the speciation process of S. isensis is discussed with regard to introgressive gene exchanges between related species.

  7. A Large-Scale, Higher-Level, Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Insect Order Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies)

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Jerome C.; Mitter, Charles; Zwick, Andreas; Bazinet, Adam L.; Cummings, Michael P.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Zwickl, Derrick J.; Cho, Soowon; Davis, Donald R.; Baixeras, Joaquin; Brown, John; Parr, Cynthia; Weller, Susan; Lees, David C.; Mitter, Kim T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies. Methodology / Principal Findings 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity. Conclusions / Significance Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also

  8. Random sampling of constrained phylogenies: conducting phylogenetic analyses when the phylogeny is partially known.

    PubMed

    Housworth, E A; Martins, E P

    2001-01-01

    Statistical randomization tests in evolutionary biology often require a set of random, computer-generated trees. For example, earlier studies have shown how large numbers of computer-generated trees can be used to conduct phylogenetic comparative analyses even when the phylogeny is uncertain or unknown. These methods were limited, however, in that (in the absence of molecular sequence or other data) they allowed users to assume that no phylogenetic information was available or that all possible trees were known. Intermediate situations where only a taxonomy or other limited phylogenetic information (e.g., polytomies) are available are technically more difficult. The current study describes a procedure for generating random samples of phylogenies while incorporating limited phylogenetic information (e.g., four taxa belong together in a subclade). The procedure can be used to conduct comparative analyses when the phylogeny is only partially resolved or can be used in other randomization tests in which large numbers of possible phylogenies are needed.

  9. Diversity of a ribonucleoprotein family in tobacco chloroplasts: two new chloroplast ribonucleoproteins and a phylogenetic tree of ten chloroplast RNA-binding domains.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L H; Li, Y Q; Fukami-Kobayashi, K; Go, M; Konishi, T; Watanabe, A; Sugiura, M

    1991-01-01

    Two new ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) have been identified from a tobacco chloroplast lysate. These two proteins (cp29A and cp29B) are nuclear-encoded and have a less affinity to single-stranded DNA as compared with three other chloroplast RNPs (cp28, cp31 and cp33) previously isolated. DNA sequencing revealed that both contain two consensus sequence-type homologous RNA-binding domains (CS-RBDs) and a very acidic amino-terminal domain but shorter than that of cp28, cp31 and cp33. Comparison of cp29A and cp29B showed a 19 amino acid insertion in the region separating the two CS-RBDs in cp29B. This insertion results in three tandem repeats of a glycine-rich sequence of 10 amino acids, which is a novel feature in RNPs. The two proteins are encoded by different single nuclear genes and no alternatively spliced transcripts could be identified. We constructed a phylogenetic tree for the ten chloroplast CS-RBDs. These results suggest that there is a sizable RNP family in chloroplasts and the diversity was mainly generated through a series of gene duplications rather than through alternative pre-mRNA splicing. The gene for cp29B contains three introns. The first and second introns interrupt the first CS-RBD and the third intron does the second CS-RBD. The position of the first intron site is the same as that in the human hnRNP A1 protein gene. Images PMID:1721701

  10. Advances in Parallelization for Large Scale Oct-Tree Mesh Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connell, Matthew; Karman, Steve L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advancements in the parallelization of numerical simulation codes over the last 20 years, it is still common to perform grid generation in serial. Generating large scale grids in serial often requires using special "grid generation" compute machines that can have more than ten times the memory of average machines. While some parallel mesh generation techniques have been proposed, generating very large meshes for LES or aeroacoustic simulations is still a challenging problem. An automated method for the parallel generation of very large scale off-body hierarchical meshes is presented here. This work enables large scale parallel generation of off-body meshes by using a novel combination of parallel grid generation techniques and a hybrid "top down" and "bottom up" oct-tree method. Meshes are generated using hardware commonly found in parallel compute clusters. The capability to generate very large meshes is demonstrated by the generation of off-body meshes surrounding complex aerospace geometries. Results are shown including a one billion cell mesh generated around a Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle geometry, which was generated on 64 processors in under 45 minutes.

  11. Concordance analysis in mitogenomic phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Weisrock, David W

    2012-10-01

    Here I advocate the utility of Bayesian concordance analysis as a mechanism for exploring the magnitude and source of phylogenetic signal in concatenated mitogenomic phylogenetic studies. While typically applied to the study of independently evolving gene trees, Bayesian concordance analysis can also be applied to linked, but individually analyzed, gene regions using a prior probability that reflects the expectation of similar phylogenetic reconstructions. For true branches in the mitogenomic tree, concordance factors should represent the number of gene regions that contain phylogenetic signal for a particular clade. As a demonstration of the application of Bayesian concordance analysis to empirical data, I analyzed two different salamander (Hynobiidae and Plethodontidae) mitogenomic data sets using a gene-based partitioning strategy. The results revealed many strongly supported clades in the concatenated trees that have high concordance factors, permitting the inference that these are robustly resolved through phylogenetic signal distributed across the mitogenome. In contrast, a number of strongly supported clades in the concatenated tree received low concordance factors, indicating that their reconstruction is either driven primarily by phylogenetic signal in a small number of gene regions, or that they are inconsistent reconstructions influenced by properties of the data that can produce inaccurate trees (e.g., compositional bias, selection, etc.). Exploration of the Bayesian joint posterior distribution of trees highlighted partitions that contribute phylogenetic information to similar clade reconstructions. This approach was particularly insightful in the hynobiid data, where different combinations of genes were identified that support alternative tree reconstructions. Concatenated analysis of these different subsets of genes highlighted through Bayesian concordance analysis produced strongly supported and contrasting trees, demonstrating the potential for

  12. Cooling following large volcanic eruptions corrected for the effect of diffuse radiation on tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2005-03-01

    The lack of a larger cooling in proxy records of climate change following large volcanic eruptions such as those of Tambora in 1815 and Krakatau in 1883 has long been a puzzle for climatologists. These records, however, may have been biased by enhanced tree growth for several years following each eruption induced by additional diffuse radiation caused by the stratospheric volcanic aerosol clouds from the eruptions. By comparing proxy reconstructions of climate with and without tree ring data, this effect is demonstrated for the five largest eruptions for the period 1750-1980. When proxy records of Northern Hemisphere climate change are corrected for this proposed diffuse effect, there is no impact on climate change for time scales longer than 20 years. However, it now appears that there was a hemispheric cooling of about 0.6°C for a decade following the unknown volcanic eruption of 1809 and Tambora in 1815, and a cooling of 0.3°C for several years following the Krakatau eruption of 1883.

  13. Searching for the oldest baobab of Madagascar: radiocarbon investigation of large Adansonia rubrostipa trees.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F; Danthu, Pascal; Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel Leong; Patrut, Roxana T; Lowy, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    We extended our research on the architecture, growth and age of trees belonging to the genus Adansonia, by starting to investigate large individuals of the most widespread Malagasy species. Our research also intends to identify the oldest baobabs of Madagascar. Here we present results of the radiocarbon investigation of the two most representative Adansonia rubrostipa (fony baobab) specimens, which are located in south-western Madagascar, in the Tsimanampetsotse National Park. We found that the fony baobab called "Grandmother" consists of 3 perfectly fused stems of different ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was found to be 1136 ± 16 BP. We estimated that the oldest part of this tree, which is mainly hollow, has an age close to 1,600 yr. This value is comparable to the age of the oldest Adansonia digitata (African baobab) specimens. By its age, the Grandmother is a major candidate for the oldest baobab of Madagascar. The second investigated specimen, called the "polygamous baobab", consists of 6 partially fused stems of different ages. According to dating results, this fony baobab is 1,000 yr old. This research is the first investigation of the structure and age of Malagasy baobabs.

  14. An effective fractal-tree closure model for simulating blood flow in large arterial networks.

    PubMed

    Perdikaris, Paris; Grinberg, Leopold; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the closure problem for hemodynamic simulations by developing a flexible and effective model that accurately distributes flow in the downstream vasculature and can stably provide a physiological pressure outflow boundary condition. To achieve this goal, we model blood flow in the sub-pixel vasculature by using a non-linear 1D model in self-similar networks of compliant arteries that mimic the structure and hierarchy of vessels in the meso-vascular regime (radii [Formula: see text]). We introduce a variable vessel length-to-radius ratio for small arteries and arterioles, while also addressing non-Newtonian blood rheology and arterial wall viscoelasticity effects in small arteries and arterioles. This methodology aims to overcome substantial cut-off radius sensitivities, typically arising in structured tree and linearized impedance models. The proposed model is not sensitive to outflow boundary conditions applied at the end points of the fractal network, and thus does not require calibration of resistance/capacitance parameters typically required for outflow conditions. The proposed model convergences to a periodic state in two cardiac cycles even when started from zero-flow initial conditions. The resulting fractal-trees typically consist of thousands to millions of arteries, posing the need for efficient parallel algorithms. To this end, we have scaled up a Discontinuous Galerkin solver that utilizes the MPI/OpenMP hybrid programming paradigm to thousands of computer cores, and can simulate blood flow in networks of millions of arterial segments at the rate of one cycle per 5 min. The proposed model has been extensively tested on a large and complex cranial network with 50 parent, patient-specific arteries and 21 outlets to which fractal trees where attached, resulting to a network of up to 4,392,484 vessels in total, and a detailed network of the arm with 276 parent arteries and 103 outlets (a total of 702,188 vessels

  15. An efective fractal-tree closure model for simulating blood flow in large arterial networks

    PubMed Central

    Perdikaris, Paris; Grinberg, Leopold; Karniadakis, George Em.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the closure problem for hemodynamic simulations by developing a exible and effective model that accurately distributes flow in the downstream vasculature and can stably provide a physiological pressure out flow boundary condition. To achieve this goal, we model blood flow in the sub-pixel vasculature by using a non-linear 1D model in self-similar networks of compliant arteries that mimic the structure and hierarchy of vessels in the meso-vascular regime (radii 500 μm – 10 μm). We introduce a variable vessel length-to-radius ratio for small arteries and arterioles, while also addressing non-Newtonian blood rheology and arterial wall viscoelasticity effects in small arteries and arterioles. This methodology aims to overcome substantial cut-off radius sensitivities, typically arising in structured tree and linearized impedance models. The proposed model is not sensitive to out flow boundary conditions applied at the end points of the fractal network, and thus does not require calibration of resistance/capacitance parameters typically required for out flow conditions. The proposed model convergences to a periodic state in two cardiac cycles even when started from zero-flow initial conditions. The resulting fractal-trees typically consist of thousands to millions of arteries, posing the need for efficient parallel algorithms. To this end, we have scaled up a Discontinuous Galerkin solver that utilizes the MPI/OpenMP hybrid programming paradigm to thousands of computer cores, and can simulate blood flow in networks of millions of arterial segments at the rate of one cycle per 5 minutes. The proposed model has been extensively tested on a large and complex cranial network with 50 parent, patient-specific arteries and 21 outlets to which fractal trees where attached, resulting to a network of up to 4,392,484 vessels in total, and a detailed network of the arm with 276 parent arteries and 103 outlets (a total of 702,188 vessels

  16. [Foundations of the new phylogenetics].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2004-01-01

    phylistics (Rasnitsyn's term; close to Simpsonian evolutionary taxonomy) belonging rather to the classical realm, and Hennigian cladistics that pays attention to origin of monophyletic taxa exclusively. In early of the 20th century, microevolutionary doctrine became predominating in evolutionary studies. Its core is the population thinking accompanied by the phenetic one based on equation of kinship to overall similarity. They were connected to positivist philosophy and hence were characterized by reductionism at both ontological and epistemological levels. It led to fall of classical phylogenetics but created the prerequisites for the new phylogenetics which also appeared to be full of reductionism. The new rise of phylogenetic (rather than tree) thinking during the last third of the 20th century was caused by lost of explanatory power of population one and by development of the new worldview and new epistemological premises. That new worldview is based on the synergetic (Prigoginian) model of development of non-equilibrium systems: evolution of the biota, a part of which is phylogeny, is considered as such a development. At epistemological level, the principal premise appeared to be fall of positivism which was replaced by post-positivism argumentation schemes. Input of cladistics into new phylogenetics is twofold. On the one hand, it reduced phylogeny to cladistic history lacking any adaptivist interpretation and presuming minimal evolution model. From this it followed reduction of kinship relation to sister-group relation lacking any reference to real time scale and to ancestor-descendant relation. On the other hand, cladistics elaborated methodology of phylogenetic reconstructions based on the synapomorphy principle, the outgroup concept became its part. The both inputs served as premises of incorporation of both numerical techniques and molecular data into phylogenetic reconstruction. Numerical phyletics provided the new phylogenetics with easily manipulated algorithms

  17. Make Your Own Phylogenetic Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Molecular similarity is one of the strongest lines of evidence for evolution--and one of the most difficult for students to grasp. That is because the underlying observations--that identical mutations are found in closely related species and the degree of similarity decreases with evolutionary distance--are not visible to the human eye. And it's…

  18. Make Your Own Phylogenetic Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Molecular similarity is one of the strongest lines of evidence for evolution--and one of the most difficult for students to grasp. That is because the underlying observations--that identical mutations are found in closely related species and the degree of similarity decreases with evolutionary distance--are not visible to the human eye. And it's…

  19. Open Reading Frame Phylogenetic Analysis on the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus. PMID:23671843

  20. Neighborhood diversity of large trees shows independent species patterns in a mixed dipterocarp forest in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Wiegand, Kerstin; Getzin, Stephan; Huth, Andreas; Gunatilleke, C V Savitri; Gunatilleke, I A U Nimal

    2015-07-01

    Interactions among neighboring individuals influence plant performance and should create spatial patterns in local community structure. In order to assess the role of large trees in generating spatial patterns in local species richness, we used the individual species-area relationship (ISAR) to evaluate the species richness of trees of different size classes (and dead trees) in circular neighborhoods with varying radius around large trees of different focal species. To reveal signals of species interactions, we compared the ISAR function of the individuals of focal species with that of randomly selected nearby locations. We expected that large trees should strongly affect the community structure of smaller trees in their neighborhood, but that these effects should fade away with increasing size class. Unexpectedly, we found that only few focal species showed signals of species interactions with trees of the different size classes and that this was less likely for less abundant focal species. However, the few and relatively weak departures from independence were consistent with expectations of the effect of competition for space and the dispersal syndrome on spatial patterns. A noisy signal of competition for space found for large trees built up gradually with increasing life stage; it was not yet present for large saplings but detectable for intermediates. Additionally, focal species with animal-dispersed seeds showed higher species richness in their neighborhood than those with gravity- and gyration-dispersed seeds. Our analysis across the entire ontogeny from recruits to large trees supports the hypothesis that stochastic effects dilute deterministic species interactions in highly diverse communities. Stochastic dilution is a consequence of the stochastic geometry of biodiversity in species-rich communities where the identities of the nearest neighbors of a given plant are largely unpredictable. While the outcome of local species interactions is governed for each

  1. A Large Eddy Simulation to determine the effect of trees on wind and turbulence over a suburban surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, P. E.; Giometto, M. G.; Tooke, T. R.; Krayenhoff, S.; Christen, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Robust modeling of flow and turbulence within and over urban canopies is required to properly predict air pollution and dispersion in cities. Trees are an integral part of the urban landscape. In many suburban neighbourhoods, tree cover is 10 to 30% and trees are often taller than buildings. Effects of trees on drag, mean wind and turbulence in cities are not accounted for in current weather, air pollution and dispersion models. Our goal is to use high-resolution Large Eddy Simulations (LES) over a realistic urban canopy to determine the effects of trees on drag, mean wind and turbulence in the urban roughness sublayer (RSL). The simulated area is part of the Sunset-Neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. In this area, long-term wind and turbulence measurements are available from instruments on a 28m-tall tower. Further, a three-dimensional point cloud was captured from high precision airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and analyzed to represent the structural characteristics of both buildings and trees at high spatial resolution. Trees are described by location-specific leaf area density (LAD) profiles. LES simulations are performed over a 512 x 512m characteristic subset of the city that contains the tower location and predominant source area. In the LES, buildings are accounted for with an immersed boundary method, adopting a zero level-set distance function to localize the surface, whereas drag forces from trees are parametrized as a function of the height-dependent LAD. Spectra of streamwise and vertical velocity components compare well between tower data and the model data, confirming the good performance of LES in simulations of flow over fully rough surfaces. We show how the presence of trees impacts mean velocity and computed momentum flux profiles; they significantly decrease dispersive terms in the bulk of the flow. The impact of trees on integral length scales in the flow is discussed.

  2. Irregular Recurrence of Large Earthquakes along the San Andreas Fault: Evidence from Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Gordon C.; Sheppard, Paul R.; Sieh, Kerry E.

    1988-07-01

    Old trees growing along the San Andreas fault near Wrightwood, California, record in their annual ring-width patterns the effects of a major earthquake in the fall or winter of 1812 to 1813. Paleoseismic data and historical information indicate that this event was the ``San Juan Capistrano'' earthquake of 8 December 1812, with a magnitude of 7.5. The discovery that at least 12 kilometers of the Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1812, only 44 years before the great January 1857 rupture, demonstrates that intervals between large earthquakes on this part of the fault are highly variable. This variability increases the uncertainty of forecasting destructive earthquakes on the basis of past behavior and accentuates the need for a more fundamental knowledge of San Andreas fault dynamics.

  3. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lor, Andres; Curk, Franck; Snoussi-Trifa, Hager; Morillon, Raphael; Ancillo, Gema; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences in morphology, the genera representing 'true citrus fruit trees' are sexually compatible, and their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Most of the important commercial 'species' of Citrus are believed to be of interspecific origin. By studying polymorphisms of 27 nuclear genes, the average molecular differentiation between species was estimated and some phylogenetic relationships between 'true citrus fruit trees' were clarified. Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments from 18 genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis pathways and nine putative genes for salt tolerance was performed for 45 genotypes of Citrus and relatives of Citrus to mine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indel polymorphisms. Fifty nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also analysed. A total of 16 238 kb of DNA was sequenced for each genotype, and 1097 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 indels were identified. These polymorphisms were more valuable than SSRs for inter-taxon differentiation. Nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed that Citrus reticulata and Fortunella form a cluster that is differentiated from the clade that includes three other basic taxa of cultivated citrus (C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). These results confirm the taxonomic subdivision between the subgenera Metacitrus and Archicitrus. A few genes displayed positive selection patterns within or between species, but most of them displayed neutral patterns. The phylogenetic inheritance patterns of the analysed genes were inferred for commercial Citrus spp. Numerous molecular polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), which are potentially useful for the analysis of interspecific genetic structures, have been identified. The nuclear phylogenetic network for Citrus and its sexually compatible relatives was consistent with the geographical origins of these genera. The positive selection observed for a few genes will help further works to analyse the molecular basis of the

  4. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  5. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  6. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  7. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-08

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  8. Phylogenetic approaches to natural product structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Ziemert, Nadine; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms. Molecular phylogenetics uses sequence data to infer these relationships for both organisms and the genes they maintain. With the large amount of publicly available sequence data, phylogenetic inference has become increasingly important in all fields of biology. In the case of natural product research, phylogenetic relationships are proving to be highly informative in terms of delineating the architecture and function of the genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases provide model examples in which individual domain phylogenies display different predictive capacities, resolving features ranging from substrate specificity to structural motifs associated with the final metabolic product. This chapter provides examples in which phylogeny has proven effective in terms of predicting functional or structural aspects of secondary metabolism. The basics of how to build a reliable phylogenetic tree are explained along with information about programs and tools that can be used for this purpose. Furthermore, it introduces the Natural Product Domain Seeker, a recently developed Web tool that employs phylogenetic logic to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains based on established enzyme architecture and biochemical function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  10. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    SciTech Connect

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Stahlberg, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.

  11. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    DOE PAGES

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; ...

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7Amore » and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  12. Simulating the impacts of large scale insect- and disease-driven tree mortality on atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, J.; Heald, C. L.; Silva, S. J.; Martin, R.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LUC) is an important driver of global change through the alteration of local energy, moisture, and carbon exchanges. LUC can also directly impact the emission and deposition of important reactive trace gases, altering the oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere and subsequently air quality and climate. Large-scale tree mortality as a result of insects and disease may therefore have unexplored feedbacks on atmospheric chemistry. Between 2013 and 2027, over 80 million acres of treed land in the United States is predicted to experience basal area mortality rates exceeding 25%. We harmonized the description of land cover across the relevant surface-atmosphere exchange processes in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to facilitate LUC simulations, and used this adapted model to test the impact of projected tree mortality according to the 2012 USDA National Insect and Disease Risk Assessment. Nation-wide biogenic VOC emissions were reduced by 5%, with local impacts approaching 50% in some regions. By themselves, these emission reductions resulted in lower surface-level O3 mixing ratios, but this was counteracted by decreases in the O3 deposition velocity (by up to 10%) due to the reduction in vegetation density. Organic aerosol mass concentrations were also significantly affected across the United States, decreasing by 5-10% across the eastern U.S. and the northwest, with local impacts exceeding 25% in some regions. We discuss the general impacts on air quality in clean and polluted regions of the US, and point to developments needed for a more robust understanding of land cover change feedbacks.

  13. Instrumental methods for studies of structure and function of root systems of large trees.

    PubMed

    Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermak, Jan